WorldWideScience

Sample records for humans improved evaluation

  1. Programme evaluation: Can it improve human resource management practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Louw

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This is the final article in the special edition on human resource (HR programmes and evaluation. Its starting point is that programme evaluation is the application of a wide range of social science research methods that provide credible information about the need, use, planning, effectiveness and cost of a programme. Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the other articles in this volume, and to draw out general conclusions about their contributions to knowledge in the field. Motivation for the study: If evaluations are undertaken in the HR domain in South Africa, they remain mostly unpublished, and thus cannot contribute to a knowledge base for the field. Research design, approach and method: This article provides a theory-based approach to programme evaluation. The seven articles were analysed in terms of two major functions of programme evaluation, namely to ask ‘How does a programme work?’, and ‘Does it work?‘ Main findings: Eight overarching themes are identified in the articles included in this volume. Practical/managerial implications: The evidence discussed here can be used to make better decisions, promote organisational learning, improve practice, and enhance employee wellbeing. Contribution/value-add: The main contribution of this concluding article is its argument that research and theory in this field can enhance the work of HR professionals, by providing evidence about how ‘good’ a programme is, and why it is good. This adds substantial value in a world characterised by accountability and evidence-based practice.

  2. Formal Process Modeling to Improve Human Decision-Making in Test and Evaluation Acoustic Range Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    MODELING TO IMPROVE HUMAN DECISION-MAKING DURING TEST AND EVALUATION RANGE CONTROL by William Carlson September 2017 Thesis Advisor...the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT...MAKING DURING TEST AND EVALUATION RANGE CONTROL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) William Carlson 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  3. Improvements to Rapfish: a rapid evaluation technique for fisheries integrating ecological and human dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, T J; Lam, M E; Ainsworth, C; Martindale, A; Nakamura, K; Perry, R I; Ward, T

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports recent developments in Rapfish, a normative, scalable and flexible rapid appraisal technique that integrates both ecological and human dimensions to evaluate the status of fisheries in reference to a norm or goal. Appraisal status targets may be sustainability, compliance with a standard (such as the UN code of conduct for responsible fisheries) or the degree of progress in meeting some other goal or target. The method combines semi-quantitative (e.g. ecological) and qualitative (e.g. social) data via multiple evaluation fields, each of which is assessed through scores assigned to six to 12 attributes or indicators: the scoring method allows user flexibility to adopt a wide range of utility relationships. For assessing sustainability, six evaluation fields have been developed: ecological, technological, economic, social, ethical and institutional. Each field can be assessed directly with a set of scored attributes, or several of the fields can be dealt with in greater detail using nested subfields that themselves comprise multidimensional Rapfish assessments (e.g. the hierarchical institutional field encompasses both governance and management, including a detailed analysis of legality). The user has the choice of including all or only some of the available sustainability fields. For the attributes themselves, there will rarely be quantitative data, but scoring allows these items to be estimated. Indeed, within a normative framework, one important advantage with Rapfish is transparency of the rigour, quality and replicability of the scores. The Rapfish technique employs a constrained multidimensional ordination that is scaled to situate data points within evaluation space. Within each evaluation field, results may be presented as a two-dimensional plot or in a one-dimensional rank order. Uncertainty is expressed through the probability distribution of Monte-Carlo simulations that use the C.L. on each original observation. Overall results of the

  4. An Evaluation of the Cybersecurity Policies for the United States Health & Human Services Department: Criteria, Regulations, and Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Mohammed; Ronda Mariani

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the criteria necessary for the evaluation of the cybersecurity policies for the United States Health and Human Services Department of the Federal Government. The overall purpose of cybersecurity policies and procedures is supported through compliance with Federal mandated regulation and standards, which serve to protect the organizational services and goals of the United States Health and Human Services Department, and to promote the best possible security practices in the...

  5. Earth Observation Data for Mapping and Evaluation of Ecosystem Services to Improve Human Livelihoods and Conserve Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Aurelie C.; Bhagabati, Nirmal

    2010-12-01

    Mapping and evaluating ecosystem services is of increasing concern and urgency for conservation organizations such as WWF. Coupling biodiversity assessments with ecosystem services e.g., carbon sequestration, water regulation, sediment reduction, is an effective way to visualize additional financial and human benefits of conservation for decision makers. WWF is eager to apply various Earth Observation data to conservation applications for consistent mapping and monitoring of natural ecosystems and the potential impacts of their loss on humans and wildlife alike. Such examples include forest carbon mapping, integrated evaluation of ecosystem services (via the InVEST tool) and bundling endangered Tiger habitat with various ecosystem services for bundled benefits.

  6. An Evaluation of the Cybersecurity Policies for the United States Health & Human Services Department: Criteria, Regulations, and Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the criteria necessary for the evaluation of the cybersecurity policies for the United States Health and Human Services Department of the Federal Government. The overall purpose of cybersecurity policies and procedures is supported through compliance with Federal mandated regulation and standards, which serve to protect the organizational services and goals of the United States Health and Human Services Department, and to promote the best possible security practices in the protection of information systems from unauthorized actors and cyber-threats. The criteria of the cybersecurity evaluation is identified and analyzed for quality, strengths, weaknesses, and future applicability. Topics within the criteria include organizational operation, regulations and industrial standards compliance, service delivery to national customers, and the prevention and mitigation of IT system and security failure. This analysis determines the strengths and weaknesses, and makes recommendations for revising the cybersecurity policies within the United States Health and Human Services Department.

  7. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy: Human error and critical tasks in remote afterloading brachytherapy and approaches for improved system performance. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L. [Pacific Science and Engineering Group, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Remote Afterloading Brachytherapy (RAB) is a medical process used in the treatment of cancer. RAB uses a computer-controlled device to remotely insert and remove radioactive sources close to a target (or tumor) in the body. Some RAB problems affecting the radiation dose to the patient have been reported and attributed to human error. To determine the root cause of human error in the RAB system, a human factors team visited 23 RAB treatment sites in the US The team observed RAB treatment planning and delivery, interviewed RAB personnel, and performed walk-throughs, during which staff demonstrated the procedures and practices used in performing RAB tasks. Factors leading to human error in the RAB system were identified. The impact of those factors on the performance of RAB was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance. Finally, the project identified and evaluated alternative approaches for resolving the safety significant problems related to human error.

  8. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy: Human error and critical tasks in remote afterloading brachytherapy and approaches for improved system performance. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L.

    1995-05-01

    Remote Afterloading Brachytherapy (RAB) is a medical process used in the treatment of cancer. RAB uses a computer-controlled device to remotely insert and remove radioactive sources close to a target (or tumor) in the body. Some RAB problems affecting the radiation dose to the patient have been reported and attributed to human error. To determine the root cause of human error in the RAB system, a human factors team visited 23 RAB treatment sites in the US The team observed RAB treatment planning and delivery, interviewed RAB personnel, and performed walk-throughs, during which staff demonstrated the procedures and practices used in performing RAB tasks. Factors leading to human error in the RAB system were identified. The impact of those factors on the performance of RAB was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance. Finally, the project identified and evaluated alternative approaches for resolving the safety significant problems related to human error

  9. Human Performance Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, R.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Operating nuclear power plants requires high standards of performance, extensive training and responsive management. Despite our best efforts inappropriate human actions do occur, but they can be managed. An extensive review of License Event Reports (LERs) was conducted which indicated continual inadequacy in human performance and in evaluation of root causes. Of some 31,000 LERs, about 5,000 or 16% were directly attributable to inappropriate actions. A recent analysis of 87 Significant Event Reports (issued by INPO in 1983) identified inappropriate actions as being the most frequent root cause (44% of the total). A more recent analysis of SERs issued in 1983 and 1984 indicate that 52% of the root causes were attributed to human performance. The Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) is a comprehensive, coordinated utility/industry system for evaluating and reporting human performance situtations. HPES is a result of the realization that current reporting system provide limited treatment of human performance and rarely provide adequate information about root causes of inappropriate actions by individuals. The HPES was implemented to identify and eliminate root causes of inappropriate actions

  10. Can training improve human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waylett, W.J. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear industry has made a significant commitment to improve training through the implementation of performance-based training programs. Senior management expects that human performance improvement will result from this significant resource allocation. The author examines this hypothesis and discusses other issues that may interfere with enhancing human performance through training. The integration of quality improvement concepts to support training is also discussed by the author, who was a pioneer facilitator during the development of Florida Power and Light Company's Quality Improvement Program. Critical success factors are proposed based on the author's experience as a plant manager, training manager and quality facilitator

  11. Evaluating human resource interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joha Louw-Potgieter

    2012-07-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this special edition is to introduce readers to the evaluation of human resource (HR programmes. Motivation for the study: There are few comprehensive evaluations of HR programmes despite many publications on functional efficiency measures of HR (i.e. measures of cost, time, quantity, error and quality. Research design, approach and method: This article provides a value chain for HR activities and introduces the reader to programme theory-driven evaluation. Main findings: In summarising all of the contributions in this edition, one of the main findings was the lack of programme evaluation experience within HR functions and the difficulty this posed for the evaluators. Practical/managerial implications: This introductory article presents answers to two simple questions: What does HR do? and, What is programme evaluation? These answers will enable practitioners to understand what programme evaluators mean when we say that programme evaluation seeks to determine the merit of a programme. Contribution/value-add: The main contribution of this introductory article is to set the scene for the HR evaluations that follow. It alerts the reader to the rich theory contribution in HR literature and how to apply this in a theory-driven evaluation.

  12. Human performance improvement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA assists NPP operating organizations to improve plant performance through a focus on human performance improvement in areas like organizational and leadership development, senior management decision making, organization and management of HPI programmes including tools needed for effective HPI implementation, safety culture enhancement, knowledge management, personnel selection and staffing, career development, training and development, work design, scheduling and conditions, procedure and other job-aid development and use, effective communications, human performance monitoring, motivation. Many NPP operating organizations in Member States, are not yet achieving the full potential of their NPP technology/equipment regarding safety, operational or economic performance due to human performance weaknesses. The IAEA's HPI (Human Performance Improvement) services provide a means for these organizations to efficiently and effectively learn from international experts and the experiences of others in improving plant performance through human performance improvements. NPP operating organizations can benefit from these services in a number of ways, including requesting a national project, participating in a regional project, or requesting an assist visit. The types of activities provided through these services include assistance in benchmarking practices of successful organizations, providing information exchange and reviews of current practices through assist missions, conducting workshops on focused human performance topics, evaluating current human performance methods, including assistance in implementing self assessment programmes and providing support to safety culture enhancement programmes based on self-assessment

  13. Automatic Mapping Extraction from Multiecho T2-Star Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images for Improving Morphological Evaluations in Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaode Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapping extraction is useful in medical image analysis. Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM replaced signal response to time course in tissue similarity mapping with signal response to TE changes in multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging without contrast agent. Since different tissues are with different sensitivities to reference signals, a new algorithm is proposed by adding a sensitivity index to SCM. It generates two mappings. One measures relative signal strength (SSM and the other depicts fluctuation magnitude (FMM. Meanwhile, the new method is adaptive to generate a proper reference signal by maximizing the sum of contrast index (CI from SSM and FMM without manual delineation. Based on four groups of images from multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the capacity of SSM and FMM in enhancing image contrast and morphological evaluation is validated. Average contrast improvement index (CII of SSM is 1.57, 1.38, 1.34, and 1.41. Average CII of FMM is 2.42, 2.30, 2.24, and 2.35. Visual analysis of regions of interest demonstrates that SSM and FMM show better morphological structures than original images, T2-star mapping and SCM. These extracted mappings can be further applied in information fusion, signal investigation, and tissue segmentation.

  14. Histologic evaluation of human benign prostatic hyperplasia treated by dutasteride: a study by xenograft model with improved severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Nonomura, Norio; Adachi, Shigeki; Tokita, Yoriko; Nomura, Taisei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate histologic change in human prostate samples treated with dutasteride and to elucidate direct effects of dutasteride on human prostate tissue, the present study was conducted by using a xenograft model with improved severe combined immunodeficient (super-SCID) mice, although it is well known that dutasteride reduces prostate volume. After establishment of a xenograft model of human benign prostatic hyperplasia in morphology and function, samples implanted into super-SCID mice with and without dutasteride were evaluated pathohistologically at 2 and 6 months after initiation of dutasteride administration. The proliferative index evaluated by Ki-67 staining was significantly lower in the dutasteride group than the control at 2 and 6 months after administration. Apoptotic index evaluated by the terminal transferase TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining was higher in the dutasteride group than the control at 2 and 6 months after administration. Quick scores in the dutasteride group for staining of both cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) were significantly lower than those in the control group at 2 and 6 months after administration. Dutasteride inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of prostatic cells, causing a reduced prostate volume. Furthermore, decreased expression of Cox-2 and RhoA within benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue by dutasteride may induce an early effect on improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms, probably by attenuating inflammation reaction of the prostate and decreasing intraurethral pressure, other than the mechanism of reduced prostate volume. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria: Challenges And Prospects. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... Consequently, the paper recommended; improved investment in education, implementable policies on human resource development, involvement of private organization in human ...

  16. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differences--including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversity--and the ethical...

  17. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grybaeck, P.; Naeslund, E.; Hellstroem, P.M.; Jacobsson, H.; Backman, L.

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Naeslund, E. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Backman, L. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Improved in vitro evaluation of novel antimicrobials: potential synergy between human plasma and antibacterial peptidomimetics, AMPs and antibiotics against human pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citterio, Linda; Franzyk, Henrik; Palarasah, Yaseelan

    2016-01-01

    was affected by conditions mimicking in vivo settings. Their activity was enhanced to an unexpected degree in the presence of human blood plasma for thirteen pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. MIC values typically decreased 2- to 16-fold in the presence of a human plasma concentration...... that alone did not damage the cell membrane. Hence, MIC and MBC data collected in these settings appear to represent a more appropriate basis for in vivo experiments preceding clinical trials. In fact, concentrations of peptidomimetics and peptide antibiotics (e.g. polymyxin B) required for in vivo...

  20. Evaluating the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard

    2013-01-01

    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  1. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ... into human evolution and origins and serving as a springboard for important medical research. It also addresses issues of confidentiality and individual privacy for participants in genetic diversity research studies.

  2. Human Thermal Model Evaluation Using the JSC Human Thermal Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Makinen, Janice; Cognata, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal modeling has considerable long term utility to human space flight. Such models provide a tool to predict crew survivability in support of vehicle design and to evaluate crew response in untested space environments. It is to the benefit of any such model not only to collect relevant experimental data to correlate it against, but also to maintain an experimental standard or benchmark for future development in a readily and rapidly searchable and software accessible format. The Human thermal database project is intended to do just so; to collect relevant data from literature and experimentation and to store the data in a database structure for immediate and future use as a benchmark to judge human thermal models against, in identifying model strengths and weakness, to support model development and improve correlation, and to statistically quantify a model s predictive quality. The human thermal database developed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is intended to evaluate a set of widely used human thermal models. This set includes the Wissler human thermal model, a model that has been widely used to predict the human thermoregulatory response to a variety of cold and hot environments. These models are statistically compared to the current database, which contains experiments of human subjects primarily in air from a literature survey ranging between 1953 and 2004 and from a suited experiment recently performed by the authors, for a quantitative study of relative strength and predictive quality of the models.

  3. Clonality evaluation in human tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villamizar-Rivera, Nicolás

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant proliferations are usually clonal. While most times the biological potential can be established through routine pathologic and clinical examinations, some cases are difficult to classify. Moreover, in some situations there are dominant clones whose analysis is important, such as in autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiency. This paper presents in an understandable way the main techniques for the study of clonality, namely: evaluation of gene rearrangements of antigen receptor, and evaluation of human antigen receptor gene.

  4. Improved radioimmunoassay for human TSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, C.A.; Nicoloff, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    This study concerns the optimization of the human TSH (h-TSH) radioimmunoassay with special emphasis on reducing the heterogeneity of the 125 I h-TSH tracer. Enzymatic iodination of h-TSH with glucose oxidase/lactoperoxidase was shown to be superior to either low or high dose chloramine-T procedures, producing a high specific activity reagent (70-150 μCi/μg) with minimal evidence of damage. Tracer purification procedures not only affected initial immunoactivity but also storage stability and heterogeneity of the resulting 125 I h-TSH. The assay developed using these technical approaches shows a sensitivity limit of 0.005+-0.001 (S.E.M.) μU/tube; 50% displacement at 0.18+-0.08 (S.E.M.) μU/tube and complete delineation between euthyroid (n=49, 2.44+-0.18 (S.E.M.) mU/l, range 1.00-6.08) and hyperthyroid (n=62, 0.34+-0.02 (S.E.M.) mU/l, range 0.10-0.85), serum h-TSH levels. (Auth.)

  5. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OHARA, J.; BROWN, W.; STUBLER, W.; HIGGINS, J.; WACHTEL, J.; PERSENSKY, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ''Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1

  6. Human mortality improvement in evolutionary context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Oskar; Baudisch, Annette; Vaupel, James W

    2012-01-01

    Life expectancy is increasing in most countries and has exceeded 80 in several, as low-mortality nations continue to make progress in averting deaths. The health and economic implications of mortality reduction have been given substantial attention, but the observed malleability of human mortality...... about 4 of the roughly 8,000 human generations that have ever lived. Moreover, mortality improvement in humans is on par with or greater than the reductions in mortality in other species achieved by laboratory selection experiments and endocrine pathway mutations. This observed plasticity in age...

  7. Improving credibility evaluations on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schmettow, Martin; Wiering, Caro H.; Pieters, Jules M.; Boer, Henk

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, ongoing research on trust in Wikipedia is used as a case study to illustrate the design process of a support tool for Wikipedia, following the ASCE-model. This research is performed from a cognitive perspective and aims at users actively evaluating the credibility of information on

  8. Evaluate to Improve: Useful Approaches to Student Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Clinton; Adam, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Many teachers in higher education use feedback from students to evaluate their teaching, but only some use these evaluations to improve their teaching. One important factor that makes the difference is the teacher's approach to their evaluations. In this article, we identify some useful approaches for improving teaching. We conducted focus groups…

  9. Universe, human immortality and future human evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This book debates the universe, the development of new technologies in the 21st century and the future of the human race. Dr Bolonkin shows that a human soul is only the information in a person's head. He offers a new unique method for re-writing the main brain information in chips without any damage to the human brain. This is the scientific prediction of the non-biological (electronic) civilization and immortality of the human being. Such a prognosis is predicated upon a new law, discovered by the author, for the development of complex systems. According to this law, every self-copying system tends to be more complex than the previous system, provided that all external conditions remain the same. The consequences are disastrous: humanity will be replaced by a new civilization created by intellectual robots (which Dr Bolonkin refers to as "E-humans" and "E-beings"). These creatures, whose intellectual and mechanical abilities will far exceed those of man, will require neither food nor oxygen to sustain their...

  10. Improving Human Resources Recruitment in Maritime Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Surugiu Felicia; Dragomir Cristina

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve maritime human resources recruitment, most crewing and shipping companies implement an internal procedure of recruitment and management of ship’s crew. Based on observations at several crewing companies, this paper presents an example of such procedure meant to ensure that qualified and competent personnel is recruited and all ships in the fleet have crew members understanding their roles, duties and responsibilities and capable of working effectively in teams

  11. Implications of Continuous Quality Improvement for Program Evaluation and Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Melvin M.; Pines, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Explores the implications that continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs are likely to have for evaluation. CQI, often known as total quality management, offers a structured approach to the analysis of an organization's processes and improvement that should provide advantages to evaluators once they have gained experience with the approach.…

  12. Investigation of evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Junzo; Sasou Kunihide; Hasegawa, Naoko

    2004-01-01

    Education effectiveness in accordance with investment is required in the steam of electric power regulation alleviation. Therefore, evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness which can observe human factors culture pervading process were investigated through research activities on education effectiveness in universities and actual in house education in industry companies. As a result, the contents of evaluation were found to be the change of feeling for human factors and some improving proposals in work places when considering the purpose of human factors education. And, questionnaire is found to be suitable for the style of evaluation. In addition, the timing of evaluation is desirable for both just after education and after some period in work places. Hereafter, data will be collected using these two kinds of questionnaires in human factors education courses in CRIEPI and some education courses in utilities. Thus, education effectiveness evaluation method which is suitable for human factors will be established. (author)

  13. Improvement of human reliability analysis method for PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, Junichi; Fujimoto, Haruo

    2013-09-01

    It is required to refine human reliability analysis (HRA) method by, for example, incorporating consideration for the cognitive process of operator into the evaluation of diagnosis errors and decision-making errors, as a part of the development and improvement of methods used in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). JNES has been developed a HRA method based on ATHENA which is suitable to handle the structured relationship among diagnosis errors, decision-making errors and operator cognition process. This report summarizes outcomes obtained from the improvement of HRA method, in which enhancement to evaluate how the plant degraded condition affects operator cognitive process and to evaluate human error probabilities (HEPs) which correspond to the contents of operator tasks is made. In addition, this report describes the results of case studies on the representative accident sequences to investigate the applicability of HRA method developed. HEPs of the same accident sequences are also estimated using THERP method, which is most popularly used HRA method, and comparisons of the results obtained using these two methods are made to depict the differences of these methods and issues to be solved. Important conclusions obtained are as follows: (1) Improvement of HRA method using operator cognitive action model. Clarification of factors to be considered in the evaluation of human errors, incorporation of degraded plant safety condition into HRA and investigation of HEPs which are affected by the contents of operator tasks were made to improve the HRA method which can integrate operator cognitive action model into ATHENA method. In addition, the detail of procedures of the improved method was delineated in the form of flowchart. (2) Case studies and comparison with the results evaluated by THERP method. Four operator actions modeled in the PRAs of representative BWR5 and 4-loop PWR plants were selected and evaluated as case studies. These cases were also evaluated using

  14. Stable isotopes for improving human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uauy, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    , e.g., vitamin A, iron and zinc nutrition. Copper deficit and excess also have important implications for human health. Here, isotopic methods for measuring absorption, storage and excretion permit a more precise definition of the range of exposures that are tolerated without adverse effects. The mandate of IAEA to support national governments, UN agencies and others in using nuclear procedures to monitor the impact of interventions, demographic change and development is being served by regional technical cooperation projects in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Building local capacity has been incorporated in the process, establishing networks to support local programs, training activities, and laboratories. These efforts will serve applied researchers and planners who need the practical applications of novel methodologies to improve nutrition and the well being of underserved populations world-wide. (author)

  15. Improved Human Erythropoiesis and Platelet Formation in Humanized NSGW41 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Rahmig

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human erythro-megakaryopoiesis does not occur in humanized mouse models, preventing the in vivo analysis of human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC differentiation into these lineages in a surrogate host. Here we show that stably engrafted KIT-deficient NOD/SCID Il2rg−/− KitW41/W41 (NSGW41 mice support much improved human erythropoiesis and platelet formation compared with irradiated NSG recipients. Considerable numbers of human erythroblasts and mature thrombocytes are present in the bone marrow and blood, respectively. Morphology, composition, and enucleation capacity of de novo generated human erythroblasts in NSGW41 mice are comparable with those in human bone marrow. Overexpression of human erythropoietin showed no further improvement in human erythrocyte output, but depletion of macrophages led to the appearance of human erythrocytes in the blood. Human erythropoiesis up to normoblasts and platelet formation is fully supported in NSGW41 mice, allowing the analysis of human HSC differentiation into these lineages, the exploration of certain pathophysiologies, and the evaluation of gene therapeutic approaches.

  16. Mentoring approach improves evaluation capacity of ICTD ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... ... initiative is improving evaluation capacities of researchers studying Information and ... Capacity in ICTD (DECI) provides researchers from five IDRC-funded projects in ... Using technology to deliver quality education in Asia.

  17. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  18. Human resources evaluation in a marketing organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutić Dragutin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is first of all part of authors' initiated thinking in which in a certain way they try to promote the idea and need to accept and develop the concept of human resources management by marketing managers. This work's subject matter deals with human resources evaluation in a marketing organization as an important and certain element of this management. A new approach with critical reference to the present state of theory and practice is explained, new solutions are offered and thorough, almost radical changes and turnarounds are supported. Marketing managers mostly reluctantly accept the evaluation system for their employees. They often say that this is not their basic job, that it unnecessarily and absurdly puts a burden on them, that it takes their time, or they think however that their goal is to increase sales, to extend the existing and enter new markets, to improve the relationship with buyers and consumers etc. Evaluation enables employees to understand clearly what they are expected and how their results will be evaluated. Each member of the organization wants to know and have feedback about his or her work. This assessment of his or her work is a basis for rewarding, job security, career development, promotion in the organization, improvement and professional training etc. Evaluation is not in the least easy and simple work. On the contrary, It is a matter of a very complicated work followed by many difficulties and different restrictions in practice. It is a fact that great part of failure and poor system lies in an approach systematically incomplete and taken for granted. The authors gave a thorough review of basic restrictions and difficulties that should be count on when evaluating the employees. They come from the evaluators themselves (marketing managers, unelaborated evaluation methodology, as well as insufficient and late information as a base for evaluation. Marketing managers efficiency evaluation is focused through

  19. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Improving Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT or Pet Therapy is an adjunctive therapy by taking advantage of human and animal interaction, activate the physiological and psychological mechanisms, initiate positive changes improving health in metabolism. In recent years, this interaction are in use to treat psychological and psychiatric disorders such as stress, depression, loneliness, pervasive developmental disorders affect negatively to human health. Furthermore, AAT has been increasingly used to improve quality of life, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. The aim of this paper is to identify AAT by reviewing human and animal interaction, evaluate how AAT has a scientific background from past to now. Also, we aim to give some information about the risks, institutional applications, some factors referring AAT’s mechanism of action and chronic diseases, psychological and physical improvements provided with animal assisted therapies. The therapy results will be evaluated more advisable providing AAT is being applied with public health specialist, veterinarian, physician, psychologist, psychiatrist and veterinary public health experts who are monitor applications. Especially, the psychosomatic effects result from physical, emotional and play mechanism of action of HDT can be used for improving quality of life in individuals with chronic diseases. In Turkey, there is no any investigation which have been performed in this scientific field. It is quitely important to evaluate the benefits of this therapy accurately and to select various methods proper to diseases. Consequently, it is obvious that AAT will be considered by the healthcare services as a supportive therapy process for improving human health in Turkey and needs further studies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 263-272

  20. Reducing the occurrence of plant events through improved human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, T.; Burkhart, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    During a routine control room surveillance, the reactor operator is distracted by an alarming secondary annunciator and a telephone call. When the reactor operator resumes the surveillance, he inadvertently performs the procedural steps out of order. This causes a reportable nuclear event. How can procedure-related human performance problems such as this be prevented? The question is vitally important for the nuclear industry. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data observed, open-quotes With the perceived reduction in the number of events caused by equipment failures, INPO and other industry groups and human performance experts agree that a key to continued improvement in plant performance and safety is improved human performance.close quotes In fact, open-quotes more than 50% of the reportable events occurring at nuclear power plants involve human error.close quotes Prevention (or correction) of a human performance problem is normally based on properly balancing the following three factors: (1) supervisory involvement; (2) personnel training; and (3) procedures. The nuclear industry is implementing a formula known as ACME, which better balances supervisory involvement, personnel training, and procedures. Webster's New World Dictionary defines acme as the highest point, the peak. ACME human performance is the goal: ACME Adherence to and use of procedures; Self-Checking; Management Involvement; and Event Investigations

  1. Evaluating and Improving Online Intelligence Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alexandra Luce

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Civilian, military and government institutions offer a wide range of courses on intelligence and are increasingly doing so online. While evaluation and improvement are critical to ensuring quality training and education, there is little research about how to evaluate and improve online intelligence courses. Based on the author’s experience developing and teaching such courses, this article offers four suggestions to those involved in online intelligence training and education: (1 conduct a key assumptions check; (2 ensure the course presentation embodies the principles of intelligence communication; (3 encourage creative freedom; and (4 build in mechanisms for feedback throughout the course.

  2. Improving evaluation at two medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiekirka-Schwake, Sarah; Dreiling, Katharina; Pyka, Katharina; Anders, Sven; von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Raupach, Tobias

    2017-08-03

    Student evaluations of teaching can provide useful feedback for teachers and programme coordinators alike. We have designed a novel evaluation tool assessing teacher performance and student learning outcome. This tool was implemented at two German medical schools. In this article, we report student and teacher perceptions of the novel tool, and the implementation process. Focus group discussions as well as one-to-one interviews involving 22 teachers and 31 undergraduate medical students were conducted. Following adjustments to the feedback reports (e.g. the colour coding of results) at one medical school, 42 teachers were asked about their perceptions of the revised report and the personal benefit of the evaluation tool. Teachers appreciated the individual feedback provided by the evaluation tool and stated that they wanted to improve their teaching, based on the results; however, they missed most of the preparative communication. Students were unsure about the additional benefit of the instrument compared with traditional evaluation tools. A majority was unwilling to complete evaluation forms in their spare time, and some felt that the new questionnaire was too long and that the evaluations occurred too often. They were particularly interested in feedback on how their comments have helped to further improve teaching. Student evaluations of teaching can provide useful feedback CONCLUSION: Despite evidence of the utility of the tool for individual teachers, implementation of changes to the process of evaluation appears to have been suboptimal, mainly owing to a perceived lack of communication. In order to motivate students to provide evaluation data, feedback loops including aims and consequences should be established. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  3. Human Factors Evaluation Mentor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To obtain valid and reliable data, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluations are currently conducted by people with specialized training and experience in HF. HFE...

  4. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009

  5. Does supplier evaluation impact process improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Prasad h c

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The research explores and examines factors for supplier evaluation and its impact on process improvement particularly aiming on a steel pipe manufacturing firm in Gujarat, India. Design/Methodology/approach: The conceptual research framework was developed and hypotheses were stated considering the analysis of literature and discussions with the managers and engineers of a steel pipe manufacturing company in Gujarat, India. Data was collected using in-depth interview. The questionnaire primarily involves the perception of evaluation of supplier. Factors influencing supplier evaluation and its influence on process improvement is also examined in this study. The model testing and validation was done using partial least square method. Outcomes signified that the factors that influence evaluation of the supplier are quality, cost, delivery and supplier relationship management. Findings: The study depicted that quality and cost factors for supplier evaluation are insignificant. The delivery and supplier relationship management have significant influence on evaluation of the supplier. The research also depicted that supplier evaluation has significant influence on process improvement. Research limitations/implications: The study has been made specifically for ABC steel pipe manufacturing industry in Gujarat, India and may not be appropriate to the other industries or any parts of the world. There is a possibility of response bias as the conclusions of this research was interpreted on survey responses taken from the employees of case study company, so it is suggested that future research can overcome this problem by employing various methodologies in addition to surveys like carrying out focus group and in-depth interviews, brainstorming sessions with the experts etc. Originality/value: Many researchers have considered quality, cost and delivery as the factors for evaluating the suppliers. But for a company it is quintessential to have good

  6. THE EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF IT GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pérez Lorences

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to propose a general procedure to evaluate and improve the Information Technology (IT Governance in an organization, considering the Business–IT alignment and risk management. The procedure integrates management tools such as business processes management, risk management, strategic alignment and the balanced scorecard. Additionally, to assess the IT Governance level we proposed an indicator based on the process maturity. The concepts and ideas presented here had been applied in four case studies, verifying their implementation feasibility. The results indicate a low level of IT governance and the existence of several problems primarily in the Plan and Organize and Monitor and Evaluate domains.

  7. My4Sight: A Human Computation Platform for Improving Flu Predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Akupatni, Vivek Bharath

    2015-01-01

    While many human computation (human-in-the-loop) systems exist in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to solve problems that can't be solved by computers alone, comparatively fewer platforms exist for collecting human knowledge, and evaluation of various techniques for harnessing human insights in improving forecasting models for infectious diseases, such as Influenza and Ebola. In this thesis, we present the design and implementation of My4Sight, a human computation system develope...

  8. An evaluation approach for alarm processing improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Taek; Lee, Dong-Young; Hwang, In-Koo; Park, Jae-Chang

    1997-01-01

    In light of the need to improve MMIS of NPPs, the advanced I and C research team of KAERI has embarked on developing an Alarm and Diagnosis-Integrated Operator Support System, called ADIOS, to filter or suppress unnecessary or nuisance alarms and diagnose abnormality of the plant process. ADIOS has been built in an object-oriented AI environment of G-2 expert system software tool, as presented in a companion paper. ADIOS then is evaluated according to the plan in three steps; (1) preliminary tests to refine the knowledge base and inference structure of ADIOS in such a dynamic environment, and also to evaluate the appropriateness of alarm-processing algorithms; (2) to ensure correctness, consistency, and completeness in the knowledge base using COKEP (Checker Of Knowledge base using Extended Petri net); and (3) the cognitive performance evaluation using the Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model (SACOM) in the KAERI's Integrated Test Facility (ITF). (author). 5 figs, 1 tab

  9. A new method to evaluate human-robot system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the key issues in space exploration is that of deciding what space tasks are best done with humans, with robots, or a suitable combination of each. In general, human and robot skills are complementary. Humans provide as yet unmatched capabilities to perceive, think, and act when faced with anomalies and unforeseen events, but there can be huge potential risks to human safety in getting these benefits. Robots provide complementary skills in being able to work in extremely risky environments, but their ability to perceive, think, and act by themselves is currently not error-free, although these capabilities are continually improving with the emergence of new technologies. Substantial past experience validates these generally qualitative notions. However, there is a need for more rigorously systematic evaluation of human and robot roles, in order to optimize the design and performance of human-robot system architectures using well-defined performance evaluation metrics. This article summarizes a new analytical method to conduct such quantitative evaluations. While the article focuses on evaluating human-robot systems, the method is generally applicable to a much broader class of systems whose performance needs to be evaluated.

  10. Improving the Process of Student Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Neacşu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the process of student evaluation from “Spiru Haret” University. The process under consideration occurs according to a specific Procedure – Process of student evaluation from the Manual of Quality Assurance Procedures, “Spiru Haret” University, Edition 1, 2012. The goal of this procedure, mentioned in the Manual, is to present the student evaluation procedure by using the Blackboard educational platform and other evaluation techniques of quality learning, based on materials developed by teachers of “Spiru Haret” University, as well as corresponding responsibilities, in order to increase the learning process quality and the exigency degree in the examination process, as well as students’ satisfaction measured by accumulated competences. We appreciate that the purpose of this procedure is first and foremost to ensure transparency and objectivity in exam passing decision. After identifying the weaknesses with the “cause - effect” chart, we have sought to improve student evaluation process using PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act method, resulting in the design of a new assessment flowchart.

  11. Human-centred radiological software techniques supporting improved nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoeke, Istvan; Johnsen, Terje

    2013-01-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) is an international research foundation for energy and nuclear technology. IFE is also the host for the international OECD Halden Reactor Project. The Software Engineering Department in the Man Technology Organisation at IFE is a leading international centre of competence for the development and evaluation of human-centred technologies, process visualisation, and the lifecycle of high integrity software important to safety. This paper is an attempt to give a general overview of the current, and some of the foreseen, research and development of human-centred radiological software technologies at the Software Engineering department to meet with the need of improved radiological safety for not only nuclear industry but also other industries around the world. (author)

  12. Human errors, countermeasures for their prevention and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohda, Takehisa; Inoue, Koichi

    1992-01-01

    The accidents originated in human errors have occurred as ever in recent large accidents such as the TMI accident and the Chernobyl accident. The proportion of the accidents originated in human errors is unexpectedly high, therefore, the reliability and safety of hardware are improved hereafter, but the improvement of human reliability cannot be expected. Human errors arise by the difference between the function required for men and the function actually accomplished by men, and the results exert some adverse effect to systems. Human errors are classified into design error, manufacture error, operation error, maintenance error, checkup error and general handling error. In terms of behavior, human errors are classified into forget to do, fail to do, do that must not be done, mistake in order and do at improper time. The factors in human error occurrence are circumstantial factor, personal factor and stress factor. As the method of analyzing and evaluating human errors, system engineering method such as probabilistic risk assessment is used. The technique for human error rate prediction, the method for human cognitive reliability, confusion matrix and SLIM-MAUD are also used. (K.I.)

  13. Development of a Field Management Standard for Improving Human Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Young Su; Son, Il Moon; Son, Byung Chang; Kwak, Hyo Yean

    2009-07-01

    This project is to develop a management guideline for improving human performances as a part of the Human Factors Management System of Kori unit 1 which is managing all of human factors items such as man-machine system interfaces, work procedures, work environments, and human reliabilities in nuclear power plants. Human factors engineering includes an human factors suitability analysis and improvement of human works, an analysis of accidents by human error, an improvement of work environment, an establishment of human factors management rules and a development of human resources to manage and perform those things consistently. For assisting these human factors engineering tasks, we developed human factors management guidelines, checklists and work procedures to be used in staffing, qualification, training, and human information requirements and workload. We also provided a software tool for managing the above items. Additionally, contents and an item pool for a human factors qualifying examination and training programs were developed. A procedures improvement and a human factors V and V on the Kori unit 1 have been completed as a part of this project, too

  14. Reinforcement learning improves behaviour from evaluative feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Michael L.

    2015-05-01

    Reinforcement learning is a branch of machine learning concerned with using experience gained through interacting with the world and evaluative feedback to improve a system's ability to make behavioural decisions. It has been called the artificial intelligence problem in a microcosm because learning algorithms must act autonomously to perform well and achieve their goals. Partly driven by the increasing availability of rich data, recent years have seen exciting advances in the theory and practice of reinforcement learning, including developments in fundamental technical areas such as generalization, planning, exploration and empirical methodology, leading to increasing applicability to real-life problems.

  15. Advancing Usability Evaluation through Human Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel augmentation to the current heuristic usability evaluation methodology. The SPAR-H human reliability analysis method was developed for categorizing human performance in nuclear power plants. Despite the specialized use of SPAR-H for safety critical scenarios, the method also holds promise for use in commercial off-the-shelf software usability evaluations. The SPAR-H method shares task analysis underpinnings with human-computer interaction, and it can be easily adapted to incorporate usability heuristics as performance shaping factors. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). This UEP is not a literal probability of error but nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. When combined with a consequence matrix for usability errors, this method affords ready prioritization of usability issues

  16. Virginia power's human performance evaluation system (HPES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) which was initially developed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) using the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) as a guide. After a pilot program involving three utilities ended in 1983, the present day program was instituted. A methodology was developed, for specific application to nuclear power plant employees, to aid trained coordinators/evaluators in determining those factors that exert a negative influence on human behavior in the nuclear power plant environment. HPES is for anyone and everyone on site, from contractors to plant staff to plant management. No one is excluded from participation. Virginia Power's HPES program goal is to identify and correct the root causes of human performance problems. Evaluations are performed on reported real or perceived conditions that may have an adverse influence on members of the nuclear team. A report is provided to management identifying root cause and contributing factors along with recommended corrective actions

  17. Human Resource Evaluation in Hotel Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Aspridis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting and analysing the performance appraisalsystems and the human potential development in hotelunits. It aims at integrating and updating many aspects of performanceappraisal while concentrating on the hotel units systemto prove the importance of human resource evaluation in hotelunits and the procedure that is to be followed by the enterprisefor further development of hotel employees. HR evaluation analysisis presented through relevant theoretical background on theevaluation method and the presentation of the practical problematicalissues in order to create an image for a whole evaluationsystem of HR in Greek hotel enterprises.

  18. Use of Human Reliability Insights to Improve Decision-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, J. A.; Moieni, P.; Grobbelaar, J.; Kohlhepp, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the use of insights obtained during the development and application of human reliability analysis (HRA) as part of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to support decision-making, including improvements to operations, training, and safety culture. Insights have been gained from the development and application of HRA as part of a PRA for nuclear power plants in the USA, Europe and Asia over the last two decades. These models consist of Level 1 and Level 2 PRA models of internal and external events, during full power and shutdown modes of plant operation. These insights include the use of human factors information to improve the qualitative portion of the HRA. The subsequent quantification in the HRA effectively prioritises the contributors to the unreliability of operator actions, and the process facilitates the identification of the factors that are important to the success of the operator actions. Additionally, the tools and techniques also allow for the evaluation of key assumptions and sources of uncertainty. The end results have been used to effectively support decision-making for day-to-day plant operations as well as licensing issues. HRA results have been used to provide feedback and improvements to plant procedures, operator training and other areas contributing the plant safety culture. Examples of the types of insights are presented in this paper. (author)

  19. Human Resource Management for Continuous Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry; Laugen, Bjørge

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between HRM practices and Continuous Improvement (CI) activities in order to gain an understanding of how the HRM function may be utilized to improve CI implementation success, and consequently, organizational performance. The paper i...

  20. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat. © RSNA, 2015.

  1. An improved silhouette for human pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Anthony H.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2017-08-01

    We propose a novel method for analyzing images that exploits the natural lines of a human poses to find areas where self-occlusion could be present. Errors caused by self-occlusion cause several modern human pose estimation methods to mis-identify body parts, which reduces the performance of most action recognition algorithms. Our method is motivated by the observation that, in several cases, occlusion can be reasoned using only boundary lines of limbs. An intelligent edge detection algorithm based on the above principle could be used to augment the silhouette with information useful for pose estimation algorithms and push forward progress on occlusion handling for human action recognition. The algorithm described is applicable to computer vision scenarios involving 2D images and (appropriated flattened) 3D images.

  2. Conceptual modelling of human resource evaluation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoiţă Doina Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the highly diverse tasks which employees have to fulfil due to complex requirements of nowadays consumers, the human resource within an enterprise has become a strategic element for developing and exploiting products which meet the market expectations. Therefore, organizations encounter difficulties when approaching the human resource evaluation process. Hence, the aim of the current paper is to design a conceptual model of the aforementioned process, which allows the enterprises to develop a specific methodology. In order to design the conceptual model, Business Process Modelling instruments were employed - Adonis Community Edition Business Process Management Toolkit using the ADONIS BPMS Notation. The conceptual model was developed based on an in-depth secondary research regarding the human resource evaluation process. The proposed conceptual model represents a generic workflow (sequential and/ or simultaneously activities, which can be extended considering the enterprise’s needs regarding their requirements when conducting a human resource evaluation process. Enterprises can benefit from using software instruments for business process modelling as they enable process analysis and evaluation (predefined / specific queries and also model optimization (simulations.

  3. Human Resource Management for Continuous Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Laugen, Bjørge Timenes; Boer, Harry

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between HRM practices and Continuous Improvement (CI) activities in order to gain an understanding of how the HRM function may be utilized to improve CI implementation success, and consequently, company performance. The paper begins with a brief review...... of the HRM and CI literature and then presents statistical analyses of data collected from the Continuous Improvement Network Survey (2003), which demonstrate that HRM has a significant effect on CI behaviour and company performance, with the strongest relationship between HRM, CI and performance occurring...

  4. IARC monographs: 40 years of evaluating carcinogenic hazards to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Neil; Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Beland, Frederick A; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S; Brownson, Ross C; Bucher, John R; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W; Christiani, David C; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A; Dement, John M; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A; Engel, Lawrence S; Fenske, Richard A; Fleming, Lora E; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H; Lynch, Charles F; Lynge, Elsebeth; 't Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J; McLaughlin, John R; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P; Perry, Melissa J; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandler, Dale P; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H; Smith, Martyn T; Spinelli, John J; Spitz, Margaret R; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W; Stewart, Patricia A; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G; Ward, Elizabeth M; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public's health.

  5. Improving human performance in maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Anez, Francisco; Agueero Agueero, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The continuous evolution and improvement of safety-related processes has included the analysis, design and development of training plans for the qualification of maintenance nuclear power plant personnel. In this respect, the international references in this area recommend the establishment of systematic qualification programmes for personnel performing functions or carrying out safety related tasks. Maintenance personnel qualification processes have improved significantly, and training plans have been designed and developed based on Systematic Approach to Training methodology to each job position. These improvements have been clearly reflected in recent training programmes with new training material and training facilities focused not only on developing technical knowledge and skills but also on improving attitudes and safety culture. The objectives of maintenance training facilities such as laboratories, mock-ups real an virtual, hydraulic loops, field simulators and other training material to be used in the maintenance training centre are to cover training necessities for initial and continuous qualification. Evidently, all these improvements made in the qualification of plant personnel should be extended to include supplemental personnel (external or contracted) performing safety-related tasks. The supplemental personnel constitute a very spread group, covering the performance of multiple activities entailing different levels of responsibility. Some of these activities are performed permanently at the plant, while others are occasional or sporadic. In order to establish qualification requirements for these supplemental workers, it is recommended to establish a rigorous analysis of job positions and tasks. The objective will be to identify the qualification requirements to assure competence and safety. (authors)

  6. Resistant starch: promise for improving human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Diane F; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized.

  7. Human Reliability Data Bank: evaluation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, M.K.; Donovan, M.D.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and General Physics Corporation are conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of a Human Reliability Data Bank for nuclear power industry probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). As part of this program, a survey was conducted of existing human reliability data banks from other industries, and a detailed concept of a Data Bank for the nuclear industry was developed. Subsequently, a detailed specification for implementing the Data Bank was developed. An evaluation of this specification was conducted and is described in this report. The evaluation tested data treatment, storage, and retrieval using the Data Bank structure, as modified from NUREG/CR-2744, and detailed procedures for data processing and retrieval, developed prior to this evaluation and documented in the test specification. The evaluation consisted of an Operability Demonstration and Evaluation of the data processing procedures, a Data Retrieval Demonstration and Evaluation, a Retrospective Analysis that included a survey of organizations currently operating data banks for the nuclear power industry, and an Internal Analysis of the current Data Bank System

  8. Improving the safety culture of human organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    Inquiries into past serious accidents, both nuclear and non-nuclear, reveal that the causes, largely attributed to human error, are also failures on the part of the institutions responsible. Conventional wisdom holds that quality assurance is an essential element for any production process, but the inquiries have not suggested applying quality assurance to the institutions themselves. The ACNS argues the need for Institutional Quality Assurance, with some illustrations of what might be involved, and proposes what should be done to achieve this end

  9. Improved human performance through appropriate work scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisseau, D.S.; Lewis, P.M.; Persensky, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has had a policy, Generic Letter 82-12, on hours of work since 1982. The policy states that licensees should establish controls to prevent situations where fatigue could reduce the ability of operating personnel to perform their duties safely (USNRC 1982). While that policy does give guidance on hours of work and overtime, it does not address periods of longer than 7 days or work schedules other than the routine 8-hour day, 40-hour week. Recognizing that NRC policy could provide broader guidance for shift schedules and hours of overtime work, the Division of Human Factors Safety conducted a project with Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) to help the NRC better understand the human factors principles and issues concerning hours of work so that the NRC could consider updating their policy as necessary. The results of this project are recommendations for guidelines and limits for periods of 14 days, 28 days, and 1 year to take into account the cumulative effects of fatigue. In addition, routine 12-hour shifts are addressed. This latter type of shift schedule has been widely adopted in the petroleum and chemical industries and several utilities operating nuclear power plants have adopted it as well. Since this is the case, it is important to consider including guidelines for implementing this type of schedule. This paper discusses the bases for the PNL recommendations which are currently being studied by the NRC

  10. Human Resource Development's Contribution to Continuous Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Hyland, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Continuous Improvement (CI) is an approach to organizational change that requires active involvement of skilled and motivated employees, which implies an important role for HRD practitioners. The findings from a literature review and a survey of 168 Danish manufacturing companies indicate however...... that HRD is rarely integrated with CI. The paper contributes by offering a model that depicts how HR and HRD functions could be exploited to support successful CI development and implementation....

  11. Improving treatment plan evaluation with automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Elizabeth L.; Chen, Xiaoping; Younge, Kelly C.; Lee, Choonik; Matuszak, Martha M.; Kessler, Marc L.; Keranen, Wayne; Acosta, Eduardo; Dougherty, Ashley M.; Filpansick, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of Plan‐Checker Tool (PCT) which was created to improve first‐time plan quality, reduce patient delays, increase the efficiency of our electronic workflow, and standardize and automate the physics plan review in the treatment planning system (TPS). PCT uses an application programming interface to check and compare data from the TPS and treatment management system (TMS). PCT includes a comprehensive checklist of automated and manual checks that are documented when performed by the user as part of a plan readiness check for treatment. Prior to and during PCT development, errors identified during the physics review and causes of patient treatment start delays were tracked to prioritize which checks should be automated. Nineteen of 33 checklist items were automated, with data extracted with PCT. There was a 60% reduction in the number of patient delays in the six months after PCT release. PCT was successfully implemented for use on all external beam treatment plans in our clinic. While the number of errors found during the physics check did not decrease, automation of checks increased visibility of errors during the physics check, which led to decreased patient delays. The methods used here can be applied to any TMS and TPS that allows queries of the database. PACS number(s): 87.55.‐x, 87.55.N‐, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.tm, 89.20.Bb PMID:27929478

  12. Improving human object recognition performance using video enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Lucy S.; Lewis, Colin; Oakley, John P.

    2004-12-01

    Atmospheric scattering causes significant degradation in the quality of video images, particularly when imaging over long distances. The principle problem is the reduction in contrast due to scattered light. It is known that when the scattering particles are not too large compared with the imaging wavelength (i.e. Mie scattering) then high spatial resolution information may be contained within a low-contrast image. Unfortunately this information is not easily perceived by a human observer, particularly when using a standard video monitor. A secondary problem is the difficulty of achieving a sharp focus since automatic focus techniques tend to fail in such conditions. Recently several commercial colour video processing systems have become available. These systems use various techniques to improve image quality in low contrast conditions whilst retaining colour content. These systems produce improvements in subjective image quality in some situations, particularly in conditions of haze and light fog. There is also some evidence that video enhancement leads to improved ATR performance when used as a pre-processing stage. Psychological literature indicates that low contrast levels generally lead to a reduction in the performance of human observers in carrying out simple visual tasks. The aim of this paper is to present the results of an empirical study on object recognition in adverse viewing conditions. The chosen visual task was vehicle number plate recognition at long ranges (500 m and beyond). Two different commercial video enhancement systems are evaluated using the same protocol. The results show an increase in effective range with some differences between the different enhancement systems.

  13. Evaluating realized genetic gains from tree improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair

    1993-01-01

    Tree improvement has become an essential part of the management of forest lands for wood production, and predicting yields and realized gains from forests planted with genetically-improved trees will become increasingly important. This paper discusses concepts of tree improvement and genetic gain important to growth and yield modeling, and reviews previous studies of...

  14. Improving the Status of Human and Material Resources in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the Status of Human and Material Resources in Public Primary School in Oyo States ... the Millennium Development Goals project in the State. ... libraries, well-equipped first aid centres, adequate electronically projected instructional ...

  15. Development of HANARO human factors management plan and evaluation of BCS display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I. S.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, Y. H.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, human factors evaluation of BCS display design was performed. We adopted the suitability of design elements of BCS display as human factors evaluation measure. And, we also adopted guideline based evaluation, field survey and expert evaluation as evaluation method. The checklist was utilized for the evaluation, and the results of evaluation were well arranged in the evaluation format. We did not find out the HED (Human Engineering Discrepancy) impede safety of HANARO, except some necessary items to improve during short periods. We also provide some items of improvement for the enhancement of safety and operator's performance in the aspect of long periods. If the proposed improvement items were completely fulfilled, the more improved safety of HANARO will be secured

  16. Human factors evaluation of the 1998 NORS MMI in HAMMLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebok, Angelia; Beere, Barnaby; Chung, Kyung-Hun

    1999-05-01

    The following document describes a Human Factors evaluation of NORS MMI in HAMMLAB. The purpose of this evaluation was to offer feedback on the usability of the current interface, to offer suggestions for improvement, and to provide useful input for MMI design in the HAMMLAB 2000 project. The evaluation was conducted using a variety of techniques: comparing the design to human factors guidelines, interviewing various HAMMLAB personnel, reviewing operator comments on the NORS interface, and assessing videotapes of operator performance in HAMMLAB. Based on this evaluation, strengths and weaknesses of the interface have been identified. Strengths include the overview display, the process format layout, the dedicated interaction areas, use of coding techniques, opportunities for comparing parameter trends, and flexibility of use. Issues for improvement have been identified regarding controls, feedback, consistency, navigation, information presentation, colour coding, symbols, naming conventions, labelling, and readability. Issues have also been identified specifically for the trend displays, logic diagrams, alarm system, and overview displays. To improve the interface, several approaches may be considered. The problems in the interface may be classified according to how realistic they are to modify. Some problems can be fixed by design changes, some require changes to the simulator data base, and others require additional hardware. Once problems are classified, they can be fixed or handled appropriately. Potential strategies for handling the more complicated design problems include personnel selection, training, procedures, job performance aids, or a help system (author) (ml)

  17. Effectively managing nuclear risk through human performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    is to apply the principles of Human Performance Technology, or HPT, to the nuclear workplace. HPT is a relatively new field that has been emerging over the several decades. Its principles are derived from the research and practice of behavioral and cognitive psychologist, instructional technologists training designers, organizational developers and various human resource specialists. Relying heavily on general systems theory as applied to organizations, HPT takes a systemic approach to risk assessment and performance analysis/ change as opposed to making piecemeal interventions which often happens in designing training programs intended to be the only fix specific organizational behavior problems in the short term. Specifically, HPT methodology emphasizes examining any given problem in relation to the more global aims of the setting or environment within which the problem is identified. Its consistent driver is measurable performance and the structuring of elements within the system to improve and reward desirable performance and effective risk management. In general, HPT is more than another way to look at training, HPT is a systemized process that combines selection, analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of programs to most cost effectively influence human behavior and accomplishment. By taking a systems view of organizations rather than discreetly focusing on pockets of concern within an organization, it seeks to link the actions and interventions of all the organizational elements that affect overall performance. It does this through identifying, among other things, current performance levels, required performance levels for effective risk management, exemplary performance, and developing measurements for each step in the process. It examines such things as the external and organizational environments as well as the influences that directly impact individual performance. Direct application to the nuclear industry is evident when

  18. HMM Adaptation for Improving a Human Activity Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén San-Segundo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When developing a fully automatic system for evaluating motor activities performed by a person, it is necessary to segment and recognize the different activities in order to focus the analysis. This process must be carried out by a Human Activity Recognition (HAR system. This paper proposes a user adaptation technique for improving a HAR system based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs. This system segments and recognizes six different physical activities (walking, walking upstairs, walking downstairs, sitting, standing and lying down using inertial signals from a smartphone. The system is composed of a feature extractor for obtaining the most relevant characteristics from the inertial signals, a module for training the six HMMs (one per activity, and the last module for segmenting new activity sequences using these models. The user adaptation technique consists of a Maximum A Posteriori (MAP approach that adapts the activity HMMs to the user, using some activity examples from this specific user. The main results on a public dataset have reported a significant relative error rate reduction of more than 30%. In conclusion, adapting a HAR system to the user who is performing the physical activities provides significant improvement in the system’s performance.

  19. The improving processes in the human resources management

    OpenAIRE

    Darja Holátová

    2002-01-01

    The quality management of the human resources management, the quality of the products, services and prosperities of the firms is among others dependent on the quality management. Managers convey a leadership and commitment necessary for creating the environment for quality improvement. The managers are responsible for their own actions, development and improvement of their own work processes.

  20. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Integrating From the Nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M.C.; Bainbridge, W.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the early decades of the twenty-first century, concentrated efforts can unify science based on the unity of nature, thereby advancing the combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and new humane technologies based in cognitive science. Converging technologies integrated from the nanoscale could determine a tremendous improvement in human abilities and societal outcomes. This is a broad, cross cutting, emerging, and timely opportunity of interest to individuals, society, and humanity in the long term.About eighty scientific leaders, industry experts, and policy makers across a range of fields have contributed to develop a vision for the potential to improve human physical, mental, and social capabilities through the convergence of the four technologies. Six major themes have emerged: (a) The broad potential of converging technologies; (b) Expanding human cognition and communication; (c) Improving human health and physical capabilities; (d) Enhancing group and societal outcomes; (e) National security, and (f) Unifying science and education. This article summarizes the observations, conclusions, and recommendations made in the report (Roco and Bainbridge, eds., 2002. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance, NSF-DOC Report, June 2002, Arlington VA, USA)

  1. Mentoring approach improves evaluation capacity of ICTD ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Developing Evaluation Capacity in ICTD (DECI) provides researchers from five IDRC-funded projects in Asia ongoing mentorship to learn and apply the Utilization Focused Evaluation (UFE) approach to their projects. DECI demonstrates the value of mentoring as a training approach, where researchers are coached as they ...

  2. Models for Evaluating and Improving Architecture Competence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, Len; Clements, Paul; Kazman, Rick; Klein, Mark

    2008-01-01

    ... producing high-quality architectures. This report lays out the basic concepts of software architecture competence and describes four models for explaining, measuring, and improving the architecture competence of an individual...

  3. Software Maintenance Management Evaluation and Continuous Improvement

    CERN Document Server

    April, Alain

    2008-01-01

    This book explores the domain of software maintenance management and provides road maps for improving software maintenance organizations. It describes full maintenance maturity models organized by levels 1, 2, and 3, which allow for benchmarking and continuous improvement paths. Goals for each key practice area are also provided, and the model presented is fully aligned with the architecture and framework of software development maturity models of CMMI and ISO 15504. It is complete with case studies, figures, tables, and graphs.

  4. The human milk project: a quality improvement initiative to increase human milk consumption in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Laura; Auer, Christine; Smith, Carrie; Schoettker, Pamela J; Pruett, Raymond; Shah, Nilesh Y; Kotagal, Uma R

    2012-08-01

    Human milk has well-established health benefits for preterm infants. We conducted a multidisciplinary quality improvement effort aimed at providing at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in the first 14 days of life to very low birth weight (VLBW) (milk program, and twice-daily physician evaluation of infants' ability to tolerate feedings. The number of infants receiving at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in their first 14 days of life increased from 50% to 80% within 11 months of implementation, and this increase has been sustained for 4 years. Infants who met the feeding goal because they received donor milk increased each year. Since September 2007, infants have received, on average, 1,111 mL of human milk/kg. Approximately 4% of infants did not receive any human milk. Respiratory instability was the most frequent physiological reason given by clinicians for not initiating or advancing feedings in the first 14 days of life. Our quality improvement initiative resulted in a higher consumption of human milk in VLBW infants in the first 14 days of life. Other clinicians can use these described quality improvement methods and techniques to improve their VLBW babies' consumption of human milk.

  5. The human performance evaluation system at Virginia Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.G. III.

    1989-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants requires high standards of performance, extensive training, and responsive management. Despite a utility's best efforts, inappropriate human actions do occur. Although such inappropriate actions will occur, it is believed that such actions can be minimized and managed. The Federal Aviation Administration has a successful program administered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This program is called the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). Established in 1975, it is anonymous and nonpunitive. A trial program for several utilities was developed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations which used a concept similar to the ASRS reporting process. Based on valuable lessons learned by Virginia Power during the pilot program, an effort was made in 1986 to formalize the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) to establish an ongoing problem-solving system for evaluating human performance. Currently, 34 domestic utilities and 3 international utilities voluntarily participate in the implementation of the HPES. Each participating utility has selected and trained personnel to evaluate events involving human error and provide corrective action recommendations to prevent recurrence. It is believed that the use of the HPES can lead to improved safety and operation availability

  6. Human abuse liability evaluation of CNS stimulant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating human cancer cell metastasis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; White, David T; Mumm, Jeff S; Cowell, John K

    2013-01-01

    In vivo metastasis assays have traditionally been performed in mice, but the process is inefficient and costly. However, since zebrafish do not develop an adaptive immune system until 14 days post-fertilization, human cancer cells can survive and metastasize when transplanted into zebrafish larvae. Despite isolated reports, there has been no systematic evaluation of the robustness of this system to date. Individual cell lines were stained with CM-Dil and injected into the perivitelline space of 2-day old zebrafish larvae. After 2-4 days fish were imaged using confocal microscopy and the number of metastatic cells was determined using Fiji software. To determine whether zebrafish can faithfully report metastatic potential in human cancer cells, we injected a series of cells with different metastatic potential into the perivitelline space of 2 day old embryos. Using cells from breast, prostate, colon and pancreas we demonstrated that the degree of cell metastasis in fish is proportional to their invasion potential in vitro. Highly metastatic cells such as MDA231, DU145, SW620 and ASPC-1 are seen in the vasculature and throughout the body of the fish after only 24–48 hours. Importantly, cells that are not invasive in vitro such as T47D, LNCaP and HT29 do not metastasize in fish. Inactivation of JAK1/2 in fibrosarcoma cells leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, and in zebrafish these cells show limited spread throughout the zebrafish body compared with the highly metastatic parental cells. Further, knockdown of WASF3 in DU145 cells which leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo also results in suppression of metastasis in zebrafish. In a cancer progression model involving normal MCF10A breast epithelial cells, the degree of invasion/metastasis in vitro and in mice is mirrored in zebrafish. Using a modified version of Fiji software, it is possible to quantify individual metastatic cells in the transparent larvae to correlate with

  8. KNK steam generator leakage, evaluations and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumm, K.; Ratzel, W.

    1975-01-01

    On September 23, 1972 the KNK reactor was shut down due to a sodium-water reaction. Detection, localisation and possible leak development are described and discussed. Improvements on the KNK steam generator system due to this leak experience are explained. (author)

  9. KNK steam generator leakage, evaluations and improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumm, K; Ratzel, W

    1975-07-01

    On September 23, 1972 the KNK reactor was shut down due to a sodium-water reaction. Detection, localisation and possible leak development are described and discussed. Improvements on the KNK steam generator system due to this leak experience are explained. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitors as Lubricity Improvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Whatman, obtained from Alltech Associates). 10 The mobile phase compositions evaluated included blends of methanol, isopropanol, and aqueous buffers...developed takes advantage of the unique properties of the CI components and the ability of RPHPLC to resolve those components. All of the approved CI

  11. Improved methods to evaluate realised energy savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis regards the calculation of realised energy savings at national and sectoral level, and the policy contribution to total savings. It is observed that the results of monitoring and evaluation studies on realised energy savings are hardly applied in energy saving policy. Causes are the lack

  12. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    OpenAIRE

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-01-01

    Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such a...

  13. Terroir as a Concept to Improve Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.; Burgess, Lynn C.; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereg, Lily

    2017-04-01

    Soil is important to human health because of the ability of healthy soils to supply nutrients through food products, medications derived from soil, its ability to clean water, and for many other positive reasons. On the other hand, degraded soils can have negative impacts on human health through processes such as dust generation and by acting as a point of human contact with heavy metals, organic chemicals, and pathogens. Despite the definite links between soil and human health, it is likely that most people don't think about soil when considering human health issues. In fact, there appears to be a disconnect between most people in our modern society and soil, and when people do notice soil it often seems to be in a negative context, leading to terms such as "soiled", "dirty", "dirt poor", etc. People pay attention to and care for things that matter to them, and creating a more positive public image of soil has the possibility of improving human health by leading to careful and caring treatment of the soil resource. The concept of terroir is a good example of a setting within which soils have a more positive image. While terroir originally established a connection between those who love wine and the soils that produce those wines, the concept has been expanded to many additional products such as cacao, cheese, coffee, fruits, olive oil, and vegetables. If the terroir concept could be expanded to include additional products that are important to people and expanded into parts of the world where it is not currently well known, that may provide an increased positive perception of soil, and thereby indirectly improve human health. It may even be possible to provide a terroir link to direct health benefits, such as medications derived from a given soil environment, and therefore provide a very focused emphasis on soil and human health issues. Therefore, we advocate a concerted effort to expand the terroir concept as a means to improve overall human health.

  14. Managing Human Performance to Improve Nuclear Facility Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-2.1, Managing Human Resources in the Field of Nuclear Energy, was published in 2009. In that publication, four interrelated objectives of the management of human resources were identified and discussed: ensuring that nuclear industry personnel have the necessary competence for their jobs; effectively organizing work activities; anticipating human resource needs; and monitoring and continually improving performance. This publication addresses the fourth objective and, in particular, summarizes good practices in the area of managing human performance

  15. Simplified Human-Robot Interaction: Modeling and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel concept of human-robot interaction (HRI modeling is proposed. Including factors like trust in automation, situational awareness, expertise and expectations a new user experience framework is formed for industrial robots. Service Oriented Robot Operation, proposed in a previous paper, creates an abstract level in HRI and it is also included in the framework. This concept is evaluated with exhaustive tests. Results prove that significant improvement in task execution may be achieved and the new system is more usable for operators with less experience with robotics; personnel specific for small and medium enterprises (SMEs.

  16. Latent human error analysis and efficient improvement strategies by fuzzy TOPSIS in aviation maintenance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Chuan; Hsieh, Min-Chih

    2016-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a latent human error analysis process, to explore the factors of latent human error in aviation maintenance tasks, and to provide an efficient improvement strategy for addressing those errors. First, we used HFACS and RCA to define the error factors related to aviation maintenance tasks. Fuzzy TOPSIS with four criteria was applied to evaluate the error factors. Results show that 1) adverse physiological states, 2) physical/mental limitations, and 3) coordination, communication, and planning are the factors related to airline maintenance tasks that could be addressed easily and efficiently. This research establishes a new analytic process for investigating latent human error and provides a strategy for analyzing human error using fuzzy TOPSIS. Our analysis process complements shortages in existing methodologies by incorporating improvement efficiency, and it enhances the depth and broadness of human error analysis methodology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Warning Signals for Poor Performance Improve Human-Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Dotsch, Ron; Haselager, Pim; Wigboldus, Daniel HJ

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot’s nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the

  18. Promoting Instructional Improvement: A Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Mark A.; Wenzel, Stacy A.

    2006-01-01

    This report argues that instructional improvement, which goes hand-in-hand with efforts at education reform, can be promoted through the strategic use of human resource management (HRM) practices at the school, district, and state levels. The authors present information from the organizational and management literatures on how firms in several…

  19. Driving Performance Improvements by Integrating Competencies with Human Resource Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Gu; Park, Yongho; Yang, Gi Hun

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the issues in the development and application of a competency model and provides implications for more precise integration of competencies into human resource (HR) functions driving performance improvement. This research is based on a case study from a Korean consumer corporation. This study employed document reviews,…

  20. Improving of the management quality of human resources

    OpenAIRE

    Miceski, Trajko

    2004-01-01

    Improvement of the management quality of human resources is a continuous process, based on multidimensional concept of activities, with special emphasis on increasing the level of competence of the employees both in their working place and in additional activities in the decision making bodies.

  1. Improved partnering through supplier self-evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, R.K.; Cobb, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Early in 1989, the Virginia Power purchasing department decided that a different approach was needed for resolving supplier partnering issues and to motivate the supplier to perform as promised to purchase order requirements. Purchasing formed task teams composed of purchasing personnel and requested that they investigate and evaluate alternative methods of order administration and supplier communications. The task teams were asked to research the feasibility of using a reward/penalty approach or to suggest an alternative method to motivate results. The task teams determined that the root cause of the problems for the identified areas of concern was that purchasing personnel and supplier personnel neither communicated well nor fully understood the effect that their actions or inactions had on each other

  2. Improved extraction procedure for carotenoids from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, F J; Hurtienne, A; Bathe, K

    2000-05-01

    An improved method for the extraction of the major carotenoids from human milk is described. Carotenoids were extracted from milk first with ethanol and n-hexane. Then, polar xanthophylls were extracted from n-hexane into ethanol/water. The remaining n-hexane was evaporated, the residue combined with the ethanolic milk fraction and the mixture briefly saponified. Carotenoids were extracted from the hydrolysate with n-hexane, combined with the polar xanthophylls from the non-saponified ethanol/water-extract and separated by HPLC. Using this method we were able to significantly improve the recovery of xanthophylls such as lutein and zeaxanthin from human milk. The recovery rate of all carotenoids was > 90%. This method might not only be of value for milk but should be especially useful in the extraction of carotenoids from human tissues such as the adipose tissue.

  3. System ergonomics as an approach to improve human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1988-01-01

    The application of system technics on ergonomical problems is called system ergonomics. This enables improvements of human reliability by design measures. The precondition for this is the knowledge of how information processing is performed by man and machine. By a separate consideration of sensory processing, cognitive processing, and motory processing it is possible to have a more exact idea of the system element 'man'. The system element 'machine' is well described by differential equations which allow an ergonomical assessment of the manouverability. The knowledge of information processing of man and machine enables a task analysis. This makes appear on one hand the human boundaries depending on the different properties of the task and on the other hand suitable ergonomical solution proposals which improve the reliability of the total system. It is a disadvantage, however, that the change of human reliability by such measures may not be quoted numerically at the moment. (orig.)

  4. Evaluating Options for Improving California's Drought Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. A.; Schwarz, A.; Wi, S.; Correa, M.; Brown, C.

    2015-12-01

    Through a unique collaborative arrangement, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) have together performed a baseline climate change analysis of the California state (State Water Project) and federal (Central Valley Project) water systems. The first step in the baseline analysis was development of an improved basinwide hydrologic model covering a large area of California including all major tributaries to the state and federal water systems. The CalLite modeling system used by DWR for planning purposes allowed simulation of the system of reservoirs, rivers, control points, and deliveries which are then used to create performance metrics that quantify a wide range of system characteristics including water deliveries, water quality, and environmental/ecological factors. A baseline climate stress test was conducted to identify current vulnerabilities to climate change through the linking of the modeling chain with Decision Scaling concepts through the UMass bottom-up climate stress-testing algorithm. This procedure allowed the first comprehensive climate stress analysis of the California state and federal water systems not constrained by observed historical variability and wet-dry year sequences. A forward-looking drought vulnerability and adaptation assessment of the water systems based on this workflow is ongoing and preliminary results will be presented. Presentation of results will include discussion of the collaborative arrangement between DWR and UMass, which is instrumental to both the success of the research and the education of policy makers.

  5. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Beland, Frederick A.; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Brownson, Ross C.; Bucher, John R.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W.; Christiani, David C.; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A.; Dement, John M.; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K.; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A.; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H.; Lynch, Charles F.; Lynge, Elsebeth; ‘t Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J.; McLaughlin, John R.; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A.; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E.; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F.; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P.; Perry, Melissa J.; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B.; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M.; Sandler, Dale P.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T.; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H.; Smith, Martyn T.; Spinelli, John J.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T.; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E.; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G.; Ward, Elizabeth M.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. Objectives: The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. Discussion: We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. Conclusions: The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public’s health. Citation: Pearce N, Blair A, Vineis P, Ahrens W, Andersen A, Anto JM, Armstrong BK, Baccarelli AA, Beland FA, Berrington A, Bertazzi PA, Birnbaum LS, Brownson RC, Bucher JR, Cantor KP

  6. Practical recommendations for the evaluation of improvement initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Gareth; Coly, Astou; Goldmann, Don; Rowe, Alexander K; Chattu, Vijay; Logiudice, Deneil; Rabrenovic, Mihajlo; Nambiar, Bejoy

    2018-01-01

    Abstract A lack of clear guidance for funders, evaluators and improvers on what to include in evaluation proposals can lead to evaluation designs that do not answer the questions stakeholders want to know. These evaluation designs may not match the iterative nature of improvement and may be imposed onto an initiative in a way that is impractical from the perspective of improvers and the communities with whom they work. Consequently, the results of evaluations are often controversial, and attribution remains poorly understood. Improvement initiatives are iterative, adaptive and context-specific. Evaluation approaches and designs must align with these features, specifically in their ability to consider complexity, to evolve as the initiative adapts over time and to understand the interaction with local context. Improvement initiatives often identify broadly defined change concepts and provide tools for care teams to tailor these in more detail to local conditions. Correspondingly, recommendations for evaluation are best provided as broad guidance, to be tailored to the specifics of the initiative. In this paper, we provide practical guidance and recommendations that funders and evaluators can use when developing an evaluation plan for improvement initiatives that seeks to: identify the questions stakeholders want to address; develop the initial program theory of the initiative; identify high-priority areas to measure progress over time; describe the context the initiative will be applied within; and identify experimental or observational designs that will address attribution. PMID:29447410

  7. The Role of Evaluation in the School Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.; Beach, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Although evaluation serves many purposes in education, there is virtually unanimous agreement that evaluation is a critical component of all school improvement processes. Hamilton et al. (2003) asserted that "assessment and evaluation should be built into reform programs from the outset" (p. 26). Kimball, Lander, and Thorn (2010)…

  8. Leadership for health improvement--implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Susan M; Carr, Sue; Lhussier, Monique; Reynolds, Joanna; Hunter, David J; Hannaway, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a co-authored reflection on the health improvement leadership development programme and the key evaluation messages derived from piloting in an English National Health Service region. It highlights the specific attributes of this approach to health improvement leadership development and clarifies health improvement development issues. Appreciative inquiry and soft systems methodology are combined in an evaluation approach designed to capture individual as well as organisation learning and how it impacts on leadership in specific contexts. The evaluation exposes the health improvement leadership needs of a multi-organisation cohort, offers some explanations for successful achievement of learning needs while also exposing of the challenges and paradoxes faced in this endeavour. There are limited reported templates of how to develop leadership for health improvement. This paper details a whole systems approach, acknowledging the impact of context on leadership and an approach to evaluating such complex initiatives.

  9. Reflections and Future Prospects for Evaluation in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Boulay, David

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) evaluation has often been criticized for its limited function in organizational decision making. This article reviews evaluation studies to uncover the current status of HRD evaluation literature. The authors further discuss general evaluation theories in terms of value, use, and evaluator role to extend the…

  10. Evaluating Models of Human Performance: Safety-Critical Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Evaluating Models of Human Performance. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the increasing use of models in the world today and specifically focus on how to describe and evaluate models of human performance. My presentation will focus on discussions of generating distributions of performance, and the evaluation of different strategies for humans performing tasks with mixed initiative (Human-Automation) systems. I will also discuss issues with how to provide Human Performance modeling data to support decisions on acceptability and tradeoffs in the design of safety critical systems. I will conclude with challenges for the future.

  11. Quality Improvement Project to Improve Patient Satisfaction With Pain Management: Using Human-Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail-Mahan, Tracy; Heisler, Scott; Katica, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In this quality improvement project, our health system developed a comprehensive, patient-centered approach to improving inpatient pain management and assessed its impact on patient satisfaction across 21 medical centers. Using human-centered design principles, a bundle of 6 individual and team nursing practices was developed. Patient satisfaction with pain management, as measured by the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems pain composite score, increased from the 25th to just under the 75th national percentile.

  12. The nutrition intervention improved adult human capital and economic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children.

  13. Human Performance Metrics for Spacesuit Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Introduction: Human spaceflight and exploration beyond low-earth orbit requires providing crewmembers life support systems in various extreme environments, such as...

  14. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit

    2015-04-16

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  15. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit; Dave, Akshat; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  16. Human Resources and Innovative Behaviour : Improving Nursing Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Xerri, Matthew; Reid, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    This study examines, using the social exchange theory, the mediating effect of employees’ perception of wellbeing on the relationship between two human resource (HR) management factors (satisfaction with teamwork and satisfaction with training opportunities) and innovative behaviour of nurses working in Australian public and private hospitals. Current nurse shortages and limited budgets have increased the need for hospitals to improve their efficiency and cost-effectiveness. It is proposed th...

  17. INTEGRATION MECHANISMS OF IMPROVEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera A. Akimenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic conditions, the efficiency of business processes of an organization is determined by the quality of the staff. Therefore, actual is the creation and application of new approaches to the management of human re-sources. The article presents a comparative analysis of management practices and their impact on the effectiveness of personnel management, the mechanism of their integration to improve the efficiency of the process.

  18. Developing and improving human capital and productivity in public companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozipho Sithole

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the impact of the Assisted Education Programme (AEP in developing, improving human capital and productivity specifically for eThekwini Municipality employee human resource. This programme offers funding to employees to further their studies in higher learning institutions, which are in partnership with and recognized by eThekwini Municipality. The core function of this programme is to improve and develop employee capabilities in order to enhance municipal productivity. However, different factors have prohibited the programme from reaching required funding polity objectives. Participants filled in questionnaires and from them data were collected. The study used quantitative research as a method of research. The target population for this study consisted of 100 participants. The study sample size were 64 participants which were randomly selected out of the Durban Solid Waste Unit, specifically general assistants. The study analyzed data using SPSS (version 23.0. A significant percentage of respondents indicated to a lack of transparency and poor consistency in the process of awarding the funding and to insufficient information, which detailed the criteria for eligibility of applicants. Henceforth, the study concluded that municipal employee underutilized the AEP because of being ill informed about it. This resulted in the employee perception that the programme had little or no benefit to them and that it had no value in improving their human capital development. This finding is shown by a Chi-square goodness of fit test to be statistically significant (std=1.49150; mean=2.7500; p=.000

  19. Evaluation of Human Prehension Using Grasp Quality Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz León

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main features of the human hand is its grasping ability. Robot grasping has been studied for years and different quality measures have been proposed to evaluate the stability and manipulability of grasps. Although the human hand is obviously more complex than robot hands, the methods used in robotics might be adopted to study the human grasp. The purpose of this work is to propose a set of measures that allow the evaluation of different aspects of the human grasp. The most common robotic grasp quality measures have been adapted to the evaluation of the human hand and a new quality measure – the fatigue index – is proposed in order to incorporate the biomechanical aspect into the evaluation. The minimum set of indices that allows the evaluation of the different aspects of the grasp is obtained from the analysis of a human prehension experiment.

  20. Improving Numeracy and Literacy: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Jack; Sizmur, Juliet; Ager, Rob; Styles, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The project, "Oxford Improving Numeracy and Literacy Programme," was delivered by Oxford University Department of Education. This evaluation tested two different initiatives with Year 2 children: "Mathematics and Reasoning" and "Literacy and Morphemes." The "Mathematics and Reasoning" programme aimed to…

  1. Design and Evaluation of Human System Interfaces (HSIs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the safe operation of nuclear power plants and other complex process industries the performance of the control room crews plays an important role. In this respect a well-functioning and well-designed Human-System Interface (HSI) is crucial for safe and efficient operation of the plant. It is therefore essential that the design, development and evaluation of both control rooms and HSI-solutions are conducted in a well-structured way, applying sound human factors principles and guidelines in all phases of the HSI development process. Many nuclear power plants around the world are currently facing major modernisation of their control rooms. In this process computerised, screen-based HSIs replace old conventional operator interfaces. In new control rooms, both in the nuclear field and in other process industries, fully digital, screen-based control rooms are becoming the standard. It is therefore of particular importance to address the design and evaluation of screen-based HSIs in a systematic and consistent way in order to arrive at solutions which take proper advantage of the possibilities for improving operator support through the use of digital, screen-based HSIs, at the same time avoiding pitfalls and problems in the use of this technology. The Halden Reactor Project, in cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, organised an International Summer School on ''Design and Evaluation of Human-System Interfaces (HSIs)'' in Halden, Norway in the period August 25th - 29th, 2003. The Summer School addressed the different steps in design, development and evaluation of HSIs, and the human factors principles, standards and guidelines which should be followed in this process. The lectures comprised both theoretical background, as well as examples of good and bad HSI design, thereby providing practical advice in design and evaluation of operator interfaces and control room solutions to the participants in the Summer School. This CD contains the

  2. Design and Evaluation of Human System Interfaces (HSIs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the safe operation of nuclear power plants and other complex process industries the performance of the control room crews plays an important role. In this respect a well-functioning and well-designed Human-System Interface (HSI) is crucial for safe and efficient operation of the plant. It is therefore essential that the design, development and evaluation of both control rooms and HSI-solutions are conducted in a well-structured way, applying sound human factors principles and guidelines in all phases of the HSI development process. Many nuclear power plants around the world are currently facing major modernisation of their control rooms. In this process computerised, screen-based HSIs replace old conventional operator interfaces. In new control rooms, both in the nuclear field and in other process industries, fully digital, screen-based control rooms are becoming the standard. It is therefore of particular importance to address the design and evaluation of screen-based HSIs in a systematic and consistent way in order to arrive at solutions which take proper advantage of the possibilities for improving operator support through the use of digital, screen-based HSIs, at the same time avoiding pitfalls and problems in the use of this technology. The Halden Reactor Project, in cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, organised an International Summer School on ''Design and Evaluation of Human-System Interfaces (HSIs)'' in Halden, Norway in the period August 25th - 29th, 2003. The Summer School addressed the different steps in design, development and evaluation of HSIs, and the human factors principles, standards and guidelines which should be followed in this process. The lectures comprised both theoretical background, as well as examples of good and bad HSI design, thereby providing practical advice in design and evaluation of operator interfaces and control room solutions to the participants in the Summer School. This CD contains the Proceedings of the

  3. Design and Evaluation of Human System Interfaces (HSIs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the safe operation of nuclear power plants and other complex process industries the performance of the control room crews plays an important role. In this respect a well-functioning and well-designed Human-System Interface (HSI) is crucial for safe and efficient operation of the plant. It is therefore essential that the design, development and evaluation of both control rooms and HSI-solutions are conducted in a well-structured way, applying sound human factors principles and guidelines in all phases of the HSI development process. Many nuclear power plants around the world are currently facing major modernisation of their control rooms. In this process computerised, screen-based HSIs replace old conventional operator interfaces. In new control rooms, both in the nuclear field and in other process industries, fully digital, screen-based control rooms are becoming the standard. It is therefore of particular importance to address the design and evaluation of screen-based HSIs in a systematic and consistent way in order to arrive at solutions which take proper advantage of the possibilities for improving operator support through the use of digital, screen-based HSIs, at the same time avoiding pitfalls and problems in the use of this technology. The Halden Reactor Project, in cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, organised an International Summer School on ''Design and Evaluation of Human-System Interfaces (HSIs)'' in Halden, Norway in the period August 25th - 29th, 2003. The Summer School addressed the different steps in design, development and evaluation of HSIs, and the human factors principles, standards and guidelines which should be followed in this process. The lectures comprised both theoretical background, as well as examples of good and bad HSI design, thereby providing practical advice in design and evaluation of operator interfaces and control room solutions to the participants in the Summer School. This CD contains the Proceedings of the

  4. An Improved AAM Method for Extracting Human Facial Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Active appearance model is a statistically parametrical model, which is widely used to extract human facial features and recognition. However, intensity values used in original AAM cannot provide enough information for image texture, which will lead to a larger error or a failure fitting of AAM. In order to overcome these defects and improve the fitting performance of AAM model, an improved texture representation is proposed in this paper. Firstly, translation invariant wavelet transform is performed on face images and then image structure is represented using the measure which is obtained by fusing the low-frequency coefficients with edge intensity. Experimental results show that the improved algorithm can increase the accuracy of the AAM fitting and express more information for structures of edge and texture.

  5. Metaphors of Human Thinking: A New Tool in User Interface Design and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Erik; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2003-01-01

    human thinking, inspection technique, usability evaluation, heuristic evaluation, quantitative study......human thinking, inspection technique, usability evaluation, heuristic evaluation, quantitative study...

  6. Does the EUA Institutional Evaluation Programme Contribute to Quality Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Diana Amado; Rosa, Maria Joao; Amaral, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to reflect on the relevance of the Institutional Evaluation Programme (IEP) of the European University Association (EUA) to universities' quality improvement. It aims to analyse IEP follow-up reports to determine whether the programme contributes to the development of a quality improvement culture.…

  7. Evaluation of two communication strategies to improve udder health management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Renes, R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, programs to improve udder health are implemented using communication tools and methods that inform and persuade dairy farmers. This study evaluated 2 communication strategies used in a mastitis control program in the Netherlands. To improve farmers’ udder health management, tools such as

  8. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms.  Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System...

  9. Meeting the Pepsi Challenge: Preparing Evaluation Programs for Scholastic Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mona S.

    This document provides guidelines for preparing evaluation programs for scholastic improvement. The philosophy underlying assessment and accountability is discussed, with specific reference to the positive and negative aspects of assessment. The design of a curriculum evaluation model is presented, including goal identification, data gathering,…

  10. Performance in Physiology Evaluation: Possible Improvement by Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrezor, Luís H.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages…

  11. Adapting Job Analysis Methodology to Improve Evaluation Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Susan M.; Curtin, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how job analysis, a method commonly used in personnel research and organizational psychology, provides a systematic method for documenting program staffing and service delivery that can improve evaluators' knowledge about program operations. Job analysis data can be used to increase evaluators' insight into how staffs…

  12. Instructors' Evaluation as an Instrument to Improve Performance and Determine Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laei, Soosan; Abdi, Ali; Karamaerouz, Mohamad Javad; Shirkhani, Nassim

    2014-01-01

    Experts in human resources management have suggested common objectives for evaluating performance of all organizations, including motivation and improvement of staff performance, identification of competence and skills, identification of educational needs and developmental contexts, etc. Achievement to these objectives is -a responsibility of…

  13. Process Evaluation and Continuous Improvement in Community Youth Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer V. Trachtenberg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A method of using process evaluation to provide improvement plans in order to promote community youth programs is described. The core elements of this method include the following: (1 collection and analysis of baseline data, (2 feedback provided to programs describing their strengths and limitations, (3 programs provided with assistance in preparing improvement plans in regard to their baseline data, and (4 follow-up evaluation assessed program changes based on their improvement plans and baseline data. A case study of an inner-city neighborhood youth center is used to demonstrate this method.

  14. Evaluation of three coding schemes designed for improved data communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelsire, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Three coding schemes designed for improved data communication are evaluated. Four block codes are evaluated relative to a quality function, which is a function of both the amount of data rejected and the error rate. The Viterbi maximum likelihood decoding algorithm as a decoding procedure is reviewed. This evaluation is obtained by simulating the system on a digital computer. Short constraint length rate 1/2 quick-look codes are studied, and their performance is compared to general nonsystematic codes.

  15. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such as the underutilisation of available skills, tolerance for individual preferences, and dynamically, and informally refining a role objective while an employee is occupying a certain role. The important professional skills required by individuals to cope with these real life factors are also explored in the skills gaps management context. Moreover, these industries need a profile they refer to as Special Forces, which denotes a high calibre of worker that possesses well-developed professional skills whilst having advanced technical expertise and sufficient experience. This resource profile is required largely due to the poor management of human resource processes in practice and the current reported lack of adequate skills. Furthermore, this study refers to the recent lack of a working definition for these Special Forces leading to the omitted active development of these profiles in industry today, which appears to become a key human performance inhibiting factor.

  16. NOTION, ELEMENTS AND EVALUATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGMENT IN SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Milorad M. Drobac; Milica Radović

    2009-01-01

    Principal object of the author’s research in work is identification of notion, cru- cial elements and evaluation of human resources management in general and apart in sport. From the beginning of usage of term “human resources management”, we use foretoken “strategic” that has especially signified meaning. Strategic approach to the exploration of this problem points to the fact that human resources are from particularly significance for all forms of human organization (firms, associations, in...

  17. Methods useful for evaluation of human sperm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubátová, Alena; Čapková, Jana; Pěknicová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, Issue Supplement s1 (2012), s. 27-27 ISSN 1046-7408. [13th International Symposium for Immunology of reproduction "From the roots to the tops of Reproductive Immunology". 22.06.2012-24.06.2012, Varna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA523/09/1793; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : human sperm * immunofluorescence test * human seminal plasma proteins * flow cytometry Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  18. Human reproduction functions: Evaluation with radiobioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hassan, N.D.

    1983-01-01

    Many studies reveal that the ovary is capable of responding to an adequate gonadotropic stimulus long before menarche. Similarly, the pituitary is capable of producing gonadotropins in response to an adequate hypothalamic signal before menarche. Recent studies in the primate confirm that the hypothalamus signals are temporarily different before menarche as compared to the reproductive years, so that if the luteotropic hormone (LRH) stimulus is pulsed to the pituitary at the required time sequence, the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as ovulation can be achieved even in the immature monkey. HPL is another hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast that is also used to identify pregnancies at a higher risk of fetal demise. It shares structural similarities with the human growth hormone (hGH) and PRL. HPL is diabetogenic. Its effect is mediated through glucose metabolism. Circulating HPL is elevated during multiple gestations. Its circulating levels in fact correlate with the fetoplacental mass. It has a short half-life and the larger the fetoplacental mass, the higher the HPL level. Hyperglycemic states are associated with a decrease in HPL levels, and hypoglycemia is associated with elevated levels of HPL. RIA through the measurement of HPL has helped in the management of the high-risk fetus and its mother. Through RIA other fetoplacental hormones are identifiable and their levels are obtainable. There is a human chorionic ACTH, a human chorionic TSH, and a human chorionic PRL. These can be involved in health and disease

  19. NAPUS 2000 Rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding for improved human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedt Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a competition announcement of the Federal Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF a project dealing with the improvement of the nutritional value of oilseed rape (Brassica napus for food applications and human nutrition was worked out and started in autumn 1999. A number of partners (Figure 2 are carrying out a complex project reaching from the discovery, characterisation, isolation and transfer of genes of interest up to breeding of well performing varieties combined with important agronomic traits. Economic studies and processing trials as well as nutritional investigations of the new qualities are undertaken. B. napus seed quality aspects with respect to seed coat colour, oil composition, lecithin and protein fractions and antioxidants like tocopherols and resveratrol will be improved.

  20. Improvement of human operator vibroprotection system in the utility machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchagin, P. A.; Teterina, I. A.; Rahuba, L. F.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to an urgent problem of improving efficiency of road-building utility machines in terms of improving human operator vibroprotection system by determining acceptable values of the rigidity coefficients and resistance coefficients of operator’s cab suspension system elements and those of operator’s seat. Negative effects of vibration result in labour productivity decrease and occupational diseases. Besides, structure vibrations have a damaging impact on the machine units and mechanisms, which leads to reducing an overall service life of the machine. Results of experimental and theoretical research of operator vibroprotection system in the road-building utility machine are presented. An algorithm for the program to calculate dynamic impacts on the operator in terms of different structural and performance parameters of the machine and considering combination of external pertrubation influences was proposed.

  1. A collaborative brain-computer interface for improving human performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Wang

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG based brain-computer interfaces (BCI have been studied since the 1970s. Currently, the main focus of BCI research lies on the clinical use, which aims to provide a new communication channel to patients with motor disabilities to improve their quality of life. However, the BCI technology can also be used to improve human performance for normal healthy users. Although this application has been proposed for a long time, little progress has been made in real-world practices due to technical limits of EEG. To overcome the bottleneck of low single-user BCI performance, this study proposes a collaborative paradigm to improve overall BCI performance by integrating information from multiple users. To test the feasibility of a collaborative BCI, this study quantitatively compares the classification accuracies of collaborative and single-user BCI applied to the EEG data collected from 20 subjects in a movement-planning experiment. This study also explores three different methods for fusing and analyzing EEG data from multiple subjects: (1 Event-related potentials (ERP averaging, (2 Feature concatenating, and (3 Voting. In a demonstration system using the Voting method, the classification accuracy of predicting movement directions (reaching left vs. reaching right was enhanced substantially from 66% to 80%, 88%, 93%, and 95% as the numbers of subjects increased from 1 to 5, 10, 15, and 20, respectively. Furthermore, the decision of reaching direction could be made around 100-250 ms earlier than the subject's actual motor response by decoding the ERP activities arising mainly from the posterior parietal cortex (PPC, which are related to the processing of visuomotor transmission. Taken together, these results suggest that a collaborative BCI can effectively fuse brain activities of a group of people to improve the overall performance of natural human behavior.

  2. Evaluation in health promotion: thoughts from inside a human research ethics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Judy; Flack, Felicity

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion research, quality improvement and evaluation are all activities that raise ethical issues. In this paper, the Chair and a member of human resear ch ethics committees provide an insiders' point of view on how to demonstrate ethical conduct in health promotion research and quality improvement. Several common issues raised by health promotion research and evaluation are discussed including researcher integrity, conflicts of interest, use of information, consent and privacy.

  3. Integrating empowerment evaluation and quality improvement to achieve healthcare improvement outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandersman, Abraham; Alia, Kassandra Ann; Cook, Brittany; Ramaswamy, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    While the body of evidence-based healthcare interventions grows, the ability of health systems to deliver these interventions effectively and efficiently lags behind. Quality improvement approaches, such as the model for improvement, have demonstrated some success in healthcare but their impact has been lessened by implementation challenges. To help address these challenges, we describe the empowerment evaluation approach that has been developed by programme evaluators and a method for its application (Getting To Outcomes (GTO)). We then describe how GTO can be used to implement healthcare interventions. An illustrative healthcare quality improvement example that compares the model for improvement and the GTO method for reducing hospital admissions through improved diabetes care is described. We conclude with suggestions for integrating GTO and the model for improvement. PMID:26178332

  4. Integrating empowerment evaluation and quality improvement to achieve healthcare improvement outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandersman, Abraham; Alia, Kassandra Ann; Cook, Brittany; Ramaswamy, Rohit

    2015-10-01

    While the body of evidence-based healthcare interventions grows, the ability of health systems to deliver these interventions effectively and efficiently lags behind. Quality improvement approaches, such as the model for improvement, have demonstrated some success in healthcare but their impact has been lessened by implementation challenges. To help address these challenges, we describe the empowerment evaluation approach that has been developed by programme evaluators and a method for its application (Getting To Outcomes (GTO)). We then describe how GTO can be used to implement healthcare interventions. An illustrative healthcare quality improvement example that compares the model for improvement and the GTO method for reducing hospital admissions through improved diabetes care is described. We conclude with suggestions for integrating GTO and the model for improvement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. How social information can improve estimation accuracy in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayles, Bertrand; Kim, Hye-Rin; Escobedo, Ramón; Cezera, Stéphane; Blanchet, Adrien; Kameda, Tatsuya; Sire, Clément; Theraulaz, Guy

    2017-11-21

    In our digital and connected societies, the development of social networks, online shopping, and reputation systems raises the questions of how individuals use social information and how it affects their decisions. We report experiments performed in France and Japan, in which subjects could update their estimates after having received information from other subjects. We measure and model the impact of this social information at individual and collective scales. We observe and justify that, when individuals have little prior knowledge about a quantity, the distribution of the logarithm of their estimates is close to a Cauchy distribution. We find that social influence helps the group improve its properly defined collective accuracy. We quantify the improvement of the group estimation when additional controlled and reliable information is provided, unbeknownst to the subjects. We show that subjects' sensitivity to social influence permits us to define five robust behavioral traits and increases with the difference between personal and group estimates. We then use our data to build and calibrate a model of collective estimation to analyze the impact on the group performance of the quantity and quality of information received by individuals. The model quantitatively reproduces the distributions of estimates and the improvement of collective performance and accuracy observed in our experiments. Finally, our model predicts that providing a moderate amount of incorrect information to individuals can counterbalance the human cognitive bias to systematically underestimate quantities and thereby improve collective performance. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Instructional scaffolding to improve students' skills in evaluating clinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Stefani; Dominguez, Karen D; Troutman, William G; Bond, Rucha; Cone, Catherine

    2011-05-10

    To implement and assess the effectiveness of an activity to teach pharmacy students to critically evaluate clinical literature using instructional scaffolding and a Clinical Trial Evaluation Rubric. The literature evaluation activity centered on a single clinical research article and involved individual, small group, and large group instruction, with carefully structured, evidence-based scaffolds and support materials centered around 3 educational themes: (1) the reader's awareness of text organization, (2) contextual/background information and vocabulary, and (3) questioning, prompting, and self-monitoring (metacognition). Students initially read the article, scored it using the rubric, and wrote an evaluation. Students then worked individually using a worksheet to identify and define 4 to 5 vocabulary/concept knowledge gaps. They then worked in small groups and as a class to further improve their skills. Finally, they assessed the same article using the rubric and writing a second evaluation. Students' rubric scores for the article decreased significantly from a mean pre-activity score of 76.7% to a post-activity score of 61.7%, indicating that their skills in identifying weaknesses in the article's study design had improved. Use of instructional scaffolding in the form of vocabulary supports and the Clinical Trial Evaluation Rubric improved students' ability to critically evaluate a clinical study compared to lecture-based coursework alone.

  7. Ultrasonic evaluation of local human skin anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokar, Daniel; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Hradilová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : anisotropy * ultrasonic testing * human skin in-vivo * fabric-fiber composite * signal processing Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/324_Tokar.pdf

  8. Applying human rights to improve access to reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Cook, Rebecca J

    2012-10-01

    Universal access to reproductive health is a target of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5B, and along with MDG 5A to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters, progress is currently too slow for most countries to achieve these targets by 2015. Critical to success are increased and sustainable numbers of skilled healthcare workers and financing of essential medicines by governments, who have made political commitments in United Nations forums to renew their efforts to reduce maternal mortality. National essential medicine lists are not reflective of medicines available free or at cost in facilities or in the community. The WHO Essential Medicines List indicates medicines required for maternal and newborn health including the full range of contraceptives and emergency contraception, but there is no consistent monitoring of implementation of national lists through procurement and supply even for basic essential drugs. Health advocates are using human rights mechanisms to ensure governments honor their legal commitments to ensure access to services essential for reproductive health. Maternal mortality is recognized as a human rights violation by the United Nations and constitutional and human rights are being used, and could be used more effectively, to improve maternity services and to ensure access to drugs essential for reproductive health. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Human factors and crisis resource management: improving patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, M; Oberfrank, S

    2013-10-01

    A continuing high number of patients suffer harm from medical treatment. In 60-70% of the cases the sources of harm can be attributed to the field of human factors (HFs) and teamwork; nevertheless, those topics are still neither part of medical education nor of basic and advanced training even though it has been known for many years and it has meanwhile also been demonstrated for surgical specialties that training in human factors and teamwork considerably reduces surgical mortality.Besides the medical field, the concept of crisis resource management (CRM) has already proven its worth in many other industries by improving teamwork and reducing errors in the domain of human factors. One of the best ways to learn about CRM and HFs is realistic simulation team training with well-trained instructors in CRM and HF. The educational concept of the HOTT (hand over team training) courses for trauma room training offered by the DGU integrates these elements based on the current state of science. It is time to establish such training for all medical teams in emergency medicine and operative care. Accompanying safety measures, such as the development of a positive culture of safety in every department and the use of effective critical incident reporting systems (CIRs) should be pursued.

  10. Does external evaluation of laboratories improve patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory accreditation and External Quality Assessment (also called proficiency testing) are mainstays of laboratory quality assessment and performance. Both practices are associated with examples of improved laboratory performance. The relationship between laboratory performance and improved patient safety is more difficult to assess because of the many variables that are involved with patient outcome. Despite this difficulty, the argument to continue external evaluation of laboratories is too compelling to consider the alternative.

  11. Evaluation of Human Performance Issues for Fire Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, Dennis C.; Cooper, Susan E.; Forester, John A.; Kolaczkowski, Alan M.; Ramey-Smith, Ann; Thompson, Catherine M.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Wreathall, John

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current status of the treatment of human reliability in fire risk analyses for nuclear power plants and identifies areas that need to be addressed. A new approach is suggested to improve the modeling

  12. Concept Evaluation Using the PDSA Cycle for Continuous Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverentz, Delois Meyer; Kumm, Sharon

    As concept-based nursing education gains popularity, there is little literature on how to sustain quality after initiation of the curriculum. Critical appraisal of concepts in a university program revealed varying definitions, attributes, and exemplars resulting in student confusion. The Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycle for continuous quality improvement was used for concept evaluation. The goals of the evaluation project were: 1) to develop common definition and attributes for concepts and 2) to develop horizontal and vertical leveling of exemplars to build on prior student learning. The continuous quality improvement process can be used to prevent "concept creep" and ensure internal consistency of concept definitions, attributes, and exemplars.

  13. Using Technology to Improve the Objectivity of Criminal Responsibility Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacco, Michael J; Gottfried, Emily D; Batastini, Ashley B

    2018-03-01

    Criminal responsibility (or insanity) evaluations require forensic clinicians to reconstruct a defendant's decision-making abilities, behavioral control, and emotional state at the time of the criminal act. Forensic evaluators are ultimately tasked to evaluate whether an individual had the capacity to understand right from wrong, and in some jurisdictions, determine whether the defendant lacked substantial capacity to conform his behavior to the requirements of the law as a result of a threshold condition (e.g., mental illness). Insanity evaluations are inherently complex, because they require the clinician to determine someone's mental state at some point in the past (weeks, months, or even years). Recent research on insanity evaluations underscores significant problems with the reliability and validity of these evaluations. However, technological advances including social media (e.g., Facebook and Twitter), mandating that law enforcement videotape interrogations, and the use of body and dashboard cameras can aid clinicians in improving the precision and quality of insanity evaluations. This article discusses practical guidelines and ethics-related concerns regarding the use of technology to improve the objectivity of criminal responsibility evaluations. © 2018 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  14. Morphological evaluation of normal human corneal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Niels; Heegaard, Steffen; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    of corneas from 100 consecutively selected paraffin-embedded eyes were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS). All specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. The eyes were enucleated from patients with choroidal melanoma. Corneas were considered to be normal. RESULTS: Ninety of 100...

  15. Human Genome Epidemiology : A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Boccia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Human health is determined by the interplay of genetic factors and the environment. In this context the recent advances in human genomics are expected to play a central role in medicine and public health by providing genetic information for disease prediction and prevention.

    After the completion of the human genome sequencing, a fundamental step will be represented by the translation of these discoveries into meaningful actions to improve health and prevent diseases, and the field of epidemiology plays a central role in this effort. These are some of the issues addressed by Human Genome Epidemiology –A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease, a volume edited by Prof. M. Khoury, Prof. J. Little, Prof.W. Burke and published by Oxford university Press 2004.

    This book describes the important role that epidemiological methods play in the continuum from gene discovery to the development and application of genetic tests. The Authors calls this continuum human genome epidemiology (HuGE to denote an evolving field of inquiry that uses systematic applications of epidemiological methods to assess the impact of human genetic variation on health and disease.

    The book is divided into four sections and it is structured to allow readers to proceed systematically from the fundamentals of genome technology and discovery, to the epidemiological approaches, to gene characterisation, to the evaluation of genetic tests and their use in health services and public health.

  16. Development of human factors evaluation techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I.S.; Lee, Y.H.; Lee, J.W.; Sim, B.S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes development of an operator task simulation analyzer and human factors evaluation techniques performed recently at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The first is the SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) for the assessment of task performance by simulating control room operation. The latter has two objectives: to establish a human factors experiment facility, the Integrated Test Facility (ITF), and to establish techniques for human factors experiments. (author)

  17. Evaluation of ebselen supplementation on cryopreservation medium in human semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari Naeini, Zohreh; Hassani Bafrani, Hassan; Nikzad, Hossein

    2014-04-01

    An effect of cryopreservation on human sperm is sublethal cryodamage, in which cell viability post-thaw is lost more rapidly at later times than in fresh cells. This study examined whether the addition of an antioxidant to cryopreservation medium could improve the post-thaw parameters and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality of cryopreserved human spermatozoa from men with normal semen parameters. Semen samples (n=35) were collected by masturbation and assessed following WHO standards. Individual samples were classified as two portions. One portion (n=10) was for elucidate the concentration of ebselen.Then the samples(n=25) were divided in to 5groups.The first aliquot remained fresh.The second aliquots was mixed with cryopreservation medium.The third aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing solvent of ebselen.The forth and fifth aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing 1.25 and 2.5 µm of ebselen.Samples were frozen and thawed samples were assessed for sperm parameters.Three-way ANOVA Multivariate measures were used to assess. According to this assesment the differences are observed in existent groups in post-thaw count, motility index, vitality staining, and morphology and DNA fragmentation. After freezing the media containing of ebselen, DNA fragmentation is significantly different in comparison with control group. ebselen with 1.25 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.047). Similarly ebselen with 2.5 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.038). But other parameters were not altered. These results suggest that the addition of ebselen to cryopreservation medium doesnot improve post-thaw parameters and DNA fragmentation of sperm.

  18. Improving occupational health care for construction workers: a process evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Julitta S.; van der Molen, Henk F.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the process of a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) in improving occupational health care for construction workers. From January to July 2012 were 899 bricklayers and supervisors invited for the job-specific WHS at three locations of one occupational health service

  19. Student Evaluations of Teaching: Improving Teaching Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammonds, Frank; Mariano, Gina J.; Ammons, Gracie; Chambers, Sheridan

    2017-01-01

    Student evaluations of teaching (SET) are widely used in both North America and the UK as a means of documenting and improving teaching quality. This article discusses current research on SET administration and interpretation in both regions. Sections of the article are dedicated to various problems associated with SETs and how these may be…

  20. A Human Capabilities Framework for Evaluating Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a human capabilities approach for evaluating student learning and the social and pedagogical arrangements that support equality in capabilities for all students. It outlines the focus on valuable beings and doings in the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen, and Martha Nussbaum's capabilities focus on human flourishing.…

  1. Evaluating methods to improve safeguards training courses of ISCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Yukiko; Nakamura, Yo; Kawata, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Although questionnaires were used to receive feedbacks from participants at the end of each training course, Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) did not establish a structured evaluation method. To this end, ISCN has started to study on methods to accurately evaluate the courses since April and started to introduce the evaluation method on trial, according to the Donald Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model, so as to better develop and conduct more effective courses. This paper will focus on how ISCN has modified the Kirkpatrick's Four-level to adapt to its safeguards training courses. This will then be followed by two particular cases of how the evaluation method functioned for the Additional Protocol training courses held in Malaysia in 2014, and the feedbacks received to improve future training courses. (author)

  2. Modelling the Role of Human Resource Management in Continuous Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Hyland, Paul; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2006-01-01

    Although it is widely acknowledged that both Human Resource Management (HRM) and Continuous Improvement have the potential to positively influencing organizational performance, very little attention has been given to how certain HRM practices may support CI, and consequently, a company...... developed by de Leede and Looise (2005) serve as the framework for examining how specific bundles of HRM practices utilized during different phases of the CI implementation process may contribute to sustained organizational performance and enhanced operational performance. The primary contribution...... of the paper is theoretical in nature, as the model developed provides a greater understanding of how HRM can contribute to CI; however, the model also has practical value in that it suggests important relationships between various HRM practices and the behaviors necessary for successful CI. The paper...

  3. Improving Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation by incorporating nondominated solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kian Sheng; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Buyamin, Salinda; Ahmad, Anita; Naim, Faradila; Ghazali, Kamarul Hawari; Mokhtar, Norrima

    2013-01-01

    The Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is widely used to solve multiobjective optimisation problems. This algorithm optimises one objective using a swarm of particles where their movements are guided by the best solution found by another swarm. However, the best solution of a swarm is only updated when a newly generated solution has better fitness than the best solution at the objective function optimised by that swarm, yielding poor solutions for the multiobjective optimisation problems. Thus, an improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is introduced by incorporating the nondominated solutions as the guidance for a swarm rather than using the best solution from another swarm. In this paper, the performance of improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is investigated using performance measures such as the number of nondominated solutions found, the generational distance, the spread, and the hypervolume. The results suggest that the improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm has impressive performance compared with the conventional Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm.

  4. Improving Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation by Incorporating Nondominated Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Sheng Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is widely used to solve multiobjective optimisation problems. This algorithm optimises one objective using a swarm of particles where their movements are guided by the best solution found by another swarm. However, the best solution of a swarm is only updated when a newly generated solution has better fitness than the best solution at the objective function optimised by that swarm, yielding poor solutions for the multiobjective optimisation problems. Thus, an improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is introduced by incorporating the nondominated solutions as the guidance for a swarm rather than using the best solution from another swarm. In this paper, the performance of improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is investigated using performance measures such as the number of nondominated solutions found, the generational distance, the spread, and the hypervolume. The results suggest that the improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm has impressive performance compared with the conventional Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm.

  5. Haptic Human-Human Interaction Through a Compliant Connection Does Not Improve Motor Learning in a Force Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Niek; Keemink, Arvid; van Asseldonk, Edwin; van der Kooij, Herman; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Tan, Hong Z.; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Frisoli, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Humans have a natural ability to haptically interact with other humans, for instance during physically assisting a child to learn how to ride a bicycle. A recent study has shown that haptic human-human interaction can improve individual motor performance and motor learning rate while learning to

  6. Evaluation of an institutional project to improve venous thromboembolism prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Christina A; Yang, Anthony D; Ju, Mila; Culver, Eckford; Seifert, Kathryn; Kreutzer, Lindsey; Halverson, Terri; O'Leary, Kevin J; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2016-12-01

    Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) was historically a poor performer on the venous thromboembolism (VTE) outcome measure. As this measure has been shown to be flawed by surveillance bias, NMH embraced process-of-care measures to ensure appropriate VTE prophylaxis to assess healthcare-associated VTE prevention efforts. To evaluate the impact of an institution-wide project aimed at improving hospital performance on VTE prophylaxis measures. A retrospective observational study. NMH, an 885-bed academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois PATIENTS: Inpatients admitted to NMH from January 1, 2013 to May 1, 2013 and from October 1, 2014 to April 1, 2015 were eligible for evaluation. Using the define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) process-improvement methodology, a multidisciplinary team implemented and iteratively improved 15 data-driven interventions in 4 broad areas: (1) electronic medical record (EMR) alerts, (2) education initiatives, (3) new EMR order sets, and (4) other EMR changes. The Joint Commission's 6 core measures and the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) SCIP-VTE-2 measure. Based on 3103 observations (1679 from January 1, 2013 to May 1, 2013, and 1424 from October 1, 2014 to April 1, 2015), performance on the core measures improved. Performance on measure 1 (chemoprophylaxis) improved from 82.5% to 90.2% on medicine services, and from 94.4% to 97.6% on surgical services. The largest improvements were seen in measure 4 (platelet monitoring), with a performance increase from 76.7% adherence to 100%, and measure 5 (warfarin discharge instructions), with a performance increase from 27.4% to 88.8%. A systematic hospital-wide DMAIC project improved VTE prophylaxis measure performance. Sustained performance has been observed, and novel control mechanisms for continued performance surveillance have been embedded in the hospital system. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:S29-S37. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital

  7. Improving flight condition situational awareness through Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In aviation, there is currently a lack of accurate and timely situational information, specifically weather data, which is essential when dealing with the unpredictable complexities that can arise while flying. For example, weather conditions that require immediate evasive action by the flight crew, such as isolated heavy rain, micro bursts, and atmospheric turbulence, require that the flight crew receive near real-time and precise information about the type, position, and intensity of those conditions. Human factors issues arise in considering how to display the various sources of weather information to the users of that information and how to integrate this display into the existing environment. In designing weather information display systems, it is necessary to meet the demands of different users, which requires an examination of the way in which the users process and use weather information. Using Human Centered Design methodologies and concepts will result in a safer, more efficient and more intuitive solution. Specific goals of this approach include 1) Enabling better fuel planning; 2) Allowing better divert strategies; 3) Ensuring pilots, navigators, dispatchers and mission planners are referencing weather from the same sources; 4) Improving aircrew awareness of aviation hazards such as turbulence, icing, hail and convective activity; 5) Addressing inconsistent availability of hazard forecasts outside the United States Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ); and 6) Promoting goal driven approaches versus event driven (prediction).

  8. Improvement of test methodology for evaluating diesel fuel stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutman, M.; Tartakovsky, L.; Kirzhner, Y.; Zvirin, Y. [Internal Combustion Engines Lab., Haifa (Israel); Luria, D. [Fuel Authority, Tel Aviv (Israel); Weiss, A.; Shuftan, M. [Israel Defence Forces, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    1995-05-01

    The storage stability of diesel fuel has been extensively investigated for many years under laboratory conditions. Although continuous efforts have been made to improve testing techniques, there does not yet exist a generally accepted correlation between laboratory methods (such as chemical analysis of the fuel) and actual diesel engine tests. A testing method was developed by the Technion Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory (TICEL), in order to address this problem. The test procedure was designed to simulate diesel engine operation under field conditions. It is based on running a laboratory-modified single cylinder diesel engine for 50 h under cycling operating conditions. The overall rating of each test is based on individual evaluation of the deposits and residue formation in the fuel filter, nozzle body and needle, piston head, piston rings, exhaust valve, and combustion chamber (six parameters). Two methods for analyzing the test results were used: objective, based on measured data, and subjective, based on visual evaluation results of these deposits by a group of experts. Only the residual level in the fuel filter was evaluated quantitatively by measured results. In order to achieve higher accuracy of the method, the test procedure was improved by introducing the measured results of nozzle fouling as an additional objective evaluating (seventh) parameter. This factor is evaluated on the basis of the change in the air flow rate through the nozzle before and after the complete engine test. Other improvements in the method include the use of the nozzle assembly photograph in the test evaluation, and representation of all seven parameters on a continuous scale instead of the discrete scale used anteriorly, in order to achieve higher accuracy. This paper also contains the results obtained by application of this improved fuel stability test for a diesel fuel stored for a five-year period.

  9. Human factors interventions to reduce human errors and improve productivity in maintenance tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, Hachiro; Yasutake, J.Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes work in progress to develop interventions to reduce human errors and increase maintenance productivity in nuclear power plants. The effort is part of a two-phased Human Factors research program being conducted jointly by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) in Japan and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the United States. The overall objective of this joint research program is to identify critical maintenance tasks and to develop, implement and evaluate interventions which have high potential for reducing human errors or increasing maintenance productivity. As a result of the Phase 1 effort, ten critical maintenance tasks were identified. For these tasks, over 25 candidate interventions were identified for potential development. After careful analysis, seven interventions were selected for development during Phase 2. This paper describes the methodology used to analyze and identify the most critical tasks, the process of identifying and developing selected interventions and some of the initial results. (author)

  10. Evaluation of a Quality Improvement Resource for Public Health Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, Deborah S; Marcial, Laura H; Brown, Stephen; Throop, Cynthia; Pina, Jamie

    Quality improvement is a critical mechanism to manage public health agency performance and to strengthen accountability for public funds. The objective of this study was to evaluate a relatively new quality improvement resource, the Public Health Quality Improvement Exchange (PHQIX), a free online communication platform dedicated to making public health quality improvement information accessible to practitioners. We conducted an internet-based survey of registered PHQIX users (n = 536 respondents) in 2013 and key informant interviews with PHQIX frequent users (n = 21) in 2014, in the United States. We assessed use of the PHQIX website, user engagement and satisfaction, communication and knowledge exchange, use of information, and impact on quality improvement capacity and accreditation readiness. Of 462 respondents, 369 (79.9%) browsed quality improvement initiatives, making it the most commonly used site feature, and respondents described PHQIX as a near-unique source for real-world quality improvement examples. Respondents were satisfied with the quality and breadth of topics and relevance to their settings (average satisfaction scores, 3.9-4.1 [where 5 was the most satisfied]). Of 407 respondents, 237 (58.2%) said that they had put into practice information learned on PHQIX, and 209 of 405 (51.6%) said that PHQIX had helped to improve quality improvement capacity. Fewer than half of respondents used the commenting function, the Community Forum, and the Ask an Expert feature. Findings suggest that PHQIX, particularly descriptions of the quality improvement initiatives, is a valued resource for public health practitioners. Users reported sharing information with colleagues and applying what they learned to their own work. These findings may relate to other efforts to disseminate quality improvement knowledge.

  11. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte M G; Ramsey, Scott D

    2014-08-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to increase the return on investment as well as patient and societal impact. This paper describes examples of 'early cycle economic evaluations' as applied to diagnostic technologies and highlights challenges in its real-time application. It shows that especially in the field of diagnostics, with rapid technological developments and a changing regulatory climate, early cycle economic evaluation can have a guiding role to improve the efficiency of the diagnostics innovation process. In the next five years the attention will move beyond the methodological and analytic challenges of early cycle economic evaluation towards the challenge of effectively applying it to improve diagnostic research and development and patient value. Future work in this area should therefore be 'strong on principles and soft on metrics', that is, the metrics that resonate most clearly with the various decision makers in this field.

  12. Evaluation of human error estimation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, L.N.; Blackman, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    The dominant risk for severe accident occurrence in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is human error. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored an evaluation of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) techniques for estimation of human error in NPPs. Twenty HRA techniques identified by a literature search were evaluated with criteria sets designed for that purpose and categorized. Data were collected at a commercial NPP with operators responding in walkthroughs of four severe accident scenarios and full scope simulator runs. Results suggest a need for refinement and validation of the techniques. 19 refs

  13. Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.

    1981-03-01

    The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation

  14. Motivation for Evaluation: A roadmap for Improving Program Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J. J.; Bohon, W.; Bravo, T. K.; Dorr, P. M.; Hubenthal, M.; Johnson, J. A.; Sumy, D. F.; Welti, R.; Davis, H. B.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past year, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program has undertaken a new effort to increase the rigor with which it evaluates its programs and products. More specifically we sought to make evaluation an integral part of our EPO staff's work, enable staff to demonstrate why we do the activities we do, enhance the impact or our products and programs, and empower staff to be able to make evidence-based claims. The challenges we faced included a modest budget, finding an applicable approach to both new and legacy programs ranging from formal and informal education to public outreach, and implementing the process without overwhelming staff. The Collaborative Impact Analysis Method (IAM; Davis and Scalice, 2015) was selected as it allowed us to combine the EPO staff's knowledge of programs, audiences and content with the expertise of an outside evaluation expert, through consultations and a qualitative rubric assessing the initial state of each product/program's evaluation. Staff then developed action plans to make incremental improvements to the evaluation of programs over time. We have found that this approach promotes the development of staff knowledge and skills regarding evaluation, provides a common language among staff, increases enthusiasm to collect and share data, encourages discussions of evaluative approaches when planning new activities, and improves each program's ability to capture the intended and unintended effects on the behaviors, attitudes, skills, interests, and/or knowledge of users/participants. We will share the initial IAM Scores for products and programs in the EPO portfolio, along with examples of the action plans for several key products and programs, and the impact that implementing those actions plans has had on our evaluations. Davis, H. & Scalice, D. (2015). Evaluate the Impact of your Education and Outreach Program Using the Quantitative Collaborative Impact Analysis

  15. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  16. Effectively Managing Nuclear Risk Through Human Performance Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, Richard; Lake, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. commercial nuclear industry has just completed an outstanding decade of plant performance. Safety levels and electric production are at unprecedented high levels and continue to exceed even high industry goals. Nuclear energy continues to keep the highest priority on performance improvement programs and highly trained and qualified people that maintain its record setting safety and reliability of operations. While the industry has maintained a high level of performance, the advent of deregulation and the consolidation of nuclear power plant ownership, as well as the current climate for concern about both rising energy costs and the availability of power, have raised the standard for nuclear energy's level of competitiveness in today's market place. The resulting challenge is how to more effectively manage risk and to improve performance even further in a generally high-performing industry. One of the most effective ways to develop this culture is to apply the principles of Hum an Performance Technology, or HPT. HPT is a relatively new field. Its principles are derived from the research and practice of behavioral and cognitive psychologists, instructional technologists, training designers, organizational developers, and various human resource specialists. Using the principles of HPT can help the nuclear industry successfully meet ever-changing environmental and business demands

  17. A tool for safety evaluations of road improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Harri; Rajamäki, Riikka; Luoma, Juha

    2013-11-01

    Road safety impact assessments are requested in general, and the directive on road infrastructure safety management makes them compulsory for Member States of the European Union. However, there is no widely used, science-based safety evaluation tool available. We demonstrate a safety evaluation tool called TARVA. It uses EB safety predictions as the basis for selecting locations for implementing road-safety improvements and provides estimates of safety benefits of selected improvements. Comparing different road accident prediction methods, we demonstrate that the most accurate estimates are produced by EB models, followed by simple accident prediction models, the same average number of accidents for every entity and accident record only. Consequently, advanced model-based estimates should be used. Furthermore, we demonstrate regional comparisons that benefit substantially from such tools. Comparisons between districts have revealed significant differences. However, comparisons like these produce useful improvement ideas only after taking into account the differences in road characteristics between areas. Estimates on crash modification factors can be transferred from other countries but their benefit is greatly limited if the number of target accidents is not properly predicted. Our experience suggests that making predictions and evaluations using the same principle and tools will remarkably improve the quality and comparability of safety estimations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance in physiology evaluation: possible improvement by active learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrezor, Luís H

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages interaction with their peers, and stimulates thinking about physiological mechanisms. This study examined the performance of medical students on physiology over four semesters with and without active engagement methodologies. Four activities were used: a puzzle, a board game, a debate, and a video. The results show that engaging in activities with active methodologies before a physiology cognitive monitoring test significantly improved student performance compared with not performing the activities. We integrate the use of these methodologies with classic lectures, and this integration appears to improve the teaching/learning process in the discipline of physiology and improves the integration of physiology with cardiology and neurology. In addition, students enjoy the activities and perform better on their evaluations when they use them. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  19. Human Factors evaluation of LCS 254 and 255

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffe, L.; Held, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    This report includes the results of the Human Factors evaluation of the local control stations (LCS) 254 and 255 performed by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Human Factors. Recommendations are included in order that the panel designs will be upgraded to comply with human engineering design guidelines. Figures 1 and 2 are included as examples of recommended changes. Also, consideration was given to including the proposed engineering changes which are currently on-going for LCS 255. Appendix A identifies the human engineering requirements from NUREG-0700 which were used in the evaluation process, and the areas of the design which do not comply with the guidelines. Those areas of the panel design which fail to comply with the human engineering guidelines are label location, label content, location aids, panel layout, and control display integration. Each of these design deficiencies and proposed corrections are described in this report

  20. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  1. Evaluating a questionnaire to measure improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Ann-Christine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality improvement initiatives have expanded recently within the healthcare sector. Studies have shown that less than 40% of these initiatives are successful, indicating the need for an instrument that can measure the progress and results of quality improvement initiatives and answer questions about how quality initiatives are conducted. The aim of the present study was to develop and test an instrument to measure improvement process and outcome in Swedish healthcare. Methods A questionnaire, founded on the Minnesota Innovation Survey (MIS, was developed in several steps. Items were merged and answer alternatives were revised. Employees participating in a county council improvement program received the web-based questionnaire. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The questionnaire psychometric properties were investigated and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Results The Swedish Improvement Measurement Questionnaire consists of 27 items. The Improvement Effectiveness Outcome dimension consists of three items and has a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.67. The Internal Improvement Processes dimension consists of eight sub-dimensions with a total of 24 items. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the complete dimension was 0.72. Three significant item correlations were found. A large involvement in the improvement initiative was shown and the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their work. Conclusions The psychometric property tests suggest initial support for the questionnaire to study and evaluate quality improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare settings. The overall satisfaction with the quality improvement initiative correlates positively to the awareness of individual responsibilities.

  2. A portfolio evaluation framework for air transportation improvement projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Hyeoncheol

    This thesis explores the application of portfolio theory to the Air Transportation System (ATS) improvement. The ATS relies on complexly related resources and different stakeholder groups. Moreover, demand for air travel is significantly increasing relative to capacity of air transportation. In this environment, improving the ATS is challenging. Many projects, which are defined as technologies or initiatives, for improvement have been proposed and some have been demonstrated in practice. However, there is no clear understanding of how well these projects work in different conditions nor of how they interact with each other or with existing systems. These limitations make it difficult to develop good project combinations, or portfolios that maximize improvement. To help address this gap, a framework for identifying good portfolios is proposed. The framework can be applied to individual projects or portfolios of projects. Projects or portfolios are evaluated using four different groups of factors (effectiveness, time-to-implement, scope of applicability, and stakeholder impacts). Portfolios are also evaluated in terms of interaction-determining factors (prerequisites, co-requisites, limiting factors, and amplifying factors) because, while a given project might work well in isolation, interdependencies between projects or with existing systems could result in lower overall performance in combination. Ways to communicate a portfolio to decision makers are also introduced. The framework is unique because (1) it allows using a variety of available data, and (2) it covers diverse benefit metrics. For demonstrating the framework, an application to ground delay management projects serves as a case study. The portfolio evaluation approach introduced in this thesis can aid decision makers and researchers at universities and aviation agencies such as Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD), in

  3. Evaluation and Improvement of Lighting Efficiency in Working Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castillo-Martinez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lighting is an essential element for modern life, promoting a sense of wellbeing for users. However, bad illumination may produce health problems such as headaches and fatigue, among other vision problems. For that reason, this paper proposes the development of a smartphone-based application to help in lighting evaluation to guarantee the compliance of illumination regulations and to help increase illuminance efficiency, reducing its energy consumption. To perform this evaluation, the smartphone can be used as a lighting measurement tool, evaluating those measurements through an intelligent agent based in rules capable of guiding the decision-making process. As a result, this tool allows the evaluation of the real working environment to guarantee lighting requirements, helping in the prevention of health problems derived from bad illumination and improving the lighting efficiency at the same time.

  4. NOTION, ELEMENTS AND EVALUATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGMENT IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad M. Drobac

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Principal object of the author’s research in work is identification of notion, cru- cial elements and evaluation of human resources management in general and apart in sport. From the beginning of usage of term “human resources management”, we use foretoken “strategic” that has especially signified meaning. Strategic approach to the exploration of this problem points to the fact that human resources are from particularly significance for all forms of human organization (firms, associations, institutions etc., regardless are we talking about economy, social activity, politics, science, sport or any other area of human activity. Experience shows that, in our society, we mainly considered human resources management from the aspect of formulation and implementation of strategy in any shape and segment of altogether human activity, but we pay a little interest to the control, or in other words evaluation of human resources performance. What is attained in world rela- tions, on the human resources management plan, admonish and binds that we must ac- cept employees in our environment (it implies sport as an equal partner in management

  5. Development of an evaluation technique for human-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Koo, Sang Hui; Ahn, Won Yeong; Ryu, Yeong Shin

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold : firstly to establish an evaluation technique for HMI(Human Machine Interface) in NPPs(Nuclear Power Plants) and secondly to develop an architecture of a support system which can be used for the evaluation of HMI. In order to establish an evaluation technique, this study conducted literature review on basic theories of cognitive science studies and summarized the cognitive characteristics of humans. This study also surveyed evaluation techniques of HMI in general, and reviewed studies on the evaluation of HMI in NPPs. On the basis of this survey, the study established a procedure for the evaluation of HMI in NPPs in Korea and laid a foundation for empirical verification

  6. Development of an evaluation technique for human-machine interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Koo, Sang Hui; Ahn, Won Yeong; Ryu, Yeong Shin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    The purpose of this study is two-fold : firstly to establish an evaluation technique for HMI(Human Machine Interface) in NPPs(Nuclear Power Plants) and secondly to develop an architecture of a support system which can be used for the evaluation of HMI. In order to establish an evaluation technique, this study conducted literature review on basic theories of cognitive science studies and summarized the cognitive characteristics of humans. This study also surveyed evaluation techniques of HMI in general, and reviewed studies on the evaluation of HMI in NPPs. On the basis of this survey, the study established a procedure for the evaluation of HMI in NPPs in Korea and laid a foundation for empirical verification.

  7. IMPROVING CONTROL ROOM DESIGN AND OPERATIONS BASED ON HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSES OR HOW MUCH HUMAN FACTORS UPGRADE IS ENOUGH ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGGINS,J.C.; OHARA,J.M.; ALMEIDA,P.

    2002-09-19

    THE JOSE CABRERA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS A ONE LOOP WESTINGHOUSE PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR. IN THE CONTROL ROOM, THE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS USED BY OPERATORS FOR THE EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES ARE DISTRIBUTED ON FRONT AND BACK PANELS. THIS CONFIGURATION CONTRIBUTED TO RISK IN THE PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT WHERE IMPORTANT OPERATOR ACTIONS ARE REQUIRED. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF THE DESIGN ON CREW PERFORMANCE AND PLANT SAFETY AND TO DEVELOP DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS.FIVE POTENTIAL EFFECTS WERE IDENTIFIED. THEN NUREG-0711 [1], PROGRAMMATIC, HUMAN FACTORS, ANALYSES WERE CONDUCTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY EVALUATE THE CR-LA YOUT TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS. THESE ANALYSES INCLUDED OPERATING EXPERIENCE REVIEW, PSA REVIEW, TASK ANALYSES, AND WALKTHROUGH SIMULATIONS. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THESE ANALYSES, A VARIETY OF CONTROL ROOM MODIFICATIONS WERE IDENTIFIED. FROM THE ALTERNATIVES, A SELECTION WAS MADE THAT PROVIDED A REASONABLEBALANCE BE TWEEN PERFORMANCE, RISK AND ECONOMICS, AND MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE TO THE PLANT.

  8. System evaluation of improved thermal stability jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binns, K.E.; Dieterle, G.L.; Williams, T. [Univ. of Dayton Research Institute, OH (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A single-pass, single-tube heat exchanger device called the Phoenix rig and a single-pass, dual-heat exchanger system called the Extended Duration Thermal Stability Test system are specific devices/systems developed for evaluating jet fuel thermal stability. They have been used extensively in the evaluation of various jet fuels and thermal stability additives. The test results have indicated that additives can substantially improve the thermal stability of conventional jet fuels. Relationships of oxygen consumption, residence time, bulk, and wetted wall temperatures on coking deposits that form in the heated tubes have also been investigated.

  9. Evaluation of multimodal feedback effects on improving rowing competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korman Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the selection and preliminary evaluation of different types of modal and information feedback in virtual environment to facilitate acquisition and transfer of a complex motor-cognitive skill of rowing. Specifically, we addressed the effectiveness of immediate information feedback provided visually as compared to sensory haptic feedback on the improvement in hands kinematics and changes in cognitive load during the course of learning the basic rowing technique. Several pilot experiments described in this report lead to the evaluation and optimization of the training protocol, to enhance facilitatory effects of adding visual and haptic feedback during training.

  10. Criteria for the Evaluation of Quality Improvement Programs and the Use of Quality Improvement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document provides a set of criteria to be used by psychologists in evaluating quality improvement programs (QIPs) that have been promulgated by health care organizations, government agencies, professional associations, or other entities. These criteria also address the privacy and confidentiality issues evoked by the intended use of patient…

  11. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon

    1997-07-01

    New human factors issues, such as evaluation of information navigation, the consideration of operator characteristics, and operator performance assessment, related to the HMI design based on VDUs are being risen. Thus, in order to solve these human factors issues, this project aims to establish the experimental technologies including the techniques for experimental design, experimental measurement, data collection and analysis, and to develop ITF (Integrated Test Facility) suitable for the experiment of HMI design evaluation. For the establish of the experimental data analysis and evaluation methodologies, we developed as the following: (1) a paradigm for human factors experimentation including experimental designs, procedures, and data analysis. (2) the methods for the assessment of operator`s mental workload (3) DAEXESS (data analysis and experiment evaluation supporting system). Also, we have established a experiment execution technologies through the preliminary experiments, such as the suitability evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of computerized operation procedure and an experiment of advanced alarm system (ADIOS). Finally, we developed the ITF including human machine simulator, telemetry system, an eye tracking system, an audio/video data measurement system, and three dimensional micro behaviour analysis system. (author). 81 refs., 68 tabs., 73 figs.

  12. Evaluation technology of human behavior cognition; Ningen kodo ninchi hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For human engineering and improvement of the living environment, the evaluation technology of human behavior cognition was studied. For the future reformation and creation of economic structure, the following are required: establishment of safe and affluent communities, further improvement of the safety and harmonious balance of people, lives and society, and R & D close to people and social needs. Introduction of Product Liability law and a fail-safe concept are examples of such efforts. However, since many accidents are found in the human society, the relation between human errors and human characteristics should be studied in detail. The cognitive science of human behavior is an objective evaluation technology from the viewpoint of human being, object, environment and society. Based on these social and technological background, the feasibility of the evaluation technology is studied, and the future trend and skeleton of this project are clarified. The domestic and foreign trends of technologies concerned are thus surveyed, and the important points, features, skeleton and ripple effect of the technology are summarized. 500 refs., 70 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of leukocyte lineage derived from human hematopoietic cells in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Tsujimura, Noriyuki; Otsuka, Kensuke; Yoshino, Tomoko; Mori, Tetsushi; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Nakasono, Satoshi

    2012-04-01

    Recently, humanized animals whereby a part of the animal is biologically engineered using human genes or cells have been utilized to overcome interspecific differences. Herein, we analyzed the detail of the differentiation states of various human leukocyte subpopulations in humanized mouse and evaluated comprehensively the similarity of the leukocyte lineage between humanized mice and humans. Humanized mice were established by transplanting human CD34(+) cord blood cells into irradiated severely immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid/IL2Rγ(null) (NOG) mice, and the phenotypes of human cells contained in bone marrow, thymus, spleen and peripheral blood from the mice were analyzed at monthly intervals until 4 months after cell transplantation. The analysis revealed that transplanted human hematopoietic stem cells via the caudal vein homed and engrafted themselves successfully at the mouse bone marrow. Subsequently, the differentiated leukocytes migrated to the various tissues. Almost all of the leukocytes within the thymus were human cells. Furthermore, analysis of the differentiation states of human leukocytes in various tissues and organs indicated that it is highly likely that the human-like leukocyte lineage can be developed in mice. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving utility conservation programs: outcomes, interventions, and evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condelli, L; Archer, D; Aronson, E; Curbow, B; McLeod, B; Pettigrew, T F; White, L T; Yates, S

    1984-06-01

    Four major California utility companies have active energy conservation programs mandated by the State's Public Utilities Commission (CPUC). These companies evaluate their programs and send reports of the evaluations to the CPUC. A review of 213 of these reports revealed a marketing research approach toward promoting conservation. Advertising and informational campaigns characterize most programs, and attitudes and self-reported behavior were the major outcome measures. This approach is shown to be ineffective. Suggestions for improvement include: (1) the use of actual energy consumption as the primary outcome measure in evaluating conservation programs; (2) the abandonment of conventional advertising, and the use of it only for the promotion of ''hard'' interventions; (3) increased use of social diffusion methods to disseminate information; (4) the design of more effective educational material by incorporating cognitive social psychological principles; and (5) the utilization of ''hard'' interventions that have a direct, verifiable link to conservation.

  15. EVALUATING HUMAN CAPITAL IN A KNOWLEDGE – BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil MUSCALU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The widespread enthusiasm for a knowledge-based approach to understanding the nature of a business and the possible basis for sustained competitive advantage have renewed interest in human capital evaluation or measurement. While many attempts have been made to develop methods for measuring intellectual capital, none have been widely adopted in the business world. In the knowledge-based organizations, and generally, in the information society, human capital is recognized as the fundamental factor of overall progress, and experts agree that long-term investment in human capital has strong drive-propagation effects at the individual, organizational, national and global level. In this paper, we consider that a knowledge-based approach can offer new possibilities and answers to illustrate the importance of evaluation the human capital and knowledge assets by consistently generating added value in the business world.

  16. Towards an IMU Evaluation Framework for Human Body Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venek, Verena; Kremser, Wolfgang; Schneider, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    Existing full-body tracking systems, which use Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) as sensing unit, require expert knowledge for setup and data collection. Thus, the daily application for human body tracking is difficult. In particular, in the field of active and assisted living (AAL), tracking human movements would enable novel insights not only into the quantity but also into the quality of human movement, for example by monitoring functional training. While the current market offers a wide range of products with vastly different properties, literature lacks guidelines for choosing IMUs for body tracking applications. Therefore, this paper introduces developments towards an IMU evaluation framework for human body tracking which compares IMUs against five requirement areas that consider device features and data quality. The data quality is assessed by conducting a static and a dynamic error analysis. In a first application to four IMUs of different component consumption, the IMU evaluation framework convinced as promising tool for IMU selection.

  17. Acquisition and improvement of human motor skills: Learning through observation and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Skilled movement is an integral part of the human existence. A better understanding of motor skills and their development is a prerequisite to the construction of truly flexible intelligent agents. We present MAEANDER, a computational model of human motor behavior, that uniformly addresses both the acquisition of skills through observation and the improvement of skills through practice. MAEANDER consists of a sensory-effector interface, a memory of movements, and a set of performance and learning mechanisms that let it recognize and generate motor skills. The system initially acquires such skills by observing movements performed by another agent and constructing a concept hierarchy. Given a stored motor skill in memory, MAEANDER will cause an effector to behave appropriately. All learning involves changing the hierarchical memory of skill concepts to more closely correspond to either observed experience or to desired behaviors. We evaluated MAEANDER empirically with respect to how well it acquires and improves both artificial movement types and handwritten script letters from the alphabet. We also evaluate MAEANDER as a psychological model by comparing its behavior to robust phenomena in humans and by considering the richness of the predictions it makes.

  18. Communication of Robot Status to Improve Human-Robot Collaboration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future space exploration will require humans and robots to collaborate to perform all the necessary tasks. Current robots mostly operate separately from humans due...

  19. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the improvement suggestion system in a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo Rodrigues; Moraes, Geice Almeida, E-mail: joaocarnaval@inb.gov.br, E-mail: geice@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This work evaluated methods for processing improvement suggestions of a nuclear factory, with the intention to verify those which best fits to the company purposes. Two methods for processing improvement suggestions were applied in the studied organization. The first one was guided to the processing suggestions by specific independent sectors of the company and the second one was conducted to the processing of suggestions by a multidisciplinary team. It has been concluded that a multidisciplinary team focused on research and development would be the best option to the implementation of improvement suggestions and technological innovation on this facility, instead of multi sector processing which revealed to be excessive bureaucratic before the expected goals. This study can be used by nuclear facilities to optimize an existing system of improvements analysis or even guide them for the implantation of a new one. It is more significant for the companies certified on ISO and OHSAS standards for the quality management, environmental and safety and occupational health systems which requires that the continuous improvement must exist and to be demonstrated. But it is also relevant for nuclear plants aiming to implement an Integrated Management System certified on ISO Standards. (author)

  1. Evaluating the Improvement of Sustainability of Sports Industry Policy Based on MADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Hua Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of globalization on sports has turned out to be a popular issue widely discussed by researchers. Improvement to the sustainability of sports industry policy is an important and challenging issue, and related are inherently multiple attribute decision making (MADM problems that can be strategically important to economic systems. The purpose of this study is to set up a new sustainability sports industry policy evaluation model that addresses the main causal factors and amends the priorities. A MADM model is combined with DEMATEL, DANP, and VIKOR for the evaluation and improvement of the sustainability of sports industry policy. The improvement priorities according to the domain expert interviews are in the following order: promotion and assistance of government policy (A, sports venues and facilities (D, enterprise sponsorship of sports quality (E, expert human resources (B, and finally sports competitions and events (C.

  2. A Study on the Development of Improved Event Severity Evaluation Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Kim, Ji Tae; Lee, Durk Hun

    2011-01-01

    An integrated framework for evaluation of event significance developed early in 2010 (which is named as KNES framework). This framework allowed determination of the integrated event significance and the appropriate level of event response. However, the improvement of Knees framework was needed because the framework had the following limitations : - The KNES framework had some overlaps between the specific factors in matrices in many steps. - The KNES framework had not detailed guideline for event severity determination in some steps (for example, human factor assessment steps) - It was not easy to determine the event severity within a short time using the KNES framework. Etc. The KNES framework developed in 2010 has been recently improved by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). This paper describes the basic concept of the improved framework for evaluation of event significance, focusing on the assessment hierarchy

  3. A comparative evaluation of five human reliability assessment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirwan, B.

    1988-01-01

    A field experiment was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy, usefulness, and resources requirements of five human reliability quantification techniques (Techniques for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP); Paired Comparisons, Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART), Success Liklihood Index Method (SLIM)-Multi Attribute Utility Decomposition (MAUD), and Absolute Probability Judgement). This was achieved by assessing technique predictions against a set of known human error probabilities, and by comparing their predictions on a set of five realistic Probabilisitc Risk Assessment (PRA) human error. On a combined measure of accuracy THERP and Absolute Probability Judgement performed best, whilst HEART showed indications of accuracy and was lower in resources usage than other techniques. HEART and THERP both appear to benefit from using trained assessors in order to obtain the best results. SLIM and Paired Comparisons require further research on achieving a robust calibration relationship between their scale values and absolute probabilities. (author)

  4. Human factors engineering evaluation of the UTR-10 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, D.; Nilius, D.; Heithoff, D.; Roche, G.; Sage, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a description of a student design team's review and evaluation of Iowa State University's University Test Reactor (UTR-10). The review was based on how well the control room of the UTR-10 measured up to selected portions of NUREG-0800, chapter 18, Human Factor Engineering/Standard Review Plan Development. The review was conducted by inspecting the reactor and interviewing reactor operators. The control room workspace, instrumentation controls and other equipment were evaluated from a human factors engineering point of view that takes into account both system demands and operator capabilities. Identification, assessment, and suggestion for control room design modifications that correct inadequate or unsuitable items was made

  5. A Low Power, Parallel Wearable Multi-Sensor System for Human Activity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuecheng; Jia, Wenyan; Yu, Tianjian; Luan, Bo; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the design of a low power heterogeneous wearable multi-sensor system, built with Zynq System-on-Chip (SoC), for human activity evaluation is presented. The powerful data processing capability and flexibility of this SoC represent significant improvements over our previous ARM based system designs. The new system captures and compresses multiple color images and sensor data simultaneously. Several strategies are adopted to minimize power consumption. Our wearable system provides a new tool for the evaluation of human activity, including diet, physical activity and lifestyle.

  6. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, 2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, 3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, 4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, 5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). 6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: 1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, 2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, 3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, 4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, 5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, 6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  7. Improved rate control for electron-beam evaporation and evaluation of optical performance improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevelber, Michael; Xu, Bing; Smith, Douglas

    2006-03-01

    A new deposition-rate-control and electron-beam-gun (e-gun) strategy was developed that significantly reduces the growth-rate variations for e-beam-deposited SiO2 coatings. The resulting improvements in optical performance are evaluated for multilayer bandpass filters. The adverse effect of uneven silica-source depletion on coating spectral performances during long deposition runs is discussed.

  8. Automated planning target volume generation: an evaluation pitting a computer-based tool against human experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketting, Case H.; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Kalet, Ira; Jacky, Jon; Kromhout-Schiro, Sharon; Hummel, Sharon; Unger, Jonathan; Fagan, Lawrence M.; Griffin, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Software tools are seeing increased use in three-dimensional treatment planning. However, the development of these tools frequently omits careful evaluation before placing them in clinical use. This study demonstrates the application of a rigorous evaluation methodology using blinded peer review to an automated software tool that produces ICRU-50 planning target volumes (PTVs). Methods and Materials: Seven physicians from three different institutions involved in three-dimensional treatment planning participated in the evaluation. Four physicians drew partial PTVs on nine test cases, consisting of four nasopharynx and five lung primaries. Using the same information provided to the human experts, the computer tool generated PTVs for comparison. The remaining three physicians, designated evaluators, individually reviewed the PTVs for acceptability. To exclude bias, the evaluators were blinded to the source (human or computer) of the PTVs they reviewed. Their scorings of the PTVs were statistically examined to determine if the computer tool performed as well as the human experts. Results: The computer tool was as successful as the human experts in generating PTVs. Failures were primarily attributable to insufficient margins around the clinical target volume and to encroachment upon critical structures. In a qualitative analysis, the human and computer experts displayed similar types and distributions of errors. Conclusions: Rigorous evaluation of computer-based radiotherapy tools requires comparison to current practice and can reveal areas for improvement before the tool enters clinical practice

  9. Improvement of dose evaluation method for employees at severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onda, Takashi; Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Kudo, Seiichi; Nishimura, Kazuya

    2003-01-01

    It is expected that the selection of access routes for employees who engage in emergency work at a severe accident in a nuclear power plant makes a difference in their radiation dose values. In order to examine how much difference arises in the dose by the selection of the access routes, in the case of a severe accident in a pressurized water reactor plant, we improved the method to obtain the dose for employees and expanded the analyzing system. By the expansion of the system and the improvement of the method, we have realized the followings: (1) in the whole plant area, the dose evaluation is possible, (2) the efficiency of calculation is increased by the reduction of the number of radiation sources, etc, and (3) the function is improved by introduction of the sky shine calculation into the highest floor, etc. The improved system clarifies the followings: (1) the doses change by selected access routes, and this system can give the difference in the doses quantitatively, and (2) in order to suppress the dose, it is effective to choose the most adequate access route for the employees. (author)

  10. An evaluation of high-dose jobs for ALARA improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, J. H.; Kim, H. S.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that about 70 percent of occupational dose have incurred from maintenance jobs at outage period. To reduce occupational dose, first, the high-dose jobs at the outage period should be identified and evaluated. For this, the database program is used, which contains the ORE data of reference plants, Kori Units 3 and 4. As a result, it is found that the jobs related to steam generator are the highest dose jobs in terms of collective ORE dose. From the analysis of the job procedures of those jobs, the ALARA improvements are also derived

  11. Can an interprofessional tracheostomy team improve weaning to decannulation times? A quality improvement evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Melissa; Catalig, Marifel; Chris, Juliana; Pataki, Janos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Percutaneous tracheostomy is a common procedure in the intensive care unit and, on patient transfer to the wards, there is a gap in ongoing tracheostomy management. There is some evidence that tracheostomy teams can shorten weaning to decannulation times. In response to lengthy weaning to decannulation times at Trillium Health Partners – Credit Valley Hospital site (Mississauga, Ontario), an interprofessional tracheostomy team, led by respiratory therapists and consisting of speech-language pathologists and intensive care physicians, was implemented. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the interprofessional tracheostomy team and its impact on time from weaning off mechanical ventilation to decannulation; and time from weaning to speech-language pathology referral. METHODS: Performance metrics were collected retrospectively through chart review pre- and post-team implementation. The primary metrics evaluated were the time from weaning off mechanical ventilation to decannulation, and time to referral to speech-language pathology. RESULTS: Following implementation of the interprofessional tracheostomy team, there was no improvement in decannulation times or time from weaning to speech-language pathology referral. A significant improvement was noted in the average time to first tracheostomy tube change (36.2 days to 22.9 days; P=0.01) and average time to speech-language pathology referral following initial tracheostomy insertion (51.8 days to 26.3 days; P=0.01). CONCLUSION: An interprofessional tracheostomy team can improve the quality of tracheostomy care through earlier tracheostomy tube changes and swallowing assessment referrals. The lack of improved weaning to decannulation time was potentially due to poor adherence with established protocols as well as a change in mechanical ventilation practices. To validate the findings from this particular institution, a more rigorous quality improvement methodology should be considered in addition to strategies to improve

  12. Improving environmental impact and cost assessment for supplier evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucker, Severin; Lang, Claus

    2004-02-01

    Improving a company"s environmental and financial performance necessitates the evaluation of environmental impacts deriving from the production and cost effects of corporate actions. These effects have to be made transparent and concrete targets have to be developed. Such an evaluation has to be done on a regular basis but with limited expenses. To achieve this, different instruments of environmental controlling such as LCA and environmental performance indicators have to be combined with methods from cost accounting. Within the research project CARE (Computer Aided Resource Efficiency Accounting for Medium-Sized Enterprises), the method Resource Efficiency Accounting (REA) is used to give the participating companies new insights into hidden costs and environmental effects of their production and products. The method combines process based cost accounting with environmental impact assessment methodology and offers results that can be integrated into a company"s environmental controlling system and business processes like cost accounting, supplier assessment, etc. Much of the data necessary for the combined assessment can be available within a company"s IT system and therefore can be efficiently used for the assessment process. The project CARE puts a strong focus on the use of company data and information systems for the described assessment process and offers a methodological background for the evaluation and the structuring of such data. Besides the general approach of the project CARE the paper will present results from a case study in which the described approach is used for the evaluation of suppliers.

  13. Evaluation and technologic improvement of an enhanced imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, D.

    1990-08-01

    Feature-based systems that combine imaging and signal analysis capabilities may be useful for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of plant components. This report describes the metallurgical evaluation conducted to verify the performance of a feature-based system to discriminate intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) from benign geometrical reflectors. The ultrasonic examination results were also evaluated by examination personnel trained in intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) detection techniques. The welds were examined prior to their removal from the recirculation and Residual-Heat-Removal (RHR) piping systems of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Plant, as described in the Phase 2 Interim Report issued in June 1989. In this phase of the program, a metallurgical evaluation was performed on piping system welds that were examined ultrasonically using a feature-based system for analysis. The feature-based system correctly identified crack, but incorrectly identified other features, e.g., root geometry and metallurgical interfaces, as cracks. While the results of the analysis by the feature-based system were not identical to the results of analysis by trained personnel, the overall performance of the feature-based system was comparable to that of the trained personnel. Based on the results of this program, the feature-based system may be useful as a supplementary method of identifying IGSCC indications. When used in conjunction with existing methods and techniques, it could improve the accuracy of IGSCC identification

  14. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  15. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs

  16. Human Reliability Assessment and Human Performance Evaluation: Research and Analysis Activities at the U.S. NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramey-Smith, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The author indicates the themes of the six programs identified by the US NRC mission on human performance and human reliability activities. They aim at developing the technical basis to support human performance, at developing and updating a model of human performance and human reliability, at fostering national and international dialogue and cooperation efforts on human performance evaluation, at conducting operating events analysis and database development, and at providing support to human performance and human reliability inspection

  17. A Revised Guide for Improving Teacher Education in Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappa, Bloomington, IN. Commission of Education, Human Rights, and Responsibilities.

    This document serves as a guide for teacher education institutions and programs designed to prepare educators for meeting their responsibilities in the area of human rights and human relations. This second edition of the guide represents a substantial modification of the original guide, and includes many activities, experiences, and suggestions…

  18. Using a systems orientation and foundational theory to enhance theory-driven human service program evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Deborah L

    2010-05-01

    This paper offers a framework for using a systems orientation and "foundational theory" to enhance theory-driven evaluations and logic models. The framework guides the process of identifying and explaining operative relationships and perspectives within human service program systems. Self-Determination Theory exemplifies how a foundational theory can be used to support the framework in a wide range of program evaluations. Two examples illustrate how applications of the framework have improved the evaluators' abilities to observe and explain program effect. In both exemplars improvements involved addressing and organizing into a single logic model heretofore seemingly disparate evaluation issues regarding valuing (by whose values); the role of organizational and program context; and evaluation anxiety and utilization. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of nondestructive evaluation methods to improve power plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    On an ever-increasing basis, utilities are relying on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) as a management and planning tool. In addition to the conventional ASME Code and Technical Specification-required examinations, progressive utilities are utilizing NDE sampling programs to monitor existing conditions and search for potential situations affecting plant safety and reliability. Improved NDE detection and sizing procedures give management personnel the accurate information needed to make the ''go/no go'' decisions on repair programs which can significantly affect plant availability. As the burden of regulatory-imposed inspection requirements increases, plant personnel are increasingly cognizant that NDE is a significant factor in their plant's outage schedule. Whether an outage is scheduled or forced, NDE becomes part of each plant's program to assure the safety and reliability of its critical components. Knowledge and planning of NDE application is important because of the time expended in examination performance and subsequent data evaluation. Managers who are knowledgeable in NDE application can effectively improve plant availability by scheduling NDE as an integral part of their maintenance programs. Examination results can then be used in making decisions directly affecting availability

  20. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Human-system interfaces and procedures. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, R.D.; Henriksen, K.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. In addition, a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists served as subject matter experts. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present report focuses on an evaluation of the human-system interfaces in relation to the treatment machines and supporting equipment (e.g., simulators, treatment planning computers, control consoles, patient charts) found in the teletherapy environment. The report also evaluates operating, maintenance and emergency procedures and practices involved in teletherapy. The evaluations are based on the function and task analysis and established human engineering guidelines, where applicable

  1. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Human-system interfaces and procedures. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, R.D.; Henriksen, K.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. In addition, a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists served as subject matter experts. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present report focuses on an evaluation of the human-system interfaces in relation to the treatment machines and supporting equipment (e.g., simulators, treatment planning computers, control consoles, patient charts) found in the teletherapy environment. The report also evaluates operating, maintenance and emergency procedures and practices involved in teletherapy. The evaluations are based on the function and task analysis and established human engineering guidelines, where applicable.

  2. Evaluating the implementation of a quality improvement process in General Practice using a realist evaluation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moule, Pam; Clompus, Susan; Fieldhouse, Jon; Ellis-Jones, Julie; Barker, Jacqueline

    2018-05-25

    Underuse of anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation is known to increase the risk of stroke and is an international problem. The National Institute for Health Care and Excellence guidance CG180 seeks to reduce atrial fibrillation related strokes through prescriptions of Non-vitamin K antagonist Oral Anticoagulants. A quality improvement programme was established by the West of England Academic Health Science Network (West of England AHSN) to implement this guidance into General Practice. A realist evaluation identified whether the quality improvement programme worked, determining how and in what circumstances. Six General Practices in 1 region, became the case study sites. Quality improvement team, doctor, and pharmacist meetings within each of the General Practices were recorded at 3 stages: initial planning, review, and final. Additionally, 15 interviews conducted with the practice leads explored experiences of the quality improvement process. Observation and interview data were analysed and compared against the initial programme theory. The quality improvement resources available were used variably, with the training being valued by all. The initial programme theories were refined. In particular, local workload pressures and individual General Practitioner experiences and pre-conceived ideas were acknowledged. Where key motivators were in place, such as prior experience, the programme achieved optimal outcomes and secured a lasting quality improvement legacy. The employment of a quality improvement programme can deliver practice change and improvement legacy outcomes when particular mechanisms are employed and in contexts where there is a commitment to improve service. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Evaluation and improvement of dynamic optimality in electrochemical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayasekaran, B.; Basha, C. Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    A systematic approach for the dynamic optimization problem statement to improve the dynamic optimality in electrochemical reactors is presented in this paper. The formulation takes an account of the diffusion phenomenon in the electrode/electrolyte interface. To demonstrate the present methodology, the optimal time-varying electrode potential for a coupled chemical-electrochemical reaction scheme, that maximizes the production of the desired product in a batch electrochemical reactor with/without recirculation are determined. The dynamic optimization problem statement, based upon this approach, is a nonlinear differential algebraic system, and its solution provides information about the optimal policy. Optimal control policy at different conditions is evaluated using the best-known Pontryagin's maximum principle. The two-point boundary value problem resulting from the application of the maximum principle is then solved using the control vector iteration technique. These optimal time-varying profiles of electrode potential are then compared to the best uniform operation through the relative improvements of the performance index. The application of the proposed approach to two electrochemical systems, described by ordinary differential equations, shows that the existing electrochemical process control strategy could be improved considerably when the proposed method is incorporated

  4. Evaluation of use of human albumin in critically ill dogs: 73 cases (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trow, Amy V; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Delaforcade, Armelle M; Chan, Daniel L

    2008-08-15

    To evaluate the use of human albumin in critically ill dogs. Design-Retrospective case series. 73 client-owned hospitalized dogs. Medical records of dogs that received human albumin were reviewed to assess effects of the use of human albumin on serum albumin concentration, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein concentration; determine the relationships between these variables and outcome; and assess its safety. Data for signalment, diagnoses, physiologic variables, dosage, amount of crystalloid fluid administered prior to human albumin administration, complications, and outcome were reviewed. Additionally, pre- and postadministration values for serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein were recorded. Administration of human albumin resulted in significant changes in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein. The serum albumin, total protein, degree of improvement in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and dosage of human albumin were significantly greater in survivors. Seventeen of 73 (23%) dogs had at least 1 complication that could be potentially associated with the administration of human albumin that occurred during or immediately following administration of human albumin. Three of 73 (4%) dogs had severe delayed complications. Administration of human albumin significantly increased serum albumin, and total protein concentrations and colloid osmotic pressure, especially in survivors. Because of the high mortality rate of the study population and other confounding factors, it was uncertain whether complications were associated with the underlying disease or with human albumin administration. Acute and delayed complications may have been under-recognized.

  5. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  6. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices

  7. Innovative strategies to improve human resources for health in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and scaling up health professionals' education and training, calling for sustainable and ... SA faces similar human resource challenges to other African countries. ... It also supports teacher ... as opposed to the traditional didactic-only lectures.

  8. Measurement and evaluation of human factor training in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of human factor training aimed at awareness and behavioral changes, conducted by electric power company for the nuclear power plant staff. As the first step, the researcher investigated recent trends in training measurement and evaluation methods in the United States. It was found that many instances of training measurement/evaluation had been reported, and that the ROI model was the mainstream method for such measurement and evaluation. However, there had been no instances reported in which the effectiveness of human factor training for plant staff had been measured. The researcher therefore developed a new questionnaire-type of effectiveness measurement/evaluation method, based on the framework of the ROI model. Two-years of research was then conducted, in which the effectiveness of a human factor training program was measured using the newly developed method. This research revealed that participants' overall satisfaction and knowledge/skill acquisition levels were high. The percentage of participants who demonstrated awareness/behavioral change after returning to the workplace increased from 50% at first measurement to 81% at second measurement. It can therefore be concluded that the effectiveness of the second training is greater than that of the first training. Use of the new effectiveness measurement/evaluation method will enable quantification of human factor training effectiveness and help improve training quality. (author)

  9. Evaluation of two communication strategies to improve udder health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J; Renes, R J; Lam, T J G M

    2010-02-01

    Worldwide, programs to improve udder health are implemented using communication tools and methods that inform and persuade dairy farmers. This study evaluated 2 communication strategies used in a mastitis control program in the Netherlands. To improve farmers' udder health management, tools such as instruction cards, treatment plans, checklists and software were developed following an argument-based comprehensive "central route." These tools were used during on-farm study group meetings for farmers organized by veterinarians and also during individual veterinarian-farmer interactions. The second strategy aimed at adopting a single management practice to increase the use of milking gloves during milking. This approach followed a straightforward "peripheral" route that used implicit persuasion techniques. Results of an online survey of 374 Dutch dairy farmers showed that most farmers were able and willing to use the educational management tools to increase udder health on their farms. They evaluated the tools positively regardless of the mastitis problems on their farms. This seems to indicate that the central route of communication is most effective when farmers are motivated to work on udder health in general. Results of repeated random telephone surveys before, during, and after the campaign on the use of milking gloves showed that the use of gloves increased from 20.9 to 42.0% of the respondents. Respondents' opinions about milking gloves also changed favorably, indicating that a relatively short peripheral campaign on a single action can have a sustained effect on farmers' behavior. Both communication strategies seem to be potentially successful in disseminating knowledge to a specific target group of farmers and in changing that group's behavior. However, to reach as many farmers as possible, the strategies should be combined. When optimizing these strategies, both the farmers' motivation to work on udder health and the aim of the campaign should be considered

  10. Elastin hydrolysate derived from fish enhances proliferation of human skin fibroblasts and elastin synthesis in human skin fibroblasts and improves the skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, Eri; Nakaba, Misako; Yamada, Michio

    2016-03-30

    Recent studies have shown that certain peptides significantly improve skin conditions, such as skin elasticity and the moisture content of the skin of healthy woman. This study aimed to investigate the effects of elastin hydrolysate on human skin. Proliferation and elastin synthesis were evaluated in human skin fibroblasts exposed to elastin hydrolysate and proryl-glycine (Pro-Gly), which is present in human blood after elastin hydrolysate ingestion. We also performed an ingestion test with elastin hydrolysate in humans and evaluated skin condition. Elastin hydrolysate and Pro-Gly enhanced the proliferation of fibroblasts and elastin synthesis. Maximal proliferation response was observed at 25 ng mL(-1) Pro-Gly. Ingestion of elastin hydrolysate improved skin condition, such as elasticity, number of wrinkles, and blood flow. Elasticity improved by 4% in the elastin hydrolysate group compared with 2% in the placebo group. Therefore, elastin hydrolysate activates human skin fibroblasts and has beneficial effects on skin conditions. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Glucocorticoids improve high-intensity exercise performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Melskens, Lars; Bruhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise.......It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise....

  12. Evaluation of an improved air distribution system for aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Liping; Xu, Jie; Fang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    An improved air distribution system for aircraft cabin was proposed in this paper. Personalized outlets were introduced and placed at the bottom of the baggage hold. Its ratio of fresh air to recirculation air and the conditioned temperature of different types of inlets were also designed carefully...... to meet the goals of high air quality, thermal comfort and energy saving. Some experiments were conducted to evaluate and compare its performances with two other systems. First the Flow Visualization with Green Laser (FVGL) technology was used to analyze the air flow. The top-in-side bottom-out pattern...... may have the disadvantages of an indirect path to deliver fresh air to passengers, a low fresh air utilization ratio and the potential to widely spreading airborne infectious diseases. The bottom-in-top-out pattern can overcome these disadvantages very well, but it also faces the stratification...

  13. Improvement of hydration and epidermal barrier function in human skin by a novel compound isosorbide dicaprylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, R K; Bojanowski, K

    2017-10-01

    The study involved the synthesis of a novel derivative of caprylic acid - isosorbide dicaprylate (IDC) - and the evaluation of its potential in improving water homoeostasis and epidermal barrier function in human skin. The effect of IDC on gene expression was assayed in skin organotypic cultures by DNA microarrays. The results were then confirmed for a few key genes by quantitative PCR, immuno- and cytochemistry. Final validation of skin hydration properties was obtained by four separate clinical studies. Level of hydration was measured by corneometer either by using 2% IDC lotion alone vs placebo or in combination with 2% glycerol lotion vs 2% glycerol only. A direct comparison in skin hydration between 2% IDC and 2% glycerol lotions was also carried out. The epidermal barrier function improvement was assessed by determining changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) on the arms before and after treatment with 2% IDC lotion versus placebo. IDC was found to upregulate the expression of AQP3, CD44 and proteins involved in keratinocyte differentiation as well as the formation and function of stratum corneum. A direct comparison between 2% IDC versus 2% glycerol lotions revealed a three-fold advantage of IDC in providing skin hydration. Severely dry skin treated with 2% IDC in combination with 2% glycerol showed 133% improvement, whereas 35% improvement was observed with moderately dry human skin. Topical isosorbide dicaprylate favourably modulates genes involved in the maintenance of skin structure and function, resulting in superior clinical outcomes. By improving skin hydration and epidermal permeability barrier, it offers therapeutic applications in skin ageing. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Sara; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Esmaeili, Farzane

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The object of present study was to investigate the effects of direct addition of Tribulus terrestris extract on human sperm parameters. Design. Semen specimens from 40 healthy men volunteers were divided into 4 groups: one group received no treatment (control group) while the others were incubated with 20, 40, and 50 µg/mL of T terrestris extract (experimental groups). Motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were assessed in all groups. Results. The incubation of human semen with 40 and 50 μg/mL of T terrestris extract significantly enhanced total sperm motility, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, and curvilinear velocity over 60 to 120 minutes’ holding time (P terrestris extract (P terrestris extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity. PMID:27694560

  15. Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Sara; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Esmaeili, Farzane

    2016-09-30

    The object of present study was to investigate the effects of direct addition of Tribulus terrestris extract on human sperm parameters. Semen specimens from 40 healthy men volunteers were divided into 4 groups: one group received no treatment (control group) while the others were incubated with 20, 40, and 50 µg/mL of T terrestris extract (experimental groups). Motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were assessed in all groups. The incubation of human semen with 40 and 50 μg/mL of T terrestris extract significantly enhanced total sperm motility, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, and curvilinear velocity over 60 to 120 minutes' holding time (P terrestris extract (P terrestris extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. [Evaluation of 12 pilot projects to improve outpatient palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Wolf, G; Elsner, F; Lindena, G; Hilgers, R-D; Heussen, N; Rolke, R; Ostgathe, C; Radbruch, L

    2013-12-01

    With a priority programme the German Cancer Aid supported the development of quality-assured outpatient palliative care to cover the whole country. The 12 regional pilot projects funded with the aim to improve outpatient palliative care in different models and different frameworks were concurrently monitored and evaluated. The supported projects, starting and ending individually, documented all patients who were cared for using HOPE (Hospice and palliative care evaluation) and MIDOS (Minimal documentation system for palliative patients). Total data were analyzed for 3239 patients decriptively. In addition to the quantitative data the experiences of the projects were recorded in a number of workshops (2008, 2009, 2010, and 2012). In particular, the experiences reported in the final meeting in July 2012 were considered for this article as well as the final reports for the German Cancer Aid. In the quantitative evaluation 85.6% of 3239 palliative care patients had a cancer diagnosis. In all model projects the goal of a network with close cooperation of primary providers, social support, and outpatient and inpatient specialist services has been achieved. For all projects, the initial financing of the German Cancer Aid was extremely important, because contracts with health insurance funds were negotiated slowly, and could then be built on the experiences with the projects. The participants of the project-completion meeting emphasized the need to carry out a market analysis before starting palliative care organizations considering the different regional structures and target groups of patients. Education, training and continuing education programs contribute significantly to the network. A reliably funded coordination center/case management across all institutions is extremely important. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. A human-machine interface evaluation method: A difficulty evaluation method in information searching (DEMIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    A human-machine interface (HMI) evaluation method, which is named 'difficulty evaluation method in information searching (DEMIS)', is proposed and demonstrated with an experimental study. The DEMIS is based on a human performance model and two measures of attentional-resource effectiveness in monitoring and detection tasks in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Operator competence and HMI design are modeled to be most significant factors to human performance. One of the two effectiveness measures is fixation-to-importance ratio (FIR) which represents attentional resource (eye fixations) spent on an information source compared to importance of the information source. The other measure is selective attention effectiveness (SAE) which incorporates FIRs for all information sources. The underlying principle of the measures is that the information source should be selectively attended to according to its informational importance. In this study, poor performance in information searching tasks is modeled to be coupled with difficulties caused by poor mental models of operators or/and poor HMI design. Human performance in information searching tasks is evaluated by analyzing the FIR and the SAE. Operator mental models are evaluated by a questionnaire-based method. Then difficulties caused by a poor HMI design are evaluated by a focused interview based on the FIR evaluation and then root causes leading to poor performance are identified in a systematic way.

  18. Evaluation and proposal of improvement for the measurement system in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dong Woo; Kim, Jong Rok; Park, Jun Kwon

    2007-03-01

    The project independently evaluated the validities and reliability of measurement system in ATLAS, then proposed plans to improve the measurement system from evaluated results. For this objectives, we evaluated the design, technical backgrounds, verifying data of measurement system in ATLAS. From this evaluation, we proposed plans for improvement on parts which need improvement

  19. Iranian staff nurses' views of their productivity and human resource factors improving and impeding it: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salsali Mahvash

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses, as the largest human resource element of health care systems, have a major role in providing ongoing, high-quality care to patients. Productivity is a significant indicator of professional development within any professional group, including nurses. The human resource element has been identified as the most important factor affecting productivity. This research aimed to explore nurses' perceptions and experiences of productivity and human resource factors improving or impeding it. Method A qualitative approach was used to obtain rich data; open, semi-structured interviews were also conducted. The sampling was based on the maximum variant approach; data analysis was carried out by content analysis, with the constant comparative method. Results Participants indicated that human resources issues are the most important factor in promoting or impeding their productivity. They suggested that the factors influencing effectiveness of human resource elements include: systematic evaluation of staff numbers; a sound selection process based on verifiable criteria; provision of an adequate staffing level throughout the year; full involvement of the ward sister in the process of admitting patients; and sound communication within the care team. Paying attention to these factors creates a suitable background for improved productivity and decreases negative impacts of human resource shortages, whereas ignoring or interfering with them would result in lowering of nurses' productivity. Conclusion Participants maintained that satisfactory human resources can improve nurses' productivity and the quality of care they provide; thereby fulfilling the core objective of the health care system.

  20. Improved genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, S.R.; Denning, C.; van den Brink, S.; Kats, P.; Hochstenbach, R.; Passier, R.; Mummery, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Low efficiency of transfection limits the ability to genetically manipulate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and differences in cell derivation and culture methods require optimization of transfection protocols. We transiently transferred multiple independent hESC lines with different growth

  1. Effect of oxygen concentration on human embryo development evaluated by time-lapse monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Kirkegaard, Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    -points for each cell division and blastocyst stages were registered until 120 hours after oocyte retrieval. Only 2PN embryos completing the first cleavage were evaluated. The groups were compared using one-way ANOVA or Kruskall-Wallis test. Estimates are reported as medians with 95% confidence intervals. Time......Introduction: Data from a number of studies indicate -but not unequivocally- that culture of embryos in 5% O2 compared to 20% O2 improves blastocyst formation in humans and various animal species and may yield better pregnancy rates in IVF. The detrimental effects of atmospheric oxygen were...... was to evaluate the influence of oxygen tension on human pre-implantation development using time-lapse monitoring. Materials and methods: Human embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage in a time-lapse incubator (EmbryoScope™) in 20% O2 (group 1), 20% O2 for 24 hours followed by culture in 5% O2 (group 2...

  2. Unmanned Aerial Systems: Air Force and Army Should Improve Strategic Human Capital Planning for Pilot Workforces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    the best UAS pilot candidates, including by conducting additional research and testing a tool that measures multitasking ability, a competency...UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS Air Force and Army Should Improve Strategic Human Capital Planning for Pilot Workforces...Should Improve Strategic Human Capital Planning for Pilot Workforces What GAO Found The Air Force and the Army have not fully applied four of the five

  3. Reliability Evaluation and Improvement Approach of Chemical Production Man - Machine - Environment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yongchun; Kang, Rongxue; Chen, Xuefeng

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, with the gradual extension of reliability research, the study of production system reliability has become the hot topic in various industries. Man-machine-environment system is a complex system composed of human factors, machinery equipment and environment. The reliability of individual factor must be analyzed in order to gradually transit to the research of three-factor reliability. Meanwhile, the dynamic relationship among man-machine-environment should be considered to establish an effective blurry evaluation mechanism to truly and effectively analyze the reliability of such systems. In this paper, based on the system engineering, fuzzy theory, reliability theory, human error, environmental impact and machinery equipment failure theory, the reliabilities of human factor, machinery equipment and environment of some chemical production system were studied by the method of fuzzy evaluation. At last, the reliability of man-machine-environment system was calculated to obtain the weighted result, which indicated that the reliability value of this chemical production system was 86.29. Through the given evaluation domain it can be seen that the reliability of man-machine-environment integrated system is in a good status, and the effective measures for further improvement were proposed according to the fuzzy calculation results.

  4. Human resource leadership: the key to improved results in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Mary L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is the lead article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article by article over the next few weeks. The journal has invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This opening article describes the human resource challenges that managers around the world report and analyses why solutions often fail to be implemented. Despite rising attention to the acute shortage of health care workers, solutions to the human resource (HR crisis are difficult to achieve, especially in the poorest countries. Although we are aware of the issues and have developed HR strategies, the problem is that some old systems of leading and managing human resources for health do not work in today's context. The Leadership Development Program (LDP is grounded on the belief that good leadership and management can be learned and practiced at all levels. The case studies in this issue were chosen to illustrate results from using the LDP at different levels of the health sector. The LDP makes a profound difference in health managers' attitudes towards their work. Rather than feeling defeated by a workplace climate that lacks motivation, hope, and commitment to change, people report that they are mobilized to take action to change the status quo. The lesson is that without this capacity at all levels, global policy and national HR strategies will fail to make a difference.

  5. A Survey on the HFE-related Technologies for the Improvements of Human Performance of Safety Personnel in Rail System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, G. O.; Suh, S. M.; Sim, Y. R.; Go, J. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Son, C. H.

    2005-08-01

    Many studies have shown that the most cases of rail accidents have occurred because of performing his/her tasks in inappropriate way. It is generally recognised that the rail system without human element could never be happened quite long time. So human element in rail system is going to be the major factor to the next tragic accident. This state-of-the-art report describes three major HFE-related technologies, training simulator, the integrated test facility for human factors engineering, and human performance evaluation system, that are used in the other industries including nuclear power industry for the purpose of increasing rail safety through out the improvement of human task performance. Base on this report, the way of developing those technologies that should be applied to the korean rail system is presented

  6. A Survey on the HFE-related Technologies for the Improvements of Human Performance of Safety Personnel in Rail System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, G. O.; Suh, S. M.; Sim, Y. R.; Go, J. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Son, C. H

    2005-08-15

    Many studies have shown that the most cases of rail accidents have occurred because of performing his/her tasks in inappropriate way. It is generally recognised that the rail system without human element could never be happened quite long time. So human element in rail system is going to be the major factor to the next tragic accident. This state-of-the-art report describes three major HFE-related technologies, training simulator, the integrated test facility for human factors engineering, and human performance evaluation system, that are used in the other industries including nuclear power industry for the purpose of increasing rail safety through out the improvement of human task performance. Base on this report, the way of developing those technologies that should be applied to the korean rail system is presented.

  7. Human retinal gene therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis shows advancing retinal degeneration despite enduring visual improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Beltran, William A.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Swider, Malgorzata; Iwabe, Simone; Roman, Alejandro J.; Olivares, Melani B.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Komáromy, András M.; Hauswirth, William W.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2013-01-01

    The first retinal gene therapy in human blindness from RPE65 mutations has focused on safety and efficacy, as defined by improved vision. The disease component not studied, however, has been the fate of photoreceptors in this progressive retinal degeneration. We show that gene therapy improves vision for at least 3 y, but photoreceptor degeneration progresses unabated in humans. In the canine model, the same result occurs when treatment is at the disease stage equivalent to humans. The study ...

  8. Observations of human factors as a continuous improvement tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P.

    2015-01-01

    Principles for Excellence in Human Performance should promote behaviors throughout an organization that support safety and reliable operation of the plant. Such behaviors must be clearly defined, communicated and reinforced by managers, on a continuous basis. To identify if workers behaviors are in compliance with those expected is paramount to have an observations program in place, which in one hand identifies deviations from expectations to correct them, and on the other promotes the desired behaviors through positive reinforcement. (Author)

  9. Improving the Translation of Animal Ischemic Stroke Studies to Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jickling, Glen C; Sharp, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    Despite testing more than 1026 therapeutic strategies in models ischemic stroke and 114 therapies in human ischemic stroke, only one agent tissue plasminogen activator has successfully been translated to clinical practice as a treatment for acute stroke. Though disappointing, this immense body of work has led to a rethinking of animal stroke models and how to better translate therapies to patients with ischemic stroke. Several recommendations have been made, including the STAIR recommendation...

  10. Improving Human/Autonomous System Teaming Through Linguistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    An area of increasing interest for the next generation of aircraft is autonomy and the integration of increasingly autonomous systems into the national airspace. Such integration requires humans to work closely with autonomous systems, forming human and autonomous agent teams. The intention behind such teaming is that a team composed of both humans and autonomous agents will operate better than homogenous teams. Procedures exist for licensing pilots to operate in the national airspace system and current work is being done to define methods for validating the function of autonomous systems, however there is no method in place for assessing the interaction of these two disparate systems. Moreover, currently these systems are operated primarily by subject matter experts, limiting their use and the benefits of such teams. Providing additional information about the ongoing mission to the operator can lead to increased usability and allow for operation by non-experts. Linguistic analysis of the context of verbal communication provides insight into the intended meaning of commonly heard phrases such as "What's it doing now?" Analyzing the semantic sphere surrounding these common phrases enables the prediction of the operator's intent and allows the interface to supply the operator's desired information.

  11. From Evaluation to Improvement: A Chief Justice’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Warren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available At the Supreme Court of Victoria, Australia, concepts of judicial performance and evaluation are relatively new. Responding to modern expectations for increased judicial accountability for their performance, Victorian judges have engaged a number of court–led evaluation and measurement tools aimed at improving judicial performance both inside and outside the courtroom. These include the Court Craft judicial education programme, the Report on Government Services performance indicators and the International Framework for Court Excellence. This article discusses how the Supreme Court of Victoria obtained judicial acceptance of the value of these tools in the Australian constitutional and institutional context. It highlights programme design aspects, including the importance of judicial involvement in programme development. En la Corte Suprema de Victoria, Australia, los conceptos de rendimiento y evaluación judicial son relativamente nuevos. En respuesta a las expectativas modernas de una mayor responsabilidad judicial por el desempeño de sus funciones, los jueces de Victoria han integrado un número de herramientas de evaluación y medición dirigidas a mejorar el desempeño judicial, tanto dentro como fuera de la sala. Estas herramientas incluyen el programa de educación judicial Court Craft, los indicadores de rendimiento del Informe sobre Servicios del Gobierno y el Sistema Internacional para la Excelencia de los Tribunales. Este artículo analiza cómo obtuvo la Corte Suprema de Victoria la aceptación judicial del valor de estas herramientas, en el contexto constitucional e institucional de Australia. Se destacan aspectos como el diseño del programa, incluyendo la importancia de la intervención judicial en el desarrollo del programa. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2536304

  12. Improving HOG with image segmentation: application to human detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, Y.S.; Bermudez, D.V.; Peña, A.M.L.; Gomez, D.G.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we improve the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), a core descriptor of state-of-the-art object detection, by the use of higher-level information coming from image segmentation. The idea is to re-weight the descriptor while computing it without increasing its size. The benefits of

  13. Using Evaluability Assessment to Improve Program Evaluation for the Blue-Throated Macaw Environmental Education Project in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra da Silva, Daniela; Jacobson, Susan K.; Monroe, Martha C.; Israel, Glenn D.

    2016-01-01

    An evaluability assessment of a program to save a critically endangered bird helped prepare the Blue-throated Macaw Environmental Education Project for evaluation and program improvement. The evaluability assessment facilitated agreement among key stakeholders on evaluation criteria and intended uses of evaluation information in order to maximize…

  14. Using Empathy to Improve Human-Robot Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André; Leite, Iolanda; Mascarenhas, Samuel; Martinho, Carlos; Paiva, Ana

    For robots to become our personal companions in the future, they need to know how to socially interact with us. One defining characteristic of human social behaviour is empathy. In this paper, we present a robot that acts as a social companion expressing different kinds of empathic behaviours through its facial expressions and utterances. The robot comments the moves of two subjects playing a chess game against each other, being empathic to one of them and neutral towards the other. The results of a pilot study suggest that users to whom the robot was empathic perceived the robot more as a friend.

  15. Biomechanical modelling and evaluation of construction jobs for performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Ratri; Ray, Pradip Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Occupational risk factors, such as awkward posture, repetition, lack of rest, insufficient illumination and heavy workload related to construction-related MMH activities may cause musculoskeletal disorders and poor performance of the workers, ergonomic design of construction worksystems was a critical need for improving their health and safety wherein a dynamic biomechanical models were required to be empirically developed and tested at a construction site of Tata Steel, the largest steel making company of India in private sector. In this study, a comprehensive framework is proposed for biomechanical evaluation of shovelling and grinding under diverse work environments. The benefit of such an analysis lies in its usefulness in setting guidelines for designing such jobs with minimization of risks of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and enhancing correct methods of carrying out the jobs leading to reduced fatigue and physical stress. Data based on direct observations and videography were collected for the shovellers and grinders over a number of workcycles. Compressive forces and moments for a number of segments and joints are computed with respect to joint flexion and extension. The results indicate that moments and compressive forces at L5/S1 link are significant for shovellers while moments at elbow and wrist are significant for grinders.

  16. [Improvement of local lymph node assay for cosmetics safety evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Junping; Wang, Fei; Xu, Guifeng; Hou, Juan; Wan, Xuying; Zhang, Tianbao

    2009-09-01

    To improve the local lymph node assay (LLNA) as an alternative method to detect chemicals for both sensitization and irritation. The following chemicals: one negative control: 4-Aminobenzoic Acid, three sensitizers: 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), Hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), 2-Aminophenol (2-APC) and two irritations: potassium hydroxide (KOH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) were selected. According to the normal LLNA, groups of female Balb/c mice were treated with test solutions. The thickness of each ear was measured and each auricle was weighed. On the sixth day, the bilateral draining auricular lymph nodes were excised and weighed. The single cell suspensions were prepared, the lymphocyte were counted and the proliferations of lymph cells were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Significant increase in ear thickness and weight were found in groups of KOH, SLS and DNCB (above 0.5%) (P LLNA using auricle thickness and weighing as observed markers for irritation, and using lymph nodes weighing and proliferation of lymphocyte as observed markers for sensitization, could evaluate both sensitization and irritation at the same time.

  17. Genotoxic evaluation of terbinafine in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolomeotti, Danielle; de Castro-Prado, Marialba Avezum Alves; de Sant'Anna, Juliane Rocha; Martins, Ana Beatriz Tozzo; Della-Rosa, Valter Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Terbinafine is an antimycotic drug usually used against several superficial fungal infections and with a potential application in the treatment of human cancers. Since to date there are few data on the genotoxic effects of terbinafine in mammalian cells, current study evaluated the potential genotoxic of such antifungal agent in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Terbinafine was used at the peak plasma concentration (1.0 μg/ml) and in four additional concentrations higher than the human plasmatic peak (5.0 μg/ml, 25.0 μg/ml, 50.0 μg/ml and 100.0 μg/ml). Chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NP) and nuclear buds (NB) were scored as genetic endpoints. In all analysis no significant differences (α = 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test) were observed. Complementary criterion adopted to obtain the final response in cytogenetic agreed with statistical results. Therefore, results of this study showed that terbinafine neither induced CA, SCE, MN, NP and NB nor affected significantly mitotic, replication and cytokinesis-block proliferation indices in any of the tested concentrations. It may be assumed that terbinafine was not genotoxic or cytotoxic to cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes in our experimental conditions.

  18. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  19. Improving human papilloma virus vaccination rates throughout military treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Rachel; Lemmon, Keith; Trivedi, Nidhi J; Hansen, Shana

    2018-03-07

    The four objectives of this study were to (1) educate military healthcare providers on HPV disease and vaccine, (2) assess short term recall of information presented at educational sessions, (3) assess provider comfort level with the vaccine, and (4) assess improvement in HPV vaccination rates. Standardized interactive educational sessions were conducted at military primary care clinics with pre- and post-educational quizzes administered before and immediately following the sessions. Provider attitudes were assessed using Likert scale questionnaires. Vaccination rates in children and young adolescents ages 11-18 at one of the participating regions that had a champion and started a Quality Improvement (QI) project were assessed at baseline, at 3-months and at 6-months post sessions. 200 providers were reached at 48 primary care clinics during May 2014 through October 2015 with 200 quizzes and Likert scale questionnaires returned. There was increase in knowledge following the educational sessions as revealed in the pre- and post- test scores [t(57) = -5.04, p knowledge recall and comfort level in answering parents' questions was seen. We found that educational sessions can improve HPV vaccination rates in military clinics that have a vaccine champion for up to 3-months. Further research into the effects of having clinic vaccine champions is critical. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Means of evaluating and improving the effectiveness of training of nuclear power plant personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    , weaknesses can be identified and improvements made. These improvements should support an overall improvement in plant performance. Strengths can also be identified to further strengthen the positive aspects of the organization. This report provides information on methods and practices used to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of training. This should result in: plant performance improvement, improved human performance, meeting goals and objectives of the business (quality, safety, productivity), and improving training programmes. This publication is available in two formats, as a conventional printed publication and as a CD-ROM which also contains original contributions in the original language by Member States. The purpose of this report is to provide information on methods and practices to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of training and assistance for nuclear facility managers to establish and maintain effective training programmes for NPP personnel. In this context, the term training effectiveness means that training provides significant added value to NPP operations by improved safety, quality and production. This publication also contains several examples to identify and improve the effectiveness of NPP training programmes. In their respective NPPs, these examples demonstrate that effective training programmes are reflected in improved personnel performance, improved plant performance, and therefore, the achievement of NPP goals and objectives.

  1. Means of evaluating and improving the effectiveness of training of nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    , weaknesses can be identified and improvements made. These improvements should support an overall improvement in plant performance. Strengths can also be identified to further strengthen the positive aspects of the organization. This report provides information on methods and practices used to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of training. This should result in: plant performance improvement, improved human performance, meeting goals and objectives of the business (quality, safety, productivity), and improving training programmes. This publication is available in two formats, as a conventional printed publication and as a CD-ROM which also contains original contributions in the original language by Member States. The purpose of this report is to provide information on methods and practices to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of training and assistance for nuclear facility managers to establish and maintain effective training programmes for NPP personnel. In this context, the term training effectiveness means that training provides significant added value to NPP operations by improved safety, quality and production. This publication also contains several examples to identify and improve the effectiveness of NPP training programmes. In their respective NPPs, these examples demonstrate that effective training programmes are reflected in improved personnel performance, improved plant performance, and therefore, the achievement of NPP goals and objectives

  2. Integrating utilization-focused evaluation with business process modeling for clinical research improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jonathan M; Rosas, Scott; Trochim, William M K

    2010-10-01

    New discoveries in basic science are creating extraordinary opportunities to design novel biomedical preventions and therapeutics for human disease. But the clinical evaluation of these new interventions is, in many instances, being hindered by a variety of legal, regulatory, policy and operational factors, few of which enhance research quality, the safety of study participants or research ethics. With the goal of helping increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research, we have examined how the integration of utilization-focused evaluation with elements of business process modeling can reveal opportunities for systematic improvements in clinical research. Using data from the NIH global HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks, we analyzed the absolute and relative times required to traverse defined phases associated with specific activities within the clinical protocol lifecycle. Using simple median duration and Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis, we show how such time-based analyses can provide a rationale for the prioritization of research process analysis and re-engineering, as well as a means for statistically assessing the impact of policy modifications, resource utilization, re-engineered processes and best practices. Successfully applied, this approach can help researchers be more efficient in capitalizing on new science to speed the development of improved interventions for human disease.

  3. A public data set of human balance evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana A. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to create a public data set with results of qualitative and quantitative evaluations related to human balance. Subject’s balance was evaluated by posturography using a force platform and by the Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Tests. In the posturography test, we evaluated subjects standing still for 60 s in four different conditions where vision and the standing surface were manipulated: on a rigid surface with eyes open; on a rigid surface with eyes closed; on an unstable surface with eyes open; on an unstable surface with eyes closed. Each condition was performed three times and the order of the conditions was randomized. In addition, the following tests were employed in order to better characterize each subject: Short Falls Efficacy Scale International; International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Version; and Trail Making Test. The subjects were also interviewed to collect information about their socio-cultural, demographic, and health characteristics. The data set comprises signals from the force platform (raw data for the force, moments of forces, and centers of pressure of 163 subjects plus one file with information about the subjects and balance conditions and the results of the other evaluations. All the data is available at PhysioNet and at Figshare.

  4. Evaluation and improvement of nondestructive evaluation reliability for inservice inspection of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, D.J.; Deffenbaugh, J.D.; Good, M.S.; Heasler, P.G.; Mart, G.A.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Taylor, T.T.; Van Fleet, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was established to determine the reliability of current ISI techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this NRC program are to: determine the reliability of ultrasonic ISI performed on commercial light-water reactor (LWR) primary systems, using probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis, determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety and determine the level of inspection reliability required to ensure a suitably low failure probability, evaluate the degree of reliability improvement that could be achieved using improved and advanced NDE techniques, based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties, recommend revisions to ASME Code, Section XI, and Regulatory Requirements that will ensure suitably low failure probabilities. The scope of this program is limited to ISI of primary systems; the results and recommendations may also be applicable to Class II piping systems

  5. Improvability of assembly systems I: Problem formulation and performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-Y. Chiang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work develops improvability theory for assembly systems. It consists of two parts. Part I includes the problem formulation and the analysis technique. Part II presents the so-called improvability indicators and a case study.

  6. Process improvement : the creation and evaluation of process alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netjes, M.

    2010-01-01

    Companies continuously strive to improve their processes to increase productivity and delivered quality against lower costs. With Business Process Redesign (BPR) projects such improvement goals can be achieved. BPR involves the restructuring of business processes, stimulated by the application of

  7. MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATIVE IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE AND HUMAN CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Usmanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the chosen subject is caused by the current state and problems of development of a human capital and potential. The existing changes of the current legislation and a tendency of development of a human capital in Russia in developed countries allow to subject to doubt efficiency of planning of economic and social programs in the country. Also relevance of article is caused by the fact that in the conditions of a transitional economy and integration of economy into the world economy many countries create quality of life of the population according to standards and there is a need of revaluation of values regarding development of a human capital in Russia within the world device.In the first part of article the overview of historical aspects of planning of a human capital and the analysis of high budget revenues becomes. In article it is shown that expenses aren't effectively distributed on regional equalization and on social needs, that is on development of a welfare and a human capital and potential in the country.The second part of article describes one of manifestations of the quality level of life, that is the Minimum Wage (MW which is the main indicator for charge of temporary disability benefits, pension accrual, unemployment benefits, etc.The third part of article reflects the directions of development of innovative management: improvement of quality of life and a human capital where emphasis on need of preparation intellectual the oriented specialists is placed.The purpose/goal .The purpose of article is disclosure, comparison of features, and also determinations of criteria of management of innovative development of quality of life and a human capital in the Russian Federation.Methodology. The methodology of the solution of objectives is based on use of a method of a dialectic research, methods of the economic analysis, forecasting, the situation and system analysis, expert evaluations and the analysis of empirical data

  8. Improving occupational health care for construction workers: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, Julitta S; van der Molen, Henk F; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2013-03-11

    To evaluate the process of a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) in improving occupational health care for construction workers. From January to July 2012 were 899 bricklayers and supervisors invited for the job-specific WHS at three locations of one occupational health service throughout the Netherlands. The intervention aimed at detecting signs of work-related health problems, reduced work capacity and/or reduced work functioning. Measurements were obtained using a recruitment record and questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The process evaluation included the following: reach (attendance rate), intervention dose delivered (provision of written recommendations and follow-up appointments), intervention dose received (intention to follow-up on advice directly after WHS and remembrance of advice three months later), and fidelity (protocol adherence). The workers scored their increase in knowledge from 0-10 with regard to health status and work ability, their satisfaction with the intervention and the perceived (future) effect of such an intervention. Program implementation was defined as the mean score of reach, fidelity, and intervention dose delivered and received. Reach was 9% (77 workers participated), fidelity was 67%, the intervention dose delivered was 92 and 63%, and the intervention dose received was 68 and 49%. The total programme implementation was 58%. The increases in knowledge regarding the health status and work ability of the workers after the WHS were graded as 7.0 and 5.9, respectively. The satisfaction of the workers with the entire intervention was graded as 7.5. The perceived (future) effects on health status were graded as 6.3, and the effects on work ability were graded with a 5.2. The economic recession affected the workers as well as the occupational health service that enacted the implementation. Programme implementation was acceptable. Low reach, limited protocol adherence and modest engagement of the workers with respect

  9. Human factors assessment in PRA using task analysis linked evaluation technique (TALENT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.E.; Banks, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Human error is a primary contributor to risk in complex high-reliability systems. A 1985 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) study of licensee event reports (LERs) suggests that upwards of 65% of commercial nuclear system failures involve human error. Since then, the USNRC has initiated research to fully and properly integrate human errors into the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) process. The resulting implementation procedure is known as the Task Analysis Linked Evaluation Technique (TALENT). As indicated, TALENT is a broad-based method for integrating human factors expertise into the PRA process. This process achieves results which: (1) provide more realistic estimates of the impact of human performance on nuclear power safety, (2) can be fully audited, (3) provide a firm technical base for equipment-centered and personnel-centered retrofit/redesign of plants enabling them to meet internally and externally imposed safety standards, and (4) yield human and hardware data capable of supporting inquiries into human performance issues that transcend the individual plant. The TALENT procedure is being field-tested to verify its effectiveness and utility. The objectives of the field-test are to examine (1) the operability of the process, (2) its acceptability to the users, and (3) its usefulness for achieving measurable improvements in the credibility of the analysis. The field-test will provide the information needed to enhance the TALENT process

  10. Development and evaluation of a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong San; Baek, Dong Hyun; Yoon, Wan Chul

    2010-01-01

    As human error has been recognized as one of the major contributors to accidents in safety-critical systems, there has been a strong need for techniques that can analyze human error effectively. Although many techniques have been developed so far, much room for improvement remains. As human error analysis is a cognitively demanding and time-consuming task, it is particularly necessary to develop a computerized system supporting this task. This paper presents a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations, called Computer-Aided System for Human Error Analysis and Reduction (CAS-HEAR). It supports analysts to find multiple levels of error causes and their causal relations by using predefined links between contextual factors and causal factors as well as links between causal factors. In addition, it is based on a complete accident model; hence, it helps analysts to conduct a thorough analysis without missing any important part of human error analysis. A prototype of CAS-HEAR was evaluated by nine field investigators from six railway organizations in Korea. Its overall usefulness in human error analysis was confirmed, although development of its simplified version and some modification of the contextual factors and causal factors are required in order to ensure its practical use.

  11. Evaluating Failures and near Misses in Human Spaceflight History for Lessons for Future Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Studies done in the past have drawn on lessons learned with regard to human loss-of-life events. However, an examination of near-fatal accidents can be equally useful, not only in detecting causes, both proximate and systemic, but also for determining what factors averted disaster, what design decisions and/or operator actions prevented catastrophe. Binary pass/fail launch history is often used for risk, but this also has limitations. A program with a number of near misses can look more reliable than a consistently healthy program with a single out-of-family failure. Augmenting reliability evaluations with this near miss data can provide insight and expand on the limitations of a strictly pass/fail evaluation. This paper intends to show how near-miss lessons learned can provide crucial data for any new human spaceflight programs that are interested in sending man into space

  12. Improving the Quality of Ward-based Surgical Care With a Human Factors Intervention Bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Maximilian J; Arora, Sonal; King, Dominic; Darzi, Ara

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the impact of a human factors intervention bundle on the quality of ward-based surgical care in a UK hospital. Improving the culture of a surgical team is a difficult task. Engagement with stakeholders before intervention is key. Studies have shown that appropriate supervision can enhance surgical ward safety. A pre-post intervention study was conducted. The intervention bundle consisted of twice-daily attending ward rounds, a "chief resident of the week" available at all times on the ward, an escalation of care protocol and team contact cards. Twenty-seven junior and senior surgeons completed validated questionnaires assessing supervision, escalation of care, and safety culture pre and post-intervention along with interviews to further explore the impact of the intervention. Patient outcomes pre and postintervention were also analyzed. Questionnaires revealed significant improvements in supervision postintervention (senior median pre 5 vs post 7, P = 0.002 and junior 4 vs 6, P = 0.039) and senior surgeon approachability (junior 5 vs 6, P = 0.047). Both groups agreed that they would feel safer as a patient in their hospital postintervention (senior 3 vs 4.5, P = 0.021 and junior 3 vs 4, P = 0.034). The interviews confirmed that the safety culture of the department had improved. There were no differences in inpatient mortality, cardiac arrest, reoperation, or readmission rates pre and postintervention. Improving supervision and introducing clear protocols can improve safety culture on the surgical ward. Future work should evaluate the effect these measures have on patient outcomes in multiple institutions.

  13. Process evaluation of the human reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.P.; Comer, K.

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia National Laboratories have been developing a plan for a human reliability data bank since August 1981. This research is in response to the data need of the nuclear power industry's probabilistic risk assessment community. The three phases of the program are to: (a) develop the data bank concept, (b) develop an implementation plan and conduct a process evaluation, and (c) assist a sponsor in implementing the data bank. The program is now in Phase B. This paper describes the methods used and the results of the process evaluation. Decisions to be made in the future regarding full-scale implementation will be based, in part, on the outcome of this study

  14. Process evaluation of the human reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.P.; Comer, K.

    1984-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia National Laboratories have been developing a plan for a human reliability data bank since August 1981. This research is in response to the data needs of the nuclear power industry's probabilistic risk assessment community. The three phases of the program are to: (A) develop the data bank concept, (B) develop an implementation plan and conduct a process evaluation, and (C) assist a sponsor in implementing the data bank. The program is now in Phase B. This paper describes the methods used and the results of the process evaluation. Decisions to be made in the future regarding full-scale implementation will be based in part on the outcome of this study

  15. Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Orthostatic Tolerance in Aging Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Diqun; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shande; Ross, Sarah; Liu, Howe; Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert; Raven, Peter B; Shi, Xiangrong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training of the elderly will increase aerobic fitness without compromising orthostatic tolerance (OT). Eight healthy sedentary volunteers (67.0 ± 1.7 yr old, four women) participated in 1 yr of endurance exercise training (stationary bicycle and/or treadmill) program at the individuals' 65%-75% of HRpeak. Peak O2 uptake (V˙O2peak) and HRpeak were determined by a maximal exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer. Carotid baroreceptor reflex (CBR) control of HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were assessed by a neck pressure-neck suction protocol. Each subject's maximal gain (Gmax), or sensitivity, of the CBR function curves were derived from fitting their reflex HR and MAP responses to the corresponding neck pressure-neck suction stimuli using a logistic function curve. The subjects' OT was assessed using lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) graded to -50 mm Hg; the sum of the product of LBNP intensity and time (mm Hg·min) was calculated as the cumulative stress index. Training increased V˙O2peak (before vs after: 22.8 ± 0.92 vs 27.9 ± 1.33 mL·min·kg, P stress index was increased from 767 ± 68 mm Hg·min pretraining to 946 ± 44 mm Hg·min posttraining (P Aerobic exercise training improved the aerobic fitness and OT in elderly subjects. An improved OT is likely associated with an enhanced CBR function that has been reset to better maintain cerebral perfusion and cerebral tissue oxygenation during LBNP.

  16. Improving early cycle economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing range and expense of new diagnostics, compels consideration of a different, more proactive approach to health economic evaluation of diagnostic technologies. Early cycle economic evaluation is a decision analytic approach to evaluate technologies in development so as to

  17. A human reliability based usability evaluation method for safety-critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, R. L.; Tran, T. Q.; Gertman, D. I.; Ragsdale, A.

    2006-01-01

    Boring and Gertman (2005) introduced a novel method that augments heuristic usability evaluation methods with that of the human reliability analysis method of SPAR-H. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to individual heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). Although this UEP is not a literal probability of error, it nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. This method allows one to seamlessly prioritize and identify usability issues (i.e., a higher UEP requires more immediate fixes). However, the original version of this method required the usability evaluator to assign priority weights to the final UEP, thus allowing the priority of a usability issue to differ among usability evaluators. The purpose of this paper is to explore an alternative approach to standardize the priority weighting of the UEP in an effort to improve the method's reliability. (authors)

  18. Automating the Human Factors Engineering and Evaluation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastromonico, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a software tool for automating the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) design review, analysis, and evaluation processes. The tool provides a consistent, cost effective, graded, user-friendly approach for evaluating process control system Human System Interface (HSI) specifications, designs, and existing implementations. The initial set of HFE design guidelines, used in the tool, was obtained from NUREG- 0700. Each guideline was analyzed and classified according to its significance (general concept vs. supporting detail), the HSI technology (computer based vs. non-computer based), and the HSI safety function (safety vs. non-safety). Approximately 10 percent of the guidelines were determined to be redundant or obsolete and were discarded. The remaining guidelines were arranged in a Microsoft Access relational database, and a Microsoft Visual Basic user interface was provided to facilitate the HFE design review. The tool also provides the capability to add new criteria to accommodate advances in HSI technology and incorporate lessons learned. Summary reports produced by the tool can be easily ported to Microsoft Word and other popular PC office applications. An IBM compatible PC with Microsoft Windows 95 or higher is required to run the application

  19. Cardiotoxicity evaluation using human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Wang, Xijie; Wang, Shuyan; Song, Zheng; Wang, Jiaxian; Ma, Jing

    2017-03-09

    Cardiotoxicity remains an important concern in drug discovery. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) have become an attractive platform to evaluate cardiotoxicity. However, the consistency between human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) in prediction of cardiotoxicity has yet to be elucidated. Here we screened the toxicities of four representative drugs (E-4031, isoprenaline, quinidine, and haloperidol) using both hESC-CMs and hiPSC-CMs, combined with an impedance-based bioanalytical method. It showed that both hESC-CMs and hiPSC-CMs can recapitulate cardiotoxicity and identify the effects of well-characterized compounds. The combined platform of hPSC-CMs and an impedance-based bioanalytical method could improve preclinical cardiotoxicity screening, holding great potential for increasing drug development accuracy.

  20. Evaluation of Human Enteric Viruses in Surface Water and Drinking Water Resources in Southern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kristen E.; Opryszko, Melissa C.; Schissler, James T.; Guo, Yayi; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 884 million people worldwide do not have access to an improved drinking water source, and the microbial quality of these sources is often unknown. In this study, a combined tangential flow, hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF), and real-time PCR method was applied to large volume (100 L) groundwater (N = 4), surface water (N = 9), and finished (i.e., receiving treatment) drinking water (N = 6) samples for the evaluation of human enteric viruses and bacterial indicators. Human enteric viruses including norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus, and polyomavirus were detected in five different samples including one groundwater, three surface water, and one drinking water sample. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli assessed for each sample before and after UF revealed a lack of correlation between bacterial indicators and the presence of human enteric viruses. PMID:21212196

  1. Towards an Evaluation Framework for Software Process Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chow Kian; Permadi, Rahadian Bayu

    2009-01-01

    Software has gained an essential role in our daily life in the last decades. This condition demands high quality software. To produce high quality software many practitioners and researchers put more attention on the software development process. Large investments are poured to improve the software development process. Software Process Improvement (SPI) is a research area which is aimed to address the assessment and improvement issues in the software development process. One of the most impor...

  2. Application of human engineering to design of central control room and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Mamoru

    1986-01-01

    The central control room of a nuclear power station is the center of the operation control, monitoring and management of the plant, therefore, the design by the application of human engineering has been performed on the basis of the experience and achievement in thermal power stations and other industries. In this report, the application of human engineering to the development of the new control boards for PWRs and the evaluation are described. In a nuclear power station, the number of the machinery and equipment composing it is large, and the interrelation among them is complex, accordingly, in the information processing system for operation monitoring and control, the man-machine interface works with high density. The concept of multiple protection design requires to show numerous plant parameters on a central control board, and this also complicates the man-machine interface. The introduction of human engineering was seriously studied after the TMI accident. In order to increase the safety and reliability of a plant, the new central control and monitoring system aims at facilitating operation and monitoring, and lightening burden and preventing mistakes in handling and judgement. The operational sequence diagram and mock-up varification, the application of human engineering and the evaluation, the synthetic real-time verification at the time of abnormality and accident, and the evaluation of the reliability improvement of men are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Analysis on nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement based on human factor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Liu Yanzi; Sun Yongbin

    2014-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plant control room system is a process of improvement with the implementation of human factor engineering theory and guidance. The method of implementation human factor engineering principles into the nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement was discussed in this paper. It is recommended that comprehensive address should be done from control room system function, human machine interface, digital procedure, control room layout and environment design based on the human factor engineering theory and experience. The main issues which should be paid more attention during the control room system design and improvement also were addressed in this paper, and then advices and notices for the design and improvement of the nuclear power plant control room system were afforded. (authors)

  4. Avaliação da implantação de programa voltado para melhoria da acessibilidade e humanização do acolhimento aos usuários na rede básica: Salvador, 2005-2008 Evaluation of the implementation of a program aiming to improve accessibility and humanization for primary health care users: Salvador, Brazil, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Vieira-da-Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar e monitorar a implantação de um projeto voltado para a ampliação do acesso e a humanização do acolhimento aos usuários da rede básica de Salvador, entre novembro de 2005 e maio de 2008. MÉTODOS: foi realizada uma avaliação da implantação do projeto em três momentos, tanto de uma perspectiva externa, por equipe de consultores, quanto resultado de uma autoavaliação por parte dos Gerentes de Unidades. Com esse objetivo, foi elaborado um modelo lógico da intervenção, do qual foi derivada uma matriz com critérios para a avaliação. RESULTADOS: ao final do primeiro ano, a implantação dos componentes do programa variou entre 45% e 82% das unidades. Seis meses após, verificou-se uma ampliação da implantação. No terceiro e último ano, em 2008, avaliação feita em amostra de 24 Unidades revelou persistência da implantação do projeto, porém com importantes retrocessos. CONCLUSÕES: o elevado grau de implantação verificado, com a redução das filas evitáveis e melhoria da acessibilidade às unidades de saúde, no primeiro ano, pode estar relacionado à estratégia de implantação, bem como a algumas características da gestão municipal. Os autores discutem ainda as possíveis razões dos obstáculos encontrados no contexto da gestão municipal do Sistema Único de Saúde.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate and monitor the implementation of a project aiming to broaden access and humanization of user embracement for users of the primary health care in Salvador, Brazil, between November 2005 and May 2008. METHODS: the implementation of the project was evaluated at three points in time, both externally, by a team of consultants, and internally as part of a self-evaluation by Unit Managers. An intervention logic model was designed for this purpose and a set of evaluation criteria derived from this. RESULTS: at the end of the first year, the implementation of program components varied from 45% to 82% of units. Six

  5. Evaluating Satellite and Supercomputing Technologies for Improved Coastal Ecosystem Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew James

    along the Gulf of Mexico. Land cover assessments could not be used as an explanatory variable because of the low temporal resolution (i.e. approximately one map per five-year period). Ocean color metrics were evaluated against atmospheric, meteorological, and oceanographic variables including precipitation, wind speed, U and V wind vectors, river discharge, and water level over weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual time steps. Climate indices like the North Atlantic Oscillation and El Nino Southern Oscillation index were also examined as possible drivers of long-term changes. Extreme turbidity events were defined by the 90th and 95th percentile observations over each time step. Wind speed, river discharge and El Nino best explained variability in turbidity time-series and extreme events (R2 > 0.2, p Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Southwest Florida Water Management District, and National Wetland Inventory, we found that these historical land cover products overestimated by 2-10 times the actual extent of wetlands as identified in the WorldView-2 maps. We could find no study that had utilized more than six of these commercial images for a given project. Part of the problem is cost of the images, but there is also the cost of processing the images, which is typically done one at a time and with substantial human interaction. Chapter four explains an approach to automate the preprocessing and classification of imagery to detect wetlands within the Tampa Bay watershed (6,500 km2). Software scripts in Python, Matlab and Linux were used to ingest 130 WorldView-2 images and to generate maps that included wetlands, uplands, water, and bare and developed land. These maps proved to be more accurate at identifying forested wetland (78%) than those by NOAA, SWFWMD, and NWI (45-65%) based on ground validation data. Typical processing methods would have required 4-5 months to complete this work, but this protocol completed the 130 images in under 24 hours. Chapter five of the

  6. Improved human tenocyte proliferation and differentiation in vitro by optimized silk degumming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiao; Qiu Yiwei; Carr, Andrew J; Triffitt, James T; Sabokbar, Afsie; Xia Zhidao, E-mail: z.xia@swansea.ac.uk [Botnar Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Tendon disorders are common clinical conditions. Tendon tissue engineering provides a new approach for tendon repair by integrating engineered substitutes with their native counterparts. Silk is considered to be a promising candidate for tendon engineering because of its biological and mechanical properties. However, a major concern with using silk for biomedical applications is the immune responses generated by sericin, a glue-like protein that coats the silk fibres. This study improves the existing protocols for silk 'degumming' which removes sericin and enables preparation of silk that is suitable for tendon regeneration. Bombyx mori silks were treated by sequential treatments with different proteases. The efficiency of degumming was determined by measuring weight loss, picric acid and carmine staining and scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate the cellular responses after degumming, the growth and differentiation of human tenocytes on silks were examined. The results showed that sequential protease treatment effectively degummed raw silks. The sequentially degummed silks showed enhanced tenocyte proliferation and upregulated mRNA levels of tendon markers. Thick cell multilayers formed on the treated silks, with cells and collagen fibres penetrating into the spaces in individual silk filaments, resulting in a structure resembling human tendon.

  7. Improved human tenocyte proliferation and differentiation in vitro by optimized silk degumming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Wang; Yiwei, Qiu; Carr, Andrew J; Triffitt, James T; Sabokbar, Afsie; Xia Zhidao, E-mail: z.xia@swansea.ac.uk [Botnar Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Tendon disorders are common clinical conditions. Tendon tissue engineering provides a new approach for tendon repair by integrating engineered substitutes with their native counterparts. Silk is considered to be a promising candidate for tendon engineering because of its biological and mechanical properties. However, a major concern with using silk for biomedical applications is the immune responses generated by sericin, a glue-like protein that coats the silk fibres. This study improves the existing protocols for silk 'degumming' which removes sericin and enables preparation of silk that is suitable for tendon regeneration. Bombyx mori silks were treated by sequential treatments with different proteases. The efficiency of degumming was determined by measuring weight loss, picric acid and carmine staining and scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate the cellular responses after degumming, the growth and differentiation of human tenocytes on silks were examined. The results showed that sequential protease treatment effectively degummed raw silks. The sequentially degummed silks showed enhanced tenocyte proliferation and upregulated mRNA levels of tendon markers. Thick cell multilayers formed on the treated silks, with cells and collagen fibres penetrating into the spaces in individual silk filaments, resulting in a structure resembling human tendon.

  8. Quality Rating and Improvement System State Evaluations and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A quality rating and improvement system (QRIS) is a method used by states and local jurisdictions to assess the level of quality of child care and early education programs, improve quality, and convey quality ratings to parents and other consumers. A typical QRIS incorporates the following components: quality standards for participating providers;…

  9. A Human/Computer Learning Network to Improve Biodiversity Conservation and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kelling, Steve; Gerbracht, Jeff; Fink, Daniel; Lagoze, Carl; Wong, Weng-Keen; Yu, Jun; Damoulas, Theodoros; Gomes, Carla

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe eBird, a citizen-science project that takes advantage of the human observational capacity to identify birds to species, which is then used to accurately represent patterns of bird occurrences across broad spatial and temporal extents. eBird employs artificial intelligence techniques such as machine learning to improve data quality by taking advantage of the synergies between human computation and mechanical computation. We call this a Human-Computer Learning Network,...

  10. An Improved Methodology to Overcome Key Issues in Human Fecal Metagenomic DNA Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Manoj; Gupta, Shashank

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and recent culture-independent studies have highlighted the significance of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Fecal DNA is the primary source for the majority of human gut microbiome studies. However, further improvement is needed to obta...

  11. Spatio-Temporal Layout of Human Actions for Improved Bag-of-Words Action Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how human action recognition can be improved by considering spatio-temporal layout of actions. From literature, we adopt a pipeline consisting of STIP features, a random forest to quantize the features into histograms, and an SVM classifier. Our goal is to detect 48 human actions,

  12. An improvement of the applicability of human factors guidelines for coping with human factors issues in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lee, J. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Human factors have been well known as one of the key factors to the system effectiveness as well as the efficiency and safety of nuclear power plants(NPPs). Human factors engineering(HFE) are included in periodic safety review(PSR) on the existing NPPs and the formal safety assessment for the new ones. However, HFE for NPPs is still neither popular in practice nor concrete in methodology. Especially, the human factors guidelines, which are the most frequent form of human factors engineering in practice, reveal the limitations in their applications. We discuss the limitations and their casual factors found in human factors guidelines in order to lesson the workload of HFE practitioners and to improve the applicability of human factors guidelines. According to the purposes and the phases of HFE for NPPs, more selective items and specified criteria should be prepared carefully in the human factors guidelines for the each HFE applications in practice. These finding on the human factors guidelines can be transferred to the other HFE application field, such as military, aviation, telecommunication, HCI, and product safety

  13. Do clinical safety charts improve paramedic key performance indicator results? (A clinical improvement programme evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Phillip; Middleton, Paul M; Bonner, Ann; Loudfoot, Allan; Elliott, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Is the Clinical Safety Chart clinical improvement programme (CIP) effective at improving paramedic key performance indicator (KPI) results within the Ambulance Service of New South Wales? The CIP intervention area was compared with the non-intervention area in order to determine whether there was a statistically significant improvement in KPI results. The CIP was associated with a statistically significant improvement in paramedic KPI results within the intervention area. The strategies used within this CIP are recommended for further consideration.

  14. Prioritizing Improvable Human Capital Processes in Esfahan Oil Refinery Company Based on PCF and by IPA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Behmanesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Development and management of human capital is an important task because it affects the performance of organization and hence the process improvements. However, it is necessary to deploy performance evaluation to prioritize improvable processes due to limited human resource, time and equipments. The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of the developed and managed human capital based upon the predetermined key performance indicators of American Productivity and Quality Center (APQC and to prioritize processes by Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA approach. As a case study, Esfahan Oil Refining Company (EORC has been studied. In order to analyze hypotheses, the state of human resource has been determined through data extracting among the best practice industries, and hence the strengths and weaknesses of the EORC have been identified. Finally, fuzzy numbers have been assigned to the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs and then the processes have been measured using the average value of its related KPIs. Consequently, the importance of the developed and managed human capital processes could be determined using the five points Likert spectrum. The reliability of the questionnaire has been determined by the Cronbach's Alpha of higher than 0.7, which is satisfactory. Findings imply that 10 out of 35 HCM processes in needs of improvement are prioritized as managing employee performance managing employee relations managing employee orientation and deployment developing and managing employee metrics developing and training employees managing employee communication managing human resource information systems (HRIS managing and maintaining employee data managing employee inquiry process and developing and managing time and attendance.

  15. An improved multileaving algorithm for online ranker evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brost, Brian; Cox, Ingemar Johansson; Seldin, Yevgeny

    2016-01-01

    Online ranker evaluation is a key challenge in information retrieval. An important task in the online evaluation of rankers is using implicit user feedback for inferring preferences between rankers. Interleaving methods have been found to be ecient and sensitive, i.e. they can quickly detect even...

  16. Improving Teacher Evaluation Systems: Making the Most of Multiple Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Jason A., Ed.; Youngs, Peter, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book to gather and address what we have learned about the impacts and challenges of data-intensive teacher evaluation systems--a defining characteristic of the current education policy landscape. Expert researchers and practitioners speak to what we know (and what remains to be known) about evaluation measures themselves, the…

  17. Evaluation of HeartMath Training Programme for Improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of a HeartMath training apparatus on personal resilience and physiological coherence. A within group, pre-test and post-test, outcome evaluative design was employed to assess changes in dependent variables. A small convenience sample of 6 participants, 4 women and ...

  18. It's Your Evaluation--Collaborating to Improve Teacher Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The most fundamental reason why teachers are evaluated is because public schools take public money, and the public has a right to expect high-quality teaching. But there are two more basic purposes: (1) to ensure teacher quality; and (2) to promote professional development. The challenge is merging these two purposes of teacher evaluation.…

  19. Genetic engineering of human NK cells to express CXCR2 improves migration to renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Veronika; Ligtenberg, Maarten A; Zendehdel, Rosa; Seitz, Christina; Duivenvoorden, Annet; Wennerberg, Erik; Colón, Eugenia; Scherman-Plogell, Ann-Helén; Lundqvist, Andreas

    2017-09-19

    Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell transfer is being increasingly used as cancer treatment. However, clinical responses have so far been limited to patients with hematological malignancies. A potential limiting factor in patients with solid tumors is defective homing of the infused NK cells to the tumor site. Chemokines regulate the migration of leukocytes expressing corresponding chemokine receptors. Various solid tumors, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), readily secrete ligands for the chemokine receptor CXCR2. We hypothesize that infusion of NK cells expressing high levels of the CXCR2 chemokine receptor will result in increased influx of the transferred NK cells into tumors, and improved clinical outcome in patients with cancer. Blood and tumor biopsies from 14 primary RCC patients were assessed by flow cytometry and chemokine analysis. Primary NK cells were transduced with human CXCR2 using a retroviral system. CXCR2 receptor functionality was determined by Calcium flux and NK cell migration was evaluated in transwell assays. We detected higher concentrations of CXCR2 ligands in tumors compared with plasma of RCC patients. In addition, CXCL5 levels correlated with the intratumoral infiltration of CXCR2-positive NK cells. However, tumor-infiltrating NK cells from RCC patients expressed lower CXCR2 compared with peripheral blood NK cells. Moreover, healthy donor NK cells rapidly lost their CXCR2 expression upon in vitro culture and expansion. Genetic modification of human primary NK cells to re-express CXCR2 improved their ability to specifically migrate along a chemokine gradient of recombinant CXCR2 ligands or RCC tumor supernatants compared with controls. The enhanced trafficking resulted in increased killing of target cells. In addition, while their functionality remained unchanged compared with control NK cells, CXCR2-transduced NK cells obtained increased adhesion properties and formed more conjugates with target cells. To increase the success of NK

  20. Fiscal 1999 technological survey report. Part 1. Applied technology for measuring human sense (Human sense measuring manual - human sense evaluation index guideline); Ningen kankaku keisoku manual. 1. Ningen kankaku hyoka shihyo guide line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A method of measuring/evaluating a mental and physical state by means of physiological information developed by a project was compiled into a 'guide book', as was a method of evaluating adaptability to the environment or products; and, this manual was prepared for the purpose of improving the adaptability of human beings to products by making use of the guide book widely in the field of industrial manufacturing. Described in the part 1 are a method of evaluating human mind and body by the measurement of physiological quantity, a method of evaluating mental and physical adaptability from the element of environmental physics such as vision, sound and warmth, and a method of evaluating adaptability concerning utilization of machines and equipment, as 'human sense evaluation indexes'. The chapter 1 is the index of physiological/psychological state (stress evaluation index, fatigue/awakening evaluation index), the chapter 2 is an environmental/psychological index (overall environmental evaluation index, visual environmental effect index, sound/vibration environmental evaluation index, thermal environmental evaluation index), the chapter 3 is an adaptability evaluation index of products and the like (adaptability evaluation index by form and movement, evaluation index for operability of equipment for example), and the chapter 4 is the guideline (of environmental design and of product design). (NEDO)

  1. Genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells produce IL-3 and TPO to further improve human scaffold-based xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, Marco; de Boer, Bauke; Jaques, Jenny; Antonelli, Antonella; Horton, Sarah J; Yuan, Huipin; de Bruijn, Joost D; Groen, Richard W J; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2017-07-01

    Recently, NOD-SCID IL2Rγ -/- (NSG) mice were implanted with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the presence of ceramic scaffolds or Matrigel to mimic the human bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. This approach allowed the engraftment of leukemic samples that failed to engraft in NSG mice without humanized niches and resulted in a better preservation of leukemic stem cell self-renewal properties. To further improve our humanized niche scaffold model, we genetically engineered human MSCs to secrete human interleukin-3 (IL-3) and thrombopoietin (TPO). In vitro, these IL-3- and TPO-producing MSCs were superior in expanding human cord blood (CB) CD34 + hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. MLL-AF9-transduced CB CD34 + cells could be transformed efficiently along myeloid or lymphoid lineages on IL-3- and TPO-producing MSCs. In vivo, these genetically engineered MSCs maintained their ability to differentiate into bone, adipocytes, and other stromal components. Upon transplantation of MLL-AF9-transduced CB CD34 + cells, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) developed in engineered scaffolds, in which a significantly higher percentage of myeloid clones was observed in the mouse compartments compared with previous models. Engraftment of primary AML, B-cell ALL, and biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) patient samples was also evaluated, and all patient samples could engraft efficiently; the myeloid compartment of the BAL samples was better preserved in the human cytokine scaffold model. In conclusion, we show that we can genetically engineer the ectopic human BM microenvironment in a humanized scaffold xenograft model. This approach will be useful for functional study of the importance of niche factors in normal and malignant human hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2017 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. All rights reserved.

  2. Mesenchymal stromal cells improve human islet function through released products and extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzouni, Ahmed A; Vargas-Seymour, Andreia; Rackham, Chloe L; Dhadda, Paramjeet; Huang, Guo-Cai; Choudhary, Pratik; Nardi, Nance; King, Aileen J F; Jones, Peter M

    2017-12-01

    The aims of the present study were (i) to determine whether the reported beneficial effects of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) on mouse islet function extend to clinically relevant human tissues (islets and MSCs), enabling translation into improved protocols for clinical human islet transplantation; and (ii) to identify possible mechanisms through which human MSCs influence human islet function. Human islets were co-cultured with human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hASCs) or pre-treated with its products - extracellular matrix (ECM) and annexin A1 (ANXA1). Mouse islets were pre-treated with mouse MSC-derived ECM. Islet insulin secretory function was assessed in vitro by radioimmunoassay. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to screen human adipMSCs for potential ligands of human islet G-protein-coupled receptors. We show that co-culture with hASCs improves human islet secretory function in vitro , as measured by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, confirming previous reports using rodent tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these beneficial effects on islet function can be partly attributed to the MSC-derived products ECM and ANXA1. Our results suggest that hASCs have the potential to improve the quality of human islets isolated for transplantation therapy of Type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, it may be possible to achieve improvements in human islet quality in a cell-free culture system by using the MSC-derived products ANXA1 and ECM. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. Sensory evaluation of amala from improved water yam (Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Production of improved water yam (Dioscorea alata) genotypes that are .... 25% grey ... The colour shades of the prepared (cooked) amala .... 41-50. Ukpabi UJ, Omodamiro RM (2007). Potential use of polyethylene film in.

  4. Evaluation of approaches for improving diesel cold flow properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, Ilshat; Stratiev, Dicho; Dinkov, Rossen [Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas AD, Bourgas (Bulgaria); Bachvarov, Assen [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom); Petkov, Petko [Bourgas Univ. ' ' Assen Zlatarov' ' (Bulgaria)

    2012-06-15

    Four heavy diesel fractions (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of about 420 C), one lower boilingmiddle distillate fraction (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of 310 C) and kerosene fraction (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of 271 C) obtained from the Lukoil Neftochim Burgas (LNB) process units during the processing of Russian Export Crude Blend (REBCO) along with four heavy diesel fractions (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of about 370 C) obtained by fractionation of four crudes: Oil Blend, REBCO, Siberian Light Crude Oil (SLCO) and CPC (Caspian Consortium Pipeline) were investigated for their cold flow properties. It was found that undercutting diesel improves cloud point (CP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) by 4 C/10 C cut point. Blending of kerosene improves CP and CFPP by about 2 C/10% added kerosene. The treatment with CP depressants may improve CP by about 2 C if the proper combination diesel - depressant is selected and the improvement can reach up to 6 C for a definite diesel. The treatment with CFPP depressant is much more efficient achieving an improvement of 18 C. By assuming definite fuel prices (Platts) and by applying the LNB linear programming model using Honeywell's RPMS software it was found that catalytic dewaxing is the most efficient approach for producing diesel with improved cold flowproperties if the diesel yield from the dewaxing process is higher than 90%. (orig.)

  5. Development of a Human Performance Evaluation Support System for Human Factors Validation of MCR MMI Design in APR-1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    As CRT-based display and advanced information technology were applied to advanced reactors such as APR-1400 (Advanced Power Reactor-1400), human operators' tasks became more cognitive works. As a results, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) became more important in designing the MCR (Main Control Room) MMI (Man-Machine Interface) of an advanced reactor. According to the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model, human factors validation of MCR MMI design should be performed through performance-based tests to determine whether it acceptably supports safe operation of the plant. In order to support the evaluation of the performance, a HUman Performance Evaluation Support System (HUPESS) is in development

  6. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques -The development of human factors technologies-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Seok; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1994-04-01

    In the 2nd year of the research project for the development of human factors evaluation techniques, we first defined the experimental target systems by the comparison study of the advanced control rooms proposed by foreign countries in order to make the experiment feasible and realistic for the 10 experimental items selected in the first year of the project. Then we have decided to confine our research on the big board overview panel and operator workstations. Following the development of selection criteria for our research interest, we have identified the design variables which may influence the performance of the operator by the functional analysis. The experimental variables which will be used for the evaluation of the proposed items are then defined by the relational analysis between evaluation items and design variables and they are classified by the characteristics of the measurement data. The functional requirements of ITF are developed to accommodate the necessary functions for carrying out the 10 evaluation items. The functional requirements for each sub-system of ITF have been developed with the experimental paradigm of APTEA. Finally we have reviewed the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) at KAERI from the point of view of jyman factors guidelines/principles and proposed the two possible layouts for the experimental apparatus for the evaluation of display alternative and operational procedure. (Author)

  7. Economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccination in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Choi, Yoon Hong; Edmunds, W John

    2008-07-17

    To assess the cost effectiveness of routine vaccination of 12 year old schoolgirls against human papillomavirus infection in the United Kingdom. Economic evaluation. UK. Population Schoolgirls aged 12 or older. Costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost effectiveness ratios for a range of vaccination options. Vaccinating 12 year old schoolgirls with a quadrivalent vaccine at 80% coverage is likely to be cost effective at a willingness to pay threshold of pound30,000 (euro37,700; $59,163) per QALY gained, if the average duration of protection from the vaccine is more than 10 years. Implementing a catch-up campaign of girls up to age 18 is likely to be cost effective. Vaccination of boys is unlikely to be cost effective. A bivalent vaccine with the same efficacy against human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 costing pound13- pound21 less per dose (depending on the duration of vaccine protection) may be as cost effective as the quadrivalent vaccine although less effective as it does not prevent anogenital warts. Routine vaccination of 12 year old schoolgirls combined with an initial catch-up campaign up to age 18 is likely to be cost effective in the UK. The results are robust to uncertainty in many parameters and processes. A key influential variable is the duration of vaccine protection.

  8. Evaluation of human-induced vibration of continuous footbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Robaa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of construction materials and the introduction of high strength steel and concrete, the human-induced vibration became a dominant criterion for the design of pedestrian bridges. Currently, longer spans and lightweight bridges have been comprised in most of design trends. This leads to lower the natural frequencies of the system which have a great effect on the dynamic performance of bridges subjected to human activities. Although the design of steel footbridges could reach the optimum level of design in terms of strength criterion, it might not reach the acceptance level for vibration condition. This will enforce the designer to choose section profiles with higher inertia to enhance stiffness of the whole system. This paper presents an overall assessment for floor vibration problem due to pedestrian induced vertical forces on continuous composite footbridges. The footfall method presented by concrete centre “CCIP-016” is adopted in this study to evaluate the response factor and acceleration of pedestrian bridges using a FEA software package “Robot Structural Analysis”.

  9. Evaluation of human muscle in vivo by potassium radiometric measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Wanderson de P.

    2000-01-01

    Potassium is an essential element to the human metabolism and is present in all living cells, mainly in the striated muscular fibers. K-40 is one of the natural potassium isotopes with mass percentage of 0,0118% . This isotope emits beta particle and gamma rays with 1460 keV. The energy of K-40 photon and its uniform distribution within the human body allows its in vivo measurement. The objective of this study is to optimize this technique and evaluate the possibility of its medical application in order to quantify muscle increase during recovering procedures. Subjects of both sexes measured until this moment were divided into two groups. Subjects of Group 1 do not exercise routinely and subjects of Group 2 does. In Group 1 the average potassium mass, muscle mass and potassium concentration were (101±16)g of K, (20±3)kg of muscle and (1,3±0,3)g of K/kg of body mass, respectively, while in Group 2 average values were (125±38)g of K, (25±8)kg of muscle and (1,7±0,2)g of K/kg of body mass. The comparison between average values shows a clear difference, which allows to correlate a higher K mass with routine body activity. The technique has shown enough sensitivity for this application. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Hemagglutination Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles Using Human Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Muniz de Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed chains of β-(1-4 D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This compound is obtained by partial or total deacetylation of chitin in acidic solution. The chitosan-based hemostatic agents have been gaining much attention in the management of bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro hemagglutination activity of chitosan nanoparticles using human erythrocytes. The preparation of nanoparticles was achieved by ionotropic gelification technique followed by neutralization with NaOH 1 mol/L−1. The hemagglutination activity was performed on a solution of 2% erythrocytes (pH 7.4 on PBS collected from five healthy volunteers. The hemolysis determination was made by spectrophotometric analysis. Chitosan nanoparticle solutions without NaOH addition changed the reddish colour of the wells into brown, suggesting an oxidative reaction of hemoglobin and possible cell lysis. All neutralized solutions of chitosan nanoparticles presented positive haemagglutination, without any change in reaction color. Chitosan nanoparticles presented hemolytic activity ranging from 186.20 to 223.12%, while neutralized solutions ranged from 2.56 to 72.54%, comparing to distilled water. Results highlight the need for development of new routes of synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles within human physiologic pH.

  11. Toward an Improved Method of HSI Evaluation in Defense Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Each of the domains of HSI is of itself a discipline with vast amounts of research, analytic techniques, educational programs, and methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the system with respect...

  12. Packaging Evaluation Approach to Improve Cosmetic Product Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta Briasco; Priscilla Capra; Arianna Cecilia Cozzi; Barbara Mannucci; Paola Perugini

    2016-01-01

    In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packag...

  13. Evaluation and Improvement of Lighting Efficiency in Working Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Castillo-Martinez; Jose-Amelio Medina-Merodio; Jose-Maria Gutierrez-Martinez; Juan Aguado-Delgado; Carmen de-Pablos-Heredero; Salvador Otón

    2018-01-01

    Lighting is an essential element for modern life, promoting a sense of wellbeing for users. However, bad illumination may produce health problems such as headaches and fatigue, among other vision problems. For that reason, this paper proposes the development of a smartphone-based application to help in lighting evaluation to guarantee the compliance of illumination regulations and to help increase illuminance efficiency, reducing its energy consumption. To perform this evaluation, the smartph...

  14. Grammatical Templates: Improving Text Difficulty Evaluation for Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuhan; Andersen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Language students are most engaged while reading texts at an appropriate difficulty level. However, existing methods of evaluating text difficulty focus mainly on vocabulary and do not prioritize grammatical features, hence they do not work well for language learners with limited knowledge of grammar. In this paper, we introduce grammatical templates, the expert-identified units of grammar that students learn from class, as an important feature of text difficulty evaluation. Experimental clas...

  15. An evaluation of human factors research for ultrasonic inservice inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, D.J.; Donohoo, D.T.; Harris, R.V. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine if human factors research has yielded information applicable to upgrading requirements in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, improving methods and techniques in Section V, and/or suggesting relevant research. A preference was established for information and recommendations which have become accepted and standard practice. Manual Ultrasonic Testing/Inservice Inspection (UT/ISI) is a complex task subject to influence by dozens of variables. This review frequently revealed equivocal findings regarding effects of environmental variables as well as repeated indications that inspection performance may be more, and more reliably, influenced by the workers' social environment, including managerial practices, than by other situational variables. Also of significance are each inspector's relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities, and determination of these is seen as a necessary first step in upgrading requirements, methods, and techniques as well as in focusing research in support of such programs, While understanding the effects and mediating mechanisms of the variables impacting inspection performance is a worthwhile pursuit for researchers, initial improvements in industrial UTASI performance may be achieved by implementing practices already known to mitigate the effects of potentially adverse conditions. 52 refs., 2 tabs

  16. An evaluation of human factors research for ultrasonic inservice inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, D.J.; Donohoo, D.T.; Harris, R.V. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine if human factors research has yielded information applicable to upgrading requirements in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, improving methods and techniques in Section V, and/or suggesting relevant research. A preference was established for information and recommendations which have become accepted and standard practice. Manual Ultrasonic Testing/Inservice Inspection (UT/ISI) is a complex task subject to influence by dozens of variables. This review frequently revealed equivocal findings regarding effects of environmental variables as well as repeated indications that inspection performance may be more, and more reliably, influenced by the workers` social environment, including managerial practices, than by other situational variables. Also of significance are each inspector`s relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities, and determination of these is seen as a necessary first step in upgrading requirements, methods, and techniques as well as in focusing research in support of such programs, While understanding the effects and mediating mechanisms of the variables impacting inspection performance is a worthwhile pursuit for researchers, initial improvements in industrial UTASI performance may be achieved by implementing practices already known to mitigate the effects of potentially adverse conditions. 52 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Improvement of Radiation-Mediated Immunosuppression of Human NSCLC Tumour Xenografts in a Nude Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Tokalov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human tumour xenografts in a nude rat model have consistently been used as an essential part of preclinical studies for anticancer drugs activity in human. Commonly, these animals receive whole body irradiation to assure immunosuppression. But whole body dose delivery might be inhomogeneous and the resulting incomplete bone marrow depletion may modify tumour behaviour. To improve irradiation-mediated immunosuppression of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC xenografts in a nude rat model irradiation (2 + 2 Gy from opposite sides of animals has been performed using a conventional X-ray tube. The described modification of whole body irradiation improves growth properties of human NSCLC xenografts in a nude rat model. The design of the whole body irradiation mediated immunosuppression described here for NSCLC xenografts may be useful for research applications involving other types of human tumours.

  18. Evaluating Fidelity to a Modified NIATx Process Improvement Strategy for Improving HIV Services in Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Jennifer; Willett, Jennifer; Yang, Yang; Swan, Holly; Dembo, Richard; Burdon, William M; Patterson, Yvonne; Pearson, Frank S; Belenko, Steven; Frisman, Linda K

    2018-04-01

    In a study aimed at improving the quality of HIV services for inmates, an organizational process improvement strategy using change teams was tested in 14 correctional facilities in 8 US states and Puerto Rico. Data to examine fidelity to the process improvement strategy consisted of quantitative ratings of the structural and process components of the strategy and qualitative notes that explicate challenges in maintaining fidelity to the strategy. Fidelity challenges included (1) lack of communication and leadership within change teams, (2) instability in team membership, and (3) issues with data utilization in decision-making to implement improvements to services delivery.

  19. Quality of care in reproductive health programmes: monitoring and evaluation of quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwast, B E

    1998-12-01

    As 200 million women become pregnant every year, at least 30 million will develop life-threatening complications requiring emergency treatment at any level of society where they live. But it is a basic human right that pregnancy be made safe for all women as complications are mostly unpredictable. This requires reproductive health programmes which are responsive to women's and their families' needs and expectations on the one hand and enhancement of community participation, high quality obstetric services, and both provider collaboration and satisfaction on the other. Monitoring and evaluation of these facets need to be an integral part of any safe motherhood programme, not only to assess progress, but also to use this information for subsequent planning and implementation cycles of national programmes. Lessons learned from ten years' implementation of Safe Motherhood programmes indicate that process and outcome indicators are more feasible for short-term evaluation purposes than impact indicators, such as maternal mortality reduction. The former are described in this paper with relevant country examples. This is the third, and last, article in a series on quality of care in reproductive health programmes. The first (Kwast 1998a) contains an overview of concepts, assessments, barriers and improvements of quality of care. The second (Kwast 1998b) addresses education issues for quality improvement.

  20. Chronobiological methods of human body self-regulation reserve evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Zaguskin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims Chronodiagnostical methods for evaluating reserve and unfavourable responses of human cardiac function and under prolonged stress load. Materials and methods 24-h ECG R–R interval recording of Holter-monitoring ECG recording and 1-h IPI and RespI recordings of healthy young and elderly subjects, post- MI patients, subjects suffered from chronic cerebral ischemia leading to a cognitive decline, healthy subjects following post-stress load, as well as R– R intervals recordings of the AHA ECG database of heart failure and AF. Chronodiagnostics, using non-linear symbolic dynamics method and redundancy quotient of ECG PI, RespI and R– R intervals; differential temperature survey to evaluate cellular immunity; biocontrolled laser therapy. Results Self-regulation reserve reduction of oxygen transfer body systems and increase in unfavourable response probability under stress load are accompanied by the amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient in the ECG IPI, RespI and R–R intervals, as well as increase of hierarchical desynchronosis with dominating sympathicotonia and vagotonia, decrease in cellular immunity, reduction in rate spectrum of the ECG IPI and R–R intervals. Conclusion Symbolic dynamics method provides distinction between age-related and abnormal changes in hierarchy of cardiac rhythms. The amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient indicates the increase of control intensity with oxygen transfer body systems and predicts the reduction of self-regulation reserve in cardiac rhythms and unfavourable response probability.

  1. Improvement of Heart Failure by Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Tousi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Nobakht, Maliheh; Molazem, Mohammad; Kalantari, Elham; Darbandi Azar, Amir; Aboutaleb, Nahid

    2016-07-06

    Background: Recently, stem cells have been considered for the treatment of heart diseases, but no marked improvement has been recorded. This is the first study to examine the functional and histological effects of the transplantation of human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) in rats with heart failure (HF). Methods: This study was conducted in the years 2014 and 2015. 35 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 5 equal experimental groups (7 rats each) as 1- Control 2- Heart Failure (HF) 3- Sham 4- Culture media 5- Stem Cell Transplantation (SCT). Heart failure was induced using 170 mg/kg/d of isoproterenol subcutaneously injection in 4 consecutive days. The failure confirmed by the rat cardiac echocardiography on day 28. In SCT group, 3×10 6 cells in 150 µl of culture media were transplanted to the myocardium. At the end, echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters together with histological evaluation were done. Results: Echocardiography results showed that cardiac ejection fraction in HF group increased from 58/73 ± 9% to 81/25 ± 6/05% in SCT group (p value < 0.001). Fraction shortening in HF group was increased from 27/53 ± 8/58% into 45/55 ± 6/91% in SCT group (p value < 0.001). Furthermore, hAMSCs therapy significantly improved mean diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, rate pressure product, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure compared to those in the HF group, with the values reaching the normal levels in the control group. A marked reduction in fibrosis tissue was also found in the SCT group (p value < 0.001) compared with the animals in the HF group. Conclusion: The transplantation of hAMSCs in rats with heart failure not only decreased the level of fibrosis but also conferred significant improvement in heart performance in terms of echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters.

  2. The Regulatory Evaluation of Vaccines for Human Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, Norman W

    2016-01-01

    A vaccine is an immunogen, the administration of which is intended to stimulate the immune system to result in the prevention, amelioration, or therapy of any disease or infection (US Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry: content and format of chemistry, manufacturing, and controls information and establishment description information for a vaccine or related product). A vaccine may be a live attenuated preparation of microorganisms, inactivated (killed) whole organisms, living irradiated cells, crude fractions, or purified immunogens, including those derived from recombinant DNA in a host cell, conjugates formed by covalent linkage of components, synthetic antigens, polynucleotides (such as the plasmid DNA vaccines), living vectored cells expressing specific heterologous immunogens, or cells pulsed with immunogen. Vaccines are highly complex products that differ from small molecule drugs because of the biological nature of the source materials such as those derived from microorganisms as well as the various cell substrates from which some are derived. Regardless of the technology used, because of their complexities, vaccines must undergo extensive characterization and testing. Special expertise and procedures are needed for their manufacture, control, and regulation. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) in the United States responsible for assuring quality, safety, and effectiveness of all human medical products, including vaccines for human use.The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) within the US FDA is responsible for overseeing the regulation of therapeutic and preventative vaccines against infectious diseases. Authority for the regulation of vaccines resides in Section 351 of the Public Health Service Act and specific sections of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C). Vaccines are regulated as biologics and licensed based on the demonstration of safety and effectiveness. The

  3. Land Evaluation for improved Rice Production in Watari Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... suggested to overcome these limitation and upgrade the suitability of the mapping units for increased rice production are; application of inorganic fertilizer, improve the low levels of nutrients and organic matter contents of the soil in the area and other recommendations include land leveling and conservation measures to ...

  4. A Critical Evaluation and Framework of Business Process Improvement Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanwersch, R.J.B.; Shahzad, K.; Vanderfeesten, I.; Vanhaecht, K.; Grefen, P.; Pintelon, L.M.; Mendling, J.; van Merode, G.G.; Reijers, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    The redesign of business processes has a huge potential in terms of reducing costs and throughput times, as well as improving customer satisfaction. Despite rapid developments in the business process management discipline during the last decade, a comprehensive overview of the options to

  5. Evaluating School Improvement Plans and Their Affect on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    The development of a school improvement plan (SIP) has become an integral part of many school reform efforts. However, there are almost no studies that empirically examine the effectiveness of SIPs. The few studies examining the planning activities of organizations have generally focused on the private sector and have not provided clear or…

  6. A critical evaluation and framework of business process improvement methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanwersch, R.J.B.; Shahzad, K.; Vanderfeesten, I.T.P.; Vanhaecht, K.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Pintelon, L.M.; Mendling, J.; Merode, van G.G.; Reijers, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    The redesign of business processes has a huge potential in terms of reducing costs and throughput times, as well as improving customer satisfaction. Despite rapid developments in the business process management discipline during the last decade, a comprehensive overview of the options to

  7. Field evaluation of improved cowpea lines for resistance to bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... The average productivity of cowpea in the existing traditional systems is low due to a complex of biotic and abiotic stresses. The biotic factors include insect pests, parasitic plants, and viral, fungal and bacterial diseases. Concerted efforts are being made to develop improved cowpea varieties with combined ...

  8. A study on the dependency evaluation for multiple human actions in human reliability analysis of probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Yang, J. E.; Jung, W. D.; Sung, T. Y.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J.; Kim, K. Y.; Jin, Y. H.; Kim, S. C.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the study results on the method of the dependency evaluation and the modeling, and the limited value of human error probability (HEP) for multiple human actions in accident sequences of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). THERP and Parry's method, which have been generally used in dependency evaluation of human reliability analysis (HRA), are introduced and their limitations are discussed. New dependency evaluation method in HRA is established to make up for the weak points of THERP and Parry's methods. The limited value of HEP is also established based on the review of several HRA related documents. This report describes the definition, the type, the evaluation method, and the evaluation example of dependency to help the reader's understanding. It is expected that this study results will give a guidance to HRA analysts in dependency evaluation of multiple human actions and enable PSA analysts to understand HRA in detail. (author). 23 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Evaluation of economic efficiency of process improvement in food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, we make gains in process by the three fundamental ways. First, we define or redefine our process in a strategic sense. Second, once defined or redefined, we commence process operations and use process control methods to target and stabilize our process. Third, we use process improvement methods, as described in this paper, along with process control to fully exploit our process management and/or technology. Process improvement is focused primarily in our subprocesses and sub-subprocesses. Process leverage is the key to process improvement initiatives. This means that small improvements of the basic manufacturing operations can have (with the assumption of mass repetition of the operation a big impact on the functioning of the whole production unit. The complexity within even small organizations, in people, products, and processes, creates significant challenges in effectively and efficiently using these initiatives tools. In this paper we are going to place process purposes in the foreground and initiatives and tools in the background as facilitator to help accomplish process purpose. Initiatives and tools are not the ends we are seeking; result/outcomes in physical, economics, timeliness, and customer service performance matter. In the paper process boundaries (in a generic sense are set by our process purpose and our process definition. Process improvement is initiated within our existing process boundaries. For example, in a fast-food restaurant, if we define our cooking process around a frying technology, then we provide process improvements within our frying technology. On the other hand, if we are considering changing to a broiling technology, then we are likely faced with extensive change, impacting our external customers, and a process redefinition may be required. The result / aim of the paper are based on the example of the process improving of a food packaging quality. Specifically, the integration of two approaches

  10. Developing and evaluating distributions for probabilistic human exposure assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2002-08-01

    This report describes research carried out at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assist the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in developing a consistent yet flexible approach for evaluating the inputs to probabilistic risk assessments. The U.S. EPA Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) recently released Volume 3 Part A of Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), as an update to the existing two-volume set of RAGS. The update provides policy and technical guidance on performing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consequently, EPA risk managers and decision-makers need to review and evaluate the adequacy of PRAs for supporting regulatory decisions. A critical part of evaluating a PRA is the problem of evaluating or judging the adequacy of input distributions PRA. Although the overarching theme of this report is the need to improve the ease and consistency of the regulatory review process, the specific objectives are presented in two parts. The objective of Part 1 is to develop a consistent yet flexible process for evaluating distributions in a PRA by identifying the critical attributes of an exposure factor distribution and discussing how these attributes relate to the task-specific adequacy of the input. This objective is carried out with emphasis on the perspective of a risk manager or decision-maker. The proposed evaluation procedure provides consistency to the review process without a loss of flexibility. As a result, the approach described in Part 1 provides an opportunity to apply a single review framework for all EPA regions and yet provide the regional risk manager with the flexibility to deal with site- and case-specific issues in the PRA process. However, as the number of inputs to a PRA increases, so does the complexity of the process for calculating, communicating and managing risk. As a result, there is increasing effort required of both the risk professionals performing the analysis and the risk manager

  11. Evaluation of Cetane Improver Additive in Alternative Jet Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    3 EVALUATION AND DATA ANALYSIS ...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Evaluation and Data Analysis Derived Cetane Number (DCN) DCN was tested IAW ASTM D6890...100 ppm CI #2 0.00 1 n/a SIP/Jet A + 500 ppm CI #2 0.00 >4 n/a Jet A 0.66 ə n/a Jet A + 100 ppm CI #1 100.23 ə 105 Jet A + 500 ppm CI #1 100.09 > 4P

  12. Genetically modified human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells for improving the outcome of human islet transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Mundra

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the potential of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs as gene carriers for improving the outcome of human islet transplantation. hBMSCs were characterized for the expression of phenotypic markers and transduced with Adv-hVEGF-hIL-1Ra to overexpress human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF and human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (hIL-1Ra. Human islets were co-cultured with hBMSCs overexpressing hVEGF and hIL-1Ra. Islet viability was determined by membrane fluorescent method and glucose stimulation test. Transduced hBMSCs and human islets were co-transplanted under the kidney capsule of NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid Il2rg(tm1Wjl /SzJ (NSG diabetic mice and blood glucose levels were measured over time to demonstrate the efficacy of genetically modified hBMSCs. At the end of study, immunofluorescent staining of kidney section bearing islets was performed for insulin and von Willebrand Factor (vWF. hBMSCs were positive for the expression of CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146 and Stro-1 surface markers as determined by flow cytometry. Transduction of hBMSCs with adenovirus did not affect their stemness and differentiation potential as confirmed by mRNA levels of stem cell markers and adipogenic differentiation of transduced hBMSCs. hBMSCs were efficiently transduced with Adv-hVEGF-hIL-1Ra to overexpress hVEGF and hIL-1Ra. Live dead cell staining and glucose stimulation test have shown that transduced hBMSCs improved the viability of islets against cytokine cocktail. Co-transplantation of human islets with genetically modified hBMSCs improved the glycemic control of diabetic NSG mice as determined by mean blood glucose levels and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Immunofluorescent staining of kidney sections was positive for human insulin and vWF. In conclusion, our results have demonstrated that hBMSCs may be used as gene carriers and nursing cells to improve the outcome of islet

  13. An improved collagen zymography approach for evaluating the collagenases MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanc, Seniz; Keles, Didem; Oktay, Gulgun

    2017-10-01

    Collagen zymography is an SDS-PAGE-based method for detecting both the proenzyme and active forms of collagenases. Although collagen zymography is used for assessment of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-13, it can be difficult to detect these collagenases due to technical issues. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the collagenase activity of MMP-8 can be detected by this method. Here, we present an improved collagen zymography method that allows quantification of the activities of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-13. Activities of recombinant collagenases could be detected in collagen zymogram gels copolymerized with 0.3 mg/mL type I collagen extracted from rat tail tendon. This improved method is sensitive enough to detect the activity of as little as 1 ng of collagenase. We generated standard curves for the three collagenases to quantify the collagenolytic activity levels of unknown samples. To validate our improved method, we investigated MMP-1 activity levels in human thyroid cancer (8505C) and normal thyroid (Nthy-ori-3-1) cell lines, finding that the proenzyme and active MMP-1 levels were greater in 8505C cells than in Nthy-ori-3-1 cells. Taken together, our data show that collagen zymography can be used in both molecular and clinical investigations to evaluate collagenase activities in various pathological conditions.

  14. An integrated conceptual framework for evaluating and improving 'understanding' in informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, Sabine; Strech, Daniel

    2017-10-17

    The development of understandable informed consent (IC) documents has proven to be one of the most important challenges in research with humans as well as in healthcare settings. Therefore, evaluating and improving understanding has been of increasing interest for empirical research on IC. However, several conceptual and practical challenges for the development of understandable IC documents remain unresolved. In this paper, we will outline and systematize some of these challenges. On the basis of our own experiences in empirical user testing of IC documents as well as the relevant literature on understanding in IC, we propose an integrated conceptual model for the development of understandable IC documents. The proposed conceptual model integrates different methods for the participatory improvement of written information, including IC, as well as quantitative methods for measuring understanding in IC. In most IC processes, understandable written information is an important prerequisite for valid IC. To improve the quality of IC documents, a conceptual model for participatory procedures of testing, revising, and retesting can be applied. However, the model presented in this paper needs further theoretical and empirical elaboration and clarification of several conceptual and practical challenges.

  15. Improving the Interplay between Usability Evaluation and User Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, K.; Stage, Jan

    2004-01-01

    of the workshop are motivated and an outline of the contents of the papers that were presented in the workshop is given. In addition we summarize some challenges to the interplay between usability evaluation and user interface design agreed upon at the workshop, as well as some solutions that were debated....

  16. Anticipated identification costs: Improving assortment evaluation by diagnostic attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.; Pieters, F.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Consumers often make quick assessments of product assortments, to determine if these are worthwhile for further investigation. They anticipate how difficult it will be to distinguish the various options in the assortment, which will influence their assortment evaluations. We reason that

  17. Improving Writing Quality: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, David; Torgerson, Carole; Ainsworth, Hannah; Buckley, Hannah; Heaps, Clare; Hewitt, Catherine; Mitchell, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) is a writing process model in which students are encouraged to plan, draft, edit, and revise their writing. In this evaluation 23 primary schools and their Year 6 teachers in the Calderdale area of West Yorkshire were randomly allocated to receive training in the SRSD approach from an external consultant.…

  18. Evaluation of Agricultural Accounting Software. Improved Decision Making. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Ashley C., Comp.

    Following a discussion of the evaluation criteria for choosing accounting software, this guide contains reviews of 27 accounting software programs that could be used by farm or ranch business managers. The information in the reviews was provided by the software vendors and covers the following points for each software package: general features,…

  19. Evaluation of barriers and resilience to improve organizational performance in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P. F.; Martin del Campo, C., E-mail: pnelson_007@yahoo.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec 62550, Morelos (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, several models are built from the information contained in the Condition Reports from the Corrective Action Program ar a nuclear power plant. Condition Reports are seen as indications of organizational stress levels with consequential Condition Reports being further evidence of organizational resilience being exceeded. Also contained in this paper is an examination of methods used to assess organizational resilience thresholds to preclude consequential events, based on examination of the number and severity of the Condition Reports. In combination with PSA risk insights, it is possible to identify risk significant procedures and their corresponding risk significant steps. Leading indicators can be used to identify the need for installing a barrier or defense to reduce human errors in a nuclear power plant. These indicators are developed from the Corrective Action Program data by detecting increases in events. Organizational barriers can then be identified to improve performance. The resulting identified barriers are evaluated to rank the value of each possible barrier, and determine the best barrier(s) to implement. The tool described in this paper is designed to provide a systematic approach to identify areas where improvements in organizational effectiveness best reduce the likelihood of consequential events. Due to the uncertainty of many of the factors that influence the performance of humans in nuclear power plant activities, we propose using Bayesian networks to identify sources of organizational errors leading to consequential events. This study, using actual nuclear power plant data, includes a method for data processing and highlights some potential uses of Bayesian networks for improving organizational effectiveness in the nuclear power industry. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of barriers and resilience to improve organizational performance in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P. F.; Martin del Campo, C.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, several models are built from the information contained in the Condition Reports from the Corrective Action Program ar a nuclear power plant. Condition Reports are seen as indications of organizational stress levels with consequential Condition Reports being further evidence of organizational resilience being exceeded. Also contained in this paper is an examination of methods used to assess organizational resilience thresholds to preclude consequential events, based on examination of the number and severity of the Condition Reports. In combination with PSA risk insights, it is possible to identify risk significant procedures and their corresponding risk significant steps. Leading indicators can be used to identify the need for installing a barrier or defense to reduce human errors in a nuclear power plant. These indicators are developed from the Corrective Action Program data by detecting increases in events. Organizational barriers can then be identified to improve performance. The resulting identified barriers are evaluated to rank the value of each possible barrier, and determine the best barrier(s) to implement. The tool described in this paper is designed to provide a systematic approach to identify areas where improvements in organizational effectiveness best reduce the likelihood of consequential events. Due to the uncertainty of many of the factors that influence the performance of humans in nuclear power plant activities, we propose using Bayesian networks to identify sources of organizational errors leading to consequential events. This study, using actual nuclear power plant data, includes a method for data processing and highlights some potential uses of Bayesian networks for improving organizational effectiveness in the nuclear power industry. (Author)

  1. A Study on Improvement of Algorithm for Source Term Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Ho; Park, Do Hyung; Lee, Jae Hee

    2010-03-01

    The program developed by KAERI for source term assessment of radwastes from the advanced nuclear fuel cycle consists of spent fuel database analysis module, spent fuel arising projection module, and automatic characterization module for radwastes from pyroprocess. To improve the algorithm adopted the developed program, following items were carried out: - development of an algorithm to decrease analysis time for spent fuel database - development of setup routine for a analysis procedure - improvement of interface for spent fuel arising projection module - optimization of data management algorithm needed for massive calculation to estimate source terms of radwastes from advanced fuel cycle The program developed through this study has a capability to perform source term estimation although several spent fuel assemblies with different fuel design, initial enrichment, irradiation history, discharge burnup, and cooling time are processed at the same time in the pyroprocess. It is expected that this program will be very useful for the design of unit process of pyroprocess and disposal system

  2. Human tumor cell proliferation evaluated using manganese-enhanced MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod D Braun

    Full Text Available Tumor cell proliferation can depend on calcium entry across the cell membrane. As a first step toward the development of a non-invasive test of the extent of tumor cell proliferation in vivo, we tested the hypothesis that tumor cell uptake of a calcium surrogate, Mn(2+ [measured with manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI], is linked to proliferation rate in vitro.Proliferation rates were determined in vitro in three different human tumor cell lines: C918 and OCM-1 human uveal melanomas and PC-3 prostate carcinoma. Cells growing at different average proliferation rates were exposed to 1 mM MnCl(2 for one hour and then thoroughly washed. MEMRI R(1 values (longitudinal relaxation rates, which have a positive linear relationship with Mn(2+ concentration, were then determined from cell pellets. Cell cycle distributions were determined using propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. All three lines showed Mn(2+-induced increases in R(1 compared to cells not exposed to Mn(2+. C918 and PC-3 cells each showed a significant, positive correlation between MEMRI R(1 values and proliferation rate (p≤0.005, while OCM-1 cells showed no significant correlation. Preliminary, general modeling of these positive relationships suggested that pellet R(1 for the PC-3 cells, but not for the C918 cells, could be adequately described by simply accounting for changes in the distribution of the cell cycle-dependent subpopulations in the pellet.These data clearly demonstrate the tumor-cell dependent nature of the relationship between proliferation and calcium influx, and underscore the usefulness of MEMRI as a non-invasive method for investigating this link. MEMRI is applicable to study tumors in vivo, and the present results raise the possibility of evaluating proliferation parameters of some tumor types in vivo using MEMRI.

  3. Improved fuel design economics - a new evaluation tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboudara, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced fuel design technology is now beginning to be implemented with new reload regions for large pressurized water reactors. Until recently there has not been an integrated computer modeling product that would allow easy assessment of the economics of various advanced fuel design alternatives now available to utilities. The Fuel Cycle Scoping System (FCSS) was designed to fill this need. The FCSS is a personnel computer (PC) software package that is used to evaluate alternative strategies for supplying and using nuclear fuel in nuclear power reactors. The FCSS is an extremely flexible package that permits evaluation of in-core and out-of-core fuel management strategy options. For each strategy option, unit and reactor operating assumptions and assumptions for uranium supply, conversion, enrichment, fabrication, and spent fuel disposal can be made

  4. IMPROVING STUDENT PERFORMANCE AND FACULTY EVALUATION: A TRANSACTIONAL RELATIONSHIP STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    As in any relationship between buyer and seller, the educational transaction between learner and teacher requires that a level of receptivity be created so that features, advantages and benefits of the transaction can be examined. Student responses to instructor efforts to create a vested covenant in the classroom were evaluated. Teaching methods were altered in two of four course sessions taught by the instructor. When efforts were made to gain student ownership of the class, both student gr...

  5. Improving the Quality of Freeze Dried Rice: Initial Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    a soft consistency and swells more during this period without disintegration of cell walls [10]. Evaluation of freshly cooked rice 4.1.2...synthetic/ plastic aroma and flavour. Comparison between Parboiled and Control-A 4.1.6. A more detailed series of rehydration tests with texture...the clumps rapidly and easily disintegrated into individual grains. Control-C and Parboiled differed in colour post- cooking due to the different

  6. An acute stroke evaluation app: a practice improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark N; Fugate, Jennifer E; Barrett, Kevin M; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Flemming, Kelly D

    2015-04-01

    A point-of-care workflow checklist in the form of an iOS (iPhone Operating System) app for use by stroke providers was introduced with the objective of standardizing acute stroke evaluation and documentation at 2 affiliated academic medical centers. Providers used the app in unselected, consecutive patients undergoing acute stroke evaluation in an emergency department or hospital setting between August 2012 and January 2013 and August 2013 and February 2014. Satisfaction surveys were prospectively collected pre- and postintervention from residents, staff neurologists, and clinical data specialists. Residents (20 preintervention and 16 postintervention), staff neurologists (6 pre and 5 post), and clinical data specialists (4 pre and 4 post) participated in this study. All 16 (100%) residents had increased satisfaction with their ability to perform an acute stroke evaluation postintervention but only 9 (56%) of 16 felt the app was more help than hindrance. Historical controls aligned with preintervention results. Staff neurologists conveyed increased satisfaction with resident presentations and decision making when compared to preintervention surveys. Stroke clinical data specialists estimated a 50% decrease in data abstraction when the app data were used in the clinical note. Concomitant effect on door-to-needle (DTN) time at 1 site, although not a primary study measure, was also evaluated. At that 1 center, the mean DTN time decreased by 16 minutes when compared to the corresponding months from the year prior. The point-of-care acute stroke workflow checklist app may assist trainees in presenting findings in a standardized manner and reduce data abstraction time. The app may help reduce DTN time, but this requires further study.

  7. Probabilistic evaluations for CANTUP computer code analysis improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, S.; Pavelescu, M.

    2004-01-01

    Structural analysis with finite element method is today an usual way to evaluate and predict the behavior of structural assemblies subject to hard conditions in order to ensure their safety and reliability during their operation. A CANDU 600 fuel channel is an example of an assembly working in hard conditions, in which, except the corrosive and thermal aggression, long time irradiation, with implicit consequences on material properties evolution, interferes. That leads inevitably to material time-dependent properties scattering, their dynamic evolution being subject to a great degree of uncertainness. These are the reasons for developing, in association with deterministic evaluations with computer codes, the probabilistic and statistical methods in order to predict the structural component response. This work initiates the possibility to extend the deterministic thermomechanical evaluation on fuel channel components to probabilistic structural mechanics approach starting with deterministic analysis performed with CANTUP computer code which is a code developed to predict the long term mechanical behavior of the pressure tube - calandria tube assembly. To this purpose the structure of deterministic calculus CANTUP computer code has been reviewed. The code has been adapted from LAHEY 77 platform to Microsoft Developer Studio - Fortran Power Station platform. In order to perform probabilistic evaluations, it was added a part to the deterministic code which, using a subroutine from IMSL library from Microsoft Developer Studio - Fortran Power Station platform, generates pseudo-random values of a specified value. It was simulated a normal distribution around the deterministic value and 5% standard deviation for Young modulus material property in order to verify the statistical calculus of the creep behavior. The tube deflection and effective stresses were the properties subject to probabilistic evaluation. All the values of these properties obtained for all the values for

  8. Overview of human performance improvement initiatives in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ashok Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are very complex systems. Diverse, multiple and redundant technological systems are used for effective control and safety of the NPPs. The increased numbers of such systems require increased operator attention. Additionally, the control stations (man-machine interfaces) are to be kept manageable in size. This sometimes reduces the scope for truly ergonomic design. These limitations, coupled with the shortcomings of human nature, led to unintended human performance problems and errors resulting into poor plant performance worldwide. Some organisational weaknesses, managerial decisions and latent errors also aided and abetted human errors. In view of this, a need was felt for development of performance culture at all levels in NPP organisations. Towards this end, ready-to-use performance improvement tools were developed and used for individual performers, supervisors and managers in the NPPs. This paper describes the experiences of the global nuclear electricity generating industry towards human performance improvement and error reduction. (author)

  9. Using human factors engineering to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Judith; Gosbee, Laura Lin; Bessesen, Mary; Williams, Linda

    2010-08-01

    Human factors engineering is a discipline that studies the capabilities and limitations of humans and the design of devices and systems for improved performance. The principles of human factors engineering can be applied to infection prevention and control to study the interaction between the healthcare worker and the system that he or she is working with, including the use of devices, the built environment, and the demands and complexities of patient care. Some key challenges in infection prevention, such as delayed feedback to healthcare workers, high cognitive workload, and poor ergonomic design, are explained, as is how human factors engineering can be used for improvement and increased compliance with practices to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  10. Human factors considerations in the design and evaluation of flight deck displays and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this effort is to have a single source document for human factors regulatory and guidance material for flight deck displays and controls, in the interest of improving aviation safety. This document identifies guidance on human factor...

  11. Improved patient specific seizure detection during pre-surgical evaluation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chua, Eric C-P

    2011-04-01

    There is considerable interest in improved off-line automated seizure detection methods that will decrease the workload of EEG monitoring units. Subject-specific approaches have been demonstrated to perform better than subject-independent ones. However, for pre-surgical diagnostics, the traditional method of obtaining a priori data to train subject-specific classifiers is not practical. We present an alternative method that works by adapting the threshold of a subject-independent to a specific subject based on feedback from the user.

  12. Movement augmentation to evaluate human control of locomotor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey; Wu, Mengnan Mary; Huang, Felix C; Gordon, Keith E

    2017-07-01

    Controlling center of mass (COM) position and velocity within a dynamic base of support is essential for gait stability. This skill is often compromised following neurologic injury, creating a need to develop effective interventions to enhance gait stability. A movement augmentation paradigm applied to walking could potentially be used to improve control of COM dynamics. We have developed a cable robot system, the Agility Trainer, to apply continuous frontal-plane forces to the pelvis during treadmill walking. This cable robot system uses a set of series elastic actuators powered by linear motors to create bilateral forces. Here we use the Agility Trainer to create a negative viscosity force field proportional to the subject's lateral velocity. Two healthy young subjects performed two 10-minute walking trials, Baseline and Negative Viscosity. During the first minute of walking in the Negative Viscosity field, participants' lateral COM motion became less controlled when compared to the rhythmic sinusoidal motion observed during Baseline walking. By the 10th minute of walking in the Negative Viscosity field the participants had adapted their gait patterns, decreasing their variation in peak lateral COM speed each stride. These results demonstrate that it is feasible to use the Agility Trainer to apply a movement augmentation paradigm to human walking.

  13. Evaluating and improving nuclear power plant operating performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This report aims to provide the basis for improvements in the understanding of nuclear power plants operation and ideas for improving future productivity. The purpose of the project was to identify good practices of operating performance at a few of the world's most productive plants. This report was prepared through a series of consultants meetings, a specialists meeting and an Advisory Group meeting with participation of experts from 23 Member States. The report is based on self-assessment of half a dozen plants that have been chosen as representatives of different reactor types in as many different countries, and the views and assessment of the participants on good practices influencing plant performance. Three main areas that influence nuclear power plant availability and reliability were identified in the discussions: (1) management practices, (2) personnel characteristics, and (3) working practices. These areas cover causes influencing plant performance under plant management control. In each area the report describes factors or good practices that positively influence plant availability. The case studies, presented in annexes, contain the plant self-assessment of areas that influence their availability and reliability. Six plants are represented in the case studies: (1) Dukovany (WWER, 1760 MW) in the Czech Republic; (2) Blayais (PWR, 3640 MW) in France; (3) Paks (WWER, 1840 MW) in Hungary; (4) Wolsong 1 (PHWR, 600 MW) in the Republic of Korea; (5) Trillo 1 (PWR, 1066 MW) in Spain; and (6) Limerick (BWR, 2220 MW) in the United States of America

  14. Evaluating and improving nuclear power plant operating performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report aims to provide the basis for improvements in the understanding of nuclear power plants operation and ideas for improving future productivity. The purpose of the project was to identify good practices of operating performance at a few of the world`s most productive plants. This report was prepared through a series of consultants meetings, a specialists meeting and an Advisory Group meeting with participation of experts from 23 Member States. The report is based on self-assessment of half a dozen plants that have been chosen as representatives of different reactor types in as many different countries, and the views and assessment of the participants on good practices influencing plant performance. Three main areas that influence nuclear power plant availability and reliability were identified in the discussions: (1) management practices, (2) personnel characteristics, and (3) working practices. These areas cover causes influencing plant performance under plant management control. In each area the report describes factors or good practices that positively influence plant availability. The case studies, presented in annexes, contain the plant self-assessment of areas that influence their availability and reliability. Six plants are represented in the case studies: (1) Dukovany (WWER, 1760 MW) in the Czech Republic; (2) Blayais (PWR, 3640 MW) in France; (3) Paks (WWER, 1840 MW) in Hungary; (4) Wolsong 1 (PHWR, 600 MW) in the Republic of Korea; (5) Trillo 1 (PWR, 1066 MW) in Spain; and (6) Limerick (BWR, 2220 MW) in the United States of America Figs, tabs

  15. Packaging Evaluation Approach to Improve Cosmetic Product Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Briasco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packaging; furthermore, different from food packaging, the cosmetic packaging is not regulated and, to date, appropriate guidelines are still missing. The aim of this work was to propose a practical approach to investigate commercial polymeric containers used in cosmetic field, especially through mechanical properties’ evaluation, from a safety point of view. First of all, it is essential to obtain complete information about raw materials. Subsequently, using an appropriate full factorial experimental design, it is possible to investigate the variables, like polymeric density, treatment, or type of formulation involved in changes to packaging properties or in formulation-packaging interaction. The variation of these properties can greatly affect cosmetic safety. In particular, mechanical properties can be used as an indicator of pack performances and safety. As an example, containers made of two types of polyethylene with different density, low-density polyethylene (LDPE and high-density polyethylene (HDPE, are investigated. Regarding the substances potentially extractable from the packaging, in this work the headspace solid-phase microextraction method (HSSPME was used because this technique was reported in the literature as suitable to detect extractables from the polymeric material here employed.

  16. Access to justice: evaluating law, health and human rights programmes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Ezer, Tamar; Gathumbi, Anne; Cohen, Jonathan; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia

    2013-11-13

    In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health. We carried out an evaluation to collect evidence about the impact of legal empowerment programmes on health and human rights. The evaluation focused on Open Society Foundation-supported legal integration activities at four sites: the Academic Model of Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) facility, where the Legal Aid Centre of Eldoret (LACE) operates, in Eldoret; Kenyatta National Hospital's Gender-based Violence Recovery Centre, which hosts the COVAW legal integration program; and Christian Health Association of Kenya (CHAK) facilities in Mombasa and Naivasha. In consultation with the organizations implementing the programs, we designed a conceptual logic model grounded in human rights principles, identified relevant indicators and then coded structure, process and outcome indicators for the rights-related principles they reflect. The evaluation included a resource assessment questionnaire, a review of program records and routine data, and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with clients and service providers. Data were collected in May-August 2010 and April-June 2011. Clients showed a notable increase in practical knowledge and awareness about how to access legal aid and claim their rights, as well as an enhanced ability to communicate with healthcare providers and to improve their access to healthcare and justice. In turn, providers became more adept at identifying human rights violations and other legal difficulties, which enabled them to give clients basic information about their rights, refer them to legal aid and assist them in accessing needed support. Methodological challenges in evaluating such activities point to the need to strengthen rights-oriented evaluation

  17. HUMAN RESOURCES EMPOWERMENT, WORKING MOTIVATION AND ORGANIZATION CHANGE IN IMPROVING HOTEL BUSINESS PERFORMANCE IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Kade Sutawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to test and analyze impact of human resource development on working motivation of hotel business workers in Bali, impact of human resource development on organizational changes of hotel business in Bali, impact of human resource development on the performance of hotel business in Bali, impact of working motivation against organizational changes in hotel business in Bali, impact of working motivation on the organizations performance of the hotel business in Bali, and impact of organizational changes against organizations performance of the hotel business in Bali. There were 170 respondents of star-rated hotel employees which were selected through purposive sampling technique. Structural Equation Modeling with the application Analysis of Moment Structure was used to analyze the data. The results show that empowerment of human resources (HR has positive and significant impact on working motivation, organizational changes, and the organization performance of hotel business in Bali, working motivation has positive and significant impact on organizational changes and the organization performance of hotel business in Bali and organizational changes have significant and positive impact on the organization performance of hotel business in Bali. Empowerment variables have the most powerful impact to support the improvement of organizational performance, followed by organizational changes and working motivation variables. The results indicate that human resource empowerment improves the performance of the hotel business in Bali. Therefore, human resource development need to be prioritized in order to improve organizational performance of star hotels in Bali.

  18. Improving solubility and refolding efficiency of human V(H)s by a novel mutational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanha, Jamshid; Nguyen, Thanh-Dung; Ng, Andy; Ryan, Shannon; Ni, Feng; Mackenzie, Roger

    2006-11-01

    The antibody V(H) domains of camelids tend to be soluble and to resist aggregation, in contrast to human V(H) domains. For immunotherapy, attempts have therefore been made to improve the properties of human V(H)s by camelization of a small set of framework residues. Here, we have identified through sequence comparison of well-folded llama V(H) domains an alternative set of residues (not typically camelid) for mutation. Thus, the solubility and thermal refolding efficiency of a typical human V(H), derived from the human antibody BT32/A6, were improved by introduction of two mutations in framework region (FR) 1 and 4 to generate BT32/A6.L1. Three more mutations in FR3 of BT32/A6.L1 further improved the thermal refolding efficiency while retaining solubility and cooperative melting profiles. To demonstrate practical utility, BT32/A6.L1 was used to construct a phage display library from which were isolated human V(H)s with good antigen binding activity and solubility. The engineered human V(H) domains described here may be useful for immunotherapy, due to their expected low immunogenicity, and in applications involving transient high temperatures, due to their efficient refolding after thermal denaturation.

  19. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A improves hepatic differentiation of immortalized adult human hepatocytes and improves liver function and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Hua-Lian; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hai-Tian; Xu, Ning; Bian, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Xia, Lei; Xia, Qiang

    2017-11-15

    Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Single chain Fc-dimer-human growth hormone fusion protein for improved drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Hsuan-Yao; Tong, Shanshan; Okamoto, Curtis T; Shen, Wei-Chiang; Zaro, Jennica L

    2017-02-01

    Fc fusion protein technology has been successfully used to generate long-acting forms of several protein therapeutics. In this study, a novel Fc-based drug carrier, single chain Fc-dimer (sc(Fc) 2 ), was designed to contain two Fc domains recombinantly linked via a flexible linker. Since the Fc dimeric structure is maintained through the flexible linker, the hinge region was omitted to further stabilize it against proteolysis and reduce FcγR-related effector functions. The resultant sc(Fc) 2 candidate preserved the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binding. sc(Fc) 2 -mediated delivery was then evaluated using a therapeutic protein with a short plasma half-life, human growth hormone (hGH), as the protein drug cargo. This novel carrier protein showed a prolonged in vivo half-life and increased hGH-mediated bioactivity compared to the traditional Fc-based drug carrier. sc(Fc) 2 technology has the potential to greatly advance and expand the use of Fc-technology for improving the pharmacokinetics and bioactivity of protein therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human-system interface evaluation system for advanced control room based on SQL database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yan; Zhou Zhiwei; Bian Zhiqiang; Xu Li

    2005-01-01

    User Interface (UI) plays an important role in the advanced control room (ACR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP). In this paper, we present a rule-based ACR Human-system Interface Evaluation System (AHSIES) using expert system technology, which can evaluate UI design shortcomings, propose modification suggestions, and help designer improve the ACR interface design. AHSIES consists of four programs: the UI Editor, the Operation Procedure Manager, the Operation Simulator and the UI Design Evaluator. These four parts respectively function for: editing a set of UI icons employed as the operation screens of an advanced control room; for editing operation procedures aiming at any specified operation with simple language; for simulate the operation sequences dynamically and recording the relevant information for design performance of the UIs; and for evaluating both static and dynamic performance of the ACR UI design according to well established design guidelines and criteria with the information gained from the first three programs. Microsoft SQL Server 2000 DBMS is adopted to manage the voluminous data and its complex relationships. The preliminary test application of AHSIES for a simplified ACR UI design of a PWR NPP has shown that the expert evaluation system is capable of achieving satisfactory evaluation results. (authors)

  2. Role of zinc in human body and approaches for improvement with reference to status in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yameen, A.; Bilal, R.

    2001-01-01

    Importance of micronutrients for human health has been recognized and efforts are being made to eradicate their deficiency. Micronutrient deficiency is also termed as hidden hunger. Zinc is an important micronutrient and its deficiency cause serious effects on human health. This paper intends to describe the importance of zinc and methods of its assessment, highlighting the consequences of its deficiency in human body in order to create awareness. Some information on deficiency data in Pakistan, status of current national nutrition survey for future policies and possible measures to improve the zinc status of population is also mentioned. (author)

  3. Human performance in an operational event - how to improve it? An initiative in a French NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslin, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the case of the Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux French nuclear power station, the author comments the elements and principles of human factor policy which have been implemented, the organizational implications of this implementation (building up of an internal human factors network), and briefly evokes studies and initiatives aimed at improving the quality of operation from a general point of view and through projects aiming at analyzing and at a valorisation of human reliability in activities dealing with reactor operation. He also comments the perception and appropriation of quality in the different departments

  4. Evaluating and improving the performance of thin film force sensors within body and device interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likitlersuang, Jirapat; Leineweber, Matthew J; Andrysek, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Thin film force sensors are commonly used within biomechanical systems, and at the interface of the human body and medical and non-medical devices. However, limited information is available about their performance in such applications. The aims of this study were to evaluate and determine ways to improve the performance of thin film (FlexiForce) sensors at the body/device interface. Using a custom apparatus designed to load the sensors under simulated body/device conditions, two aspects were explored relating to sensor calibration and application. The findings revealed accuracy errors of 23.3±17.6% for force measurements at the body/device interface with conventional techniques of sensor calibration and application. Applying a thin rigid disc between the sensor and human body and calibrating the sensor using compliant surfaces was found to substantially reduce measurement errors to 2.9±2.0%. The use of alternative calibration and application procedures is recommended to gain acceptable measurement performance from thin film force sensors in body/device applications. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recombinant human erythropoietin improves angiogenesis and wound healing in experimental burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Mariarosaria; Altavilla, Domenica; Bitto, Alessandra; Minutoli, Letteria; Calò, Margherita; Lo Cascio, Patrizia; Polito, Francesca; Giugliano, Giovanni; Squadrito, Giovanni; Mioni, Chiara; Giuliani, Daniela; Venuti, Francesco S; Squadrito, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    Erythropoietin interacts with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stimulates endothelial cell mitosis and motility; thus it may be of importance in the complex phenomenon of wound healing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on experimental burn wounds. Randomized experiment. Research laboratory. C57BL/6 male mice weighing 25-30 g. Mice were immersed in 80 degrees C water for 10 secs to achieve a deep-dermal second degree burn. Animals were randomized to receive either rHuEPO (400 units/kg/day for 14 days in 100 microL subcutaneously) or its vehicle alone (100 microl/day distilled water for 14 days subcutaneously). On day 14 the animals were killed. Burn areas were used for histologic examination, evaluation of neoangiogenesis by immunohistochemistry, and expression (Western blot) of the specific endothelial marker CD31 as well as quantification of microvessel density, measurement of VEGF wound content (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), expression (Western blot) of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases, and determination of wound nitric oxide (NO) products. rHuEPO increased burn wound reepithelialization and reduced the time to final wound closure. These effects were completely abated by a passive immunization with specific antibodies against erythropoietin. rHuEPO improved healing of burn wound through increased epithelial proliferation, maturation of the extracellular matrix, and angiogenesis. The hematopoietic factor augmented neoangiogenesis as suggested by the marked increase in microvessel density and by the robust expression of the specific endothelial marker CD31. Furthermore, rHuEPO enhanced the wound content of VEGF caused a marked expression of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases and increased wound content of nitric oxide products. Our study suggests that rHuEPO may be an effective therapeutic approach to improve clinical outcomes after thermal injury.

  6. Improving pilot mental workload evaluation with combined measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyan, Xiaoru; Zhuang, Damin; Zhang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral performance, subjective assessment based on NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), as well as physiological measures indexed by electrocardiograph (ECG), event-related potential (ERP), and eye tracking data were used to assess the mental workload (MW) related to flight tasks. Flight simulation tasks were carried out by 12 healthy participants under different MW conditions. The MW conditions were manipulated by setting the quantity of flight indicators presented on the head-up display (HUD) in the cruise phase. In this experiment, the behavioral performance and NASA-TLX could reflect the changes of MW ideally. For physiological measures, the indices of heart rate variability (HRV), P3a, pupil diameter and eyelid opening were verified to be sensitive to MW changes. Our findings can be applied to the comprehensive evaluation of MW during flight tasks and the further quantitative classification.

  7. Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  8. A human factors evaluation of advanced control facilities in Korea Next Generation Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Seong Nam; Lee, Dong Hoon; Chung, Sung Hak; Kim, Dong Nam; Hwang, Sang Ho

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study are as follows: to evaluate the impacts of advanced MMIs on operator performance; to identify new types of human errors; to present Human Factors Engineering (HFE) issues to support the safety reviews performed by the Korea Institute for Nuclear Safety. General trends in the performance measures of cognitive task demand, mental workload, and situation awareness were analyzed. The results showed that the conventional plant was superior to KNGR on the operator performance. The results of the questionnaire revealed that WDS was the most frequently used MMI resource, followed by CPS, LDP, SC, and AS. The evaluation of operator's satisfaction showed that WDS was the most satisfactory resource, followed by LDP, SC, CPS', and AS, AS was rated as the most worst resource due to inappropriate functional organization and lack of operator's visibility. Stepwise regression analyses showed that human errors of SRO and RO were mainly dominated by the cognitive behavior of 'interpretation' with WDS, while the cognitive behavior of TO was mainly dominated by 'observation' with WDS and AS. The ten HFE issues for the KNGR MCR were presented to address important design deficiencies identified in this study. The issues should be resolved to improve safety of KNGR at least up to the level of the conventional NPPs. Verification and validation activities after implementing those resolutions should be also performed to reach optimal plant safety and other operational goals

  9. A human factors evaluation of advanced control facilities in Korea Next Generation Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Seong Nam; Lee, Dong Hoon; Chung, Sung Hak; Kim, Dong Nam; Hwang, Sang Ho [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-15

    The objectives of this study are as follows: to evaluate the impacts of advanced MMIs on operator performance; to identify new types of human errors; to present Human Factors Engineering (HFE) issues to support the safety reviews performed by the Korea Institute for Nuclear Safety. General trends in the performance measures of cognitive task demand, mental workload, and situation awareness were analyzed. The results showed that the conventional plant was superior to KNGR on the operator performance. The results of the questionnaire revealed that WDS was the most frequently used MMI resource, followed by CPS, LDP, SC, and AS. The evaluation of operator's satisfaction showed that WDS was the most satisfactory resource, followed by LDP, SC, CPS', and AS, AS was rated as the most worst resource due to inappropriate functional organization and lack of operator's visibility. Stepwise regression analyses showed that human errors of SRO and RO were mainly dominated by the cognitive behavior of 'interpretation' with WDS, while the cognitive behavior of TO was mainly dominated by 'observation' with WDS and AS. The ten HFE issues for the KNGR MCR were presented to address important design deficiencies identified in this study. The issues should be resolved to improve safety of KNGR at least up to the level of the conventional NPPs. Verification and validation activities after implementing those resolutions should be also performed to reach optimal plant safety and other operational goals.

  10. Recommended Resources for Planning to Evaluate Program Improvement Efforts (Including the SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Systemic Improvement at WestEd, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a list of recommended existing resources for state Part C and Part B 619 staff and technical assistance (TA) providers to utilize to support evaluation planning for program improvement efforts (including the State Systemic Improvement Plan, SSIP). There are many resources available related to evaluation and evaluation…

  11. ComfortPower - System improvements and long-term evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik [Catator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Catator has previously developed a novel heating system abbreviated ComfortPower in a RandD-programme supported by Catator, Swedish Gas Centre (SGC), Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV), Skanska, Nibe and Alfa Laval. The ComfortPower unit comprises a multi fuel reformer system tied to a high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEM) and a heat pump system. Since the residual heat from the fuel cell system can be utilized in a very effective way, it is possible to reach high thermal efficiencies. Indeed, the thermal efficiency in the unit has previously been shown to reach values as high as 175 - 200 % based on the lower heating value of the fuel. In addition to heat, ComfortPower can supply comfort cooling and surplus electricity. This project phase has focused on the following elements: 1. System improvements to further enhance the efficiency with existing fuel cell (HT-PEM). 2. System simplifications (e.g. DC-compressor system) to manage issues with start-up currents. 3. Tests with biogas qualities (various levels of CO{sub 2}) and biogas/air. 4. Long-term test with biogas quality (upgraded biogas). 5. Additional tests with liquid fuels (alcohols and diesel). 6. Map the need for cooling and heating in various applications. 7. Investigate how ComfortPower can reduce the primary energy consumption and reduce the environmental impact. 8. Study the possibility with a SOFC-based system with internal reforming. It was found that the Optiformer technology can be used to derive a suitable reformate gas for the HT-PEM unit from a wide range of fuels. Even if operation with fuel gases is the natural choice in most cases, it is possible also to use alcohols and other liquid fuels (e.g. in Campus applications). The heat pump system was equipped with a 24 V DC-compressor provided by Nibe. The compressor could be directly powered by the accumulator system and start-up currents, harmful to the inverter, could be avoided. Some improvements were made on the

  12. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  13. Mathematical Modeling and Evaluation of Human Motions in Physical Therapy Using Mixture Density Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, A; Ferguson, J M; Lee, S

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to develop a methodology for modeling and evaluation of human motions, which will potentially benefit patients undertaking a physical rehabilitation therapy (e.g., following a stroke or due to other medical conditions). The ultimate aim is to allow patients to perform home-based rehabilitation exercises using a sensory system for capturing the motions, where an algorithm will retrieve the trajectories of a patient's exercises, will perform data analysis by comparing the performed motions to a reference model of prescribed motions, and will send the analysis results to the patient's physician with recommendations for improvement. The modeling approach employs an artificial neural network, consisting of layers of recurrent neuron units and layers of neuron units for estimating a mixture density function over the spatio-temporal dependencies within the human motion sequences. Input data are sequences of motions related to a prescribed exercise by a physiotherapist to a patient, and recorded with a motion capture system. An autoencoder subnet is employed for reducing the dimensionality of captured sequences of human motions, complemented with a mixture density subnet for probabilistic modeling of the motion data using a mixture of Gaussian distributions. The proposed neural network architecture produced a model for sets of human motions represented with a mixture of Gaussian density functions. The mean log-likelihood of observed sequences was employed as a performance metric in evaluating the consistency of a subject's performance relative to the reference dataset of motions. A publically available dataset of human motions captured with Microsoft Kinect was used for validation of the proposed method. The article presents a novel approach for modeling and evaluation of human motions with a potential application in home-based physical therapy and rehabilitation. The described approach employs the recent progress in the field of

  14. Evaluating the Management System Approach for Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zobel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary environmental management systems (EMS based on the international standard ISO 14001 have become widespread globally in recent years. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of voluntary management systems on energy efficiency in the Swedish manufacturing industry by means of objective industrial energy data derived from mandatory annual environmental reports. The study focuses on changes in energy efficiency over a period of 12 years and includes both ISO 14001-certified companies and non-certified companies. Consideration is given to energy improvement efforts in the companies before the adoption of ISO 14001. The analysis has been carried out using statistical methods for two different industrial energy parameters: electricity and fossil fuel consumption. The results indicate that ISO 14001 adoption and certification has increased energy efficiency regarding the use of fossil fuel. In contrast, no effect of the management systems has been found concerning the use of electricity. The mixed results of this study are only partly in line with the results of previous studies based on perceptions of company representatives.

  15. Human factors evaluation of man-machine interface for periodic safety review of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Jang, Tong Il; Ku, Jin Young; Kim, Soo Jin

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the research results of human factors assessment on the MMI(Man Machine Interface) equipment as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). As MMI is a key factor among human factors to be reviewed in PSR, we reviewed the MMI components of nuclear power plants in aspect of human factors engineering. The availability, suitability, and effectiveness of the MMI devices were chosen to be reviewed. The MMI devices were investigated through the review of design documents related to the MMI, survey of control panels, evaluation of experts, and experimental assessment. Checklists were used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The items mentioned by the expert comments to review in detail in relation with task procedures were tested by experiments with operators' participation. For some questionable issues arisen during this MMI review, operator workload and possibility of errors in operator actions were analysed. The reviewed MMI devices contain MCR(Main Control Room), SPDS(Safety Parameter Display System), RSP(Remote Shutdown Panel), and the selected LCBs(Local Control Boards) importantly related to safety. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on human factors in the MMI devices. However, several small items to be changed and improved in suitability of MMI devices were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on MMI area

  16. Evaluation of Critical Parameters to Improve Slope Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Weng Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on identifying and evaluating critical parameters of various drainage configurations, arrangement, and filter which affect the efficiency of water draining system in slopes. There are a total of seven experiments with different types of homogeneous soil, drainage envelope, filter material, and quantity of pipes performed utilizing a model box with a dimension of 0.8 m × 0.8 m × 0.6 m. The pipes were orientated at 5 degrees from the horizontal. Rainfall event was introduced via a rainfall simulator with rainfall intensity of 434.1 mm/h. From the experiments performed, the expected outcomes when utilizing double pipes and geotextile as envelope filter were verified in this study. The results obtained from these experiments were reviewed and compared with Chapter 14 “Subsurface Drainage Systems” of DID’s Irrigation and Agricultural Drainage Manual of Malaysia and the European standard. It is recommended that the pipe installed in the slope could be wrapped with geotextile and in tandem with application of granular filter to minimize clogging without affecting the water discharge rate. Terzaghi’s filter criteria could be followed closely when deciding on new materials to act as aggregate filter. A caging system could be introduced as it could maintain the integrity of the drainage system and could ease installation.

  17. Evaluation and improvement of air quality in school public elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Shan; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-05-01

    Public elevators are an essential requirement in modern high-rise buildings. However, the confined, crowded interior of an elevator provides an ideal breeding ground for all manners of biological aerosols. Consequently, when using an elevator at a university in Taiwan as the research target, this study performs an experimental investigation into the effectiveness of hand-sprayed gaseous chlorine dioxide as a disinfection agent. The air quality before and after disinfection is evaluated by measuring the bioaerosol concentrations of bacteria and fungi, respectively. The average background levels of bacteria and fungi before disinfection are found to be 635.7 ± 469.6 and 1296.8 ± 966.6 colony-forming unit (CFU)/m(3), respectively. Following disinfection, the bacteria and fungi concentrations reduced by an average of 35 and 25 %, respectively. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results showed that the residual bacteria and fungi concentration levels were determined primarily by the number of individuals within the elevator and the elapsed time following disinfection. In general, the present results show that given a maximum of five individuals within the elevator, a disinfection schedule of once every 40 min is sufficient to reduce the bioaerosol concentrations of bacteria and fungi to the levels specified by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  18. Tactile Evaluation Feedback System for Multi-Layered Structure Inspired by Human Tactile Perception Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Husna Mohamad Hashim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tactile sensation is one type of valuable feedback in evaluating a product. Conventionally, sensory evaluation is used to get direct subjective responses from the consumers, in order to improve the product’s quality. However, this method is a time-consuming and costly process. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel tactile evaluation system that can give tactile feedback from a sensor’s output. The main concept of this system is hierarchically layering the tactile sensation, which is inspired by the flow of human perception. The tactile sensation is classified from low-order of tactile sensation (LTS to high-order of tactile sensation (HTS, and also to preference. Here, LTS will be correlated with physical measures. Furthermore, the physical measures that are used to correlate with LTS are selected based on four main aspects of haptic information (roughness, compliance, coldness, and slipperiness, which are perceived through human tactile sensors. By using statistical analysis, the correlation between each hierarchy was obtained, and the preference was derived in terms of physical measures. A verification test was conducted by using unknown samples to determine the reliability of the system. The results showed that the system developed was capable of estimating preference with an accuracy of approximately 80%.

  19. Tactile Evaluation Feedback System for Multi-Layered Structure Inspired by Human Tactile Perception Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Iza Husna Mohamad; Kumamoto, Shogo; Takemura, Kenjiro; Maeno, Takashi; Okuda, Shin; Mori, Yukio

    2017-11-11

    Tactile sensation is one type of valuable feedback in evaluating a product. Conventionally, sensory evaluation is used to get direct subjective responses from the consumers, in order to improve the product's quality. However, this method is a time-consuming and costly process. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel tactile evaluation system that can give tactile feedback from a sensor's output. The main concept of this system is hierarchically layering the tactile sensation, which is inspired by the flow of human perception. The tactile sensation is classified from low-order of tactile sensation (LTS) to high-order of tactile sensation (HTS), and also to preference. Here, LTS will be correlated with physical measures. Furthermore, the physical measures that are used to correlate with LTS are selected based on four main aspects of haptic information (roughness, compliance, coldness, and slipperiness), which are perceived through human tactile sensors. By using statistical analysis, the correlation between each hierarchy was obtained, and the preference was derived in terms of physical measures. A verification test was conducted by using unknown samples to determine the reliability of the system. The results showed that the system developed was capable of estimating preference with an accuracy of approximately 80%.

  20. Recombinant human endostatin improves tumor vasculature and alleviates hypoxia in Lewis lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Fang; Wang Jin; Zou Yi; Bao Yong; Huang Wenlin; Chen Guangming; Luo Xianrong; Chen Ming

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether recombinant human endostatin can create a time window of vascular normalization prior to vascular pruning to alleviate hypoxia in Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Methods: Kinetic changes in morphology of tumor vasculature in response to recombinant human endostatin were detected under a confocal microscope with immunofluorescent staining in Lewis lung carcinomas in mice. The hypoxic cell fraction of different time was assessed with immunohistochemical staining . Effects on tumor growth were monitored as indicated in the growth curve of tumors . Results: Compared with the control group vascularity of the tumors was reduced over time by recombinant human endostatin treatment and significantly regressed for 9 days. During the treatment, pericyte coverage increased at day 3, increased markedly at day 5, and fell again at day 7. The vascular basement membrane was thin and closely associated with endothelial cells after recombinant human endostatin treatment, but appeared thickened, loosely associated with endothelial cells in control tumors. The decrease in hypoxic cell fraction at day 5 after treatment was also found. Tumor growth was not accelerated 5 days after recombinant human endostatin treatment. Conclusions: Recombinant human endostatin can normalize tumor vasculature within day 3 to 7, leading to improved tumor oxygenation. The results provide important experimental basis for combining recombinant human endostatin with radiation therapy in human tumors. (authors)

  1. Text Summarization Evaluation: Correlating Human Performance on an Extrinsic Task with Automatic Intrinsic Metrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    President, Stacy F; Dorr, Bonnie J

    2006-01-01

    This research describes two types of summarization evaluation methods, intrinsic and extrinsic, and concentrates on determining the level of correlation between automatic intrinsic methods and human...

  2. Designing and Implementing an Ergonomics Inventory to Improve Management of Human Factors Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth A.

    Self-report ergometric inventories can provide valuable information to employers and can serve as a means of intervention to improve employee attributes. Based on the science of ergonomics (a science that studies the natural laws of work in order to maximize human efficiency in job performance), such an inventory focuses on the interaction of the…

  3. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for

  4. Human Albumin Fragments Nanoparticles as PTX Carrier for Improved Anti-cancer Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ge

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For enhanced anti-cancer performance, human serum albumin fragments (HSAFs nanoparticles (NPs were developed as paclitaxel (PTX carrier in this paper. Human albumins were broken into fragments via degradation and crosslinked by genipin to form HSAF NPs for better biocompatibility, improved PTX drug loading and sustained drug release. Compared with crosslinked human serum albumin NPs, the HSAF-NPs showed relative smaller particle size, higher drug loading, and improved sustained release. Cellular and animal results both indicated that the PTX encapsulated HSAF-NPs have shown good anti-cancer performance. And the anticancer results confirmed that NPs with fast cellular internalization showed better tumor inhibition. These findings will not only provide a safe and robust drug delivery NP platform for cancer therapy, but also offer fundamental information for the optimal design of albumin based NPs.

  5. Modulation of the Gastrointestinal Microbiome with Nondigestible Fermentable Carbohydrates To Improve Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deehan, Edward C; Duar, Rebbeca M; Armet, Anissa M; Perez-Muñoz, Maria Elisa; Jin, Mingliang; Walter, Jens

    2017-09-01

    There is a clear association between the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome and the development of chronic noncommunicable diseases, providing a rationale for the development of strategies that target the GI microbiota to improve human health. In this article, we discuss the potential of supplementing the human diet with nondigestible fermentable carbohydrates (NDFCs) to modulate the composition, structure, diversity, and metabolic potential of the GI microbiome in an attempt to prevent or treat human disease. The current concepts by which NDFCs can be administered to humans, including prebiotics, fermentable dietary fibers, and microbiota-accessible carbohydrates, as well as the mechanisms by which these carbohydrates exert their health benefits, are discussed. Epidemiological research presents compelling evidence for the health effects of NDFCs, with clinical studies providing further support for some of these benefits. However, rigorously designed human intervention studies with well-established clinical markers and microbial endpoints are still essential to establish (i) the clinical efficiency of specific NDFCs, (ii) the causal role of the GI microbiota in these effects, (iii) the underlying mechanisms involved, and (iv) the degree by which inter-individual differences between GI microbiomes influence these effects. Such studies would provide the mechanistic understanding needed for a systematic application of NDFCs to improve human health via GI microbiota modulation while also allowing the personalization of these dietary strategies.

  6. Improving human reliability through better nuclear power plant system design. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    The project on open-quotes Development of a Theory of the Dependence of Human Reliability upon System Designs as a Means of Improving Nuclear Power Plant Performanceclose quotes has been undertaken in order to address the important problem of human error in advanced nuclear power plant designs. Most of the creativity in formulating such concepts has focused upon improving the mechanical reliability of safety related plant systems. However, the lack of a mature theory has retarded similar progress in reducing the likely frequencies of human errors. The main design mechanism used to address this class of concerns has been to reduce or eliminate the human role in plant operations and accident response. The plan of work being pursued in this project is to perform a set of experiments involving human subject who are required to operate, diagnose and respond to changes in computer-simulated systems, relevant to those encountered in nuclear power plants. In the tests the systems are made to differ in complexity in a systematic manner. The computer program used to present the problems to be solved also records the response of the operator as it unfolds. Ultimately this computer is also to be used in compiling the results of the project. The work of this project is focused upon nuclear power plant applications. However, the persuasiveness of human errors in using all sorts of electromechanical machines gives it a much greater potential importance. Because of this we are attempting to pursue our work in a fashion permitting broad generalizations

  7. Applying Human Factors Evaluation and Design Guidance to a Nuclear Power Plant Digital Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Ulrich; Ronald Boring; William Phoenix; Emily Dehority; Tim Whiting; Jonathan Morrell; Rhett Backstrom

    2012-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) nuclear industry, like similar process control industries, has moved toward upgrading its control rooms. The upgraded control rooms typically feature digital control system (DCS) displays embedded in the panels. These displays gather information from the system and represent that information on a single display surface. In this manner, the DCS combines many previously separate analog indicators and controls into a single digital display, whereby the operators can toggle between multiple windows to monitor and control different aspects of the plant. The design of the DCS depends on the function of the system it monitors, but revolves around presenting the information most germane to an operator at any point in time. DCSs require a carefully designed human system interface. This report centers on redesigning existing DCS displays for an example chemical volume control system (CVCS) at a U.S. nuclear power plant. The crucial nature of the CVCS, which controls coolant levels and boration in the primary system, requires a thorough human factors evaluation of its supporting DCS. The initial digital controls being developed for the DCSs tend to directly mimic the former analog controls. There are, however, unique operator interactions with a digital vs. analog interface, and the differences have not always been carefully factored in the translation of an analog interface to a replacement DCS. To ensure safety, efficiency, and usability of the emerging DCSs, a human factors usability evaluation was conducted on a CVCS DCS currently being used and refined at an existing U.S. nuclear power plant. Subject matter experts from process control engineering, software development, and human factors evaluated the DCS displays to document potential usability issues and propose design recommendations. The evaluation yielded 167 potential usability issues with the DCS. These issues should not be considered operator performance problems but rather opportunities

  8. Analysis of Academic Administrators' Attitudes: Annual Evaluations and Factors That Improve Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Brian D.; Grasse, Nathan; Kapla, Dale; Hamel, Brad

    2017-01-01

    This article examines academic administrators' attitudes towards the academic evaluation process in the US and those factors that are utilised to improve teaching. We use path regressions to examine satisfaction with evaluation procedures, as well as the direct and indirect effects of these factors on perceptions of whether the evaluation process…

  9. Analysis of Human Errors in Industrial Incidents and Accidents for Improvement of Work Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leplat, J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1984-01-01

    Methods for the analysis of work accidents are discussed, and a description is given of the use of a causal situation analysis in terms of a 'variation tree' in order to explain the course of events of the individual cases and to identify possible improvements. The difficulties in identifying...... 'causes' of accidents are discussed, and it is proposed to analyze accident reports with the specific aim of identifying the potential for future improvements rather than causes of past events. In contrast to traditional statistical analysis of work accident data, which typically give very general...... recommendations, the method proposed identifies very explicit countermeasures. Improvements require a change in human decisions during equipment design, work planning, or the execution itself. The use of a model of human behavior drawing a distinction between automated skill-based behavior, rule-based 'know...

  10. Improving human reliability through better nuclear power plant system design: Program for advanced nuclear power studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    The project on ''Development of a Theory of the Dependence of Human Reliability upon System Designs as a Means of Improving Nuclear Power Plant Performance'' was been undertaken in order to address the problem of human error in advanced nuclear power plant designs. Lack of a mature theory has retarded progress in reducing likely frequencies of human errors. Work being pursued in this project is to perform a set of experiments involving human subjects who are required to operate, diagnose and respond to changes in computer-simulated systems, relevant to those encountered in nuclear power plants, which are made to differ in complexity in a systematic manner. The computer program used to present the problems to be solved also records the response of the operator as it unfolds

  11. Human growth hormone stabilizes walking and improves strength in a patient with dominantly inherited calpainopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahm, Kira Philipsen; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Vissing, John

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if daily low-dose treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (somatropine) can stabilize or improve muscle strength and walking capability in a patient with dominantly inherited calpainopathy. The patient was treated with daily injections of somatropine, except...... for a 6-month pause, over a period of 4.5 years. Efficacy was assessed by repeated muscle dynamometry tests and 6-minute walk tests (6MWT). Strength improved in most muscle groups on treatment, deteriorated in the 6-month off treatment, and improved again when treatment was resumed. The 6MWT stabilized...... during the initial 18-month treatment period, then deteriorated in the 6 months off treatment and improved to pre-trial levels when treatment was resumed. The findings suggest that supplementation with somatropine, within physiological ranges, may improve muscle strength and stabilize walking capability...

  12. Critical Evaluation of a Human In Vitro Biotransformation Rate Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical biotransformation is critical information in the understanding of how a chemical may elicit health effects in humans or in the environment. Despite the fundamental value of these data, very relatively few measured in vivo data are available for humans compared to the tho...

  13. The Human Service Scale: A New Measure for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagles, Kenneth W.; Butler, Alfred S.

    1976-01-01

    The Human Service Scale is an assessment instrument for measuring the progress of the rehabilitation client and the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs. The theory behind the scale is based on Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. The development and some potential uses of the scale are discussed. (EC)

  14. Incentives for improving human resource outcomes in health care: overview of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misfeldt, Renee; Linder, Jordana; Lait, Jana; Hepp, Shelanne; Armitage, Gail; Jackson, Karen; Suter, Esther

    2014-01-01

    To review the effectiveness of financial and nonfinancial incentives for improving the benefits (recruitment, retention, job satisfaction, absenteeism, turnover, intent to leave) of human resource strategies in health care. Overview of 33 reviews published from 2000 to 2012 summarized the effectiveness of incentives for improving human resource outcomes in health care (such as job satisfaction, turnover rates, recruitment, and retention) that met the inclusion criteria and were assessed by at least two research members using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews quality assessment tool. Of those, 13 reviews met the quality criteria and were included in the overview. Information was extracted on a description of the review, the incentives considered, and their impact on human resource outcomes. The information on the relationship between incentives and outcomes was assessed and synthesized. While financial compensation is the best-recognized approach within an incentives package, there is evidence that health care practitioners respond positively to incentives linked to the quality of the working environments including opportunities for professional development, improved work life balance, interprofessional collaboration, and professional autonomy. There is less evidence that workload factors such as job demand, restructured staffing models, re-engineered work designs, ward practices, employment status, or staff skill mix have an impact on human resource outcomes. Overall, evidence of effective strategies for improving outcomes is mixed. While financial incentives play a key role in enhancing outcomes, they need to be considered as only one strategy within an incentives package. There is stronger evidence that improving the work place environment and instituting mechanisms for work-life balance need to be part of an overall strategy to improve outcomes for health care practitioners.

  15. Recommendations and Improvements for the Evaluation of Integrated Community-Wide Interventions Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M. van Koperen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Integrated community-wide intervention approaches (ICIAs are implemented to prevent childhood obesity. Programme evaluation improves these ICIAs, but professionals involved often struggle with performance. Evaluation tools have been developed to support Dutch professionals involved in ICIAs. It is unclear how useful these tools are to intended users. We therefore researched the facilitators of and barriers to ICIA programme evaluation as perceived by professionals and their experiences of the evaluation tools. Methods. Focus groups and interviews with 33 public health professionals. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach. Findings. Evaluation is hampered by insufficient time, budget, and experience with ICIAs, lack of leadership, and limited advocacy for evaluation. Epidemiologists are regarded as responsible for evaluation but feel incompetent to perform evaluation or advocate its need in a political environment. Managers did not prioritise process evaluations, involvement of stakeholders, and capacity building. The evaluation tools are perceived as valuable but too comprehensive considering limited resources. Conclusion. Evaluating ICIAs is important but most professionals are unfamiliar with it and management does not prioritise process evaluation nor incentivize professionals to evaluate. To optimise programme evaluation, more resources and coaching are required to improve professionals’ evaluation capabilities and specifically the use of evaluation.

  16. Thinspiration: Self-Improvement Versus Self-Evaluation Social Comparisons with Thin-Ideal Media Portrayals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Much research has demonstrated negative impacts of idealized-body imagery exposure on body satisfaction. Yet, paradoxically, media with such imagery attract mass audiences. Few studies showed women's body satisfaction increased due to thin-ideal exposure. The kind of social comparison women engage in (self-evaluation vs. self-improvement) may explain these inconsistent findings and the paradoxical attraction to thin-ideal messages. Across 5 days, thin-ideal messages were presented to 51 women; self-evaluation and self-improvement social comparisons as well as body satisfaction were measured each day. A linear positive change in body satisfaction emerged. Greater self-improvement social comparisons increased this change, whereas greater self-evaluation social comparisons reduced it. Extent of both social comparison types changed during the prolonged exposure. A greater tendency to compare one's body with others' improved body satisfaction through self-improvement social comparisons and fostered weight-loss behaviors through self-evaluation social comparisons.

  17. An interdisciplinary review of current and future approaches to improving human-predator relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, S; Barua, M; Beinart, W; Dickman, A; Holmes, G; Lorimer, J; Loveridge, A J; Macdonald, D W; Marvin, G; Redpath, S; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Zimmermann, A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2017-06-01

    In a world of shrinking habitats and increasing competition for natural resources, potentially dangerous predators bring the challenges of coexisting with wildlife sharply into focus. Through interdisciplinary collaboration among authors trained in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, we reviewed current approaches to mitigating adverse human-predator encounters and devised a vision for future approaches to understanding and mitigating such encounters. Limitations to current approaches to mitigation include too much focus on negative impacts; oversimplified equating of levels of damage with levels of conflict; and unsuccessful technical fixes resulting from failure to engage locals, address hidden costs, or understand cultural (nonscientific) explanations of the causality of attacks. An emerging interdisciplinary literature suggests that to better frame and successfully mitigate negative human-predator relations conservation professionals need to consider dispensing with conflict as the dominant framework for thinking about human-predator encounters; work out what conflicts are really about (they may be human-human conflicts); unravel the historical contexts of particular conflicts; and explore different cultural ways of thinking about animals. The idea of cosmopolitan natures may help conservation professionals think more clearly about human-predator relations in both local and global context. These new perspectives for future research practice include a recommendation for focused interdisciplinary research and the use of new approaches, including human-animal geography, multispecies ethnography, and approaches from the environmental humanities notably environmental history. Managers should think carefully about how they engage with local cultural beliefs about wildlife, work with all parties to agree on what constitutes good evidence, develop processes and methods to mitigate conflicts, and decide how to monitor and evaluate these. Demand for

  18. Human performance improvement in organizations: Potential application for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This publication is primarily intended for managers and specialists in nuclear facility operating organizations working in the area of human performance improvement. It is intended to provide them with practical information they can use to improve human performance in their organizations. While some of the information provided in this publication is based upon the experience of nuclear facility operating organizations, most of it comes from human performance improvement initiatives in non-nuclear organizations and industries. The nuclear industry has a long tradition of sharing good management practices in order to foster continuous improvement. However, it is not always realized that many of the practices that are now well established initially came from non-nuclear industries and were subsequently adapted for application to nuclear power plant operating organizations. There is, therefore, good reason to periodically review non-nuclear industry practices for ideas that might have direct or indirect application to the nuclear industry in order to potentially gain benefits such as the following: new approaches to certain problem areas, insights into new or impending challenges, improvements in existing practices, benchmarking of opportunities, development of learning organizations and avoidance of collective blind spots. The preparation of this report was an activity of the project on Effective Training to Achieve Excellence in the Performance of NPP Personnel. The objective of this project is to enhance the capability of Member States to utilize proven practices developed and transferred by the IAEA for improving personnel performance. The expected outcome from this project is the increased use by organizations in Members States of proven engineering and management practices and methodologies developed and transferred by the IAEA to improve personnel performance

  19. Targeting PEPT1: a novel strategy to improve the antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin in human hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanxia; Wu, Xiang; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Jia; Liu, Xi; Yao, Zhi; Zhang, Qingyu; Jian, Xu

    2017-06-20

    Proton coupled oligopeptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) is a member of the peptide transporter superfamily and plays important role in the absorption of oligopeptide and peptidomimetic drugs. Our previous research verified that PEPT1 expressed specifically in human Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue and cell lines and showed potential transport activity to be a new candidate of the tumor therapeutic target. In this study, we aim to explore the feasibility of a novel tumor target therapeutic strategy: Targeting PEPT1 to improve the antitumor efficacy of Doxorubicin in human HCC therapy. First, Doxorubicin was conjugated with Glycylglycylglycine (Gly-Gly-Gly) - a tripeptide which was known as the substrate of PEPT1 and characterized by HPLC and MS successfully. Doxorubicin-tripeptide conjugate was then observed to clarify the target delivery by PEPT1 and the antitumor effect on human hepatocarcinoma in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, the improvement of the toxic and side effect of Doxorubicin after conjugation was also evaluated by some biochemical tests. Our results reveal that targeting PEPT1 may contribute to the efficient delivery of Doxorubicin to hepatocarcinoma cells and the reduction of drug toxicity. PEPT1 has the prospect to be a novel target of HCC therapy.

  20. Improving Primary Care with Human-Centered Design and Partnership-Based Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May-Lynn Andresen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this quality improvement project was to empower and activate first-line staff (FLS to improve the six-month depression remission rate in a primary care clinic. Background: Lack of workforce engagement has been identified as an emerging national problem in health care and health care leaders have urged practice redesign to foster the Triple Aim of improved population health, improved care experience, and reduced cost of care (Berwick et al., 2008. Depression is difficult to manage and often exacerbates chronic illnesses and shortens lifespans, yet despite known effective treatments, six-month remission rates are low and care practices are often inadequate. Engaging in empowering leadership behaviors has demonstrated improvement in motivation, work outcomes, and empowerment in various industry settings across the world. Core approaches include: enhancing staff self-determination, encouraging participation in decision-making, and ensuring that staff have the knowledge and tools to achieve their performance goals, in addition to leadership communications that increase confidence in staff’s potential to perform at high levels, and their recognition that their efforts have an impact on improving organizational effectiveness. Methods: In this outpatient setting, care was siloed, staff were disengaged and a hierarchical paradigm was evident. Human-centered design principles were employed to intensively explore stakeholders’ experiences and to deeply engage end users in improving depression remission rates by creating, participating, and partnering in solutions. Leadership was educated in and deployed empowering leadership behaviors, which were synergistic with design thinking, and fostered empowerment. Results: Pre- and post-surveys demonstrated statistically significant improvement in empowerment. The six-month depression remission rate increased 167%, from 7.3% (N=261 to 19.4% (N=247. Conclusion: The convergence of

  1. A novel method of selective removal of human DNA improves PCR sensitivity for detection of Salmonella Typhi in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Pollard, Andrew J

    2012-07-27

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem, causing an estimated 21million new cases and 216,000 or more deaths every year. Current diagnosis of the disease is inadequate. Blood culture only identifies 45 to 70% of the cases and is time-consuming. Serological tests have very low sensitivity and specificity. Clinical samples obtained for diagnosis of enteric fever in the field generally have blood, so that even PCR-based methods, widely used for detection of other infectious diseases, are not a straightforward option in typhoid diagnosis. We developed a novel method to enrich target bacterial DNA by selective removal of human DNA from blood samples, enhancing the sensitivity of PCR tests. This method offers the possibility of improving PCR assays directly using clinical specimens for diagnosis of this globally important infectious disease. Blood samples were mixed with ox bile for selective lysis of human blood cells and the released human DNA was then digested with addition of bile resistant micrococcal nuclease. The intact Salmonella Typhi bacteria were collected from the specimen by centrifugation and the DNA extracted with QIAamp DNA mini kit. The presence of Salmonella Typhi bacteria in blood samples was detected by PCR with the fliC-d gene of Salmonella Typhi as the target. Micrococcal nuclease retained activity against human blood DNA in the presence of up to 9% ox bile. Background human DNA was dramatically removed from blood samples through the use of ox bile lysis and micrococcal nuclease for removal of mammalian DNA. Consequently target Salmonella Typhi DNA was enriched in DNA preparations and the PCR sensitivity for detection of Salmonella Typhi in spiked blood samples was enhanced by 1,000 fold. Use of a combination of selective ox-bile blood cell lysis and removal of human DNA with micrococcal nuclease significantly improves PCR sensitivity and offers a better option for improved typhoid PCR assays directly using clinical specimens in diagnosis of

  2. NATO Guidelines on Human Engineering Testing and Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddie, J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the efforts of RSC-24, which was initiated by DRG Panel 8 in 1992, and was sponsored after the merger of DRG and AGARD by the Human Factors and Medicine (HFM...

  3. The use of artificial neural network to evaluate the effects of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of artificial neural network to evaluate the effects of human and physiographic factors on forest stock volume. ... stock volume and human factors in certain topography conditions and provides useful information for the acceptable amount of standing inventory using the present human population in future experiment.

  4. The influence of human resource management on improvement of business ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Radenko Maric; Jelena Vemic- Djurkovic

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the importance of practice of human resource management as of a significant driver of business ethics in companies has been considered. The basic premise of the paper is the fact that the company’s main source of unethical behaviour is situated in its people’s activities which further implies that many measures aimed to apply and improve business ethics belong to the domain of human resource management. Based on research results on a sample of 36 enterprises, the paper attempts...

  5. Relating Linear and Volumetric Variables Through Body Scanning to Improve Human Interfaces in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Ferrer, Mike A.; Young, Karen S.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Designing space suits and vehicles for the diverse human population present unique challenges for the methods of traditional anthropometry. Space suits are bulky and allow the operator to shift position within the suit and inhibit the ability to identify body landmarks. Limited suit sizing options also cause variability in fit and performance between similarly sized individuals. Space vehicles are restrictive in volume in both the fit and the ability to collect data. NASA's Anthropometric and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) has utilized 3D scanning to shift from traditional linear anthropometry to explore and examine volumetric capabilities to provide anthropometric solutions for design. Overall, the key goals are to improve the human-system performance and develop new processes to aid in the design and evaluation of space systems. Four case studies are presented that illustrate the shift from purely linear analyses to an augmented volumetric toolset to predict and analyze the human within the space suit and vehicle. The first case study involves the calculation of maximal head volume to estimate total free volume in the helmet for proper air exchange. Traditional linear measurements resulted in an inaccurate representation of the head shape, yet limited data exists for the determination of a large head volume. Steps were first taken to identify and classify a maximum head volume and the resulting comparisons to the estimate are presented in this paper. This study illustrates the gap between linear components of anthropometry and the need for overall volume metrics in order to provide solutions. A second case study examines the overlay of the space suit scans and components onto scanned individuals to quantify fit and clearance to aid in sizing the suit to the individual. Restrictions in space suit size availability present unique challenges to optimally fit the individual within a limited sizing range while maintaining performance. Quantification of the clearance and

  6. Evaluation of human-induced vibration of continuous footbridges

    OpenAIRE

    El-Robaa Ahmed; Gaawan Sameh; Malek Charles

    2015-01-01

    With the development of construction materials and the introduction of high strength steel and concrete, the human-induced vibration became a dominant criterion for the design of pedestrian bridges. Currently, longer spans and lightweight bridges have been comprised in most of design trends. This leads to lower the natural frequencies of the system which have a great effect on the dynamic performance of bridges subjected to human activities. Although the design of steel footbridges could reac...

  7. Human-carnivore conflict in China: a review of current approaches with recommendations for improved management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Melissa; Xie, Yan; Kang, Aili; Rao, Madhu; Goodrich, John; Liu, Tong; Berger, Joshua

    2012-06-01

    Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is a conservation concern that increasingly threatens the continued existence of some of the world's most endangered species. With an increase in human population, urban sprawl and subsequent encroachment on wild land, human and wildlife interaction has become inevitable. In the majority of cases, this interaction results in a negative outcome for humans, wildlife or both. In China, these key elements, along with a decrease in wild prey species, have resulted in the expansion of HWC encounters, and the need for alleviating this conflict has become a conservation priority. Loss of human life, livestock and/or crops is most often the catalysts that fuel HWC. Techniques to alleviate conflict around the world have included preventative measures and mitigation techniques, such as financial compensation and other incentive programs. Both types of measures have had variable success. We review the current status of human-carnivore conflict management in China, and, drawing lessons from around the globe, we make recommendations for improving conservation management in China. For example, an increase in law enforcement in nature reserves is vital to reducing human disturbance in prime carnivore habitat, thereby reducing conflict encounters. Also, modifications to current wildlife compensation programs, so that they are linked with preventative measures, will ensure that moral hazards are avoided. Furthermore, investigating the potential for a community self-financed insurance scheme to fund compensation and increasing efforts to restore wild prey populations will improve the outcome for wildlife conservation. Ultimately, HWC management in China will greatly benefit from an integrative approach. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  8. Assessing the Potential and Limitations of Leveraging Food Sovereignty to Improve Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Fink Shapiro, Lilly; Wilson, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Food sovereignty has been defined as "the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems." Human health is an implied component of this definition through the principle of healthy food. In fact, improved human health is commonly cited as a benefit of transforming food production away from the dominant practices of industrial agriculture. Yet, does the use of "ecologically sound and sustainable methods" of food production necessarily translate into better human health outcomes? Does greater choice in defining an agricultural or food system create gains in health and well-being? We elucidate the conceptual linkages between food sovereignty and human health, critically examine the empirical evidence supporting or refuting these linkages, and identify research gaps and key priorities for the food sovereignty-human health research agenda. Five domains of food sovereignty are discussed including: (1) use of agroecological management practices for food production, (2) the localization of food production and consumption, (3) promotion of social justice and equity, (4) valuation of traditional knowledge, and (5) the transformation of economic and political institutions and structures to support self-determination. We find that although there are many plausible linkages between food sovereignty and human health, the empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that increasing food sovereignty yields improvements to human health is weak. We propose that a concerted effort to generate new empirical evidence on the health implications of these domains of food sovereignty is urgently needed, and suggest areas of research that may be crucial for addressing the gaps in the evidence base.

  9. Computational and human observer image quality evaluation of low dose, knowledge-based CT iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, Brendan L.; Fahmi, Rachid; Miao, Jun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Brown, Kevin M.; Zabic, Stanislav; Raihani, Nilgoun [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio 44143 (United States); Wilson, David L., E-mail: dlw@case.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Aims in this study are to (1) develop a computational model observer which reliably tracks the detectability of human observers in low dose computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (IMR™, Philips Healthcare) and filtered back projection (FBP) across a range of independent variables, (2) use the model to evaluate detectability trends across reconstructions and make predictions of human observer detectability, and (3) perform human observer studies based on model predictions to demonstrate applications of the model in CT imaging. Methods: Detectability (d′) was evaluated in phantom studies across a range of conditions. Images were generated using a numerical CT simulator. Trained observers performed 4-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) experiments across dose (1.3, 2.7, 4.0 mGy), pin size (4, 6, 8 mm), contrast (0.3%, 0.5%, 1.0%), and reconstruction (FBP, IMR), at fixed display window. A five-channel Laguerre–Gauss channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was developed with internal noise added to the decision variable and/or to channel outputs, creating six different internal noise models. Semianalytic internal noise computation was tested against Monte Carlo and used to accelerate internal noise parameter optimization. Model parameters were estimated from all experiments at once using maximum likelihood on the probability correct, P{sub C}. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare models of different orders. The best model was selected according to AIC and used to predict detectability in blended FBP-IMR images, analyze trends in IMR detectability improvements, and predict dose savings with IMR. Predicted dose savings were compared against 4-AFC study results using physical CT phantom images. Results: Detection in IMR was greater than FBP in all tested conditions. The CHO with internal noise proportional to channel output standard deviations, Model-k4, showed the best trade-off between fit

  10. Reduced malonyl-CoA content in recovery from exercise correlates with improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Roepstorff, Carsten; Brandt, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in recovery from acute exercise coincides with reduced malonyl-CoA (MCoA) content in human muscle. Furthermore, we investigated whether a high-fat diet [65 energy-% (Fat)] would alter the content of MCoA and insulin action...... to be compromised, although to a minor extent, by the Fat diet. Collectively, this study indicates that reduced muscle MCoA content in recovery from exercise may be part of the adaptive response leading to improved insulin action on glucose uptake after exercise in human muscle....

  11. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot test for the confirmatory serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Roldán

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis, a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB-IgG test was developed and evaluated using Toxocara canislarvae excretory-secretory antigens for detecting anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. The EITB-IgG profile of toxocariasis was characterized by comparing 27 sera from patients with toxocariasis, 110 sera from healthy subjects and 186 sera from patients with other helminth diseases (ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, trichuriasis, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, hymenolepiasis, diphyllobothriasis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, hydatidosis and fascioliasis. Antigenic bands of 24, 28, 30, 35, 56, 117, 136 and 152 kDa were predominantly recognized in sera from all patients with toxocariasis. However, only bands of 24-35 kDa were highly specific for Toxocara infection (98.3%, whereas other antigenic bands observed displayed cross-reactivity. Additionally, when the results of the EITB-IgG test were compared to those of the ELISA-IgG test, a 100% concordance was observed for positive results in human toxocariasis cases. The concordance for negative results between the two tests for healthy subjects and patients with other helminth diseases were 96.3% and 53.7%, respectively, showing that the EITB-IgG test has a higher specificity than ELISA. In conclusion, the EITB-IgG test is a very useful tool to confirm the serological diagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  12. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil: The Evaluation of Impacts as a Human Rights Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Anna R; Del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino

    2016-06-01

    Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children's health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children's health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses.

  13. PPARγ agonists improve survival and neurocognitive outcomes in experimental cerebral malaria and induce neuroprotective pathways in human malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Serghides

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria (CM is associated with a high mortality rate, and long-term neurocognitive impairment in approximately one third of survivors. Adjunctive therapies that modify the pathophysiological processes involved in CM may improve outcome over anti-malarial therapy alone. PPARγ agonists have been reported to have immunomodulatory effects in a variety of disease models. Here we report that adjunctive therapy with PPARγ agonists improved survival and long-term neurocognitive outcomes in the Plasmodium berghei ANKA experimental model of CM. Compared to anti-malarial therapy alone, PPARγ adjunctive therapy administered to mice at the onset of CM signs, was associated with reduced endothelial activation, and enhanced expression of the anti-oxidant enzymes SOD-1 and catalase and the neurotrophic factors brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF in the brains of infected mice. Two months following infection, mice that were treated with anti-malarials alone demonstrated cognitive dysfunction, while mice that received PPARγ adjunctive therapy were completely protected from neurocognitive impairment and from PbA-infection induced brain atrophy. In humans with P. falciparum malaria, PPARγ therapy was associated with reduced endothelial activation and with induction of neuroprotective pathways, such as BDNF. These findings provide insight into mechanisms conferring improved survival and preventing neurocognitive injury in CM, and support the evaluation of PPARγ agonists in human CM.

  14. Process Evaluation of a Workplace Health Promotion Intervention Aimed at Improving Work Engagement and Energy Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, J.; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. METHODS:: Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative

  15. Process evaluation of a workplace health promotion intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, J. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. METHODS:: Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative

  16. Clonal Evaluation of Prostate Cancer by ERG/SPINK1 Status to Improve Prognosis Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    19 NIH Exploiting drivers of androgen receptor signaling negative prostate cancer for precision medicine Goal(s): Identify novel potential drivers...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0466 TITLE: Clonal evaluation of prostate cancer by ERG/SPINK1 status to improve prognosis prediction PRINCIPAL...Sept 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Clonal Evaluation of Prostate Cancer by ERG/SPINK1 Status to Improve Prognosis Prediction 5b

  17. Oxygenated fixation demonstrates novel and improved ultrastructural features of the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to describe in detail the ultrastructure of the human endolymphatic sac using a new and improved method of fixation as well as a refined surgical approach in obtaining specimens. STUDY DESIGN: Transmission electron microscopy of the human...... epithelial cell lining in all 18 specimens. In general, we found very well-preserved specimens with well-defined intracellular structures. In contrast to the results in former studies, a minimum of fixation artifacts was observed in the present study. Three different cell types were observed...... endolymphatic sac, employing an oxygenated fixative. METHODS: Eighteen tissue samples of the human endolymphatic sac were obtained during surgery for vestibular schwannoma using the translabyrinthine approach. The specimens were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in an oxygenated fluorocarbon blood substitute vehicle...

  18. Human gene therapy: novel approaches to improve the current gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiarini, Magali

    2016-06-01

    Even though gene therapy made its way through the clinics to treat a number of human pathologies since the early years of experimental research and despite the recent approval of the first gene-based product (Glybera) in Europe, the safe and effective use of gene transfer vectors remains a challenge in human gene therapy due to the existence of barriers in the host organism. While work is under active investigation to improve the gene transfer systems themselves, the use of controlled release approaches may offer alternative, convenient tools of vector delivery to achieve a performant gene transfer in vivo while overcoming the various physiological barriers that preclude its wide use in patients. This article provides an overview of the most significant contributions showing how the principles of controlled release strategies may be adapted for human gene therapy.

  19. Evaluation of human thorax FE model in various impact scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansová M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the validation of the 50th percentile male model — a detailed FE model of the thoracic segment of the human body developed within project Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Thorax and Upper Extremities (THOMO co-funded by the European Commission (7th Framework Programme. The model response was tested in three impact scenarios: frontal, lateral and oblique. The resulting impactor contact force vs. time and chest deflection vs. time responses were compared with experimental results. The strain profile of the 5th rib was checked with lateral and oblique strain profiles from post-mortem human subject (PMHS experiments. The influence of heart and lungs on the mechanical response of the model was assessed and the material data configuration, giving the most biofidelic thorax behaviour, was identified.

  20. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    OpenAIRE

    G. Ganesh; A. Takagi; R. Osu; T. Yoshioka; M. Kawato; E. Burdet

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor...

  1. Preparation of recombinant proteins in milk to improve human and animal health

    OpenAIRE

    Soler , Eric; Thépot , Dominique; Rival-Gervier , Sylvie; JOLIVET , Geneviève; Houdebine , Louis-Marie

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Milk is a very abundant source of proteins for animal and human consumption. Milk composition can be modified using transgenesis, including exogenous gene addition and endogenous gene inactivation. The study of milk protein genes has provided researchers with regulatory regions capable of efficiently and specifically driving the expression of foreign genes in milk. The projects underway are aimed at modifying milk composition, improving its nutritional value, reducing ...

  2. Evaluation of intestinal phosphate binding to improve the safety profile of oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Robijn

    Full Text Available Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline. Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections. Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders.

  3. When does quality improvement count as research? Human subject protection and theories of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, J

    2004-02-01

    The publication of insights from a quality improvement project recently precipitated a ruling by the lead federal regulatory agency that regulations providing protection for human subjects of research should apply. The required research review process did not match the rapid changes, small samples, limited documentation, clinician management, and type of information commonly used in quality improvement. Yet quality improvement can risk harm to patients, so some review might be in order. The boundaries and processes are not clear. Efforts have been made to determine what constitutes "research", but this has proved difficult and often yields irrational guidance with regard to protection of patients. Society needs a workable way to separate activities that will improve care, on the one hand, and those that constitute research, on the other. Practitioners who lead both quality improvement and research projects claim that those which rapidly give feedback to the care system that generated the data, aiming to change practices within that system, are "quality improvement" no matter whether the findings are published, whether the project is grant funded, and whether contemporaneous controls do not have the intervention. This criterion has not previously been proposed as a possible demarcation. The quandaries of which projects to put through research review and how to ensure ethical implementation of quality improvement need to be resolved.

  4. Improvements and impacts of GRCh38 human reference on high throughput sequencing data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Dai, Yulin; Yu, Hui; Zhao, Shilin; Samuels, David C; Shyr, Yu

    2017-03-01

    Analyses of high throughput sequencing data starts with alignment against a reference genome, which is the foundation for all re-sequencing data analyses. Each new release of the human reference genome has been augmented with improved accuracy and completeness. It is presumed that the latest release of human reference genome, GRCh38 will contribute more to high throughput sequencing data analysis by providing more accuracy. But the amount of improvement has not yet been quantified. We conducted a study to compare the genomic analysis results between the GRCh38 reference and its predecessor GRCh37. Through analyses of alignment, single nucleotide polymorphisms, small insertion/deletions, copy number and structural variants, we show that GRCh38 offers overall more accurate analysis of human sequencing data. More importantly, GRCh38 produced fewer false positive structural variants. In conclusion, GRCh38 is an improvement over GRCh37 not only from the genome assembly aspect, but also yields more reliable genomic analysis results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. [Recommendations for the evaluation and follow-up of the continuous quality improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurellet-Evrard, S; Daunizeau, A

    2013-06-01

    Continual improvement of the quality in a medical laboratory is based on the implementation of tools for systematically evaluate the quality management system and its ability to meet the objectives defined. Monitoring through audit and management review, addressing complaints and nonconformities and performing client satisfaction survey are the key for the continual improvement.

  6. Improving Readability of an Evaluation Tool for Low-Income Clients Using Visual Information Processing Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Marilyn S.; Sylva, Kathryn; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Wooten-Swanson, Patti

    2008-01-01

    Literacy is an issue for many low-income audiences. Using visual information processing theories, the goal was improving readability of a food behavior checklist and ultimately improving its ability to accurately capture existing changes in dietary behaviors. Using group interviews, low-income clients (n = 18) evaluated 4 visual styles. The text…

  7. A Step beyond Univision Evaluation: Using a Systems Model of Performance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Zhang, Jiping; Gradous, Deane B.; Maile, Craig

    1999-01-01

    Examines three views of performance improvement--scientific management, instructional design, and systems thinking--each providing a unique view of performance improvement and specific roles for evaluation. Provides an integrated definition of performance and a synthesis model that encompasses the three views. (AEF)

  8. Evaluation of the CDC safe water-storage intervention to improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the CDC safe water-storage intervention to improve the microbiological quality of point-of-use drinking water in rural communities in South Africa. ... use of safe household water-storage devices and water treatment processes and improvement of hygiene and sanitation practices in these rural households.

  9. Competences and evaluation of human resource performance in the tourism sector. The case of Ambato-Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Elizabeth Cruz Lascano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Personnel evaluation is a tool and not an end in itself. It is a means to obtain data and information that can be registered, processed and channeled to improve human performance in organizations. There are several management practices that meet the needs of the time and the predominant structure of organizations, however, change is the only constant as far as human behavior is concerned, because of this, all the time are analyzing and researching new ways to evaluate staff performance in business, with the sole purpose of creating spaces of motivation to ensure the involvement of staff in achieving business goals. At the time, results have been achieved, but there is way to go, the analysis of the information obtained through a survey undertaken several staff tourist establishments in the city, will be the basis to determine the evaluation methodology in order to enhance the skills of those who are the driving force within the company, collaborators.

  10. Statistical evaluation of major human errors during the development of new technological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G; Ott, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    Statistical procedures are presented to evaluate major human errors during the development of a new system, errors that have led or can lead to accidents or major failures. The first procedure aims at estimating the average residual occurrence rate for s or major failures after several have occurred. The procedure is solely based on the historical record. Certain idealizations are introduced that allow the application of a sound statistical evaluation procedure. These idealizations are practically realized to a sufficient degree such that the proposed estimation procedure yields meaningful results, even for situations with a sparse data base, represented by very few accidents. Under the assumption that the possible human-error-related failure times have exponential distributions, the statistical technique of isotonic regression is proposed to estimate the failure rates due to human design error at the failure times of the system. The last value in the sequence of estimates gives the residual accident chance. In addition, theactual situation is tested against the hypothesis that the failure rate of the system remains constant over time. This test determines the chance for a decreasing failure rate being incidental, rather than an indication of an actual learning process. Both techniques can be applied not merely to a single system but to an entire series of similar systems that a technology would generate, enabling the assessment of technological improvement. For the purpose of illustration, the nuclear decay of isotopes was chosen as an example, since the assumptions of the model are rigorously satisfied in this case. This application shows satisfactory agreement of the estimated and actual failure rates (which are exactly known in this example), although the estimation was deliberately based on a sparse historical record

  11. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB. Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS. Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  12. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  13. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  14. EVALUATION OF A PERSONAL NEPHELOMETER FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current particulate matter (PM) exposure studies are using continuous personal nephelometers (pDR-1000, MIE, Inc.) to measure human exposure to PM. The personal nephelometer is a passive sampler which uses light scattering technology to measure particles ranging in size from 0....

  15. Applications of Human Performance Reliability Evaluation Concepts and Demonstration Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-15

    ship stops dead in the water and the AN/SQS-26 operator recommends a new heading (000°). At T + 14 minutes, the target ship begins a hard turn to...Various Simulated Conditions 82 9 Hunan Reliability for Each Simulated Operator (Baseline Run) 83 10 Human and Equipment Availabilit / under

  16. Evaluation of Human Rights Violations in Student Personnel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five point Likert scale instrument, Students Legal Rights Protection Questionnaire (SLRPQ) was used for data collection and analyzed using the population (one sample t-test), at .05 level of significance. The finding was that there is significant violation of secondary school students' rights (right to dignity of human person, ...

  17. Immunotoxicity testing using human primary leukocytes: An adjunct approach for the evaluation of human risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis-Moghe, Ashwini S; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2017-04-01

    Historically, immunotoxicity testing for chemicals, pesticides and pharmaceuticals has relied heavily on animal models to identify effects on the immune system followed by extrapolation to humans. Substantial progress has been made in the past decade on understanding human immune cell regulation, adaptive and innate immune responses and its modulation. The human immune system is complex and there exists diversity within composition, localization, and activation of different immune cell types between individuals. The inherent variation in human populations owing to genetics and environment can have a significant influence on the response of the immune system to infectious agents, drugs, chemicals and other environmental factors. Several recent reports have highlighted that mouse models of sepsis and inflammation are poorly predictive of human disease physiology and pathology. Rodent and human immune cells differ in the expression of cell surface proteins and phenotypes expressed in disease models, which may significantly influence the mechanism of action of xenobiotics and susceptibility yielding a different profile of activity across animal species. In the light of these differences and recent trends toward precision medicine, personalized therapies and the 3Rs (reduce, replace and refine animal use) approaches, the importance of using 'all human' model systems cannot be overstated. Hence, this opinion piece aims to discuss new models used to assess the effects of environmental contaminants and immune modulators on the immune response in human cells, the advantages and challenges of using human primary cells in immunotoxicology research and the implication for the future of immunotoxicity testing.

  18. Evaluation of the Humanity Research Paradigms based on Analysis of Human – Environment Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sameh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As claimed by many behavioral scientists, designing should be based on the knowledge of interaction between human and environment. Environmental quality is also created in the context in which humans interact with their environment. To achieve such quality, designers should develop appropriate models for explaining this relationship, and this requires an understanding of human nature and the environment. Criticisms on the Modern Movement have shown that architects have often used incomplete and simplistic models in this regard, while most of design ideas are based on the definitions of human and environment and the interaction between them. However, the most important question that is raised is that how understanding of human nature and the environment and their interaction, which depends on foundations of different views, can affect the pursuit of quality in designing? Therefore, the present paper, in addition to introduction and comparison of common paradigms in humanities as the and methodological foundation of human sciences, aims to deal with the relationship of human and the environment from the perspective of objectivist, relativist, and critical paradigms in order to identify the characteristics and differences in their views on the analysis of the quality of this interaction. This is the most important step that paves the way for understanding the qualitative foundations of the environment and human life quality and also the quality of interaction between them.

  19. Teacher Evaluation: Organizational Maintenance Versus Stimulation of Improved Teaching Performance. The New Mexico Principalship Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carolyn J.; Pohland, Paul A.

    Teacher evaluation procedures appear to focus on organizational maintenance aspects more heavily than on helping teachers improve their teaching performance. This conclusion was reached after a content analysis of teacher evaluation instruments used in New Mexico schools. Items focusing on the instructional role constituted only 28% of the items…

  20. The Mixing of Methods: a three-step process for improving rigour in impact evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, G.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a systematic process that is helpful in improving impact evaluation assignments, within restricted budgets and timelines. It involves three steps: a rethink of the key questions of the evaluation to develop more relevant, specific questions; a way of designing a mix of

  1. From Curricular Justice to Educational Improvement: What Is the Role of Schools' Self-Evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Marta; Leite, Carlinda

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a study that aimed to understand the contributions of self-evaluation (SE) processes towards the development of curricular and social justice and educational improvement. The study focuses on data collected from the schools' external evaluation (SEE) process and from the TEIP programme (Educational Territories of Priority…

  2. Mechanism analysis and evaluation methodology of regenerative braking contribution to energy efficiency improvement of electrified vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong; Yuan, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy flow of an electric vehicle with regenerative brake is analyzed. • Methodology for measuring the regen brake contribution is discussed. • Evaluation parameters of regen brake contribution are proposed. • Vehicle tests are carried out on chassis dynamometer. • Test results verify the evaluation method and parameters proposed. - Abstract: This article discusses the mechanism and evaluation methods of contribution brought by regenerative braking to electric vehicle’s energy efficiency improvement. The energy flow of an electric vehicle considering the braking energy regeneration was analyzed. Then, methodologies for measuring the contribution made by regenerative brake to vehicle energy efficiency improvement were introduced. Based on the energy flow analyzed, two different evaluation parameters were proposed. Vehicle tests were carried out on chassis dynamometer under typical driving cycles with three different control strategies. The experimental results the difference between the proposed two evaluation parameters, and demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the evaluation methodologies proposed

  3. Evaluating core technology capacity based on an improved catastrophe progression method: the case of automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shijia; Liu, Zongwei; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Fuquan

    2017-01-01

    Subjectivity usually causes large fluctuations in evaluation results. Many scholars attempt to establish new mathematical methods to make evaluation results consistent with actual objective situations. An improved catastrophe progression method (ICPM) is constructed to overcome the defects of the original method. The improved method combines the merits of the principal component analysis' information coherence and the catastrophe progression method's none index weight and has the advantage of highly objective comprehensive evaluation. Through the systematic analysis of the influencing factors of the automotive industry's core technology capacity, the comprehensive evaluation model is established according to the different roles that different indices play in evaluating the overall goal with a hierarchical structure. Moreover, ICPM is developed for evaluating the automotive industry's core technology capacity for the typical seven countries in the world, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.

  4. Evaluability Assessment of an immunization improvement strategy in rural Burkina Faso: intervention theory versus reality, information need and evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou, Aboubakary; Kouyaté, Bocar; Bibeau, Gilles; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2011-08-01

    An innovative immunization improvement strategy was proposed by the CRSN (Centre de Recherche en Santé de Nouna) to improve the low coverage rate for children aged 0-11 months in the health district of Nouna in Burkina Faso. This article reports on the Evaluability Assessment (EA) study that aimed to orient decisions for its evaluation in close relationship with the information needs of the stakeholders. Various methods were used, including document reviews, individual interviews, focus group discussions, meetings, literature reviews and site visits. A description of the intervention theory and philosophy is provided with its logic models and its reality documented. Lessons on the procedure include the importance of the position of the evaluability assessor, the value of replicating some steps of the assessment and the relationships between EA and process evaluation. The evaluability study concludes that the intervention had some evaluable components. To satisfy the stakeholders' needs, the initially planned community randomized controlled trial can be maintained and complemented with a process evaluation. There is a need to provide sufficient information on the cost of the intervention. This will inform decision makers on the possibility of replicating the intervention in other contexts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel human-associated Lachnospiraceae genetic markers improve detection of fecal pollution sources in urban waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuchen; Bootsma, Melinda; McLellan, Sandra L

    2018-05-04

    The human microbiome contains many organisms that could potentially be used as indicators of human fecal pollution. Here we report the development of two novel human-associated genetic marker assays that target organisms within the family Lachnospiraceae Next-generation sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene from sewage and animal stool samples identified 40 human-associated marker candidates with a robust signal in sewage and low or no occurrence in nonhuman hosts. Two were chosen for quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay development using longer sequences (V2 to V9 regions) generated from clone libraries. Validation of these assays, designated Lachno3 and Lachno12, was performed using fecal samples (n=55) from cat, dog, pig, cow, deer, and gull sources, and compared with established host-associated assays (Lachno2, and two Human Bacteroides assays; HB and HF183/BacR287). Each of the established assays cross-reacted with at least one other animal, including animals common in urban areas. Lachno3 and Lachno12 were primarily human-associated; however, Lachno12 demonstrated low levels of cross-reactivity with select cows, and non-specific amplification in pigs. This limitation may not be problematic when testing urban waters. These novel markers resolved ambiguous results from previous investigations in stormwater-impacted waters, demonstrating their utility. The complexity of the microbiome in humans and animals suggests no single organism is strictly specific to humans, and multiple complementary markers used in combination will provide the highest resolution and specificity for assessing fecal pollution sources. IMPORTANCE Traditional fecal indicator bacteria do not distinguish animal from human fecal pollution, which is necessary to evaluate health risks and mitigate pollution sources. Assessing urban areas is challenging since water can be impacted by sewage, which has a high likelihood of carrying human pathogens, as well as pet waste and urban wildlife. We

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on better nuclear plant maintenance: improving human and organisational performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-05

    A significant proportion of nuclear plant events is attributable to failures that take place during maintenance and periodic testing. Human and organisational factors are frequently identified as making a major contribution to these events. Despite this recognition, licensee and regulatory oversight in the human and organisational area has tended to focus more on operational matters than maintenance. Owing to the importance of human and organisational performance on nuclear plant maintenance, the CSNI Special Experts' Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF) hosted a workshop entitled 'Better nuclear plant maintenance: improving human and organisational performance'. The workshop provided an international forum for staff from nuclear plants, research bodies, and regulators to discuss human and organisational challenges to maintenance, and initiatives to support effective performance. Over 60 participants from about 20 countries participated. The workshop was divided into five sessions: 1) International guidance to improve maintenance performance; 2) Lessons learned through maintenance operating experience; 3) Licensee initiatives to support reliable maintenance; 4) Regulatory approaches to assuring effective licensee maintenance; and 5) Recent trends and their impact on maintenance. Sessions commenced with oral presentations of papers followed by break-out and plenary discussions. Session 4 on regulatory approaches included short presentations from ten regulatory bodies and was followed by discussion comparing these approaches. The main findings of the workshop concern: the retirements of experienced staff; the increasing use of contractors to perform maintenance activities; the use of skill-broadening in maintenance; the role of supervisors at the plant level; the organisational changes that are used to optimise the use of plant staff resources; the effective planning of maintenance tasks; the time allowed to complete maintenance tasks; the development

  7. An Improved Methodology to Overcome Key Issues in Human Fecal Metagenomic DNA Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and recent culture-independent studies have highlighted the significance of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Fecal DNA is the primary source for the majority of human gut microbiome studies. However, further improvement is needed to obtain fecal metagenomic DNA with sufficient amount and good quality but low host genomic DNA contamination. In the current study, we demonstrate a quick, robust, unbiased, and cost-effective method for the isolation of high molecular weight (>23 kb metagenomic DNA (260/280 ratio >1.8 with a good yield (55.8 ± 3.8 ng/mg of feces. We also confirm that there is very low human genomic DNA contamination (eubacterial: human genomic DNA marker genes = 227.9:1 in the human feces. The newly-developed method robustly performs for fresh as well as stored fecal samples as demonstrated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using 454 FLX+. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that compared to other DNA extraction methods tested, the fecal metagenomic DNA isolated with current methodology retains species richness and does not show microbial diversity biases, which is further confirmed by qPCR with a known quantity of spike-in genomes. Overall, our data highlight a protocol with a balance between quality, amount, user-friendliness, and cost effectiveness for its suitability toward usage for culture-independent analysis of the human gut microbiome, which provides a robust solution to overcome key issues associated with fecal metagenomic DNA isolation in human gut microbiome studies.

  8. Evaluation of Root Canal Morphology of Human Primary Mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... Keywords: Primary teeth, root canal, Vertucci classification. Evaluation of Root .... Radiology using CBCT; Veraviewepocs 3D R100/F40. (J Morita Mfg. Corp., .... maxillofacial structures by CBCT on a high resolution, and this ...

  9. Human Health Safety Evaluation of Halon Replacement Candidates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dodd, D. E; Jepson, G. W; Macko, Jr, J. A

    2000-01-01

    .... The services within the Department of Defense (DoD) are directed to determine and evaluate suitable halon replacement candidates that will optimize performance of mission-essential equipment and operations...

  10. Evaluation in dogs and humans of three potential technetium-99m myocardial perfusion agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerundini, P.; Savi, A.; Gilardi, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The biodistribution of the three cationic /sup 99m/Tc complexes [/sup 99m/Tc(TMP)6]+, [/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3]+, and [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+--where TMP represents trimethylphosphite, POM-POM represents 1,2-bis(dimethyoxyphosphino)ethane, and TBIN represents t-butylisonitrile--have been evaluated in humans and dogs. Each agent was studied in three normal volunteers at rest, while [/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3]+ and [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+ were each studied in one normal volunteer at exercise. Even though all three agents yield good myocardial images in dogs, none appear suitable for clinical use as myocardial perfusion imaging radiopharmaceuticals. In humans, [/sup 99m/Tc(TMP)6]+ and [/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3]+ clear very slowly from the blood and provide myocardial images only several hours after injection. [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+ clears rapidly from the blood, but accumulation in the lung obscures the myocardial image for the first hour after injection; at later times, activity in the liver and spleen masks the apical wall. These results correlate with the blood-binding properties of the three complexes. [/sup 99m/Tc(TMP)6]+ and [/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3]+ bind tightly to the plasma of human blood, but not to the plasma of dog blood; [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+ does not bind tightly to the plasma of either dog or human blood. Among the Tc(I) complexes studied to date in humans, [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+ appears to be unique in biodistribution pattern, blood-binding properties, and the fact that exercise improves the ultimate myocardial image. All the Tc(I) complexes appear to undergo myocardial accumulation by a mechanism different from that utilized by Tc(III) complexes. Animal studies alone are not adequate to evaluate the potential utility of /sup 99m/Tc cationic complexes for myocardial perfusion studies

  11. Improving teaching on the basis of student evaluation: integrative teaching consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbecke, Gerald; Kahmann, Janine; Pignotti, Tanja; Altenberger, Leander; Kadmon, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Due to the development of medical education in the past decade the role of teachers has changed and requires higher didactic competence. Student evaluation of teaching alone does not lead to considerable improvement of teaching quality. We present the concept of "Integrative Teaching Consultation", which comprises both the teacher's reflection and own objectives to improve their teaching as well as data from students ratings. Teachers in collaboration with a teaching consultant reflect on their teaching ability and set themselves improvement goals. Then the consultant himself observes a teaching session and subsequently analyses the respective student evaluation in order to give meaningful feedback to the teacher. The combination of student feedback with professional consultation elements can initiate and maintain improvements in teaching. Teaching consultation complements existing faculty development programs and increases the benefit of student evaluations.

  12. Improving teaching on the basis of student evaluation: Integrative teaching consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibbecke, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the development of medical education in the past decade the role of teachers has changed and requires higher didactic competence. Student evaluation of teaching alone does not lead to considerable improvement of teaching quality. We present the concept of "Integrative Teaching Consultation", which comprises both the teacher’s reflection and own objectives to improve their teaching as well as data from students ratings.Methods: Teachers in collaboration with a teaching consultant reflect on their teaching ability and set themselves improvement goals. Then the consultant himself observes a teaching session and subsequently analyses the respective student evaluation in order to give meaningful feedback to the teacher.Results: The combination of student feedback with professional consultation elements can initiate and maintain improvements in teaching. Conclusion: Teaching consultation complements existing faculty development programs and increases the benefit of student evaluations.

  13. Cytogenetic evaluation of Fansidar on human lymphocyte chromosomes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Nuzhat; Saifi, Muheet Alam; Shadab, G G H A

    2011-01-01

    Fansidar is a fixed combination of two antimalarial agents a diaminopyrimidine (Pyrimethamine) and a sulphonamide (Sulphadoxine) in the ratio 1:20- that have been used extensively worldwide for the treatment of Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria, toxoplasmosis and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This study examined the effect of Fansidar on chromosomes in human lymphocyte culture. Fansidar was added to peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures in vitro at four different concentrations: 5,15, 25 and 50 microl in the ratio 1:20, 3:60, 5:100 and 10:200 microg ml(-1). Result shows that this drug induces moderate increase in the frequency of gaps, breaks and rearrangements. Therefore it can be concluded that Fansidar has moderate clastogenic effect on human chromosomes in vitro.

  14. Evaluating a Chronic Disease Management Improvement Collaboration: Lessons in Design and Implementation Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kaye; Amar, Claudia; Elicksen-Jensen, Keesa

    2016-01-01

    For the Canadian Foundation for Healthcare Improvement (CFHI), the Atlantic Healthcare Collaboration (AHC) was a pivotal opportunity to build upon its experience and expertise in delivering regional change management training and to apply and refine its evaluation and performance measurement approach. This paper reports on its evaluation principles and approach, as well as the lessons learned as CFHI diligently coordinated and worked with improvement project (IP) teams and a network of stakeholders to design and undertake a suite of evaluative activities. The evaluation generated evidence and learnings about various elements of chronic disease prevention and management (CDPM) improvement processes, individual and team capacity building and the role and value of CFHI in facilitating tailored learning activities and networking among teams, coaches and other AHC stakeholders.

  15. Human reliability: an evaluation of its understanding and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a viewpoint on the state-of-the-art in human reliability. The bases for this viewpoint are, by and large, research projects conducted by the NUS for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) primarily with the objective of further enhancing the credibility of PRA methodology. The presentation is divided into the following key sections: Background and Overview, Methodology and Data Base with emphasis on the simulator data base

  16. Improved Detection of Human Respiration Using Data Fusion Basedon a Multistatic UWB Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lv

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the feasibility for improved detection of human respiration using data fusion based on a multistatic ultra-wideband (UWB radar. UWB-radar-based respiration detection is an emerging technology that has great promise in practice. It can be applied to remotely sense the presence of a human target for through-wall surveillance, post-earthquake search and rescue, etc. In these applications, a human target’s position and posture are not known a priori. Uncertainty of the two factors results in a body orientation issue of UWB radar, namely the human target’s thorax is not always facing the radar. Thus, the radial component of the thorax motion due to respiration decreases and the respiratory motion response contained in UWB radar echoes is too weak to be detected. To cope with the issue, this paper used multisensory information provided by the multistatic UWB radar, which took the form of impulse radios and comprised one transmitting and four separated receiving antennas. An adaptive Kalman filtering algorithm was then designed to fuse the UWB echo data from all the receiving channels to detect the respiratory-motion response contained in those data. In the experiment, a volunteer’s respiration was correctly detected when he curled upon a camp bed behind a brick wall. Under the same scenario, the volunteer’s respiration was detected based on the radar’s single transmitting-receiving channels without data fusion using conventional algorithm, such as adaptive line enhancer and single-channel Kalman filtering. Moreover, performance of the data fusion algorithm was experimentally investigated with different channel combinations and antenna deployments. The experimental results show that the body orientation issue for human respiration detection via UWB radar can be dealt well with the multistatic UWB radar and the Kalman-filter-based data fusion, which can be applied to improve performance of UWB radar in real applications.

  17. Analysis of the evaluated data discrepancies for minor actinides and development of improved evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatyuk, A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The work is directed on a compilation of experimental and evaluated data available for neutron induced reaction cross sections on {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am isotopes, on the analysis of the old data and renormalizations connected with changes of standards and on the comparison of experimental data with theoretical calculation. Main results of the analysis performed by now are presented in this report. (J.P.N.)

  18. Advances in public health accreditation readiness and quality improvement: evaluation findings from the National Public Health Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLees, Anita W; Thomas, Craig W; Nawaz, Saira; Young, Andrea C; Rider, Nikki; Davis, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement is a central tenet of the Public Health Accreditation Board's (PHAB) national voluntary public health accreditation program. Similarly, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the National Public Health Improvement Initiative (NPHII) in 2010 with the goal of advancing accreditation readiness, performance management, and quality improvement (QI). Evaluate the extent to which NPHII awardees have achieved program goals. NPHII awardees responded to an annual assessment and program monitoring data requests. Analysis included simple descriptive statistics. Seventy-four state, tribal, local, and territorial public health agencies receiving NPHII funds. NPHII performance improvement managers or principal investigators. Development of accreditation prerequisites, completion of an organizational self-assessment against the PHAB Standards and Measures, Version 1.0, establishment of a performance management system, and implementation of QI initiatives to increase efficiency and effectiveness. Of the 73 responding NPHII awardees, 42.5% had a current health assessment, 26% had a current health improvement plan, and 48% had a current strategic plan in place at the end of the second program year. Approximately 26% of awardees had completed an organizational PHAB self-assessment, 72% had established at least 1 of the 4 components of a performance management system, and 90% had conducted QI activities focused on increasing efficiencies and/or effectiveness. NPHII appears to be supporting awardees' initial achievement of program outcomes. As NPHII enters its third year, there will be additional opportunities to advance the work of NPHII, compile and disseminate results, and inform a vision of high-quality public health necessary to improve the health of the population.

  19. A conceptual framework to evaluate human-wildlife interactions within coupled human and natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita T. Morzillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscape characteristics affect human-wildlife interactions. However, there is a need to better understand mechanisms that drive those interactions, particularly feedbacks that exist between wildlife-related impacts, human reaction to and behavior as a result of those impacts, and how land use and landscape characteristics may influence those components within coupled human and natural systems. Current conceptual models of human-wildlife interactions often focus on species population size as the independent variable driving those interactions. Such an approach potentially overlooks important feedbacks among and drivers of human-wildlife interactions that result from mere wildlife presence versus absence. We describe an emerging conceptual framework that focuses on wildlife as a driver of human behavior and allows us to better understand linkages between humans, wildlife, and the broader landscape. We also present results of a pilot analysis related to our own ongoing study of urban rodent control behavior to illustrate one application of this framework within a study of urban landscapes.

  20. Contact and perspective taking improve humanness standards and perceptions of humanness of older adults and people with dementia: a cross-sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Anca M; McFadden, Susan H; Hermus, Nathan J; Buelow, Jennifer; Nazario, Amanda S; Seelman, Katarena

    2017-10-01

    No empirical work has systematically explored perceptions of humanness of people with dementia and of older adults and the variables that could improve these perceptions. We thus investigated the role of contact and perspective taking in improving perceptions of humanness of these social groups. To do so, we developed a new concept, humanness standards, defined as the amount of evidence of ability impairment needed to conclude that elderly people and those with dementia have lost personhood. We used a cross-sectional survey design (n = 619) to assess participants' humanness standards and perceptions of uniquely human characteristics and human nature characteristics of two social groups (people with dementia and older adults). Half the participants (n = 311) completed a survey about people with dementia and half (n = 308) assessed older adults. People with dementia were perceived as possessing humanness characteristics to a lesser extent than were older adults. For both groups, contact predicted enhanced perceptions of humanness characteristics. Participants' degree of contact with individuals with dementia also predicted humanness standards, but only under low perspective-taking conditions. As predicted, for older adults, participants set the highest humanness impairment thresholds in the high contact/high perspective-taking condition. We conclude that while social programs that bring persons with dementia and other individuals in contact could change humanness standards and perceptions of humanness characteristics of people with dementia, in the case of elderly adults, the contact must be supplemented by variables that facilitate taking the perspective of the person.

  1. Detecting and evaluating communities in complex human and biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-02-01

    We develop a simple method for detecting the community structure in a network can by utilizing a measure of closeness between nodes. This approach readily leads to a method of coarse graining the network, which allows the detection of the natural hierarchy (or hierarchies) of community structure without appealing to an unknown resolution parameter. The closeness measure can also be used to evaluate the robustness of an individual node's assignment to its community (rather than evaluating only the quality of the global structure). Each of these methods in community detection and evaluation are illustrated using a variety of real world networks of either biological or sociological importance and illustrate the power and flexibility of the approach.

  2. Accountability: Evaluating the Impact of Regulatory Policies on Air Quality, Human Health, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation discusses "accountability"; e.g., do emission-control regulations really reduce exposure to pollutants and improve human health? In this presentation, we provide examples of how to examine this and related questions.

  3. Can we do better? Economic analysis of human resource investment to improve home care service for the elderly in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj; Mitrovic, Zorica M

    2016-01-01

    Social services aimed at the elderly are facing great challenges caused by progressive aging of the global population but also by the constant pressure to spend funds in a rational manner. This paper focuses on analyzing the investments into human resources aimed at enhancing home care for the elderly since many countries have recorded progress in the area over the past years. The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of performing an economic analysis of the investment. This paper combines statistical analysis methods such as correlation and regression analysis, methods of economic analysis, and scenario method. The economic analysis of investing in human resources for home care service in Serbia showed that the both scenarios of investing in either additional home care hours or more beneficiaries are cost-efficient. However, the optimal solution with the positive (and the highest) value of economic net present value criterion is to invest in human resources to boost the number of home care hours from 6 to 8 hours per week and increase the number of the beneficiaries to 33%. This paper shows how the statistical and economic analysis results can be used to evaluate different scenarios and enable quality decision-making based on exact data in order to improve health and quality of life of the elderly and spend funds in a rational manner.

  4. Human action quality evaluation based on fuzzy logic with application in underground coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionica, Andreea; Leba, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The work system is defined by its components, their roles and the relationships between them. Any work system gravitates around the human resource and the interdependencies between human factor and the other components of it. Researches in this field agreed that the human factor and its actions are difficult to quantify and predict. The objective of this paper is to apply a method of human actions evaluation in order to estimate possible risks and prevent possible system faults, both at human factor level and at equipment level. In order to point out the importance of the human factor influence on all the elements of the working systems we propose a fuzzy logic based methodology for quality evaluation of human actions. This methodology has a multidisciplinary character, as it gathers ideas and methods from: quality management, ergonomics, work safety and artificial intelligence. The results presented refer to a work system with a high degree of specificity, namely, underground coal mining and are valuable for human resources risk evaluation pattern. The fuzzy logic evaluation of the human actions leads to early detection of possible dangerous evolutions of the work system and alarm the persons in charge.

  5. Strategies and policies for improving energy efficiency programs: Closing the loop between evaluation and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Program implementers often use evaluation results to improve the performance of their programs, but, as described in this paper, this is not always the case. Based on a review of the literature, participation in workshops, and interviews with over 50 program implementers, evaluators, and regulators in the United States and Canada, the utilization of evaluation results is investigated by asking the following questions: (1) How are program evaluation results used by program implementers and other stakeholders? (2) How are program evaluation results communicated to program implementers and other stakeholders? (3) Are the needs of program implementers being met by program evaluation? (4) What is the role of the utility regulator in facilitating the use of program evaluation results? (5) What other mechanisms can facilitate the use of program evaluation results? While there is some consensus on the answers to these questions, the type of interest in and use of evaluation varies by functional role (e.g., evaluator versus implementer), maturity of the energy efficiency market, institutional context (e.g., evaluation and implementation conducted inside the same organization, or evaluation and implementation conducted by separate entities), and by regulatory demands and evaluation interests

  6. EVALUATION OF EMF EXPOSURE OF MOBILE PHONES ON HUMAN HEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Vtornikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mobile phones are worldwide spread nowadays. Smartphones penetration is growing year after year. Numerous studies indicate the negative effect of EMF exposure of these devices on humans. Therefore, it is important to study the peculiarities of their influence on the target organ-the brain. It is important for solving this problem to find out the real situation of the distribution of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure near the front panel of the apparatus.The aim of the study is to determine and compare EMF exposure from smartphones and classic mobile phones on human head.Material and methods. The original method patented in the Russian Federation was used in this study. The used original measuring setup is also patented, developed and assembled by the authors of the study. The object of the study was classical mobile phones and smartphones widespread at the time of work.Results. We got the graphic of matrices of distribution of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure in the plane against the front panel of 10 apparatus corresponding to the topography of a human head. The study revealed peculiarities of this distribution in smartphones and the classic mobile phones and got the values of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure in the investigated devices acting primarily on the brain.Conclusions. The design of smartphones and mobile phones determines the overall picture of distribution of EFD of EMF exposure in the plane against the front panel for devices of a particular type. This picture must be taken into account when planning epidemiological and experimental studies to obtain comparable results. Progress in the development of mobile communication technologies has led to an increase in the electromagnetic load on users of modern devices.

  7. EVALUATION OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT INFLUENCE ON SUBURBAN TRAFFIC FLOW DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Horbachov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Study results of the human settlement influence on the traffic flow density in suburban service of international, national and regional roads of Ukraine are presented. The possibility of an adequate description of suburban traffic flows in the vicinity of large cities is established, depending on the city population and link remoteness from the city center. The possibility is determined on the basis of obtained models to define the prognosis value of the intensity and specific maintenance of freight and passenger transport flows.

  8. Instrumentation for Evaluating Medical School Courses in Human Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, T. Thorne; And Others

    A Sex Content Scale was developed to evaluate a series of simulated interviews conducted with 24 second year medical students and an actress who was carefully coached to reveal a specific sexual problem as she felt comfortable with the student and as he/she asked her appropriate questions. A patient response form was also developed to quantify the…

  9. Investigation and evaluation into the usability of human-computer interfaces using a typical CAD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickett, J D

    1987-01-01

    This research program covers three topics relating to the human-computer interface namely, voice recognition, tools and techniques for evaluation, and user and interface modeling. An investigation into the implementation of voice-recognition technologies examines how voice recognizers may be evaluated in commercial software. A prototype system was developed with the collaboration of FEMVIEW Ltd. (marketing a CAD package). A theoretical approach to evaluation leads to the hypothesis that human-computer interaction is affected by personality, influencing types of dialogue, preferred methods for providing helps, etc. A user model based on personality traits, or habitual-behavior patterns (HBP) is presented. Finally, a practical framework is provided for the evaluation of human-computer interfaces. It suggests that evaluation is an integral part of design and that the iterative use of evaluation techniques throughout the conceptualization, design, implementation and post-implementation stages will ensure systems that satisfy the needs of the users and fulfill the goal of usability.

  10. Evaluation of the biological differences of canine and human factor VIII in gene delivery: Implications in human hemophilia treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The canine is the most important large animal model for testing novel hemophilia A(HA) treatment. It is often necessary to use canine factor VIII (cFIII) gene or protein for the evaluation of HA treatment in the canine model. However, the different biological properties between cFVIII and human FVII...

  11. Improving a gold standard: treating human relevance judgments of MEDLINE document pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Won

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Given prior human judgments of the condition of an object it is possible to use these judgments to make a maximal likelihood estimate of what future human judgments of the condition of that object will be. However, if one has a reasonably large collection of similar objects and the prior human judgments of a number of judges regarding the condition of each object in the collection, then it is possible to make predictions of future human judgments for the whole collection that are superior to the simple maximal likelihood estimate for each object in isolation. This is possible because the multiple judgments over the collection allow an analysis to determine the relative value of a judge as compared with the other judges in the group and this value can be used to augment or diminish a particular judge’s influence in predicting future judgments. Here we study and compare five different methods for making such improved predictions and show that each is superior to simple maximal likelihood estimates.

  12. Human Primary Intestinal Epithelial Cells as an Improved In Vitro Model for Cryptosporidium parvum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Nichols, Joan; Gomez, Guillermo; White, A. Clinton

    2013-01-01

    The study of human intestinal pathogens has been limited by the lack of methods for the long-term culture of primary human intestinal epithelial cells (PECs). The development of infection models with PECs would allow a better understanding of host-parasite interactions. The objective of this study was to develop a novel method for prolonged in vitro cultivation of PECs that can be used to study Cryptosporidium infection. We isolated intact crypts from human intestines removed during weight loss surgery. The fragments of intestinal layers were cultivated with culture medium supplemented with growth factors and antiapoptotic molecules. After 7 days, the PECs formed self-regenerating cell clusters, forming villi that resemble intestinal epithelium. The PECs proliferated and remained viable for at least 60 days. The cells expressed markers for intestinal stem cells, epithelial cells, and mature enterocytes. The PECs were infected with Cryptosporidium. In contrast to older models in which parasite numbers decay, the burden of parasites increased for >120 h. In summary, we describe here a novel method for the cultivation of self-regenerating human epithelial cells from small intestinal crypts, which contain both intestinal stem cells and mature villus cells. We present data that suggest these cells support Cryptosporidium better than existing cell lines. PECs should provide an improved tool for studying host-parasite interactions involving Cryptosporidium and other intestinal pathogens. PMID:23509153

  13. Air quality and human health improvements from reduced deforestation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddington, C.; Butt, E. W.; Ridley, D. A.; Artaxo, P.; Morgan, W.; Coe, H.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Significant areas of the Brazilian Amazon have been deforested over the past few decades, with fire being the dominant method through which forests and vegetation are cleared. Fires emit large quantities of particulate matter into the atmosphere, degrading air quality and negatively impacting human health. Since 2004, Brazil has achieved substantial reductions in deforestation rates and associated deforestation fires. Here we assess the impact of this reduction on air quality and human health. We show that dry season (August - October) aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved by satellite over southwest Brazil and Bolivia is positively related to Brazil's annual deforestation rate (r=0.96, Pannually across South America. Future increases in Brazil's deforestation rates and associated fires may threaten the improved air quality reported here.

  14. Collagen Type I Improves the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells towards Definitive Endoderm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Holzmann; Petersen, Dorthe Roenn; Møller, Jonas Bech

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have the ability to generate all cell types in the body and can potentially provide an unlimited source of cells for cell replacement therapy to treat degenerative diseases such as diabetes. Current differentiation protocols of human embryonic stem cells towards insulin...... and consistent differentiation of stem cells to definitive endoderm. The results shed light on the importance of extracellular matrix proteins for differentiation and also points to a cost effective and easy method to improve differentiation....... embryonic stem cells to the definitive endoderm lineage. The percentage of definitive endoderm cells after differentiation on collagen I and fibronectin was >85% and 65%, respectively. The cells on collagen I substrates displayed different morphology and gene expression during differentiation as assessed...

  15. New methods and reagents to improve the ferret model for human influenza infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Kirkeby, Svend; Aasted, Bent

    The ferret has been extensively used to study human influenza infections. However, its value as a model has suffered from the limited set of reagents and methods available for this animal. We have recently tested a large number of monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting with ferret CD markers (CD8, ...... improvements of the model will aim at establishing a reliable RT-PCR for ferret cytokines, as well as investigating the location of influenza receptors and viral particles in the upper and lower respiratory tract via immunohistochemistry......The ferret has been extensively used to study human influenza infections. However, its value as a model has suffered from the limited set of reagents and methods available for this animal. We have recently tested a large number of monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting with ferret CD markers (CD8, CD...

  16. Calcineurin inhibitors acutely improve insulin sensitivity without affecting insulin secretion in healthy human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzbay, Aygen; Møller, Niels; Juhl, Claus

    2012-01-01

    and tacrolimus has been attributed to both beta cell dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This is the first trial to investigate beta cell function and insulin sensitivity using gold standard methodology in healthy human volunteers treated with clinically relevant doses...... of ciclosporin and tacrolimus. We document that both drugs acutely increase insulin sensitivity, while first phase and pulsatile insulin secretion remain unaffected. This study demonstrates that ciclosporin and tacrolimus have similar acute effects on glucose metabolism in healthy humans. AIM The introduction...... of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) ciclosporin (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) has improved the outcome of organ transplants, but complications such as new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) cause impairment of survival rates. The relative contribution of each CNI to the pathogenesis and development...

  17. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, G.; Takagi, A.; Osu, R.; Yoshioka, T.; Kawato, M.; Burdet, E.

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor performance during and after interactive practice. We show that these benefits cannot be explained by multi-sensory integration by an individual, but require physical interaction with a reactive partner. Furthermore, the benefits are determined by both the interacting partner's performance and similarity of the partner's behavior to one's own. Our results demonstrate the fundamental neural processes underlying human physical interactions and suggest advantages of interactive paradigms for sport-training and physical rehabilitation.

  18. Development of human performance evaluation methods and systems for human factors validation in an advanced control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su

    2008-02-01

    Advanced control room (ACR) human-machine interface (HMI) design of advanced nuclear power plants (NPPs) such as APR (advanced power reactor)-1400 can be validated through performance-based tests to determine whether it acceptably supports safe operation of the plant. In this paper, plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, workload, teamwork, and anthropometric/ physiological factor are considered as factors for the human performance evaluation. For development of measures in each of the factors, measures generally used in various industries and empirically proven to be useful are adopted as main measures with some modifications. In addition, helpful measures are developed as complementary measures in order to overcome some of the limitations associated with the main measures. The development of the measures is addressed based on the theoretical and empirical background and also based on the regulatory guidelines. A computerized system, which is called HUPESS (human performance evaluation support system), is developed based on the measures developed in this paper. The development of HUPESS is described with respect to the system configuration, the development process, and integrated measurement, evaluation, and analysis. HUPESS supports evaluators (or experimenters) to effectively measure, analyze, and evaluate the human performance for the HMI design validation in ACRs. Hence HUPESS is expected to be used as an effective tool for the human factors validation in the ACR of Shin Kori 3 and 4 NPPs (APR-1400 type) which are under construction in South-Korea. Also two measures of attentional-resource effectiveness based on cost-benefit analysis are developed. One of them is Fixation to Importance Ratio (FIR) which represents the attentional resources spent on an information source compared to the importance of the information source. The other measure is selective attention effectiveness (SAE) which incorporates the FIRs for all information

  19. Management and Evaluation System on Human Error, Licence Requirements, and Job-aptitude in Rail and the Other Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, In Soo; Suh, S. M.; Park, G. O. (and others)

    2006-07-15

    Rail system is a system that is very closely related to the public life. When an accident happens, the public using this system should be injured or even be killed. The accident that recently took place in Taegu subway system, because of the inappropriate human-side task performance, showed demonstratively how its results could turn out to be tragic one. Many studies have shown that the most cases of the accidents have occurred because of performing his/her tasks in inappropriate way. It is generally recognised that the rail system without human element could never be happened quite long time. So human element in rail system is going to be the major factor to the next tragic accident. This state of the art report studied the cases of the managements and evaluation systems related to human errors, license requirements, and job aptitudes in the areas of rail and the other industries for the purpose of improvement of the task performance of personnel which consists of an element and finally enhancement of rail safety. The human errors, license requirements, and evaluation system of the job aptitude on people engaged in agencies with close relation to rail do much for development and preservation their abilities. But due to various inside and outside factors, to some extent it may have limitations to timely reflect overall trends of society, technology, and a sense of value. Removal and control of the factors of human errors will have epochal roles in safety of the rail system through the case studies of this report. Analytical results on case studies of this report will be used in the project 'Development of Management Criteria on Human Error and Evaluation Criteria on Job-aptitude of Rail Safe-operation Personnel' which has been carried out as a part of 'Integrated R and D Program for Railway Safety'.

  20. Management and Evaluation System on Human Error, Licence Requirements, and Job-aptitude in Rail and the Other Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, In Soo; Suh, S. M.; Park, G. O.

    2006-07-01

    Rail system is a system that is very closely related to the public life. When an accident happens, the public using this system should be injured or even be killed. The accident that recently took place in Taegu subway system, because of the inappropriate human-side task performance, showed demonstratively how its results could turn out to be tragic one. Many studies have shown that the most cases of the accidents have occurred because of performing his/her tasks in inappropriate way. It is generally recognised that the rail system without human element could never be happened quite long time. So human element in rail system is going to be the major factor to the next tragic accident. This state of the art report studied the cases of the managements and evaluation systems related to human errors, license requirements, and job aptitudes in the areas of rail and the other industries for the purpose of improvement of the task performance of personnel which consists of an element and finally enhancement of rail safety. The human errors, license requirements, and evaluation system of the job aptitude on people engaged in agencies with close relation to rail do much for development and preservation their abilities. But due to various inside and outside factors, to some extent it may have limitations to timely reflect overall trends of society, technology, and a sense of value. Removal and control of the factors of human errors will have epochal roles in safety of the rail system through the case studies of this report. Analytical results on case studies of this report will be used in the project 'Development of Management Criteria on Human Error and Evaluation Criteria on Job-aptitude of Rail Safe-operation Personnel' which has been carried out as a part of 'Integrated R and D Program for Railway Safety'

  1. Experimental evaluation of human-system interaction on alarm design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.-H.; Lee, Y.-L.; Hwang, S.-L.; Yenn, T.-C.; Yu, Y.-C.; Hsu, C.-C.; Huang, H.-W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the practicability of automatic reset alarm system in Fourth Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) of Taiwan. The features of auto-reset alarm system include dynamic prioritization of all alarm signals and fast system reset. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of automatic/manual reset on operation time, situational awareness (SA), task load index (TLX), and subjective ratings. All participants, including Experts and Novices, took part in the experiment on the alarm system simulator with Load Rejection procedure. The experimental results imply that the auto-reset alarm system may be applied in an advanced control room under Load Rejection procedure, because all participants' operation time were reduced as well as Novice's SA were raised up. Nevertheless, to ensure operating safety in FNPP, the effects of the auto-reset alarm system in other procedures/special situations still need to be tested in the near future

  2. 75 FR 51815 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Exposure: Call for Information and Nomination of Scientific Experts AGENCY: National Institute of... and nomination of scientific experts. SUMMARY: CERHR is evaluating the scientific evidence regarding... information about current production levels, human exposure, use patterns, and environmental occurrence. This...

  3. Computational Integration of Human Genetic Data to Evaluate AOP-Specific Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need for approaches to efficiently evaluate human genetic variability and susceptibility related to environmental chemical exposure. Direct estimation of the genetic contribution to variability in susceptibility to environmental chemicals is only possible in special ca...

  4. Dimeric ligands for GPCRs involved in human reproduction : synthesis and biological evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonger, Kimberly Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Dimeric ligands for G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in human reproduction, namely the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor, the luteinizing hormone receptor and the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, were synthesized and biologically evaluated.

  5. Evaluation method of human-system interface for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, Junichi; Kawai, Jun; Masui, Takao; Ezaki, Ikuko

    2000-01-01

    We have developed HSI evaluation method based on a model of human cognitive processes in order to provide the viewpoint of the evaluation on the operability of interface. The model describes systematically the human error categories of GEMS by Reason. Based on the model together with reference to the other published information such as NUREG-0700Rev.1, the evaluation items for HSI have embodied in the electronic handbook HIBISCUS. The applicability of HIBISCUS have been assessed by evaluating experimental results using a simulator equipped with control panel using CRTs and touch operations. From the results, the usefulness of the handbook has been confirmed. (author)

  6. Evaluation method of human-system interface for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanji, Junichi [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp. (NUPEC), Tokyo (Japan); Kawai, Jun; Masui, Takao; Ezaki, Ikuko [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    We have developed HSI evaluation method based on a model of human cognitive processes in order to provide the viewpoint of the evaluation on the operability of interface. The model describes systematically the human error categories of GEMS by Reason. Based on the model together with reference to the other published information such as NUREG-0700Rev.1, the evaluation items for HSI have embodied in the electronic handbook HIBISCUS. The applicability of HIBISCUS have been assessed by evaluating experimental results using a simulator equipped with control panel using CRTs and touch operations. From the results, the usefulness of the handbook has been confirmed. (author)

  7. Policy issues for improving monitoring and evaluation of agricultural extension programmes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinnagbe O. Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation are important, yet, frequently neglected functions in most organisations. In Nigeria, many programmes have been established over the years but only little monitoring and evaluation have been carried out because of many implementation problems and lack of realistic and/or stable policy framework. This paper was designed to X-ray policy issues for improving monitoring and evaluation of agricultural programmes in Nigeria. Inductive and deductive reasoning through a review of relevant literature was used in this philosophical paper. To improve the performance of agricultural extension programmes in Nigeria, the following policy issues must be addressed: The questions of what should be monitored or evaluated, when should monitoring and/or evaluation be carried out and who should monitor and/or evaluate; and the methodology to be adopted in any project should be included in any agricultural programmes and/or policies. Manpower and financial resources, effective communication and the issue of accountability must be properly considered. The tools for monitoring and evaluation are also very crucial. The paper concluded that planning a good agricultural programme is not a problem in Nigeria but poor implementation is, as a result of poor monitoring and evaluation. Therefore, attention should be on when, how and who should be involved in monitoring and evaluation.

  8. Dynamic online peer evaluations to improve group assignments in nursing e-learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwan, Jehad

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the use of online peer evaluation forms for online group activities in improving group project outcomes. The investigator developed and used a web-based Google Forms® self and peer evaluation form of 2 group assignments' rubric for junior and senior nursing students. The form covered elements of the assignments including: research activity, analysis of the literature, writing of report, participation in making of presentation, overall contribution to the project, and participation in the weekly group discussions. Items were rated from 1 (did not contribute) to 5 (outstanding contribution) in addition to NA when one activity did not apply. The self and peer evaluation process was conducted twice: once after group assignment 1 and once after group assignment 2. The group assignments final products were done in the form of VoiceThread online presentations that were shared with the rest of the class reflecting the groups' work on a health informatics topic of interest. Data collected as the students completed self and peer evaluations for group assignments 1 and 2. Also, optional comments regarding member performance were collected to add contextual information in addition to ratings. Students received credit for completing the peer evaluations and the grade for the particular assignment was affected by their performance based on peer evaluations of their contributions. Students' peer evaluations showed in a color-coded spreadsheet which enabled the course faculty to view real time results of students' ratings after each assignment. The faculty provided timely and tailored feedback to groups or individuals as needed, using positive feedback and commending high performance while urging struggling individual students and groups to improve lower ratings in specific areas. Comparing evaluations of both assignments, there were statistically significant improvements among all students. The mean scores of the entire sample were

  9. Evaluation of 3D-human skin equivalents for assessment of human dermal absorption of some brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    Ethical and technical difficulties inherent to studies in human tissues are impeding assessment of the dermal bioavailability of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). This is further complicated by increasing restrictions on the use of animals in toxicity testing, and the uncertainties associated with extrapolating data from animal studies to humans due to inter-species variations. To overcome these difficulties, we evaluate 3D-human skin equivalents (3D-HSE) as a novel in vitro alternative to human and animal testing for assessment of dermal absorption of BFRs. The percutaneous penetration of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) through two commercially available 3D-HSE models was studied and compared to data obtained for human ex vivo skin according to a standard protocol. No statistically significant differences were observed between the results obtained using 3D-HSE and human ex vivo skin at two exposure levels. The absorbed dose was low (less than 7%) and was significantly correlated with log Kow of the tested BFR. Permeability coefficient values showed increasing dermal resistance to the penetration of γ-HBCD>β-HBCD>α-HBCD>TBBPA. The estimated long lag times (>30 min) suggests that frequent hand washing may reduce human exposure to HBCDs and TBBPA via dermal contact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Systems (CSS) for nuclear power plants (1993-1995): Evaluation of CSS using simulated human model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushi Fujita; Kazushige Gotoh

    1996-01-01

    A simulated human model called Cognitive and Action Modelling of Erring Operator (CAMEO) has been developed. CAMEO is designed to be utilized as a platform for evaluating human-machine interfaces including CSS. Based on experimental studies and computer simulation summarized in this paper, it may be possible to conclude that CAMEO is reasonably valid for predicting some typical cognitive difficulties that human operators might experience in supervisory control environments. (author). 6 refs

  11. Prospective evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, M.J.D.; Berger, J.R.; Quencer, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a prospective longitudinal study of individuals who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive, cranial MR imaging was performed on 89 HIV-seropositive patients and correlated with clinical data. MR results were asymptomatics: MR images normal-58, abnormal-16; myelopathics: normal-seven, abnormal-four; encephalopathics: normal-three, abnormal-two. In asymptomatics, neurologic examination was positive in all with positive MR results but positive in only some with negative MR results. The authors concluded that MR imaging can show indirect evidence of HIV infection early in the disease, but abnormalities will be minor and seen only in the minority (21%) of symptomatics; these minor abnormalities may antedate clinical symptoms but not signs; an increase in severity of clinical disease correlates with increasingly severe atrophy and demyelination; and in some seropositives, whether asymptomatic or symptomatic, MR results remain normal

  12. Evaluation of the bleached human enamel by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Carolina Baptista; Pagani, Clovis; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2005-01-01

    Since bleaching has become a popular procedure, the effect of peroxides on dental hard tissues is of great interest in research. Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to perform a qualitative analysis of the human enamel after the application of in-office bleaching agents, using Scanning......: 2h); G3- four 2-hour exposures to 35% carbamide peroxide (total exposure: 8h); G4- two applications of 35% hydrogen peroxide, which was light-activated with halogen lamp at 700mW/cm² during 7min and remained in contact with enamel for 20min (total exposure: 40min). All bleaching treatments adopted...... analysis performing gold sputter coating under vacuum and were examined using 15kV at 500x and 2000x magnification. Results: Morphological alterations on the enamel surface were similarly detected after bleaching with either 35% carbamide peroxide or 35% hydrogen peroxide. Surface porosities were...

  13. An Improved Method for High Quality Metagenomics DNA Extraction from Human and Environmental Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bag, Satyabrata; Saha, Bipasa; Mehta, Ojasvi

    2016-01-01

    and human origin samples. We introduced a combination of physical, chemical and mechanical lysis methods for proper lysis of microbial inhabitants. The community microbial DNA was precipitated by using salt and organic solvent. Both the quality and quantity of isolated DNA was compared with the existing...... methodologies and the supremacy of our method was confirmed. Maximum recovery of genomic DNA in the absence of substantial amount of impurities made the method convenient for nucleic acid extraction. The nucleic acids obtained using this method are suitable for different downstream applications. This improved...

  14. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that traditional safety management needs to be improved on the aspect of preparedness for coping with expected and unexpected deviations, avoiding an overly optimistic reliance on safety systems. Remembering recent major accidents, such as the Deep Water Horizon, the Texas City....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...

  15. Ingestion of broccoli sprouts does not improve endothelial function in humans with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Buris; Bellostas Muguerza, Natalia; Petersen, Atheline Major

    2010-01-01

    be the case in humans suffering from essential hypertension. METHODS: 40 hypertensive individuals without diabetes and with normal levels of cholesterol were examined. The participants were randomized either to ingest 10 g dried broccoli sprouts, a natural donor of glucosinolates with high in vitro...... groups. Diastolic blood pressure stayed essentially unchanged in both groups, while the systolic blood pressure showed a small non significant decrease (9 mm Hg) in the interventional group from a value of 153 mm Hg at start. CONCLUSION: Daily ingestion of 10 g dried broccoli sprouts does not improve...

  16. Biological evaluation of recombinant human erythropoietin in pharmaceutical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The potencies of mammalian cell-derived recombinant human erythropoietin pharmaceutical preparations, from a total of five manufacturers, were assessed by in vivo bioassay using standardized protocols. Eight-week-old normocythemic mice received a single subcutaneous injection followed by blood sampling 96 h later or multiple daily injections with blood sampling 24 h after the last injection. Reticulocyte counting by microscopic examination was employed as the end-point using the brilliant cresyl blue or selective hemolysis methods, together with automated flow cytometry. Different injection schedules were investigated and dose-response curves for the European Pharmacopoeia Biological Reference Preparation of erythropoietin were compared. Manual and automated methods of reticulocyte counting were correlated with respect to assay validity and precision. Using 8 mice per treatment group, intra-assay precision determined for all of the assays in the study showed coefficients of variation of 12.1-28.4% for the brilliant cresyl blue method, 14.1-30.8% for the selective hemolysis method and 8.5-19.7% for the flow cytometry method. Applying the single injection protocol, a combination of at least two independent assays was required to achieve the precision potency and confidence limits indicated by the manufacturers, while the multiple daily injection protocol yielded the same acceptable results within a single assay. Although the latter protocol using flow cytometry for reticulocyte counting gave more precise and reproducible results (intra-assay coefficients of variation: 5.9-14.2%, the well-characterized manual methods provide equally valid alternatives for the quality control of recombinant human erythropoietin therapeutic products.

  17. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of N13-Substituted Evodiamine Derivatives against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senchuan Song

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to improve the anticancer activity and solubility of evodiamine in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF solutions, thirty-eight N13-substituted evodiamine derivatives were designed, synthesized and tested for antitumor activities against six kinds of human cancer cell lines, namely prostate cancer (DU-145 and PC-3, lung cancer (H460, breast cancer (MCF-7, colon cancer (HCT-5 and glioblastoma (SF-268. The solubility of these compounds in SGF and SIF solutions was evaluated, and apoptosis induced by 2-2, 2-3, 2-16 and 3-2 was determined. The results showed: (1 among all compounds examined, 2-16 showed the highest antitumor activity and a broader spectrum of activity, with IC50 values ranging from 1–2 µM; (2 their solubility was obviously improved; (3 2-3, 2-16 and 3-2 had a significant impact inducing apoptosis in some cancer cell lines. The preliminary structure-activity relationships of these derivatives were discussed.

  18. Gross and histopathological evaluation of human inflicted bruises in Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Kristiane; Agger, Jens Frederik Gramstrup; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human inflicted bruises in slaughter pigs are hampering animal welfare, are an infringement of the animal protection act, and are a focus of public attention. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gross appearance of human inflicted bruises in slaughter pigs and to compare ...

  19. A review of the models for evaluating organizational factors in human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves da; Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira Frutuoso e

    2009-01-01

    Human factors should be evaluated in three hierarchical levels. The first level should concern the cognitive behavior of human beings during the control of processes that occur through the man-machine interface. Here, one evaluates human errors through human reliability models of first and second generation, like THERP, ASEP and HCR (first generation) and ATHEANA and CREAM (second generation). In the second level, the focus is in the cognitive behavior of human beings when they work in groups, as in nuclear power plants. The focus here is in the anthropological aspects that govern the interaction among human beings. In the third level, one is interested in the influence that the organizational culture exerts on human beings as well as on the tasks being performed. Here, one adds to the factors of the second level the economical and political aspects that shape the company organizational culture. Nowadays, the methodologies of HRA incorporate organizational factors in the group and organization levels through performance shaping factors. This work makes a critical evaluation of the deficiencies concerning human factors and evaluates the potential of quantitative techniques that have been proposed in the last decade to model organizational factors, including the interaction among groups, with the intention of eliminating this chronic deficiency of HRA models. Two important techniques will be discussed in this context: STAMP, based on system theory and FRAM, which aims at modeling the nonlinearities of socio-technical systems. (author)

  20. A review of the models for evaluating organizational factors in human reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: bayout@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.br; Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear], e-mail: frutuoso@con.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    Human factors should be evaluated in three hierarchical levels. The first level should concern the cognitive behavior of human beings during the control of processes that occur through the man-machine interface. Here, one evaluates human errors through human reliability models of first and second generation, like THERP, ASEP and HCR (first generation) and ATHEANA and CREAM (second generation). In the second level, the focus is in the cognitive behavior of human beings when they work in groups, as in nuclear power plants. The focus here is in the anthropological aspects that govern the interaction among human beings. In the third level, one is interested in the influence that the organizational culture exerts on human beings as well as on the tasks being performed. Here, one adds to the factors of the second level the economical and political aspects that shape the company organizational culture. Nowadays, the methodologies of HRA incorporate organizational factors in the group and organization levels through performance shaping factors. This work makes a critical evaluation of the deficiencies concerning human factors and evaluates the potential of quantitative techniques that have been proposed in the last decade to model organizational factors, including the interaction among groups, with the intention of eliminating this chronic deficiency of HRA models. Two important techniques will be discussed in this context: STAMP, based on system theory and FRAM, which aims at modeling the nonlinearities of socio-technical systems. (author)