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Sample records for humanity therapeutic agents

  1. Development of Class IIa Bacteriocins as Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Lohans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Class IIa bacteriocins have been primarily explored as natural food preservatives, but there is much interest in exploring the application of these peptides as therapeutic antimicrobial agents. Bacteriocins of this class possess antimicrobial activity against several important human pathogens. Therefore, the therapeutic development of these bacteriocins will be reviewed. Biological and chemical modifications to both stabilize and increase the potency of bacteriocins are discussed, as well as the optimization of their production and purification. The suitability of bacteriocins as pharmaceuticals is explored through determinations of cytotoxicity, effects on the natural microbiota, and in vivo efficacy in mouse models. Recent results suggest that class IIa bacteriocins show promise as a class of therapeutic agents.

  2. Development of Class IIa Bacteriocins as Therapeutic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher T. Lohans; John C. Vederas

    2012-01-01

    Class IIa bacteriocins have been primarily explored as natural food preservatives, but there is much interest in exploring the application of these peptides as therapeutic antimicrobial agents. Bacteriocins of this class possess antimicrobial activity against several important human pathogens. Therefore, the therapeutic development of these bacteriocins will be reviewed. Biological and chemical modifications to both stabilize and increase the potency of bacteriocins are discussed, as well as ...

  3. Impacts of the Human Gut Microbiome on Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; Callewaert, Chris; Debelius, Justine; Hyde, Embriette; Marotz, Clarisse; Morton, James T; Swafford, Austin; Vrbanac, Alison; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Knight, Rob

    2018-01-06

    The human microbiome contains a vast source of genetic and biochemical variation, and its impacts on therapeutic responses are just beginning to be understood. This expanded understanding is especially important because the human microbiome differs far more among different people than does the human genome, and it is also dramatically easier to change. Here, we describe some of the major factors driving differences in the human microbiome among individuals and populations. We then describe some of the many ways in which gut microbes modify the action of specific chemotherapeutic agents, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cardiac glycosides, and outline the potential of fecal microbiota transplant as a therapeutic. Intriguingly, microbes also alter how hosts respond to therapeutic agents through various pathways acting at distal sites. Finally, we discuss some of the computational and practical issues surrounding use of the microbiome to stratify individuals for drug response, and we envision a future where the microbiome will be modified to increase everyone's potential to benefit from therapy.

  4. A virtual therapeutic environment with user projective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ookita, S Y; Tokuda, H

    2001-02-01

    Today, we see the Internet as more than just an information infrastructure, but a socializing place and a safe outlet of inner feelings. Many personalities develop aside from real world life due to its anonymous environment. Virtual world interactions are bringing about new psychological illnesses ranging from netaddiction to technostress, as well as online personality disorders and conflicts in multiple identities that exist in the virtual world. Presently, there are no standard therapy models for the virtual environment. There are very few therapeutic environments, or tools especially made for virtual therapeutic environments. The goal of our research is to provide the therapy model and middleware tools for psychologists to use in virtual therapeutic environments. We propose the Cyber Therapy Model, and Projective Agents, a tool used in the therapeutic environment. To evaluate the effectiveness of the tool, we created a prototype system, called the Virtual Group Counseling System, which is a therapeutic environment that allows the user to participate in group counseling through the eyes of their Projective Agent. Projective Agents inherit the user's personality traits. During the virtual group counseling, the user's Projective Agent interacts and collaborates to recover and increase their psychological growth. The prototype system provides a simulation environment where psychologists can adjust the parameters and customize their own simulation environment. The model and tool is a first attempt toward simulating online personalities that may exist only online, and provide data for observation.

  5. A Zebrafish Heart Failure Model for Assessing Therapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Si-Qi; Guo, Sheng-Ya; Yang, Hua; Xia, Bo; Li, Ping; Li, Chun-Qi

    2018-03-20

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death and the development of effective and safe therapeutic agents for heart failure has been proven challenging. In this study, taking advantage of larval zebrafish, we developed a zebrafish heart failure model for drug screening and efficacy assessment. Zebrafish at 2 dpf (days postfertilization) were treated with verapamil at a concentration of 200 μM for 30 min, which were determined as optimum conditions for model development. Tested drugs were administered into zebrafish either by direct soaking or circulation microinjection. After treatment, zebrafish were randomly selected and subjected to either visual observation and image acquisition or record videos under a Zebralab Blood Flow System. The therapeutic effects of drugs on zebrafish heart failure were quantified by calculating the efficiency of heart dilatation, venous congestion, cardiac output, and blood flow dynamics. All 8 human heart failure therapeutic drugs (LCZ696, digoxin, irbesartan, metoprolol, qiliqiangxin capsule, enalapril, shenmai injection, and hydrochlorothiazide) showed significant preventive and therapeutic effects on zebrafish heart failure (p failure model developed and validated in this study could be used for in vivo heart failure studies and for rapid screening and efficacy assessment of preventive and therapeutic drugs.

  6. Human Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.; Grave, K.

    2009-01-01

    industry in many regions of the world and the widespread, intensive, and often unregulated use of antimicrobial agents in this area of animal production, efforts are needed to prevent development and spread of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture to reduce the risk to human health....... in aquaculture, several are classified by the World Health Organisation as critically important for use in humans. Occurrence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents in human pathogens severely limits the therapeutic options in human infections. Considering the rapid growth and importance of aquaculture...... gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used...

  7. Spherical Nucleic Acids as Intracellular Agents for Nucleic Acid Based Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liangliang

    Recent functional discoveries on the noncoding sequences of human genome and transcriptome could lead to revolutionary treatment modalities because the noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can be applied as therapeutic agents to manipulate disease-causing genes. To date few nucleic acid-based therapeutics have been translated into the clinic due to challenges in the delivery of the oligonucleotide agents in an effective, cell specific, and non-toxic fashion. Unmodified oligonucleotide agents are destroyed rapidly in biological fluids by enzymatic degradation and have difficulty crossing the plasma membrane without the aid of transfection reagents, which often cause inflammatory, cytotoxic, or immunogenic side effects. Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), nanoparticles consisting of densely organized and highly oriented oligonucleotides, pose one possible solution to circumventing these problems in both the antisense and RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. The unique three dimensional architecture of SNAs protects the bioactive oligonucleotides from unspecific degradation during delivery and supports their targeting of class A scavenger receptors and endocytosis via a lipid-raft-dependent, caveolae-mediated pathway. Owing to their unique structure, SNAs are able to cross cell membranes and regulate target genes expression as a single entity, without triggering the cellular innate immune response. Herein, my thesis has focused on understanding the interactions between SNAs and cellular components and developing SNA-based nanostructures to improve therapeutic capabilities. Specifically, I developed a novel SNA-based, nanoscale agent for delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides to manipulate microRNAs (miRNAs), the endogenous post-transcriptional gene regulators. I investigated the role of SNAs involving miRNAs in anti-cancer or anti-inflammation responses in cells and in in vivo murine disease models via systemic injection. Furthermore, I explored using different strategies to construct

  8. Insights into the Antimicrobial Properties of Hepcidins: Advantages and Drawbacks as Potential Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lombardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing frequency of multi-drug resistant microorganisms has driven research into alternative therapeutic strategies. In this respect, natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs hold much promise as candidates for the development of novel antibiotics. However, AMPs have some intrinsic drawbacks, such as partial degradation by host proteases or inhibition by host body fluid composition, potential toxicity, and high production costs. This review focuses on the hepcidins, which are peptides produced by the human liver with a known role in iron homeostasis, as well by numerous other organisms (including fish, reptiles, other mammals, and their potential as antibacterial and antifungal agents. Interestingly, the antimicrobial properties of human hepcidins are enhanced at acidic pH, rendering these peptides appealing for the design of new drugs targeting infections that occur in body areas with acidic physiological pH. This review not only considers current research on the direct killing activity of these peptides, but evaluates the potential application of these molecules as coating agents preventing biofilm formation and critically assesses technical obstacles preventing their therapeutic application.

  9. Acute Organophosphate Poisonings: Therapeutic Dilemmas and New Potential Therapeutic Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucinic, S.; Jovanovic, D.; Vucinic, Z.; Todorovic, V.; Segrt, Z.

    2007-01-01

    It has been six decades since synthesis of organophosphates, but this chapter has not yet come to a closure. Toxic effects of organophosphates are well known and the current therapeutic scheme includes supportive therapy and antidotes. There is a dilemma on whether and when to apply gastric lavage and activated charcoal. According to Position Statement (by EAPCCT) it should be applied only if the patient presents within one hour of ingestion, with potentially lethal ingested dose. Atropine, a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine at m-receptors, which antagonizes bronchosecretion and bronchoconstriction, is the corner stone of acute organophosphate poisoning therapy. There were many attempts to find a more efficient drug, including glycopyrrolate which has been used even in clinical trials, but it still can not replace atropine. The only dilemma about atropine usage which still exists, concerns usage of high atropine dose and scheme of application. The most efficient atropinization is achieved with bolus doses of 1-2mg of atropine i.v push, with repeating the dose on each 5 minutes until signs of atropinization are registered. Diazepam, with its GABA stabilizing effect, reduces central nervous system damage and central respiratory weakness. Oximes reactivate phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase, which still has not gone ageing, reducing acetylcholine concentration and cholinergic crisis. These effects are clearly demonstrated in experimental conditions, but the clinical significance of oximes is still unclear and there are still those who question oxime therapy. For those who approve it, oxime dosage, duration of therapy, the choice of oxime for certain OP is still an open issue. We need new, more efficient antidotes, and those that are in use are only the small part of the therapy which could be used. Experimental studies show favorable therapeutic effect of many agents, but none of them has been introduced in standard treatment of OPI poisoning in the last 30

  10. Anti-SEMA3A Antibody: A Novel Therapeutic Agent to Suppress GBM Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Shin, Yong Jae; Lee, Kyoungmin; Cho, Hee Jin; Sa, Jason K; Lee, Sang-Yun; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Lee, Jeongwu; Yoon, Yeup; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2017-11-10

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is classified as one of the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor. Great strides have been made in understanding the genomic and molecular underpinnings of GBM, which translated into development of new therapeutic approaches to combat such deadly disease. However, there are only few therapeutic agents that can effectively inhibit GBM invasion in a clinical framework. In an effort to address such challenges, we have generated anti-SEMA3A monoclonal antibody as a potential therapeutic antibody against GBM progression. We employed public glioma datasets, Repository of Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data and The Cancer Genome Atlas, to analyze SEMA3A mRNA expression in human GBM specimens. We also evaluated for protein expression level of SEMA3A via tissue microarray (TMA) analysis. Cell migration and proliferation kinetics were assessed in various GBM patient-derived cells (PDCs) and U87-MG cell-line for SEMA3A antibody efficacy. GBM patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models were generated to evaluate tumor inhibitory effect of anti-SEMA3A antibody in vivo. By combining bioinformatics and TMA analysis, we discovered that SEMA3A is highly expressed in human GBM specimens compared to non-neoplastic tissues. We developed three different anti-SEMA3A antibodies, in fully human IgG form, through screening phage-displayed synthetic antibody library using a classical panning method. Neutralization of SEMA3A significantly reduced migration and proliferation capabilities of PDCs and U87-MG cell-line in vitro. In PDX models, treatment with anti-SEMA3A antibody exhibited notable tumor inhibitory effect through down-regulation of cellular proliferative kinetics and tumor-associated macrophages recruitment. In present study, we demonstrated tumor inhibitory effect of SEMA3A antibody in GBM progression and present its potential relevance as a therapeutic agent in a clinical framework.

  11. Functional polymers as therapeutic agents: concept to market place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Pradeep K; Polomoscanik, Steven C; Avila, Louis Z; Holmes-Farley, S Randall; Miller, Robert J

    2009-11-12

    Biologically active synthetic polymers have received considerable scientific interest and attention in recent years for their potential as promising novel therapeutic agents to treat human diseases. Although a significant amount of research has been carried out involving polymer-linked drugs as targeted and sustained release drug delivery systems and prodrugs, examples on bioactive polymers that exhibit intrinsic therapeutic properties are relatively less. Several appealing characteristics of synthetic polymers including high molecular weight, molecular architecture, and controlled polydispersity can all be utilized to discover a new generation of therapies. For example, high molecular weight bioactive polymers can be restricted to gastrointestinal tract, where they can selectively recognize, bind, and remove target disease causing substances from the body. The appealing features of GI tract restriction and stability in biological environment render these polymeric drugs to be devoid of systemic toxicity that are generally associated with small molecule systemic drugs. The present article highlights recent developments in the rational design and synthesis of appropriate functional polymers that have resulted in a number of promising polymer based therapies and biomaterials, including some marketed products.

  12. Multirate delivery of multiple therapeutic agents from metal-organic frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair C. McKinlay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The highly porous nature of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs offers great potential for the delivery of therapeutic agents. Here, we show that highly porous metal-organic frameworks can be used to deliver multiple therapeutic agents—a biologically active gas, an antibiotic drug molecule, and an active metal ion—simultaneously but at different rates. The possibilities offered by delivery of multiple agents with different mechanisms of action and, in particular, variable timescales may allow new therapy approaches. Here, we show that the loaded MOFs are highly active against various strains of bacteria.

  13. Small Scaffolds, Big Potential: Developing Miniature Proteins as Therapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Justin M

    2017-09-01

    Preclinical Research Miniature proteins are a class of oligopeptide characterized by their short sequence lengths and ability to adopt well-folded, three-dimensional structures. Because of their biomimetic nature and synthetic tractability, miniature proteins have been used to study a range of biochemical processes including fast protein folding, signal transduction, catalysis and molecular transport. Recently, miniature proteins have been gaining traction as potential therapeutic agents because their small size and ability to fold into defined tertiary structures facilitates their development as protein-based drugs. This research overview discusses emerging developments involving the use of miniature proteins as scaffolds to design novel therapeutics for the treatment and study of human disease. Specifically, this review will explore strategies to: (i) stabilize miniature protein tertiary structure; (ii) optimize biomolecular recognition by grafting functional epitopes onto miniature protein scaffolds; and (iii) enhance cytosolic delivery of miniature proteins through the use of cationic motifs that facilitate endosomal escape. These objectives are discussed not only to address challenges in developing effective miniature protein-based drugs, but also to highlight the tremendous potential miniature proteins hold for combating and understanding human disease. Drug Dev Res 78 : 268-282, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Production and evaluation of Lutetium-177 maltolate as a possible therapeutic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakimi, A.; Jalilian, A. R.; Bahrami Samani, A.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M.

    2012-01-01

    Development of oral therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals is a new concept in radiopharmacy. Due to the interesting therapeutic properties of 177 Lu and oral bioavailability of maltolate (MAL) metal complexes, 177 Lu-maltolate ( 177 Lu-MAL) was developed as a possible therapeutic compound for ultimate oral administration. The specific activity of 2.6-3 GBq/mg was obtained by irradiation of natural Lu 2 O 3 sample with thermal neutron flux of 4x10 13 n.cm -2 .s -1 for Lu-177. The product was converted into chloride form which was further used for labeling maltol (MAL). At optimized conditions a radiochemical purity of about >99% was obtained for 177 Lu-MAL shown by ITLC (specific activity, 970-1000 Mbq/mmole). The stability of the labeled compound as well as the partition coefficient was determined in the final solution up to 24h. Biodistribution studies of Lu-177 chloride and 177 Lu-MAL were carried out in wild-type rats for post-oral distribution phase data. Lu-MAL is a possible therapeutic agent in human malignancies for the bone palliation therapy so the efficacy of the compound should be tested in various animal models.

  15. Applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, various functional nanostructured materials with interesting optical, magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties have been extensively applied to biomedical areas including imaging, diagnosis and therapy. In therapeutics, most research has focused on the application of nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for drugs and genes, because nanoparticles in the size range of 2-100 nm can interact with biological systems at the molecular level, and allow targeted delivery and passage through biological barriers. Recent investigations have even revealed that several kinds of nanomaterials are intrinsically therapeutic. Not only can they passively interact with cells, but they can also actively mediate molecular processes to regulate cell functions. This can be seen in the treatment of cancer via anti-angiogenic mechanisms as well as the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by effectively controlling oxidative stress. This review will present recent applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents in the treatment of disease.

  16. Therapeutic strategies with oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent, S-1 against oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Koji; Ferdous, Tarannum; Ueyama, Yoshiya

    2017-08-01

    Oral cancer has been recognized as a tumor with low sensitivity to anticancer agents. However, introduction of S-1, an oral cancer agent is improving treatment outcome for patients with oral cancer. In addition, S-1, as a main drug for oral cancer treatment in Japan can be easily available for outpatients. In fact, S-1 exerts high therapeutic effects with acceptable side effects. Moreover, combined chemotherapy with S-1 shows higher efficacy than S-1 alone, and combined chemo-radiotherapy with S-1 exerts remarkable therapeutic effects. Furthermore, we should consider the combined therapy of S-1 and molecular targeting agents right now as these combinations were reportedly useful for oral cancer treatment. Here, we describe our findings related to S-1 that were obtained experimentally and clinically, and favorable therapeutic strategies with S-1 against oral cancer with bibliographic considerations.

  17. Tetrodotoxin (TTX as a Therapeutic Agent for Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Miguel Cendán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a potent neurotoxin that blocks voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs. VGSCs play a critical role in neuronal function under both physiological and pathological conditions. TTX has been extensively used to functionally characterize VGSCs, which can be classified as TTX-sensitive or TTX-resistant channels according to their sensitivity to this toxin. Alterations in the expression and/or function of some specific TTX-sensitive VGSCs have been implicated in a number of chronic pain conditions. The administration of TTX at doses below those that interfere with the generation and conduction of action potentials in normal (non-injured nerves has been used in humans and experimental animals under different pain conditions. These data indicate a role for TTX as a potential therapeutic agent for pain. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting a potential analgesic role for TTX. In addition, the contribution of specific TTX-sensitive VGSCs to pain is reviewed.

  18. Prediction of a Therapeutic Dose for Buagafuran, a Potent Anxiolytic Agent by Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling Starting from Pharmacokinetics in Rats and Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK/pharmacodynamic (PD models can contribute to animal-to-human extrapolation and therapeutic dose predictions. Buagafuran is a novel anxiolytic agent and phase I clinical trials of buagafuran have been completed. In this paper, a potentially effective dose for buagafuran of 30 mg t.i.d. in human was estimated based on the human brain concentration predicted by a PBPK/PD modeling. The software GastroPlusTM was used to build the PBPK/PD model for buagafuran in rat which related the brain tissue concentrations of buagafuran and the times of animals entering the open arms in the pharmacological model of elevated plus-maze. Buagafuran concentrations in human plasma were fitted and brain tissue concentrations were predicted by using a human PBPK model in which the predicted plasma profiles were in good agreement with observations. The results provided supportive data for the rational use of buagafuran in clinic.

  19. Human Factor in Therapeutic Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akdogan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available herapeutic relationship is a professional relationship that has been structured based on theoretical props. This relationship is a complicated, wide and unique relationship which develops between two people, where both sides' personality and attitudes inevitably interfere. Therapist-client relationship experienced through transference and counter transference, especially in psychodynamic approaches, is accepted as the main aspect of therapeutic process. However, the approaches without dynamic/deterministic tendency also take therapist-client relationship into account seriously and stress uniqueness of interaction between two people. Being a person and a human naturally sometimes may negatively influence the relationship between the therapist and client and result in a relationship going out of the theoretical frame at times. As effective components of a therapeutic process, the factors that stem from being human include the unique personalities of the therapist and the client, their values and their attitude either made consciously or subconsciously. Literature has shown that the human-related factors are too effective to be denied in therapeutic relationship process. Ethical and theoretical knowledge can be inefficient to prevent the negative effects of these factors in therapeutic process at which point a deep insight and supervision would have a critical role in continuing an acceptable therapeutic relationship. This review is focused on the reflection of some therapeutic factors resulting from being human and development of counter transference onto the therapeutic process.

  20. Therapeutic neuroprotective agents for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Rachna S.; Zhu, Haining; Li, Wei; Bowser, Robert; Friedlander, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal chronic neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark is proteinaceous, ubiquitinated, cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons and surrounding cells. Multiple mechanisms proposed as responsible for ALS pathogenesis include dysfunction of protein degradation, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It is therefore essential to gain a better understanding of the underlying disease etiology and search for neuroprotective agents that might delay disease onset, slow progression, prolong survival, and ultimately reduce the burden of disease. Because riluzole, the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment, prolongs the ALS patient’s life by only 3 months, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed. In this review, we focus on studies of various small pharmacological compounds targeting the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of ALS and discuss their impact on disease progression. PMID:23864030

  1. Applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taeho; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, various functional nanostructured materials with interesting optical, magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties have been extensively applied to biomedical areas including imaging, diagnosis and therapy. In therapeutics, most research has focused on the application of nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for drugs and genes, because nanoparticles in the size range of 2–100 nm can interact with biological systems at the molecular level, and allow targeted delivery and passage through biological barriers. Recent investigations have even revealed that several kinds of nanomaterials are intrinsically therapeutic. Not only can they passively interact with cells, but they can also actively mediate molecular processes to regulate cell functions. This can be seen in the treatment of cancer via anti-angiogenic mechanisms as well as the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by effectively controlling oxidative stress. This review will present recent applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents in the treatment of disease. (topical review)

  2. Effects of treatment with antimicrobial agents on the human colonic microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Rafii, John B Sutherland, Carl E CernigliaDivision of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR, USAAbstract: Antimicrobial agents are the most valuable means available for treating bacterial infections. However, the administration of therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents to patients is a leading cause of disturbance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora. This disturbance results in diminishing the natural defense mechanisms provided by the colonic microbial ecosystem, making the host vulnerable to infection by commensal microorganisms or nosocomial pathogens. In this minireview, the impacts of antimicrobials, individually and in combinations, on the human colonic microflora are discussed.Keywords: antibiotics, intestinal bacteria

  3. The use of anthrax and orthopox therapeutic antibodies from human origin in biodefense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stienstra, S.

    2009-01-01

    It is impossible to protect whole nations from the effects of bioterrorism by preventive vaccination; there are too many possible agents, costs would be exorbitantly high, and the health risks associated with complex mass vaccination programs would be unacceptable. Adequate protection, however, could be provided via a combination of rapid detection and diagnosis and the treatment of those exposed with drugs which would be beneficial in all stages of disease. Monoclonal antibodies, preferably from human origin to prevent severe complications, which neutralize or block the pathological effects of biological agents, are the optimal candidates to be deployed in case of biological warfare or a bioterrorist event. The human body is one of the better and most suitably equipped places for the generation of monoclonal antibodies which are to be used effectively in humans for treatment. Such antibodies will be of optimal physiological specificity, affinity, and pharmacological properties. In addition, the chances on severe adverse effects and cross-reactivity with human tissues will be slim. Therefore the human immune response is used by the Dutch company IQ Therapeutics, a spin-off of the Groningen University, as a basis for selecting the antibodies. People, immunised against or infected with the agent in question, donate blood cells voluntarily, which are used to generate fully human monoclonal antibodies. In this way effective therapeutics against the protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) toxin components of Bacillus anthracis are developed and currently antibodies against orthopox viruses are generated as well from donors, which have been immunized with vaccinia. Other projects are the development of therapeutic antibodies for MRSA (antibiotics resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and Enterococcus spp. Both human antibodies against the anthrax toxin components are efficacious in vitro and in pre- and post-exposure settings in mice and rabbits. The anti-LF antibody

  4. Effect of Some Therapeutic Agents on the Radionuclides Excretion from Internally Contaminated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.; Mangood, Sh.A.; Sohsah, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The present work was oriented to investigate the effectiveness of Prussian blue (PB), vermiculite and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (CaDTPA) as therapeutic agents for the elimination of either 134 Cs or 60 Co from contaminated rats after intake of one of the isotopes. The study was performed by using 48 adult rats divided into 8 identical groups each of six rats having approximately the same body weight. The groups included a reference group, without isotope or therapeutic agent administration, four groups given one of the isotopes and four groups given the isotopes and treated with different therapeutic regimes. The isotope content of the treated and untreated contaminated rats were followed by daily whole body radiometric counting for three weeks. On plotting log % radionuclide retained as a function of time, elapsed between radionuclide administration and radiometric counting, straight lines were obtained. The results indicate that excretion can mostly be represented by two stages; the first is fast followed by a second slow stage. The % radionuclide excreted, the corresponding rate constant and the biological half-life of each stage was estimated. It was found that the application of PB + vermiculite is more efficient, to remove 134 Cs, from contaminated rats, than PB only and CaDTPA is more efficient to remove 60Co. Therefore, it is recommended to use the three therapeutic agents to remove both isotopes when taken simultaneously

  5. Development and biological evaluation of {sup 90}Y-BPAMD as a novel bone seeking therapeutic agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiei, Ali; Shamsaei, Mojtaba [Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Energy Engineering and Physics Dept.; Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Jalilian, Amir Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Enayati, Razieh [Islamic Azad Univ. (IAU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Engineering

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, the bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals play an important role in the treatment of the bone-related pathologies. Whereas various phosphonate ligands have already been identified, a DOTA-based bisphosphonate, 4-{[(bis(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl) -1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl (BPAMD) with better characteristics has recently been synthesized. In this study, {sup 90}Y-BPAMD was developed with radiochemical purity >98% and the specific activity of 3.52 TBq/mmol in the optimized conditions as a new bone-seeking therapeutic agent. The complex demonstrated significant stability at room temperature and in human serum even after 48 h. At even low amount of hydroxyapatite (5 mg), more than 90% binding to hydroxyapatite was observed. Biodistribution studies after injection of the complex into the Syrian rats showed major accumulation of the labelled compound in the bone tissue and an insignificant uptake in the other organs all the times after injection. Generally, {sup 90}Y-BPAMD demonstrated interesting characteristics compared to the other {sup 90}Y bone-seeking agents and even {sup 166}Ho-BPAMD, and can be considered as a new bone-seeking candidate for therapeutic applications.

  6. [ManNAc, a new therapeutic agent to reduce Angptl4-induced proteinuria in MCD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Lionel; Macé, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies used in minimal change disease (MCD) were originally designed to cure other diseases. They are only partially efficient, and present inconvenient side effects. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in MCD could lead to new therapeutic strategies. A new experimental transgenic rat model of human MCD was generated. These NPHS2-Angptl4 transgenic rats over-express two different forms of the glycoprotein Angptl4 from the podocyte. The majority of the protein shows a lack of sialylation that is implicated in the pathogenesis of proteinuria. Supplementation of ManNAc, a precursor of sialic acid, significantly reduces albuminuria in those rats by increasing sialylation of the hyposialylated form of Angptl4. After treatment of the first episode of MCD with glucocorticoids in patients, ManNAc could be used as a maintenance drug, especially to reduce the frequency and intensity of relapse. ManNAc is a promising therapeutic agent for patients with MCD. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  7. ATM regulates 3-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase and promotes therapeutic resistance to alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Sameer; Burrell, Kelly; Buczkowicz, Pawel; Remke, Marc; Golbourn, Brian; Chornenkyy, Yevgen; Gajadhar, Aaron; Fernandez, Nestor A; Clarke, Ian D; Barszczyk, Mark S; Pajovic, Sanja; Ternamian, Christian; Head, Renee; Sabha, Nesrin; Sobol, Robert W; Taylor, Michael D; Rutka, James T; Jones, Chris; Dirks, Peter B; Zadeh, Gelareh; Hawkins, Cynthia

    2014-10-01

    Alkylating agents are a first-line therapy for the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including pediatric glioblastoma, a lethal tumor in children. Unfortunately, many tumors are resistant to this therapy. We sought to identify ways of sensitizing tumor cells to alkylating agents while leaving normal cells unharmed, increasing therapeutic response while minimizing toxicity. Using an siRNA screen targeting over 240 DNA damage response genes, we identified novel sensitizers to alkylating agents. In particular, the base excision repair (BER) pathway, including 3-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG), as well as ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), were identified in our screen. Interestingly, we identified MPG as a direct novel substrate of ATM. ATM-mediated phosphorylation of MPG was required for enhanced MPG function. Importantly, combined inhibition or loss of MPG and ATM resulted in increased alkylating agent-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and prolonged survival in vivo. The discovery of the ATM-MPG axis will lead to improved treatment of alkylating agent-resistant tumors. Inhibition of ATM and MPG-mediated BER cooperate to sensitize tumor cells to alkylating agents, impairing tumor growth in vitro and in vivo with no toxicity to normal cells, providing an ideal therapeutic window. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Introduction to thematic minireview series: Development of human therapeutics based on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mahendra; Gottesfeld, Joel M

    2014-02-21

    With the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, it is now possible to derive patient-specific cell lines that are of great potential in both basic research and the development of new therapeutics for human diseases. Not only do hiPSCs offer unprecedented opportunities to study cellular differentiation and model human diseases, but the differentiated cell types obtained from iPSCs may become therapeutics themselves. These cells can also be used in the screening of therapeutics and in toxicology assays for potential liabilities of therapeutic agents. The remarkable achievement of transcription factor reprogramming to generate iPSCs was recognized by the award of the Nobel Prize in Medicine to Shinya Yamanaka in 2012, just 6 years after the first publication of reprogramming methods to generate hiPSCs (Takahashi, K., Tanabe, K., Ohnuki, M., Narita, M., Ichisaka, T., Tomoda, K., and Yamanaka, S. (2007) Cell 131, 861-872). This minireview series highlights both the promises and challenges of using iPSC technology for disease modeling, drug screening, and the development of stem cell therapeutics.

  9. Pharmacomicrobiomics: the impact of human microbiome variations on systems pharmacology and personalized therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElRakaiby, Marwa; Dutilh, Bas E; Rizkallah, Mariam R; Boleij, Annemarie; Cole, Jason N; Aziz, Ramy K

    2014-07-01

    The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is a global initiative undertaken to identify and characterize the collection of human-associated microorganisms at multiple anatomic sites (skin, mouth, nose, colon, vagina), and to determine how intra-individual and inter-individual alterations in the microbiome influence human health, immunity, and different disease states. In this review article, we summarize the key findings and applications of the HMP that may impact pharmacology and personalized therapeutics. We propose a microbiome cloud model, reflecting the temporal and spatial uncertainty of defining an individual's microbiome composition, with examples of how intra-individual variations (such as age and mode of delivery) shape the microbiome structure. Additionally, we discuss how this microbiome cloud concept explains the difficulty to define a core human microbiome and to classify individuals according to their biome types. Detailed examples are presented on microbiome changes related to colorectal cancer, antibiotic administration, and pharmacomicrobiomics, or drug-microbiome interactions, highlighting how an improved understanding of the human microbiome, and alterations thereof, may lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents, the modification of antibiotic policies and implementation, and improved health outcomes. Finally, the prospects of a collaborative computational microbiome research initiative in Africa are discussed.

  10. A Novel Single-Strand RNAi Therapeutic Agent Targeting the (Pro)renin Receptor Suppresses Ocular Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Ishizuka, Erdal Tan; Shibata, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Toyofuku, Hidekazu; Noda, Kousuke; Namba, Kenichi; Ishida, Susumu

    2017-06-16

    The receptor-associated prorenin system (RAPS) refers to the pathogenic mechanism whereby prorenin binding to the (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] dually activates the tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and RAS-independent intracellular signaling. Here we revealed significant upregulation of prorenin and soluble (P)RR levels in the vitreous fluid of patients with uveitis compared to non-inflammatory controls, together with a positive correlation between these RAPS components and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 among several upregulated cytokines. Moreover, we developed a novel single-strand RNAi agent, proline-modified short hairpin RNA directed against human and mouse (P)RR [(P)RR-PshRNA], and we determined its safety and efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Application of (P)RR-PshRNA in mice caused significant amelioration of acute (uveitic) and chronic (diabetic) models of ocular inflammation with no apparent adverse effects. Our findings demonstrate the significant implication of RAPS in the pathogenesis of human uveitis and the potential usefulness of (P)RR-PshRNA as a therapeutic agent to reduce ocular inflammation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Barnase as a new therapeutic agent triggering apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Edelweiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNases are currently studied as non-mutagenic alternatives to the harmful DNA-damaging anticancer drugs commonly used in clinical practice. Many mammalian RNases are not potent toxins due to the strong inhibition by ribonuclease inhibitor (RI presented in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In search of new effective anticancer RNases we studied the effects of barnase, a ribonuclease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, on human cancer cells. We found that barnase is resistant to RI. In MTT cell viability assay, barnase was cytotoxic to human carcinoma cell lines with half-inhibitory concentrations (IC(50 ranging from 0.2 to 13 microM and to leukemia cell lines with IC(50 values ranging from 2.4 to 82 microM. Also, we characterized the cytotoxic effects of barnase-based immunoRNase scFv 4D5-dibarnase, which consists of two barnase molecules serially fused to the single-chain variable fragment (scFv of humanized antibody 4D5 that recognizes the extracellular domain of cancer marker HER2. The scFv 4D5-dibarnase specifically bound to HER2-positive cells and was internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The intracellular localization of internalized scFv 4D5-dibarnase was determined by electronic microscopy. The cytotoxic effect of scFv 4D5-dibarnase on HER2-positive human ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 cells (IC(50 = 1.8 nM was three orders of magnitude greater than that of barnase alone. Both barnase and scFv 4D5-dibarnase induced apoptosis in SKOV-3 cells accompanied by internucleosomal chromatin fragmentation, membrane blebbing, the appearance of phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, and the activation of caspase-3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that barnase is a potent toxic agent for targeting to cancer cells.

  12. Perspectives on Phytochemicals as Antibacterial Agents: An Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Savita; Kumar, Manish; Phougat, Neetu; Chaudhary, Renu; Chhillar, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Despite the considerable advancements in the development of antimicrobial agents, incidents of epidemics due to multi drug resistance in microorganisms have created a massive hazard to mankind. Due to increased resistance against conventional antibiotics, researchers and pharmaceutical industries are more concerned about novel therapeutic agents for the prevention of bacterial infections. Enormous wealth of traditional system of medicine gains importance in health therapies over again. With ancient credentials of potent medicinal plants, various herbal remedies came forward for the management of bacterial infections. The Ayurvedic approach facilitates the development of new therapeutic agents due to structural and functional diversity among phytochemicals. The abundance and diversity is responsible for the characterization of new lead structures from medicinal plants. Industrial interest has increased due to recent research advancements viz. synergistic and high-throughput screening approach for the evaluation of vast variety of phytochemicals. The review certainly emphasizes on the traditional medicines as alternatives to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. The review briefly describes mode of action of various antibiotics and resistance mechanisms. This review focuses on the chemical diversity and various mechanisms of action of phytochemicals against bacterial pathogens.

  13. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-05-05

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social agent?' © 2016 The Authors.

  14. Bridging humans via agent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Toru

    1994-01-01

    Recent drastic advance in telecommunication networks enabled the human organization of new class, teleorganization, which differ from any existing organization in that the organization which is easy to create by using telecommunication networks is virtual and remote, that people can join multiple organizations simultaneously, and that the organization can involve people who may not know each other. In order to enjoy the recent advance in telecommunication, the agent networks to help people organize themselves are needed. In this paper, an architecture of agent networks, in which each agent learns the preference or the utility functioin of the owner, and acts on behalf of the owner in maintaining the organization, is proposed. When an agent networks supports a human organization, the conventional human interface is divided into personal and social interfaces. The functionalities of the social interface in teleconferencing and telelearning were investigated. In both cases, the existence of B-ISDN is assumed, and the extension to the business meeting scheduling using personal handy phone (PHS) networks with personal digital assistant (PDA) terminals is expected. These circumstances are described. Mutual selection protocols (MSP) and their dynamic properties are explained. (K.I.)

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as New Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Primary Biliary Cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Arsenijevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC is a chronic autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by the progressive destruction of small- and medium-sized intrahepatic bile ducts with resultant cholestasis and progressive fibrosis. Ursodeoxycholic acid and obethicholic acid are the only agents approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of PBC. However, for patients with advanced, end-stage PBC, liver transplantation is still the most effective treatment. Accordingly, the alternative approaches, such as mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation, have been suggested as an effective alternative therapy for these patients. Due to their immunomodulatory characteristics, MSCs are considered as promising therapeutic agents for the therapy of autoimmune liver diseases, including PBC. In this review, we have summarized the therapeutic potential of MSCs for the treatment of these diseases, emphasizing molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for MSC-based effects in an animal model of PBC and therapeutic potential observed in recently conducted clinical trials. We have also presented several outstanding problems including safety issues regarding unwanted differentiation of transplanted MSCs which limit their therapeutic use. Efficient and safe MSC-based therapy for PBC remains a challenging issue that requires continuous cooperation between clinicians, researchers, and patients.

  16. Marketed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, antihypertensives, and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors: as-yet-unused weapons of the oncologists’ arsenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanagnou P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Panagiota Papanagnou,1 Panagiotis Baltopoulos,2 Maria Tsironi1 1Department of Nursing, Faculty of Human Movement and Quality of Life Sciences, University of Peloponnese, Sparta, 2Department of Sports Medicine and Biology of Physical Activity, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece Abstract: Experimental data indicate that several pharmacological agents that have long been used for the management of various diseases unrelated to cancer exhibit profound in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. This is of major clinical importance, since it would possibly aid in reassessing the therapeutic use of currently used agents for which clinicians already have experience. Further, this would obviate the time-consuming process required for the development and the approval of novel antineoplastic drugs. Herein, both pre-clinical and clinical data concerning the antineoplastic function of distinct commercially available pharmacological agents that are not currently used in the field of oncology, ie, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihypertensive agents, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents inhibiting viral protease, are reviewed. The aim is to provide integrated information regarding not only the molecular basis of the antitumor function of these agents but also the applicability of the reevaluation of their therapeutic range in the clinical setting. Keywords: repositioning, tumorigenesis, pleiotropy, exploitation

  17. Artificial agents learning human fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de S.; Tuyls, K.P.; Verbeeck, K.; Padgham, xx; Parkes, xx

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in technology allow multi-agent systems to be deployed in cooperation with or as a service for humans. Typically, those systems are designed assuming individually rational agents, according to the principles of classical game theory. However, research in the field of behavioral

  18. Growth/differentiation factor-5: a candidate therapeutic agent for periodontal regeneration? A review of pre-clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Yolanda R; Dickinson, Douglas P; Wikesjö, Ulf M E

    2010-03-01

    Therapeutic concepts involving the application of matrix, growth and differentiation factors have been advocated in support of periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5), a member of the bone morphogenetic protein family, represents one such factor. The purpose of this review is to provide a background of the therapeutic effects of GDF-5 expressed in various musculoskeletal settings using small and large animal platforms. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all reports in the English language evaluating GDF-5 using the PubMed and Google search engines, and a manual search of the reference lists from the electronically retrieved reports. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts from a total of 69 reports, 22 of which were identified as pre-clinical (in vivo) evaluations of GDF-5. The full-length article of the 22 pre-clinical reports was then reviewed. Various applications including cranial and craniofacial bone formation, spine fusion, long bone fracture healing, cartilage, and tendon/ligament repair using a variety of small and large animal platforms evaluating GDF-5 as a therapeutic agent were identified. A majority of studies, using biomechanical, radiographic, and histological analysis, demonstrated significant dose-dependent effects of GDF-5. These include increased/enhanced local bone formation, fracture healing/repair, and cartilage and tendon/ligament formation. GDF-5 frequently was shown to accelerate wound maturation. Several studies demonstrated GDF-5 to be a realistic alternative to autograft bone. Studies using pre-clinical models and human histology suggest GDF-5 may also increase/enhance periodontal wound healing/regeneration. GDF-5 appears a promising therapeutic agent for periodontal wound healing/regeneration as GDF-5 supports/accelerates bone and tendon/ligament formation in several musculoskeletal settings including periodontal tissues.

  19. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Their Potential as Novel Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Börger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs, such as exosomes and microvesicles, have been identified as mediators of a newly-discovered intercellular communication system. They are essential signaling mediators in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Depending on their origin, they fulfill different functions. EVs of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs have been found to promote comparable therapeutic activities as MSCs themselves. In a variety of in vivo models, it has been observed that they suppress pro-inflammatory processes and reduce oxidative stress and fibrosis. By switching pro-inflammatory into tolerogenic immune responses, MSC-EVs very likely promote tissue regeneration by creating a pro-regenerative environment allowing endogenous stem and progenitor cells to successfully repair affected tissues. Accordingly, MSC-EVs provide a novel, very promising therapeutic agent, which has already been successfully applied to humans. However, the MSC-EV production process has not been standardized, yet. Indeed, a collection of different protocols has been used for the MSC-EV production, characterization and application. By focusing on kidney, heart, liver and brain injuries, we have reviewed the major outcomes of published MSC-EV in vivo studies.

  20. A Taxonomy of Human-Agent Team Collaborations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Future command teams will be heavily supported by artificial actors. This paper introduces a taxonomy of collaboration types in humanagent teams. Using two classifying dimensions, coordination type and collaboration type, eight different classes of humanagent collaborations transpire. These

  1. Preclinical therapeutic potential of a nitrosylating agent in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Giri

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of s-nitrosylation in the growth of ovarian cancer using cell culture based and in vivo approaches. Using the nitrosylating agent, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, a physiological nitric oxide molecule, we show that GSNO treatment inhibited proliferation of chemoresponsive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, C200, SKVO3, ID8, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, OVCAR5, OVCAR7, OVCAR8, OVCAR10, PE01 and PE04 in a dose dependent manner. GSNO treatment abrogated growth factor (HB-EGF induced signal transduction including phosphorylation of Akt, p42/44 and STAT3, which are known to play critical roles in ovarian cancer growth and progression. To examine the therapeutic potential of GSNO in vivo, nude mice bearing intra-peritoneal xenografts of human A2780 ovarian carcinoma cell line (2 × 10(6 were orally administered GSNO at the dose of 1 mg/kg body weight. Daily oral administration of GSNO significantly attenuated tumor mass (p<0.001 in the peritoneal cavity compared to vehicle (phosphate buffered saline treated group at 4 weeks. GSNO also potentiated cisplatin mediated tumor toxicity in an A2780 ovarian carcinoma nude mouse model. GSNO's nitrosylating ability was reflected in the induced nitrosylation of various known proteins including NFκB p65, Akt and EGFR. As a novel finding, we observed that GSNO also induced nitrosylation with inverse relationship at tyrosine 705 phosphorylation of STAT3, an established player in chemoresistance and cell proliferation in ovarian cancer and in cancer in general. Overall, our study underlines the significance of S-nitrosylation of key cancer promoting proteins in modulating ovarian cancer and proposes the therapeutic potential of nitrosylating agents (like GSNO for the treatment of ovarian cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs.

  2. Choline and Geranate Deep Eutectic Solvent as a Broad-Spectrum Antiseptic Agent for Preventive and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrewsky, Michael; Banerjee, Amrita; Apte, Sanjana; Kern, Theresa L; Jones, Mattie R; Sesto, Rico E Del; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T; Mitragotri, Samir

    2016-06-01

    Antiseptic agents are the primary arsenal to disinfect skin and prevent pathogens spreading within the host as well as into the surroundings; however the Food and Drug Administration published a report in 2015 requiring additional validation of nearly all current antiseptic agents before their continued use can be allowed. This vulnerable position calls for urgent identification of novel antiseptic agents. Recently, the ability of a deep eutectic, Choline And Geranate (CAGE), to treat biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica was demonstrated. Here it is reported that CAGE exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against a number of drug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and viruses including clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans as well as laboratory strains of Herpes Simplex Virus. Studies in human keratinocytes and mice show that CAGE affords negligible local or systemic toxicity, and an ≈180-14 000-fold improved efficacy/toxicity ratio over currently used antiseptic agents. Further, CAGE penetrates deep into the dermis and treats pathogens located in deep skin layers as confirmed by the ability of CAGE in vivo to treat Propionibacterium acnes infection. In combination, the results clearly demonstrate CAGE holds promise as a transformative platform antiseptic agent for preventive as well as therapeutic applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  4. Lipoprotein Nanoplatform for Targeted Delivery of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Glickson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-density lipoprotein (LDL provides a highly versatile natural nanoplatform for delivery of visible or near-infrared fluorescent optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents and photodynamic therapy and chemotherapeutic agents to normal and neoplastic cells that overexpress low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs. Extension to other lipoproteins ranging in diameter from about 10 nm (high-density lipoprotein [HDL] to over a micron (chylomicrons is feasible. Loading of contrast or therapeutic agents onto or into these particles has been achieved by protein loading (covalent attachment to protein side chains, surface loading (intercalation into the phospholipid monolayer, and core loading (extraction and reconstitution of the triglyceride/cholesterol ester core. Core and surface loading of LDL have been used for delivery of optical imaging agents to tumor cells in vivo and in culture. Surface loading was used for delivery of gadolinium-bis-stearylamide contrast agents for in vivo MRI detection in tumor-bearing mice. Chlorin and phthalocyanine near-infrared photodynamic therapy agents (≤ 400/LDL have been attached by core loading. Protein loading was used to reroute the LDL from its natural receptor (LDLR to folate receptors and could be used to target other receptors. A semisynthetic nanoparticle has been constructed by coating magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles with carboxylated cholesterol and overlaying a monolayer of phospholipid to which apolipoprotein A1 or E was adsorbed for targeting HDL or adsorbing synthetic amphipathic helical peptides ltargeting LDL or folate receptors. These particles can be used for in situ loading of magnetite into cells for MRI-monitored cell tracking or gene expression.

  5. Unexplored therapeutic opportunities in the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Tudor I; Bologa, Cristian G; Brunak, Søren

    2018-01-01

    A large proportion of biomedical research and the development of therapeutics is focused on a small fraction of the human genome. In a strategic effort to map the knowledge gaps around proteins encoded by the human genome and to promote the exploration of currently understudied, but potentially d...... as well as key drug target classes, including G protein-coupled receptors, protein kinases and ion channels, which illustrate the nature of the unexplored opportunities for biomedical research and therapeutic development....

  6. Matricellular proteins in drug delivery: Therapeutic targets, active agents, and therapeutic localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Andrew J; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix is composed of a complex array of molecules that together provide structural and functional support to cells. These properties are mainly mediated by the activity of collagenous and elastic fibers, proteoglycans, and proteins such as fibronectin and laminin. ECM composition is tissue-specific and could include matricellular proteins whose primary role is to modulate cell-matrix interactions. In adults, matricellular proteins are primarily expressed during injury, inflammation and disease. Particularly, they are closely associated with the progression and prognosis of cardiovascular and fibrotic diseases, and cancer. This review aims to provide an overview of the potential use of matricellular proteins in drug delivery including the generation of therapeutic agents based on the properties and structures of these proteins as well as their utility as biomarkers for specific diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Therapeutic Agent Delivery in Anti-tumor Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria S. Chulpanova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are non-hematopoietic progenitor cells, which can be isolated from different types of tissues including bone marrow, adipose tissue, tooth pulp, and placenta/umbilical cord blood. There isolation from adult tissues circumvents the ethical concerns of working with embryonic or fetal stem cells, whilst still providing cells capable of differentiating into various cell lineages, such as adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. An important feature of MSCs is the low immunogenicity due to the lack of co-stimulatory molecules expression, meaning there is no need for immunosuppression during allogenic transplantation. The tropism of MSCs to damaged tissues and tumor sites makes them a promising vector for therapeutic agent delivery to tumors and metastatic niches. MSCs can be genetically modified by virus vectors to encode tumor suppressor genes, immunomodulating cytokines and their combinations, other therapeutic approaches include MSCs priming/loading with chemotherapeutic drugs or nanoparticles. MSCs derived membrane microvesicles (MVs, which play an important role in intercellular communication, are also considered as a new therapeutic agent and drug delivery vector. Recruited by the tumor, MSCs can exhibit both pro- and anti-oncogenic properties. In this regard, for the development of new methods for cancer therapy using MSCs, a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular interactions between MSCs and the tumor microenvironment is necessary. In this review, we discuss MSC and tumor interaction mechanisms and review the new therapeutic strategies using MSCs and MSCs derived MVs for cancer treatment.

  8. Review of therapeutic agents for burns pruritus and protocols for management in adult and paediatric patients using the GRADE classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutos Ioannis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To review the current evidence on therapeutic agents for burns pruritus and use the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE classification to propose therapeutic protocols for adult and paediatric patients. All published interventions for burns pruritus were analysed by a multidisciplinary panel of burns specialists following the GRADE classification to rate individual agents. Following the collation of results and panel discussion, consensus protocols are presented. Twenty-three studies appraising therapeutic agents in the burns literature were identified. The majority of these studies (16 out of 23 are of an observational nature, making an evidence-based approach to defining optimal therapy not feasible. Our multidisciplinary approach employing the GRADE classification recommends the use of antihistamines (cetirizine and cimetidine and gabapentin as the first-line pharmacological agents for both adult and paediatric patients. Ondansetron and loratadine are the second-line medications in our protocols. We additionally recommend a variety of non-pharmacological adjuncts for the perusal of clinicians in order to maximise symptomatic relief in patients troubled with postburn itch. Most studies in the subject area lack sufficient statistical power to dictate a ′gold standard′ treatment agent for burns itch. We encourage clinicians to employ the GRADE system in order to delineate the most appropriate therapeutic approach for burns pruritus until further research elucidates the most efficacious interventions. This widely adopted classification empowers burns clinicians to tailor therapeutic regimens according to current evidence, patient values, risks and resource considerations in different medical environments.

  9. Silibinin, dexamethasone, and doxycycline as potential therapeutic agents for treating vesicant-inflicted ocular injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Jain, Anil K.; Inturi, Swetha; Ammar, David A.; Agarwal, Chapla; Tyagi, Puneet; Kompella, Uday B.; Enzenauer, Robert W.; Petrash, J. Mark; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    There are no effective and approved therapies against devastating ocular injuries caused by vesicating chemical agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM). Herein, studies were carried out in rabbit corneal cultures to establish relevant ocular injury biomarkers with NM for screening potential efficacious agents in laboratory settings. NM (100 nmol) exposure of the corneas for 2 h (cultured for 24 h), showed increases in epithelial thickness, ulceration, apoptotic cell death, epithelial detachment microbullae formation, and the levels of VEGF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Employing these biomarkers, efficacy studies were performed with agent treatments 2 h and every 4 h thereafter, for 24 h following NM exposure. Three agents were evaluated, including prescription drugs dexamethasone (0.1%; anti-inflammatory steroid) and doxycycline (100 nmol; antibiotic and MMP inhibitor) that have been studied earlier for treating vesicant-induced eye injuries. We also examined silibinin (100 μg), a non-toxic natural flavanone found to be effective in treating SM analog-induced skin injuries in our earlier studies. Treatments of doxycycline + dexamethasone, and silibinin were more effective than doxycycline or dexamethasone alone in reversing NM-induced epithelial thickening, microbullae formation, apoptotic cell death, and MMP-9 elevation. However, dexamethasone and silibinin alone were more effective in reversing NM-induced VEGF levels. Doxycycline, dexamethasone and silibinin were all effective in reversing NM-induced COX-2 levels. Apart from therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline and dexamethasone, these results show strong multifunctional efficacy of silibinin in reversing NM-induced ocular injuries, which could help develop effective and safe therapeutics against ocular injuries by vesicants. -- Highlights: ► Established injury biomarkers in rabbit corneal culture with nitrogen mustard (NM) ► This NM model is a cost effective

  10. Silibinin, dexamethasone, and doxycycline as potential therapeutic agents for treating vesicant-inflicted ocular injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera, E-mail: Neera.Tewari-Singh@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Jain, Anil K., E-mail: Anil.Jain@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Inturi, Swetha, E-mail: Swetha.Inturi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Ammar, David A., E-mail: David.Ammar@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla, E-mail: Chapla.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Tyagi, Puneet, E-mail: Puneet.Tyagi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Kompella, Uday B., E-mail: Uday.Kompella@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Enzenauer, Robert W., E-mail: Robert.Enzenauer@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Petrash, J. Mark, E-mail: Mark.Petrash@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    There are no effective and approved therapies against devastating ocular injuries caused by vesicating chemical agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM). Herein, studies were carried out in rabbit corneal cultures to establish relevant ocular injury biomarkers with NM for screening potential efficacious agents in laboratory settings. NM (100 nmol) exposure of the corneas for 2 h (cultured for 24 h), showed increases in epithelial thickness, ulceration, apoptotic cell death, epithelial detachment microbullae formation, and the levels of VEGF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Employing these biomarkers, efficacy studies were performed with agent treatments 2 h and every 4 h thereafter, for 24 h following NM exposure. Three agents were evaluated, including prescription drugs dexamethasone (0.1%; anti-inflammatory steroid) and doxycycline (100 nmol; antibiotic and MMP inhibitor) that have been studied earlier for treating vesicant-induced eye injuries. We also examined silibinin (100 μg), a non-toxic natural flavanone found to be effective in treating SM analog-induced skin injuries in our earlier studies. Treatments of doxycycline + dexamethasone, and silibinin were more effective than doxycycline or dexamethasone alone in reversing NM-induced epithelial thickening, microbullae formation, apoptotic cell death, and MMP-9 elevation. However, dexamethasone and silibinin alone were more effective in reversing NM-induced VEGF levels. Doxycycline, dexamethasone and silibinin were all effective in reversing NM-induced COX-2 levels. Apart from therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline and dexamethasone, these results show strong multifunctional efficacy of silibinin in reversing NM-induced ocular injuries, which could help develop effective and safe therapeutics against ocular injuries by vesicants. -- Highlights: ► Established injury biomarkers in rabbit corneal culture with nitrogen mustard (NM) ► This NM model is a cost effective

  11. Investigating Therapeutic Potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. as Our Defense Mechanism against Several Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current lifestyle, stress, and pollution have dramatically enhanced the progression of several diseases in human. Globally, scientists are looking for therapeutic agents that can either cure or delay the onset of diseases. Medicinal plants from time immemorial have been used frequently in therapeutics. Of many such plants, fenugreek is one of the oldest herbs which have been identified as an important medicinal plant by the researchers around the world. It is potentially beneficial in a number of diseases such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and inflammation and probably in several kinds of cancers. It has industrial applications such as synthesis of steroidal hormones. Its medicinal properties and their role in clinical domain can be attributed to its chemical constituents. The 3 major chemical constituents which have been identified as responsible for principle health effects are galactomannan, 4-OH isoleucine, and steroidal saponin. Numerous experiments have been carried out in vivo and in vitro for beneficial effects of both the crude chemical and of its active constituent. Due to its role in health care, the functional food industry has referred to it as a potential nutraceutical. This paper is about various medicinal benefits of fenugreek and its potential application as therapeutic agent against several diseases.

  12. Quercetin as an Emerging Anti-Melanoma Agent: A four-focus area therapeutic development strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoey Harris

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Replacing current refractory treatments for melanoma with new prevention and therapeutic approaches is crucial in order to successfully treat this aggressive cancer form. Melanoma develops from neural crest cells, which express tyrosinase -- a key enzyme in the pigmentation pathway. The tyrosinase enzyme is highly active in melanoma cells and metabolizes polyphenolic compounds; tyrosinase expression thus makes a feasible a target for polyphenol-based therapies. For example, quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone is a highly ubiquitous and well-classified dietary polyphenol found in various fruits, vegetables and other plant products including onions, broccoli, kale, oranges, blueberries, apples, and tea. Quercetin has demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity in various cancer cell types. Quercetin is readily metabolized by tyrosinase into various compounds that promote anti-cancer activity; additionally, given that tyrosinase expression increases during tumorigenesis, and its activity is associated with pigmentation changes in both early- and late-stage melanocytic lesions, it suggests that quercetin can be used to target melanoma. In this review we explore the potential of Quercetin as an anti-melanoma agent utilizing and extrapolating on evidence from previous in vitro studies in various human malignant cell lines and propose a four-focus area strategy to develop quercetin as a targeted anti-melanoma compound for use as either a preventative or therapeutic agent. The four areas of focus include utilizing quercetin to i modulate cellular bioreduction potential and associated signaling cascades, ii affect transcription of relevant genes, iii regulate epigenetic processes, and iv develop effective combination therapies and delivery modalities/protocols. In general, quercetin could be used to exploit tyrosinase activity to prevent, and/or treat, melanoma with minimal additional side effects.

  13. Poly-S-Nitrosated Albumin as a Safe and Effective Multifunctional Antitumor Agent: Characterization, Biochemistry and Possible Future Therapeutic Applications

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    Yu Ishima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a ubiquitous molecule involved in multiple cellular functions. Inappropriate production of NO may lead to disease states. To date, pharmacologically active compounds that release NO within the body, such as organic nitrates, have been used as therapeutic agents, but their efficacy is significantly limited by unwanted side effects. Therefore, novel NO donors with better pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties are highly desirable. The S-nitrosothiol fraction in plasma is largely composed of endogenous S-nitrosated human serum albumin (Mono-SNO-HSA, and that is why we are testing whether this albumin form can be therapeutically useful. Recently, we developed SNO-HSA analogs such as SNO-HSA with many conjugated SNO groups (Poly-SNO-HSA which were prepared using chemical modification. Unexpectedly, we found striking inverse effects between Poly-SNO-HSA and Mono-SNO-HSA. Despite the fact that Mono-SNO-HSA inhibits apoptosis, Poly-SNO-HSA possesses very strong proapoptotic effects against tumor cells. Furthermore, Poly-SNO-HSA can reduce or perhaps completely eliminate the multidrug resistance often developed by cancer cells. In this review, we forward the possibility that Poly-SNO-HSA can be used as a safe and effective multifunctional antitumor agent.

  14. Alkylating chemotherapeutic agents cyclophosphamide and melphalan cause functional injury to human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Kevin; Morse, Ruth; Sanders, Kelly; Hows, Jill; Donaldson, Craig

    2011-07-01

    The adverse effects of melphalan and cyclophosphamide on hematopoietic stem cells are well-known; however, the effects on the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) residing in the bone marrow are less well characterised. Examining the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on patient MSCs in vivo is difficult due to variability in patients and differences in the drug combinations used, both of which could have implications on MSC function. As drugs are not commonly used as single agents during high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) regimens, there is a lack of data comparing the short- or long-term effects these drugs have on patients post treatment. To help address these problems, the effects of the alkylating chemotherapeutic agents cyclophosphamide and melphalan on human bone marrow MSCs were evaluated in vitro. Within this study, the exposure of MSCs to the chemotherapeutic agents cyclophosphamide or melphalan had strong negative effects on MSC expansion and CD44 expression. In addition, changes were seen in the ability of MSCs to support hematopoietic cell migration and repopulation. These observations therefore highlight potential disadvantages in the use of autologous MSCs in chemotherapeutically pre-treated patients for future therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, this study suggests that if the damage caused by chemotherapeutic agents to marrow MSCs is substantial, it would be logical to use cultured allogeneic MSCs therapeutically to assist or repair the marrow microenvironment after HDC.

  15. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2004-12-01

    Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.

  16. In Vitro Efficacy and Mechanistic Role of Indocyanine Green as a Photodynamic Therapy Agent for Human Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamoon, A.; Gamal-Eldeen, A; Ruppel, M; Smith, R; Tsang, T; Miller, L

    2009-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for superficial cancer. However, poor therapeutic results have been reported for melanoma, due to the high melanin content. Indocyanine green (ICG) has near infrared absorption (700-800nm) and melanins do not absorb strongly in this area. This study explores the efficiency of ICG as a PDT agent for human melanoma, and its mechanistic role in the cell death pathway.

  17. Immunological aspects of antibody formation against recombinant human therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerborn, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    With about 200 new products in the pipeline, recombinant human (rh) therapeutics are becoming the most dominant class of drugs. One of the reasons to create rh therapeutics was to avoid recognition by the immune system due to foreign origin. Nevertheless, rh therapeutics induced formation of

  18. A short synthetic peptide fragment of human C2ORF40 has therapeutic potential in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chaoyang [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Zhang, Pengju [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Jiang, Anli [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Mao, Jian-Hua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Guangwei [Shandong Univ. School of Medicine, Jinan (China)

    2017-03-30

    C2ORF40 encodes a secreted protein which is cleaved to generate soluble peptides by proteolytic processing and this process is believed to be necessary for C2ORF40 to exert cell type specific biological activity. Here, we reported a short mimic peptide of human C2ORF40 acts potential therapeutic efficacy in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We synthesized a short peptide of human C2ORF40, named C2ORF40 mimic peptide fragment and assessed its biological function on cancer cell growth, migration and tumorigenesis. Cell growth assay showed that C2ORF40 mimic peptide fragment significantly suppressed cell proliferation of breast and lung cancer cells. Moreover, C2ORF40 mimic peptide fragment significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we showed that this peptide suppressed tumorigenesis in breast tumor xenograft model. Cell cycle assay indicated that the C2ORF40 mimic peptide fragment suppressed the growth of tumor cells through inducing mitotic phase arrest. In conclusion, our results firstly suggested that this short synthetic peptide of human C2ORF40 may be a candidate tumor therapeutic agent.

  19. Targeting Potassium Channels for Increasing Delivery of Imaging Agents and Therapeutics to Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Sanyasihally Ningaraj

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Every year in the US, 20,000 new primary and nearly 200,000 metastatic brain tumor cases are reported. The cerebral microvessels/ capillaries that form the blood–brain barrier (BBB not only protect the brain from toxic agents in the blood but also pose a significant hindrance to the delivery of small and large therapeutic molecules. Different strategies have been employed to circumvent the physiological barrier posed by blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB. Studies in our laboratory have identified significant differences in the expression levels of certain genes and proteins between normal and brain tumor capillary endothelial cells. In this study, we validated the non-invasive and clinically relevant Dynamic Contrast Enhancing-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI method with invasive, clinically irrelevant but highly accurate Quantitative Autoradiography (QAR method using rat glioma model. We also showed that DCE-MRI metric of tissue vessel perfusion-permeability is sensitive to changes in blood vessel permeability following administration of calcium-activated potassium (BKCa channel activator NS-1619. Our results show that human gliomas and brain tumor endothelial cells that overexpress BKCa channels can be targeted for increased BTB permeability for MRI enhancing agents to brain tumors. We conclude that monitoring the outcome of increased MRI enhancing agents’ delivery to microsatellites and leading tumor edges in glioma patients would lead to beneficial clinical outcome.

  20. Cabazitaxel-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles as a therapeutic agent against prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Qu,1 Robert J Lee,1,2 Yating Sun,1 Guangsheng Cai,1 Junyang Wang,1 Mengqiao Wang,1 Jiahui Lu,1 Qingfan Meng,1 Lirong Teng,1 Di Wang,1 Lesheng Teng1,3 1School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 2Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 3State Key Laboratory of Long-acting and Targeting Drug Delivery System, Yantai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cabazitaxel-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (Cbz-NPs were synthesized to overcome vehicle-related toxicity of current clinical formulation of the drug based on Tween-80 (Cbz-Tween. A salting-out method was used for NP synthesis that avoids the use of chlorinated organic solvent and is simpler compared to the methods based on emulsion-solvent evaporation. Cbz-NPs had a narrow particle size distribution, suitable drug loading content (4.9%, and superior blood biocompatibility based on in vitro hemolysis assay. Blood circulation, tumor uptake, and antitumor activity of Cbz-NPs were assessed in prostatic cancer xenograft-bearing nude mice. Cbz-NPs exhibited prolonged blood circulation and greater accumulation of Cbz in tumors along with reduced toxicity compared to Cbz-Tween. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin histopathological staining of organs revealed consistent results. The levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine in drug-treated mice showed that Cbz-NPs were less toxic than Cbz-Tween to the kidneys. In conclusion, Cbz-NPs provide a promising therapeutic for prostate cancer. Keywords: cabazitaxel, human serum albumin, nanoparticle, drug delivery, toxicity, pros­tate cancer

  1. Therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of ethamsylate, a long-standing hemostatic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Ricardo P; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Hannaert, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Ethamsylate (2,5-dihydroxy-benzene-sulfonate diethylammonium salt) is a synthetic hemostatic drug indicated in cases of capillary bleeding. This review covers more than 40 years of intensive clinical and fundamental research with ethamsylate. First, we summarize the large medical literature concerning its clinical efficacy. Of these, well-controlled clinical trials clearly showed the therapeutic efficacy of ethamsylate in dysfunctional uterine bleeding, with the magnitude of blood-loss reduction being directly proportional to the severity of the menorrhagia. Other well-controlled clinical trials showed therapeutic efficacy of ethamsylate in periventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight babies and surgical or postsurgical capillary bleeding. Second, we review the numerous investigations performed to elucidate the mechanism of action of ethamsylate. Ethamsylate acts on the first step of hemostasis by improving platelet adhesiveness and restoring capillary resistance. Recent studies showed that ethamsylate promotes P-selectin-dependent, platelet adhesive mechanisms. Finally, we compare ethamsylate with other recent hemostatic agents. It is suggested that the place of ethamsylate as a hemostatic agent is that of a mild but well-tolerated drug, particularly useful in dysfunctional uterine bleeding when contraception is not needed.

  2. Therapeutic potential of thiazolidinedione-8 as an antibiofilm agent against Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Feldman

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is known as a commensal microorganism but it is also the most common fungal pathogen in humans, causing both mucosal and systemic infections. Biofilm-associated C. albicans infections present clinically important features due to their high levels of resistance to traditional antifungal agents. Quorum sensing is closely associated with biofilm formation and increasing fungal pathogenicity. We investigated the ability of the novel bacterial quorum sensing quencher thiazolidinedione-8 (S-8 to inhibit the formation of, and eradication of mature C. albicans biofilms. In addition, the capability of S-8 to alter fungal adhesion to mammalian cells was checked. S-8 exhibited specific antibiofilm and antiadhesion activities against C. albicans, at four- to eightfold lower concentrations than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Using fluorescence microscopy, we observed that S-8 dose-dependently reduces C. albicans-GFP binding to RAW macrophages. S-8 at sub-MICs also interfered with fungal morphogenesis by inhibiting the yeast-to-hyphal form transition. In addition, the tested agent strongly affected fungal cell wall characteristics by modulating its hydrophobicity. We evaluated the molecular mode of S-8 antibiofilm and antiadhesion activities using real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of genes associated with biofilm formation, adhesion and filamentation, HWP1, ALS3 and EAP1, respectively, were dose-dependently downregulated by S-8. Transcript levels of UME6, responsible for long-term hyphal maintenance, were also significantly decreased by the tested agent. Both signaling pathways of hyphal formation-cAMP-PKA and MAPK-were interrupted by S-8. Their upstream general regulator RAS1 was markedly suppressed by S-8. In addition, the expression levels of MAPK cascade components CST20, HST7 and CPH1 were downregulated by S-8. Finally, transcriptional repressors of filament formation, TUP1 and NRG1, were dramatically upregulated by our

  3. Formulation and acoustic studies of a new phase-shift agent for diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Luois, Samantha; Dayton, Paul A; Matsunaga, Terry O

    2011-09-06

    Recent efforts in the area of acoustic droplet vaporization with the objective of designing extravascular ultrasound contrast agents has led to the development of stabilized, lipid-encapsulated nanodroplets of the highly volatile compound decafluorobutane (DFB). We developed two methods of generating DFB droplets, the first of which involves condensing DFB gas (boiling point from -1.1 to -2 °C) followed by extrusion with a lipid formulation in HEPES buffer. Acoustic droplet vaporization of micrometer-sized lipid-coated droplets at diagnostic ultrasound frequencies and mechanical indices were confirmed optically. In our second formulation methodology, we demonstrate the formulation of submicrometer-sized lipid-coated nanodroplets based upon condensation of preformed microbubbles containing DFB. The droplets are routinely in the 200-300 nm range and yield microbubbles on the order of 1-5 μm once vaporized, consistent with ideal gas law expansion predictions. The simple and effective nature of this methodology allows for the development of a variety of different formulations that can be used for imaging, drug and gene delivery, and therapy. This study is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate both a method of generating ADV agents by microbubble condensation and formulation of primarily submicrometer droplets of decafluorobutane that remain stable at physiological temperatures. Finally, activation of DFB nanodroplets is demonstrated using pressures within the FDA guidelines for diagnostic imaging, which may minimize the potential for bioeffects in humans. This methodology offers a new means of developing extravascular contrast agents for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Unexplored therapeutic opportunities in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; Bologa, Cristian G; Brunak, Søren; Campbell, Allen; Gan, Gregory N; Gaulton, Anna; Gomez, Shawn M; Guha, Rajarshi; Hersey, Anne; Holmes, Jayme; Jadhav, Ajit; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Johnson, Gary L; Karlson, Anneli; Leach, Andrew R; Ma'ayan, Avi; Malovannaya, Anna; Mani, Subramani; Mathias, Stephen L; McManus, Michael T; Meehan, Terrence F; von Mering, Christian; Muthas, Daniel; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Overington, John P; Papadatos, George; Qin, Jun; Reich, Christian; Roth, Bryan L; Schürer, Stephan C; Simeonov, Anton; Sklar, Larry A; Southall, Noel; Tomita, Susumu; Tudose, Ilinca; Ursu, Oleg; Vidovic, Dušica; Waller, Anna; Westergaard, David; Yang, Jeremy J; Zahoránszky-Köhalmi, Gergely

    2018-05-01

    A large proportion of biomedical research and the development of therapeutics is focused on a small fraction of the human genome. In a strategic effort to map the knowledge gaps around proteins encoded by the human genome and to promote the exploration of currently understudied, but potentially druggable, proteins, the US National Institutes of Health launched the Illuminating the Druggable Genome (IDG) initiative in 2014. In this article, we discuss how the systematic collection and processing of a wide array of genomic, proteomic, chemical and disease-related resource data by the IDG Knowledge Management Center have enabled the development of evidence-based criteria for tracking the target development level (TDL) of human proteins, which indicates a substantial knowledge deficit for approximately one out of three proteins in the human proteome. We then present spotlights on the TDL categories as well as key drug target classes, including G protein-coupled receptors, protein kinases and ion channels, which illustrate the nature of the unexplored opportunities for biomedical research and therapeutic development.

  5. RGD-based strategies for selective delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents to the tumour vasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temming, K; Molema, G; Kok, RJ

    2005-01-01

    During the past decade, RGD-peptides have become a popular tool for the targeting of drugs and imaging agents to a(v)beta(3)-integrin expressing tumour vasculature. RGD-peptides have been introduced by recombinant means into therapeutic proteins and viruses. Chemical means have been applied to

  6. A human capital predictive model for agent performance in contact centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Jacobs

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The primary focus of this article was to develop a theoretically derived human capital predictive model for agent performance in contact centres and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO based on a review of current empirical research literature. Motivation for the study: The study was motivated by the need for a human capital predictive model that can predict agent and overall business performance. Research design: A nonempirical (theoretical research paradigm was adopted for this study and more specifically a theory or model-building approach was followed. A systematic review of published empirical research articles (for the period 2000–2009 in scholarly search portals was performed. Main findings: Eight building blocks of the human capital predictive model for agent performance in contact centres were identified. Forty-two of the human capital contact centre related articles are detailed in this study. Key empirical findings suggest that person– environment fit, job demands-resources, human resources management practices, engagement, agent well-being, agent competence; turnover intention; and agent performance are related to contact centre performance. Practical/managerial implications: The human capital predictive model serves as an operational management model that has performance implications for agents and ultimately influences the contact centre’s overall business performance. Contribution/value-add: This research can contribute to the fields of human resource management (HRM, human capital and performance management within the contact centre and BPO environment.

  7. Social Psychology Of Persuasion Applied To Human-agent Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and evaluates the application of a social psychologically enriched, user-centered approach to agent architecture design. The major aim is to facilitate human-agent interaction (HAI by making agents not only algorithmically more intelligent but also socially more skillful in communicating with the user. A decision-making model and communicative argumentation strategies have been incorporated into the agent architecture. In the presented content resource management experiments, enhancement of human task performance is demonstrated for users that are supported by a persuasive agent. This superior performance seems to be rooted in a more trusting collaborative relationship between the user and the agent, rather than in the appropriateness of the agent's decision-making suggestions alone. In particular, the second experiment demonstrated that interface interaction design should follow the principles of task-orientation and implicitness. Making the influence of the agent too salient can trigger counterintentional effects, such as users' discomfort and psychological reactance.

  8. Cell targeting peptides as smart ligands for targeting of therapeutic or diagnostic agents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavizadeh, Ali; Jabbari, Ali; Akrami, Mohammad; Bardania, Hassan

    2017-10-01

    Cell targeting peptides (CTP) are small peptides which have high affinity and specificity to a cell or tissue targets. They are typically identified by using phage display and chemical synthetic peptide library methods. CTPs have attracted considerable attention as a new class of ligands to delivery specifically therapeutic and diagnostic agents, because of the fact they have several advantages including easy synthesis, smaller physical sizes, lower immunogenicity and cytotoxicity and their simple and better conjugation to nano-carriers and therapeutic or diagnostic agents compared to conventional antibodies. In this systematic review, we will focus on the basic concepts concerning the use of cell-targeting peptides (CTPs), following the approaches of selecting them from peptide libraries. We discuss several developed strategies for cell-specific delivery of different cargos by CTPs, which are designed for drug delivery and diagnostic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of treatment with antimicrobial agents on the human colonic microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Rafii, Fatemeh

    2008-01-01

    Fatemeh Rafii, John B Sutherland, Carl E CernigliaDivision of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR, USAAbstract: Antimicrobial agents are the most valuable means available for treating bacterial infections. However, the administration of therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents to patients is a leading cause of disturbance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora. This disturbance results in diminishing the natural defense mechanisms provided by the c...

  10. Hypoxia-mimetic agents inhibit proliferation and alter the morphology of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Hui-Lan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic diseases is closely related to level of hypoxia in the damaged tissues. To elucidate the potential therapeutic applications and limitations of hMSCs derived from human umbilical cords, the effects of hypoxia on the morphology and proliferation of hMSCs were analyzed. Results After treatment with DFO and CoCl2, hMSCs were elongated, and adjacent cells were no longer in close contact. In addition, vacuole-like structures were observed within the cytoplasm; the rough endoplasmic reticulum expanded, and expanded ridges were observed in mitochondria. In addition, DFO and CoCl2 treatments for 48 h significantly inhibited hMSCs proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner (P Conclusions The hypoxia-mimetic agents, DFO and CoCl2, alter umbilical cord-derived hMSCs morphology and inhibit their proliferation through influencing the cell cycle.

  11. Improving the Therapeutic Potential of Human Granzyme B for Targeted Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Melmer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer treatments lack specificity and often cause severe side effects. Targeted therapeutic approaches are therefore preferred, including the use of immunotoxins (ITs that comprise cell-binding and cell death-inducing components to allow the direct and specific delivery of pro-apoptotic agents into malignant cells. The first generation of ITs consisted of toxins derived from bacteria or plants, making them immunogenic in humans. The recent development of human cytolytic fusion proteins (hCFP consisting of human effector enzymes offers the prospect of highly-effective targeted therapies with minimal side effects. One of the most promising candidates is granzyme B (GrB and this enzyme has already demonstrated its potential for targeted cancer therapy. However, the clinical application of GrB may be limited because it is inactivated by the overexpression in tumors of its specific inhibitor serpin B9 (PI-9. It is also highly charged, which means it can bind non-specifically to the surface of non-target cells. Furthermore, human enzymes generally lack an endogenous translocation domain, thus the endosomal release of GrB following receptor-mediated endocytosis can be inefficient. In this review we provide a detailed overview of these challenges and introduce promising solutions to increase the cytotoxic potency of GrB for clinical applications.

  12. Using therapeutic cloning to fight human disease: a conundrum or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Vanessa J; Stojkovic, Petra; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2006-07-01

    The development and transplantation of autologous cells derived from nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell (NT-ESC) lines to treat patients suffering from disease has been termed therapeutic cloning. Human NT is still a developing field, with further research required to improve somatic cell NT and human embryonic stem cell differentiation to deliver safe and effective cell replacement therapies. Furthermore, the implications of transferring mitochondrial heteroplasmic cells, which may harbor aberrant epigenetic gene expression profiles, are of concern. The production of human NT-ESC lines also remains plagued by ethical dilemmas, societal concerns, and controversies. Recently, a number of alternate therapeutic strategies have been proposed to circumvent the moral implications surrounding human nuclear transfer. It will be critical to overcome these biological, legislative, and moral restraints to maximize the potential of this therapeutic strategy and to alleviate human disease.

  13. Current progress and future perspectives in the development of anti-polo-like kinase 1 therapeutic agents [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Eun Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although significant levels of side effects are often associated with their use, microtubule-directed agents that primarily target fast-growing mitotic cells have been considered to be some of the most effective anti-cancer therapeutics. With the hope of developing new-generation anti-mitotic agents with reduced side effects and enhanced tumor specificity, researchers have targeted various proteins whose functions are critically required for mitotic progression. As one of the highly attractive mitotic targets, polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1 has been the subject of an extensive effort for anti-cancer drug discovery. To date, a variety of anti-Plk1 agents have been developed, and several of them are presently in clinical trials. Here, we will discuss the current status of generating anti-Plk1 agents as well as future strategies for designing and developing more efficacious anti-Plk1 therapeutics.

  14. 77 FR 62521 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibitor as a dual-biologic therapy to treat metastatic breast cancer, or ii) incorporating a p53 isoform antisense oligonucleotide as a single biologic therapy to treat T- cell lymphoma... Exclusive License: The Development of Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer and T...

  15. In vitro efficiency and mechanistic role of indocyanine green as photodynamic therapy agent for human melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamoon, A.M.; Miller, L.; Gamal-Eldeen, A. M.; Ruppel, M. E.; Smith, R. J.; Tsang, T.; Miller, L. M.

    2009-05-02

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for superficial cancer. However, poor therapeutic results have been reported for melanoma, due to the high melanin content. Indocyanine green (ICG) has near infrared absorption (700-800 nm) and melanins do not absorb strongly in this area. This study explores the efficiency of ICG as a PDT agent for human melanoma, and its mechanistic role in the cell death pathway. Human skin melanoma cells (Sk-Mel-28) were incubated with ICG and exposed to a low power Ti:Sapphire laser. Synchrotron-assisted Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to assess the cell damage and changes in lipid, protein, and nucleic acids. The cell death pathway was determined by analysis of cell viability and apoptosis and necrosis markers. In the cell death pathway, {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation evoked rapid multiple consequences that trigger apoptosis after laser exposure for only 15min including the release of cytochrome c, the activation of total caspases, caspase-3, and caspase-9, the inhibition of NF-{Kappa}B P65, and the enhancement of DNA fragmentation, and histone acetylation. ICG/PDT can efficiently and rapidly induce apoptosis in human melanoma cells and it can be considered as a new therapeutic approach for topical treatment of melanoma.

  16. Rheumatoid factor interference in immunogenicity assays for human monoclonal antibody therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarewicz, Suzanna; Miller, Jill M; Swanson, Steven J; Moxness, Michael S

    2010-05-31

    Rheumatoid factors (RFs) are endogenous human antibodies that bind to human gamma globulins. RFs demonstrate preferential binding to aggregated gamma globulins and are involved in the clearing mechanism of immune complexes. Immunoassays designed to measure human anti-human antibodies (HAHA) after administration of monoclonal antibody therapeutics are thus vulnerable to interference from RFs. When using a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) bridging immunoassay, samples from subjects with rheumatoid arthritis demonstrated much higher baseline reactivity than healthy subjects. Interference was found to be dependent on the aggregation state of the therapeutic antibody that had been conjugated with the detection reagent (ruthenium). Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) demonstrated that of the total integrated peaks, as little as 0.55% high molecular weight aggregates (>600kDa) were sufficient to cause increased reactivity. Stability studies of the ruthenium and biotin conjugated therapeutic antibody indicated that storage time, temperature and buffer formulation were critical in maintaining the integrity of the reagents. Through careful SE-HPLC monitoring we were able to choose appropriate storage and buffer conditions which led to a reduction in the false reactivity rate in therapeutic-naïve serum from a rheumatoid arthritis population.

  17. A Specific Inhibitor of TGF-β Receptor Kinase, SB-431542, as a Potent Antitumor Agent for Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Halder

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Small molecule inhibitors of signaling pathways have proven to be extremely useful for the development of therapeutic strategies for human cancers. Blocking the tumor-promoting effects of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β in advanced stage carcinogenesis provides a potentially interesting drug target for therapeutic intervention. Although very few TGF-β receptor kinase inhibitors (TRKI are now emerging in preclinical studies, nothing is known about how these inhibitors might regulate the tumor-suppressive or tumor-promoting effects of TGF-β, or when these inhibitors might be useful for treatment during cancer progression. We have investigated the potential of TRKI in new therapeutic approaches in preclinical models. Here, we demonstrate that the TRKI, SB-431542, inhibits TGF-β-induced transcription, gene expression, apoptosis, and growth suppression. We have observed that SB-431542 attenuates the tumor-promoting effects of TGF-β, including TGF-β-induced EMT, cell motility, migration and invasion, and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion in human cancer cell lines. Interestingly, SB-431542 induces anchorage independent growth of cells that are growth-inhibited by TGF-β, whereas it reduces colony formation by cells that are growth-promoted by TGF-β. However, SB-431542 has no effect on a cell line that failed to respond to TGF-β. This represents a novel potential application of these inhibitors as therapeutic agents for human cancers with the goal of blocking tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis, when tumors are refractory to TGF-β-induced tumor-suppressor functions but responsive to tumor-promoting effects of TGF-β.

  18. EphB4 as a therapeutic target in mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ren; Ferguson, Benjamin D; Zhou, Yue; Naga, Kranthi; Salgia, Ravi; Gill, Parkash S; Krasnoperov, Valery

    2013-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) often develops decades following exposure to asbestos. Current best therapy produces a response in only half of patients, and the median survival with this therapy remains under a year. A search for novel targets and therapeutics is underway, and recently identified targets include VEGF, Notch, and EphB4-Ephrin-B2. Each of these targets has dual activity, promoting tumor cell growth as well as tumor angiogenesis. We investigated EphB4 expression in 39 human mesothelioma tissues by immunohistochemistry. Xenograft tumors established with human mesothelioma cells were treated with an EphB4 inhibitor (monomeric soluble EphB4 fused to human serum albumin, or sEphB4-HSA). The combinatorial effect of sEphB4-HSA and biologic agent was also studied. EphB4 was overexpressed in 72% of mesothelioma tissues evaluated, with 85% of epithelioid and 38% of sarcomatoid subtypes demonstrating overexpression. The EphB4 inhibitor sEphB4-HSA was highly active as a single agent to inhibit tumor growth, accompanied by tumor cell apoptosis and inhibition of PI3K and Src signaling. Combination of sEphB4-HSA and the anti-VEGF antibody (Bevacizumab) was superior to each agent alone and led to complete tumor regression. EphB4 is a potential therapeutic target in mesothelioma. Clinical investigation of sEphB4-HSA as a single agent and in combination with VEGF inhibitors is warranted

  19. Comparability of Conflict Opportunities in Human-to-Human and Human-to-Agent Online Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigal

    2014-01-01

    Students' performance in human-to-human and human-to-agent collaborative problem solving assessment task is investigated in this paper. A secondary data analysis of the research reported by Rosen and Tager (2013) was conducted in order to investigate the comparability of the opportunities for conflict situations in human-to-human and…

  20. Ultrasound enhanced delivery of molecular imaging and therapeutic agents in Alzheimer's disease mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B Raymond

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder typified by the accumulation of a small protein, beta-amyloid, which aggregates and is the primary component of amyloid plaques. Many new therapeutic and diagnostic agents for reducing amyloid plaques have limited efficacy in vivo because of poor transport across the blood-brain barrier. Here we demonstrate that low-intensity focused ultrasound with a microbubble contrast agent may be used to transiently disrupt the blood-brain barrier, allowing non-invasive, localized delivery of imaging fluorophores and immunotherapeutics directly to amyloid plaques. We administered intravenous Trypan blue, an amyloid staining red fluorophore, and anti-amyloid antibodies, concurrently with focused ultrasound therapy in plaque-bearing, transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease with amyloid pathology. MRI guidance permitted selective treatment and monitoring of plaque-heavy anatomical regions, such as the hippocampus. Treated brain regions exhibited 16.5+/-5.4-fold increase in Trypan blue fluorescence and 2.7+/-1.2-fold increase in anti-amyloid antibodies that localized to amyloid plaques. Ultrasound-enhanced delivery was consistently reproduced in two different transgenic strains (APPswe:PSEN1dE9, PDAPP, across a large age range (9-26 months, with and without MR guidance, and with little or no tissue damage. Ultrasound-mediated, transient blood-brain barrier disruption allows the delivery of both therapeutic and molecular imaging agents in Alzheimer's mouse models, which should aid pre-clinical drug screening and imaging probe development. Furthermore, this technique may be used to deliver a wide variety of small and large molecules to the brain for imaging and therapy in other neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Targeting Potassium Channels for Increasing Delivery of Imaging Agents and Therapeutics to Brain Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra Sanyasihally Ningaraj; Divya eKhaitan

    2013-01-01

    Every year in the US, 20,000 new primary and nearly 200,000 metastatic brain tumor cases are reported. The cerebral microvessels/ capillaries that form the blood–brain barrier (BBB) not only protect the brain from toxic agents in the blood but also pose a significant hindrance to the delivery of small and large therapeutic molecules. Different strategies have been employed to circumvent the physiological barrier posed by blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB). Studies in our laboratory have identifi...

  2. Manufacturing of Human Extracellular Vesicle-Based Therapeutics for Clinical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gimona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs derived from stem and progenitor cells may have therapeutic effects comparable to their parental cells and are considered promising agents for the treatment of a variety of diseases. To this end, strategies must be designed to successfully translate EV research and to develop safe and efficacious therapies, whilst taking into account the applicable regulations. Here, we discuss the requirements for manufacturing, safety, and efficacy testing of EVs along their path from the laboratory to the patient. Development of EV-therapeutics is influenced by the source cell types and the target diseases. In this article, we express our view based on our experience in manufacturing biological therapeutics for routine use or clinical testing, and focus on strategies for advancing mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC-derived EV-based therapies. We also discuss the rationale for testing MSC-EVs in selected diseases with an unmet clinical need such as critical size bone defects, epidermolysis bullosa and spinal cord injury. While the scientific community, pharmaceutical companies and clinicians are at the point of entering into clinical trials for testing the therapeutic potential of various EV-based products, the identification of the mode of action underlying the suggested potency in each therapeutic approach remains a major challenge to the translational path.

  3. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy with BF2-chelated Tetraaryl-Azadipyrromethene agents: a multi-modality molecular imaging approach to therapeutic assessment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, A T

    2009-11-03

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality for a range of diseases including cancer. The BF(2)-chelated tetraaryl-azadipyrromethenes (ADPMs) are an emerging class of non-porphyrin PDT agent, which have previously shown excellent photochemical and photophysical properties for therapeutic application. Herein, in vivo efficacy and mechanism of action studies have been completed for the lead agent, ADMP06.

  4. Cavitation thresholds of contrast agents in an in vitro human clot model exposed to 120-kHz ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Matthew J; Bader, Kenneth B; Holland, Christy K

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) can be employed to nucleate cavitation to achieve desired bioeffects, such as thrombolysis, in therapeutic ultrasound applications. Effective methods of enhancing thrombolysis with ultrasound have been examined at low frequencies (cavitation thresholds for two UCAs exposed to 120-kHz ultrasound. A commercial ultrasound contrast agent (Definity(®)) and echogenic liposomes were investigated to determine the acoustic pressure threshold for ultraharmonic (UH) and broadband (BB) generation using an in vitro flow model perfused with human plasma. Cavitation emissions were detected using two passive receivers over a narrow frequency bandwidth (540-900 kHz) and a broad frequency bandwidth (0.54-1.74 MHz). UH and BB cavitation thresholds occurred at the same acoustic pressure (0.3 ± 0.1 MPa, peak to peak) and were found to depend on the sensitivity of the cavitation detector but not on the nucleating contrast agent or ultrasound duty cycle.

  5. Intracellular Delivery of Proteins with Cell-Penetrating Peptides for Therapeutic Uses in Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Ana; Chien, Wei-Ming; Chin, Michael T

    2016-02-22

    Protein therapy exhibits several advantages over small molecule drugs and is increasingly being developed for the treatment of disorders ranging from single enzyme deficiencies to cancer. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), a group of small peptides capable of promoting transport of molecular cargo across the plasma membrane, have become important tools in promoting the cellular uptake of exogenously delivered proteins. Although the molecular mechanisms of uptake are not firmly established, CPPs have been empirically shown to promote uptake of various molecules, including large proteins over 100 kiloDaltons (kDa). Recombinant proteins that include a CPP tag to promote intracellular delivery show promise as therapeutic agents with encouraging success rates in both animal and human trials. This review highlights recent advances in protein-CPP therapy and discusses optimization strategies and potential detrimental effects.

  6. Frontiers in nano-therapeutics

    CERN Document Server

    Tasnim, Nishat; Sai Krishna, Katla; Kalagara, Sudhakar; Narayan, Mahesh; Noveron, Juan C; Joddar, Binata

    2017-01-01

    This brief highlights recent research advances in the area of nano-therapeutics. Nanotechnology holds immense potential for application in a wide range of biological and engineering applications such as molecular sensors for disease diagnosis, therapeutic agents for the treatment of diseases, a vehicle for delivering therapeutics and imaging agents for theranostic applications, both in-vitro and in-vivo. The brief is grouped into the following sections namely, A) Discrete Nanosystems ; B) Anisotropic Nanoparticles; C) Nano-films/coated/layered and D) Nano-composites.

  7. A robust and rapid xenograft model to assess efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents for human acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saland, E; Boutzen, H; Castellano, R; Pouyet, L; Griessinger, E; Larrue, C; Toni, F de; Scotland, S; David, M; Danet-Desnoyers, G; Vergez, F; Barreira, Y; Collette, Y; Récher, C; Sarry, J-E

    2015-01-01

    Relevant preclinical mouse models are crucial to screen new therapeutic agents for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Current in vivo models based on the use of patient samples are not easy to establish and manipulate in the laboratory. Our objective was to develop robust xenograft models of human AML using well-characterized cell lines as a more accessible and faster alternative to those incorporating the use of patient-derived AML cells. Five widely used AML cell lines representing various AML subtypes were transplanted and expanded into highly immunodeficient non-obese diabetic/LtSz-severe combined immunodeficiency IL2Rγ c null mice (for example, cell line-derived xenografts). We show here that bone marrow sublethal conditioning with busulfan or irradiation has equal efficiency for the xenotransplantation of AML cell lines. Although higher number of injected AML cells did not change tumor engraftment in bone marrow and spleen, it significantly reduced the overall survival in mice for all tested AML cell lines. On the basis of AML cell characteristics, these models also exhibited a broad range of overall mouse survival, engraftment, tissue infiltration and aggressiveness. Thus, we have established a robust, rapid and straightforward in vivo model based on engraftment behavior of AML cell lines, all vital prerequisites for testing new therapeutic agents in preclinical studies

  8. New Therapeutic Agent against Arterial Thrombosis: An Iridium(III-Derived Organometallic Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Hsia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activation plays a major role in cardio and cerebrovascular diseases, and cancer progression. Disruption of platelet activation represents an attractive therapeutic target for reducing the bidirectional cross talk between platelets and tumor cells. Platinum (Pt compounds have been used for treating cancer. Hence, replacing Pt with iridium (Ir is considered a potential alternative. We recently developed an Ir(III-derived complex, [Ir(Cp*1-(2-pyridyl-3-(2-hydroxyphenylimidazo[1,5-a]pyridine Cl]BF4 (Ir-11, which exhibited strong antiplatelet activity; hence, we assessed the therapeutic potential of Ir-11 against arterial thrombosis. In collagen-activated platelets, Ir-11 inhibited platelet aggregation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP release, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, P-selectin expression, and OH· formation, as well as the phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, and Akt. Neither the adenylate cyclase inhibitor nor the guanylate cyclase inhibitor reversed the Ir-11-mediated antiplatelet effects. In experimental mice, Ir-11 prolonged the bleeding time and reduced mortality associated with acute pulmonary thromboembolism. Ir-11 plays a crucial role by inhibiting platelet activation through the inhibition of the PLCγ2–PKC cascade, and the subsequent suppression of Akt and MAPK activation, ultimately inhibiting platelet aggregation. Therefore, Ir-11 can be considered a new therapeutic agent against either arterial thrombosis or the bidirectional cross talk between platelets and tumor cells.

  9. Co-culturing of Fungal Strains Against Botrytis cinerea as a Model for the Induction of Chemical Diversity and Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Genilloud

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available New fungal SMs (SMs have been successfully described to be produced by means of in vitro-simulated microbial community interactions. Co-culturing of fungi has proved to be an efficient way to induce cell–cell interactions that can promote the activation of cryptic pathways, frequently silent when the strains are grown in laboratory conditions. Filamentous fungi represent one of the most diverse microbial groups known to produce bioactive natural products. Triggering the production of novel antifungal compounds in fungi could respond to the current needs to fight health compromising pathogens and provide new therapeutic solutions. In this study, we have selected the fungus Botrytis cinerea as a model to establish microbial interactions with a large set of fungal strains related to ecosystems where they can coexist with this phytopathogen, and to generate a collection of extracts, obtained from their antagonic microbial interactions and potentially containing new bioactive compounds. The antifungal specificity of the extracts containing compounds induced after B. cinerea interaction was determined against two human fungal pathogens (Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus and three phytopathogens (Colletotrichum acutatum, Fusarium proliferatum, and Magnaporthe grisea. In addition, their cytotoxicity was also evaluated against the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2. We have identified by LC-MS the production of a wide variety of known compounds induced from these fungal interactions, as well as novel molecules that support the potential of this approach to generate new chemical diversity and possible new therapeutic agents.

  10. Frizzled Receptors as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui-Mian Zeng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Frizzled receptors (FZDs are a family of seven-span transmembrane receptors with hallmarks of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs that serve as receptors for secreted Wingless-type (WNT ligands in the WNT signaling pathway. Functionally, FZDs play crucial roles in regulating cell polarity, embryonic development, cell proliferation, formation of neural synapses, and many other processes in developing and adult organisms. In this review, we will introduce the basic structural features and review the biological function and mechanism of FZDs in the progression of human cancers, followed by an analysis of clinical relevance and therapeutic potential of FZDs. We will focus on the development of antibody-based and small molecule inhibitor-based therapeutic strategies by targeting FZDs for human cancers.

  11. Intelligent Agent Transparency in Human-Agent Teaming for Multi-UxV Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Joseph E; Rupp, Michael A; Chen, Jessie Y C; Barnes, Michael J; Barber, Daniel; Procci, Katelyn

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of level of agent transparency on operator performance, trust, and workload in a context of human-agent teaming for multirobot management. Participants played the role of a heterogeneous unmanned vehicle (UxV) operator and were instructed to complete various missions by giving orders to UxVs through a computer interface. An intelligent agent (IA) assisted the participant by recommending two plans-a top recommendation and a secondary recommendation-for every mission. A within-subjects design with three levels of agent transparency was employed in the present experiment. There were eight missions in each of three experimental blocks, grouped by level of transparency. During each experimental block, the IA was incorrect three out of eight times due to external information (e.g., commander's intent and intelligence). Operator performance, trust, workload, and usability data were collected. Results indicate that operator performance, trust, and perceived usability increased as a function of transparency level. Subjective and objective workload data indicate that participants' workload did not increase as a function of transparency. Furthermore, response time did not increase as a function of transparency. Unlike previous research, which showed that increased transparency resulted in increased performance and trust calibration at the cost of greater workload and longer response time, our results support the benefits of transparency for performance effectiveness without additional costs. The current results will facilitate the implementation of IAs in military settings and will provide useful data to the design of heterogeneous UxV teams. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  12. Deoxypodophyllotoxin: a promising therapeutic agent from herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Meyada; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou; Zhang, Lu-Yong

    2013-08-26

    Recently, biologically active compounds isolated from plants used in herbal medicine have been the center of interest. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), structurally closely related to the lignan podophyllotoxin, is a potent antitumor and anti-inflammatory agent. However, DPT has not been used clinically yet. Also, DPT from natural sources seems to be unavailable. Hence, it is important to establish alternative resources for the production of such lignan; especially that it is used as a precursor for the semi-synthesis of the cytostatic drugs etoposide phosphate and teniposide. The update paper provides an overview of DPT as an effective anticancer natural compound and a leader for cytotoxic drugs synthesis and development in order to highlight the gaps in our knowledge and explore future research needs. The present review covers the literature available from 1877 to 2012. The information was collected via electronic search using Chinese papers and the major scientific databases including PubMed, Sciencedirect, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords. All abstracts and full-text articles reporting database on the history and current status of DPT were gathered and analyzed. Plants containing DPT have played an important role in traditional medicine. In light of the in vitro pharmacological investigations, DPT is a high valuable medicinal agent that has anti-tumor, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties. Further, DPT is an important precursor for the cytotoxic aryltetralin lignan, podophyllotoxin, which is used to obtain semisynthetic derivatives like etoposide and teniposide used in cancer therapy. However, most studies have focused on the in vitro data. Therefore, DPT has not been used clinically yet. DPT has emerged as a potent chemical agent from herbal medicine. Therefore, in vivo studies are needed to carry out clinical trials in humans and enable the development of new anti-cancer agents. In addition, DPT from commercial

  13. Socially intelligent autonomous agents that learn from human reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Guangliang

    2016-01-01

    In the future, autonomous agents will operate in human inhabited environments in many real world applications and become an integral part of human’s daily lives. Therefore, when autonomous agents enter into the real world, they need to adapt to many novel, dynamic and complex situations that cannot

  14. Human-Robot Teaming in a Multi-Agent Space Assembly Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Currie, Nancy; Ambrose, Robert O.; Culbert, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by pairs of suited human astronauts. These Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) are severely restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower. An expanded multi-agent EVA team combining the information-gathering and problem-solving skills of humans with the survivability and physical capabilities of robots is proposed and illustrated by example. Such teams are useful for large-scale, complex missions requiring dispersed manipulation, locomotion and sensing capabilities. To study collaboration modalities within a multi-agent EVA team, a 1-g test is conducted with humans and robots working together in various supporting roles.

  15. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubshait, Abdulaziz; Wiese, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents like robots, as long as their appearance and/or behavior allows them to be perceived as intentional beings. Previous studies have shown that human appearance and reliable behavior induce mind perception to robot agents, and positively affect attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. What has not been investigated so far is whether different triggers of mind perception have an independent or interactive effect on attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. We examine this question by manipulating agent appearance (human vs. robot) and behavior (reliable vs. random) within the same paradigm and examine how congruent (human/reliable vs. robot/random) versus incongruent (human/random vs. robot/reliable) combinations of these triggers affect performance (i.e., gaze following) and attitudes (i.e., agent ratings) in human-robot interaction. The results show that both appearance and behavior affect human-robot interaction but that the two triggers seem to operate in isolation, with appearance more strongly impacting attitudes, and behavior more strongly affecting performance. The implications of these findings for human-robot interaction are discussed.

  16. An Overview on Citrus aurantium L.: Its Functions as Food Ingredient and Therapeutic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek Suntar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae, commonly known as bitter orange, possesses multiple therapeutic potentials. These biological credentials include anticancer, antianxiety, antiobesity, antibacterial, antioxidant, pesticidal, and antidiabetic activities. The essential oil of C. aurantium was reported to display marked pharmacological effects and great variation in chemical composition depending on growing locations but mostly contained limonene, linalool, and β-myrcene. Phytochemically, C. aurantium is rich in p-synephrine, an alkaloid, and many health-giving secondary metabolites such as flavonoids. Animal studies have demonstrated a low affinity of p-synephrine for adrenergic receptors and an even lower affinity in human models. The present review focuses on the different biological activities of the C. aurantium in animal and human models in the form of extract and its pure secondary metabolites. Finally, it is concluded that both the extract and isolated compounds have no unwanted effects in human at therapeutic doses and, therefore, can confidently be used in various dietary formulations.

  17. 166Ho-HA evaluation as therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandia, M.C.; Errazu, X.C.; Pinto, L.N.; Godoy, N.O.; Avila, M.J.; Mendoza, P.; Mendoza, J.; Jofre, J.; Sirraalta, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis is a limiting disease having, among its pathological features, the inflammation of synovial tissue with progressive and later destruction of the articulation. This leads to joint deformation and loss of its function, generating pain and reducing the mobility of the affected articulation. The aim was to evaluate 166 Ho-Hydroxyapatite ( 166 Ho-HA) as potential radiopharmaceutical for the symptomatic treatment of chronic and acute arthritis. Materials and Methods: Holmiun-166 was produced by irradiation of Ho 2 O 3 at La Reina Research Reactor, Nuclear Chilean Energy Commission. Hydroxyapatite was in-house synthesized. Its labelling and quality controls follows the internationally accepted procedures. An antigen's arthritis was induced to eight New Zealand rabbits with the 166 Ho-HA radiochemical being administered thereafter in two dosage modalities (single and double). The compound therapeutic efficiency was evaluated based upon clinical improvement and images from the inflamated articulation using 67 Ga citrate before and after 166 Ho-HA injection. Results: The radiochemical purity of the inoculated compound was greater than 98% as measured under sterility conditions. Clinically, an inflammation reduction (2 cm), appetite improvement and general well being was observed. The 166 Ho-HA distribution and localization was monitored using gamma camera images taken at 4 and 24 h. There was no evidence of extra articular leakage. From the 67 Ga citrate imaging, the acute group shows an overall improvement of well being corresponding to a lesser uptake at the inflamated articulation, regarding to the chronic group. The 166 Ho-HA double doses, compared to the single doses, suggest a reduced uptake of 67 Ga citrate at the inflamated tissue, meaning an increased therapeutic effect. Conclusions: 166 Ho-HA is useful as therapeutic agent for the symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as shown by imaging and clinical examination

  18. 166 Ho-HA Evaluation as therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandia, M; Errazu, X; Mendoza, P; Troncoso, F; Jofre, J; Sierralta, P

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis is a limiting disease having, among its pathological features, the inflammation of synovial tissue with progressive and later destruction of the articulation. This lead to joint deformation and loss of its function, generating pain and reducing the mobility of the affected articulation. The aim was to evaluate 166 Ho-Hydroxyapatite ( 166 Ho-HA) as potential radiopharmaceutical for the syntomatic treatment of chronic and acute arthritis Materials and Methods: 166 Holmiun was produced by irradiation of Ho 2 O 3 at La Reina Research Reactor, Nuclear Chilean Energy Commission. Hydroxyapatite was in-house synthetized. Its labelling and quality controls follows the internationally accepted procedures. An antigen arthritis was induced to eight New Zealand rabbits with the 166 Ho-HA radiochemical being administred thereafter in two dosage modalities (single and double). The compound therapeutic efficiency was evaluated based upon clinical improvement and images from the inflamated articulation using 67 Ga citrate before and after 166 Ho-HA injection. Results: The radiochemical purity of the innoculated compound was greater than 98% as measured under sterility conditions. Clinically, an inflamation reduction (2 cm), appetite improvement and general well being was observed. The 166 Ho-HA distribution and localization was monitored using gamma camera images taken at 4 and 24 h. There was no evidence of extraarticular leakage. From the 67 Ga citrate imaging, the acute group shows an overall improvement of well being corresponding to a lesser uptake at the inflamated articulation, regarding to the chronic group. The 166 Ho-HA double dosis, compared to the single dosis, suggest a reduced uptake of 67 Ga citrate at the inflamated tissue, meaning an increased therapeutic effect. Conclusions: 166 Ho-HA is usefull as therapeutic agent for the syntomatic treatment of rheumatoideal arthritis as shown by imaging and clinical examination (author)

  19. Epidemiology and quantitation of environmental risk in humans from radiation and other agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, Amleto

    1985-01-01

    The identification and quantitation of environmental risk in humans is one of the main problems to be solved in order to improve the protection of individuals and of human populations against physical and chemical pollutants. Epidemiology plays a central role in the evaluation of health risk directly in human populations. In this volume are collected 33 lectures presented at the AS! course on ''Epidemiology and quantitation of environmental risk in humans from radiation and other agents: potential and limitations'', sponsored by NATO and Italian Association of Radiobiology and organized by ENEA. The course has been devoted to a number of aspects of environmental risk analysis and evaluation based on epidemiological investigation. Basic epidemiological concepts and methods have been reviewed. Fundamentals of dosimetry and microdosimetry were presented in relation to the contribution of epidemiology in defining the dose effect relationships for radiation carcinogenesis and its relation with age, sex and ethnicity. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis as a multi-stage process were illustrated. One of the main topics was 'cancer epidemiology' and its correlation with: - occupational and non-occupational exposure to radiation - diagnostic and therapeutic irradiation - cancer proneness - hereditary and familiar diseases - abnormal response to carcinogens - environmental pollution in air and water - exposure to radon in mines and in building material - atomic bomb explosion - chemotherapy - dioxin and related compounds

  20. MicroRNAs in cancer therapeutics: "from the bench to the bedside".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig-Bosque, Paloma del C; Rivera, Carlos A; Calin, George A

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA transcripts that regulate physiological processes by targeting proteins directly. Their involvement in research has been robust, and evidence of their regulative functions has granted them the title: master regulators of the human genome. In cancer, they are considered important therapeutic agents, due to the fact that their aberrant expression contributes to disease development, progression, metastasis, therapeutic response and patient overall survival. This has endeavored fields of biomedical sciences to invest in developing and exploiting miRNA-based therapeutics thoroughly. Herein we highlight relevant ongoing/open clinical trials involving miRNAs and cancer.

  1. Determination of the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord blood, by determining their effect on bacterial pathogens which included: Streptobacillus sp, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli. Cord blood samples were obtained ...

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi benznidazole susceptibility in vitro does not predict the therapeutic outcome of human Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margoth Moreno

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic failure of benznidazole (BZ is widely documented in Chagas disease and has been primarily associated with variations in the drug susceptibility of Trypanosoma cruzi strains. In humans, therapeutic success has been assessed by the negativation of anti-T. cruzi antibodies, a process that may take up to 10 years. A protocol for early screening of the drug resistance of infective strains would be valuable for orienting physicians towards alternative therapies, with a combination of existing drugs or new anti-T. cruzi agents. We developed a procedure that couples the isolation of parasites by haemoculture with quantification of BZ susceptibility in the resultant epimastigote forms. BZ activity was standardized with reference strains, which showed IC50 to BZ between 7.6-32 µM. The assay was then applied to isolates from seven chronic patients prior to administration of BZ therapy. The IC50 of the strains varied from 15.6 ± 3-51.4 ± 1 µM. Comparison of BZ susceptibility of the pre-treatment isolates of patients considered cured by several criteria and of non-cured patients indicates that the assay does not predict therapeutic outcome. A two-fold increase in BZ resistance in the post-treatment isolates of two patients was verified. Based on the profile of nine microsatellite loci, sub-population selection in non-cured patients was ruled out.

  3. [Therapeutic use of cannabis derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The therapeutic use of cannabis has generated a lot of interest in the past years, leading to a better understanding of its mechanisms of action. Countries like the United States and Canada have modified their laws in order to make cannabinoid use legal in the medical context. It's also the case in France now, where a recent decree was issued, authorizing the prescription of medication containing "therapeutic cannabis" (decree no. 2013-473, June 5, 2013). Cannabinoids such as dronabinol, Sativex and nabilone have been tested for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. These agents are most promising to relieve chronic pain associated with cancer, with human immunodeficiency virus infection and with multiple sclerosis. However, longer-term studies are required to determine potential long-term adverse effects and risks of misuse and addiction.

  4. Kinase inhibitors of the IGF-1R as a potential therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Shinji; Fujishiro, Maki; Yoshida, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Hirai, Takuya; Miyashita, Tomoko; Ikeda, Keigo; Yamaji, Ken; Takamori, Kenji; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Sekigawa, Iwao; Tamura, Naoto

    2017-08-01

    We have previously shown that the inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a potential therapeutic strategy against rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CTGF consists of four distinct modules, including the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP). In serum, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) bind IGFBPs, interact with the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1 R), and regulate anabolic effects and bone metabolism. We investigated the correlation between IGF-1 and the pathogenesis of RA, and the inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis and angiogenesis of the small molecular weight kinase inhibitor of the IGF-1 R, NVP-AEW541, against pathogenesis of RA in vitro. Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell count and immunoblotting. The expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1 R was evaluated by RT-PCR. Osteoclastogenesis was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, a bone resorption assay, and osteoclast-specific enzyme production. Angiogenesis was evaluated by a tube formation assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The proliferation of MH7A cells was found to be inhibited in the presence of NVP-AEW541, and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt was downregulated in MH7A cells. IGF-1 and IGF-1 R mRNA expression levels were upregulated during formation of M-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast formation. Moreover, osteoclastogenesis was suppressed in the presence of NVP-AEW541. The formation of the tubular network was enhanced by IGF-1, and this effect was neutralized by NVP-ARE541. Our findings suggest that NVP-AEW541 may be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of RA.

  5. Therapeutic Effect of Novel Single-Stranded RNAi Agent Targeting Periostin in Eyes with Retinal Neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahito Nakama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neovascularization (NV due to retinal ischemia remains one of the principal causes of vision impairment in patients with ischemic retinal diseases. We recently reported that periostin (POSTN may play a role in the development of preretinal fibrovascular membranes, but its role in retinal NV has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of POSTN in the ischemic retinas of a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinal NV. We also studied the function of POSTN on retinal NV using Postn KO mice and human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs in culture. In addition, we used a novel RNAi agent, NK0144, which targets POSTN to determine its effect on the development of retinal NV. Our results showed that the expression of POSTN was increased in the vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and M2 macrophages in ischemic retinas. POSTN promoted the ischemia-induced retinal NV by Akt phosphorylation through integrin αvβ3. NK0144 had a greater inhibitory effect than canonical double-stranded siRNA on preretinal pathological NV in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest a causal relationship between POSTN and retinal NV, and indicate a potential therapeutic role of intravitreal injection of NK0144 for retinal neovascular diseases.

  6. Single-Domain Antibodies As Therapeutics against Human Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In full-size formats, monoclonal antibodies have been highly successful as therapeutics against cancer and immune diseases. However, their large size leads to inaccessibility of some epitopes and relatively high production costs. As an alternative, single-domain antibodies (sdAbs offer special advantages compared to full-size antibodies, including smaller size, larger number of accessible epitopes, relatively low production costs and improved robustness. Currently, sdAbs are being developed against a number of viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, influenza viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, and enteric viruses. Although sdAbs are very potent inhibitors of viral infections, no sdAbs have been approved for clinical use against virial infection or any other diseases. In this review, we discuss the current state of research on sdAbs against viruses and their potential as therapeutics against human viral diseases.

  7. Projecting human pharmacokinetics of therapeutic antibodies from nonclinical data: What have we learned?

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Rong; Iyer, Suhasini; Theil, Frank-Peter; Mortensen, Deborah L; Fielder, Paul J; Prabhu, Saileta

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of therapeutic antibodies is determined by target and non-target mediated mechanisms. These antibody-specific factors need to be considered during prediction of human PK based upon preclinical information. Principles of allometric scaling established for small molecules using data from multiple animal species cannot be directly applied to antibodies. Here, different methods for projecting human clearance (CL) from animal PK data for 13 therapeutic monoclonal antibodi...

  8. VIP as a potential therapeutic agent in gram negative sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hiba; Barrow, Paul; Foster, Neil

    2012-12-01

    Gram negative sepsis remains a high cause of mortality and places a great burden on public health finance in both the developed and developing world. Treatment of sepsis, using antibiotics, is often ineffective since pathology associated with the disease occurs due to dysregulation of the immune system (failure to return to steady state conditions) which continues after the bacteria, which induced the immune response, have been cleared. Immune modulation is therefore a rational approach to the treatment of sepsis but to date no drug has been developed which is highly effective, cheap and completely safe to use. One potential therapeutic agent is VIP, which is a natural peptide and is highly homologous in all vertebrates. In this review we will discuss the effect of VIP on components of the immune system, relevant to gram negative sepsis, and present data from animal models. Furthermore we will hypothesise on how these studies could be improved in future and speculate on the possible different ways in which VIP could be used in clinical medicine.

  9. A Framework for Agent-based Human Interaction Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bürkle

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe an agent-based infrastructure for multimodal perceptual systems which aims at developing and realizing computer services that are delivered to humans in an implicit and unobtrusive way. The framework presented here supports the implementation of human-centric context-aware applications providing non-obtrusive assistance to participants in events such as meetings, lectures, conferences and presentations taking place in indoor "smart spaces". We emphasize on the design and implementation of an agent-based framework that supports "pluggable" service logic in the sense that the service developer can concentrate on coding the service logic independently of the underlying middleware. Furthermore, we give an example of the architecture's ability to support the cooperation of multiple services in a meeting scenario using an intelligent connector service and a semantic web oriented travel service.

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides: An Emerging Category of Therapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlapuu, Margit; Håkansson, Joakim; Ringstad, Lovisa; Björn, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides, are short and generally positively charged peptides found in a wide variety of life forms from microorganisms to humans. Most AMPs have the ability to kill microbial pathogens directly, whereas others act indirectly by modulating the host defense systems. Against a background of rapidly increasing resistance development to conventional antibiotics all over the world, efforts to bring AMPs into clinical use are accelerating. Several AMPs are currently being evaluated in clinical trials as novel anti-infectives, but also as new pharmacological agents to modulate the immune response, promote wound healing, and prevent post-surgical adhesions. In this review, we provide an overview of the biological role, classification, and mode of action of AMPs, discuss the opportunities and challenges to develop these peptides for clinical applications, and review the innovative formulation strategies for application of AMPs.

  11. Therapeutic effects of lentivirus-mediated shRNA targeting of cyclin D1 in human gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jin-Hee; Jeong, Eui-Suk; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in males and the fourth in females. Traditional treatment has poor prognosis because of recurrence and systemic side effects. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic strategies is an important issue. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA stably inhibits target genes and can efficiently transduce most cells. Since overexpressed cyclin D1 is closely related to human gastric cancer progression, inhibition of cyclin D1 using specific targeting could be an effective treatment method of human gastric cancer. The therapeutic effect of lentivirus-mediated shRNA targeting of cyclin D1 (ShCCND1) was analyzed both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro, NCI-N87 cells with downregulation of cyclin D1 by ShCCND1 showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation, cell motility, and clonogenicity. Downregulation of cyclin D1 in NCI-N87 cells also resulted in significantly increased G1 arrest and apoptosis. In vivo, stable NCI-N87 cells expressing ShCCND1 were engrafted into nude mice. Then, the cancer-growth inhibition effect of lentivirus was confirmed. To assess lentivirus including ShCCND1 as a therapeutic agent, intratumoral injection was conducted. Tumor growth of the lentivirus-treated group was significantly inhibited compared to growth of the control group. These results are in accordance with the in vitro data and lend support to the mitotic figure count and apoptosis analysis of the tumor mass. The lentivirus-mediated ShCCND1 was constructed, which effectively inhibited growth of NCI-N87-derived cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The efficiency of shRNA knockdown and variation in the degree of inhibition is mediated by different shRNA sequences and cancer cell lines. These experimental results suggest the possibility of developing new gastric cancer therapies using lentivirus-mediated shRNA

  12. Therapeutic Targets of Triglyceride Metabolism as Informed by Human Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert C; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Hand, Nicholas J; Rader, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Human genetics has contributed to the development of multiple drugs to treat hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD), most recently including antibodies targeting PCSK9 to reduce LDL cholesterol. Despite these successes, a large burden of CAD remains. Genetic and epidemiological studies have suggested that circulating triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are a causal risk factor for CAD, presenting an opportunity for novel therapeutic strategies. We discuss recent unbiased human genetics testing, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and whole-genome or -exome sequencing, that have identified the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipogenesis pathways as important mechanisms in the regulation of circulating TRLs. Further strengthening the causal relationship between TRLs and CAD, findings such as these may provide novel targets for much-needed potential therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Progress in the pharmacological treatment of human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis: Compounds and therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles-Lucas, Mar; Casulli, Adriano; Cirilli, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are helmintic zoonotic diseases caused by infections with the larval stages of the cestode parasites Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, respectively. Both diseases are progressive and chronic, and often fatal if left unattended for E. multilocularis. As a treatment approach, chemotherapy against these orphan and neglected diseases has been available for more than 40 years. However, drug options were limited to the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole, the only chemical compounds currently licensed for treatment in humans. To compensate this therapeutic shortfall, new treatment alternatives are urgently needed, including the identification, development, and assessment of novel compound classes and drug targets. Here is presented a thorough overview of the range of compounds that have been tested against E. granulosus and E. multilocularis in recent years, including in vitro and in vivo data on their mode of action, dosage, administration regimen, therapeutic outcomes, and associated clinical symptoms. Drugs covered included albendazole, mebendazole, and other members of the benzimidazole family and their derivatives, including improved formulations and combined therapies with other biocidal agents. Chemically synthetized molecules previously known to be effective against other infectious and non-infectious conditions such as anti-virals, antibiotics, anti-parasites, anti-mycotics, and anti-neoplastics are addressed. In view of their increasing relevance, natural occurring compounds derived from plant and fungal extracts are also discussed. Special attention has been paid to the recent application of genomic science on drug discovery and clinical medicine, particularly through the identification of small inhibitor molecules tackling key metabolic enzymes or signalling pathways. PMID:29677189

  14. Progress in the pharmacological treatment of human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis: Compounds and therapeutic targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Siles-Lucas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are helmintic zoonotic diseases caused by infections with the larval stages of the cestode parasites Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, respectively. Both diseases are progressive and chronic, and often fatal if left unattended for E. multilocularis. As a treatment approach, chemotherapy against these orphan and neglected diseases has been available for more than 40 years. However, drug options were limited to the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole, the only chemical compounds currently licensed for treatment in humans. To compensate this therapeutic shortfall, new treatment alternatives are urgently needed, including the identification, development, and assessment of novel compound classes and drug targets. Here is presented a thorough overview of the range of compounds that have been tested against E. granulosus and E. multilocularis in recent years, including in vitro and in vivo data on their mode of action, dosage, administration regimen, therapeutic outcomes, and associated clinical symptoms. Drugs covered included albendazole, mebendazole, and other members of the benzimidazole family and their derivatives, including improved formulations and combined therapies with other biocidal agents. Chemically synthetized molecules previously known to be effective against other infectious and non-infectious conditions such as anti-virals, antibiotics, anti-parasites, anti-mycotics, and anti-neoplastics are addressed. In view of their increasing relevance, natural occurring compounds derived from plant and fungal extracts are also discussed. Special attention has been paid to the recent application of genomic science on drug discovery and clinical medicine, particularly through the identification of small inhibitor molecules tackling key metabolic enzymes or signalling pathways.

  15. Onconase responsive genes in human mesothelioma cells: implications for an RNA damaging therapeutic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, Deborah A; Rybak, Susanna M; Pei, Jianming; Maizel, Jacob V; Cheung, Mitchell; Testa, Joseph R; Shogen, Kuslima

    2010-01-01

    Onconase represents a new class of RNA-damaging drugs. Mechanistically, Onconase is thought to internalize, where it degrades intracellular RNAs such as tRNA and double-stranded RNA, and thereby suppresses protein synthesis. However, there may be additional or alternative mechanism(s) of action. In this study, microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression profiles in untreated human malignant mesothelioma (MM) cell lines and cells exposed to 5 μg/ml Onconase for 24 h. A total of 155 genes were found to be regulated by Onconase that were common to both epithelial and biphasic MM cell lines. Some of these genes are known to significantly affect apoptosis (IL-24, TNFAIP3), transcription (ATF3, DDIT3, MAFF, HDAC9, SNAPC1) or inflammation and the immune response (IL-6, COX-2). RT-PCR analysis of selected up- or down-regulated genes treated with varying doses and times of Onconase generally confirmed the expression array findings in four MM cell lines. Onconase treatment consistently resulted in up-regulation of IL-24, previously shown to have tumor suppressive activity, as well as ATF3 and IL-6. Induction of ATF3 and the pro-apoptotic factor IL-24 by Onconase was highest in the two most responsive MM cell lines, as defined by DNA fragmentation analysis. In addition to apoptosis, gene ontology analysis indicated that pathways impacted by Onconase include MAPK signaling, cytokine-cytokine-receptor interactions, and Jak-STAT signaling. These results provide a broad picture of gene activity after treatment with a drug that targets small non-coding RNAs and contribute to our overall understanding of MM cell response to Onconase as a therapeutic strategy. The findings provide insights regarding mechanisms that may contribute to the efficacy of this novel drug in clinical trials of MM patients who have failed first line chemotherapy or radiation treatment

  16. The influence of polymeric excipients on the process of pharmaceutical availability of therapeutic agents from a model drug form. Part I. In formulations with controlled disintegration and release time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachajski, Michal Jakub; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj

    2010-01-01

    Pre-formulation research was conducted on the application of Ex. Echinaceae aq. siccum in the production of a quickly disintegrating suspension tablet, a lozenge with kariostatic sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), and, above all, a solid drug form with controlled release of therapeutic agents included in the extract. Morphological parameters of tablets obtained in the course of experiment were estimated and the profiles of the release (diffusion) ofhydrophilic therapeutic agents into model receptor fluids with varying values of osmolarity (0.1 mol HCl approximately 200 mOsm/l, hypotonic hydrating fluid approximately 143 mOsm/l, and compensatory paediatric fluid approximately 272 mOsm/l) were examined. The study focused on the technological problem of determining the effect of hydrogel Carbopol structure on the ordering of diffusion ofhydrophilic therapeutic agents from a model drug form (a tablet) into model fluids with variable osmolarity.

  17. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, David Sherman [UND SMHS

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

  18. Chemerin is an antimicrobial agent in human epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Banas

    Full Text Available Chemerin, a chemoattractant ligand for chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1 is predicted to share similar tertiary structure with antibacterial cathelicidins. Recombinant chemerin has antimicrobial activity. Here we show that endogenous chemerin is abundant in human epidermis, and that inhibition of bacteria growth by exudates from organ cultures of primary human skin keratinocytes is largely chemerin-dependent. Using a panel of overlapping chemerin-derived synthetic peptides, we demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of chemerin is primarily mediated by Val(66-Pro(85, which causes direct bacterial lysis. Therefore, chemerin is an antimicrobial agent in human skin.

  19. Chelating agents in pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings contain 71 abstracts of papers. Fourteen abstracts were inputted in INIS. The topics covered include: the effects of chelating agents on the retention of 63 Ni, 109 Cd, 203 Hg, 144 Ce, 95 Nb and the excretion of 210 Po, 63 Ni, 48 V, 239 Pu, 241 Am, 54 Mn; the applications of tracer techniques for studies of the efficacy of chelation therapy in patients with heart and brain disorders; and the treatment of metal poisoning with chelating agents. (J.P.)

  20. Superparamagnetic Bifunctional Bisphosphonates Nanoparticles: A Potential MRI Contrast Agent for Osteoporosis Therapy and Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lalatonne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bone targeting nanosystem is reported here which combined magnetic contrast agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and a therapeutic agent (bisphosphonates into one drug delivery system. This new targeting nanoplatform consists of superparamagnetic γFe2O3 nanoparticles conjugated to 1,5-dihydroxy-1,5,5-tris-phosphono-pentyl-phosphonic acid (di-HMBPs molecules with a bisphosphonate function at the outer of the nanoparticle surface for bone targeting. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated as a specific MRI contrast agent by adsorption study onto hydroxyapatite and MRI measurment. The strong adsorption of the bisphosphonates nanoparticles to hydroxyapatite and their use as MRI T2∗ contrast agent were demonstrated. Cellular tests performed on human osteosarcoma cells (MG63 show that γFe2O3@di-HMBP hybrid nanomaterial has no citoxity effect in cell viability and may act as a diagnostic and therapeutic system.

  1. Protein based therapeutic delivery agents: Contemporary developments and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liming; Yuvienco, Carlo; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2017-07-01

    As unique biopolymers, proteins can be employed for therapeutic delivery. They bear important features such as bioavailability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability with low toxicity serving as a platform for delivery of various small molecule therapeutics, gene therapies, protein biologics and cells. Depending on size and characteristic of the therapeutic, a variety of natural and engineered proteins or peptides have been developed. This, coupled to recent advances in synthetic and chemical biology, has led to the creation of tailor-made protein materials for delivery. This review highlights strategies employing proteins to facilitate the delivery of therapeutic matter, addressing the challenges for small molecule, gene, protein and cell transport. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Helping Oxytocin Deliver: Considerations in the Development of Oxytocin-Based Therapeutics for Brain Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eMacdonald

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Concerns regarding a drought in psychopharmacology have risen from many quarters. From one perspective, the wellspring of bedrock medications for anxiety disorders, depression, and schizophrenia was serendipitously discovered over thirty year ago, the swell of pharmaceutical investment in drug discovery has receded, and the pipeline’s flow of medications with unique mechanisms of action (i.e. glutamatergic agents, CRF antagonists has slowed to a trickle. Might oxytocin (OT-based therapeutics be an oasis? Though a large basic science literature and a slowly increasing number of studies in human diseases support this hope, the bulk of extant OT studies in humans are single-dose studies on normals, and do not directly relate to improvements in human brain-based diseases. Instead, these studies have left us with a field pregnant with therapeutic possibilities, but barren of definitive treatments. In this clinically-oriented review, we discuss the extant OT literature with an eye toward helping OT deliver on its promise as a therapeutic agent. To this end, we identify ten key questions that we believe future OT research should address. From this overview, several conclusions are clear: 1 the OT system represents an extremely promising target for novel CNS drug development; 2 there is a pressing need for rigorous, randomized controlled clinical trials targeting actual patients; and 3 in order to inform the design and execution of these vital trials, we need further translational studies addressing the questions posed in this review. Looking forward, we extend a cautious hope that the next decade of OT research will birth oxytocin-targetted therapeutics that can truly deliver on this system’s therapeutic potential.

  3. Nutraceuticals as therapeutic agents for atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joe W E; Williams, Jessica O; Ramji, Dipak P

    2018-05-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of medium and large arteries and an underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is responsible for a third of all global deaths. Current treatments for CVD, such as optimized statin therapy, are associated with considerable residual risk and several side effects in some patients. The outcome of research on the identification of alternative pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of CVD has been relatively disappointing with many promising leads failing at the clinical level. Nutraceuticals, products from food sources with health benefits beyond their nutritional value, represent promising agents in the prevention of CVD or as an add-on therapy with current treatments. This review will highlight the potential of several nutraceuticals, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids and other polyphenols, as anti-CVD therapies based on clinical and pre-clinical mechanism-based studies. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutic targeting of Neu1 sialidase with oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu® disables cancer cell survival in human pancreatic cancer with acquired chemoresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Shea LK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leah K O'Shea,1 Samar Abdulkhalek,1 Stephanie Allison,2 Ronald J Neufeld,2 Myron R Szewczuk11Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, CanadaBackground: Resistance to drug therapy, along with high rates of metastasis, contributes to the low survival rate in patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. An alternate treatment for human pancreatic cancer involving targeting of Neu1 sialidase with oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu® was investigated in human pancreatic cancer (PANC1 cells with acquired resistance to cisplatin and gemcitabine. Its efficacy in overcoming the intrinsic resistance of the cell to chemotherapeutics and metastasis was evaluated.Methods: Microscopic imaging, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and WST-1 cell viability assays were used to evaluate cell survival, morphologic changes, and expression levels of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and VE-cadherin before and after treatment with oseltamivir phosphate in PANC1 cells with established resistance to cisplatin, gemcitabine, or a combination of the two agents, and in archived paraffin-embedded PANC1 tumors grown in RAGxCγ double mutant mice.Results: Oseltamivir phosphate overcame the chemoresistance of PANC1 to cisplatin and gemcitabine alone or in combination in a dose-dependent manner, and disabled the cancer cell survival mechanism(s. Oseltamivir phosphate also reversed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition characteristic of the phenotypic E-cadherin to N-cadherin changes associated with resistance to drug therapy. Low-dose oseltamivir phosphate alone or in combination with gemcitabine in heterotopic xenografts of PANC1 tumors growing in RAGxCγ double mutant mice did not prevent metastatic spread to the liver and lung.Conclusion: Therapeutic targeting of Neu1 sialidase with oseltamivir phosphate at the growth factor receptor level disables the intrinsic signaling platform for cancer cell survival

  5. Interactions of ionic and nonionic contrast agents with thrombolytic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, J.; Moncada, R.; Scanlon, P.; Hoppensteadt, D.; Huan, X.; Walenga, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Both the ionic and nonionic intravascular contrast media have been used before and after the administration of thrombolytic agents to evaluate clot lysis during angioplasty and the treatment of myocardial infarction. In experimental animal models, the authors found that the clot lytic efficacy of streptokinase, streptokinase-plasminogen complex, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is markedly augmented if these agents are administered within 1 hour after the angiographic producers. Furthermore, contrast agents injected after the administration of t-Pa exhibit a synergistic action. In stimulated models administration of one ionic contrast medium (Angiovist, Berlex, Wayne, NJ) and two nonionic contrast agents (Isovue-370, Squibb Diagnostics, New Brunswick, NJ; Omnipaque-350, Winthrop, NY) 15 minutes before the administration of t-PA resulted in marked enhancement of the lytic activity. Although the mechanism of this interaction is unknown at this time, it should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, in whom contrast agents are continually used to evaluate the therapeutic lysis. Furthermore, this interaction may be partly related to the therapeutic efficacy and/or hemorrhagic actions observed

  6. Potential therapeutic agents for circulatory diseases from Bauhinia glauca Benth.subsp. pernervosa. (Da Ye Guan Men).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yingzhan; Ling, Junhong; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xiangrong; Zhang, Na; Wang, Wenli; Li, Jiayuan; Li, Ning

    2015-08-15

    Because of platelets as critical factor in the formation of pathogenic thrombi, anti-platelet activities have been selected as therapeutic target for various circulatory diseases. In order to find potential therapeutic agents, bioassay-directed separation of Bauhinia glauca Benth.subsp. pernervosa. (called Da Ye Guan Men as a traditional Chinese medicine) was performed to get 29 main components (compounds 1-29) from the bioactive part of this herbal. It was the first time to focus on the composition with anti-platelet aggregation activities for this traditional Chinese medicine. The constituents, characterized from the effective extract, were established on the basis of extensive spectral data analysis. Then their anti-platelet aggregation effects were evaluated systematically. On the basis of the chemical profile and biological assay, it was suggested that the flavonoid composition (5 and 18) should be responsible for the anti-platelet aggregation of the herbal because of their significant activities. The primary structure and activity relationship was also discussed briefly. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The human gut microbiota and virome: Potential therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpellini, Emidio; Ianiro, Gianluca; Attili, Fabia; Bassanelli, Chiara; De Santis, Adriano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Human gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with several functions integrated in the host organism (metabolic, immune, nutrients absorption, etc.). Human microbiota is composed by bacteria, yeasts, fungi and, last but not least, viruses, whose composition has not been completely described. According to previous evidence on pathogenic viruses, the human gut harbours plant-derived viruses, giant viruses and, only recently, abundant bacteriophages. New metagenomic methods have allowed to reconstitute entire viral genomes from the genetic material spread in the human gut, opening new perspectives on the understanding of the gut virome composition, the importance of gut microbiome, and potential clinical applications. This review reports the latest evidence on human gut "virome" composition and its function, possible future therapeutic applications in human health in the context of the gut microbiota, and attempts to clarify the role of the gut "virome" in the larger microbial ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The pharmacology and toxicology of three new biologic agents used in pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, T E; Walby, W F; Allen, R P; Tharratt, R S

    1995-01-01

    Biological agents have played an important role in the evolution of modern medical therapeutics. Recent advances in biologicals have in part been stimulated by the biotechnology revolution seen over the last several years. Toxicologists need to be aware of the proposed mechanisms and approved and experimental uses of these new biologic agents. Further, controversies about their use, efficacy, cost issues and potential toxicities should be known. Often these drugs are designed for small patient populations thus limiting the availability of human toxicological data bases. This paper reviews the pharmacology and toxicology of three new biologics (recombinant human DNase I, alpha 1-protease inhibitor, and nitric oxide). These agents appear to have important roles in treating specific diseases or disease states seen in pulmonary medicine.

  9. Trends in GPCR drug discovery: new agents, targets and indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian; Gloriam, David E.; Attwood, Misty M.

    2017-01-01

    current trends across molecule types, drug targets and therapeutic indications, including showing that 475 drugs (~34% of all drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)) act at 108 unique GPCRs. Approximately 321 agents are currently in clinical trials, of which ~20% target 66 potentially...... are also highly represented. The 224 (56%) non-olfactory GPCRs that have not yet been explored in clinical trials have broad untapped therapeutic potential, particularly in genetic and immune system disorders. Finally, we provide an interactive online resource to analyse and infer trends in GPCR drug......G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most intensively studied drug targets, mostly due to their substantial involvement in human pathophysiology and their pharmacological tractability. Here, we report an up-to-date analysis of all GPCR drugs and agents in clinical trials, which reveals...

  10. Discovery and Development of Therapeutic Drugs against Lethal Human RNA Viruses: a Multidisciplinary Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-16

    AD-A239 742 AD GRANT NO: DAMD17-89-Z-9021 TITLE: DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTIC DRUGS AGAINST LETHAL HUMAN RNA VIRUSES: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY...62787A871 AB WrJDA317987 11. TITLE (Include Securty Classification) DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTIC DRUGS AGAINST LETHAL HUMAN RNA VIRUSES: A...G. R. Pettit, III, D.-S. Huang, and G. R. Pettit, 23rd Int’l. Horticulture Congress, Italy, 8/27 - 9/1/90. "Bryostatins Define the Role of Protein

  11. Modeling and simulation of virtual human's coordination based on multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wen, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Zu-Xuan; Zhang, Jian-Qing

    2006-10-01

    The difficulties and hotspots researched in current virtual geographic environment (VGE) are sharing space and multiusers operation, distributed coordination and group decision-making. The theories and technologies of MAS provide a brand-new environment for analysis, design and realization of distributed opening system. This paper takes cooperation among virtual human in VGE which multi-user participate in as main researched object. First we describe theory foundation truss of VGE, and present the formalization description of Multi-Agent System (MAS). Then we detailed analyze and research arithmetic of collectivity operating behavior learning of virtual human based on best held Genetic Algorithm(GA), and establish dynamics action model which Multi-Agents and object interact dynamically and colony movement strategy. Finally we design a example which shows how 3 evolutional Agents cooperate to complete the task of colony pushing column box, and design a virtual world prototype of virtual human pushing box collectively based on V-Realm Builder 2.0, moreover we make modeling and dynamic simulation with Simulink 6.

  12. Comparison of oxime reactivation and aging of nerve agent-inhibited monkey and human acetylcholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chunyuan; Tong, Min; Maxwell, Donald M; Saxena, Ashima

    2008-09-25

    Non-human primates are valuable animal models that are used for the evaluation of nerve agent toxicity as well as antidotes and results from animal experiments are extrapolated to humans. It has been demonstrated that the efficacy of an oxime primarily depends on its ability to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). If the in vitro oxime reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited animal AChE is similar to that of human AChE, it is likely that the results of an in vivo animal study will reliably extrapolate to humans. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare the aging and reactivation of human and different monkey (Rhesus, Cynomolgus, and African Green) AChEs inhibited by GF, GD, and VR. The oximes examined include the traditional oxime 2-PAM, two H-oximes HI-6 and HLo-7, and the new candidate oxime MMB4. Results indicate that oxime reactivation of all three monkey AChEs was very similar to human AChE. The maximum difference in the second-order reactivation rate constant between human and three monkey AChEs or between AChEs from different monkey species was 5-fold. Aging rate constants of GF-, GD-, and VR-inhibited monkey AChEs were very similar to human AChE except for GF-inhibited monkey AChEs, which aged 2-3 times faster than the human enzyme. The results of this study suggest that all three monkey species are suitable animal models for nerve agent antidote evaluation since monkey AChEs possess similar biochemical/pharmacological properties to human AChE.

  13. Therapeutic journery of nitrogen mustard as alkylating anticancer agents: Historic to future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh K; Kumar, Sahil; Prasad, D N; Bhardwaj, T R

    2018-05-10

    Cancer is considered as one of the most serious health problems today. The discovery of nitrogen mustard as an alkylating agent in 1942, opened a new era in the cancer chemotherapy. This valuable class of alkylating agent exerts its biological activity by binding to DNA, cross linking two strands, preventing DNA replication and ultimate cell death. At the molecular level, nitrogen lone pairs of nitrogen mustard generate a strained intermediate "aziridinium ion" which is very reactive towards DNA of tumor cell as well as normal cell resulting in various adverse side effects alogwith therapeutic implications. Over the last 75 years, due to its high reactivity and peripheral cytotoxicity, numerous modifications have been made in the area of nitrogen mustard to improve its efficacy as well as enhancing drug delivery specifically to tumor cells. This review mainly discusses the medicinal chemistry aspects in the development of various classes of nitrogen mustards (mechlorethamine, chlorambucil, melphalan, cyclophosphamide and steroidal based nitrogen mustards). The literature collection includes the historical and the latest developments in these areas. This comprehensive review also attempted to showcase the recent progress in the targeted delivery of nitrogen mustards that includes DNA directed nitrogen mustards, antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT), nitrogen mustard activated by glutathione transferase, peptide based nitrogen mustards and CNS targeted nitrogen mustards. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. MUCOLYTIC AGENTS IN PEDIATRICS: RATIONAL SELECTION, THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS AND SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Simonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cough treatment options with mucolytic agents administration at the first several days of acute respiratory tract infections in children. Efficacy of treatment with secretolytic and secretomotoric drugs significantly depends on certain factors. The article contains the criteria of therapeutic efficacy of expectorants. A special attention is given to N-acetylcysteine — a direct acting mucolytic agent, which effect is caused by presence of free sulfhydryl groups, disrupting disulfide bonds between molecules of acid mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins therefore changing the structure of sputum. Acetylcysteine is active against every type of sputum (mucous, muco-purulent, purulent, that is especially important in treatment of bacterial infections, when it is necessary to quickly decrease sputum thickness, eliminate it from the respiratory tract and prevent dissemination of the infection. High efficacy of acetylcysteine is caused by its unique triple action: mucolytic, antioxidant and antitoxic. Mechanism of action of acetylcysteine is discussed in detail. Timely administered treatment will improve sputum discharge and therefore eliminate one of the main factors of bronchial obstruction and decrease the risk of microbial colonization of the respiratory tract. The article also includes indications, contraindications and dosage regimens of acetylcysteine in children. The most common mistakes and specific aspects of mucolytic drugs in pediatrics are listed in the conclusion. 

  15. Combining human and machine intelligence to derive agents' behavioral rules for groundwater irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yao; Quinn, Christopher J.; Cai, Ximing; Garfinkle, Noah W.

    2017-11-01

    For agent-based modeling, the major challenges in deriving agents' behavioral rules arise from agents' bounded rationality and data scarcity. This study proposes a "gray box" approach to address the challenge by incorporating expert domain knowledge (i.e., human intelligence) with machine learning techniques (i.e., machine intelligence). Specifically, we propose using directed information graph (DIG), boosted regression trees (BRT), and domain knowledge to infer causal factors and identify behavioral rules from data. A case study is conducted to investigate farmers' pumping behavior in the Midwest, U.S.A. Results show that four factors identified by the DIG algorithm- corn price, underlying groundwater level, monthly mean temperature and precipitation- have main causal influences on agents' decisions on monthly groundwater irrigation depth. The agent-based model is then developed based on the behavioral rules represented by three DIGs and modeled by BRTs, and coupled with a physically-based groundwater model to investigate the impacts of agents' pumping behavior on the underlying groundwater system in the context of coupled human and environmental systems.

  16. [Weighing use and safety of therapeutic agents and feed additives (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, P

    1982-02-01

    (1) The pros and cons of using feed additives and therapeutic agents may be successfully weighed in the light of carefully considered consumer requirements. (2) The socio-economic interests of the producer and the welfare of the animal will also determine the response of the production apparatus to consumer requirements. (3) Consumption of the current amounts of products of animal origin and maintenance of price and quality will only be feasible in the event of rational large-scale production in which constituents used in nutrition, prophylaxis and therapeutics are highly important factors. (4) Using these ingredients should be preceded by accurate evaluation of their use and safety. Testing facilities, conduct of studies and reporting should be such as to make the results nationally and internationally acceptable to all those concerned. (5) In deciding whether feed constituents are acceptable in view of the established use and safety, compliance will have to be sought with those standards which are accepted in other fields of society. Measures which result in raising the price of food without actually helping to reduce the risks to the safety of man, animals and environment, are likely to be rejected by any well-informed consumer who is aware of the facts. (6) For accurate weighing of use and safety at a national level, possibilities are hardly adequate in Europe. Decisions reached within the framework of the European Community, also tuned to U.S.A.- conditions are rightly encouraged. A centrally managed professionally staffed and equipped test system in the European Community would appear to be indispensable.

  17. Identifying candidate agents for lung adenocarcinoma by walking the human interactome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yajiao Sun,1 Ranran Zhang,2 Zhe Jiang,1 Rongyao Xia,1 Jingwen Zhang,1 Jing Liu,1 Fuhui Chen1 1Department of Respiratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 2Department of Respiratory, Harbin First Hospital, Harbin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Despite recent advances in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer, mortality is still increasing. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify effective novel drugs. In the present study, we implement drug repositioning for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD by a bioinformatics method followed by experimental validation. We first identified differentially expressed genes between LUAD tissues and nontumor tissues from RNA sequencing data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Then, candidate small molecular drugs were ranked according to the effect of their targets on differentially expressed genes of LUAD by a random walk with restart algorithm in protein–protein interaction networks. Our method identified some potentially novel agents for LUAD besides those that had been previously reported (eg, hesperidin. Finally, we experimentally verified that atracurium, one of the potential agents, could induce A549 cells death in non-small-cell lung cancer-derived A549 cells by an MTT assay, acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, and electron microscopy. Furthermore, Western blot assays demonstrated that atracurium upregulated the proapoptotic Bad and Bax proteins, downregulated the antiapoptotic p-Bad and Bcl-2 proteins, and enhanced caspase-3 activity. It could also reduce the expression of p53 and p21Cip1/Waf1 in A549 cells. In brief, the candidate agents identified by our approach may provide greater insights into improving the therapeutic status of LUAD. Keywords: lung adenocarcinoma, drug repositioning, bioinformatics, protein–protein interaction network, atracurium

  18. Development of radiolanthanide labeled porphyrin complexes as possible therapeutic agents in beast carcinoma xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahidfar, Nasim; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Beiki, Davood; Khalaj, Ali [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Pharmacy; Jalilian, Amir R.; Fazaeli, Yousef; Bahrami-Samani, Ali; Alirezapour, Behrooz; Erfani, Mostafa [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiopharmacy Research Group

    2014-10-01

    Radiolabeled porphyrins are potential tumor avid radiopharmaceuticals because of their behaviour in the human body, ability to complex various radionuclides, water solubility, low toxicity etc., in this work radio ytterbium/samarium porphyrin complexes have been developed. {sup 175}Yb and {sup 153}Sm labeled 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) porphyrins ([{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP/[{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP) were prepared using 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) porphyrin (H{sub 2}TDMPP) and [{sup 175}Yb]YbCl{sub 3} or [{sup 153}Sm]SmCl{sub 3} in 12-24 h at 60 C. Stability of the complexes were checked in final formulation and human serum for 24 h, followed by partition coefficient determination and biodistribution studies in wild type and breast carcinoma-bearing mice. The radiocomplexes were obtained with acceptable radiochemical purity (> 95% (paper chromatography) and > 96% (HPLC) for [{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP and > 97% (paper chromatography) and > 98% (HPLC) for [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP) with specific activities of 12-15 GBq/mmol and 278 GBq/mmol at the end of bombardment for [{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP and [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP respectively. The partition coefficients were determined for [{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP and [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP (log P = 0.63 and log P = 0.96 respectively). The [{sup 175}Yb]-TDMPP complex is mostly washed out from the circulation through kidneys. Liver and spleen also demonstrated significant activity uptake in 72 h post injection. Also [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP, is mostly washed out from the circulation through kidneys, however lungs are the major accumulation sites. The [{sup 153}Sm]-TDMPP complex demonstrated significant targeted uptake in breast carcinoma xenografts with tumor: blood ratios of 10.67, 10.47 and 19.01 in 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. Also interesting tumor: kidney/liver ratios were obtained. {sup 153}Sm-TDMPP properties suggest an efficient tumor targeting agent with high tumor-avidity. Further investigation on the therapeutic properties must be

  19. Identification of walking human model using agent-based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabpoor, Erfan; Pavic, Aleksandar; Racic, Vitomir

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of walking people with large vibrating structures, such as footbridges and floors, in the vertical direction is an important yet challenging phenomenon to describe mathematically. Several different models have been proposed in the literature to simulate interaction of stationary people with vibrating structures. However, the research on moving (walking) human models, explicitly identified for vibration serviceability assessment of civil structures, is still sparse. In this study, the results of a comprehensive set of FRF-based modal tests were used, in which, over a hundred test subjects walked in different group sizes and walking patterns on a test structure. An agent-based model was used to simulate discrete traffic-structure interactions. The occupied structure modal parameters found in tests were used to identify the parameters of the walking individual's single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) mass-spring-damper model using 'reverse engineering' methodology. The analysis of the results suggested that the normal distribution with the average of μ = 2.85Hz and standard deviation of σ = 0.34Hz can describe human SDOF model natural frequency. Similarly, the normal distribution with μ = 0.295 and σ = 0.047 can describe the human model damping ratio. Compared to the previous studies, the agent-based modelling methodology proposed in this paper offers significant flexibility in simulating multi-pedestrian walking traffics, external forces and simulating different mechanisms of human-structure and human-environment interaction at the same time.

  20. Application of Disposable Bag Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering and for the Production of Therapeutic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, R.; Eibl, D.

    In order to increase process efficiency, many pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have introduced disposable bag technology over the last 10 years. Because this technology also greatly reduces the risk of cross-contamination, disposable bags are preferred in applications in which an absolute or improved process safety is a necessity, namely the production of functional tissue for implantation (tissue engineering), the production of human cells for the treatment of cancer and immune system diseases (cellular therapy), the production of viruses for gene therapies, the production of therapeutic proteins, and veterinary as well as human vaccines.

  1. Human iPSC for Therapeutic Approaches to the Nervous System: Present and Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giuseppina Cefalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many central nervous system (CNS diseases including stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI, and brain tumors are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity/mortality and yet do not have satisfying treatments. Cell-based therapy to restore lost function or to carry new therapeutic genes is a promising new therapeutic approach, particularly after human iPSCs became available. However, efficient generation of footprint-free and xeno-free human iPSC is a prerequisite for their clinical use. In this paper, we will first summarize the current methodology to obtain footprint- and xeno-free human iPSC. We will then review the current iPSC applications in therapeutic approaches for CNS regeneration and their use as vectors to carry proapoptotic genes for brain tumors and review their applications for modelling of neurological diseases and formulating new therapeutic approaches. Available results will be summarized and compared. Finally, we will discuss current limitations precluding iPSC from being used on large scale for clinical applications and provide an overview of future areas of improvement. In conclusion, significant progress has occurred in deriving iPSC suitable for clinical use in the field of neurological diseases. Current efforts to overcome technical challenges, including reducing labour and cost, will hopefully expedite the integration of this technology in the clinical setting.

  2. Antibody-Based Agents in the Management of Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speziale, Pietro; Rindi, Simonetta

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, including sepsis, pneumonia, arthritis, and endocarditis. Ineffective treatment of a number of staphylococcal infections with antibiotics is due to the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant strains following decades of antibiotic usage. This has generated renewed interest within the scientific community in alternative therapeutic agents, such as anti-S. aureus antibodies. Although the role of antibodies in the management of S. aureus diseases is controversial, the success of this pathogen in neutralizing humoral immunity clearly indicates that antibodies offer the host extensive protection. In this review, we report an update on efforts to develop antibody-based agents, particularly monoclonal antibodies, and their therapeutic potential in the passive immunization approach to the treatment and prevention of S. aureus infections. PMID:29533985

  3. In Vitro Drug Metabolism by Human Carboxylesterase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ragnar; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) is the major hydrolase in human liver. The enzyme is involved in the metabolism of several important therapeutic agents, drugs of abuse, and endogenous compounds. However, no studies have described the role of human CES1 in the activation of two commonly prescribed...... a panel of therapeutic drugs and drugs of abuse to assess their inhibition of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate by recombinant CES1 and human liver microsomes. The screening assay confirmed several known inhibitors of CES1 and identified two previously unreported inhibitors: the dihydropyridine...... calcium antagonist, isradipine, and the immunosuppressive agent, tacrolimus. CES1 plays a role in the metabolism of several drugs used in the treatment of common conditions, including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and diabetes mellitus; thus, there is a potential for clinically relevant drug-drug...

  4. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  5. Inhibiting DNA Polymerases as a Therapeutic Intervention against Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Berdis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhibiting DNA synthesis is an important therapeutic strategy that is widely used to treat a number of hyperproliferative diseases including viral infections, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. This chapter describes two major categories of therapeutic agents used to inhibit DNA synthesis. The first category includes purine and pyrmidine nucleoside analogs that directly inhibit DNA polymerase activity. The second category includes DNA damaging agents including cisplatin and chlorambucil that modify the composition and structure of the nucleic acid substrate to indirectly inhibit DNA synthesis. Special emphasis is placed on describing the molecular mechanisms of these inhibitory effects against chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA polymerases. Discussions are also provided on the mechanisms associated with resistance to these therapeutic agents. A primary focus is toward understanding the roles of specialized DNA polymerases that by-pass DNA lesions produced by DNA damaging agents. Finally, a section is provided that describes emerging areas in developing new therapeutic strategies targeting specialized DNA polymerases.

  6. Cyclic peptides as potential therapeutic agents for skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoshi, Sarika; Benson, Heather A E

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing understanding of the role of peptides in normal skin function and skin disease. With this knowledge, there is significant interest in the application of peptides as therapeutics in skin disease or as cosmeceuticals to enhance skin appearance. In particular, antimicrobial peptides and those involved in inflammatory processes provide options for the development of new therapeutic directions in chronic skin conditions such as psoriasis and dermatitis. To exploit their potential, it is essential that these peptides are delivered to their site of action in active form and in sufficient quantity to provide the desired effect. Many polymers permeate the skin poorly and are vulnerable to enzymatic degradation. Synthesis of cyclic peptide derivatives can substantially alter the physicochemical characteristics of the peptide with the potential to improve its skin permeation. In addition, cyclization can stabilize the peptide structure and thereby increase its stability. This review describes the role of cyclic peptides in the skin, examples of current cyclic peptide therapeutic products, and the potential for cyclic peptides as dermatological therapeutics and cosmeceuticals.

  7. The effect of interstitial pressure on therapeutic agent transport: coupling with the tumor blood and lymphatic vascular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B; Chaplain, Mark A J; McDougall, Steven R; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John S

    2014-08-21

    Vascularized tumor growth is characterized by both abnormal interstitial fluid flow and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we study the effect that these conditions have on the transport of therapeutic agents during chemotherapy. We apply our recently developed vascular tumor growth model which couples a continuous growth component with a discrete angiogenesis model to show that hypertensive IFP is a physical barrier that may hinder vascular extravasation of agents through transvascular fluid flux convection, which drives the agents away from the tumor. This result is consistent with previous work using simpler models without blood flow or lymphatic drainage. We consider the vascular/interstitial/lymphatic fluid dynamics to show that tumors with larger lymphatic resistance increase the agent concentration more rapidly while also experiencing faster washout. In contrast, tumors with smaller lymphatic resistance accumulate less agents but are able to retain them for a longer time. The agent availability (area-under-the curve, or AUC) increases for less permeable agents as lymphatic resistance increases, and correspondingly decreases for more permeable agents. We also investigate the effect of vascular pathologies on agent transport. We show that elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity contributes to the highest AUC when the agent is less permeable, but to lower AUC when the agent is more permeable. We find that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity contributes to low AUC in general regardless of the transvascular agent transport capability. We also couple the agent transport with the tumor dynamics to simulate chemotherapy with the same vascularized tumor under different vascular pathologies. We show that tumors with an elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity alone require the strongest dosage to shrink. We further show that tumors with elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity are more hypoxic during therapy and that the response

  8. Immunological mechanism underlying the immune response to tecombinant human protein therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerborn, M.S.; Brinks, V.; Jiskoot, W.; Schellekens, H.

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant human (rhu) protein therapeutics are powerful tools to treat several severe diseases such as multiple sclerosis and diabetes mellitus, among others. A major drawback of these proteins is the production of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs). In some cases, these ADAs have neutralizing capacity

  9. Human therapeutic cloning (NTSC): applying research from mammalian reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew J; Wood, Samuel H; Trounson, Alan O

    2006-01-01

    Human therapeutic cloning or nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSC) to produce patient-specific stem cells, holds considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine. The recent withdrawal of the only scientific publications claiming the successful generation of NTSC lines afford an opportunity to review the available research in mammalian reproductive somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with the goal of progressing human NTSC. The process of SCNT is prone to epigenetic abnormalities that contribute to very low success rates. Although there are high mortality rates in some species of cloned animals, most surviving clones have been shown to have normal phenotypic and physiological characteristics and to produce healthy offspring. This technology has been applied to an increasing number of mammals for utility in research, agriculture, conservation, and biomedicine. In contrast, attempts at SCNT to produce human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been disappointing. Only one group has published reliable evidence of success in deriving a cloned human blastocyst, using an undifferentiated hESC donor cell, and it failed to develop into a hESC line. When optimal conditions are present, it appears that in vitro development of cloned and parthenogenetic embryos, both of which may be utilized to produce hESCs, may be similar to in vitro fertilized embryos. The derivation of ESC lines from cloned embryos is substantially more efficient than the production of viable offspring. This review summarizes developments in mammalian reproductive cloning, cell-to-cell fusion alternatives, and strategies for oocyte procurement that may provide important clues facilitating progress in human therapeutic cloning leading to the successful application of cell-based therapies utilizing autologous hESC lines.

  10. Potent antitumor bifunctional DNA alkylating agents, synthesis and biological activities of 3a-aza-cyclopenta[a]indenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakadiya, Rajesh; Dong, Huajin; Lee, Pei-Chih; Kapuriya, Naval; Zhang, Xiuguo; Chou, Ting-Chao; Lee, Te-Chang; Kapuriya, Kalpana; Shah, Anamik; Su, Tsann-Long

    2009-08-01

    A series of bifunctional DNA interstrand cross-linking agents, bis(hydroxymethyl)- and bis(carbamates)-8H-3a-azacyclopenta[a]indene-1-yl derivatives were synthesized for antitumor evaluation. The preliminary antitumor studies revealed that these agents exhibited potent cytotoxicity in vitro and antitumor therapeutic efficacy against human tumor xenografts in vivo. Furthermore, these derivatives have little or no cross-resistance to either Taxol or Vinblastine. Remarkably, complete tumor remission in nude mice bearing human breast carcinoma MX-1 xenograft by 13a,b and 14g,h and significant suppression against prostate adenocarcinoma PC3 xenograft by 13b were achieved at the maximum tolerable dose with relatively low toxicity. In addition, these agents induce DNA interstrand cross-linking and substantial G2/M phase arrest in human non-small lung carcinoma H1299 cells. The current studies suggested that these agents are promising candidates for preclinical studies.

  11. Development of (F-18)-Labeled Amyloid Imaging Agents for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The applicant proposes to design and synthesize a series of fluorine-18-labeled radiopharmaceuticals to be used as amyloid imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET). The investigators will conduct comprehensive iterative in vitro and in vivo studies based upon well defined acceptance criteria in order to identify lead agents suitable for human studies. The long term goals are to apply the selected radiotracers as potential diagnostic agents of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as surrogate markers of amyloid in the brain to determine the efficacy of anti-amyloid therapeutic drugs, and as tools to help address basic scientific questions regarding the progression of the neuropathology of AD, such as testing the 'amyloid cascade hypothesis' which holds that amyloid accumulation is the primary cause of AD.

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Ligands and Their Role in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Therapeutic Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Bahman; Samadi, Nasser; Baradaran, Behzad; Shafiei-Irannejad, Vahid; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-07-01

    Imatinib therapy remains the gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia; however, the acquired resistance to this therapeutic agent in patients has urged the scientists to devise modalities for overcoming this chemoresistance. For this purpose, initially therapeutic agents with higher tyrosine kinase activity were introduced, which had the potential for inhibiting even mutant forms of Bcr-Abl. Furthermore, coupling imatinib with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands also showed beneficial effects in chronic myeloid leukemia cell proliferation. These combination protocols inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis as well as differentiation in chronic myeloid leukemia cell lines. In addition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligands increased imatinib uptake by upregulating the expression of human organic cation transporter 1. Taken together, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligands are currently being considered as novel promising therapeutic candidates for chronic myeloid leukemia treatment, because they can synergistically enhance the efficacy of imatinib. In this article, we reviewed the potential of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligands for use in chronic myeloid leukemia treatment. The mechanism of action of these therapeutics modalities are also presented in detail. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Potencial terapéutico de los canabinoides como neuroprotectores Therapeutical potential of cannabinoids as neuroprotective agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laymi Martínez García

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La planta Cannabis sativa L. o cáñamo ha captado desde tiempos antiquísimos la atención del hombre en el campo de la salud y terapéutica humanas y todavía, a inicios del siglo XXI, continúa despertando polémicas en la comunidad científica como fuente natural y en el estudio y aplicación de sus derivados. Desde el punto de vista fitoquímico se han descrito más de 70 derivados de tipo canabinoide farmacológicamente activos sobre el sistema nervioso central. En la actualidad se han generado valiosísimas fuentes de información que relacionan la especie botánica Cannabis sativa L. y sus metabolitos secundarios con la medicina (tratamiento terapéutico, farmacología (modelos experimentales y química sintética (diseño y generación de nuevas estructuras, las cuales avalan la importancia del estudio de esta planta, sus extractos, metabolitos y precursores como fuente de agentes terapéuticos. Por tal motivo se presenta una revisión de la información existente sobre las potenciales implicaciones terapéuticas de sistemas moleculares canabinoidales (endógenos, naturales y sintéticos en el tratamiento de enfermedades neurodegenerativas del sistema nervioso central, que incluye: conceptos de tipos de canabinoides, sistemas de receptores canabinoides CB1 y CB2 y evidencias preclínicas de los efectos neuroprotectores de canabinoides desde 1970 hasta el 2005Cannabis sativa L. or cáñamo has focused man's attention for its therapeutical and medical application since ancient times, and yet, at the beginning of XXI century, this plant continues being polemic for the scientific community as a natural source and in the study and application of its derivatives. More than 70 cannabinoid compounds with pharmacological action on the central nervous system have been phytochemically described. At present, a great amount of valuable information and experimental data have been generated that correlate Cannabis sativa and its secondary metabolites

  14. Angiogenesis and Its Therapeutic Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis plays critical roles in human physiology that range from reproduction and fetal growth to wound healing and tissue repair. The sophisticated multistep process is tightly regulated in a spatial and temporal manner by “on-off switch signals” between angiogenic factors, extracellular matrix components, and endothelial cells. Uncontrolled angiogenesis may lead to several angiogenic disorders, including vascular insufficiency (myocardial or critical limb ischemia and vascular overgrowth (hemangiomas, vascularized tumors, and retinopathies. Thus, numerous therapeutic opportunities can be envisaged through the successful understanding and subsequent manipulation of angiogenesis. Here, we review the clinical implications of angiogenesis and discuss pro- and antiangiogenic agents that offer potential therapy for cancer and other angiogenic diseases.

  15. Radiological and physiological studies on the role of some therapeutic agents used for internal decontamination of radionuclides from male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangood, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    With the earths increasing nuclear arsenal and the growing use of nuclear energy, the possibility of radiological accidents involving release of radioactive materials, internal contamination may consequently occurs via inhalation, ingestion or absorption of radioisotopes.Therefore, the present work was oriented to deal with four topics related to the internal decontamination of two of the most widely used isotopes, namely 134 Cs and 60 Co from contaminated rats:-In vitro study aimed to select agents that can strongly bind the two metal ions and elucidate the best conditions and the factors affecting this binding. The tested agents were bentonite, vermiculite and Prussian blue (PB). The sorption capacity of PB and vermiculite for both metal ions was high and equivalent to more than 10 11 Bq 137 Cs or 60 Co per gram sorbent. As bentonite has lower capacity to both isotopes, further in vivo experiments were performed with PB and vermiculite.-In vivo studies, via 5 groups of rats, devoted to investigate the kinetics of excretion of 134 Cs and/or 60 Co from contaminated rats. The biological half lives of excretion, excretion stages for both isotopes and the effect of route of entry on the excretion were estimated.-In vivo studies aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PB + vermiculite and CaDTPA as therapeutic agents for accelerating the elimination of 134 Cs and/or 60 Co from contaminated rats. The study was performed via 6 groups of rats given different regimes of therapy. The results showed the high efficiency of PB + vermiculite for accelerating elimination of 134 Cs and orally administrated 60 Co while CaDTPA succeeded in accelerating intraperitoneally administrated 60 Co. The study proved that oral administration of PB + vermiculite and injection with CaDTPA at the same time is very effective in accelerating elimination of both contaminants simultaneously.-The physiological studies aimed to evaluate the hazardous effects of 134 Cs and/or 60 Co incorporation and

  16. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signalling: Role in bone biology and potential therapeutic target for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartawi, Ziad; Schipani, Ernestina; Ryan, Katie B; Waeber, Christian

    2017-11-01

    The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) affects cellular functions in most systems. Interest in its therapeutic potential has increased following the discovery of its G protein-coupled receptors and the recent availability of agents that can be safely administered in humans. Although the role of S1P in bone biology has been the focus of much less research than its role in the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems, it is becoming clear that this lipid influences many of the functions, pathways and cell types that play a key role in bone maintenance and repair. Indeed, S1P is implicated in many osteogenesis-related processes including stem cell recruitment and subsequent differentiation, differentiation and survival of osteoblasts, and coupling of the latter cell type with osteoclasts. In addition, S1P's role in promoting angiogenesis is well-established. The pleiotropic effects of S1P on bone and blood vessels have significant potential therapeutic implications, as current therapeutic approaches for critical bone defects show significant limitations. Because of the complex effects of S1P on bone, the pharmacology of S1P-like agents and their physico-chemical properties, it is likely that therapeutic delivery of S1P agents will offer significant advantages compared to larger molecular weight factors. Hence, it is important to explore novel methods of utilizing S1P agents therapeutically, and improve our understanding of how S1P and its receptors modulate bone physiology and repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of occupational risk agents and its probable hazards to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Janete Cristina G. Gaburo; Alves, Alice dos Santos; Sanches, Matias P.

    2013-01-01

    Currently the workplaces become increasingly complex and a strategy evaluation and the control of occupational risks agents is needed. Workers may be exposed to environmental agents (chemical, physical and biological) and other unsuitable conditions by performing tasks that involve these agents directly. The main objective of this study is to approach conceptual aspects of risk conditions, physical in nature, with emphasis on ionizing radiation and its interaction with other agents in occupational and environmental situations. To meet this goal, it is performed a literature review and a summary of the main occupational agents known or suspected to cause any adverse health effects in humans. According to the available literature the reported studies on the effects of combined exposures to radiation and others agents are recognized and, as far as possible, should be taken into account in evaluating of the potential radiation risks at low levels of exposure. (author)

  18. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der Jiun Ooi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  19. Folic acid tagged nanoceria as a novel therapeutic agent in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijaz, Miriana; Das, Soumen; Mert, Ismail; Gupta, Ankur; Al-Wahab, Zaid; Tebbe, Calvin; Dar, Sajad; Chhina, Jasdeep; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan; Seal, Sudipta; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2016-01-01

    Nanomedicine is a very promising field and nanomedical drugs have recently been used as therapeutic agents against cancer. In a previous study, we showed that Nanoceria (NCe), nanoparticles of cerium oxide, significantly inhibited production of reactive oxygen species, cell migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells in vitro, without affecting cell proliferation and significantly reduced tumor growth in an ovarian cancer xenograft nude model. Increased expression of folate receptor-α, an isoform of membrane-bound folate receptors, has been described in ovarian cancer. To enable NCe to specifically target ovarian cancer cells, we conjugated nanoceria to folic acid (NCe-FA). Our aim was to investigate the pre-clinical efficacy of NCe-FA alone and in combination with Cisplatin. Ovarian cancer cell lines were treated with NCe or NCe-FA. Cell viability was assessed by MTT and colony forming units. In vivo studies were carried in A2780 generated mouse xenografts treated with 0.1 mg/Kg NCe, 0.1 mg/Kg; NCe-FA and cisplatinum, 4 mg/Kg by intra-peritoneal injections. Tumor weights and burden scores were determined. Immunohistochemistry and toxicity assays were used to evaluate treatment effects. We show that folic acid conjugation of NCe increased the cellular NCe internalization and inhibited cell proliferation. Mice treated with NCe-FA had a lower tumor burden compared to NCe, without any vital organ toxicity. Combination of NCe-FA with cisplatinum decreased the tumor burden more significantly. Moreover, NCe-FA was also effective in reducing proliferation and angiogenesis in the xenograft mouse model. Thus, specific targeting of ovarian cancer cells by NCe-FA holds great potential as an effective therapeutic alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2206-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  20. Use of Aptamers as Diagnostics Tools and Antiviral Agents for Human Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate diagnosis is the key factor for treatment of viral diseases. Time is the most important factor in rapidly developing and epidemiologically dangerous diseases, such as influenza, Ebola and SARS. Chronic viral diseases such as HIV-1 or HCV are asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and the therapeutic success mainly depends on early detection of the infective agent. Over the last years, aptamer technology has been used in a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic applications and, concretely, several strategies are currently being explored using aptamers against virus proteins. From a diagnostics point of view, aptamers are being designed as a bio-recognition element in diagnostic systems to detect viral proteins either in the blood (serum or plasma or into infected cells. Another potential use of aptamers is for therapeutics of viral infections, interfering in the interaction between the virus and the host using aptamers targeting host-cell matrix receptors, or attacking the virus intracellularly, targeting proteins implicated in the viral replication cycle. In this paper, we review how aptamers working against viral proteins are discovered, with a focus on recent advances that improve the aptamers’ properties as a real tool for viral infection detection and treatment.

  1. Genome Editing: A New Approach to Human Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteus, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The ability to manipulate the genome with precise spatial and nucleotide resolution (genome editing) has been a powerful research tool. In the past decade, the tools and expertise for using genome editing in human somatic cells and pluripotent cells have increased to such an extent that the approach is now being developed widely as a strategy to treat human disease. The fundamental process depends on creating a site-specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) in the genome and then allowing the cell's endogenous DSB repair machinery to fix the break such that precise nucleotide changes are made to the DNA sequence. With the development and discovery of several different nuclease platforms and increasing knowledge of the parameters affecting different genome editing outcomes, genome editing frequencies now reach therapeutic relevance for a wide variety of diseases. Moreover, there is a series of complementary approaches to assessing the safety and toxicity of any genome editing process, irrespective of the underlying nuclease used. Finally, the development of genome editing has raised the issue of whether it should be used to engineer the human germline. Although such an approach could clearly prevent the birth of people with devastating and destructive genetic diseases, questions remain about whether human society is morally responsible enough to use this tool.

  2. A Software Environment for an Adaptive Human-Aware Software Agent Supporting Attention-Demanding Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Memon, Z.A.; Oorburg, R.; Umair, M.; Treur, J.; de Vos, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a software environment providing human-aware ambient support for a human performing a task that demands substantial amounts of attention. The agent obtains human attention-awareness in an adaptive manner by use of a dynamical model of human attention, gaze sensoring by an

  3. The antioxidant paradox: what are antioxidants and how should they be used in a therapeutic context for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Michael Y; Arbiser, Jack L

    2014-01-01

    So-called antioxidants have yet to make a clinical impact on the treatment of human cancer. The reasons for this failure are several. First, many agents that are called antioxidants are truly antioxidants at a given dose, but this dose may not have been given in clinical trials. Second, many agents are not antioxidants at all. Third, not all tumors use reactive oxygen as a signaling mechanism. Finally, reactive oxygen inhibition is often insufficient to kill or regress a tumor cell by itself, but requires sequential introduction of a therapeutic agent for maximal effect. We hope to provide a framework for the logical use of these agents in cancer.

  4. Dendrimer advances for the central nervous system delivery of therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leyuan; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-15

    The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is generally limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the CNS. Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and overcoming this has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of CNS therapeutics. Rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review discusses the latest applications of dendrimers in the treatment of CNS diseases with an emphasis on brain tumors. Dendrimer-mediated drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are also reviewed. The toxicity, biodistribution, and transport mechanisms in dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents bypassing or crossing the BBB are also discussed. Future directions and major challenges of dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents are included.

  5. Monoclonal Antibody Fragments for Targeting Therapeutics to Growth Plate Cartilage | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute on Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) have discovered monoclonal antibodies that bind to matrilin-3, a protein specifically expressed in cartilage tissue, that could be used for treating or inhibiting growth plate disorders, such as a skeletal dysplasia or short stature. The monoclonal antibodies can also be used to target therapeutic agents, such as anti-arthritis agents, to cartilage tissue. NICHD seeks statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize treatment of skeletal disorders using targeting antibodies.

  6. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) st...... for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia....

  7. Molecular Characterization of Gastric Carcinoma: Therapeutic Implications for Biomarkers and Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Kankeu Fonkoua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Palliative chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma (GC. Monoclonal antibodies including trastuzumab, ramucirumab, and pembrolizumab have been shown to provide additional benefits. However, the clinical outcomes are often unpredictable and they can vary widely among patients. Currently, no biomarker is available for predicting treatment response in the individual patient except human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 amplification and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 expression for effectiveness of trastuzumab and pembrolizumab, respectively. Multi-platform molecular analysis of cancer, including GC, may help identify predictive biomarkers to guide selection of therapeutic agents. Molecular classification of GC by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network and the Asian Cancer Research Group is expected to identify therapeutic targets and predictive biomarkers. Complementary to molecular characterization of GC is molecular profiling by expression analysis and genomic sequencing of tumor DNA. Initial analysis of patients with gastroesophageal carcinoma demonstrates that the ratio of progression-free survival (PFS on molecular profile (MP-based treatment to PFS on treatment prior to molecular profiling exceeds 1.3, suggesting the potential value of MP in guiding selection of individualized therapy. Future strategies aiming to integrate molecular classification and profiling of tumors with therapeutic agents for achieving the goal of personalized treatment of GC are indicated.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Gastric Carcinoma: Therapeutic Implications for Biomarkers and Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankeu Fonkoua, Lionel; Yee, Nelson S

    2018-03-09

    Palliative chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma (GC). Monoclonal antibodies including trastuzumab, ramucirumab, and pembrolizumab have been shown to provide additional benefits. However, the clinical outcomes are often unpredictable and they can vary widely among patients. Currently, no biomarker is available for predicting treatment response in the individual patient except human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression for effectiveness of trastuzumab and pembrolizumab, respectively. Multi-platform molecular analysis of cancer, including GC, may help identify predictive biomarkers to guide selection of therapeutic agents. Molecular classification of GC by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network and the Asian Cancer Research Group is expected to identify therapeutic targets and predictive biomarkers. Complementary to molecular characterization of GC is molecular profiling by expression analysis and genomic sequencing of tumor DNA. Initial analysis of patients with gastroesophageal carcinoma demonstrates that the ratio of progression-free survival (PFS) on molecular profile (MP)-based treatment to PFS on treatment prior to molecular profiling exceeds 1.3, suggesting the potential value of MP in guiding selection of individualized therapy. Future strategies aiming to integrate molecular classification and profiling of tumors with therapeutic agents for achieving the goal of personalized treatment of GC are indicated.

  9. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  10. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  11. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  12. Technical cooperation for the wider uses of Ho-166 therapeutic agents in European countries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, K B; Choi, S M; Han, K H; Hong, Y D; Park, W W; Shin, B C

    2002-01-01

    Czech has put their priority in developing the radiopharmaceuticals based on reactor produced Ho-166 and a related fabrication will be extended to other EU conturies including Germany, France, etc after a development of project. The collaboration will be based on the mutual agreement for developing the between research institutes, industries and academic institutes and further researches should be followed by the issue of developing radiopharmaceuticals using Ho-166. To strengthen the collaboration, detailed discussions for the practical collaboration have been made through the visitation to the research institution of each counter part. For implementing the collaboration between NPI and KAERI, an institutional basis technical cooperation agreement(TCA) will be concluded. Furthermore, agreement for the substantial collaboration on Ho-166 related researches will be made after the conclusion of the TCA. It will accelerate the commercialization of KAERI developed Ho-166 therapeutic agents into other European cou...

  13. Can human-like Bots control collective mood: agent-based simulations of online chats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Šuvakov, Milovan

    2013-10-01

    Using an agent-based modeling approach, in this paper, we study self-organized dynamics of interacting agents in the presence of chat Bots. Different Bots with tunable ‘human-like’ attributes, which exchange emotional messages with agents, are considered, and the collective emotional behavior of agents is quantitatively analyzed. In particular, using detrended fractal analysis we determine persistent fluctuations and temporal correlations in time series of agent activity and statistics of avalanches carrying emotional messages of agents when Bots favoring positive/negative affects are active. We determine the impact of Bots and identify parameters that can modulate that impact. Our analysis suggests that, by these measures, the emotional Bots induce collective emotion among interacting agents by suitably altering the fractal characteristics of the underlying stochastic process. Positive emotion Bots are slightly more effective than negative emotion Bots. Moreover, Bots which periodically alternate between positive and negative emotion can enhance fluctuations in the system, leading to avalanches of agent messages that are reminiscent of self-organized critical states.

  14. In-silico analysis of heat shock protein 47 for identifying the novel therapeutic agents in the management of oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasankar P Pillai

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: HSP47 can be a potential candidate to target, in order to control the production of abundance collagen in OSF. Hence, the binding sites of HSP47 with collagen are identified and some natural compounds with a potential to bind with these binding receptors are also recognized. These natural compounds might act as anti-HSP47 lead molecules in designing novel therapeutic agents for OSF, which are so far unavailable.

  15. Toward Shared Working Space of Human and Robotic Agents Through Dipole Flow Field for Dependable Path Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Lan Anh; Ekström, Mikael; Cürüklü, Baran

    2018-01-01

    Recent industrial developments in autonomous systems, or agents, which assume that humans and the agents share the same space or even work in close proximity, open for new challenges in robotics, especially in motion planning and control. In these settings, the control system should be able to provide these agents a reliable path following control when they are working in a group or in collaboration with one or several humans in complex and dynamic environments. In such scenarios, these agents are not only moving to reach their goals, i.e., locations, they are also aware of the movements of other entities to find a collision-free path. Thus, this paper proposes a dependable, i.e., safe, reliable and effective, path planning algorithm for a group of agents that share their working space with humans. Firstly, the method employs the Theta * algorithm to initialize the paths from a starting point to a goal for a set of agents. As Theta * algorithm is computationally heavy, it only reruns when there is a significant change of the environment. To deal with the movements of the agents, a static flow field along the configured path is defined. This field is used by the agents to navigate and reach their goals even if the planned trajectories are changed. Secondly, a dipole field is calculated to avoid the collision of agents with other agents and human subjects. In this approach, each agent is assumed to be a source of a magnetic dipole field in which the magnetic moment is aligned with the moving direction of the agent. The magnetic dipole-dipole interactions between these agents generate repulsive forces to help them to avoid collision. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been evaluated with extensive simulations. The results show that the static flow field is able to drive agents to the goals with a small number of requirements to update the path of agents. Meanwhile, the dipole flow field plays an important role to prevent collisions. The combination of

  16. Toward Shared Working Space of Human and Robotic Agents Through Dipole Flow Field for Dependable Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Anh Trinh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent industrial developments in autonomous systems, or agents, which assume that humans and the agents share the same space or even work in close proximity, open for new challenges in robotics, especially in motion planning and control. In these settings, the control system should be able to provide these agents a reliable path following control when they are working in a group or in collaboration with one or several humans in complex and dynamic environments. In such scenarios, these agents are not only moving to reach their goals, i.e., locations, they are also aware of the movements of other entities to find a collision-free path. Thus, this paper proposes a dependable, i.e., safe, reliable and effective, path planning algorithm for a group of agents that share their working space with humans. Firstly, the method employs the Theta* algorithm to initialize the paths from a starting point to a goal for a set of agents. As Theta* algorithm is computationally heavy, it only reruns when there is a significant change of the environment. To deal with the movements of the agents, a static flow field along the configured path is defined. This field is used by the agents to navigate and reach their goals even if the planned trajectories are changed. Secondly, a dipole field is calculated to avoid the collision of agents with other agents and human subjects. In this approach, each agent is assumed to be a source of a magnetic dipole field in which the magnetic moment is aligned with the moving direction of the agent. The magnetic dipole-dipole interactions between these agents generate repulsive forces to help them to avoid collision. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been evaluated with extensive simulations. The results show that the static flow field is able to drive agents to the goals with a small number of requirements to update the path of agents. Meanwhile, the dipole flow field plays an important role to prevent collisions. The

  17. Recent progress in econophysics: Chaos, leverage, and business cycles as revealed by agent-based modeling and human experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chen; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2017-12-01

    Agent-based modeling and controlled human experiments serve as two fundamental research methods in the field of econophysics. Agent-based modeling has been in development for over 20 years, but how to design virtual agents with high levels of human-like "intelligence" remains a challenge. On the other hand, experimental econophysics is an emerging field; however, there is a lack of experience and paradigms related to the field. Here, we review some of the most recent research results obtained through the use of these two methods concerning financial problems such as chaos, leverage, and business cycles. We also review the principles behind assessments of agents' intelligence levels, and some relevant designs for human experiments. The main theme of this review is to show that by combining theory, agent-based modeling, and controlled human experiments, one can garner more reliable and credible results on account of a better verification of theory; accordingly, this way, a wider range of economic and financial problems and phenomena can be studied.

  18. Recent progress in econophysics: Chaos, leverage,and business cycles as revealed by agent-based modeling and human experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xin; Ji-Ping Huang

    2017-01-01

    Agent-based modeling and controlled human experiments serve as two fundamental research methods in the field of econophysics.Agent-based modeling has been in development for over 20 years,but how to design virtual agents with high levels of human-like "intelligence" remains a challenge.On the other hand,experimental econophysics is an emerging field;however,there is a lack of experience and paradigms related to the field.Here,we review some of the most recent research results obtained through the use of these two methods concerning financial problems such as chaos,leverage,and business cycles.We also review the principles behind assessments of agents' intelligence levels,and some relevant designs for human experiments.The main theme of this review is to show that by combining theory,agent-based modeling,and controlled human experiments,one can garner more reliable and credible results on account of a better verification of theory;accordingly,this way,a wider range of economic and financial problems and phenomena can be studied.

  19. PYTHIOSIS: A THERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. C. Falcão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pythiosis, a disease caused by the oomycete Pythium insidiosum, often presents inefficient response to chemotherapy. It is a consensus that, in spite the several therapeutic protocols, a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and immunotherapy should be used. Surgical excision requires the removal of the entire affected area, with a wide margin of safety. The use of antifungal drugs has resulted in variable results, both in vitro and in vivo, and presents low therapeutic efficiency due to differences in the agent characteristics, which differ from true fungi. Immunotherapy is a non-invasive alternative for the treatment of pythiosis, which aims at modifying the immune response of the host, thereby producing an effective response to the agent. Photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising technique, with good activity against P. insidiosum in vitro and in vivo. However, more studies are necessary to increase the efficiency of the current treatment protocols and consequently improve the cure rates. This paper aims to conduct a review covering the conventional and recent therapeutic methods against P. insidiosum infections

  20. Pharmacokinetics of cotinine in rats: a potential therapeutic agent for disorders of cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Beck, Wayne D; Callahan, Patrick M; Terry, Alvin V; Bartlett, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    Attention has been paid to cotinine (COT), one of the major metabolites of nicotine (NIC), for its pro-cognitive effects and potential therapeutic activities against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other types of cognitive impairment. In order to facilitate pharmacological and toxicological studies on COT for its pro-cognitive activities, we conducted a pharmacokinetic (PK) study of COT in rats, providing important oral and intravenously (iv) PK information. In this study, plasma samples were obtained up to 48 h after COT was dosed to rats orally and iv at a dose of 3mg/kg. Plasma samples were prepared and analyzed using a sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) bioanalytical method, providing concentration profiles of COT and metabolites after oral and iv administrations. The data were fitted into a one-compartment model and a two-compartment model for the oral and iv groups, respectively, providing important PK information for COT including PK profiles, half-life, clearance and bioavailability. The results suggested fast absorption, slow elimination and high bioavailability of COT in rats. Several important facts about the PK properties in rats suggested COT could be a potential pro-cognitive agent. Information about the pharmacokinetics of COT in rats revealed in this study is of great importance for the future studies on COT or potential COT analogs as agents for improving cognition. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Traitement de l'hétérogénéité sémantique dans les interactions humain-agent et agent-agent

    OpenAIRE

    Mazuel , Laurent

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is the management of semantic heterogeneity in human-agent and agent-agent interaction. We especially focus on the situation where a software agent, supplied with a knowledge representation model, has to understand requests coming from different interlocutors; either it is a human user or another software agent.Most work in this domain either focus on human-agent interaction or agent-agent interaction. On the contrary, we suggest that it is possible to use a co...

  2. Dendrimer Advances for the Central Nervous System Delivery of Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is generally limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the CNS. Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and overcoming this has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of CNS therapeutics. Rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review discusses the latest applications of dendrimers in the treatment of CNS diseases with an emphasis on brain tumors. Dendrimer-mediated drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are also reviewed. The toxicity, biodistribution, and transport mechanisms in dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents bypassing or crossing the BBB are also discussed. Future directions and major challenges of dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents are included. PMID:24274162

  3. Recent trends in the transdermal delivery of therapeutic agents used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    With the increasing proportion of the global geriatric population, it becomes obvious that neurodegenerative diseases will become more widespread. From an epidemiological standpoint, it is necessary to develop new therapeutic agents for the management of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative disorders. An important approach in this regard involves the use of the transdermal route. With transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS), it is possible to modulate the pharmacokinetic profiles of these medications and improve patient compliance. Transdermal drug delivery has also been shown to be useful for drugs with short half-life and low or unpredictable bioavailability. In this review, several transdermal drug delivery enhancement technologies are being discussed in relation to the delivery of medications used for the management of neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Biomedical and therapeutic applications of biosurfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    During the last years, several applications of biosurfactants with medical purposes have been reported. Biosurfactants are considered relevant molecules for applications in combating many diseases and as therapeutic agents due to their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. Furthermore, their role as anti-adhesive agents against several pathogens illustrate their utility as suitable anti-adhesive coating agents for medical insertional materials leading to a reduction of a large n...

  5. The nitric oxide prodrug JS-K and its structural analogues as cancer therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciag, Anna E; Saavedra, Joseph E; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2009-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) prodrugs of the diazeniumdiolate class are routinely used as reliable sources of nitric oxide in chemical and biological laboratory settings. O(2)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) diazeniumdiolates, which are derivatized forms of ionic diazeniumdiolates, have been found to show potent anti-proliferative activity in a variety of cancer cells, presumably through the effects of NO. One important member of this class of diazeniumdiolates, O(2)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K), has shown promise as a novel cancer therapeutic agent in a number of animal models. This review describes the developments in chemical and biochemical characterization and structure-activity relationship of JS-K and its analogues. In addition, some molecular mechanistic insights into the observed anti-proliferative activity of JS-K are discussed. Finally, a structural motif is presented for O(2)-(aryl) diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide prodrugs that show potency comparable with that of JS-K.

  6. Bridging Services: Drug Abuse, Human Services and the Therapeutic Community. Proceedings of the World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (9th, San Francisco, California, September 1-6, 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    The World Federation of Therapeutic Communities is an international association of drug treatment centers that use the "Therapeutic Community" (TC) to combat chemical dependency and drug addiction. Their 1985 conference focused on bridging services between the TC and the traditional human service systems. A total of 85 separate papers were…

  7. Can human-like Bots control collective mood: agent-based simulations of online chats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Šuvakov, Milovan

    2013-01-01

    Using an agent-based modeling approach, in this paper, we study self-organized dynamics of interacting agents in the presence of chat Bots. Different Bots with tunable ‘human-like’ attributes, which exchange emotional messages with agents, are considered, and the collective emotional behavior of agents is quantitatively analyzed. In particular, using detrended fractal analysis we determine persistent fluctuations and temporal correlations in time series of agent activity and statistics of avalanches carrying emotional messages of agents when Bots favoring positive/negative affects are active. We determine the impact of Bots and identify parameters that can modulate that impact. Our analysis suggests that, by these measures, the emotional Bots induce collective emotion among interacting agents by suitably altering the fractal characteristics of the underlying stochastic process. Positive emotion Bots are slightly more effective than negative emotion Bots. Moreover, Bots which periodically alternate between positive and negative emotion can enhance fluctuations in the system, leading to avalanches of agent messages that are reminiscent of self-organized critical states. (paper)

  8. MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with aptamer and radiolabelled with 90Y and 159Gd as a potential therapeutic agent against colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Carolina de Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignancy that affects large intestine and rectum, and it is the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract, the third most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in the world and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Nowadays, available therapeutic procedures for this type of cancer are limited and ineffective. Conventional radiotherapy is not an often used approach in the treatment of CRC due to the fact that peristaltic movements hamper the targeting of ionizing radiation and this type of treatment is used as adjuvant and palliative to control symptoms. Therefore, surgical intervention is the primary therapeutic choice against this disease. Researches based on the combination of radioisotopes and nanostructured carriers systems have demonstrated significant results in improving the selectivity action as well as reducing the radiation dose into healthy tissues. MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles have unique characteristics such as high surface area and well-defined pore diameters making these nanoparticles an ideal candidate of therapeutic agent carrier. Thus, the objective of this work is to synthesize and characterize MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles conjugated with yttrium-90 and gadolinium-159 and evaluate this system as a potential therapeutic agent. The nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel method. The sample was characterized using FTIR, SAXS, PCS, Zeta Potential analysis, Thermal analysis, CHN elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The ability to incorporate Y +3 and Gd +3 ion was determined in vitro using different ratios (1:1, 1:3, 1:5 v/v) of YCL 3 and Gd 2 O 3 and silica nanoparticles dispersed in saline, pH 7.4. The non-incorporated Y +3 and Gd +3 ions were removed by ultracentrifugation procedure and the concentration of ions in the supernatant was determined by ICP-AES. Cell viability was assessed by colorimetric MTT

  9. Therapeutic improvement of colonic anastomotic healing under complicated conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerstrøm, Malene; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify therapeutic agents for the prophylaxis of gastrointestinal anastomotic leakage (AL) under complicated conditions. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for English articles published between January 1975 and September 2014. Studies with the primary purpose of imp...... controls in experimental chemotherapeutic models. CONCLUSION: This systematic review identified potential therapeutic agents, but more studies are needed before concluding that any of these are useful for AL prophylaxis....

  10. Enabling a robust scalable manufacturing process for therapeutic exosomes through oncogenic immortalization of human ESC-derived MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo Andre

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exosomes or secreted bi-lipid vesicles from human ESC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hESC-MSCs have been shown to reduce myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in animal models. However, as hESC-MSCs are not infinitely expansible, large scale production of these exosomes would require replenishment of hESC-MSC through derivation from hESCs and incur recurring costs for testing and validation of each new batch. Our aim was therefore to investigate if MYC immortalization of hESC-MSC would circumvent this constraint without compromising the production of therapeutically efficacious exosomes. Methods The hESC-MSCs were transfected by lentivirus carrying a MYC gene. The transformed cells were analyzed for MYC transgene integration, transcript and protein levels, and surface markers, rate of cell cycling, telomerase activity, karyotype, genome-wide gene expression and differentiation potential. The exosomes were isolated by HPLC fractionation and tested in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, and infarct sizes were further assessed by using Evans' blue dye injection and TTC staining. Results MYC-transformed MSCs largely resembled the parental hESC-MSCs with major differences being reduced plastic adherence, faster growth, failure to senesce, increased MYC protein expression, and loss of in vitro adipogenic potential that technically rendered the transformed cells as non-MSCs. Unexpectedly, exosomes from MYC-transformed MSCs were able to reduce relative infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury indicating that the capacity for producing therapeutic exosomes was preserved. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that MYC transformation is a practical strategy in ensuring an infinite supply of cells for the production of exosomes in the milligram range as either therapeutic agents or delivery vehicles. In addition, the increased proliferative rate by MYC transformation reduces the time

  11. Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents at 7 Tesla: in vitro T1 relaxivities in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris M; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Juras, Vladimír; Kraff, Oliver; Ladd, Mark E; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the T1 relaxivities (r1) of 8 gadolinium (Gd)-based MR contrast agents in human blood plasma at 7 Tesla, compared with 3 Tesla. Eight commercially available Gd-based MR contrast agents were diluted in human blood plasma to concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mmol/L. In vitro measurements were performed at 37 degrees C, on a 7 Tesla and on a 3 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scanner. For the determination of T1 relaxation times, Inversion Recovery Sequences with inversion times from 0 to 3500 ms were used. The relaxivities were calculated. The r1 relaxivities of all agents, diluted in human blood plasma at body temperature, were lower at 7 Tesla than at 3 Tesla. The values at 3 Tesla were comparable to those published earlier. Notably, in some agents, a minor negative correlation of r1 with a concentration of up to 2 mmol/L could be observed. This was most pronounced in the agents with the highest protein-binding capacity. At 7 Tesla, the in vitro r1 relaxivities of Gd-based contrast agents in human blood plasma are lower than those at 3 Tesla. This work may serve as a basis for the application of Gd-based MR contrast agents at 7 Tesla. Further studies are required to optimize the contrast agent dose in vivo.

  12. Mechanisms of chemoresistance to alkylating agents in malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkaria, Jann N; Kitange, Gaspar J; James, C David; Plummer, Ruth; Calvert, Hilary; Weller, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang

    2008-05-15

    Intrinsic or acquired chemoresistance to alkylating agents is a major cause of treatment failure in patients with malignant brain tumors. Alkylating agents, the mainstay of treatment for brain tumors, damage the DNA and induce apoptosis, but the cytotoxic activity of these agents is dependent on DNA repair pathways. For example, O6-methylguanine DNA adducts can cause double-strand breaks, but this is dependent on a functional mismatch repair pathway. Thus, tumor cell lines deficient in mismatch repair are resistant to alkylating agents. Perhaps the most important mechanism of resistance to alkylating agents is the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine methyltransferase, which can eliminate the cytotoxic O6-methylguanine DNA adduct before it causes harm. Another mechanism of resistance to alkylating agents is the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Consequently, efforts are ongoing to develop effective inhibitors of BER. Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase plays a pivotal role in BER and is an important therapeutic target. Developing effective strategies to overcome chemoresistance requires the identification of reliable preclinical models that recapitulate human disease and which can be used to facilitate drug development. This article describes the diverse mechanisms of chemoresistance operating in malignant glioma and efforts to develop reliable preclinical models and novel pharmacologic approaches to overcome resistance to alkylating agents.

  13. Trends in GPCR drug discovery: new agents, targets and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Alexander S; Attwood, Misty M; Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Schiöth, Helgi B; Gloriam, David E

    2017-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most intensively studied drug targets, mostly due to their substantial involvement in human pathophysiology and their pharmacological tractability. Here, we report an up-to-date analysis of all GPCR drugs and agents in clinical trials, which reveals current trends across molecule types, drug targets and therapeutic indications, including showing that 475 drugs (~34% of all drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)) act at 108 unique GPCRs. Approximately 321 agents are currently in clinical trials, of which ~20% target 66 potentially novel GPCR targets without an approved drug, and the number of biological drugs, allosteric modulators and biased agonists has increased. The major disease indications for GPCR modulators show a shift towards diabetes, obesity and Alzheimer disease, although several central nervous system disorders are also highly represented. The 224 (56%) non-olfactory GPCRs that have not yet been explored in clinical trials have broad untapped therapeutic potential, particularly in genetic and immune system disorders. Finally, we provide an interactive online resource to analyse and infer trends in GPCR drug discovery.

  14. Analysis of cytotoxic effects of chlorhexidine gluconate as antiseptic agent on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Alami, Bahare; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) on human blood lymphocytes as a useful ex vivo model for accelerated human toxicity studies. Using biochemical and flow cytometry assessments, we demonstrated that addition of CHG at 1 μM concentration to human blood lymphocytes induced cytotoxicity following 6 h. The CHG-induced cytotoxicity on human blood lymphocytes was associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, lysosomal membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of glutathione. According to our results, CHG triggers oxidative stress and organelles damages in lymphocytes which are important cells in defense against foreign agents. Finally our findings suggest that using of antioxidants and mitochondrial/lysosomal protective agents could be of benefit for the people in the exposure with CHG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Therapeutic and prevention strategies against human enterovirus 71 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Chee Choy

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) is the cause of hand, foot and mouth disease and associated neurological complications in children under five years of age. There has been an increase in HEV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia-Pacific region in the past decade, and it is predicted to replace poliovirus as the extant neurotropic enterovirus of highest global public health significance. To date there is no effective antiviral treatment and no vaccine is available to prevent HEV71 infection. The increase in prevalence, virulence and geographic spread of HEV71 infection over the past decade provides increasing incentive for the development of new therapeutic and prevention strategies against this emerging viral infection. The current review focuses on the potential, advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Since the explosion of outbreaks leading to large epidemics in China, research in natural therapeutic products has identified several groups of compounds with anti-HEV71 activities. Concurrently, the search for effective synthetic antivirals has produced promising results. Other therapeutic strategies including immunotherapy and the use of oligonucleotides have also been explored. A sound prevention strategy is crucial in order to control the spread of HEV71. To this end the ultimate goal is the rapid development, regulatory approval and widespread implementation of a safe and effective vaccine. The various forms of HEV71 vaccine designs are highlighted in this review. Given the rapid progress of research in this area, eradication of the virus is likely to be achieved. PMID:25964873

  16. The pros and cons of human therapeutic cloning in the public debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Irmgard

    2002-09-11

    Few issues linked to genetic research have raised as much controversial debate as the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer technology to create embryos specifically for stem cell research. Whereas European countries unanimously agree that reproductive cloning should be prohibited there is no agreement to be found on whether or not research into therapeutic cloning should be permitted. Since the UK took the lead and voted in favour of regulations allowing therapeutic cloning the public debate has intensified on the Continent. This debate reflects the wide spectrum of diverse religious and secular moralities that are prevalent in modern multicultural European democratic societies. Arguments range from putting forward strictly utilitarian views that weight the moral issues involved against the potential benefits that embryonic stem cell research may harbour to considering the embryo as a human being, endowed with human dignity and human rights from the moment of its creation, concluding that its use for research is unethical and should be strictly prohibited. Given the current state of dissension among the various European states, it is difficult to predict whether 'non-harmonisation' will prevail or whether in the long run 'harmonisation' of legislation that will allow stem cell research will evolve in the EU.

  17. [Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against human papilloma virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, A E; Hoffmann, T K; Klussmann, J P; Kaufmann, A M

    2010-08-01

    Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) has been identified as the cause of recurrent papillomatosis and of a subgroup of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. A change in prevalence of these lesions, especially for oropharyngeal carcinoma, can be expected as a consequence of the introduction of prophylactic HPV vaccines for young women, targeting the most frequent high- and low-risk HPV subtypes. Vaccination for the major low-risk HPV types has proven to be highly effective against genital warts and activity against papillomatosis can be expected. The possibilities of prophylactic HPV vaccination as well as new developments and the rationale for therapeutic vaccines are discussed on the basis of the current literature.

  18. The value of non-human primates in the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meer, P.J.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34153790X; Kooijman, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322905788; Van Der Laan, J.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374879966; Moors, E.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/20241664X; Schellekens, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068406762

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is increasingly focusing on the development of biological therapeutics. These molecules generally cause no off-target toxicity and are highly species specific. Therefore, non-human primates (NHPs) are often the only relevant species in which to conduct regulatory safety

  19. Evaluation of 188Re-labeled PEGylated nanoliposome as a radionuclide therapeutic agent in an orthotopic glioma-bearing rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang FYJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feng-Yun J Huang,1 Te-Wei Lee,2 Chih-Hsien Chang,2 Liang-Cheng Chen,2 Wei-Hsin Hsu,2 Chien-Wen Chang,1 Jem-Mau Lo1 1Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan; 2Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan Purpose: In this study, the 188Re-labeled PEGylated nanoliposome (188Re-liposome was prepared and evaluated as a therapeutic agent for glioma.Materials and methods: The reporter cell line, F98luc was prepared via Lentivector expression kit system and used to set up the orthotopic glioma-bearing rat model for non-invasive bioluminescent imaging. The maximum tolerated dose applicable in Fischer344 rats was explored via body weight monitoring of the rats after single intravenous injection of 188Re-liposome with varying dosages before the treatment study. The OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software was utilized for estimating the radiation dosimetry. To assess the therapeutic efficacy, tumor-bearing rats were intravenously administered 188Re-liposome or normal saline followed by monitoring of the tumor growth and animal survival time. In addition, the histopathological examinations of tumors were conducted on the 188Re-liposome-treated rats.Results: By using bioluminescent imaging, the well-established reporter cell line (F98luc showed a high relationship between cell number and its bioluminescent intensity (R2=0.99 in vitro; furthermore, it could also provide clear tumor imaging for monitoring tumor growth in vivo. The maximum tolerated dose of 188Re-liposome in Fischer344 rats was estimated to be 333 MBq. According to the dosimetry results, higher equivalent doses were observed in spleen and kidneys while very less were in normal brain, red marrow, and thyroid. For therapeutic efficacy study, the progression of tumor growth in terms of tumor volume and/or tumor weight was significantly slower for the 188Re-liposome-treated group than the control group (P<0.05. As a result, the

  20. Functional human antibody CDR fusions as long-acting therapeutic endocrine agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Yan; Wang, Ying; Jia, Haiqun; Kang, Mingchao; Luo, Xiaozhou; Caballero, Dawna; Gonzalez, Jose; Sherwood, Lance; Nunez, Vanessa; Wang, Danling; Woods, Ashley; Schultz, Peter G; Wang, Feng

    2015-02-03

    On the basis of the 3D structure of a bovine antibody with a well-folded, ultralong complementarity-determining region (CDR), we have developed a versatile approach for generating human or humanized antibody agonists with excellent pharmacological properties. Using human growth hormone (hGH) and human leptin (hLeptin) as model proteins, we have demonstrated that functional human antibody CDR fusions can be efficiently engineered by grafting the native hormones into different CDRs of the humanized antibody Herceptin. The resulting Herceptin CDR fusion proteins were expressed in good yields in mammalian cells and retain comparable in vitro biological activity to the native hormones. Pharmacological studies in rodents indicated a 20- to 100-fold increase in plasma circulating half-life for these antibody agonists and significantly extended in vivo activities in the GH-deficient rat model and leptin-deficient obese mouse model for the hGH and hLeptin antibody fusions, respectively. These results illustrate the utility of antibody CDR fusions as a general and versatile strategy for generating long-acting protein therapeutics.

  1. Therapeutic touch affects DNA synthesis and mineralization of human osteoblasts in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Ankur; Walsh, Stephen J; Wang, Yatzen; McCarthy, MaryBeth; Gronowicz, Gloria

    2008-11-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) techniques are commonly used in hospitals and private medical facilities; however, the effectiveness of many of these practices has not been thoroughly studied in a scientific manner. Developed by Dr. Dolores Krieger and Dora Kunz, Therapeutic Touch is one of these CAM practices and is a highly disciplined five-step process by which a practitioner can generate energy through their hands to promote healing. There are numerous clinical studies on the effects of TT but few in vitro studies. Our purpose was to determine if Therapeutic Touch had any effect on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization in vitro. TT was performed twice a week for 10 min each on human osteoblasts (HOBs) and on an osteosarcoma-derived cell line, SaOs-2. No significant differences were found in DNA synthesis, assayed by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation at 1 or 2 weeks for SaOs-2 or 1 week for HOBs. However, after four TT treatments in 2 weeks, TT significantly (p = 0.03) increased HOB DNA synthesis compared to controls. Immunocytochemistry for Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) confirmed these data. At 2 weeks in differentiation medium, TT significantly increased mineralization in HOBs (p = 0.016) and decreased mineralization in SaOs-2 (p = 0.0007), compared to controls. Additionally, Northern blot analysis indicated a TT-induced increase in mRNA expression for Type I collagen, bone sialoprotein, and alkaline phosphatase in HOBs and a decrease of these bone markers in SaOs-2 cells. In conclusion, Therapeutic Touch appears to increase human osteoblast DNA synthesis, differentiation and mineralization, and decrease differentiation and mineralization in a human osteosarcoma-derived cell line. (c) 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Quercetin in Cancer Treatment, Alone or in Combination with Conventional Therapeutics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Ana Filipa; Ribeiro, Marina; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Pires, Ana Salomé; Teixo, Ricardo Jorge; Tralhão, José Guilherme; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a problem of global importance, since the incidence is increasing worldwide and therapeutic options are generally limited. Thus, it becomes imperative to find new therapeutic targets as well as new molecules with therapeutic potential for tumors. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that may be potential therapeutic agents. Several studies have shown that these compounds have a higher anticancer potential. Among the flavonoids in the human diet, quercetin is one of the most important. In the last decades, several anticancer properties of quercetin have been described, such as cell signaling, pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant effects, growth suppression. In fact, it is now well known that quercetin has diverse biological effects, inhibiting multiple enzymes involved in cell proliferation, as well as, in signal transduction pathways. On the other hand, there are also studies reporting potential synergistic effects when combined quercetin with chemotherapeutic agents or radiotherapy. In fact, several studies which aim to explore the anticancer potential of these combined treatments have already been published, the majority with promising results. Actually it is well known that quercetin can act on the chemosensitization and radiosensitization but also as chemoprotective and radioprotective, protecting normal cells of the side effects that results from chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which obviously provides notable advantages in their use in anticancer treatment. Thus, all these data indicate that quercetin may have a key role in anticancer treatment. In this context, this review is focused on the relationship between flavonoids and cancer, with special emphasis on the role of quercetin.

  3. Combination therapy of potential gene to enhance oral cancer therapeutic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-regulation related to uncontrolled cell division and promotes progression in tumor. Over-expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been detected in oral cancer cells. EGFR-targeting agents are potential therapeutic modalities for treating oral cancer based on our in vitro study. Liposome nanotechnology is used to encapsulate siRNA and were modified with target ligand to receptors on the surface of tumor cells. We used EGFR siRNA to treat oral cancer in vitro.

  4. New and exploratory therapeutic agents for asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeadon, Michael; Diamant, Zuzana

    2000-01-01

    ... been accomplished. It is well recognized that new drugs are essentially the result of basic and applied research. Early in this century, the advent of a chemical approach to medicine led to many extraordinary developments. The past few decades have been characterized by a search to understand the mechanisms of disease- a quest spurred by the recognition that if pathogenic processes were known, new therapeutic opportunities would ensue. The validity of this concept is beautifully illustrated in the case of asthma. Here is a d...

  5. [Unconventional disease agents--a danger for humans and animals?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaden, O R

    1994-02-01

    The occurrence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Great Britain in 1985/86, has focused again the public concern as well as scientific interest to the Scrapie disease of sheep and goat known more than 150 years. The agents of scrapie and BSE are characterized by unusual biological and physical-chemical properties, especially their high tenacity. Therefore, they are also designated "unconventional agents of viruses". Different theories have been proposed about their infectious characteristics--especially because of the apparent or real missing of an agent-specific nucleic acid--which are named Virinos, Prions or Nemavirus. The broad host range of Scrapie respective BSE, which includes domestic and wild ruminants, Suidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, small rodents, birds and non-primates, has created some concern since there might be an aetiological correlation between the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of man (Creutzfeld-Jakob- and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker-Disease) and that of animals. Although at present neither epidemiological nor molecular biological evidence whatsoever was proved, the hypothesis cannot be completely disproved. The probability of infection through digestive tract seems to be rather unlikely but special precautions should be taken as far as production, investigation and application of human medicine drugs of animal origin. Furthermore, research about the aetiology of "unconventional agents" and pathogenesis of resulting diseases is necessary and should be intensified in Germany. Finally, only an early intra vitam-Diagnose and in vitro detection can avoid an further spread of this new category of diseases.

  6. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 1--history of six-decades of military experiments with chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns of possible long-term health consequences. Clinical and research evaluation of potential long-term health effects has been difficult because the exposures occurred decades ago, the identity of troops exposed and exposure magnitudes are uncertain, and acute effects during experiments poorly documented. In contrast, a companion article describes the large amount of information available about the specific agents tested and their long-term health effects. This short history describes U.S. military chemical-agent experiments with human subjects and identifies tested agents. Finally, the demonstrated need to anticipate future health concerns from military personnel involved in such military testing suggests current and future military researchers should be required, by law and regulation, to fully record the identity of those exposed, relevant exposure magnitude, and complete medical information for all subjects. New study protocols and institutional review board approvals for research involving military personnel should reflect this need.

  7. A conceptual and computational model of moral decision making in human and artificial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Wendell; Franklin, Stan; Allen, Colin

    2010-07-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in general, comprehensive models of human cognition. Such models aim to explain higher-order cognitive faculties, such as deliberation and planning. Given a computational representation, the validity of these models can be tested in computer simulations such as software agents or embodied robots. The push to implement computational models of this kind has created the field of artificial general intelligence (AGI). Moral decision making is arguably one of the most challenging tasks for computational approaches to higher-order cognition. The need for increasingly autonomous artificial agents to factor moral considerations into their choices and actions has given rise to another new field of inquiry variously known as Machine Morality, Machine Ethics, Roboethics, or Friendly AI. In this study, we discuss how LIDA, an AGI model of human cognition, can be adapted to model both affective and rational features of moral decision making. Using the LIDA model, we will demonstrate how moral decisions can be made in many domains using the same mechanisms that enable general decision making. Comprehensive models of human cognition typically aim for compatibility with recent research in the cognitive and neural sciences. Global workspace theory, proposed by the neuropsychologist Bernard Baars (1988), is a highly regarded model of human cognition that is currently being computationally instantiated in several software implementations. LIDA (Franklin, Baars, Ramamurthy, & Ventura, 2005) is one such computational implementation. LIDA is both a set of computational tools and an underlying model of human cognition, which provides mechanisms that are capable of explaining how an agent's selection of its next action arises from bottom-up collection of sensory data and top-down processes for making sense of its current situation. We will describe how the LIDA model helps integrate emotions into the human decision-making process, and we

  8. Human Health Hazards from Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli of Animal Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, A. M.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2009-01-01

    of antimicrobial agents in food animals may add to the burden of antimicrobial resistance in humans. Bacteria from the animal reservoir that carry resistance to antimicrobial agents that are regarded as highly or critically important in human therapy (e.g., aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and third- and fourth......Because of the intensive use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production, meat is frequently contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Humans can be colonized with E. coli of animal origin, and because of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, these bacteria may...... cause infections for which limited therapeutic options are available. This may lead to treatment failure and can have serious consequences for the patient. Furthermore, E. coli of animal origin may act as a donor of antimicrobial resistance genes for other pathogenic E. coli. Thus, the intensive use...

  9. Preclinical Evidence for the Therapeutic Potential of CD38-Targeted Immuno-Chemotherapy in Multiple Myeloma Patients Refractory to Lenalidomide and Bortezomib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nijhof, I. S.; Groen, R. W. J.; Noort, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    lenalidomide- and/or bortezomib-refractory patients. In these assays, lenalidomide but not bortezomib, synergistically enhanced daratumumab-mediated multiple myeloma lysis through activation of natural killer cells. Finally, in an in vivo xenograft model, only the combination of daratumumab with lenalidomide......Purpose: Novel therapeutic agents have significantly improved the survival of patients with multiple myeloma. Nonetheless, the prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma who become refractory to the novel agents lenalidomide and bortezomib is very poor, indicating the urgent need for new...... therapeutic options for these patients. The human CD38 monoclonal antibody daratumumab is being evaluated as a novel therapy for multiple myeloma. Prompted with the encouraging results of ongoing clinical phase I/II trials, we now addressed the potential value of daratumumab alone or in combination...

  10. Molecular hydrogen in sports medicine: new therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, S M

    2015-04-01

    In the past 2 decades, molecular hydrogen emerged as a novel therapeutic agent, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects demonstrated in plethora of animal disease models and human studies. Beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen in clinical environment are observed especially in oxidative stress-mediated diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, brain stem infarction, rheumatoid arthritis, or neurodegenerative diseases. A number of more recent studies have reported that molecular hydrogen affects cell signal transduction and acts as an alkalizing agent, with these newly identified mechanisms of action having the potential to widen its application in clinical medicine even further. In particular, hydrogen therapy may be an effective and specific innovative treatment for exercise-induced oxidative stress and sports injury, with potential for the improvement of exercise performance. This review will summarize recent research findings regarding the clinical aspects of molecular hydrogen use, emphasizing its application in the field of sports medicine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Characterization of a Francisella tularensis-Caenorhabditis elegans Pathosystem for the Evaluation of Therapeutic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamani, Elamparithi; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Kim, Wooseong; Okoli, Ikechukwu; Hernandez, Ana M.; Lee, Kiho; Nau, Gerard J.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia. Because of its potential as a bioterrorism agent, there is a need for new therapeutic agents. We therefore developed a whole-animal Caenorhabditis elegans-F. tularensis pathosystem for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize potential therapeutic compounds. We found that the C. elegans p38 mitogen-activate protein (MAP) kinase cascade is involved in the immune response to F. tularensis, and we developed a robust F. tularensis-mediated C. elegans killing assay with a Z′ factor consistently of >0.5, which was then utilized to screen a library of FDA-approved compounds that included 1,760 small molecules. In addition to clinically used antibiotics, five FDA-approved drugs were also identified as potential hits, including the anti-inflammatory drug diflunisal that showed anti-F. tularensis activity in vitro. Moreover, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diflunisal, at 4× MIC, blocked the replication of an F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) in primary human macrophages and nonphagocytic cells. Diflunisal was nontoxic to human erythrocytes and HepG2 human liver cells at concentrations of ≥32 μg/ml. Finally, diflunisal exhibited synergetic activity with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in both a checkerboard assay and a macrophage infection assay. In conclusion, the liquid C. elegans-F. tularensis LVS assay described here allows screening for anti-F. tularensis compounds and suggests that diflunisal could potentially be repurposed for the management of tularemia. PMID:28652232

  12. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human–Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Abubshait

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents like robots, as long as their appearance and/or behavior allows them to be perceived as intentional beings. Previous studies have shown that human appearance and reliable behavior induce mind perception to robot agents, and positively affect attitudes and performance in human–robot interaction. What has not been investigated so far is whether different triggers of mind perception have an independent or interactive effect on attitudes and performance in human–robot interaction. We examine this question by manipulating agent appearance (human vs. robot and behavior (reliable vs. random within the same paradigm and examine how congruent (human/reliable vs. robot/random versus incongruent (human/random vs. robot/reliable combinations of these triggers affect performance (i.e., gaze following and attitudes (i.e., agent ratings in human–robot interaction. The results show that both appearance and behavior affect human–robot interaction but that the two triggers seem to operate in isolation, with appearance more strongly impacting attitudes, and behavior more strongly affecting performance. The implications of these findings for human–robot interaction are discussed.

  13. [Diagnostic and therapeutic use of human anti-D (Rho) monoclonal antibodies. Evaluation and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P; Goossens, D; Champomier, F; Tsikas, G; Liberge, G; Leblanc, J; Richard, C; Bailleul, C; Salmon, C

    1985-12-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies will be essential in medicine. They are valuable tools for biological diagnosis and therapeutics. Our model, human monoclonal antibodies directed against the Rhesus D antigen can be used for the determination of the Rhesus D phenotype and for the suppression of Rh(D) immunisation in women. These new products require new procedures of preparation, new regulations for the quality controls, which will be discussed in this paper.

  14. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  15. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicka, Iga

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type II is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The disease is associated with occurence of insoluble, fibrillar, protein aggregates in islets of Langerhans in the pancreas - islet amyloid. The main constituent of these protein fibers is the human islet...... of diabetes type II, while revealing the structure(s) of islet amyloid fibrils is necessary for potential design of therapeutic agents....

  16. Evaluating mice lacking serum carboxylesterase as a behavioral model for nerve agent intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Emily N; Ferrara-Bowens, Teresa M; Chachich, Mark E; Honnold, Cary L; Rothwell, Cristin C; Hoard-Fruchey, Heidi M; Lesyna, Catherine A; Johnson, Erik A; Cerasoli, Douglas M; McDonough, John H; Cadieux, C Linn

    2018-06-07

    Mice and other rodents are typically utilized for chemical warfare nerve agent research. Rodents have large amounts of carboxylesterase in their blood, while humans do not. Carboxylesterase nonspecifically binds to and detoxifies nerve agent. The presence of this natural bioscavenger makes mice and other rodents poor models for studies identifying therapeutics to treat humans exposed to nerve agents. To obviate this problem, a serum carboxylesterase knockout (Es1 KO) mouse was created. In this study, Es1 KO and wild type (WT) mice were assessed for differences in gene expression, nerve agent (soman; GD) median lethal dose (MLD) values, and behavior prior to and following nerve agent exposure. No expression differences were detected between Es1 KO and WT mice in more than 34 000 mouse genes tested. There was a significant difference between Es1 KO and WT mice in MLD values, as the MLD for GD-exposed WT mice was significantly higher than the MLD for GD-exposed Es1 KO mice. Behavioral assessments of Es1 KO and WT mice included an open field test, a zero maze, a Barnes maze, and a sucrose preference test (SPT). While sex differences were observed in various measures of these tests, overall, Es1 KO mice behaved similarly to WT mice. The two genotypes also showed virtually identical neuropathological changes following GD exposure. Es1 KO mice appear to have an enhanced susceptibility to GD toxicity while retaining all other behavioral and physiological responses to this nerve agent, making the Es1 KO mouse a more human-like model for nerve agent research.

  17. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangerau, H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

  18. The neurophysiology of human touch and eye gaze and its effects on therapeutic relationships and healing: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Fiona; Wiechula, Rick; Feo, Rebecca; Schultz, Tim; Kitson, Alison

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this scoping review is to examine and map the range of neurophysiological impacts of human touch and eye gaze, and better understand their possible links to the therapeutic relationship and the process of healing. The specific question is "what neurophysiological impacts of human touch and eye gaze have been reported in relation to therapeutic relationships and healing?"

  19. The Therapeutic Potential of Brown Adipocytes in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig ePorter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences represent a significant clinical problem. From a thermodynamic standpoint, obesity results from a discord in energy intake and expenditure. To date, lifestyle interventions based on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure have proved ineffective in the prevention and treatment of obesity, owing to poor long-term adherence to such interventions. Thus, an effective strategy to prevent or correct obesity is currently lacking.As the combustion engines of our cells, mitochondria play a critical role in energy expenditure. At a whole body level, approximately 80% of mitochondrial membrane potential generated by fuel oxidation is used to produce ATP, and the remaining 20% is lost through heat-producing uncoupling reactions. The coupling of mitochondrial respiration to ATP production represents an important component in whole body energy expenditure. Brown adipose tissue (BAT is densely populated with mitochondria containing the inner mitochondrial proton carrier uncoupling protein 1 (UCP. UCP1 uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, meaning that mitochondrial membrane potential is dissipated as heat. The recent re-discovery of BAT depots in adult humans has rekindled scientific interest in the manipulation of mitochondrial uncoupling reactions as a means to increase metabolic rate, thereby counteracting obesity and its associated metabolic phenotype. In this article, we discuss the evidence for the role BAT plays in metabolic rate and glucose and lipid metabolism in humans, and the potential for UCP1 recruitment in the white adipose tissue of humans. While the future holds much promise for a therapeutic role of UCP1 expressing adipocytes in human energy metabolism, particularly in the context of obesity, tissue specific strategies that activate or recruit UCP1 in human adipocytes represent an obligatory translation step for this early promise to be realized.

  20. Bacterial agents and sensitivity pattern of neonatal conjuctivitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In Africa alone, between 1000 – 4000 children are blinded annually by conjunctivitis. In view of the changing aetiological agents documented in other parts of the world and evolving resistance of infective agents to therapeutic agents, the present study was designed to define the bacterial agents, their antibiotic ...

  1. Therapeutic response assessment of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma: Utility of contrast-enhanced agent detection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Kyo; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K.; Kim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Ji Yeon; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lee, Jongmee; Lee, Soon Jin; Lim, Jae Hoon

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of contrast-enhanced agent detection imaging (ADI) in the assessment of the therapeutic response to percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Ninety patients with a total of 97 nodular HCCs (mean, 2.1 ± 1.3 cm; range, 1.0-5.0 cm) treated with percutaneous RF ablation under the ultrasound guidance were evaluated with contrast-enhanced ADI after receiving an intravenous bolus injection of a microbubble contrast agent (SH U 508A). We obtained serial contrast-enhanced ADI images during the time period from 15 to 90 s after the initiation of the bolus contrast injection. All of the patients underwent a follow-up four-phase helical CT at 1 month after RF ablation, which was then repeated at 2-4 month intervals during a period of at least 12 months. The results of the contrast-enhanced ADI were compared with those of the follow-up CT in terms of the presence or absence of residual unablated tumor and local tumor progression in the treated lesions. Results: On contrast-enhanced ADI, technical success was obtained in 94 (97%) of the 97 HCCs, while residual unablated tumors were found in three HCCs (3%). Two of the three tumors that were suspicious (was not proven) for incomplete ablation were subjected to additional RF ablation. The remaining one enhancing lesion that was suspicious of a residual tumor on contrast-enhanced ADI was revealed to be reactive hyperemia at the 1-month follow-up CT. Therefore; the diagnostic concordance between the contrast-enhanced ADI and 1-month follow-up CT was 99%. Of the 94 ablated HCCs without residual tumors on both the contrast-enhanced ADI and 1-month follow-up CT after the initial RF ablation, five (5%) had CT findings of local tumor progression at a subsequent follow-up CT. Conclusion: Despite its limitations in predicting local tumor progression in the treated tumors, contrast-enhanced ADI is potentially useful for evaluating the

  2. HoldemML: A framework to generate No Limit Hold'em Poker agents from human player strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Filipe Teófilo; Luís Paulo Reis

    2011-01-01

    Developing computer programs that play Poker at human level is considered to be challenge to the A.I research community, due to its incomplete information and stochastic nature. Due to these characteristics of the game, a competitive agent must manage luck and use opponent modeling to be successful at short term and therefore be profitable. In this paper we propose the creation of No Limit Hold'em Poker agents by copying strategies of the best human players, by analyzing past games between th...

  3. Selective estrogen receptor modulators as brain therapeutic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Arévalo, María Ángeles; Santos-Galindo, María; Lagunas, Natalia; Azcoitia, I.; García-Segura, Luis M.

    2011-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), used for the treatment of breast cancer, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms, affect the nervous system. Some SERMs trigger neuroprotective mechanisms and reduce neural damage in different experimental models of neural trauma, brain inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, cognitive impairment, and affective disorders. New SERMs with specific actions on neurons and glial cells may represent promising therapeutic tools for the brain. © 2011 So...

  4. Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of human monoclonal antibodies against H5N1 influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron P Simmons

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available New prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to combat human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses are needed. We generated neutralizing anti-H5N1 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and tested their efficacy for prophylaxis and therapy in a murine model of infection.Using Epstein-Barr virus we immortalized memory B cells from Vietnamese adults who had recovered from infections with HPAI H5N1 viruses. Supernatants from B cell lines were screened in a virus neutralization assay. B cell lines secreting neutralizing antibodies were cloned and the mAbs purified. The cross-reactivity of these antibodies for different strains of H5N1 was tested in vitro by neutralization assays, and their prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in vivo was tested in mice. In vitro, mAbs FLA3.14 and FLD20.19 neutralized both Clade I and Clade II H5N1 viruses, whilst FLA5.10 and FLD21.140 neutralized Clade I viruses only. In vivo, FLA3.14 and FLA5.10 conferred protection from lethality in mice challenged with A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1 in a dose-dependent manner. mAb prophylaxis provided a statistically significant reduction in pulmonary virus titer, reduced associated inflammation in the lungs, and restricted extrapulmonary dissemination of the virus. Therapeutic doses of FLA3.14, FLA5.10, FLD20.19, and FLD21.140 provided robust protection from lethality at least up to 72 h postinfection with A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1. mAbs FLA3.14, FLD21.140 and FLD20.19, but not FLA5.10, were also therapeutically active in vivo against the Clade II virus A/Indonesia/5/2005 (H5N1.These studies provide proof of concept that fully human mAbs with neutralizing activity can be rapidly generated from the peripheral blood of convalescent patients and that these mAbs are effective for the prevention and treatment of H5N1 infection in a mouse model. A panel of neutralizing, cross-reactive mAbs might be useful for prophylaxis or adjunctive treatment of human cases of H5N1

  5. Assessment of therapeutic effect of human choriogonadotropin in a chemical cystitis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Tanik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, female rats induced with chemical cystitis were administered the hormone human choriogonadotropin (HCG, and it was aimed to reveal the usefulness of HCG in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. The materials for this study were 32 Wistar albino female rats. The study groups were formed as follows: the cystitis group (Group 1, the cystitis + HCG protection group (Group 2, the cystitis + HCG treatment group (Group 3, and the control group (Group 4, with eight rats in each group. In this study, blood and urine samples were taken from the rats, they were euthanized, and their bladders were removed for glutathione, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma measurements. It was observed that tissue damage in Group 2 was lower than that in the other two groups. Glutathione levels in Groups 2 and 4 were significantly higher than in Groups 1 and 3 (p = 0.01. Malondialdehyde levels of Groups 2 and 4 were significantly lower than the values in Groups 1 and 3 (p < 0.001. When the cystitis groups were compared in terms of their interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels, the lowest interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were detected in Group 3. It was found that HCG has positive effects on experimental cystitis in rats. This study revealed that HCG should be researched as a therapeutic agent and formed a step for studies to be carried out on this subject.

  6. Agent-based simulation for human-induced hazard analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulleit, William M; Drewek, Matthew W

    2011-02-01

    Terrorism could be treated as a hazard for design purposes. For instance, the terrorist hazard could be analyzed in a manner similar to the way that seismic hazard is handled. No matter how terrorism is dealt with in the design of systems, the need for predictions of the frequency and magnitude of the hazard will be required. And, if the human-induced hazard is to be designed for in a manner analogous to natural hazards, then the predictions should be probabilistic in nature. The model described in this article is a prototype model that used agent-based modeling (ABM) to analyze terrorist attacks. The basic approach in this article of using ABM to model human-induced hazards has been preliminarily validated in the sense that the attack magnitudes seem to be power-law distributed and attacks occur mostly in regions where high levels of wealth pass through, such as transit routes and markets. The model developed in this study indicates that ABM is a viable approach to modeling socioeconomic-based infrastructure systems for engineering design to deal with human-induced hazards. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Use of flubendazole as a therapeutic agent against rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) in intensive cultures of the harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Nielsen, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    down production and subsequently use a therapeutic agent to eliminate all zooplankton in the system before restart with a stock culture free of rotifers. We tested flubendazole as a mean of controlling rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) in intensive laboratory cultures of the harpacticoid copepod (Tisbe...... holothuria). Flubendazole was lethal to rotifers in concentrations as low as 0.05 mg L−1. There was no significant effect on the concentration of copepods, even at the highest concentration tested, i.e. 5.0 mg L−1 flubendazole. We conclude that flubendazole is an effective drug for control of B. plicatilis...

  8. Immortalized human myotonic dystrophy muscle cell lines to assess therapeutic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Arandel, Ludovic; Polay Espinoza, Micaela; Matloka, Magdalena; Bazinet, Audrey; De Dea Diniz, Damily; Naouar, Na?ra; Rau, Fr?d?rique; Jollet, Arnaud; Edom-Vovard, Fr?d?rique; Mamchaoui, Kamel; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Puymirat, Jack; Battail, Christophe; Boland, Anne; Deleuze, Jean-Francois

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) are autosomal dominant neuromuscular diseases caused by microsatellite expansions and belong to the family of RNA-dominant disorders. Availability of cellular models in which the DM mutation is expressed within its natural context is essential to facilitate efforts to identify new therapeutic compounds. Here, we generated immortalized DM1 and DM2 human muscle cell lines that display nuclear RNA aggregates of expanded rep...

  9. Non-Human Primate Models of Orthopoxvirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schmitt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox, one of the most destructive diseases, has been successfully eradicated through a worldwide vaccination campaign. Since immunization programs have been stopped, the number of people with vaccinia virus induced immunity is declining. This leads to an increase in orthopoxvirus (OPXV infections in humans, as well as in animals. Additionally, potential abuse of Variola virus (VARV, the causative agent of smallpox, or monkeypox virus, as agents of bioterrorism, has renewed interest in development of antiviral therapeutics and of safer vaccines. Due to its high risk potential, research with VARV is restricted to two laboratories worldwide. Therefore, numerous animal models of other OPXV infections have been developed in the last decades. Non-human primates are especially suitable due to their close relationship to humans. This article provides a review about on non-human primate models of orthopoxvirus infections.

  10. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human–Robot Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Abubshait, Abdulaziz; Wiese, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents lik...

  11. Targeted Anticancer Immunotoxins and Cytotoxic Agents with Direct Killing Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kawakami

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of the bioinformatics approach to characterize cell-surface antigens and receptors on tumor cells, it remains difficult to generate novel cancer vaccines or neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapeutics. Among targeted cancer therapeutics, biologicals with targetable antibodies or ligands conjugated or fused to toxins or chemicals for direct cell-killing ability have been developed over the last 2 decades. These conjugated or fused chimeric proteins are termed immunotoxins or cytotoxic agents. Two agents, DAB389IL-2 (ONTAKTM targeting the interleukin-2 receptor and CD33-calicheamicin (Mylotarg®, have been approved by the FDA for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML, respectively. Such targetable agents, including RFB4(dsFv-PE38 (BL22, IL13-PE38QQR, and Tf-CRM107, are being tested in clinical trials. Several agents using unique technology such as a cleavable adapter or immunoliposomes with antibodies are also in the preclinical stage. This review summarizes the generation, mechanism, and development of these agents. In addition, possible future directions of this therapeutic approach are discussed.

  12. Therapeutic administration of a recombinant human monoclonal antibody reduces the severity of chikungunya virus disease in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Broeckel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne virus that causes a febrile syndrome in humans associated with acute and chronic debilitating joint and muscle pain. Currently no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are available to prevent or treat CHIKV infections. We recently isolated a panel of potently neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, one (4N12 of which exhibited prophylactic and post-exposure therapeutic activity against CHIKV in immunocompromised mice. Here, we describe the development of an engineered CHIKV mAb, designated SVIR001, that has similar antigen binding and neutralization profiles to its parent, 4N12. Because therapeutic administration of SVIR001 in immunocompetent mice significantly reduced viral load in joint tissues, we evaluated its efficacy in a rhesus macaque model of CHIKV infection. Rhesus macaques that were treated after infection with SVIR001 showed rapid elimination of viremia and less severe joint infiltration and disease compared to animals treated with SVIR002, an isotype control mAb. SVIR001 reduced viral burden at the site of infection and at distant sites and also diminished the numbers of activated innate immune cells and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. SVIR001 therapy; however, did not substantively reduce the induction of CHIKV-specific B or T cell responses. Collectively, these results show promising therapeutic activity of a human anti-CHIKV mAb in rhesus macaques and provide proof-of-principle for its possible use in humans to treat active CHIKV infections.

  13. Nanoparticles for therapeutic and diagnostic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Yin To

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedicine focuses on the development and engineering of novel and unique therapeutic and diagnostic agents that can overcome the challenges associated with using traditional modalities. Nanoparticles (NPs) in the size range between 1 and 1000 nm have many advantages for use in these applications, such as, low polydispersity, established characterization methodologies, and the ability to be loaded with therapeutics for diseases, conjugated to targeting ligands to enhance specificity, and co...

  14. Topical antifungal agents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, K B

    1996-10-01

    So many topical antifungal agents have been introduced that it has become very difficult to select the proper agent for a given infection. Nonspecific agents have been available for many years, and they are still effective in many situations. These agents include Whitfield's ointment, Castellani paint, gentian violet, potassium permanganate, undecylenic acid and selenium sulfide. Specific antifungal agents include, among others, the polyenes (nystatin, amphotericin B), the imidazoles (metronidazole, clotrimazole) and the allylamines (terbinafine, naftifine). Although the choice of an antifungal agent should be based on an accurate diagnosis, many clinicians believe that topical miconazole is a relatively effective agent for the treatment of most mycotic infections. Terbinafine and other newer drugs have primary fungicidal effects. Compared with older antifungal agents, these newer drugs can be used in lower concentrations and shorter therapeutic courses. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacies and cost advantages of both newer and traditional agents.

  15. Autonomous Agents on Expedition: Humans and Progenitor Ants and Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilee, M. L.; Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Truszkowski, W. F.

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) is an advanced mission architecture based on a social insect analog of many specialized spacecraft working together to achieve mission goals. The principal mission concept driving the ANTS architecture is a Main Belt Asteroid Survey in the 2020s that will involve a thousand or more nano-technology enabled, artificially intelligent, autonomous pico-spacecraft (architecture. High level, mission-oriented behaviors are to be managed by a control / communications layer of the swarm, whereas common low level functions required of all spacecraft, e.g. attitude control and guidance and navigation, are handled autonomically on each spacecraft. At the higher levels of mission planning and social interaction deliberative techniques are to be used. For the asteroid survey, ANTS acts as a large community of cooperative agents while for precursor missions there arises the intriguing possibility of Progenitor ANTS and humans acting together as agents. For optimal efficiency and responsiveness for individual spacecraft at the lowest levels of control we have been studying control methods based on nonlinear dynamical systems. We describe the critically important autonomous control architecture of the ANTS mission concept and a sequence of partial implementations that feature increasingly autonomous behaviors. The scientific and engineering roles that these Progenitor ANTS could play in human missions or remote missions with near real time human interactions, particularly to the Moon and Mars, will be discussed.

  16. Effects of antineoplastic agents and ionizing irradiation on a human testicular cancer xenograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osieka, R.; Pfeiffer, R.; Glatte, P.; Schmidt, C.G.; Bamberg, M.; Scherer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Chemotherapy has afforded a high percentage of definitive cures in advanced testicular cancer. Nevertheless some patients with large tumor burden still succumb to chemorefractory disease. Therefore preclinical and clinical evaluation of new drugs and agents not primarily used against this type of disease are still mandatory. For preclinical drug screening purposes heterotransplantation of specific human tumors yields a model with high validity for tumor markers and drug response. Heterotransplantation of a human embryonal testicular cancer was used for simultaneous testing of established agents such as cisplatin, melphalan, bleomycin, vinblastine, etoposide and adriamycin and some newer derivatives such as PHM or mafosfamide. Furthermore agents such as procarbazine, dacarbazine and methyl-CCNU that cross the blood-brain-barrier displayed some interesting activity. The results hint at a unique chemosensitivity pattern of the xenograft line, with some accordance between clinical response to vinblastine and bleomycin and good response of the xenografts to bleomycin but not to vinblastine. Radiotherapy was also effective against this tumor line, but there was not much difference in response when the schedule of fractionation was changed. It is concluded that a combined modality approach might salvage patients with residual, chemorefractory disease. (orig.) [de

  17. Marine Algae as a Potential Source for Anti-Obesity Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Wan-Loy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major epidemic that poses a worldwide threat to human health, as it is also associated with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Therapeutic intervention through weight loss drugs, accompanied by diet and exercise, is one of the options for the treatment and management of obesity. However, the only approved anti-obesity drug currently available in the market is orlistat, a synthetic inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. Other anti-obesity drugs are still being evaluated at different stages of clinical trials, while some have been withdrawn due to their severe adverse effects. Thus, there is a need to look for new anti-obesity agents, especially from biological sources. Marine algae, especially seaweeds are a promising source of anti-obesity agents. Four major bioactive compounds from seaweeds which have the potential as anti-obesity agents are fucoxanthin, alginates, fucoidans and phlorotannins. The anti-obesity effects of such compounds are due to several mechanisms, which include the inhibition of lipid absorption and metabolism (e.g., fucoxanthin and fucoidans, effect on satiety feeling (e.g., alginates, and inhibition of adipocyte differentiation (e.g., fucoxanthin. Further studies, especially testing bioactive compounds in long-term human trials are required before any new anti-obesity drugs based on algal products can be developed.

  18. Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of diosgenin, a food saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Jayadev; Mehta, Rekha

    2009-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is a strategy taken to retard, regress, or resist the multistep process of carcinogenesis, including the blockage of its vital morphogenetic milestones viz. normal-preneoplasia-neoplasia-metastasis. For several reasons, including safety, minimal (or no) toxicity and side-effects, and better availability, alternatives such as naturally occurring phytochemicals that are found in foods are becoming increasingly popular over synthetic drugs. Food saponins have been used in complimentary and traditional medicine against a variety of diseases including several cancers. Diosgenin, a naturally occurring steroid saponin found abundantly in legumes and yams, is a well-known precursor of various synthetic steroidal drugs that are extensively used in the pharmaceutical industry. Over the past decade, a series of preclinical and mechanistic studies have been conducted to understand the role of diosgenin as a chemopreventive/therapeutic agent against several cancers. This review highlights the biological activity of diosgenin that contributes to cancer chemoprevention and control. The anticancer mode of action of diosgenin has been demonstrated via modulation of multiple cell signaling events involving critical molecular candidates associated with growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. Altogether, these preclinical and mechanistic findings strongly implicate the use of diosgenin as a novel, multitarget-based chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against several cancer types. Future research in this field will help to establish not only whether diosgenin is safe and efficacious as a chemopreventive agent against several human cancers, but also to develop and evaluate standards of evidence for health claims for diosgenin-containing foods as they become increasingly popular and enter the marketplace labeled as functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  19. Bee Pollen Flavonoids as a Therapeutic Agent in Allergic and Immunological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannesar, Masoomeh; Sharif Shoushtari, Maryam; Majd, Ahmad; Pourpak, Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Bee pollen grains, as the male reproductive part of seed-bearing plants contain considerable concentrations of various phytochemicals and nutrients. Since antiquity, people throughout the world used pollens to cure colds, flu, ulcers, premature aging, anemia and colitis. It is now well-documented that some bee pollen secondary metabolites (e.g. flavonoid) may have positive health effects. In recent years, the flavonoids have attracted much interest because of their wide range of biological properties and their beneficial effects on human health. The current review, points out potential therapeutic effects of bee pollen flavonoids as one of the main bee pollen bioactive compounds in allergic and immunological diseases. Due to the fact that some types of flavonoid components in bee pollen have anti-allergic, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, bee pollen flavonoids can be excellent candidates for future studies including phytotherapy, molecular pharmacology and substitutes for chemicals used in treating allergic and immunological disorders.

  20. New therapeutic agent for radiation synovectomy - preparation of 166Ho-EDTMP-HA particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, H.; Jin, X.; Du, J.; Wang, F.; Chen, D.; Fan, H.; Cheng, Z.; Zhang, J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to prepare new therapeutical agent for radiation synovectomy, Hydroxyapatite (HA) was labelled with 166 Ho by EDTMP that had high affinity to HA particles. Radiolabelling of HA particles was divided into two steps, 166 Ho-EDTMP was prepared first; then mixed with HA particles completely and vibrated for 15 minutes on the micromixer at room temperature, washed 3 times with deionized water. Radiolabelling particle was separated from free 166 Ho via centrifugation to determine its radiolabelling efficiency. 166 Ho-EDTMP-HA and 166 Ho-EDTMP were injected into knee joint of normal rabbits respectively, every group was killed at different time postinjection, took out major organ and collected urine and blood, then weighted and determined their radio counts. HA particles, as a natural component of bone was known to have good compatibility with soft tissue and biodegrade into calcium and phosphate in vivo. It was readily prepared from common chemical and formed into particles of desired size range in a controlled process, it had high stability in vitro and vivo. Radiolabelling of HA particle with 166 Ho by EDTMP was simple to perform and provides an excellent labelling yield that was more than 95% under the optimal labelling condition. The optimal labelling condition at room temperature was pH 6.0-8.0 and vibration time 15 minutes. The absorbed capacity of HA particle was 5 mg Ho/g HA particle and size of radiolabelling particle was at range of 2-5,μm that is suitable for therapy of radiation synovectomy. 166 Ho-EDTMP-HA particle demonstrated high in vitro stability in either normal saline or 1% BSA solution, but instability under extremely acidic condition (pH 1-2). The control studies performed with 166 Ho-EDTMP not bound to HA particle provided information on the distribution of radioactivity that would occur upon leakage of the radiochemical compound from joint. Its short half-life, its extremely low leakage from the joint and its even distribution throughout

  1. Frequency of resistance to methicillin and other antimicrobial agents among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from pigs and their human handlers in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Gordon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged recently worldwide in production animals, particularly pigs and veal calves, which act as reservoirs for MRSA strains for human infection. The study determined the prevalence of MRSA and other resistant strains of S. aureus isolated from the anterior nares of pigs and human handlers on pig farms in Trinidad. Methods: Isolation of S. aureus was done by concurrently inoculating Baird-Parker agar (BPA and Chromagar MRSA (CHROM with swab samples and isolates were identified using standard methods. Suspect MRSA isolates from Chromagar and BPA were subjected to confirmatory test using Oxoid PBP2 latex agglutination test. The disc diffusion method was used to determine resistance to antimicrobial agents. Results: The frequency of isolation of MRSA was 2.1% (15 of 723 for pigs but 0.0% (0 of 72 for humans. Generally, for isolates of S. aureus from humans there was a high frequency of resistance compared with those from pigs, which had moderate resistance to the following antimicrobials: penicillin G (54.5%, 51.5%, ampicillin (59.1%, 49.5%, and streptomycin (59.1%, 37.1%, respectively. There was moderate resistance to tetracycline (36.4%, 41.2% and gentamycin (27.2%, 23.7% for human and pig S. aureus isolates, respectively, and low resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (4.5%, 6.2% and norfloxacin (9.1%, 12.4%, respectively. The frequency of resistance to oxacillin by the disc method was 36.4 and 34.0% from S. aureus isolates from humans and pigs, respectively. Out of a total of 78 isolates of S. aureus from both human and pig sources that were resistant to oxacillin by the disc diffusion method, only 15 (19.2% were confirmed as MRSA by the PBP'2 latex test kit. Conclusions: The detection of MRSA strains in pigs, albeit at a low frequency, coupled with a high frequency of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents in pig and humans could have zoonotic and therapeutic

  2. Therapeutic strategies to improve control of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Pedro; Waeber, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Blood pressure is poorly controlled in most European countries and the control rate is even lower in high-risk patients such as patients with chronic kidney disease, diabetic patients or previous coronary heart disease. Several factors have been associated with poor control, some of which involve the characteristic of the patients themselves, such as socioeconomic factors, or unsuitable life-styles, other factors related to hypertension or to associated comorbidity, but there are also factors directly associated with antihypertensive therapy, mainly involving adherence problems, therapeutic inertia and therapeutic strategies unsuited to difficult-to-control hypertensive patients. It is common knowledge that only 30% of hypertensive patients can be controlled using monotherapy; all the rest require a combination of two or more antihypertensive drugs, and this can be a barrier to good adherence and log-term persistence in patients who also often need to use other drugs, such as antidiabetic agents, statins or antiplatelet agents. The fixed combinations of three antihypertensive agents currently available can facilitate long-term control of these patients in clinical practice. If well tolerated, a long-term therapeutic regimen that includes a diuretic, an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker, and a calcium channel blocker is the recommended optimal triple therapy.

  3. Activation of the human immune system by chemotherapeutic or targeted agents combined with the oncolytic parvovirus H-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehler, Markus; Sieben, Maike; Roth, Susanne; Springsguth, Franziska; Leuchs, Barbara; Zeidler, Maja; Dinsart, Christiane; Rommelaere, Jean; Galle, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) infects and lyses human tumor cells including melanoma, hepatoma, gastric, colorectal, cervix and pancreatic cancers. We assessed whether the beneficial effects of chemotherapeutic agents or targeted agents could be combined with the oncolytic and immunostimmulatory properties of H-1PV. Using human ex vivo models we evaluated the biological and immunological effects of H-1PV-induced tumor cell lysis alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic or targeted agents in human melanoma cells +/- characterized human cytotoxic T-cells (CTL) and HLA-A2-restricted dendritic cells (DC). H-1PV-infected MZ7-Mel cells showed a clear reduction in cell viability of >50%, which appeared to occur primarily through apoptosis. This correlated with viral NS1 expression levels and was enhanced by combination with chemotherapeutic agents or sunitinib. Tumor cell preparations were phagocytosed by DC whose maturation was measured according to the treatment administered. Immature DC incubated with H-1PV-induced MZ7-Mel lysates significantly increased DC maturation compared with non-infected or necrotic MZ7-Mel cells. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release was clearly increased by DC incubated with H-1PV-induced SK29-Mel tumor cell lysates (TCL) and was also high with DC-CTL co-cultures incubated with H-1PV-induced TCL. Similarly, DC co-cultures with TCL incubated with H-1PV combined with cytotoxic agents or sunitinib enhanced DC maturation to a greater extent than cytotoxic agents or sunitinib alone. Again, these combinations increased pro-inflammatory responses in DC-CTL co-cultures compared with chemotherapy or sunitinib alone. In our human models, chemotherapeutic or targeted agents did not only interfere with the pronounced immunomodulatory properties of H-1PV, but also reinforced drug-induced tumor cell killing. H-1PV combined with cisplatin, vincristine or sunitinib induced effective immunostimulation via a pronounced DC maturation, better cytokine

  4. Study of occupational risk agents and its probable hazards to human health; Estudo dos agentes de risco ocupacional e seus provaveis agravos na saude humana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete Cristina G. Gaburo; Alves, Alice dos Santos; Sanches, Matias P., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.br, E-mail: alicesante@hotmail.com, E-mail: msanches@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Currently the workplaces become increasingly complex and a strategy evaluation and the control of occupational risks agents is needed. Workers may be exposed to environmental agents (chemical, physical and biological) and other unsuitable conditions by performing tasks that involve these agents directly. The main objective of this study is to approach conceptual aspects of risk conditions, physical in nature, with emphasis on ionizing radiation and its interaction with other agents in occupational and environmental situations. To meet this goal, it is performed a literature review and a summary of the main occupational agents known or suspected to cause any adverse health effects in humans. According to the available literature the reported studies on the effects of combined exposures to radiation and others agents are recognized and, as far as possible, should be taken into account in evaluating of the potential radiation risks at low levels of exposure. (author)

  5. Reactions of human dental pulp cells to capping agents in the presence or absence of bacterial exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Wenjian; Tribble, Gena; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    An ideal pulp-capping agent needs to have good biocompatibility and promote reparative dentinogenesis. Although the effects of capping agents on healthy pulp are known, limited data regarding their effects on bacterial contaminated pulp are available. This study aimed to evaluate the reaction of contaminated pulps to various capping agents to assist clinicians in making informed decisions. Human dental pulp (HDP) cell cultures were developed from extracted human molars. The cells were exposed to a bacterial cocktail comprising Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Streptococcus gordonii before being cocultured with capping agents such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Portland cement (PC), and Dycal. HDP cell proliferation was assayed by MTS colorimetric cell proliferation assay, and its differentiation was evaluated by real-time PCR for detecting alkaline phosphatase, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and osteocalcin expressions. MTA and PC had no apparent effect, whereas Dycal inhibited HDP cell proliferation. PC stimulated HDP cell differentiation, particularly when they were exposed to bacteria. MTA and Dycal inhibited differentiation, regardless of bacterial infection. In conclusion, PC was the most favorable agent, followed by MTA, and Dycal was the least favorable agent for supporting the functions of bacterial compromised pulp cells.

  6. Orexin receptor antagonists as therapeutic agents for insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clementina Equihua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia is a common clinical condition characterized by difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or non-restorative sleep with impairment of daytime functioning.Currently, treatment for insomnia involves a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacological therapy. Among pharmacological interventions, the most evidence exists for benzodiazepine receptor agonist drugs (GABAA receptor, although concerns persist regarding their safety and their limited efficacy. The use of these hypnotic medications must be carefully monitored for adverse effects.Orexin (hypocretin neuropeptides have been shown to regulate transitions between wakefulness and sleep by promoting cholinergic/monoaminergic neural pathways. This has led to the development of a new class of pharmacological agents that antagonize the physiological effects of orexin. The development of these agents may lead to novel therapies for insomnia without the side effect profile of hypnotics (e.g. impaired cognition, disturbed arousal, and motor balance difficulties. However, antagonizing a system that regulates the sleep-wake cycle may create an entirely different side effect profile. In this review, we discuss the role of orexin and its receptors on the sleep-wake cycle and that of orexin antagonists in the treatment of insomnia.

  7. Theoretical foundations of human decision-making in agent-based land use models – A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Geert J.; Müller, B.; Buchmann, C.M.; Dressler, Gunnar; Guo, C.; Hase, N.; Hoffmann, F.; John, F.; Klassert, C.; Lauf, T.; Liebelt, V.; Nolzen, H.; Pannicke, N.; Schulze, J.; Weise, H.; Schwarz, N.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reviews stated that the complex and context-dependent nature of human decision-making resulted in ad-hoc representations of human decision in agent-based land use change models (LUCC ABMs) and that these representations are often not explicitly grounded in theory. However, a systematic survey

  8. Topical Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahnik, Benjamin; Sharma, Divya; Alban, Joseph; Sivamani, Raja K

    2017-08-01

    Patients with psoriasis often enquire about the use of numerous botanical therapeutics. It is important for dermatologists to be aware of the current evidence regarding these agents. We conducted a systematic literature search using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases for controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials that assessed the use of topical botanical therapeutics for psoriasis. The search included the following keywords: 'psoriasis' and 'plant' or 'herbal' or 'botanical'. We also reviewed citations within articles to identify additional relevant sources. We then further refined the results by route of administration and the topical botanical agents are reviewed herein. A total of 27 controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials addressing the use of topical botanical agents for psoriasis were assessed in this review. We found that the most highly studied and most efficacious topical botanical therapeutics were Mahonia aquifolium, indigo naturalis, aloe vera, and, to a lesser degree, capsaicin. The most commonly reported adverse effects were local skin irritation, erythema, pruritus, burning, and pain. However, the overall evidence for these therapeutics remains limited in quantity and quality. The literature addresses a large number of studies in regard to botanicals for the treatment of psoriasis. While most agents appear to be safe, further research is necessary before topical botanical agents can be consistently recommended to patients.

  9. Characterization of a Francisella tularensis-Caenorhabditis elegans Pathosystem for the Evaluation of Therapeutic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamani, Elamparithi; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Coleman, Jeffrey J; Kim, Wooseong; Okoli, Ikechukwu; Hernandez, Ana M; Lee, Kiho; Nau, Gerard J; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-09-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia. Because of its potential as a bioterrorism agent, there is a need for new therapeutic agents. We therefore developed a whole-animal Caenorhabditis elegans - F. tularensis pathosystem for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize potential therapeutic compounds. We found that the C. elegans p38 mitogen-activate protein (MAP) kinase cascade is involved in the immune response to F. tularensis , and we developed a robust F. tularensis -mediated C. elegans killing assay with a Z' factor consistently of >0.5, which was then utilized to screen a library of FDA-approved compounds that included 1,760 small molecules. In addition to clinically used antibiotics, five FDA-approved drugs were also identified as potential hits, including the anti-inflammatory drug diflunisal that showed anti- F. tularensis activity in vitro Moreover, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diflunisal, at 4× MIC, blocked the replication of an F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) in primary human macrophages and nonphagocytic cells. Diflunisal was nontoxic to human erythrocytes and HepG2 human liver cells at concentrations of ≥32 μg/ml. Finally, diflunisal exhibited synergetic activity with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in both a checkerboard assay and a macrophage infection assay. In conclusion, the liquid C. elegans - F. tularensis LVS assay described here allows screening for anti- F. tularensis compounds and suggests that diflunisal could potentially be repurposed for the management of tularemia. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Applying tattoo dye as a third-harmonic generation contrast agent for in vivo optical virtual biopsy of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Rung; Lin, Chen-Yu; Liao, Yi-Hua; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-02-01

    Third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy has been reported to provide intrinsic contrast in elastic fibers, cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus, actin filaments, lipid bodies, hemoglobin, and melanin in human skin. For advanced molecular imaging, exogenous contrast agents are developed for a higher structural or molecular specificity. We demonstrate the potential of the commonly adopted tattoo dye as a THG contrast agent for in vivo optical biopsy of human skin. Spectroscopy and microscopy experiments were performed on cultured cells with tattoo dyes, in tattooed mouse skin, and in tattooed human skin to demonstrate the THG enhancement effect. Compared with other absorbing dyes or nanoparticles used as exogenous THG contrast agents, tattoo dyes are widely adopted in human skin so that future clinical biocompatibility evaluation is relatively achievable. Combined with the demonstrated THG enhancement effect, tattoo dyes show their promise for future clinical imaging applications.

  12. The significance of the host inflammatory response on the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapies utilising human adult stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Melba; Pu, Fanrong; Hunt, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Controlling the fate of implanted hMSCs is one of the major drawbacks to be overcome to realize tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the effect of the inflammatory environment on hMSCs behaviour is poorly understood. Studying and mimicking the inflammatory process in vitro is a very complex and challenging task that involves multiple variables. This research addressed the questions using in vitro co-cultures of primary derived hMSCs together with human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs); the latter are key agents in the inflammatory process. This work explored the in vitro phenotypic changes of hMSCs in co-culture direct contact with monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from blood using both basal and osteogenic medium. Our findings indicated that hMSCs maintained their undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency despite the contact with PBMCs. Moreover, hMSCs demonstrated increased proliferation and were able to differentiate specifically down the osteogenic lineage pathway. Providing significant crucial evidence to support the hypothesis that inflammation and host defence mechanisms could be utilised rather than avoided and combated to provide for the successful therapeutic application of stem cell therapies.

  13. Supramolecular interaction of 6-shogaol, a therapeutic agent of Zingiber officinale with human serum albumin as elucidated by spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular docking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroz, S R; Mohamad, S B; Lee, G S; Malek, S N A; Tayyab, S

    2015-06-01

    6-Shogaol, one of the main bioactive constituents of Zingiber officinale has been shown to possess various therapeutic properties. Interaction of a therapeutic compound with plasma proteins greatly affects its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The present investigation was undertaken to characterize the interaction between 6-shogaol and the main in vivo transporter, human serum albumin (HSA). Various binding characteristics of 6-shogaol-HSA interaction were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy. Thermal stability of 6-shogaol-HSA system was determined by circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques. Identification of the 6-shogaol binding site on HSA was made by competitive drug displacement and molecular docking experiments. Fluorescence quench titration results revealed the association constant, Ka of 6-shogaol-HSA interaction as 6.29 ± 0.33 × 10(4) M(-1) at 25 ºC. Values of the enthalpy change (-11.76 kJ mol(-1)) and the entropy change (52.52 J mol(-1) K(-1)), obtained for the binding reaction suggested involvement of hydrophobic and van der Waals forces along with hydrogen bonds in the complex formation. Higher thermal stability of HSA was noticed in the presence of 6-shogaol, as revealed by DSC and thermal denaturation profiles. Competitive ligand displacement experiments along with molecular docking results suggested the binding preference of 6-shogaol for Sudlow's site I of HSA. All these results suggest that 6-shogaol binds to Sudlow's site I of HSA through moderate binding affinity and involves hydrophobic and van der Waals forces along with hydrogen bonds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Concanavalin A: A potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis for cancer therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wen-wen; Yu, Jia-ying; Xu, Huai-long; Bao, Jin-ku

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → ConA induces cancer cell death targeting apoptosis and autophagy. → ConA inhibits cancer cell angiogenesis. → ConA is utilized in pre-clinical and clinical trials. -- Abstract: Concanavalin A (ConA), a Ca 2+ /Mn 2+ -dependent and mannose/glucose-binding legume lectin, has drawn a rising attention for its remarkable anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities to a variety of cancer cells. ConA induces programmed cell death via mitochondria-mediated, P73-Foxo1a-Bim apoptosis and BNIP3-mediated mitochondrial autophagy. Through IKK-NF-κB-COX-2, SHP-2-MEK-1-ERK, and SHP-2-Ras-ERK anti-angiogenic pathways, ConA would inhibit cancer cell survival. In addition, ConA stimulates cell immunity and generates an immune memory, resisting to the same genotypic tumor. These biological findings shed light on new perspectives of ConA as a potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis in pre-clinical or clinical trials for cancer therapeutics.

  15. Quantitative Analyses of Synergistic Responses between Cannabidiol and DNA-Damaging Agents on the Proliferation and Viability of Glioblastoma and Neural Progenitor Cells in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liting; Ng, Lindsay; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Stella, Nephi

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the nonpsychotropic cannabis-derived compound, cannabidiol (CBD), has antineoplastic activity in multiple types of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). DNA-damaging agents remain the main standard of care treatment available for patients diagnosed with GBM. Here we studied the antiproliferative and cell-killing activity of CBD alone and in combination with DNA-damaging agents (temozolomide, carmustine, or cisplatin) in several human GBM cell lines and in mouse primary GBM cells in cultures. This activity was also studied in mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in culture to assess for potential central nervous system toxicity. We found that CBD induced a dose-dependent reduction of both proliferation and viability of all cells with similar potencies, suggesting no preferential activity for cancer cells. Hill plot analysis indicates an allosteric mechanism of action triggered by CBD in all cells. Cotreatment regimens combining CBD and DNA-damaging agents produced synergistic antiproliferating and cell-killing responses over a limited range of concentrations in all human GBM cell lines and mouse GBM cells as well as in mouse NPCs. Remarkably, antagonistic responses occurred at low concentrations in select human GBM cell lines and in mouse GBM cells. Our study suggests limited synergistic activity when combining CBD and DNA-damaging agents in treating GBM cells, along with little to no therapeutic window when considering NPCs. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. Agent Orange Exposure and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-06-01

    Agent Orange was sprayed in parts of southern Vietnam during the U.S.-Vietnam war and was a mixture of two chlorophenoxy herbicides. The mixture was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD and other dioxins and furans are measurable in the milk of Vietnamese women. We explored whether the TCDD in milk from these women was from Agent Orange and whether lactational exposure can be a mode of transgenerational effects of TCDD from Agent Orange. A review of the world's literature on milk concentrations of polychlorinated compounds showed the presence of TCDD and other dioxins and furans in all countries that have been assessed. The congener profile of these chemicals, that is, the proportion of different congeners in the sample, can be used to assess the source of milk contamination. Measurements in most countries, including contemporary measurements in Vietnam, are consistent with non-Agent Orange exposure sources, including industrial activities and incineration of waste. Models and supporting human data suggest that TCDD from breastfeeding does not persist in a child past adolescence and that the adult body burden of TCDD is independent of whether the individual was breast- or bottle-fed as a child. These findings suggest that exposure to Agent Orange in Vietnam did not result in persistent transgenerational exposure through human milk. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Cisplatin encapsulated nanoparticle as a therapeutic agent for anticancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eka Putra, Gusti Ngurah Putu; Huang, Leaf; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2016-03-01

    The knowledge of manipulating size of biomaterials encapsulated drug into nano-scale particles has been researched and developed in treating cancer. Cancer is the second worldwide cause of death, therefore it is critical to treat cancers challenging with therapeutic modality of various mechanisms. Our preliminary investigation has studied cisplatin encapsulated into lipid-based nanoparticle and examined the therapeutic effect on xenografted animal model. We used mice with tumor volume ranging from 195 to 214 mm3 and then few mice were grouped into three groups including: control (PBS), lipid platinum chloride (LPC) nanoparticles and CDDP (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) at dose of 3mg cisplatin /kg body weight. The effect of the treatment was observed for 12 days post-injection. It showed that LPC NPs demonstrated a better therapeutic effect compared to CDDP at same 3mg cisplatin/kg drug dose of tumor size reduction, 96.6% and 11.1% respectively. In addition, mouse body weight loss of LPC, CDDP and PBS treated group are 12.1%, 24.3% and 1.4%. It means that by compared to CDDP group, LPC group demonstrated less side effect as not much reduction of body weight have found. Our findings have shown to be a potential modality to further investigate as a feasible cancer therapy modality.

  18. Therapeutic benefit in patients switching tolterodine to other novel antimuscarinic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ballester, F; Miranda, P; Lizarraga, I; Rejas, J; Arumi, D

    2014-04-01

    To explore in the daily clinical practice setting that antimuscarinic, Fesoterodine or Solifenacin, provides a greater clinical benefit after changing their prior Overactive Bladder (OAB) therapy with tolterodine extended-release (ER) to other novel antimuscarinic agents. A post-hoc analysis of data from an observational multicenter, cross-sectional, retrospective study. Adult patients of both sexes, with OAB and OAB-V8 score≥8, who switched to fesoterodine or solifenacin within the 3-4 months before study visit from their prior tolterodine-ER-based therapy due to poor response were included. 92 patients were selected for each treatment group, matched (1:1) according to conditioned probability using the propensity score. Benefit of treatment change perceived by the physician and patient was evaluated by means of the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement subscale (CGI-I) and Treatment Benefit Scale (TBS), respectively. Degree of worry, bother and interference with daily living activities due to urinary symptoms, level of satisfaction, and preference for current treatment were also assessed. Fesoterodine provided a significantly greater improvement than solifenacina in terms of therapeutic benefit perceived by the physician according to ICG-I. 96.7% of the patients on fesoterodine treatment vs. 81.6% of the solifenacin group showed a score of improvement in TBS (P<.05). Fesoterodine was also better rated than solifenacin with regard to satisfaction and preference for the new treatment (93.4 vs. 78.2% P<.05). In daily clinical practice the switch from tolterodine LP to fesoterodine seems to provide greater benefits both from the physician's and the patient's point of view compared with those provided by solifenacin. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockman, R.; Adelman, R.; Donnelly, R.; Brody, L.; Warrell, R.; Jones, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig

  20. Pulp tissue response to Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulpotomy of human primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, N; Lourenço Neto, N; Fernandes, A P; Rodini, C; Hungaro Duarte, M; Rios, D; Machado, M A; Oliveira, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulp treatment of human primary teeth by clinical and radiographic exams and microscopic analysis. Thirty mandibular primary molars were randomly divided into the following groups: Group I - Portland cement; Group II - Portland cement with iodoform (Portland cement + CHI3 ); Group III - Portland cement with zirconium oxide (Portland cement + ZrO2 ); and treated by pulpotomy technique (removal of a portion of the pulp aiming to maintain the vitally of the remaining radicular pulp tissue using a therapeutic dressing). Clinical and radiographic evaluations were recorded at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted and processed for histological analysis. Data were tested using statistical analysis with a significance level of 5%. The microscopic findings were descriptively analysed. All treated teeth were clinically and radiographically successful at follow-up appointments. The microscopic analysis revealed positive response to pulp repair with hard tissue barrier formation and pulp calcification in the remaining roots of all available teeth. The findings of this study suggest that primary teeth pulp tissue exhibited satisfactory biological response to Portland cement associated with radio pacifying agents. However, further studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine the safe clinical indication of this alternative material for pulp therapy of primary teeth. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Analytical approaches for the detection of emerging therapeutics and non-approved drugs in human doping controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2014-12-01

    The number and diversity of potentially performance-enhancing substances is continuously growing, fueled by new pharmaceutical developments but also by the inventiveness and, at the same time, unscrupulousness of black-market (designer) drug producers and providers. In terms of sports drug testing, this situation necessitates reactive as well as proactive research and expansion of the analytical armamentarium to ensure timely, adequate, and comprehensive doping controls. This review summarizes literature published over the past 5 years on new drug entities, discontinued therapeutics, and 'tailored' compounds classified as doping agents according to the regulations of the World Anti-Doping Agency, with particular attention to analytical strategies enabling their detection in human blood or urine. Among these compounds, low- and high-molecular mass substances of peptidic (e.g. modified insulin-like growth factor-1, TB-500, hematide/peginesatide, growth hormone releasing peptides, AOD-9604, etc.) and non-peptidic (selective androgen receptor modulators, hypoxia-inducible factor stabilizers, siRNA, S-107 and ARM036/aladorian, etc.) as well as inorganic (cobalt) nature are considered and discussed in terms of specific requirements originating from physicochemical properties, concentration levels, metabolism, and their amenability for chromatographic-mass spectrometric or alternative detection methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthetic miR-34a mimics as a novel therapeutic agent for multiple myeloma: in vitro and in vivo evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Maria T; Leone, Emanuela; Amodio, Nicola; Foresta, Umberto; Lionetti, Marta; Pitari, Maria R; Cantafio, Maria E Gallo; Gullà, Annamaria; Conforti, Francesco; Morelli, Eugenio; Tomaino, Vera; Rossi, Marco; Negrini, Massimo; Ferrarini, Manlio; Caraglia, Michele; Shammas, Masood A; Munshi, Nikhil C; Anderson, Kenneth C; Neri, Antonino; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2012-11-15

    Deregulated expression of miRNAs has been shown in multiple myeloma (MM). A promising strategy to achieve a therapeutic effect by targeting the miRNA regulatory network is to enforce the expression of miRNAs that act as tumor suppressor genes, such as miR-34a. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of synthetic miR-34a against human MM cells in vitro and in vivo. Either transient expression of miR-34a synthetic mimics or lentivirus-based miR-34a-stable enforced expression triggered growth inhibition and apoptosis in MM cells in vitro. Synthetic miR-34a downregulated canonic targets BCL2, CDK6, and NOTCH1 at both the mRNA and protein level. Lentiviral vector-transduced MM xenografts with constitutive miR-34a expression showed high growth inhibition in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The anti-MM activity of lipidic-formulated miR-34a was further shown in vivo in two different experimental settings: (i) SCID mice bearing nontransduced MM xenografts; and (ii) SCID-synth-hu mice implanted with synthetic 3-dimensional scaffolds reconstituted with human bone marrow stromal cells and then engrafted with human MM cells. Relevant tumor growth inhibition and survival improvement were observed in mice bearing TP53-mutated MM xenografts treated with miR-34a mimics in the absence of systemic toxicity. Our findings provide a proof-of-principle that formulated synthetic miR-34a has therapeutic activity in preclinical models and support a framework for development of miR-34a-based treatment strategies in MM patients. ©2012 AACR.

  3. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed.

  4. Recent Advances in Targetable Therapeutics in Metastatic Non-Squamous NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranshu eBansal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. With the discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK rearrangements and effective targeted therapies, therapeutic options are expanding for patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Here, we review novel therapies in non-squamous NSCLC, which are directed against oncogenic targets, including EGFR, ALK, ROS1, BRAF, MET, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2, RET and NTRK. With the rapidly evolving molecular testing and development of new targeted agents, our ability to further personalize therapy in non-squamous NSCLC is rapidly expanding.

  5. Epigenetic Modulating Agents as a New Therapeutic Approach in Multiple Myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Ken; Menu, Eline; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Van Riet, Ivan; Vanderkerken, Karin; De Bruyne, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-cell malignancy. Therefore, new targets and drugs are urgently needed to improve patient outcome. Epigenetic aberrations play a crucial role in development and progression in cancer, including MM. To target these aberrations, epigenetic modulating agents, such as DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), are under intense investigation in solid and hematological cancers. A clinical benefit of the use of these agents as single agents and in combination regimens has been suggested based on numerous studies in pre-clinical tumor models, including MM models. The mechanisms of action are not yet fully understood but appear to involve a combination of true epigenetic changes and cytotoxic actions. In addition, the interactions with the BM niche are also affected by epigenetic modulating agents that will further determine the in vivo efficacy and thus patient outcome. A better understanding of the molecular events underlying the anti-tumor activity of the epigenetic drugs will lead to more rational drug combinations. This review focuses on the involvement of epigenetic changes in MM pathogenesis and how the use of DNMTi and HDACi affect the myeloma tumor itself and its interactions with the microenvironment

  6. RSDL decontamination of human skin contaminated with the nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, L; Lindberg, S; Johansson, S; Koch, B; Koch, M; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A

    2017-03-05

    Dermal exposure to low volatile organophosphorus compounds (OPC) may lead to penetration through the skin and uptake in the blood circulation. Skin decontamination of toxic OPCs, such as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents, might therefore be crucial for mitigating the systemic toxicity following dermal exposure. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) has been shown to reduce toxic effects in animals dermally exposed to the nerve agent VX. In the present study, an in vitro flow-through diffusion cell was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of RSDL for decontamination of VX exposed to human epidermis. In particular, the impact of timing in the initiation of decontamination and agent dilution in water was studied. The impact of the lipophilic properties of VX in the RSDL decontamination was additionally addressed by comparing chemical degradation in RSDL and decontamination efficacy between the VX and the hydrophilic OPC triethyl phosphonoacetate (TEPA). The epidermal membrane was exposed to 20, 75 or 90% OPC diluted in deionized water and the decontamination was initiated 5, 10, 30, 60 or 120min post-exposure. Early decontamination of VX with RSDL, initiated 5-10min after skin exposure, was very effective. Delayed decontamination initiated 30-60min post-exposure was less effective but still the amount of penetrated agent was significantly reduced, while further delayed start of decontamination to 120min resulted in very low efficacy. Comparing RSDL decontamination of VX with that of TEPA showed that the decontamination efficacy at high agent concentrations was higher for VX. The degradation mechanism of VX and TEPA during decontamination was dissected by 31 P NMR spectroscopy of the OPCs following reactions with RSDL and its three nucleophile components. The degradation rate was clearly associated with the high pH of the specific solution investigated; i.e. increased pH resulted in a more rapid degradation. In addition, the solubility of the OPC in RSDL

  7. Hypoxia-regulated therapeutic gene as a preemptive treatment strategy against ischemia/reperfusion tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachori, Alok S; Melo, Luis G; Hart, Melanie L; Noiseux, Nicholas; Zhang, Lunan; Morello, Fulvio; Solomon, Scott D; Stahl, Gregory L; Pratt, Richard E; Dzau, Victor J

    2004-08-17

    Ischemia and reperfusion represent major mechanisms of tissue injury and organ failure. The timing of administration and the duration of action limit current treatment approaches using pharmacological agents. In this study, we have successfully developed a preemptive strategy for tissue protection using an adenoassociated vector system containing erythropoietin hypoxia response elements for ischemia-regulated expression of the therapeutic gene human heme-oxygenase-1 (hHO-1). We demonstrate that a single administration of this vector several weeks in advance of ischemia/reperfusion injury to multiple tissues such as heart, liver, and skeletal muscle yields rapid and timely induction of hHO-1 during ischemia that resulted in dramatic reduction in tissue damage. In addition, overexpression of therapeutic transgene prevented long-term pathological tissue remodeling and normalized tissue function. Application of this regulatable system using an endogenous physiological stimulus for expression of a therapeutic gene may be a feasible strategy for protecting tissues at risk of ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  8. Hypoxia-regulated therapeutic gene as a preemptive treatment strategy against ischemia/reperfusion tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachori, Alok S.; Melo, Luis G.; Hart, Melanie L.; Noiseux, Nicholas; Zhang, Lunan; Morello, Fulvio; Solomon, Scott D.; Stahl, Gregory L.; Pratt, Richard E.; Dzau, Victor J.

    2004-08-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion represent major mechanisms of tissue injury and organ failure. The timing of administration and the duration of action limit current treatment approaches using pharmacological agents. In this study, we have successfully developed a preemptive strategy for tissue protection using an adenoassociated vector system containing erythropoietin hypoxia response elements for ischemia-regulated expression of the therapeutic gene human heme-oxygenase-1 (hHO-1). We demonstrate that a single administration of this vector several weeks in advance of ischemia/reperfusion injury to multiple tissues such as heart, liver, and skeletal muscle yields rapid and timely induction of hHO-1 during ischemia that resulted in dramatic reduction in tissue damage. In addition, overexpression of therapeutic transgene prevented long-term pathological tissue remodeling and normalized tissue function. Application of this regulatable system using an endogenous physiological stimulus for expression of a therapeutic gene may be a feasible strategy for protecting tissues at risk of ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  9. The botulinum toxin as a therapeutic agent: molecular and pharmacological insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukreja R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Roshan Kukreja,1 Bal Ram Singh2 1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts, 2Botulinum Research Center, Institute of Advanced Sciences, Dartmouth, MA, USA Abstract: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, the most potent toxins known to mankind, are metalloproteases that act on nerve–muscle junctions to block exocytosis through a very specific and exclusive endopeptidase activity against soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE proteins of presynaptic vesicle fusion machinery. This very ability of the toxins to produce flaccid muscle paralysis through chemical denervation has been put to good use, and these potentially lethal toxins have been licensed to treat an ever expanding list of medical disorders and more popularly in the field of esthetic medicine. In most cases, therapeutic BoNT preparations are high-molecular-weight protein complexes consisting of BoNT, complexing proteins, and excipients. There is at least one isolated BoNT, which is free of complexing proteins in the market (Xeomin®. Each commercially available BoNT formulation is unique, differing mainly in molecular size and composition of complexing proteins, biological activity, and antigenicity. BoNT serotype A is marketed as Botox®, Dysport®, and Xeomin®, while BoNT type B is commercially available as Myobloc®. Nerve terminal intoxication by BoNTs is completely reversible, and the duration of therapeutic effects of BoNTs varies for different serotypes. Depending on the target tissue, BoNTs can block the cholinergic neuromuscular or cholinergic autonomic innervation of exocrine glands and smooth muscles. Therapeutic BoNTs exhibit a high safety and very limited adverse effects profile. Despite their established efficacy, the greatest concern with the use of therapeutic BoNTs is their propensity to elicit immunogenic reactions that might render the patient unresponsive to subsequent treatments, particularly in chronic

  10. Harnessing the fruits of nature for the development of multi-targeted cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Fazlul H; Li, Yiwei

    2009-11-01

    Cancer cells exhibit deregulation in multiple cellular signaling pathways. Therefore, treatments using specific agents that target only one pathway usually fail in cancer therapy. The combination treatments using chemotherapeutic agents with distinct molecular mechanisms are considered more promising for higher efficacy; however, using multiple agents contributes to added toxicity. Emerging evidence has shown that some "natural products" such as isoflavones, indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its in vivo dimeric product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), and curcumin among many others, have growth inhibitory and apoptosis inducing effects on human and animal cancer cells mediated by targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways in vitro without causing unwanted toxicity in normal cells. Therefore, these non-toxic "natural products" from natural resources could be useful in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of human malignancies with lower toxicity and higher efficacy. In fact, recently increasing evidence from pre-clinical in vivo studies and clinical trials have shown some success in support of the use of rational design of multi-targeted therapies for the treatment of cancers using conventional chemotherapeutic agents in combination with "natural products". These studies have provided promising results and further opened-up newer avenues for cancer therapy. In this review article, we have succinctly summarized the known effects of "natural products" especially by focusing on isoflavones, indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its in vivo dimeric product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), and curcumin, and provided a comprehensive view on the molecular mechanisms underlying the principle of cancer therapy using combination of "natural products" with conventional therapeutics.

  11. Episodic memory for human-like agents and human-like agents for episodic memory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brom, C.; Lukavský, Jiří; Kadlec, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 227-244 ISSN 1793-8473 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : episodic memory * virtual agent * modelling Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www.worldscinet.com/ijmc/02/0202/S1793843010000461.html

  12. Therapeutic IgG4 antibodies engage in Fab-arm exchange with endogenous human IgG4 in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labrijn, Aran F.; Buijsse, Antonio Ortiz; van den Bremer, Ewald T. J.; Verwilligen, Annemiek Y. W.; Bleeker, Wim K.; Thorpe, Susan J.; Killestein, Joep; Polman, Chris H.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Schuurman, Janine; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.

    Two humanized IgG4 antibodies, natalizumab and gemtuzumab, are approved for human use, and several others, like TGN1412, are or have been in clinical development. Although IgG4 antibodies can dynamically exchange half-molecules(1), Fab-arm exchange with therapeutic antibodies has not been

  13. Therapeutic IgG4 antibodies engage in Fab-arm exchange with endogenous human IgG4 in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labrijn, Aran F.; Buijsse, Antonio Ortiz; van den Bremer, Ewald T. J.; Verwilligen, Annemiek Y. W.; Bleeker, Wim K.; Thorpe, Susan J.; Killestein, Joep; Polman, Chris H.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Schuurman, Janine; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.

    2009-01-01

    Two humanized IgG4 antibodies, natalizumab and gemtuzumab, are approved for human use, and several others, like TGN1412, are or have been in clinical development. Although IgG4 antibodies can dynamically exchange half-molecules, Fab-arm exchange with therapeutic antibodies has not been demonstrated

  14. Recent Progress in Functional Micellar Carriers with Intrinsic Therapeutic Activities for Anticancer Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ying; Chu, BingYang; Shi, Kun; Peng, JinRong; Qian, ZhiYong

    2017-12-01

    Polymeric micelles have presented superior delivery properties for poorly water-soluble chemotherapeutic agents. However, it remains discouraging that there may be some additional short or long-term toxicities caused by the metabolites of high quantities of carriers. If carriers had simultaneous therapeutic effects with the drug, these issues would not be a concern. For this, carriers not only simply act as drug carriers, but also exert an intrinsic therapeutic effect as a therapeutic agent. The functional micellar carriers would be beneficial to maximize the anticancer effect, overcome the drug resistance and reduce the systemic toxicity. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent progress on the development of functional micellar carriers with intrinsic anticancer activities for the delivery of anticancer drugs. This review focuses on the design strategies, properties of carriers and the drug loading behavior. In addition, the combinational therapeutic effects between carriers and chemotherapeutic agents are also discussed.

  15. Quorum Quenching Agents: Resources for Antivirulence Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihao Tang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is a concern to human health and highlights the urgent need for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies. Quorum sensing (QS regulates virulence in many bacterial pathogens, and thus, is a promising target for antivirulence therapy which may inhibit virulence instead of cell growth and division. This means that there is little selective pressure for the evolution of resistance. Many natural quorum quenching (QQ agents have been identified. Moreover, it has been shown that many microorganisms are capable of producing small molecular QS inhibitors and/or macromolecular QQ enzymes, which could be regarded as a strategy for bacteria to gain benefits in competitive environments. More than 30 species of marine QQ bacteria have been identified thus far, but only a few of them have been intensively studied. Recent studies indicate that an enormous number of QQ microorganisms are undiscovered in the highly diverse marine environments, and these marine microorganism-derived QQ agents may be valuable resources for antivirulence therapy.

  16. Comparative pharmacology of a new recombinant FSH expressed by a human cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koechling, Wolfgang; Plaksin, Daniel; Croston, Glenn E.

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant FSH proteins are important therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility, including follitropin alfa expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and, more recently, follitropin delta expressed in the human cell line PER.C6. These recombinant FSH proteins have distinct glycosy...

  17. Evaluation of gloves as a water bag coupling agent for therapeutic ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Salustiano de Lima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Therapeutic ultrasound (TUS is a widespread modality in physiotherapy, and the water bag technique is a coupling method employed in the presence of anatomical irregularities in the treatment area. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the acoustic attenuation of the water bag and its effectiveness as a TUS coupling agent. Methods The rated output powers (ROPs of the TUS equipment were evaluated based on IEC 61689. Then, a radiation force balance was used to measure ROP with and without a water bag (latex and nitrile gloves filled with deionized water between a TUS transducer and the cone-shaped target of the balance. Each experiment was performed five times for each nominal power (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 W and in the following configurations: without the water bag (A, with nitrile gloves and with (B and without (C a height controller, and latex gloves with (D and without (E height controller. ROPs obtained in different media were compared. Results The highest relative error of ROP was 16.72% for 0.5 W. Although the power values of the equipment were within the range recommended by IEC, there was a significant difference between the ROP values measured with A and with B, C and D. Conclusion As intensity differences below 0.5 W/cm2 are considered clinically not relevant, conditions A, B, C, D, or E can be used interchangeably.

  18. ModelforAnalyzing Human Communication Network Based onAgent-Based Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shinako; Terano, Takao

    This paper discusses dynamic properties of human communications networks, which appears as a result of informationexchanges among people. We propose agent-based simulation (ABS) to examine implicit mechanisms behind the dynamics. The ABS enables us to reveal the characteristics and the differences of the networks regarding the specific communicationgroups. We perform experiments on the ABS with activity data from questionnaires survey and with virtual data which isdifferent from the activity data. We compare the difference between them and show the effectiveness of the ABS through theexperiments.

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Trapping Agents of Sulfur Drug Reactive Intermediates against Major Human Cytochrome P450 Isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasleen K. Sodhi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In some cases, the formation of reactive species from the metabolism of xenobiotics has been linked to toxicity and therefore it is imperative to detect potential bioactivation for candidate drugs during drug discovery. Reactive species can covalently bind to trapping agents in in vitro incubations of compound with human liver microsomes (HLM fortified with β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH, resulting in a stable conjugate of trapping agent and reactive species, thereby facilitating analytical detection and providing evidence of short-lived reactive metabolites. Since reactive metabolites are typically generated by cytochrome P450 (CYP oxidation, it is important to ensure high concentrations of trapping agents are not inhibiting the activities of CYP isoforms. Here we assessed the inhibitory properties of fourteen trapping agents against the major human CYP isoforms (CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A. Based on our findings, eleven trapping agents displayed inhibition, three of which had IC50 values less than 1 mM (2-mercaptoethanol, N-methylmaleimide and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM. Three trapping agents (dimedone, N-acetyl-lysine and arsenite did not inhibit CYP isoforms at concentrations tested. To illustrate effects of CYP inhibition by trapping agents on reactive intermediate trapping, an example drug (ticlopidine and trapping agent (NEM were chosen for further studies. For the same amount of ticlopidine (1 μM, increasing concentrations of the trapping agent NEM (0.007–40 mM resulted in a bell-shaped response curve of NEM-trapped ticlopidine S-oxide (TSO-NEM, due to CYP inhibition by NEM. Thus, trapping studies should be designed to include several concentrations of trapping agent to ensure optimal trapping of reactive metabolites.

  20. [Health security--GMOs in therapeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouvin, J-H

    2003-03-01

    The recent progress in human therapeutics has been made possible thanks to molecular biology and its use in producing proteins having the same sequence and structure as that of human proteins. The use of GMOs allows production of proteins with high added value in therapeutics, which are of satisfactory quality. GMOs may also be directly administered to patients as gene therapy vectors. However, the use of GMOs in therapeutics must take into consideration some risks, particularly those of microbiological contamination, of neo-antigenicity as well as environmental risks with regard to the way of use of the GMO. Nevertheless, those risks are taken in due consideration in the development of these new medicinal products; solutions have been found to allow their use in therapeutics with a very positive benefit/risk ratio. Medicinal products from biotechnology have enabled considerable therapeutic progress without compromising health security.

  1. Argan Oil as an Effective Nutri-Therapeutic Agent in Metabolic Syndrome: A Preclinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil El Midaoui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at examining the effects of argan oil on the three main cardiovascular risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome (hypertension, insulin resistance and obesity and on one of its main complications, neuropathic pain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to a drinking solution containing 10% d-glucose or tap water for 12 weeks. The effect of argan oil was compared to that of corn oil given daily by gavage during 12 weeks in glucose-fed rats. Glucose-fed rats showed increases in systolic blood pressure, epididymal fat, plasma levels of triglycerides, leptin, glucose and insulin, insulin resistance, tactile and cold allodynia in association with a rise in superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity in the thoracic aorta, epididymal fat and gastrocnemius muscle. Glucose-fed rats also showed rises in B1 receptor protein expression in aorta and gastrocnemius muscle. Argan oil prevented or significantly reduced all those anomalies with an induction in plasma adiponectin levels. In contrast, the same treatment with corn oil had a positive impact only on triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance. These data are the first to suggest that argan oil is an effective nutri-therapeutic agent to prevent the cardiovascular risk factors and complications associated with metabolic syndrome.

  2. Dendrimers as Potential Therapeutic Tools in HIV Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbo Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present treatments for HIV transfection include chemical agents and gene therapies. Although many chemical drugs, peptides and genes have been developed for HIV inhibition, a variety of non-ignorable drawbacks limited the efficiency of these materials. In this review, we discuss the application of dendrimers as both therapeutic agents and non-viral vectors of chemical agents and genes for HIV treatment. On the one hand, dendrimers with functional end groups combine with the gp120 of HIV and CD4 molecule of host cell to suppress the attachment of HIV to the host cell. Some of the dendrimers are capable of intruding into the cell and interfere with the later stages of HIV replication as well. On the other hand, dendrimers are also able to transfer chemical drugs and genes into the host cells, which conspicuously increase the anti-HIV activity of these materials. Dendrimers as therapeutic tools provide a potential treatment for HIV infection.

  3. Rituximab: An emerging therapeutic agent for kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kahwaji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Kahwaji, Chris Tong, Stanley C Jordan, Ashley A VoComprehensive Transplant Center, Transplant immunology Laboratory, HLA Laboratory, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Rituximab (anti-CD20, anti-B-cell is now emerging as an important drug for modification of B-cell and antibody responses in solid-organ transplant recipients. Its uses are varied and range from facilitating desensitization and ABO blood group-incompatible transplantation to the treatment of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD, and recurrent glomerular diseases in the renal allograft. Despite these uses, prospective randomized trials are lacking. Only case reports exist in regards to its use in de novo and recurrent diseases in the renal allograft. Recent reports suggests that the addition of rituximab to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG may have significant benefits for desensitization and treatment of AMR and chronic rejection. Current dosing recommendations are based on data from United States Food and Drug Administration-approved indications for treatment of B-cell lymphomas and rheumatoid arthritis. From the initial reported experience in solid organ transplant recipients, the drug is well tolerated and not associated with increased infectious risks. However, close monitoring for viral infections is recommended with rituximab use. The occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML has been reported with rituximab use. However, this is rare and not reported in the renal transplant population. Here we will review current information regarding the effectiveness of rituximab as an agent for desensitization of highly human leukocyte antigen-sensitized and ABO-incompatible transplant recipients and its use in treatment of AMR. In addition, the post-transplant use of rituximab for treatment of PTLD and for recurrent and de novo glomerulonephritis in the allograft will be discussed. In

  4. Pharmacological and therapeutic directions in ADHD: Specificity in the PFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Florence

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent directions in the treatment of ADHD have involved both a broadening of pharmacological perspectives to include nor-adrenergic as well as dopaminergic agents. A review of animal and human studies of pharmacological and therapeutic directions in ADHD suggests that the D1 receptor is a specific site for dopaminergic regulation of the PFC, but optimal levels of dopamine (DA are required for beneficial effects on working memory. Animal and human studies indicate that the alpha-2A receptor is also important for prefrontal regulation, leaving open the question of the relative importance of these receptor sites. The therapeutic effects of ADHD medications in the prefrontal cortex have focused attention on the development of working memory capacity in ADHD. Hypothesis The actions of dopaminergic vs noradrenergic agents, currently available for the treatment of ADHD have overlapping, but different actions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and subcortical centers. While stimulants act on D1 receptors in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, they also have effects on D2 receptors in the corpus striatum and may also have serotonergic effects at orbitofrontal areas. At therapeutic levels, dopamine (DA stimulation (through DAT transporter inhibition decreases noise level acting on subcortical D2 receptors, while NE stimulation (through alpha-2A agonists increases signal by acting preferentially in the PFC possibly on DAD1 receptors. On the other hand, alpha-2A noradrenergic transmission is more limited to the prefrontal cortex (PFC, and thus less likely to have motor or stereotypic side effects, while alpha-2B and alpha-2C agonists may have wider cortical effects. The data suggest a possible hierarchy of specificity in the current medications used in the treatment of ADHD, with guanfacine likely to be most specific for the treatment of prefrontal attentional and working memory deficits. Stimulants may have broader effects on both vigilance

  5. Neurotrophin receptor agonists and antagonists as therapeutic agents: An evolving paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephy-Hernandez, Sylvia; Jmaeff, Sean; Pirvulescu, Iulia; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Saragovi, H Uri

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are prevalent, complex and devastating conditions, with very limited treatment options currently available. While they manifest in many forms, there are commonalities that link them together. In this review, we will focus on neurotrophins - a family of related factors involved in neuronal development and maintenance. Neurodegenerative diseases often present with a neurotrophin imbalance, in which there may be decreases in trophic signaling through Trk receptors for example, and/or increases in pro-apoptotic activity through p75. Clinical trials with neurotrophins have continuously failed due to their poor pharmacological properties as well as the unavoidable activation of p75. Thus, there is a need for drugs without such setbacks. Small molecule neurotrophin mimetics are favorable options since they can selectively activate Trks or inactivate p75. In this review, we will initially present a brief outline of how these molecules are synthesized and their mechanisms of action; followed by an update in the current state of neurotrophins and small molecules in major neurodegenerative diseases. Although there has been significant progress in the development of potential therapeutics, more studies are needed to establish clear mechanisms of action and target specificity in order to transition from animal models to the assessment of safety and use in humans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Progranulin as a biomarker and potential therapeutic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Vanessa; Pino, Jesús; Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Lago, Francisca; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel Angel; Mera, Antonio; Gómez, Rodolfo; Mobasheri, Ali; Gualillo, Oreste

    2017-10-01

    Progranulin is a cysteine-rich secreted protein with diverse pleiotropic actions and participates in several processes, such as inflammation or tumorigenesis. Progranulin was first identified as a growth factor and, recently, it was characterised as an adipokine implicated in obesity, insulin resistance and rheumatic disease. At a central level, progranulin acts as a neurotropic and neuroprotective factor and protects from neural degeneration. In this review, we summarise the most recent research advances concerning the potential role of progranulin as a therapeutic target and biomarker in cancer, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell-mediated immune response: a clinical review of the therapeutic potential of human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sonja Izquierdo; Fuglsang, Katrine; Blaakaer, Jan

    2014-12-01

    This clinical review aims to assess the efficacy of human papillomavirus 16/18 (HPV16/18) vaccination on the cell-mediated immune response in women with existing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer induced by HPV16 or HPV18. A focused and thorough literature search conducted in five different databases found 996 publications. Six relevant articles were chosen for further review. In total, 154 patients (>18 years of age) were enrolled in prospective study trials with 3-15 months of follow up. The vaccine applications were administered two to four times. The vaccines contained different combinations of HPV16 and HPV18 and early proteins, E6 and E7. The primary outcome was the cell-mediated immune response. Correlation to clinical outcome (histopathology) and human leukocyte antigen genes were secondary endpoints. All vaccines triggered a detectable cell-mediated immune response, some of which were statistically significant. Correlations between immunological response and clinical outcome (histopathology) were not significant, so neoplasms may not be susceptible to vaccine-generated cytotoxic T cells (CD8(+)). Prophylactic HPV vaccines have been introduced to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer in young women. Women already infected with HPV could benefit from a therapeutic HPV vaccination. Hence, it is important to continue the development of therapeutic HPV vaccines to lower the rate of HPV-associated malignancies and crucial to evaluate vaccine efficacy clinically. This clinical review represents an attempt to elucidate the theories supporting the development of an HPV vaccine with a therapeutic effect on human papillomavirus-induced malignancies of the cervix. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Chemotherapeutic agent and tracer composition and use thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babb, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic composition suitable for extracorporeal treatment of whole blood comprises a dialyzable chemotherapeutic agent and a dialyzable fluorescable tracer means. The removal rate of the fluorescable tracer compound from treated blood during hemodialysis is a function of the removal rate of unreacted chemotherapeutic agent present. The residual chemotherapeutic agent concentration after hemodialysis is ascertained by measuring the concentration of the fluorescable tracer compound in a dialysate using fluorometric techniques

  9. Evaluation of oxime efficacy in nerve agent poisoning: Development of a kinetic-based dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worek, Franz; Szinicz, Ladislaus; Eyer, Peter; Thiermann, Horst

    2005-01-01

    The widespread use of organophosphorus compounds (OP) as pesticides and the repeated misuse of highly toxic OP as chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) emphasize the necessity for the development of effective medical countermeasures. Standard treatment with atropine and the established acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators, obidoxime and pralidoxime, is considered to be ineffective with certain nerve agents due to low oxime effectiveness. From obvious ethical reasons only animal experiments can be used to evaluate new oximes as nerve agent antidotes. However, the extrapolation of data from animal to humans is hampered by marked species differences. Since reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE is considered to be the main mechanism of action of oximes, human erythrocyte AChE can be exploited to test the efficacy of new oximes. By combining enzyme kinetics (inhibition, reactivation, aging) with OP toxicokinetics and oxime pharmacokinetics a dynamic in vitro model was developed which allows the calculation of AChE activities at different scenarios. This model was validated with data from pesticide-poisoned patients and simulations were performed for intravenous and percutaneous nerve agent exposure and intramuscular oxime treatment using published data. The model presented may serve as a tool for defining effective oxime concentrations and for optimizing oxime treatment. In addition, this model can be useful for the development of meaningful therapeutic animal models

  10. Enhanced Delivery of Gold Nanoparticles with Therapeutic Potential for Targeting Human Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etame, Arnold B.

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) remains a major challenge to the advancement and application of systemic anti-cancer therapeutics into the central nervous system. The structural and physiological delivery constraints of the BBB significantly limit the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, thereby making systemic administration a non-viable option for the vast majority of chemotherapy agents. Furthermore, the lack of specificity of conventional systemic chemotherapy when applied towards malignant brain tumors remains a major shortcoming. Hence novel therapeutic strategies that focus both on targeted and enhanced delivery across the BBB are warranted. In recent years nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as attractive vehicles for efficient delivery of targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. In particular, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained prominence in several targeting applications involving systemic cancers. Their enhanced permeation and retention within permissive tumor microvasculature provide a selective advantage for targeting. Malignant brain tumors also exhibit transport-permissive microvasculature secondary to blood brain barrier disruption. Hence AuNPs may have potential relevance for brain tumor targeting. However, the permeation of AuNPs across the BBB has not been well characterized, and hence is a potential limitation for successful application of AuNP-based therapeutics within the central nervous system (CNS). In this dissertation, we designed and characterized AuNPs and assessed the role of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the physical and biological properties of AuNPs. We established a size-dependent permeation profile with respect to core size as well as PEG length when AuNPs were assessed through a transport-permissive in-vitro BBB. This study was the first of its kind to systematically examine the influence of design on permeation of AuNPs through transport-permissive BBB. Given the significant delivery limitations through the non

  11. Priming nanoparticle-guided diagnostics and therapeutics towards human organs-on-chips microphysiological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Ha; Lee, Jaewon; Shin, Woojung; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2016-10-01

    Nanotechnology and bioengineering have converged over the past decades, by which the application of multi-functional nanoparticles (NPs) has been emerged in clinical and biomedical fields. The NPs primed to detect disease-specific biomarkers or to deliver biopharmaceutical compounds have beena validated in conventional in vitro culture models including two dimensional (2D) cell cultures or 3D organoid models. However, a lack of experimental models that have strong human physiological relevance has hampered accurate validation of the safety and functionality of NPs. Alternatively, biomimetic human "Organs-on-Chips" microphysiological systems have recapitulated the mechanically dynamic 3D tissue interface of human organ microenvironment, in which the transport, cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, and therapeutic efficacy of NPs and their conjugates may be more accurately validated. Finally, integration of NP-guided diagnostic detection and targeted nanotherapeutics in conjunction with human organs-on-chips can provide a novel avenue to accelerate the NP-based drug development process as well as the rapid detection of cellular secretomes associated with pathophysiological processes.

  12. Potential antitumor therapeutic strategies of human amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, N-H; Hwang, K-A; Kim, S U; Kim, Y-B; Hyun, S-H; Jeung, E-B; Choi, K-C

    2012-08-01

    As stem cells are capable of self-renewal and can generate differentiated progenies for organ development, they are considered as potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. Along with this capacity, stem cells have the therapeutic potential for treating human diseases including cancers. According to the origins, stem cells are broadly classified into two types: embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells. In terms of differentiation potential, ESCs are pluripotent and adult stem cells are multipotent. Amnion, which is a membranous sac that contains the fetus and amniotic fluid and functions in protecting the developing embryo during gestation, is another stem cell source. Amnion-derived stem cells are classified as human amniotic membrane-derived epithelial stem cells, human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells. They are in an intermediate stage between pluripotent ESCs and lineage-restricted adult stem cells, non-tumorigenic, and contribute to low immunogenicity and anti-inflammation. Furthermore, they are easily available and do not cause any controversial issues in their recovery and applications. Not only are amnion-derived stem cells applicable in regenerative medicine, they have anticancer capacity. In non-engineered stem cells transplantation strategies, amnion-derived stem cells effectively target the tumor and suppressed the tumor growth by expressing cytotoxic cytokines. Additionally, they also have a potential as novel delivery vehicles transferring therapeutic genes to the cancer formation sites in gene-directed enzyme/prodrug combination therapy. Owing to their own advantageous properties, amnion-derived stem cells are emerging as a new candidate in anticancer therapy.

  13. {sup 166} Ho-HA Evaluation as therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis treatment; Evaluacion de {sup 166}Ho-Ha como agente terapeutico en el tratamiento de la artritis reumatoidea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, M; Errazu, X [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Mendoza, P [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Militar, Santiago (Chile); Troncoso, F [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Jofre, J; Sierralta, P [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Militar, Santiago (Chile)

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis is a limiting disease having, among its pathological features, the inflammation of synovial tissue with progressive and later destruction of the articulation. This lead to joint deformation and loss of its function, generating pain and reducing the mobility of the affected articulation. The aim was to evaluate {sup 166}Ho-Hydroxyapatite ({sup 166} Ho-HA) as potential radiopharmaceutical for the syntomatic treatment of chronic and acute arthritis Materials and Methods: {sup 166}Holmiun was produced by irradiation of Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} at La Reina Research Reactor, Nuclear Chilean Energy Commission. Hydroxyapatite was in-house synthetized. Its labelling and quality controls follows the internationally accepted procedures. An antigen arthritis was induced to eight New Zealand rabbits with the {sup 166}Ho-HA radiochemical being administred thereafter in two dosage modalities (single and double). The compound therapeutic efficiency was evaluated based upon clinical improvement and images from the inflamated articulation using {sup 67}Ga citrate before and after {sup 166} Ho-HA injection. Results: The radiochemical purity of the innoculated compound was greater than 98% as measured under sterility conditions. Clinically, an inflamation reduction (2 cm), appetite improvement and general well being was observed. The {sup 166} Ho-HA distribution and localization was monitored using gamma camera images taken at 4 and 24 h. There was no evidence of extraarticular leakage. From the {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging, the acute group shows an overall improvement of well being corresponding to a lesser uptake at the inflamated articulation, regarding to the chronic group. The {sup 166}Ho-HA double dosis, compared to the single dosis, suggest a reduced uptake of {sup 67}Ga citrate at the inflamated tissue, meaning an increased therapeutic effect. Conclusions: {sup 166} Ho-HA is usefull as therapeutic agent for the syntomatic treatment of rheumatoideal arthritis

  14. Supramolecular Nanoparticles for Molecular Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ju

    Over the past decades, significant efforts have been devoted to explore the use of various nanoparticle-based systems in the field of nanomedicine, including molecular imaging and therapy. Supramolecular synthetic approaches have attracted lots of attention due to their flexibility, convenience, and modularity for producing nanoparticles. In this dissertation, the developmental story of our size-controllable supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs) will be discussed, as well as their use in specific biomedical applications. To achieve the self-assembly of SNPs, the well-characterized molecular recognition system (i.e., cyclodextrin/adamantane recognition) was employed. The resulting SNPs, which were assembled from three molecular building blocks, possess incredible stability in various physiological conditions, reversible size-controllability and dynamic disassembly that were exploited for various in vitro and in vivo applications. An advantage of using the supramolecular approach is that it enables the convenient incorporation of functional ligands onto SNP surface that confers functionality ( e.g., targeting, cell penetration) to SNPs. We utilized SNPs for molecular imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) by introducing reporter systems (i.e., radio-isotopes, MR contrast agents, and fluorophores) into SNPs. On the other hand, the incorporation of various payloads, including drugs, genes and proteins, into SNPs showed improved delivery performance and enhanced therapeutic efficacy for these therapeutic agents. Leveraging the powers of (i) a combinatorial synthetic approach based on supramolecular assembly and (ii) a digital microreactor, a rapid developmental pathway was developed that is capable of screening SNP candidates for the ideal structural and functional properties that deliver optimal performance. Moreover, SNP-based theranostic delivery systems that combine reporter systems and therapeutic payloads into a

  15. Development of a Multifaceted Ovarian Cancer Therapeutic and Imaging Agent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Markland, Francis S

    2008-01-01

    ...%. This project outlines the development of a recombinant version of a member of a class of proteins known as disintegrins as an innovative imaging and diagnostic agent for ovarian cancer (OC). Vicrostatin (VN...

  16. Evolution of and perspectives on therapeutic approaches to nerve agent poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Patrick

    2011-09-25

    After more than 70 years of considerable efforts, research on medical defense against nerve agents has come to a standstill. Major progress in medical countermeasures was achieved between the 50s and 70s with the development of anticholinergic drugs and carbamate-based pretreatment, the introduction of pyridinium oximes as antidotes, and benzodiazepines in emergency treatments. These drugs ensure good protection of the peripheral nervous system and mitigate the acute effects of exposure to lethal doses of nerve agents. However, pyridostigmine and cholinesterase reactivators currently used in the armed forces do not protect/reactivate central acetylcholinesterases. Moreover, other drugs used are not sufficiently effective in protecting the central nervous system against seizures, irreversible brain damages and long-term sequelae of nerve agent poisoning.New developments of medical counter-measures focus on: (a) detoxification of organophosphorus molecules before they react with acetylcholinesterase and other physiological targets by administration of stoichiometric or catalytic scavengers; (b) protection and reactivation of central acetylcholinesterases, and (c) improvement of neuroprotection following delayed therapy.Future developments will aim at treatment of acute and long-term effects of low level exposure to nerve agents, research on alternative routes for optimizing drug delivery, and therapies. Though gene therapy for in situ generation of bioscavengers, and cell therapy based on neural progenitor engraftment for neuronal regeneration have been successfully explored, more studies are needed before practical medical applications can be made of these new approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparative study on the cost of new antibiotics and drugs of other therapeutic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Fragoulis, Konstantinos N; Karydis, Ioannis

    2006-12-20

    Drug treatment is becoming more expensive due to the increased cost for the introduction of new drugs, and there seems to be an uneven distribution of medication cost for different therapeutic categories. We hypothesized that the cost of new antimicrobial agents may differ from that of other therapeutic categories and this may play a role in the stagnation of development of new antibiotics. We performed a pharmaco-economical comparative analysis of the drug cost of treatment for new agents introduced in the United States drug market in various therapeutic categories. We calculated the drug cost (in US dollars) of a ten-day treatment of all new drugs approved by the FDA during the period between January 1997 and July 2003, according to the 2004 Red Book Pharmacy's Fundamental Reference. New anti-neoplastic agents were found to be the most expensive drugs in comparison to all other therapeutic categories, with a median ten-day drug-treatment cost of US$848 compared to the median ten-day drug-treatment costs of all other categories ranging from US$29 to US$301. On the other hand, new antimicrobial drugs were found to be much less expensive, with a median ten-day drug-treatment cost of US$137 and $US85 for all anti-microbial agents and for anti-microbial agents excluding anti-HIV medications, respectively. The drug-treatment cost of new medications varies considerably by different therapeutic categories. This fact may influence industry decisions regarding the development of new drugs and may play a role in the shortage of new antimicrobial agents in the fight against the serious problem of antimicrobial resistance.

  18. Microbial glycolipoprotein-capped silver nanoparticles as emerging antibacterial agents against cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, Geeta; Shikha, Sristy; Chaddha, Baldev Singh; Chaudhuri, Saumya Ray; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Choudhury, Anirban Roy

    2016-02-01

    With the increased number of cholera outbreaks and emergence of multidrug resistance in Vibrio cholerae strains it has become necessary for the scientific community to devise and develop novel therapeutic approaches against cholera. Recent studies have indicated plausibility of therapeutic application of metal nano-materials. Among these, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a potential antimicrobial agent to combat infectious diseases. At present nanoparticles are mostly produced using physical or chemical techniques which are toxic and hazardous. Thus exploitation of microbial systems could be a green eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles having similar or even better antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility. Hence, it would be worth to explore the possibility of utilization of microbial silver nanoparticles and their conjugates as potential novel therapeutic agent against infectious diseases like cholera. The present study attempted utilization of Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae for the production of AgNPs and focused on investigating their role as antimicrobial agents against cholera. Later the exopolymer, purified from the culture supernatant, was used for the synthesis of spherical shaped AgNPs of around 10 nm size. Further the exopolymer was characterized as glycolipoprotein (GLP). Antibacterial activity of the novel GLP-AgNPs conjugate was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration, XTT reduction assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and growth curve analysis. SEM studies revealed that AgNPs treatment resulted in intracellular contents leakage and cell lysis. The potential of microbially synthesized nanoparticles, as novel therapeutic agents, is still relatively less explored. In fact, the present study first time demonstrated that a glycolipoprotein secreted by the O. rhizosphaerae strain can be exploited for production of AgNPs which can further be employed to treat infectious diseases. Although this type of polymer has

  19. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Release agents. Substances classified as release agents, when migrating from food-packaging material shall...

  20. Molecular Therapeutic Approaches for Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Tasian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Approximately two thirds of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML are cured with intensive multi-agent chemotherapy. However, primary chemorefractory and relapsed AML remains a significant source of childhood cancer mortality, highlighting the need for new therapies. Further therapy intensification with traditional cytotoxic agents is not feasible given the potential for significant toxicity to normal tissues with conventional chemotherapy and the risk for long-term end-organ dysfunction. Significant emphasis has been placed upon the development of molecularly targeted therapeutic approaches for adults and children with high-risk subtypes of AML with the goal of improving remission induction and minimizing relapse. Several promising agents are currently in clinical testing or late preclinical development for AML, including monoclonal antibodies against leukemia cell surface proteins, kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, epigenetic agents, and chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cell immunotherapies. Many of these therapies have been specifically tested in children with relapsed/refractory AML via phase 1 and 2 trials with a smaller number of new agents under phase 3 evaluation for children with de novo AML. Although successful identification and implementation of new drugs for children with AML remains a formidable challenge, enthusiasm for novel molecular therapeutic approaches is great given the potential for significant clinical benefit for children who will otherwise fail standard therapy.

  1. Peptides as Therapeutic Agents for Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Miaw-Fang; Poh, Keat-Seong; Poh, Chit-Laa

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is an important global threat caused by dengue virus (DENV) that records an estimated 390 million infections annually. Despite the availability of CYD-TDV as a commercial vaccine, its long-term efficacy against all four dengue virus serotypes remains unsatisfactory. There is therefore an urgent need for the development of antiviral drugs for the treatment of dengue. Peptide was once a neglected choice of medical treatment but it has lately regained interest from the pharmaceutical industry following pioneering advancements in technology. In this review, the design of peptide drugs, antiviral activities and mechanisms of peptides and peptidomimetics (modified peptides) action against dengue virus are discussed. The development of peptides as inhibitors for viral entry, replication and translation is also described, with a focus on the three main targets, namely, the host cell receptors, viral structural proteins and viral non-structural proteins. The antiviral peptides designed based on these approaches may lead to the discovery of novel anti-DENV therapeutics that can treat dengue patients.

  2. The future of antibody therapeutics: ADCs bi-specifics and RIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichert, J.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Antibodies are widely accepted as remarkably versatile therapeutic agents. As evidence of this, the ∼ 30 antibody products marketed worldwide had total global sales of more than 50 billion dollars in 2012, and the commercial clinical pipeline currently comprises over 350 antibody-based product candidates. In a testament to scientific ingenuity, the investigational molecules (clinical and preclinical) are notably diverse in their composition of matter and include antibodies conjugated to a variety of agents (drugs, radioisotopes), bi-specific antibodies, and fragments or domains of antibodies. The concepts that form the basis of these agents were established decades ago, but advances in technology are now allowing new opportunities for their development. In this presentation, future directions in antibody therapeutics development will be discussed, with a focus on antibody-drug conjugates, bi-specific antibodies and radioimmunotherapy. (author)

  3. Oncolytic Viruses: Therapeutics With an Identity Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline J. Breitbach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses (OV are replicating viral therapeutics for the treatment of cancer and have been in laboratory development for about twenty years. Recently, the FDA approved Imlygic, a herpes virus based therapeutic for the treatment of melanoma and thus OVs have entered a new era where they are a weapon in the armament of the oncologist. OVs are unique therapeutics with multiple mechanisms of therapeutic activity. The exact path for their development and eventual uptake by pharmaceutical companies is somewhat clouded by an uncertain identity. Are they vaccines, tumour lysing therapeutics, inducers of innate immunity, gene therapy vectors, anti-vascular agents or all of the above? Should they be developed as stand-alone loco-regional therapeutics, systemically delivered tumour hunters or immune modulators best tested as combination therapeutics? We summarize data here supporting the idea, depending upon the virus, that OVs can be any or all of these things. Pursuing a “one-size fits all” approach is counter-productive to their clinical development and instead as a field we should build on the strengths of individual virus platforms.

  4. Potential Therapeutic Roles of Tanshinone IIA in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chun Chiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA, one of the major lipophilic components isolated from the root of Salviae Miltiorrhizae, has been found to exhibit anticancer activity in various cancer cells. We have demonstrated that Tan-IIA induces apoptosis in several human cancer cells through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Here we explored the anticancer effect of Tan-IIA in human bladder cancer cell lines. Our results showed that Tan-IIA caused bladder cancer cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tan-IIA induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway in these bladder cancer cells. Tan-IIA also suppressed the migration of bladder cancer cells as revealed by the wound healing and transwell assays. Finally, combination therapy of Tan-IIA with a lower dose of cisplatin successfully killed bladder cancer cells, suggesting that Tan-IIA can serve as a potential anti-cancer agent in bladder cancer.

  5. Generative Agents for Player Decision Modeling in Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgård, Christoffer; Liapis, Antonios; Togelius, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for modeling player decision making through the use of agents as AI-driven personas. The paper argues that artificial agents, as generative player models, have properties that allow them to be used as psyhometrically valid, abstract simulations of a human player......’s internal decision making processes. Such agents can then be used to interpret human decision making, as personas and playtesting tools in the game design process, as baselines for adapting agents to mimic classes of human players, or as believable, human-like opponents. This argument is explored...... in a crowdsourced decision making experiment, in which the decisions of human players are recorded in a small-scale dungeon themed puzzle game. Human decisions are compared to the decisions of a number of a priori defined “archetypical” agent-personas, and the humans are characterized by their likeness...

  6. The Promising Pharmacological Effects and Therapeutic/Medicinal applications of Punica Granatum L. (Pomegranate) as a Functional Food in Humans and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; BiBi, Jannat; Kamboh, Asghar Ali; Arain, Muhammad Asif; Shah, Qurban Ali; Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed Ezzat; Abdel-Latif, Mervat A.; Yatoo, Mohd. Iqbal; Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2018-02-21

    gain. In addition, Punica granatum L. byproducts can modulate immune function and gut microbiota of broiler chickens as well as reduce the odorous gas emissions from excreta. Naturally occurring polyphenols in pomegranate can be a potential alternative medicine for the prevention of avian Colibacillosis diseases and can also be used as an intestine astringent to relieve diarrhea and enteritis in chickens. Present review gives the insight towards major components of pomegranate as well as their pharmacological activities against pathological disorders. In spite of many beneficial properties of Punica granatum L., more research evidence on molecular basis are needed to find out the molecular mechanism of action in various animals and human models to validate the usefulness of Punica granatum L. as a potent therapeutic agent. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Down-regulation of DNA mismatch repair proteins in human and murine tumor spheroids: implications for multicellular resistance to alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Giulio; Green, Shane K; Bocci, Guido; Man, Shan; Emmenegger, Urban; Ebos, John M L; Weinerman, Adina; Shaked, Yuval; Kerbel, Robert S

    2005-10-01

    Similar to other anticancer agents, intrinsic or acquired resistance to DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics is a major obstacle for cancer therapy. Current strategies aimed at overcoming this problem are mostly based on the premise that tumor cells acquire heritable genetic mutations that contribute to drug resistance. Here, we present evidence for an epigenetic, tumor cell adhesion-mediated, and reversible form of drug resistance that is associated with a reduction of DNA mismatch repair proteins PMS2 and/or MLH1 as well as other members of this DNA repair process. Growth of human breast cancer, human melanoma, and murine EMT-6 breast cancer cell lines as multicellular spheroids in vitro, which is associated with increased resistance to many chemotherapeutic drugs, including alkylating agents, is shown to lead to a reproducible down-regulation of PMS2, MLH1, or, in some cases, both as well as MHS6, MSH3, and MSH2. The observed down-regulation is in part reversible by treatment of tumor spheroids with the DNA-demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine. Thus, treatment of EMT-6 mouse mammary carcinoma spheroids with 5-azacytidine resulted in reduced and/or disrupted cell-cell adhesion, which in turn sensitized tumor spheroids to cisplatin-mediated killing in vitro. Our results suggest that antiadhesive agents might sensitize tumor spheroids to alkylating agents in part by reversing or preventing reduced DNA mismatch repair activity and that the chemosensitization properties of 5-azacytidine may conceivably reflect its role as a potential antiadhesive agent as well as reversal agent for MLH1 gene silencing in human tumors.

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Agents of Human Chromoblastomycosis in Brazil with the Description of Two Novel Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata R Gomes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The human mutilating disease chromoblastomycosis is caused by melanized members of the order Chaetothyriales. To assess population diversity among 123 clinical strains of agents of the disease in Brazil we applied sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region, and partial cell division cycle and β-tubulin genes. Strains studied were limited to three clusters divided over the single family Herpotrichiellaceae known to comprise agents of the disease. A Fonsecaea cluster contained the most important agents, among which F. pedrosoi was prevalent with 80% of the total set of strains, followed by 13% for F. monophora, 3% for F. nubica, and a single isolate of F. pugnacius. Additional agents, among which two novel species, were located among members of the genus Rhinocladiella and Cyphellophora, with frequencies of 3% and 1%, respectively.

  9. Human-Agent Decision-making: Combining Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Kraus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive work has been conducted both in game theory and logic to model strategic interaction. An important question is whether we can use these theories to design agents for interacting with people? On the one hand, they provide a formal design specification for agent strategies. On the other hand, people do not necessarily adhere to playing in accordance with these strategies, and their behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors. In this paper we will consider the question of whether strategies implied by theories of strategic behavior can be used by automated agents that interact proficiently with people. We will focus on automated agents that we built that need to interact with people in two negotiation settings: bargaining and deliberation. For bargaining we will study game-theory based equilibrium agents and for argumentation we will discuss logic-based argumentation theory. We will also consider security games and persuasion games and will discuss the benefits of using equilibrium based agents.

  10. Screening of chemical compound libraries identified new anti-Toxoplasma gondii agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Oluyomi Stephen; Sugi, Tatsuki; Han, Yongmei; Kato, Kentaro

    2018-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease that affects nearly one-third of the human population. The primary infection can be asymptomatic in healthy individuals but may prove fatal in immunocompromised individuals. Available treatment options for toxoplasmosis patients are limited, underscoring the urgent need to identify and develop new therapies. Non-biased screening of libraries of chemical compounds including the repurposing of well-characterized compounds is emerging as viable approach to achieving this goal. In the present investigation, we screened libraries of natural product and FDA-approved compounds to identify those that inhibited T. gondii growth. We identified 32 new compounds that potently inhibit T. gondii growth. Our findings are new and promising, and further strengthen the prospects of drug repurposing as well as the screening of a wide range of chemical compounds as a viable source of alternative anti-parasitic therapeutic agents.

  11. Natural products as radioprotective agents; past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2013-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation, which is the cornerstone of cancer treatment, is compromised by the radiosensitivity of normal tissues. A chemical that can give selective benefit to the normal cells against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation has been a long sought goal. However, most of the compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, undesirable side effects, and high cost. Plants commonly used as dietary and or therapeutic agents have recently been the focus of attention since in most cases they are non-toxic and are easily accepted for human use. The proposed talk will mainly deal on the radioprotective potential of some important plant and herbal extracts. (author)

  12. [Antiangiogenic agents in ARMD treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroi, Mihaela-Cristiana; Demea, Sorina; Todor, Meda; Apopei, Emmanuela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of antiangiogenic agents in the treatment of age related senile macular degeneration is to destroy coroidian neoformation vessels by minimally affecting the central vision. We present a case of important central vision recovery after 3 intravitreal injections of Avastin. The therapeutic decision and patient monitoring have been made using imaging studies, such as OCT and AFG. A modern therapeutic approach of neovascular forms of age related macular degeneration, backed up by AFG and OCT is a modern treatment method of this disabling illness which brings patients optimal functional and structural improvement.

  13. Role of MicroRNA-1 in Human Cancer and Its Therapeutic Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the mechanisms of human cancer development are not fully understood, evidence of microRNA (miRNA, miR dysregulation has been reported in many human diseases, including cancer. miRs are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression by binding to complementary sequences in the specific region of gene mRNAs, resulting in downregulation of gene expression. Not only are certain miRs consistently dysregulated across many cancers, but they also play critical roles in many aspects of cell growth, proliferation, metastasis, apoptosis, and drug resistance. Recent studies from our group and others revealed that miR-1 is frequently downregulated in various types of cancer. Through targeting multiple oncogenes and oncogenic pathways, miR-1 has been demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor gene that represses cancer cell proliferation and metastasis and promotes apoptosis by ectopic expression. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the aberrant expression and functional significance of miR-1 in human cancers and emphasize its significant values for therapeutic potentials.

  14. A Multi-Agent Environment for Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Koen V.; Jonker, Catholijn M.; Tykhonov, Dmytro

    In this chapter we introduce the System for Analysis of Multi-Issue Negotiation (SAMIN). SAMIN offers a negotiation environment that supports and facilitates the setup of various negotiation setups. The environment has been designed to analyse negotiation processes between human negotiators, between human and software agents, and between software agents. It offers a range of different agents, different domains, and other options useful to define a negotiation setup. The environment has been used to test and evaluate a range of negotiation strategies in various domains playing against other negotiating agents as well as humans. We discuss some of the results obtained by means of these experiments.

  15. Characterization of a Francisella tularensis-Caenorhabditis elegans Pathosystem for the Evaluation of Therapeutic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Jayamani, Elamparithi; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Kim, Wooseong; Okoli, Ikechukwu; Hernandez, Ana M.; Lee, Kiho; Nau, Gerard J.; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia. Because of its potential as a bioterrorism agent, there is a need for new therapeutic agents. We therefore developed a whole-animal Caenorhabditis elegans-F. tularensis pathosystem for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize potential therapeutic compounds. We found that the C. elegans p38 mitogen-activate protein (MAP) kinase cascade is involved in the immune response to F...

  16. Gold Nanoparticles: An Efficient Antimicrobial Agent against Enteric Bacterial Human Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzadi Shamaila

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Enteric bacterial human pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are the major cause of diarrheal infections in children and adults. Their structure badly affects the human immune system. It is important to explore new antibacterial agents instead of antibiotics for treatment. This project is an attempt to explain how gold nanoparticles affect these bacteria. We investigated the important role of the mean particle size, and the inhibition of a bacterium is dose-dependent. Ultra Violet (UV-visible spectroscopy revealed the size of chemically synthesized gold nanoparticle as 6–40 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis confirmed the size and X-ray diffractometry (XRD analysis determined the polycrystalline nature of gold nanoparticles. The present findings explained how gold nanoparticles lyse Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  17. Multiwalled carbon nanotube hybrids as MRI contrast agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodem Kuźnik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is one of the most commonly used tomography techniques in medical diagnosis due to the non-invasive character, the high spatial resolution and the possibility of soft tissue imaging. Contrast agents, such as gadolinium complexes and superparamagnetic iron oxides, are administered to spotlight certain organs and their pathologies. Many new models have been proposed that reduce side effects and required doses of these already clinically approved contrast agents. These new candidates often possess additional functionalities, e.g., the possibility of bioactivation upon action of particular stimuli, thus serving as smart molecular probes, or the coupling with therapeutic agents and therefore combining both a diagnostic and therapeutic role. Nanomaterials have been found to be an excellent scaffold for contrast agents, among which carbon nanotubes offer vast possibilities. The morphology of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, their magnetic and electronic properties, the possibility of different functionalization and the potential to penetrate cell membranes result in a unique and very attractive candidate for a new MRI contrast agent. In this review we describe the different issues connected with MWCNT hybrids designed for MRI contrast agents, i.e., their synthesis and magnetic and dispersion properties, as well as both in vitro and in vivo behavior, which is important for diagnostic purposes. An introduction to MRI contrast agent theory is elaborated here in order to point to the specific expectations regarding nanomaterials. Finally, we propose a promising, general model of MWCNTs as MRI contrast agent candidates based on the studies presented here and supported by appropriate theories.

  18. Trans-species Engineering of Glycosylated Therapeutic Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang

    important to address. Whenever glycosylation has been found to be an important PTM for function or bioactivity, human therapeutics have generally been produced in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. Oglycosylation is one of the most complex regulated PTMs of proteins but also one of the least...... understood. Currently, mammalian cells are required for human O-glycosylation. Increasing efforts have been devoted to engineering non-mammalian cells for production of recombinant proteins with “human-like” glycosylation. Substantial success has been achieved with designed N-glycosylation in both lower......Recombinant expression of therapeutic proteins is one of the major tasks in modern biomedicine. One of the most important factors with respect to therapeutic use in human is posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of the recombinant proteins, of which protein glycosylation is by far the most...

  19. Ivacaftor: A Novel Gene-Based Therapeutic Approach for Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Condren, Michelle E.; Bradshaw, Marquita D.

    2013-01-01

    Ivacaftor is a new therapeutic agent that acts at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel to alter activity. It is approved for use in patients 6 years and older with cystic fibrosis who have at least 1 G551D mutation in the CFTR gene. It is unlike any other current pharmacologic agent for cystic fibrosis in that it specifically targets the gene defect associated with cystic fibrosis as opposed to treating resulting symptomology. Mucoactive agents, antibiotics, ...

  20. International workshop on multimodal analyses enabling artificial agents in human-machine interaction (workshop summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böck, Ronald; Bonin, Francesca; Campbell, Nick; Poppe, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a brief overview of the third workshop on Multimodal Analyses enabling Artificial Agents in Human-Machine Interaction. The paper is focussing on the main aspects intended to be discussed in the workshop reflecting the main scope of the papers presented during the meeting. The MA3HMI

  1. Sensitization of human carcinoma cells to alkylating agents by small interfering RNA suppression of 3-alkyladenine-DNA glycosylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Johanna; Duncan, Tod; Lindahl, Tomas; Sedgwick, Barbara

    2005-11-15

    One of the major cytotoxic lesions generated by alkylating agents is DNA 3-alkyladenine, which can be excised by 3-alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG). Inhibition of AAG may therefore result in increased cellular sensitivity to chemotherapeutic alkylating agents. To investigate this possibility, we have examined the role of AAG in protecting human tumor cells against such agents. Plasmids that express small interfering RNAs targeted to two different regions of AAG mRNA were transfected into HeLa cervical carcinoma cells and A2780-SCA ovarian carcinoma cells. Stable derivatives of both cell types with low AAG protein levels were sensitized to alkylating agents. Two HeLa cell lines with AAG protein levels reduced by at least 80% to 90% displayed a 5- to 10-fold increase in sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, and the chemotherapeutic drugs temozolomide and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. These cells showed no increase in sensitivity to UV light or ionizing radiation. After treatment with methyl methanesulfonate, AAG knockdown HeLa cells were delayed in S phase but accumulated in G2-M. Our data support the hypothesis that ablation of AAG activity in human tumor cells may provide a useful strategy to enhance the efficacy of current chemotherapeutic regimens that include alkylating agents.

  2. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  3. Evaluation of real-time data obtained from gravimetric preparation of antineoplastic agents shows medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact: Results of a large-scale, multicentre, multinational, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkola, R; Czejka, M; Bérubé, J

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially with antineoplastic drugs, owing to their narrow therapeutic index. Gravimetric workflow software systems have the potential to reduce volumetric errors during intravenous antineoplastic drug preparation which may occur when verification is reliant on visual inspection. Our aim was to detect medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact as determined by the rate of prevented medication errors in chemotherapy compounding after implementation of gravimetric measurement. A large-scale, retrospective analysis of data was carried out, related to medication errors identified during preparation of antineoplastic drugs in 10 pharmacy services ("centres") in five European countries following the introduction of an intravenous workflow software gravimetric system. Errors were defined as errors in dose volumes outside tolerance levels, identified during weighing stages of preparation of chemotherapy solutions which would not otherwise have been detected by conventional visual inspection. The gravimetric system detected that 7.89% of the 759 060 doses of antineoplastic drugs prepared at participating centres between July 2011 and October 2015 had error levels outside the accepted tolerance range set by individual centres, and prevented these doses from reaching patients. The proportion of antineoplastic preparations with deviations >10% ranged from 0.49% to 5.04% across sites, with a mean of 2.25%. The proportion of preparations with deviations >20% ranged from 0.21% to 1.27% across sites, with a mean of 0.71%. There was considerable variation in error levels for different antineoplastic agents. Introduction of a gravimetric preparation system for antineoplastic agents detected and prevented dosing errors which would not have been recognized with traditional methods and could have resulted in toxicity or suboptimal therapeutic outcomes for patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  4. New therapeutic agent for radiation synovectomy - preparation of {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP-HA particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, H.; Jin, X.; Du, J.; Wang, F.; Chen, D.; Fan, H.; Cheng, Z.; Zhang, J. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (Switzerland). Isotope Department

    1997-10-01

    In order to prepare new therapeutical agent for radiation synovectomy, Hydroxyapatite (HA) was labelled with {sup 166}Ho by EDTMP that had high affinity to HA particles. Radiolabelling of HA particles was divided into two steps, {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP was prepared first; then mixed with HA particles completely and vibrated for 15 minutes on the micromixer at room temperature, washed 3 times with deionized water. Radiolabelling particle was separated from free {sup 166}Ho via centrifugation to determine its radiolabelling efficiency. {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP-HA and {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP were injected into knee joint of normal rabbits respectively, every group was killed at different time postinjection, took out major organ and collected urine and blood, then weighted and determined their radio counts. HA particles, as a natural component of bone was known to have good compatibility with soft tissue and biodegrade into calcium and phosphate in vivo. It was readily prepared from common chemical and formed into particles of desired size range in a controlled process, it had high stability in vitro and vivo. Radiolabelling of HA particle with {sup 166}Ho by EDTMP was simple to perform and provides an excellent labelling yield that was more than 95% under the optimal labelling condition. The optimal labelling condition at room temperature was pH 6.0-8.0 and vibration time 15 minutes. The absorbed capacity of HA particle was 5 mg Ho/g HA particle and size of radiolabelling particle was at range of 2-5,{mu}m that is suitable for therapy of radiation synovectomy. {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP-HA particle demonstrated high in vitro stability in either normal saline or 1% BSA solution, but instability under extremely acidic condition (pH 1-2). The control studies performed with {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP not bound to HA particle provided information on the distribution of radioactivity that would occur upon leakage of the radiochemical compound from joint. Its short half-life, its extremely low leakage from the

  5. Consistent manufacturing and quality control of a highly complex recombinant polyclonal antibody product for human therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Torben P; Naested, Henrik; Rasmussen, Søren K; Hauptig, Peter; Wiberg, Finn C; Rasmussen, Lone Kjaer; Jensen, Anne Marie Valentin; Persson, Pia; Wikén, Margareta; Engström, Anders; Jiang, Yun; Thorpe, Susan J; Förberg, Cecilia; Tolstrup, Anne B

    2011-09-01

    The beneficial effect of antibody therapy in human disease has become well established mainly for the treatment of cancer and immunological disorders. The inherent monospecificity of mAbs present limitations to mAb therapy which have become apparent notably in addressing complex entities like infectious agents or heterogenic endogenous targets. For such indications mixtures of antibodies comprising a combination of specificities would convey more potent biological effect which could translate into therapeutic efficacy. Recombinant polyclonal antibodies (rpAb) consisting of a defined number of well-characterized mAbs constitute a new class of target specific antibody therapy. We have developed a cost-efficient cell banking and single-batch manufacturing concept for the production of such products and demonstrate that a complex pAb composition, rozrolimupab, comprising 25 individual antibodies can be manufactured in a highly consistent manner in a scaled-up manufacturing process. We present a strategy for the release and characterization of antibody mixtures which constitute a complete series of chemistry, manufacturing, and control (CMC) analytical methods to address identity, purity, quantity, potency, and general characteristics. Finally we document selected quality attributes of rozrolimupab based on a battery of assays at the genetic-, protein-, and functional level and demonstrate that the manufactured rozrolimupab batches are highly pure and very uniform in their composition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Griffithsin: An Antiviral Lectin with Outstanding Therapeutic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Lusvarghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Griffithsin (GRFT, an algae-derived lectin, is one of the most potent viral entry inhibitors discovered to date. It is currently being developed as a microbicide with broad-spectrum activity against several enveloped viruses. GRFT can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection at picomolar concentrations, surpassing the ability of most anti-HIV agents. The potential to inhibit other viruses as well as parasites has also been demonstrated. Griffithsin’s antiviral activity stems from its ability to bind terminal mannoses present in high-mannose oligosaccharides and crosslink these glycans on the surface of the viral envelope glycoproteins. Here, we review structural and biochemical studies that established mode of action and facilitated construction of GRFT analogs, mechanisms that may lead to resistance, and in vitro and pre-clinical results that support the therapeutic potential of this lectin.

  7. Signal integration: a framework for understanding the efficacy of therapeutics targeting the human EGFR family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, H. Michael; Brdlik, Cathleen M.; Schreiber, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The human EGFR (HER) family is essential for communication between many epithelial cancer cell types and the tumor microenvironment. Therapeutics targeting the HER family have demonstrated clinical success in the treatment of diverse epithelial cancers. Here we propose that the success of HER family–targeted monoclonal antibodies in cancer results from their ability to interfere with HER family consolidation of signals initiated by a multitude of other receptor systems. Ligand/receptor systems that initiate these signals include cytokine receptors, chemokine receptors, TLRs, GPCRs, and integrins. We further extrapolate that improvements in cancer therapeutics targeting the HER family are likely to incorporate mechanisms that block or reverse stromal support of malignant progression by isolating the HER family from autocrine and stromal influences. PMID:18982164

  8. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  9. Cell wall proteins of Sporothrix schenckii as immunoprotective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Fierro, Carlos A; Pérez-Torres, Armando; López-Romero, Everardo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Ruiz-Baca, Estela

    2014-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii is the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, an endemic subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America. Cell wall (CW) proteins located on the cell surface are inducers of cellular and humoral immune responses, potential candidates for diagnosis purposes and to generate vaccines to prevent fungal infections. This mini-review emphasizes the potential use of S. schenckii CW proteins as protective and therapeutic immune response inducers against sporotrichosis. A number of pathogenic fungi display CW components that have been characterized as inducers of protective cellular and humoral immune responses against the whole pathogen from which they were originally purified. The isolation and characterization of immunodominant protein components of the CW of S. schenckii have become relevant because of their potential in the development of protective and therapeutic immune responses against sporotrichosis. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Personal experience with diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of human Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in Três Braços

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D. Marsden

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of human infection with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis found in the littoral forest of the state of Bahia are reviewed. There is pressing need for alternative cheap oral drug therapy.

  11. Glucose-coated gold nanoparticles transfer across human brain endothelium and enter astrocytes in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Gromnicova

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier prevents the entry of many therapeutic agents into the brain. Various nanocarriers have been developed to help agents to cross this barrier, but they all have limitations, with regard to tissue-selectivity and their ability to cross the endothelium. This study investigated the potential for 4 nm coated gold nanoparticles to act as selective carriers across human brain endothelium and subsequently to enter astrocytes. The transfer rate of glucose-coated gold nanoparticles across primary human brain endothelium was at least three times faster than across non-brain endothelia. Movement of these nanoparticles occurred across the apical and basal plasma membranes via the cytosol with relatively little vesicular or paracellular migration; antibiotics that interfere with vesicular transport did not block migration. The transfer rate was also dependent on the surface coating of the nanoparticle and incubation temperature. Using a novel 3-dimensional co-culture system, which includes primary human astrocytes and a brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, we demonstrated that the glucose-coated nanoparticles traverse the endothelium, move through the extracellular matrix and localize in astrocytes. The movement of the nanoparticles through the matrix was >10 µm/hour and they appeared in the nuclei of the astrocytes in considerable numbers. These nanoparticles have the correct properties for efficient and selective carriers of therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier.

  12. Preclinical evaluation of VIS513, a therapeutic antibody against dengue virus, in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Eugenia Z; Budigi, Yadunanda; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Robinson, Luke N; Rowley, Kirk J; Winnett, Alexander; Hobbie, Sven; Shriver, Zachary; Babcock, Gregory J; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2017-08-01

    Despite useful in vivo activity, no therapeutic against dengue virus (DENV) has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials. Herein, we explored dosing and virological endpoints to guide the design of human trials of VIS513, a pan-serotype anti-DENV IgG1 antibody, in non-human primates (NHPs). Dosing VIS513 pre- or post-peak viremia in NHPs neutralized infectious DENV although RNAemia remained detectable post-treatment; differential interaction of human IgGs with macaque Fc-gamma receptors may delay clearance of neutralized DENV. Our findings suggest useful antiviral utility of VIS513 and highlight an important consideration when evaluating virological endpoints of trials for anti-DENV biologics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Resveratrol as a Therapeutic Agent for Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Tan, Meng-Shan; Yu, Jin-Tai; Tan, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, but there is no effective therapy till now. The pathogenic mechanisms of AD are considerably complex, including Aβ accumulation, tau protein phosphorylation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Exactly, resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine and many plants, is indicated to show the neuroprotective effect on mechanisms mostly above. Recent years, there are numerous researches about resveratrol acting on AD in many models, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of resveratrol are limited by its pool bioavailability; therefore researchers have been trying a variety of methods to improve the efficiency. This review summarizes the recent studies in cell cultures and animal models, mainly discusses the molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol, and thus investigates the therapeutic potential in AD. PMID:25525597

  14. Therapeutic effect of cefozopran (SCE-2787), a new parenteral cephalosporin, against experimental infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizawa, Y; Okonogi, K; Hayashi, R; Iwahi, T; Yamazaki, T; Imada, A

    1993-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of cefozopran (SCE-2787), a new semisynthetic parenteral cephalosporin, against experimental infections in mice was examined. Cefozopran was more effective than cefpiramide and was as effective as ceftazidime and cefpirome against acute respiratory tract infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae DT-S. In the model of chronic respiratory tract infection caused by K. pneumoniae 27, cefozopran was as effective as ceftazidime. The therapeutic effect of cefozopran against urinary tract infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa P9 was superior to that of cefpirome and was equal to those of ceftazidime and cefclidin. In addition, cefozopran was more effective than ceftazidime and was as effective as flomoxef in a thigh muscle infection caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus 308A-1. Against thigh muscle infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus N133, cefozopran was the most effective agent. The potent therapeutic effect of cefozopran in those experimental infections in mice suggests that it would be effective against respiratory tract, urinary tract, and soft tissue infections caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in humans. PMID:8431004

  15. Anti-Infective Activities of Lactobacillus Strains in the Human Intestinal Microbiota: from Probiotics to Gastrointestinal Anti-Infectious Biotherapeutic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

  16. Tumor angiogenesis--a new therapeutic target in gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, E L; Spang-Thomsen, M; Skovgaard-Poulsen, H

    1998-01-01

    significant angiogenic activity primarily by the expression of the angiogenic factor VEGF Anti-angiogenic therapy represents a new promising therapeutic modality in solid tumors. Several agents are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. The present review describes the principal inducers...

  17. Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications of Cell Death Induction by Indole Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Aamir; Sakr, Wael A.; Rahman, KM Wahidur

    2011-01-01

    Indole compounds, obtained from cruciferous vegetables, are well-known for their anti-cancer properties. In particular, indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimeric product, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), have been widely investigated for their effectiveness against a number of human cancers in vitro as well as in vivo. These compounds are effective inducers of apoptosis and the accumulating evidence documenting their ability to modulate multiple cellular signaling pathways is a testimony to their pleiotropic behavior. Here we attempt to update current understanding on the various mechanisms that are responsible for the apoptosis-inducing effects by these compounds. The significance of apoptosis-induction as a desirable attribute of anti-cancer agents such as indole compounds cannot be overstated. However, an equally intriguing property of these compounds is their ability to sensitize cancer cells to standard chemotherapeutic agents. Such chemosensitizing effects of indole compounds can potentially have major clinical implications because these non-toxic compounds can reduce the toxicity and drug-resistance associated with available chemotherapies. Combinational therapy is increasingly being realized to be better than single agent therapy and, through this review article, we aim to provide a rationale behind combination of natural compounds such as indoles with conventional therapeutics

  18. Imaging findings and therapeutic alternatives for peripheral vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Santos, Daniela dos; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Abud, Daniel Giansante

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral vascular malformations represent a spectrum of lesions that appear through the lifetime and can be found in the whole body. Such lesions are uncommon and are frequently confounded with infantile hemangioma, a common benign neoplastic lesion. In the presence of such lesions, the correlation between the clinical and radiological findings is extremely important to achieve a correct diagnosis, which will guide the best therapeutic approach. The most recent classifications for peripheral vascular malformations are based on the blood flow (low or high) and on the main vascular components (arterial, capillary, lymphatic or venous). Peripheral vascular malformations represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, and complementary methods such as computed tomography, Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, in association with clinical findings can provide information regarding blood flow characteristics and lesions extent. Arteriography and venography confirm the diagnosis, evaluate the lesions extent and guide the therapeutic decision making. Generally, low flow vascular malformations are percutaneously treated with sclerosing agents injection, while in high flow lesions the approach is endovascular, with permanent liquid or solid embolization agents. (author)

  19. Melatonin and Nitrones As Potential Therapeutic Agents for Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a disease of aging affecting millions of people worldwide, and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA is the only treatment approved. However, r-tPA has a low therapeutic window and secondary effects which limit its beneficial outcome, urging thus the search for new more efficient therapies. Among them, neuroprotection based on melatonin or nitrones, as free radical traps, have arisen as drug candidates due to their strong antioxidant power. In this Perspective article, an update on the specific results of the melatonin and several new nitrones are presented.

  20. The role of lipid and carbohydrate digestive enzyme inhibitors in the management of obesity: a review of current and emerging therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucci S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sonia A Tucci, Emma J Boyland, Jason CG HalfordKissileff Laboratory for the Study of Human Ingestive Behaviour, School of Psychology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UKAbstract: Obesity is a global epidemic associated with significant morbidity and mortality in adults and ill health in children. A proven successful approach in weight management has been the disruption of nutrient digestion, with orlistat having been used to treat obesity for the last 10 years. Although orlistat-induced weight loss remains modest, it produces meaningful reductions in risk factors for obesity-related conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, this lipase inhibitor is free of the serious side effects that have dogged appetite-suppressing drugs. This success had driven investigation into new generation nutraceuticals, supplements and pharmaceutical agents that inhibit the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and fats within the gut. This review focuses on agents purported to inhibit intestinal enzymes responsible for macronutrient digestion. Except for some synthetic products, the majority of agents reviewed are either botanical extracts or bacterial products. Currently, carbohydrate digestion inhibitors are under development to improve glycemic control and these may also induce some weight loss. However, colonic fermentation induced side effects, such as excess gas production, remain an issue for these compounds. The α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, and the α-amylase inhibitor phaseolamine, have been used in humans with some promising results relating to weight loss. Nonetheless, few of these agents have made it into clinical studies and without any clinical proof of concept or proven efficacy it is unlikely any will enter the market soon.Keywords: lipase, amylase, saccharidases, overweight, orlistat, Alli®, digestion, body weight

  1. MMP-10 Is Overexpressed, Proteolytically Active, and a Potential Target for Therapeutic Intervention in Human Lung Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H. Gill

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix is a major factor for tumor development and expansion. This study analysed MMP-10 protein expression and activity in human lung tumors of various grade, stage, and type to address the relationship between MMP-10 and tumor characteristics and to evaluate MMP-10 as a therapeutic target in non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC. Unlike the majority of MMPs, MMP-10 was located in the tumor mass as opposed to tumor stroma. MMP-10 protein was observed at low levels in normal human lung tissues and at significantly higher levels in all types of NSCLC. No correlation was observed between MMP-10 protein expression and tumor type, stage, or lymph node invasion. To discriminate between active and inactive forms of MMP-10 in samples of human NSCLC, we have developed an ex vivo fluorescent assay. Measurable MMP-10 activity was detected in 42 of 50 specimens of lung cancer and only 2 of 10 specimens of histologically normal lung tissue. No relationship was observed between MMP-10 activity levels and clinicopathologic characteristics. Our results suggest that MMP-10 is expressed and active at high levels in human NSCLC compared to normal lung tissues, and, as such, is a potential target for the development of novel therapeutics for lung cancer treatment.

  2. Limited-Sampling Strategies for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Moxifloxacin in Patients With Tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pranger, Arianna D.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; van Altena, Richard; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    Background: Moxifloxacin (MFX) is a potent drug for multidrug resistant tuberculosis(TB) treatment and is also useful if first-line agents are not tolerated. Therapeutic drug monitoring may help to prevent treatment failure. Obtaining a full concentration-time curve of MFX for therapeutic drug

  3. Limited-sampling strategies for therapeutic drug monitoring of moxifloxacin in patients with tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pranger, A.D.; Kosterink, J.G.W.; Altena, R. van; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Werf, T.S. van der; Uges, D.R.A.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Moxifloxacin (MFX) is a potent drug for multidrug resistant tuberculosis(TB) treatment and is also useful if first-line agents are not tolerated. Therapeutic drug monitoring may help to prevent treatment failure. Obtaining a full concentration-time curve of MFX for therapeutic drug

  4. The influence of AT1002 on the nasal absorption of molecular weight markers and therapeutic agents when co-administered with bioadhesive polymers and an AT1002 antagonist, AT1001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Keon-Hyoung; Eddington, Natalie D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of the tight junction permeation enhancer, AT1002, on the nasal absorption of molecular weight markers and low bioavailable therapeutic agents co-administered with bioadhesive polymers or zonulin antagonist. The bioadhesive polymers, carrageenan and Na-CMC, were prepared with AT1002 to examine the permeation-enhancing effect of AT1002 on the nasal absorption of inulin, calcitonin and saquinavir after nasal administration to Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected over a 6-hour period from a jugular cannula. In addition, we determined whether AT1002 exerts a permeation-enhancing effect via activation of PAR-2 specific binding to a putative receptor of zonulin. To examine this zonulin antagonist, AT1001, was administered 30 min prior to dosing with an AT1002/inulin solution and blood samples were collected over a 6-hour period. The bioadhesive polymers did not directly increase the absorption of inulin, calcitonin and saquinavir, but promoted the permeation-enhancing effect of AT1002 when delivered nasally, thereby significantly increasing the absorption of each drug. Pre-treatment with AT1001 antagonized the zonulin receptor and significantly minimized the permeation-enhancing effect of AT1002. These findings will assist in understanding the permeation-enhancing capability of and the receptor binding of AT1002. Further, combining AT1002 with carrageenan supports the development of the mucosal delivery of therapeutic agents that have low bioavailability even with bioadhesive agents. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Oxidative Stress in Human Atherothrombosis: Sources, Markers and Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Martin-Ventura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Atherothrombosis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The underlying pathology is a chronic pathological vascular remodeling of the arterial wall involving several pathways, including oxidative stress. Cellular and animal studies have provided compelling evidence of the direct role of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis, but such a relationship is not clearly established in humans and, to date, clinical trials on the possible beneficial effects of antioxidant therapy have provided equivocal results. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase is one of the main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS in human atherothrombosis. Moreover, leukocyte-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO and red blood cell-derived iron could be involved in the oxidative modification of lipids/lipoproteins (LDL/HDL in the arterial wall. Interestingly, oxidized lipoproteins, and antioxidants, have been analyzed as potential markers of oxidative stress in the plasma of patients with atherothrombosis. In this review, we will revise sources of ROS, focusing on NADPH oxidase, but also on MPO and iron. We will also discuss the impact of these oxidative systems on LDL and HDL, as well as the value of these modified lipoproteins as circulating markers of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis. We will finish by reviewing some antioxidant systems and compounds as therapeutic strategies to prevent pathological vascular remodeling.

  6. Plant Proteinase Inhibitors in Therapeutics – Focus on Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Srikanth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are known to have many secondary metabolites and phytochemical compounds which are highly explored at biochemical and molecular genetics level and exploited enormously in the human health care sector. However, there are other less explored small molecular weight proteins, which inhibit proteases/proteinases. Plants are good sources of protease inhibitors (PIs which protect them against diseases, insects, pests, and herbivores. In the past, proteinaceous PIs were considered primarily as protein-degrading enzymes. Nevertheless, this view has significantly changed and PIs are now treated as very important signaling molecules in many biological activities such as inflammation, apoptosis, blood clotting and hormone processing. In recent years, PIs have been examined extensively as therapeutic agents, primarily to deal with various human cancers. Interestingly, many plant-based PIs are also found to be effective against cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory diseases and neurological disorders. Several plant PIs are under further evaluation in in vitro clinical trials. Among all types of PIs, Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI has been studied extensively in the treatment of many diseases, especially in the field of cancer prevention. So far, crops such as beans, potatoes, barley, squash, millet, wheat, buckwheat, groundnut, chickpea, pigeonpea, corn and pineapple have been identified as good sources of PIs. The PI content of such foods has a significant influence on human health disorders, particularly in the regions where people mostly depend on these kind of foods. These natural PIs vary in concentration, protease specificity, heat stability, and sometimes several PIs may be present in the same species or tissue. However, it is important to carry out individual studies to identify the potential effects of each PI on human health. PIs in plants make them incredible sources to determine novel PIs with specific pharmacological and

  7. Meeting Report: High-Throughput Technologies for In Vivo Imaging Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Gillies

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening have become standard tools for discovering new drug candidates with suitable pharmacological properties. Now, those same technologies are starting to be applied to the problem of discovering novel in vivo imaging agents. Important differences in the biological and pharmacological properties needed for imaging agents, compared to those for a therapeutic agent, require new screening methods that emphasize those characteristics, such as optimized residence time and tissue specificity, that make for a good imaging agent candidate.

  8. Modeling culture in intelligent virtual agents

    OpenAIRE

    Mascarenhas, S.; Degens, N.; Paiva, A.; Prada, R.; Hofstede, G.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Aylett, R.

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the challenge of creating virtual agents that are able to portray culturally appropriate behavior when interacting with other agents or humans. Because culture influences how people perceive their social reality it is important to have agent models that explicitly consider social elements, such as existing relational factors. We addressed this necessity by integrating culture into a novel model for simulating human social behavior. With this model, we operationalized a par...

  9. The epigenetic agents suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and 5‑AZA‑2' deoxycytidine decrease cell proliferation, induce cell death and delay the growth of MiaPaCa2 pancreatic cancer cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Johana M; Colvin, Emily K; Pinese, Mark; Chang, David K; Pajic, Marina; Mawson, Amanda; Caldon, C Elizabeth; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Henshall, Susan M; Sutherland, Robert L; Biankin, Andrew V; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    Despite incremental advances in the diagnosis and treatment for pancreatic cancer (PC), the 5‑year survival rate remains <5%. Novel therapies to increase survival and quality of life for PC patients are desperately needed. Epigenetic thera-peutic agents such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) have demonstrated therapeutic benefits in human cancer. We assessed the efficacy of these epigenetic therapeutic agents as potential therapies for PC using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment with HDACi [suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)] and DNMTi [5‑AZA‑2' deoxycytidine (5‑AZA‑dc)] decreased cell proliferation in MiaPaCa2 cells, and SAHA treatment, with or without 5‑AZA‑dc, resulted in higher cell death and lower DNA synthesis compared to 5‑AZA‑dc alone and controls (DMSO). Further, combination treatment with SAHA and 5‑AZA‑dc significantly increased expression of p21WAF1, leading to G1 arrest. Treatment with epigenetic agents delayed tumour growth in vivo, but did not decrease growth of established pancreatic tumours. In conclusion, these data demonstrate a potential role for epigenetic modifier drugs for the management of PC, specifically in the chemoprevention of PC, in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents.

  10. Multi-targeting Andrographolide and its Natural Analogs as Potential Therapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, V; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Bishayee, Anupam; Putta, Swathi; Malla, Ramarao; Neelapu, Nageswara Rao Reddy; Challa, Surekha; Das, Subhasish; Shiralgi, Yallappa; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2017-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) is a medicinal plant used in the Indian and Chinese traditional medicinal systems for its various beneficial properties of therapeutics. This is due to the presence of a diterpene lactone called 'andrographolide'. Several biological activities like antiinflammatory, antitumour, anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-fertility, antiviral, cardio protective and hepatoprotective properties are attributed to andrographolide and its natural analogs. The studies have shown that not only this diterpene lactone (andrographolide), but also other related terpenoid analogs from A. paniculata could be exploited for disease prevention due to their structural similarity with diverse pharmacological activities. Several scientific groups are trying to unveil the underlying mechanisms involved in these biological actions brough aout by andrographolide and its analogs. This review aims at giving an overview on the therapeutical and/or pharmacological activities of andrographolide and its derivatives and also exemplify the underlying mechanisms involved. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Plasma total ghrelin and leptin levels in human narcolepsy and matched healthy controls: Basal concentrations and response to sodium oxybate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donjacour, C.E.; Pardi, D.; Aziz, N.A.; Frolich, M.; Roelfsema, F.; Overeem, S.; Pijl, H.; Lammers, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Narcolepsy is caused by a selective loss of hypocretin neurons and is associated with obesity. Ghrelin and leptin interact with hypocretin neurons to influence energy homeostasis. Here, we evaluated whether human hypocretin deficiency, or the narcolepsy therapeutic agent sodium

  12. Connective tissue growth factor as a novel therapeutic target in high grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Jones, Kim; Gloss, Brian S; Murali, Rajmohan; Chang, David K; Colvin, Emily K; Jones, Marc D; Yuen, Samuel; Howell, Viive M; Brown, Laura M; Wong, Carol W; Spong, Suzanne M; Scarlett, Christopher J; Hacker, Neville F; Ghosh, Sue; Mok, Samuel C; Birrer, Michael J; Samimi, Goli

    2015-12-29

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among women with gynecologic cancer. We examined molecular profiles of fibroblasts from normal ovary and high-grade serous ovarian tumors to identify novel therapeutic targets involved in tumor progression. We identified 2,300 genes that are significantly differentially expressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts. Fibroblast expression of one of these genes, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CTGF protein expression in ovarian tumor fibroblasts significantly correlated with gene expression levels. CTGF is a secreted component of the tumor microenvironment and is being pursued as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. We examined its effect in in vitro and ex vivo ovarian cancer models, and examined associations between CTGF expression and clinico-pathologic characteristics in patients. CTGF promotes migration and peritoneal adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. These effects are abrogated by FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, currently under clinical investigation as a therapeutic agent. Immunohistochemical analyses of high-grade serous ovarian tumors reveal that the highest level of tumor stromal CTGF expression was correlated with the poorest prognosis. Our findings identify CTGF as a promoter of peritoneal adhesion, likely to mediate metastasis, and a potential therapeutic target in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. These results warrant further studies into the therapeutic efficacy of FG-3019 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

  13. EP4 as a Therapeutic Target for Aggressive Human Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Majumder

    2018-03-01

    selective EP4 antagonists (EP4A could mitigate all of these events tested with cells in vitro as well as in vivo in syngeneic COX-2 expressing mammary cancer bearing mice or immune-deficient mice bearing COX-2 over-expressing human breast cancer xenografts. We suggest that EP4A can avoid thrombo-embolic side effects of long term use of COX-2 inhibitors by sparing cardio-protective roles of PGI2 via IP receptor activation or PGE2 via EP3 receptor activation. Furthermore, we identified two COX-2/EP4 induced oncogenic and SLC-stimulating microRNAs—miR526b and miR655, one of which (miR655 appears to be a potential blood biomarker in breast cancer patients for monitoring SLC-ablative therapies, such as with EP4A. We suggest that EP4A will likely produce the highest benefit in aggressive breast cancers, such as COX-2 expressing triple-negative breast cancers, when combined with other newer agents, such as inhibitors of programmed cell death (PD-1 or PD-L1.

  14. Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus: Application of CRISPR/Cas9 Therapeutic Strategies for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs cause different types of cancer especially cervical cancer. HPV-associated carcinogenesis provides a classical model system for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9 based cancer therapies since the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are exclusively expressed in cancerous cells. Sequence-specific gene knockdown/knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 shows promise as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of a variety of diseases that currently lack effective treatments. However, CRISPR/Cas9-based targeting therapy requires further validation of its efficacy in vitro and in vivo to eliminate the potential off-target effects, necessitates verification of the delivery vehicles and the combinatory use of conventional therapies with CRISPR/Cas9 to ensure the feasibility and safety. In this review we discuss the potential of combining CRISPR/Cas9 with other treatment options as therapies for oncogenic HPVs-associated carcinogenesis. and present our assessment of the promising path to the development of CRISPR/Cas9 therapeutic strategies for clinical settings.

  15. Modeling agent's preferences by its designer's social value orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Inon; Cheng, Kan-Leung; Nau, Dana S.

    2018-03-01

    Human social preferences have been shown to play an important role in many areas of decision-making. There is evidence from the social science literature that human preferences in interpersonal interactions depend partly on a measurable personality trait called, Social Value Orientation (SVO). Automated agents are often written by humans to serve as their delegates when interacting with other agents. Thus, one might expect an agent's behaviour to be influenced by the SVO of its human designer. With that in mind, we present the following: first, we explore, discuss and provide a solution to the question of how SVO tests that were designed for humans can be used to evaluate agents' social preferences. Second, we show that in our example domain there is a medium-high positive correlation between the social preferences of agents and their human designers. Third, we exemplify how the SVO information of the designer can be used to improve the performance of some other agents playing against those agents, and lastly, we develop and exemplify the behavioural signature SVO model which allows us to better predict performances when interactions are repeated and behaviour is adapted.

  16. Immunological effects of hypomethylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Katherine E; Goswami, Meghali; Hourigan, Christopher S; Oetjen, Karolyn A

    2017-08-01

    Epigenetic changes resulting from aberrant methylation patterns are a recurrent observation in hematologic malignancies. Hypomethylating agents have a well-established role in the management of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia. In addition to the direct effects of hypomethylating agents on cancer cells, there are several lines of evidence indicating a role for immune-mediated anti-tumor benefits from hypomethylating therapy. Areas covered: We reviewed the clinical and basic science literature for the effects of hypomethylating agents, including the most commonly utilized therapeutics azacitidine and decitabine, on immune cell subsets. We summarized the effects of hypomethylating agents on the frequency and function of natural killer cells, T cells, and dendritic cells. In particular, we highlight the effects of hypomethylating agents on expression of immune checkpoint inhibitors, leukemia-associated antigens, and endogenous retroviral elements. Expert commentary: In vitro and ex vivo studies indicate mixed effects on the function of natural killer, dendritic cells and T cells following treatment with hypomethylating agents. Clinical correlates of immune function have suggested that hypomethylating agents have immunomodulatory functions with the potential to synergize with immune checkpoint therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancy, and has become an active area of clinical research.

  17. Nanomelatonin triggers superior anticancer functionality in a human malignant glioblastoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Dev, Atul; Kaundal, Babita; Choudhury, Subhasree Roy; Karmakar, Surajit

    2017-09-01

    Melatonin (MEL) has promising medicinal value as an anticancer agent in a variety of malignancies, but there are difficulties in achieving a therapeutic dose due to its short half-life, low bioavailability, poor solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism. In this study chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanoparticles were prepared by an ionic gelation method to overcome the therapeutic challenges of melatonin and to improve its anticancer efficacy. Characterization of the melatonin-loaded chitosan (MEL-CS) nanoformulation was performed using transmission and scanning electron microscopies, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. In vitro release, cellular uptake and efficacy studies were tested for their enhanced anticancer potential in human U87MG glioblastoma cells. Confocal studies revealed higher cellular uptake of MEL-CS nanoparticles and enhanced anticancer efficacy in human malignant glioblastoma cancer cells than in healthy non-malignant human HEK293T cells in mono- and co-culture models. Our study has shown for the first time that MEL-CS nanocomposites are therapeutically more effective as compared to free MEL at inducing functional anticancer efficacy in the human brain tumour U87MG cell line.

  18. Fairness in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de S.; Tuyls, K.P.; Verbeeck, K.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are complex systems in which multiple autonomous entities, called agents, cooperate in order to achieve a common or personal goal. These entities may be computer software, robots, and also humans. In fact, many multi-agent systems are intended to operate in cooperation with or as

  19. Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu-Quang, Hieu

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been employed as contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to improve sensitivity and accuracy in diagnosis. In addition, these contrast agents are potentially combined with other therapeutic compounds or near infrared bio-imaging (NIR) fluorophores to obtain...... theranostic or dual imaging purposes, respectively. There were two main types of MRI contrast agent that were synthesized during this PhD project including fluorine containing nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles. In regard of fluorine containing nanoparticles, there were two types contrast agent...... cancer cells for cancer diagnosis in MRI. F127-Folate coated SPION were stable in various types of suspension medium for over six months. They could specifically target folate receptor of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo thus enhancing the contrast in MRI T2/T2* weighted images. These are preliminary...

  20. Evolution of Therapeutic Antibodies, Influenza Virus Biology, Influenza, and Influenza Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urai Chaisri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This narrative review article summarizes past and current technologies for generating antibodies for passive immunization/immunotherapy. Contemporary DNA and protein technologies have facilitated the development of engineered therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in a variety of formats according to the required effector functions. Chimeric, humanized, and human monoclonal antibodies to antigenic/epitopic myriads with less immunogenicity than animal-derived antibodies in human recipients can be produced in vitro. Immunotherapy with ready-to-use antibodies has gained wide acceptance as a powerful treatment against both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Influenza, a highly contagious disease, precipitates annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, resulting in high health and economic burden worldwide. Currently available drugs are becoming less and less effective against this rapidly mutating virus. Alternative treatment strategies are needed, particularly for individuals at high risk for severe morbidity. In a setting where vaccines are not yet protective or available, human antibodies that are broadly effective against various influenza subtypes could be highly efficacious in lowering morbidity and mortality and controlling unprecedented epidemic/pandemic. Prototypes of human single-chain antibodies to several conserved proteins of influenza virus with no Fc portion (hence, no ADE effect in recipients are available. These antibodies have high potential as a novel, safe, and effective anti-influenza agent.

  1. A generic whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for therapeutic proteins in PK-Sim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederalt, Christoph; Kuepfer, Lars; Solodenko, Juri; Eissing, Thomas; Siegmund, Hans-Ulrich; Block, Michael; Willmann, Stefan; Lippert, Jörg

    2018-04-01

    Proteins are an increasingly important class of drugs used as therapeutic as well as diagnostic agents. A generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in order to represent at whole body level the fundamental mechanisms driving the distribution and clearance of large molecules like therapeutic proteins. The model was built as an extension of the PK-Sim model for small molecules incorporating (i) the two-pore formalism for drug extravasation from blood plasma to interstitial space, (ii) lymph flow, (iii) endosomal clearance and (iv) protection from endosomal clearance by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) mediated recycling as especially relevant for antibodies. For model development and evaluation, PK data was used for compounds with a wide range of solute radii. The model supports the integration of knowledge gained during all development phases of therapeutic proteins, enables translation from pre-clinical species to human and allows predictions of tissue concentration profiles which are of relevance for the analysis of on-target pharmacodynamic effects as well as off-target toxicity. The current implementation of the model replaces the generic protein PBPK model available in PK-Sim since version 4.2 and becomes part of the Open Systems Pharmacology Suite.

  2. Therapeutic cloning: The ethical limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    A brief outline of stem cells, stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning is given. The position of therapeutic cloning with regard to other embryonic manipulations - IVF-based reproduction, embryonic stem formation from IVF embryos and reproductive cloning - is indicated. The main ethically challenging stages in therapeutic cloning are considered to be the nuclear transfer process including the source of eggs for this and the destruction of an embryo to provide stem cells for therapeutic use. The extremely polarised nature of the debate regarding the status of an early human embryo is noted, and some potential alternative strategies for preparing immunocompatible pluripotent stem cells are indicated

  3. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  4. Generation of “LYmph Node Derived Antibody Libraries” (LYNDAL) for selecting fully human antibody fragments with therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebolder, Philipp; Keller, Armin; Haase, Stephanie; Schlegelmilch, Anne; Kiefer, Jonathan D; Karimi, Tamana; Weber, Tobias; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Kehm, Roland; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M; Jäger, Dirk; Federspil, Philippe A; Herold-Mende, Christel; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Kontermann, Roland E; Arndt, Michaela A E; Krauss, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The development of efficient strategies for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies with unique functional properties that are exploitable for tailored therapeutic interventions remains a major challenge in the antibody technology field. Here, we present a methodology for recovering such antibodies from antigen-encountered human B cell repertoires. As the source for variable antibody genes, we cloned immunoglobulin G (IgG)-derived B cell repertoires from lymph nodes of 20 individuals undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer. Sequence analysis of unselected “LYmph Node Derived Antibody Libraries” (LYNDAL) revealed a naturally occurring distribution pattern of rearranged antibody sequences, representing all known variable gene families and most functional germline sequences. To demonstrate the feasibility for selecting antibodies with therapeutic potential from these repertoires, seven LYNDAL from donors with high serum titers against herpes simplex virus (HSV) were panned on recombinant glycoprotein B of HSV-1. Screening for specific binders delivered 34 single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) with unique sequences. Sequence analysis revealed extensive somatic hypermutation of enriched clones as a result of affinity maturation. Binding of scFvs to common glycoprotein B variants from HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains was highly specific, and the majority of analyzed antibody fragments bound to the target antigen with nanomolar affinity. From eight scFvs with HSV-neutralizing capacity in vitro,the most potent antibody neutralized 50% HSV-2 at 4.5 nM as a dimeric (scFv)2. We anticipate our approach to be useful for recovering fully human antibodies with therapeutic potential.

  5. Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Zhou, Zhaozong; Donahue, Jeremiah J.; Guan, Jun; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of antioxidant agents against space radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of selected concentrations of N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, co-enzyme Q10, α-lipoic acid, L-selenomethionine, and vitamin E succinate on radiation-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in MCF10 human breast epithelial cells exposed to radiation with X-rays, γ-rays, protons, or high mass, high atomic number, and high energy particles using a dichlorofluorescein assay. Results: The results demonstrated that these antioxidants are effective in protecting against radiation-induced oxidative stress and complete or nearly complete protection was achieved by treating the cells with a combination of these agents before and during the radiation exposure. Conclusion: The combination of antioxidants evaluated in this study is likely be a promising countermeasure for protection against space radiation-induced adverse biologic effects

  6. Plant-derived human butyrylcholinesterase, but not an organophosphorous-compound hydrolyzing variant thereof, protects rodents against nerve agents

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, Brian C.; Kannan, Latha; Garnaud, Pierre-Emmanuel; Broomfield, Clarence A.; Cadieux, C. Linn; Cherni, Irene; Hodgins, Sean M.; Kasten, Shane A.; Kelley, Karli; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Oliver, Zeke P.; Otto, Tamara C.; Puffenberger, Ian; Reeves, Tony E.; Robbins, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The concept of using cholinesterase bioscavengers for prophylaxis against organophosphorous nerve agents and pesticides has progressed from the bench to clinical trial. However, the supply of the native human proteins is either limited (e.g., plasma-derived butyrylcholinesterase and erythrocytic acetylcholinesterase) or nonexisting (synaptic acetylcholinesterase). Here we identify a unique form of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase that mimics the native enzyme assembly into tetramers; t...

  7. The pig as a model for therapeutic human anti-cancer vaccine development, elucidating the T-cell reactivity against IDO and RhoC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana Haahr; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Welner, Simon

    is important. Previous development of therapeutic cancer vaccines has largely been based on studies in mice and the majority of these candidate vaccines failed to establish therapeutic responses in subsequent human clinical trials. Since the porcine immunome is more closely related to the human counterpart, we...... here introduce pigs as a superior large animal model for human cancer vaccine development via the use of our unique technology for swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) production. IDO and RhoC, both known to be important in human cancer development and progression, were used as vaccine targets. Pigs were......, and peptide-SLA complex stability measurements revealed 89 stable (t½ ≥ 0.5 hour) complexes. Vaccine-induced peptide-specific CTL responses were monitored using IFN-γ release as a read out. We found responses to IDO- and RhoC-derived peptides across all groups; surprisingly non-stably binding peptides also...

  8. Tofacitinib Suppresses Antibody Responses to Protein Therapeutics in Murine Hosts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Masanori; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Steward-Tharp, Scott; Thomas, Craig; O’Shea, John J.; Pastan, Ira H.; FitzGerald, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Immunogenicity remains the ‘Achilles’ heel’ of protein-based therapeutics. Anti-drug antibodies produced in response to protein therapeutics can severely limit both the safety and efficacy of this expanding class of agent. Here we report that monotherapy of mice with tofacitinib (the Janus kinase inhibitor) quells antibody responses to an immunotoxin derived from the bacterial protein, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, as well as to the model antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Thousandfold reductions in IgG1 titers to both antigens were observed 21 days post-immunization. In fact, suppression was evident for all IgG isotypes and IgM. A reduction in IgG3 production was also noted with a thymus-independent type II antigen. Mechanistic investigations revealed that tofacitinib treatment led to reduced numbers of CD127+ pro-B cells. Furthermore, we observed fewer germinal center B cells and the impaired formation of germinal centers of mice treated with tofacitinib. Since normal immunoglobulin levels were still present during the tofacitinib treatment, this agent specifically reduced anti-drug antibodies, thus preserving the potential efficacy of biological therapeutics, including those that are used as cancer therapeutics. PMID:24890727

  9. Targeted Therapeutic Nanoparticles: An Immense Promise to Fight against Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Tasnim Jahan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In nanomedicine, targeted therapeutic nanoparticle (NP is a virtual outcome of nanotechnology taking the advantage of cancer propagation pattern. Tying up all elements such as therapeutic or imaging agent, targeting ligand, and cross-linking agent with the NPs is the key concept to deliver the payload selectively where it intends to reach. The microenvironment of tumor tissues in lymphatic vessels can also help targeted NPs to achieve their anticipated accumulation depending on the formulation objectives. This review accumulates the application of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA and polyethylene glycol (PEG based NP systems, with a specific perspective in cancer. Nowadays, PLGA, PEG, or their combinations are the mostly used polymers to serve the purpose of targeted therapeutic NPs. Their unique physicochemical properties along with their biological activities are also discussed. Depending on the biological effects from parameters associated with existing NPs, several advantages and limitations have been explored in teaming up all the essential facts to give birth to targeted therapeutic NPs. Therefore, the current article will provide a comprehensive review of various approaches to fabricate a targeted system to achieve appropriate physicochemical properties. Based on such findings, researchers can realize the benefits and challenges for the next generation of delivery systems.

  10. Pathogenic inflammation and its therapeutic targeting in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Andrew Gottschalk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE, lupus is a highly complex and heterogeneous autoimmune disease that most often afflicts women in their child-bearing years. It is characterized by circulating self-reactive antibodies that deposit in tissues including skin, kidneys and brain, and the ensuing inflammatory response can lead to irreparable tissue damage. Over many years, clinical trials in SLE have focused on agents that control B and T lymphocyte activation, and, with the single exception of an agent known as Belimumab which targets the B cell survival factor BAFF, they have been disappointing. At present, standard therapy for SLE with mild disease is the agent hydroxychloroquine. During disease flares, steroids are often used, while the more severe manifestations with major organ involvement warrant potent, broad-spectrum immuno-suppression with cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate. Current treatments have severe and dose-limiting toxicities and thus a more specific therapy targeting a causative factor or signaling pathway would be greatly beneficial in SLE treatment. Moreover, the ability to control inflammation alongside B cell activation may be a superior approach for disease control. There has been a recent focus on the innate immune system and associated inflammation, which has uncovered key players in driving the pathogenesis of SLE. Delineating some of these intricate inflammatory mechanisms has been possible with studies using spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice. These strains, to varying degrees, exhibit hallmarks of the human disease and therefore have been utilized to model human SLE and to test new drugs. Developing a better understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of disease in SLE may uncover suitable novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss the involvement of inflammation in SLE disease pathogenesis, with a focus on several key proinflammatory cytokines and myeloid growth factors, and

  11. Pathogenic Inflammation and Its Therapeutic Targeting in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Timothy A.; Tsantikos, Evelyn; Hibbs, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, lupus) is a highly complex and heterogeneous autoimmune disease that most often afflicts women in their child-bearing years. It is characterized by circulating self-reactive antibodies that deposit in tissues, including skin, kidneys, and brain, and the ensuing inflammatory response can lead to irreparable tissue damage. Over many years, clinical trials in SLE have focused on agents that control B- and T-lymphocyte activation, and, with the single exception of an agent known as belimumab which targets the B-cell survival factor BAFF, they have been disappointing. At present, standard therapy for SLE with mild disease is the agent hydroxychloroquine. During disease flares, steroids are often used, while the more severe manifestations with major organ involvement warrant potent, broad-spectrum immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate. Current treatments have severe and dose-limiting toxicities and thus a more specific therapy targeting a causative factor or signaling pathway would be greatly beneficial in SLE treatment. Moreover, the ability to control inflammation alongside B-cell activation may be a superior approach for disease control. There has been a recent focus on the innate immune system and associated inflammation, which has uncovered key players in driving the pathogenesis of SLE. Delineating some of these intricate inflammatory mechanisms has been possible with studies using spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice. These strains, to varying degrees, exhibit hallmarks of the human disease and therefore have been utilized to model human SLE and to test new drugs. Developing a better understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of disease in SLE may uncover suitable novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we discuss the involvement of inflammation in SLE disease pathogenesis, with a focus on several key proinflammatory cytokines and myeloid growth factors, and review the known

  12. Therapeutic hypnosis, psychotherapy, and the digital humanities: the narratives and culturomics of hypnosis, 1800-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Mortimer, Jane; Rossi, Kathryn

    2013-04-01

    Culturomics is a new scientific discipline of the digital humanities-the use of computer algorithms to search for meaning in large databases of text and media. This new digital discipline is used to explore 200 years of the history of hypnosis and psychotherapy in over five million digitized books from more than 40 university libraries around the world. It graphically compares the frequencies of English words about hypnosis, hypnotherapy, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and their founders from 1800 to 2008. This new perspective explore issues such as: Who were the major innovators in the history of therapeutic hypnosis, psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy? How well does this new digital approach to the humanities correspond to traditional histories of hypnosis and psychotherapy?

  13. Agent-based modeling of endotoxin-induced acute inflammatory response in human blood leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xu; Foteinou, Panagiota T; Calvano, Steven E; Lowry, Stephen F; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2010-02-18

    Inflammation is a highly complex biological response evoked by many stimuli. A persistent challenge in modeling this dynamic process has been the (nonlinear) nature of the response that precludes the single-variable assumption. Systems-based approaches offer a promising possibility for understanding inflammation in its homeostatic context. In order to study the underlying complexity of the acute inflammatory response, an agent-based framework is developed that models the emerging host response as the outcome of orchestrated interactions associated with intricate signaling cascades and intercellular immune system interactions. An agent-based modeling (ABM) framework is proposed to study the nonlinear dynamics of acute human inflammation. The model is implemented using NetLogo software. Interacting agents involve either inflammation-specific molecules or cells essential for the propagation of the inflammatory reaction across the system. Spatial orientation of molecule interactions involved in signaling cascades coupled with the cellular heterogeneity are further taken into account. The proposed in silico model is evaluated through its ability to successfully reproduce a self-limited inflammatory response as well as a series of scenarios indicative of the nonlinear dynamics of the response. Such scenarios involve either a persistent (non)infectious response or innate immune tolerance and potentiation effects followed by perturbations in intracellular signaling molecules and cascades. The ABM framework developed in this study provides insight on the stochastic interactions of the mediators involved in the propagation of endotoxin signaling at the cellular response level. The simulation results are in accordance with our prior research effort associated with the development of deterministic human inflammation models that include transcriptional dynamics, signaling, and physiological components. The hypothetical scenarios explored in this study would potentially improve

  14. Development of Novel Therapeutic Agents by Inhibition of Oncogenic MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh-Duc Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRs, miRNAs are regulatory small noncoding RNAs, with their roles already confirmed to be important for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression affecting cell physiology and disease development. Upregulation of a cancer-causing miRNA, known as oncogenic miRNA, has been found in many types of cancers and, therefore, represents a potential new class of targets for therapeutic inhibition. Several strategies have been developed in recent years to inhibit oncogenic miRNAs. Among them is a direct approach that targets mature oncogenic miRNA with an antisense sequence known as antimiR, which could be an oligonucleotide or miRNA sponge. In contrast, an indirect approach is to block the biogenesis of miRNA by genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system or a small molecule inhibitor. The development of these inhibitors is straightforward but involves significant scientific and therapeutic challenges that need to be resolved. In this review, we summarize recent relevant studies on the development of miRNA inhibitors against cancer.

  15. Age-Related Inducibility of Carboxylesterases by the Antiepileptic Agent Phenobarbital and Implications in Drug Metabolism and Lipid Accumulation 1, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Da; Chen, Yi-Tzai; Yang, Dongfang; Yan, Bingfang

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylesterases (CES) constitute a class of hydrolytic enzymes that play critical roles in drug metabolism and lipid mobilization. Previous studies with a large number of human liver samples have suggested that the inducibility of carboxylesterases is inversely related with age. To directly test this possibility, neonatal (10 days of age) and adult mice were treated with the antiepileptic agent phenobarbital. The expression and hydrolytic activity were determined on six major carboxylesterases including ces1d, the ortholog of human CES1. Without exception, all carboxylesterases tested were induced to a greater extent in neonatal than adult mice. The induction was detected at mRNA, protein and catalytic levels. Ces1d was greatly induced and found to rapidly hydrolyze the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel and support the accumulation of neutral lipids. Phenobarbital represents a large number of therapeutic agents that induce drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in a species-conserved manner. The higher inducibility of carboxylesterases in the developmental age likely represents a general phenomenon cross species including human. Consequently, individuals in the developmental age may experience greater drug-drug interactions. The greater induction of ces1d also provides a molecular explanation to the clinical observation that children on antiepileptic drugs increase plasma lipids. PMID:22513142

  16. Localized sequence-specific release of a chemopreventive agent and an anticancer drug in a time-controllable manner to enhance therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Yu; Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Chieh-Cheng; Chiang, Wei-Lun; Lin, Yu-Jung; Lin, Wei-Chih; Chuang, Er-Yuan; Chang, Yen; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Combination chemotherapy with multiple drugs commonly requires several injections on various schedules, and the probability that the drug molecules reach the diseased tissues at the proper time and effective therapeutic concentrations is very low. This work elucidates an injectable co-delivery system that is based on cationic liposomes that are adsorbed on anionic hollow microspheres (Lipos-HMs) via electrostatic interaction, from which the localized sequence-specific release of a chemopreventive agent (1,25(OH)2D3) and an anticancer drug (doxorubicin; DOX) can be thermally driven in a time-controllable manner by an externally applied high-frequency magnetic field (HFMF). Lipos-HMs can greatly promote the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tumor cells by reducing their cytoplasmic expression of an antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase) by 1,25(OH)2D3, increasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to the cytotoxic action of DOX. In nude mice that bear xenograft tumors, treatment with Lipos-HMs under exposure to HFMF effectively inhibits tumor growth and is the most effective therapeutic intervention among all the investigated. These empirical results demonstrate that the synergistic anticancer effects of sequential release of 1,25(OH)2D3 and DOX from the Lipos-HMs may have potential for maximizing DOX cytotoxicity, supporting more effective cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Possíveis etapas na patogênese da cefaléia tensional e indicações de tratamento Tension headache: possible pathogenic stages and its relations with therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceme Ferreira Jordy

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Análise de resultados obtidos no estudo de uma série de 100 pacientes com diagnóstico de cefaléia tensional permitem sugerir 5 etapas de um processo fisiopatogênico implicado. Com base nesta sugestão, a indicação para o tratamento e respectiva eficácia, dependerão da etapa patogênica sobre a qual se pretenda fazer incidir a ação terapêutica.Five steps in the pathogenic process involved in the tension headache pathogenesis are suggested from a 100 patients clinical study. Therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of the tension headache is considered to be linked to the relation between the therapeutic agent and the stage in which it has focused its effect, in the pathogenic process.

  18. Radiolabelled anti-human fibrin antibody: a new thrombus-detecting agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosnjakovic, V.; Jankovic, B.D.; Horvat, J.; Cvoric, J.

    1977-01-01

    Rabbit anti-human fibrin globulin (A.F.G.) was labelled with iodine ( 131 I) and used as a thrombus-detecting agent. 131 I-A.F.G. labelled thrombi were displayed by means of a gamma scintillation camera. Normal subjects and patients with thrombo-phlebitis of legs, acute fibrin depositions other than thrombi, and chronic varicosities were examined. The 131 I-A.F.G. technique detected both formed thrombi and those that were forming and could discriminate between acute thrombosis and chronic varicosities. Thrombo-phlebitis and extravascular fibrin depositions were best demonstrated between 24 and 72 hours after 131 I-A.F.G. injection. Radiolabelled A.F.G. in normal veins and chronic varicosities was best displayed within 6 hours of injection. (author)

  19. Punica granatum and its therapeutic implications on breast carcinogenesis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vini, Ravindran; Sreeja, Sreeharshan

    2015-01-01

    Punica granatum has a recorded history of pharmacological properties which can be attributed to its rich reservoir of phytochemicals. Investigations in recent years have established its tremendous potential as an antitumorogenic agent against various cancers including breast cancer, which is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. The plausible role of Punica as a therapeutic agent, as an adjuvant in chemotherapy, and its dietary implications as chemopreventive agent in breast cancer have been explored. Mechanistic studies have revealed that Punica extracts and its components, individually or in combination, can modulate and target key proteins and genes involved in breast cancer. Our earlier finding also demonstrated the role of methanolic extract of pomegranate pericarp in reducing proliferation in breast cancer by binding to estrogen receptor at the same time not affecting uterine weight unlike estradiol or tamoxifen. This review analyses other plausible mechanisms of Punica in preventing the progression of breast cancer and how it can possibly be a therapeutic agent by acting at various steps of carcinogenesis including proliferation, invasion, migration, metastasis, angiogenesis, and inflammation via various molecular mechanisms. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Comparative genomics of the major agents of human and animal Sporotrichosis: Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira, M.M.; de Almeida, L.G.P.; Kubitschek-Barreira, P.; Alves, F.L.; Kioshima, E.S.; Abadio, A.K.R.; Fernandes, L.; Derengowski, L.S.; Ferreira, K.S.; Souza, R.C.; Ruiz, J.C.; de Andrade, N.C.; Paes, H.C.; Nicola, A.M.; Albuquerque, P.; Gerber, A.L.; Martins, V.P.; Peconick, L.D.F.; Neto, A.V.; Chaucanez, C.B.; Silva, P.A.; cunha, O.L.; de Oliveira, F.F.M.; dos Santos, T.C.; Barros, A.L.N.; Soares, M.A.; de Oliveira, L.M.; Marini, M.M.; Villalobos-Duno, H.; Cunha, M.M.L.; de Hoog, S.; da Silveira, J.F.; Henrissat, B.; Niño-Vega, G.A.; Cisalpino, P.S.; Mora-Montes, H.M.; Almeida, S.R.; Stajich, J.E.; Lopes-Bezerra, L.M.; Vasconcelos, A.T.R.; Felipe, M.S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The fungal genus Sporothrix includes at least four human pathogenic species. One of these species, S. brasiliensis, is the causal agent of a major ongoing zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis in Brazil. Elsewhere, sapronoses are caused by S. schenckii and S. globosa. The major aims on

  1. Culture-specific communication management for virtual agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endrass, Birgit; Rehm, Matthias; André, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Human interaction depends on several individual factors such as personality, social relations, age or gender. But also the society we live in influences our behaviour. Thus culture affects the way communication is led. As virtual agents interact in a more and more human-like manner, culture......, the use of pauses in speech as well as the occurrence of overlapping speech was analyzed and integrated into a demonstrator using virtual agents. In a preliminary study, we investigated whether subjects perceive a difference between agent dialogs that are in line with culture-specific findings and agent...

  2. A real-time architecture for time-aware agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouskas, Konstantinos-Vassileios; Pitt, Jeremy V

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes the specification and implementation of a new three-layer time-aware agent architecture. This architecture is designed for applications and environments where societies of humans and agents play equally active roles, but interact and operate in completely different time frames. The architecture consists of three layers: the April real-time run-time (ART) layer, the time aware layer (TAL), and the application agents layer (AAL). The ART layer forms the underlying real-time agent platform. An original online, real-time, dynamic priority-based scheduling algorithm is described for scheduling the computation time of agent processes, and it is shown that the algorithm's O(n) complexity and scalable performance are sufficient for application in real-time domains. The TAL layer forms an abstraction layer through which human and agent interactions are temporally unified, that is, handled in a common way irrespective of their temporal representation and scale. A novel O(n2) interaction scheduling algorithm is described for predicting and guaranteeing interactions' initiation and completion times. The time-aware predicting component of a workflow management system is also presented as an instance of the AAL layer. The described time-aware architecture addresses two key challenges in enabling agents to be effectively configured and applied in environments where humans and agents play equally active roles. It provides flexibility and adaptability in its real-time mechanisms while placing them under direct agent control, and it temporally unifies human and agent interactions.

  3. Emerging techniques for the discovery and validation of therapeutic targets for skeletal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Christine H; Nuttall, Mark E

    2002-12-01

    Advances in genomics and proteomics have revolutionised the drug discovery process and target validation. Identification of novel therapeutic targets for chronic skeletal diseases is an extremely challenging process based on the difficulty of obtaining high-quality human diseased versus normal tissue samples. The quality of tissue and genomic information obtained from the sample is critical to identifying disease-related genes. Using a genomics-based approach, novel genes or genes with similar homology to existing genes can be identified from cDNA libraries generated from normal versus diseased tissue. High-quality cDNA libraries are prepared from uncontaminated homogeneous cell populations harvested from tissue sections of interest. Localised gene expression analysis and confirmation are obtained through in situ hybridisation or immunohistochemical studies. Cells overexpressing the recombinant protein are subsequently designed for primary cell-based high-throughput assays that are capable of screening large compound banks for potential hits. Afterwards, secondary functional assays are used to test promising compounds. The same overexpressing cells are used in the secondary assay to test protein activity and functionality as well as screen for small-molecule agonists or antagonists. Once a hit is generated, a structure-activity relationship of the compound is optimised for better oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics allowing the compound to progress into development. Parallel efforts from proteomics, as well as genetics/transgenics, bioinformatics and combinatorial chemistry, and improvements in high-throughput automation technologies, allow the drug discovery process to meet the demands of the medicinal market. This review discusses and illustrates how different approaches are incorporated into the discovery and validation of novel targets and, consequently, the development of potentially therapeutic agents in the areas of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis

  4. Biodegradable polymer based theranostic agents for photoacoustic imaging and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan J.; Strohm, Eric M.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, multifunctional theranostic agents for photoacoustic (PA), ultrasound (US), fluorescent imaging, and for therapeutic drug delivery were developed and tested. These agents consisted of a shell made from a biodegradable Poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer, loaded with perfluorohexane (PFH) liquid and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in the core, and lipophilic carbocyanines fluorescent dye DiD and therapeutic drug Paclitaxel (PAC) in the shell. Their multifunctional capacity was investigated in an in vitro study. The PLGA/PFH/DiD-GNPs particles were synthesized by a double emulsion technique. The average PLGA particle diameter was 560 nm, with 50 nm diameter silica-coated gold nano-spheres in the shell. MCF7 human breast cancer cells were incubated with PLGA/PFH/DiDGNPs for 24 hours. Fluorescent and PA images were recorded using a fluorescent/PA microscope using a 1000 MHz transducer and a 532 nm pulsed laser. For the particle vaporization and drug delivery test, MCF7 cells were incubated with the PLGA/PFH-GNPs-PAC or PLGA/PFH-GNPs particles for 6, 12 and 24 hours. The effects of particle vaporization and drug delivery inside the cells were examined by irradiating the cells with a laser fluence of 100 mJ/cm2, and cell viability quantified using the MTT assay. The PA images of MCF7 cells containing PLGA/PFH/DiD-GNPs were spatially coincident with the fluorescent images, and confirmed particle uptake. After exposure to the PLGA/PFHGNP- PAC for 6, 12 and 24 hours, the cell survival rate was 43%, 38%, and 36% respectively compared with the control group, confirming drug delivery and release inside the cells. Upon vaporization, cell viability decreased to 20%. The particles show potential as imaging agents and drug delivery vehicles.

  5. Photoactivatable Lipid-based Nanoparticles as a Vehicle for Dual Agent Delivery | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) RNA Biology Laboratory have developed nanoparticles that can deliver an agent (i.e., therapeutic or imaging) and release the agent upon targeted photoactivation allowing for controlled temporal and localized release of the agent.

  6. Anti-herpesvirus agents: a patent and literature review (2003 to present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoreński, Marcin; Sieńczyk, Marcin

    2014-08-01

    The standard therapy used to treat herpesvirus infections is based on the application of DNA polymerase inhibitors such as ganciclovir or aciclovir. Unfortunately, all of these compounds exhibit relatively high toxicity and the mutation of herpesviruses results in the appearance of new drug-resistant strains. Consequently, there is a great need for the development of new, effective and safe anti-herpesvirus agents that employ different patterns of therapeutic action at various stages of the virus life cycle. Patents and patent applications concerning the development of anti-herpesvirus agents displaying different mechanisms of action that have been published since 2003 are reviewed. In addition, major discoveries in this field that have been published in academic papers have also been included. Among all the anti-herpesvirus agents described in this article, the inhibitors of viral serine protease seem to present one of the most effective/promising therapeutics. Unfortunately, the practical application of these antiviral agents has not yet been proven in any clinical trials. Nevertheless, the dynamic and extensive work on this subject gives hope that a new class of anti-herpesvirus agents aimed at the enzymatic activity of herpesvirus serine protease may be developed.

  7. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  8. Development of a Multifaceted Ovarian Cancer Therapeutic and Imaging Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    by 1-ethyl-3- [3-(dimethylamino) propyl ]carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfonosuccinimide (SNHS) at pH 5.5 for 30 min with a molar ratio of...particle-coated migratory substrate that can act as a permanent record of cellular movement. The gold chloride solution was prepared using 0.342 g... Synthesis and clinical Evaluation. Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. McLane, M.A., Joerger, T., Mahmoud, A., 2008. Disintegrins in health and disease. Front

  9. Out of the net: An agent-based model to study human movements influence on local-scale malaria transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pizzitutti

    Full Text Available Though malaria control initiatives have markedly reduced malaria prevalence in recent decades, global eradication is far from actuality. Recent studies show that environmental and social heterogeneities in low-transmission settings have an increased weight in shaping malaria micro-epidemiology. New integrated and more localized control strategies should be developed and tested. Here we present a set of agent-based models designed to study the influence of local scale human movements on local scale malaria transmission in a typical Amazon environment, where malaria is transmission is low and strongly connected with seasonal riverine flooding. The agent-based simulations show that the overall malaria incidence is essentially not influenced by local scale human movements. In contrast, the locations of malaria high risk spatial hotspots heavily depend on human movements because simulated malaria hotspots are mainly centered on farms, were laborers work during the day. The agent-based models are then used to test the effectiveness of two different malaria control strategies both designed to reduce local scale malaria incidence by targeting hotspots. The first control scenario consists in treat against mosquito bites people that, during the simulation, enter at least once inside hotspots revealed considering the actual sites where human individuals were infected. The second scenario involves the treatment of people entering in hotspots calculated assuming that the infection sites of every infected individual is located in the household where the individual lives. Simulations show that both considered scenarios perform better in controlling malaria than a randomized treatment, although targeting household hotspots shows slightly better performance.

  10. Out of the net: An agent-based model to study human movements influence on local-scale malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzitutti, Francesco; Pan, William; Feingold, Beth; Zaitchik, Ben; Álvarez, Carlos A; Mena, Carlos F

    2018-01-01

    Though malaria control initiatives have markedly reduced malaria prevalence in recent decades, global eradication is far from actuality. Recent studies show that environmental and social heterogeneities in low-transmission settings have an increased weight in shaping malaria micro-epidemiology. New integrated and more localized control strategies should be developed and tested. Here we present a set of agent-based models designed to study the influence of local scale human movements on local scale malaria transmission in a typical Amazon environment, where malaria is transmission is low and strongly connected with seasonal riverine flooding. The agent-based simulations show that the overall malaria incidence is essentially not influenced by local scale human movements. In contrast, the locations of malaria high risk spatial hotspots heavily depend on human movements because simulated malaria hotspots are mainly centered on farms, were laborers work during the day. The agent-based models are then used to test the effectiveness of two different malaria control strategies both designed to reduce local scale malaria incidence by targeting hotspots. The first control scenario consists in treat against mosquito bites people that, during the simulation, enter at least once inside hotspots revealed considering the actual sites where human individuals were infected. The second scenario involves the treatment of people entering in hotspots calculated assuming that the infection sites of every infected individual is located in the household where the individual lives. Simulations show that both considered scenarios perform better in controlling malaria than a randomized treatment, although targeting household hotspots shows slightly better performance.

  11. Antitumor effects of pristimerin on human osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yuki; Shirai, Toshiharu; Terauchi, Ryu; Tsuchida, Shinji; Mizoshiri, Naoki; Hayashi, Daichi; Arai, Yuji; Kishida, Tunao; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2017-01-01

    There are very few treatments for musculoskeletal tumors, compared to other cancers; thus, novel therapeutic drugs are needed. Pristimerin (PM) is a triterpene compound isolated from plant extracts that reportedly has antitumor effects on various cancers, such as of the breast and prostate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumor effects of PM on human osteosarcoma cells. Treatment of the human osteosarcoma cell lines, MNNG and 143B, with PM led to a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. The effects of PM on apoptosis were evaluated with the Annexin V/propidium iodide assay and analysis of caspases 3, 8, and 9 activities. Western blot analysis showed that PM caused a decrease in the expression of Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB. The volumes and weights of human osteosarcoma xenografts decreased significantly with PM treatment. The results of this study revealed that PM can inhibit human osteosarcoma growth in vitro and in vivo, and may be a novel therapeutic agent for the disease.

  12. Reproductive cloning in humans and therapeutic cloning in primates: is the ethical debate catching up with the recent scientific advances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, S; Bortolotti, L

    2008-09-01

    After years of failure, in November 2007 primate embryonic stem cells were derived by somatic cellular nuclear transfer, also known as therapeutic cloning. The first embryo transfer for human reproductive cloning purposes was also attempted in 2006, albeit with negative results. These two events force us to think carefully about the possibility of human cloning which is now much closer to becoming a reality. In this paper we tackle this issue from two sides, first summarising what scientists have achieved so far, then discussing some of the ethical arguments in favour and against human cloning which are debated in the context of policy making and public consultation. Therapeutic cloning as a means to improve and save lives has uncontroversial moral value. As to human reproductive cloning, we consider and assess some common objections and failing to see them as conclusive. We do recognise, though, that there will be problems at the level of policy and regulation that might either impair the implementation of human reproductive cloning or make its accessibility restricted in a way that could become difficult to justify on moral grounds. We suggest using the time still available before human reproductive cloning is attempted successfully to create policies and institutions that can offer clear directives on its legitimate applications on the basis of solid arguments, coherent moral principles, and extensive public consultation.

  13. Mitochondrial Toxicity in Human Pregnancy: An Update on Clinical and Experimental Approaches in the Last 10 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Morén

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial toxicity can be one of the most dreadful consequences of exposure to a wide range of external agents including pathogens, therapeutic agents, abuse drugs, toxic gases and other harmful chemical substances. However, little is known about the effects of mitochondrial toxicity on pregnant women exposed to these agents that may exert transplacental activity and condition fetal remodeling. It has been hypothesized that mitochondrial toxicity may be involved in some adverse obstetric outcomes. In the present study, we investigated the association between exposure to mitochondrial toxic agents and pathologic conditions ranging from fertility defects, detrimental fetal development and impaired newborn health due to intra-uterine exposure. We have reviewed data from studies in human subjects to propose mechanisms of mitochondrial toxicity that could be associated with the symptoms present in both exposed pregnant and fetal patients. Since some therapeutic interventions or accidental exposure cannot be avoided, further research is needed to gain insight into the molecular pathways leading to mitochondrial toxicity during pregnancy. The ultimate objective of these studies should be to reduce the mitochondrial toxicity of these agents and establish biomarkers for gestational monitoring of harmful effects.

  14. Potential of Icariin Metabolites from Epimedium koreanum Nakai as Antidiabetic Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Hye Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic properties of Epimedium koreanum are presumed to be due to the flavonoid component icariin, which has been reported to have broad pharmacological potential and has demonstrated anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer’s disease, anti-tumor, and hepatoprotective activities. Considering these therapeutic properties of icariin, its deglycosylated icaritin and glycosylated flavonoids (icaeriside II, epimedin A, epimedin B, and epimedin C were evaluated for their ability to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B and α-glucosidase. The results show that icaritin and icariside II exhibit potent inhibitory activities, with 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 values of 11.59 ± 1.39 μM and 9.94 ± 0.15 μM against PTP1B and 74.42 ± 0.01 and 106.59 ± 0.44 μM against α-glucosidase, respectively. With the exceptions of icaritin and icariside II, glycosylated flavonoids did not exhibit any inhibitory effects in the two assays. Enzyme kinetics analyses revealed that icaritin and icariside II demonstrated noncompetitive-type inhibition against PTP1B, with inhibition constant (Ki values of 11.41 and 11.66 μM, respectively. Moreover, molecular docking analysis confirmed that icaritin and icariside II both occupy the same site as allosteric ligand. Thus, the molecular docking simulation results were in close agreement with the experimental data with respect to inhibition activity. In conclusion, deglycosylated metabolites of icariin from E. koreanum might offer therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. Effects of bleaching agents on human enamel light reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Ljubisa; Fotouhi, Kasra; Lorenz, Heribert; Jordan, Rainer A; Gaengler, Peter; Zimmer, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Tooth whitening has been associated with splitting-up chromogenic molecules by hydrogen peroxides. Though micromorphological alterations are well documented, little is known about optical changes as a function of shifting in wavelengths. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to measure reflectance changes after bleaching in vitro by using a spectrometer. Forty-eight enamel slabs (diameter = 5 mm) were prepared from the sound enamel of extracted human teeth that were: 1) fully impacted, 2) from juveniles ages 10 to 16 years, 3) from adults 35 to 45 years of age and 4) from seniors older than age 65. In all specimens, the baseline total reflectance measurement was performed with a computer-assisted spectrometer (Ocean Optics, Dunedin, FL, USA) within wavelengths (wl) from 430 nm to 800 nm. Four enamel samples of each age group were exposed to either 10% or 15% carbamide peroxide (Illuminé Home, Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany) or 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office, SDI Limited, Victoria, Australia). After surface treatment, all slabs underwent total reflectance measurement again. Statistical analysis was calculated at wl 450, 500 and 750 nm using the Student's paired t-test and one-way variance analysis. Total reflectance significantly increased after bleaching at all enamel maturation stages, irrespective of the bleaching agent concentration, for wl 450 nm (blue) and 500 nm (green) with penamel from adults and seniors (pwhitening of the dental enamel works at different maturation stages, even in impacted teeth. This effect is irrespective of the bleaching protocol used and the bleaching agent concentration.

  16. Potential Therapeutic Uses of p19ARF Mimics in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hann, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Since many breast tumors have deregulated c-Myc we hypothesize that an ARF mimic would be a valuable therapeutic agent for breast cancer to inhibit c-Myc-induced transformation/tumorigenesis without...

  17. Oxygen-saving effect of a new cardiotonic agent, MCI-154, in diseased human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, M; Takeuchi, M; Takaoka, H; Hata, K; Hayashi, Y; Yamakawa, H; Yokoyama, M

    1997-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the left ventricular mechanoenergetic effects of a novel Ca2+ sensitizing agent, MCI-154, on diseased human hearts compared with dobutamine. Unlike conventional cardiotonic agents, a Ca2+ sensitizer that could produce a positive inotropic action by altering the responsiveness of myofilament to Ca2+ could generate force with smaller amounts of Ca2+; thus, it may potentially save energy expenditure. The left ventricular pressure-volume relation and myocardial oxygen consumption per beat (Vo2) were measured by a conductance (volume) catheter and a Webster catheter. Left ventricular contractility (Emax), systolic pressure-volume area (PVA [index of left ventricular total mechanical energy]) and Vo2 were assessed before and after infusion of MCI-154 or dobut-amine. The PVA-independent Vo2 (Vo2 mainly for excitation-contraction coupling) was assessed as the Vo2 at zero PVA. Both agents increased Emax comparably (dobutamine: from 3.55 +/- 1.10 [mean +/- SD] to 5.04 +/- 1.16 mm Hg/ml per m2, p delta PVA-independent Vo2/delta Emax) was less with MCI-154 than with dobutamine (0.14 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.10 +/- 0.80 J/mm Hg per ml per m2, p action mediated by MCI-154 could provide an energetic advantage over the conventional cardiotonic action with currently used inotropic agents.

  18. BrahmVE platform for design and test of Large Scale Multi-agent Human-centric Mission Concepts, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I proposal seeks support to extend the BrahmsVE architecture to support a multi-agent human-centric simulation of a hypothetical future ISS which is...

  19. Modeling culture in intelligent virtual agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascarenhas, S.; Degens, N.; Paiva, A.; Prada, R.; Hofstede, G.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Aylett, R.

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the challenge of creating virtual agents that are able to portray culturally appropriate behavior when interacting with other agents or humans. Because culture influences how people perceive their social reality it is important to have agent models that explicitly consider social

  20. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  1. Chromosome analyses of nurses handling cytostatic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waksvik, H.; Klepp, O.; Brogger, A.

    1981-01-01

    A cytogenetic study of ten nurses handling cytostatic agents (average exposure, 2150 hours) and ten female hospital clerks revealed an increased frequency of chromosome gaps and a slight increase in sister chromatid exchange frequency among the nurses. The increase may be due to exposure to cytostatic drugs and points to these agents as a possible occupational health hazard. A second group of 11 nurses handling cytostatic agents for a shorter period of time (average exposure, 1078 hours), and three other groups (eight nurses engaged in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology, nine nurses engaged in anesthesiology, and seven nurses in postoperative ward) did not differ from the office personnel, except for an increased frequency of chromosome gaps in the radiology group

  2. Redirecting Therapeutic T Cells against Myelin-Specific T Lymphocytes Using a Humanized Myelin Basic Protein-HLA-DR2-{zeta} Chimeric Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moisini, Ioana; Nguyen, Phuong; Fugger, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Therapies that Ag-specifically target pathologic T lymphocytes responsible for multiple sclerosis (MS) and other autoimmune diseases would be expected to have improved therapeutic indices compared with Ag-nonspecific therapies. We have developed a cellular immunotherapy that uses chimeric receptors...... mouse model system. Finally, the chimeric receptor-modified CTL ameliorated or blocked experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) disease mediated by MBP(84-102)/DR2-specific T lymphocytes. These results provide support for the further development of redirected therapeutic T cells able to counteract...... pathologic, self-specific T lymphocytes, and specifically validate humanized MBP-DR2-zeta chimeric receptors as a potential therapeutic in MS. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar-1...

  3. Therapeutic Down-Modulators of Staphylococcal Superantigen-Induced Inflammation and Toxic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Krakauer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB and related superantigenic toxins are potent stimulators of the immune system and cause a variety of diseases in humans, ranging from food poisoning to toxic shock. These toxins bind directly to major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and specific Vb regions of T-cell receptors (TCR, resulting in hyperactivation of both monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes. Activated host cells produce massive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, activating inflammation and coagulation, causing clinical symptoms that include fever, hypotension, and shock. This review summarizes the in vitro and in vivo effects of staphylococcal superantigens, the role of pivotal mediators induced by these toxins in the pathogenic mechanisms of tissue injury, and the therapeutic agents to mitigate the toxic effects of superantigens.

  4. Research on DNA methylation of human osteosarcoma cell MGMT and its relationship with cell resistance to alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Cui, Qiu; Jiang, WeiHao; Liu, Cheng; Li, DingFeng; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene methylation status and its protein expression, as well as the effects of demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) on MGMT gene expression and its resistance to alkylating agents, and to elucidate MGMT expression mechanism and significance in osteosarcoma. The human osteosarcoma cell lines Saos-2 and MG-63 were collected and treated with 5-Aza-CdR for 6 days. The cells not treated with 5-Aza-CdR were set as a negative control. The genomic DNA was extracted from the Saos-2 and MG-63 cells using methylation-specific PCR to detect the promoter CpG island methylation status of the MGMT gene. Cell sensitivity to alkylating agents before and after drug administration was detected by the MTT method. The variation in MGMT gene mRNA and protein was detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The MGMT promoter gene of normal Saos-2 cells was methylated, with reduced MGMT mRNA and protein expression; the MGMT mRNA and protein expression of Saos-2 cells treated with 5-Aza-CdR was obviously enhanced, and its sensitivity to alkylating agents was reversed. Meanwhile, with promoter CpG island unmethylation of the MGMT gene, MGMT protein was expressed in the normal MG-63 cells and the MG-63 cells treated with 5-Aza-CdR, and both showed resistance to alkylating agents. The methylation status of the MGMT gene promoter in human osteosarcoma cells reflected the cells' ability to induce MGMT protein expression and can be used as a molecular marker to project the sensitivity of cancer tissues to alkylating agent drugs.

  5. Chemical warfare agent simulants for human volunteer trials of emergency decontamination: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    James, Thomas; Wyke, Stacey; Marczylo, Tim; Collins, Samuel; Gaulton, Tom; Foxall, Kerry; Amlôt, Richard; Duarte‐Davidson, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Incidents involving the release of chemical agents can pose significant risks to public health. In such an event, emergency decontamination of affected casualties may need to be undertaken to reduce injury and possible loss of life. To ensure these methods are effective, human volunteer trials (HVTs) of decontamination protocols, using simulant contaminants, have been conducted. Simulants must be used to mimic the physicochemical properties of more harmful chemicals, while remaining ...

  6. HURON (HUman and Robotic Optimization Network) Multi-Agent Temporal Activity Planner/Scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hook; Mrozinski, Joseph J.; Elfes, Alberto; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Shelton, Kacie E.; Smith, Jeffrey H.; Lincoln, William P.; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    HURON solves the problem of how to optimize a plan and schedule for assigning multiple agents to a temporal sequence of actions (e.g., science tasks). Developed as a generic planning and scheduling tool, HURON has been used to optimize space mission surface operations. The tool has also been used to analyze lunar architectures for a variety of surface operational scenarios in order to maximize return on investment and productivity. These scenarios include numerous science activities performed by a diverse set of agents: humans, teleoperated rovers, and autonomous rovers. Once given a set of agents, activities, resources, resource constraints, temporal constraints, and de pendencies, HURON computes an optimal schedule that meets a specified goal (e.g., maximum productivity or minimum time), subject to the constraints. HURON performs planning and scheduling optimization as a graph search in state-space with forward progression. Each node in the graph contains a state instance. Starting with the initial node, a graph is automatically constructed with new successive nodes of each new state to explore. The optimization uses a set of pre-conditions and post-conditions to create the children states. The Python language was adopted to not only enable more agile development, but to also allow the domain experts to easily define their optimization models. A graphical user interface was also developed to facilitate real-time search information feedback and interaction by the operator in the search optimization process. The HURON package has many potential uses in the fields of Operations Research and Management Science where this technology applies to many commercial domains requiring optimization to reduce costs. For example, optimizing a fleet of transportation truck routes, aircraft flight scheduling, and other route-planning scenarios involving multiple agent task optimization would all benefit by using HURON.

  7. Anonymity and Software Agents: An Interdiscplinary Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.; Oskamp, A.; Prins, J.M.; Schellekens, M.H.M.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Software agents that play a role in E-commerce and E-government applications involving the Internet often contain information about the identity of their human user such as credit cards and bank accounts. This paper discusses whether this is necessary: whether human users and software agents are

  8. Anonymity and Software Agents: An Interdisciplinary Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskamp, A.; Brazier, F.M.; Prins, J.E.J.; Schellekens, M.H.M.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Software agents that play a role in E-commerce and E-government applications involving the Internet often contain information about the identity of their human user such as credit cards and bank accounts. This paper discusses whether this is necessary: whether human users and software agents are

  9. Combination of palladium nanoparticles and tubastatin-A potentiates apoptosis in human breast cancer cells: a novel therapeutic approach for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan YG

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Guo Yuan,1 Qiu-Ling Peng,2 Sangiliyandi Gurunathan3 1College of Veterinary Medicine/Animal Science and Technology/Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 2College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Yichun University, Yichun, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Stem cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease that occurs in women. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibition has recently emerged as an effective and attractive target for the treatment of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a combined treatment of tubastatin A (TUB-A and palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells using two different cytotoxic agents that work by two different mechanisms, thereby decreasing the probability of chemoresistance in cancer cells and increasing the efficacy of toxicity, to provide efficient therapy for advanced stage of cancer without any undesired side effects. Methods: PdNPs were synthesized using a novel biomolecule called R-phycoerythrin and characterized using various analytical techniques. The combinatorial effect of TUB-A and PdNPs was assessed by various cellular and biochemical assays and also by gene expression analysis. Results: The biologically synthesized PdNPs had an average size of 25 nm and were spherical in shape. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with TUB-A or PdNPs showed a dose-dependent effect on cell viability. The combination of 4 µM TUB-A and 4 µM PdNPs had a significant inhibitory effect on cell viability compared with either TUB-A or PdNPs alone. The combinatorial treatment also had a more pronounced effect on the inhibition of HDAC activity and enhanced apoptosis by regulating various cellular and biochemical changes. Conclusion: Our results suggest

  10. Conversational Agents, Humorous Act Construction, and Social Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Antinus; Dautenhahn, K.

    2005-01-01

    Humans use humour to ease communication problems in human-human interaction and in a similar way humour can be used to solve communication problems that arise with human-computer interaction. We discuss the role of embodied conversational agents in human-computer interaction and we have observations on the generation of humorous acts and on the appropriateness of displaying them by embodied conversational agents in order to smoothen, when necessary, their interactions with a human partner. Th...

  11. Goal-based communication using BDI agents as virtual humans in training: An ontology driven dialogue system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, J. van; Doesburg, W. van; Dignum, F.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations for training can greatly benefit from BDI agents as virtual humans playing the role of key players. Learning to communicate effectively is a key aspect of training to command a team that is managing a crisis. In this paper, we present a goal-based dialogue system which has been applied

  12. Targeting Bacterial Dsb Proteins for the Development of Anti-Virulence Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne P. Smith

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in bacterial antimicrobial resistance and a decline in the development of novel antibiotics. New therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to combat the growing threat posed by multidrug resistant bacterial infections. The Dsb disulfide bond forming pathways are potential targets for the development of antimicrobial agents because they play a central role in bacterial pathogenesis. In particular, the DsbA/DsbB system catalyses disulfide bond formation in a wide array of virulence factors, which are essential for many pathogens to establish infections and cause disease. These redox enzymes are well placed as antimicrobial targets because they are taxonomically widespread, share low sequence identity with human proteins, and many years of basic research have provided a deep molecular understanding of these systems in bacteria. In this review, we discuss disulfide bond catalytic pathways in bacteria and their significance in pathogenesis. We also review the use of different approaches to develop inhibitors against Dsb proteins as potential anti-virulence agents, including fragment-based drug discovery, high-throughput screening and other structure-based drug discovery methods.

  13. Targeting angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms using combined polymer therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Segal

    Full Text Available There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced "living polymerization" technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT, we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN, and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral.The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%.This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined polymer therapeutic designed to target both tumor and

  14. Multimodal nanoparticle imaging agents: design and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Benjamin P.; Cawthorne, Christopher; Archibald, Stephen J.

    2017-10-01

    Molecular imaging, where the location of molecules or nanoscale constructs can be tracked in the body to report on disease or biochemical processes, is rapidly expanding to include combined modality or multimodal imaging. No single imaging technique can offer the optimum combination of properties (e.g. resolution, sensitivity, cost, availability). The rapid technological advances in hardware to scan patients, and software to process and fuse images, are pushing the boundaries of novel medical imaging approaches, and hand-in-hand with this is the requirement for advanced and specific multimodal imaging agents. These agents can be detected using a selection from radioisotope, magnetic resonance and optical imaging, among others. Nanoparticles offer great scope in this area as they lend themselves, via facile modification procedures, to act as multifunctional constructs. They have relevance as therapeutics and drug delivery agents that can be tracked by molecular imaging techniques with the particular development of applications in optically guided surgery and as radiosensitizers. There has been a huge amount of research work to produce nanoconstructs for imaging, and the parameters for successful clinical translation and validation of therapeutic applications are now becoming much better understood. It is an exciting time of progress for these agents as their potential is closer to being realized with translation into the clinic. The coming 5-10 years will be critical, as we will see if the predicted improvement in clinical outcomes becomes a reality. Some of the latest advances in combination modality agents are selected and the progression pathway to clinical trials analysed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging'.

  15. Methods for Model-Based Reasoning within Agent-Based Ambient Intelligence Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Both, F.; Gerritsen, C.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Treur, J.

    2012-01-01

    Within agent-based Ambient Intelligence applications agents react to humans based on information obtained by sensoring and their knowledge about human functioning. Appropriate types of reactions depend on the extent to which an agent understands the human and is able to interpret the available

  16. Screening vaccine formulations for biological activity using fresh human whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Brookes, RH; Hakimi, J; Ha, Y; Aboutorabian, S; Ausar, SF; Hasija, M; Smith, SG; Todryk, SM; Dockrell, HM; Rahman, N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relevant biological activity of any pharmaceutical formulation destined for human use is crucial. For vaccine-based formulations, activity must reflect the expected immune response, while for non-vaccine therapeutic agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, a lack of immune response to the formulation is desired. During early formulation development, various biochemical and biophysical characteristics can be monitored in a high-throughput screening (HTS) format. However, it rem...

  17. Replica of human dentin treated with different desensitizing agents: a methodological SEM study in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Jose Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary study to determine a methodological sequence in vitro which may allow the reproduction of dentin for SEM analysis, after the use of different desensitizing agents. Dentin discs obtained from extracted human third molars were etched with 6% citric acid, an artificial smear layer was created and the surface dentin discs were divided into four quadrants. Quadrants 2, 3 and 4 of each disc were conditioned with 6% citric acid. The desensitizing agents (Oxa-Gel®, Gluma Desensitizer and an experimental agent were applied to quadrants 3 and 4. To evaluate the acid resistance of the treatment, quadrant 4 was etched again with 6% citric acid. An impression was then taken with Aquasil ULV. After a setting period of 6 min, each disc was removed from the impression and stored in a moist-free environment for 24 h at 37ºC. After that time, a low-viscosity epoxy resin (Araltec GY 1109 BR was poured into the impression and cured for 24 h. All specimens were metal-coated for SEM analysis. Comparison of the photomicrographs of dentin discs with their respective impressions and resin replicas showed that this technique can reproduce the characteristics of the dentin surface treated with desensitizing agents.

  18. Multi-Agent Modeling in Managing Six Sigma Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Chau

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi-agent model is proposed for considering the human resources factor in decision making in relation to the six sigma project. The proposed multi-agent system is expected to increase the acccuracy of project prioritization and to stabilize the human resources service level. A simulation of the proposed multiagent model is conducted. The results show that a multi-agent model which takes into consideration human resources when making decisions about project selection and project team formation is important in enabling efficient and effective project management. The multi-agent modeling approach provides an alternative approach for improving communication and the autonomy of six sigma projects in business organizations.

  19. Dendrimer-based Macromolecular MRI Contrast Agents: Characteristics and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisataka Kobayashi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous macromolecular MRI contrast agents prepared employing relatively simple chemistry may be readily available that can provide sufficient enhancement for multiple applications. These agents operate using a ~100-fold lower concentration of gadolinium ions in comparison to the necessary concentration of iodine employed in CT imaging. Herein, we describe some of the general potential directions of macromolecular MRI contrast agents using our recently reported families of dendrimer-based agents as examples. Changes in molecular size altered the route of excretion. Smaller-sized contrast agents less than 60 kDa molecular weight were excreted through the kidney resulting in these agents being potentially suitable as functional renal contrast agents. Hydrophilic and larger-sized contrast agents were found better suited for use as blood pool contrast agents. Hydrophobic variants formed with polypropylenimine diaminobutane dendrimer cores created liver contrast agents. Larger hydrophilic agents are useful for lymphatic imaging. Finally, contrast agents conjugated with either monoclonal antibodies or with avidin are able to function as tumor-specific contrast agents, which also might be employed as therapeutic drugs for either gadolinium neutron capture therapy or in conjunction with radioimmunotherapy.

  20. Improving the Translation of Animal Ischemic Stroke Studies to Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jickling, Glen C; Sharp, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    Despite testing more than 1026 therapeutic strategies in models ischemic stroke and 114 therapies in human ischemic stroke, only one agent tissue plasminogen activator has successfully been translated to clinical practice as a treatment for acute stroke. Though disappointing, this immense body of work has led to a rethinking of animal stroke models and how to better translate therapies to patients with ischemic stroke. Several recommendations have been made, including the STAIR recommendation...

  1. Rac1 in human diseases: The therapeutic potential of targeting Rac1 signaling regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hadir; Malliri, Angeliki

    2017-07-03

    Abnormal Rac1 signaling is linked to a number of debilitating human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. As such, Rac1 represents an attractive therapeutic target, yet the search for effective Rac1 inhibitors is still underway. Given the adverse effects associated with Rac1 signaling perturbation, cells have evolved several mechanisms to ensure the tight regulation of Rac1 signaling. Thus, characterizing these mechanisms can provide invaluable information regarding major cellular events that lead to aberrant Rac1 signaling. Importantly, this information can be utilized to further facilitate the development of effective pharmacological modulators that can restore normal Rac1 signaling. In this review, we focus on the pathological role of Rac1 signaling, highlighting the benefits and potential drawbacks of targeting Rac1 in a clinical setting. Additionally, we provide an overview of available compounds that target key Rac1 regulatory mechanisms and discuss future therapeutic avenues arising from our understanding of these mechanisms.

  2. MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with aptamer and radiolabelled with {sup 90}Y and {sup 159}Gd as a potential therapeutic agent against colorectal cancer; Nanoparticulas de silica mesoporosa MCM-41 funcionalizadas com aptamero e radiomarcadas com {sup 90}Y e {sup 159}Gd como um potencial agente terapeutico contra cancer colorretal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Carolina de Aguiar

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignancy that affects large intestine and rectum, and it is the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract, the third most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in the world and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Nowadays, available therapeutic procedures for this type of cancer are limited and ineffective. Conventional radiotherapy is not an often used approach in the treatment of CRC due to the fact that peristaltic movements hamper the targeting of ionizing radiation and this type of treatment is used as adjuvant and palliative to control symptoms. Therefore, surgical intervention is the primary therapeutic choice against this disease. Researches based on the combination of radioisotopes and nanostructured carriers systems have demonstrated significant results in improving the selectivity action as well as reducing the radiation dose into healthy tissues. MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles have unique characteristics such as high surface area and well-defined pore diameters making these nanoparticles an ideal candidate of therapeutic agent carrier. Thus, the objective of this work is to synthesize and characterize MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles conjugated with yttrium-90 and gadolinium-159 and evaluate this system as a potential therapeutic agent. The nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel method. The sample was characterized using FTIR, SAXS, PCS, Zeta Potential analysis, Thermal analysis, CHN elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The ability to incorporate Y{sup +3} and Gd{sup +3} ion was determined in vitro using different ratios (1:1, 1:3, 1:5 v/v) of YCL{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and silica nanoparticles dispersed in saline, pH 7.4. The non-incorporated Y{sup +3} and Gd{sup +3} ions were removed by ultracentrifugation procedure and the concentration of ions in the supernatant was determined by ICP-AES. Cell viability

  3. Bifunctional chelating agent for the design and development of site specific radiopharmaceuticals and biomolecule conjugation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Prabhu, Kandikere R.; Gali, Hariprasad; Pillarsetty, Nagavara Kishore; Volkert, Wynn A.

    2003-10-21

    There is provided a method of labeling a biomolecule with a transition metal or radiometal in a site specific manner to produce a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical compound by synthesizing a P.sub.2 N.sub.2 -bifunctional chelating agent intermediate, complexing the intermediate with a radio metal or a transition metal, and covalently linking the resulting metal-complexed bifunctional chelating agent with a biomolecule in a site specific manner. Also provided is a method of synthesizing the --PR.sub.2 containing biomolecules by synthesizing a P.sub.2 N.sub.2 -bifunctional chelating agent intermediate, complexing the intermediate with a radiometal or a transition metal, and covalently linking the resulting radio metal-complexed bifunctional chelating agent with a biomolecule in a site specific manner. There is provided a therapeutic or diagnostic agent comprising a --PR.sub.2 containing biomolecule.

  4. Evaluation in dogs and humans of three potential technetium-99m myocardial perfusion agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerundini, P.; Savi, A.; Gilardi, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The biodistribution of the three cationic /sup 99m/Tc complexes [/sup 99m/Tc(TMP)6]+, [/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3]+, and [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+--where TMP represents trimethylphosphite, POM-POM represents 1,2-bis(dimethyoxyphosphino)ethane, and TBIN represents t-butylisonitrile--have been evaluated in humans and dogs. Each agent was studied in three normal volunteers at rest, while [/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3]+ and [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+ were each studied in one normal volunteer at exercise. Even though all three agents yield good myocardial images in dogs, none appear suitable for clinical use as myocardial perfusion imaging radiopharmaceuticals. In humans, [/sup 99m/Tc(TMP)6]+ and [/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3]+ clear very slowly from the blood and provide myocardial images only several hours after injection. [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+ clears rapidly from the blood, but accumulation in the lung obscures the myocardial image for the first hour after injection; at later times, activity in the liver and spleen masks the apical wall. These results correlate with the blood-binding properties of the three complexes. [/sup 99m/Tc(TMP)6]+ and [/sup 99m/Tc(POM-POM)3]+ bind tightly to the plasma of human blood, but not to the plasma of dog blood; [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+ does not bind tightly to the plasma of either dog or human blood. Among the Tc(I) complexes studied to date in humans, [/sup 99m/Tc(TBIN)6]+ appears to be unique in biodistribution pattern, blood-binding properties, and the fact that exercise improves the ultimate myocardial image. All the Tc(I) complexes appear to undergo myocardial accumulation by a mechanism different from that utilized by Tc(III) complexes. Animal studies alone are not adequate to evaluate the potential utility of /sup 99m/Tc cationic complexes for myocardial perfusion studies

  5. The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith ePotashkin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s Disease is characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Since there are limited treatment options for PD, neuroprotective agents are currently being tested as a means to slow disease progression. Agents targeting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are prime candidates for neuroprotection. This review identifies Rasagiline, Minocycline and creatine, as the most promising neuroprotective agents for PD, and they are all currently in phase III trials. Other agents possessing protective characteristics in delaying PD include stimulants, vitamins, supplements, and other drugs. Additionally, combination therapies also show benefits in slowing PD progression. The identification of neuroprotective agents for PD provides us with therapeutic opportunities for modifying the course of disease progression and, perhaps, reducing the risk of onset when preclinical biomarkers become available.

  6. Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Quinn, Mark T

    2006-03-01

    Botanical polysaccharides exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties, and it is thought that the mechanisms involved in these effects are due to the modulation of innate immunity and, more specifically, macrophage function. In this review, we summarize our current state of understanding of the macrophage modulatory effects of botanical polysaccharides isolated from a wide array of different species of flora, including higher plants, mushrooms, lichens and algae. Overall, the primary effect of botanical polysaccharides is to enhance and/or activate macrophage immune responses, leading to immunomodulation, anti-tumor activity, wound-healing and other therapeutic effects. Furthermore, botanical and microbial polysaccharides bind to common surface receptors and induce similar immunomodulatory responses in macrophages, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved polysaccharide structural features are shared between these organisms. Thus, the evaluation of botanical polysaccharides provides a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents and adjuvants that exhibit beneficial immunomodulatory properties.

  7. ULK1: a promising biomarker in predicting poor prognosis and therapeutic response in human nasopharygeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yun

    Full Text Available Plenty of studies have established that dysregulation of autophagy plays an essential role in cancer progression. The autophagy-related proteins have been reported to be closely associated with human cancer patients' prognosis. We explored the expression dynamics and prognostic value of autophagy-related protein ULK1 by immunochemistry (IHC method in two independent cohorts of nasopharygeal carcinoma (NPC cases. The X-tile program was applied to determine the optimal cut-off value in the training cohort. This derived cutoff value was then subjected to analysis the association of ULK1 expression with patients' clinical characteristics and survival outcome in the validation cohort and overall cases. High ULK1 expression was closely associated with aggressive clinical feature of NPC patients. Furthermore, high expression of ULK1 was observed more frequently in therapeutic resistant group than that in therapeutic effective group. Our univariate and multivariate analysis also showed that higher ULK1 expression predicted inferior disease-specific survival (DSS (P<0.05. Consequently, a new clinicopathologic prognostic model with 3 poor prognostic factors (ie, ULK1 expression, overall clinical stage and therapeutic response could significantly stratify risk (low, intermediate and high for DSS in NPC patients (P<0.001. These findings provide evidence that, the examination of ULK1 expression by IHC method, could serve as an effective additional tool for predicting therapeutic response and patients' survival outcome in NPC patients.

  8. Protein and Peptide in Drug Targeting and its Therapeutic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Keservani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main aim of this review article is to provide information like advantages of protein and peptides via different routes of drug administration, targeted to a particular site and its implication in drug delivery system. Methods: To that aim, from the web sites of PubMed, HCAplus, Thomson, and Registry were used as the main sources to perform the search for the most significant research articles published on the subject. The information was then carefully analyzed, highlighting the most important results in the development of protein and peptide drug targeting as well as its therapeutic activity. Results: In recent years many researchers use protein and peptide as a target site of drug by a different delivery system. Proteins and peptides are used as specific and effective therapeutic agents, due to instability and side effects their use is complicated. Protein kinases are important regulators of most, if not all, biological processes. Abnormal activity of proteins and peptides has been implicated in many human diseases, such as diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Conclusions: It is concluded that the protein and peptide were used in drug targeting to specific site and also used in different diseased states like cancer, diabetes, immunomodulating, neurodegenerative effects and antimicrobial activity.

  9. Systemic use of tumor necrosis factor alpha as an anticancer agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nicholas J.; Zhou, Shibin; Diaz, Luis A.; Holdhoff, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been discussed as a potential anticancer agent for many years, however initial enthusiasm about its clinical use as a systemic agent was curbed due to significant toxicities and lack of efficacy. Combination of TNF-α with chemotherapy in the setting of hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (ILP), has provided new insights into a potential therapeutic role of this agent. The therapeutic benefit from TNF-α in ILP is thought to be not only due to its direct anti-proliferative effect, but also due to its ability to increase penetration of the chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor tissue. New concepts for the use of TNF-α as a facilitator rather than as a direct actor are currently being explored with the goal to exploit the ability of this agent to increase drug delivery and to simultaneously reduce systemic toxicity. This review article provides a comprehensive overview on the published previous experience with systemic TNF-α. Data from 18 phase I and 10 phase II single agent as well as 18 combination therapy studies illustrate previously used treatment and dose schedules, response data as well as the most prominently observed adverse effects. Also discussed, based on recent preclinical data, is a potential future role of systemic TNF-α in combination with liposomal chemotherapy to facilitate increased drug uptake into tumors. PMID:22036896

  10. Preparation of 125IUdR and its evaluation in animal tumour model as a potential therapeutic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korde, A.; Venkatesh, M.; Banerjee, S.; Pillai, M.R.A.; Sarma, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    5-Iodo-2'-deoxyuridine or iodoxyuridine (IUdR), an analogue of thymidine, is taken up by the proliferating cells during DNA synthesis. Radioiodinated IUdR is a potential therapeutic agent since radiohalogenated thymidine analogues are used for in-vivo tumour targeting and Auger electrons from radionuclides such as 123 I and 125 I are very effective in cell destruction when internalised. 125 IUdR was prepared and studied for its suitability as an in-vivo tumour therapy agent. 125 IUdR was prepared both by direct iodination of 2'-deoxyuridine and iododemercuration of 5-chloromercury-2'-deoxyuridine. Radioiodination yields were between 60-80% at pH 7. Iododemercuration was preferred since with direct iodination poor yields were observed when high specific activity product was desired and also the purification procedure was lengthier. The identity of 125 IUdR was established by comparison of TLC and HPLC patterns with those of authentic IUdR. The purified 125 IUdR had radiochemical purity >95% and was stable for 20 days at 4 deg. C and for a week at 23 deg. C and 37 deg. C. Bio-uptake of 125 IUdR was studied by injecting the tracer in tumour bearing mice (Sarcoma S-180). The uptake in tumour cells was 4.28 +- 2.7% per gram at 3 h and 1.48 +- 0.19% at 24 h post injection. In-vivo deiodination of the product was observed as seen by the uptake of the activity in the thyroid. About 40% the activity from all other organs was excreted in 70 h. The optimum time for injection of the tracer for therapy was studied by observing the delay in tumour growth and survival rate in mice injected at 0,3,9 and 12 days after tumour induction. Injection of the tracer on the third day was found to be the most beneficial for retardation of tumour growth, while injection of the activity on the zeroth and ninth day had no effect. (author)

  11. Using Cognitive Agents to Train Negotiation Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Stevens

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial software agents with which students can train. These agents have the advantage that they can be “reset,” and played against multiple times. This allows students to learn from their mistakes and try different strategies. However, these agents are often based on normative theories of how negotiators should conduct themselves, not necessarily how people actually behave in negotiations. Here, we take a step toward addressing this gap by developing an agent grounded in a cognitive architecture, ACT-R. This agent contains a model of theory-of-mind, the ability of humans to reason about the mental states of others. It uses this model to try to infer the strategy of the opponent and respond accordingly. In a series of experiments, we show that this agent replicates some aspects of human performance, is plausible to human negotiators, and can lead to learning gains in a small-scale negotiation task.

  12. Using Cognitive Agents to Train Negotiation Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Christopher A; Daamen, Jeroen; Gaudrain, Emma; Renkema, Tom; Top, Jakob Dirk; Cnossen, Fokie; Taatgen, Niels A

    2018-01-01

    Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial software agents with which students can train. These agents have the advantage that they can be "reset," and played against multiple times. This allows students to learn from their mistakes and try different strategies. However, these agents are often based on normative theories of how negotiators should conduct themselves, not necessarily how people actually behave in negotiations. Here, we take a step toward addressing this gap by developing an agent grounded in a cognitive architecture, ACT-R. This agent contains a model of theory-of-mind, the ability of humans to reason about the mental states of others. It uses this model to try to infer the strategy of the opponent and respond accordingly. In a series of experiments, we show that this agent replicates some aspects of human performance, is plausible to human negotiators, and can lead to learning gains in a small-scale negotiation task.

  13. Therapeutic advancement of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combinations of chemotherapy with monoclonal antibodies have further improved response rates, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL remains an incurable disease with an extremely variable course. This article reviews the ongoing clinical advances in the treatment of CLL in both previously untreated and relapsed disease and focuses on the benefit of different therapeutic strategies, the most effective therapy combinations and the potential activity of novel agents. Novel agents and combination therapies have been investigated by several studies in both the upfront and relapsed setting, particularly for patients with 17p deletion, TP53 mutation and fludarabine-refractory CLL. While these agents and combination therapies have improved initial response rates, ongoing studies are continued to determine and improve the efficacy and safety. Despite advancements in the treatment of CLL have led to high response rates, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT remains the only curative option and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC allo-HSCT must be strongly considered whenever feasible. As such, ongoing studies of these agents and other novel approaches in clinical development are needed to expand and improve treatment options for CLL patients.

  14. Evaluation of connectivity map-discovered celastrol as a radiosensitizing agent in a murine lung carcinoma model: Feasibility study of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Young Jun

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify potential radiosensitizing (RS agents for combined radio- and chemotherapy in a murine model of human lung carcinoma, and to evaluate the in vivo effect of the RS agents using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI. Radioresistance-associated genes in A549 and H460 cells were isolated on the basis of their gene expression profiles. Celastrol was selected as a candidate RS by using connectivity mapping, and its efficacy in lung cancer radiotherapy was tested. Mice inoculated with A549 carcinoma cells were treated with single ionizing radiation (SIR, single celastrol (SC, or celastrol-combined ionizing radiation (CCIR. Changes in radiosensitization over time were assessed using DW-MRI before and at 3, 6, and 12 days after therapy initiation. The tumors were stained with hematoxylin and eosin at 6 and 12 days after therapy. The percentage change in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value in the CCIR group was significantly higher than that in the SC and SIR group on the 12th day (Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.05; Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05. A significant correlation (Spearman's rho correlation coefficient of 0.713, p = 0.001 was observed between the mean percentage tumor necrotic area and the mean ADC values after therapy initiation. These results suggest that the novel radiosensitizing agent celastrol has therapeutic effects when combined with ionizing radiation (IR, thereby maximizing the therapeutic effect of radiation in non-small cell lung carcinoma. In addition, DW-MRI is a useful noninvasive tool to monitor the effects of RS agents by assessing cellularity changes and sequential therapeutic responses.

  15. Engineered Polymer-Based Nanomaterials for Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Theranostic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Scrivano, Luca; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Picci, Nevio; Puoci, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Nanomedicine can be defined as the medical application of molecular nanotechnology and it plays a key role and pharmaceutical research and development, especially related to cancer prevention, monitoring, diagnosis and treatment. In this context, nanomaterials are attracting significant research interest due to their abilities to stay in the blood for long time, accumulate in pathological sites including tumors or inflammatory areas via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and facilitate targeted delivery of specific therapeutic agents. In the last decades, considerable attention was attracted by the development of nano-sized carriers, based on natural or synthetic polymers, able to provide the controlled release of anticancer drugs in the aim to overcome the drawbacks associated to the conventional chemotherapy. Furthermore, when loaded with imaging agents, this kind of systems offers the opportunity to exploit optical or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cancer diagnosis. Polymeric materials are characterized by several functionalities where both therapeutic and imaging components, and also targeting moieties, can be attached for simultaneous targeted therapy and imaging providing innovative platforms defined as theranostic agents with a great potential in monitoring and treatment of cancer.

  16. Resveratrol as a Therapeutic Agent for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia, but there is no effective therapy till now. The pathogenic mechanisms of AD are considerably complex, including Aβ accumulation, tau protein phosphorylation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Exactly, resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine and many plants, is indicated to show the neuroprotective effect on mechanisms mostly above. Recent years, there are numerous researches about resveratrol acting on AD in many models, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of resveratrol are limited by its pool bioavailability; therefore researchers have been trying a variety of methods to improve the efficiency. This review summarizes the recent studies in cell cultures and animal models, mainly discusses the molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol, and thus investigates the therapeutic potential in AD.

  17. Immunotherapeutics in Pediatric Autoimmune Central Nervous System Disease: Agents and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosadini, Margherita; Sartori, Stefano; Sharma, Suvasini; Dale, Russell C

    2017-08-01

    Beyond the major advances produced by careful clinical-radiological phenotyping and biomarker development in autoimmune central nervous system disorders, a comprehensive knowledge of the range of available immune therapies and a deeper understanding of their action should benefit therapeutic decision-making. This review discusses the agents used in neuroimmunology and their mechanisms of action. First-line treatments typically include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis, while for severe disease second-line "induction" agents such as rituximab or cyclophosphamide are used. Steroid-sparing agents such as mycophenolate, azathioprine, or methotrexate are often used in potentially relapsing or corticosteroid-dependent diseases. Lessons from adult neuroimmunology and rheumatology could be translated into pediatric autoimmune central nervous system disease in the future, including the potential utility of monoclonal antibodies targeting lymphocytes, adhesion molecules for lymphocytic migration, cytokines or their receptors, or complement. Finally, many agents used in other fields have multiple mechanisms of action, including immunomodulation, with potential usefulness in neuroimmunology, such as antibiotics, psychotropic drugs, probiotics, gut health, and ketogenic diet. All currently accepted and future potential agents have adverse effects, which can be severe; therefore, a "risk-versus-benefit" determination should guide therapeutic decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Integration of systems biology with organs-on-chips to humanize therapeutic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edington, Collin D.; Cirit, Murat; Chen, Wen Li Kelly; Clark, Amanda M.; Wells, Alan; Trumper, David L.; Griffith, Linda G.

    2017-02-01

    "Mice are not little people" - a refrain becoming louder as the gaps between animal models and human disease become more apparent. At the same time, three emerging approaches are headed toward integration: powerful systems biology analysis of cell-cell and intracellular signaling networks in patient-derived samples; 3D tissue engineered models of human organ systems, often made from stem cells; and micro-fluidic and meso-fluidic devices that enable living systems to be sustained, perturbed and analyzed for weeks in culture. Integration of these rapidly moving fields has the potential to revolutionize development of therapeutics for complex, chronic diseases, including those that have weak genetic bases and substantial contributions from gene-environment interactions. Technical challenges in modeling complex diseases with "organs on chips" approaches include the need for relatively large tissue masses and organ-organ cross talk to capture systemic effects, such that current microfluidic formats often fail to capture the required scale and complexity for interconnected systems. These constraints drive development of new strategies for designing in vitro models, including perfusing organ models, as well as "mesofluidic" pumping and circulation in platforms connecting several organ systems, to achieve the appropriate physiological relevance.

  19. DNA molecules and human therapeutics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... vectors, display non-toxicity and are simpler to develop. This review ... technology as well as a staged delivery mechanism for the introduction of plasmid-borne gene to target cells via the ... pathogen's gene to provide immunity against diseases by ... human cytomegalovirus, simian virus, human elongation.

  20. Inhibiting the Ca2+ Influx Induced by Human CSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Drews

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD is to use antibodies that bind to small soluble protein aggregates to reduce their toxic effects. However, these therapies are rarely tested in human CSF before clinical trials because of the lack of sensitive methods that enable the measurement of aggregate-induced toxicity at low concentrations. We have developed highly sensitive single vesicle and single-cell-based assays that detect the Ca2+ influx caused by the CSF of individuals affected with AD and healthy controls, and we have found comparable effects for both types of samples. We also show that an extracellular chaperone clusterin; a nanobody specific to the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ; and bapineuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody raised against Aβ, could all reduce the Ca2+ influx caused by synthetic Aβ oligomers but are less effective in CSF. These assays could be used to characterize potential therapeutic agents in CSF before clinical trials.

  1. Therapeutic strategies in the treatment of periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Bogdanovska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory process which affects the tooth - supporting structures of the teeth. The disease is initiated by subgingival periopathogenic bacteria in susceptible periodontal sites. The host immune response towards periodontal pathogens helps to sustain periodontal disease and eventual alveolar bone loss. Although scaling and root planing is the standard treatment modality for periodontitis, it suffers from several drawbacks such as the inability to reach the base of deep pockets and doesn’t arrest migration of periodontal pathogens from other sites in the oral cavity. In order to overcome the limitations of scaling and root planning, adjunctive chemotherapeutics and host modulatory agents to the treatment are used. These therapeutic agents show substantial beneficial effects when compared to scaling and root planning alone. This review will cover an update on chemotherapeutic and past and future host immune modulatory agents used adjunctively to treat and manage periodontal diseases.

  2. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  3. Therapeutic peptides for cancer therapy. Part I - peptide inhibitors of signal transduction cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Gene L; Raucher, Drazen

    2009-10-01

    Therapeutic peptides have great potential as anticancer agents owing to their ease of rational design and target specificity. However, their utility in vivo is limited by low stability and poor tumor penetration. The authors review the development of peptide inhibitors with potential for cancer therapy. Peptides that inhibit signal transduction cascades are discussed. The authors searched Medline for articles concerning the development of therapeutic peptides and their delivery. Given our current knowledge of protein sequences, structures and interaction interfaces, therapeutic peptides that inhibit interactions of interest are easily designed. These peptides are advantageous because they are highly specific for the interaction of interest, and they are much more easily developed than small molecule inhibitors of the same interactions. The main hurdle to application of peptides for cancer therapy is their poor pharmacokinetic and biodistribution parameters. Therefore, successful development of peptide delivery vectors could potentially make possible the use of this new and very promising class of anticancer agents.

  4. Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the therapeutic efficacy of the histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 in human tumor xenograft models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Toshiaki; Ozaki, Kei-ichi; Fujio, Kohsuke; Kajikawa, Shu-hei [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Uesato, Shin-ichi [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Kansai University, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazushi [Proubase Technology Inc., Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan); Tanimura, Susumu [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Koji, Takehiko [Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Kohno, Michiaki, E-mail: kohnom@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Proubase Technology Inc., Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan); Kyoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the anticancer efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. •MEK inhibitors sensitize human tumor xenografts to HDAC inhibitor cytotoxicity. •Such the enhanced efficacy is achieved by a transient blockade of the ERK pathway. •This drug combination provides a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer patients. -- Abstract: The ERK pathway is up-regulated in various human cancers and represents a prime target for mechanism-based approaches to cancer treatment. Specific blockade of the ERK pathway alone induces mostly cytostatic rather than pro-apoptotic effects, however, resulting in a limited therapeutic efficacy of the ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors. We previously showed that MEK inhibitors markedly enhance the ability of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to induce apoptosis in tumor cells with constitutive ERK pathway activation in vitro. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of such drug combinations, we administered the MEK inhibitor PD184352 or AZD6244 together with the HDAC inhibitor MS-275 in nude mice harboring HT-29 or H1650 xenografts. Co-administration of the MEK inhibitor markedly sensitized the human xenografts to MS-275 cytotoxicity. A dose of MS-275 that alone showed only moderate cytotoxicity thus suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts almost completely as well as induced a marked reduction in tumor cellularity when administered with PD184352 or AZD6244. The combination of the two types of inhibitor also induced marked oxidative stress, which appeared to result in DNA damage and massive cell death, specifically in the tumor xenografts. The enhanced therapeutic efficacy of the drug combination was achieved by a relatively transient blockade of the ERK pathway. Administration of both MEK and HDAC inhibitors represents a promising chemotherapeutic strategy with improved safety for cancer patients.

  5. Acoustically active lipospheres containing paclitaxel: a new therapeutic ultrasound contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, E C; McCreery, T P; Sweitzer, R H; Caldwell, V E; Wu, Y

    1998-12-01

    Paclitaxel-carrying lipospheres (MRX-552) were developed and evaluated as a new ultrasound contrast agent for chemotherapeutic drug delivery. Paclitaxel was suspended in soybean oil and added to an aqueous suspension of phospholipids in vials. The headspace of the vials was replaced with perfluorobutane gas; the vials were sealed, and they were agitated at 4200 rpm on a shaking device. The resulting lipospheres containing paclitaxel were studied for concentration, size, acute toxicity in mice, and acoustic activity and drug release with ultrasound. Lipospheres containing sudan black dye were produced to demonstrate the acoustically active liposphere (AAL)-ultrasound release concept. Acoustically active lipospheres containing paclitaxel had a mean particle count of approximately 1 x 10(9) particles per mL and a mean size of 2.9 microns. Acute toxicity studies in mice showed a 10-fold reduction in toxicity for paclitaxel in AALs compared with free paclitaxel. The AALs reflected ultrasound as a contrast agent. Increasing amounts of ultrasound energy selectively ruptured the AALs and released the paclitaxel. Acoustically active lipospheres represent a new class of acoustically active drug delivery vehicles. Future studies will assess efficacy of AALs for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery.

  6. Antioxidants as a Potential Preventive and Therapeutic Strategy for Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Borowska, Sylwia; Tomczyk, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide a growing number of evidences that chronic exposure to relatively low levels of cadmium (Cd), nowadays taking place in industrialized countries, may cause health hazard. Thus, growing interest has been focused on effective ways of protection from adverse effects of exposure to this heavy metal. Because numerous effects to Cd's toxic action result from its prooxidative properties, it seems reasonable that special attention should be directed to agents that can prevent or reduce this metal-induced oxidative stress and its consequences in tissues, organs and systems at risk of toxicity, including liver, kidneys, testes, ears, eyes, cardiovascular system and nervous system as well as bone tissue. This review discusses a wide range of natural (plant and animal origin) and synthetic antioxidants together with many plant extracts (e.g. black and green tea, Aronia melanocarpa, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Ocimum sanctum, Phoenix dactylifera, Physalis peruviana, Zingiber officinale) that have been shown to prevent from Cd toxicity. Moreover, some attention has been focused on the fact that substances not possessing antioxidative potential may also prevent Cd-induced oxidative stress and its consequences. So far, most of the data on the protective effects of the natural and synthetic antioxidants and plant extracts come from studies in animals' models; however, numerous of them seem to be promising preventive/therapeutic strategies for Cd toxicity in humans. Further investigation of prophylactic and therapeutic use of antioxidants in populations exposed to Cd environmentally and occupationally is warranted, given that therapeutically effective chelation therapy for this toxic metal is currently lacking.

  7. Star-Shaped Polypeptides: Synthesis and Opportunities for Delivery of Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Mark; Murphy, Robert; Kapetanakis, Antonios; Ramsey, Joanne; Cryan, Sally-Ann; Heise, Andreas

    2015-09-17

    Significant advances in the synthesis of polypeptides by N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) polymerisation over the last decade have enabled the design of advanced polypeptide architectures such as star-shaped polypeptides. These materials combine the functionality offered by amino acids with the flexibility of creating stable nanoparticles with adjustable cargo space for therapeutic delivery. This review highlights recent advances in the synthesis of star polypeptides by NCA polymerisation followed by a critical review of the applications of this class of polymer in the delivery of therapeutic agents. This includes examples of traditional small-molecule drugs as well as the emerging class of biologics such as genetic therapeutics (gene delivery). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and

  9. Pedagogical Agents as Learning Companions: The Impact of Agent Emotion and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yanghee; Baylor, A. L.; Shen, E.

    2007-01-01

    The potential of emotional interaction between human and computer has recently interested researchers in human-computer interaction. The instructional impact of this interaction in learning environments has not been established, however. This study examined the impact of emotion and gender of a pedagogical agent as a learning companion (PAL) on…

  10. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2016-04-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  11. Gene therapy-mediated delivery of targeted cytotoxins for glioma therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candolfi, Marianela; Xiong, Weidong; Yagiz, Kader; Liu, Chunyan; Muhammad, A K M G; Puntel, Mariana; Foulad, David; Zadmehr, Ali; Ahlzadeh, Gabrielle E; Kroeger, Kurt M; Tesarfreund, Matthew; Lee, Sharon; Debinski, Waldemar; Sareen, Dhruv; Svendsen, Clive N; Rodriguez, Ron; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2010-11-16

    Restricting the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents by targeting receptors exclusively expressed on tumor cells is critical when treating infiltrative brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBMs express an IL-13 receptor (IL13Rα2) that differs from the physiological IL4R/IL13R receptor. We developed a regulatable adenoviral vector (Ad.mhIL-4.TRE.mhIL-13-PE) encoding a mutated human IL-13 fused to Pseudomonas exotoxin (mhIL-13-PE) that specifically binds to IL13Rα2 to provide sustained expression, effective anti-GBM cytotoxicity, and minimal neurotoxicity. The therapeutic Ad also encodes mutated human IL-4 that binds to the physiological IL4R/IL13R without interacting with IL13Rα2, thus inhibiting potential binding of mhIL-13-PE to normal brain cells. Using intracranial GBM xenografts and syngeneic mouse models, we tested the Ad.mhIL-4.TRE.mhIL-13-PE and two protein formulations, hIL-13-PE used in clinical trials (Cintredekin Besudotox) and a second-generation mhIL-13-PE. Cintredekin Besudotox doubled median survival without eliciting long-term survival and caused severe neurotoxicity; mhIL-13-PE led to ∼40% long-term survival, eliciting severe neurological toxicity at the high dose tested. In contrast, Ad-mediated delivery of mhIL-13-PE led to tumor regression and long-term survival in over 70% of the animals, without causing apparent neurotoxicity. Although Cintredekin Besudotox was originally developed to target GBM, when tested in a phase III trial it failed to achieve clinical endpoints and revealed neurotoxicity. Limitations of Cintredekin Besudotox include its short half-life, which demanded frequent or continued administration, and binding to IL4R/IL13R, present in normal brain cells. These shortcomings were overcome by our therapeutic Ad, thus representing a significant advance in the development of targeted therapeutics for GBM.

  12. Novel compounds for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: emerging therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve D Wilton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Steve D Wilton, Sue FletcherCentre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, WA, AustraliaAbstract: The identification of dystrophin and the causative role of mutations in this gene in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (D/BMD was expected to lead to timely development of effective therapies. Despite over 20 years of research, corticosteroids remain the only available pharmacological treatment for DMD, although significant benefits and extended life have resulted from advances in the clinical care and management of DMD individuals. Effective treatment of DMD will require dystrophin restitution in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles and nonmuscle tissues; however, modulation of muscle loss and regeneration has the potential to play an important role in altering the natural history of DMD, particularly in combination with other treatments. Emerging biological, molecular, and small molecule therapeutics are showing promise in ameliorating this devastating disease, and it is anticipated that regulatory environments will need to display some flexibility in order to accommodate the new treatment paradigms.Keywords: Duchenne muscular dystrophy, molecular therapeutics, small molecules

  13. Chemical warfare agent and biological toxin-induced pulmonary toxicity: could stem cells provide potential therapies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Daniel J; Dorsey, Russell M; Willis, Kristen L; Hong, Charles; Moyer, Robert A; Oyler, Jonathan; Jensen, Neil S; Salem, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) as well as biological toxins present a significant inhalation injury risk to both deployed warfighters and civilian targets of terrorist attacks. Inhalation of many CWAs and biological toxins can induce severe pulmonary toxicity leading to the development of acute lung injury (ALI) as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The therapeutic options currently used to treat these conditions are very limited and mortality rates remain high. Recent evidence suggests that human stem cells may provide significant therapeutic options for ALI and ARDS in the near future. The threat posed by CWAs and biological toxins for both civilian populations and military personnel is growing, thus understanding the mechanisms of toxicity and potential therapies is critical. This review will outline the pulmonary toxic effects of some of the most common CWAs and biological toxins as well as the potential role of stem cells in treating these types of toxic lung injuries.

  14. Animal models and therapeutic molecular targets of cancer: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekanova M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Cekanova, Kusum Rathore Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: Cancer is the term used to describe over 100 diseases that share several common hallmarks. Despite prevention, early detection, and novel therapies, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the USA. Successful bench-to-bedside translation of basic scientific findings about cancer into therapeutic interventions for patients depends on the selection of appropriate animal experimental models. Cancer research uses animal and human cancer cell lines in vitro to study biochemical pathways in these cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the important animal models of cancer with focus on their advantages and limitations. Mouse cancer models are well known, and are frequently used for cancer research. Rodent models have revolutionized our ability to study gene and protein functions in vivo and to better understand their molecular pathways and mechanisms. Xenograft and chemically or genetically induced mouse cancers are the most commonly used rodent cancer models. Companion animals with spontaneous neoplasms are still an underexploited tool for making rapid advances in human and veterinary cancer therapies by testing new drugs and delivery systems that have shown promise in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. Companion animals have a relatively high incidence of cancers, with biological behavior, response to therapy, and response to cytotoxic agents similar to those in humans. Shorter overall lifespan and more rapid disease progression are factors contributing to the advantages of a companion animal model. In addition, the current focus is on discovering molecular targets for new therapeutic drugs to improve survival and quality of life in cancer patients. Keywords: mouse cancer model, companion animal cancer model, dogs, cats, molecular targets

  15. Potential Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Targets of MicroRNAs in Human Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ming Tsai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human gastric cancer (GC is characterized by a high incidence and mortality rate, largely because it is normally not identified until a relatively advanced stage owing to a lack of early diagnostic biomarkers. Gastroscopy with biopsy is the routine method for screening, and gastrectomy is the major therapeutic strategy for GC. However, in more than 30% of GC surgical patients, cancer has progressed too far for effective medical resection. Thus, useful biomarkers for early screening or detection of GC are essential for improving patients’ survival rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in tumorigenesis. They contribute to gastric carcinogenesis by altering the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Because of their stability in tissues, serum/plasma and other body fluids, miRNAs have been suggested as novel tumor biomarkers with suitable clinical potential. Recently, aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been identified and tested for clinical application in the management of GC. Aberrant miRNA expression profiles determined with miRNA microarrays, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing approaches could be used to establish sample specificity and to identify tumor type. Here, we provide an up-to-date summary of tissue-based GC-associated miRNAs, describing their involvement and that of their downstream targets in tumorigenic and biological processes. We examine correlations among significant clinical parameters and prognostic indicators, and discuss recurrence monitoring and therapeutic options in GC. We also review plasma/serum-based, GC-associated, circulating miRNAs and their clinical applications, focusing especially on early diagnosis. By providing insights into the mechanisms of miRNA-related tumor progression, this review will hopefully aid in the identification of novel potential therapeutic targets.

  16. Developing Inhibitors of Translesion DNA Synthesis as Therapeutic Agents Against Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    pol eta when replicating damaged DNA. 1S. SUBJECT TERMS: Mutagenesis, DNA polymerases, nucleoside analogs, chemotherapeutic agents 16. SECURITY ...such as polymerase eta, iota , and kappa that are involved in replicating damaged DNA. Our kinetic data obtained under Task 1B indicates that pol eta

  17. Nanoparticles as conjugated delivery agents for therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroski, Megan Elizabeth

    This dissertation explores the use of nanoparticles as conjugated delivery agents. Chapter 1 is a general introduction. Chapter 2 discusses the delivery by a nanoparticle platform provides a method to manipulate gene activation, by taking advantage of the high surface area of a nanoparticle and the ability to selectively couple a desired biological moiety to the NP surface. The nanoparticle based transfection approach functions by controlled release of gene regulatory elements from a 6 nm AuNP (gold nanoparticle) surface. The endosomal release of the regulatory elements from the nanoparticle surface results in endogenous protein knockdown simultaneously with exogenous protein expression for the first 48 h. The use of fluorescent proteins as the endogenous and exogenous signals for protein expression enables the efficiency of co-delivery of siRNA (small interfering RNA) for GFP (green fluorescent protein) knockdown and a dsRed-express linearized plasmid for induction to be optically analyzed in CRL-2794, a human kidney cell line expressing an unstable green fluorescent protein. Delivery of the bimodal nanoparticle in cationic liposomes results in 20% GFP knockdown within 24 h of delivery and continues exhibiting knockdown for up to 48 h for the bimodal agent. Simultaneous dsRed expression is observed to initiate within the same time frame with expression levels reaching 34% after 25 days although cells have divided approximately 20 times, implying daughter cell transfection has occurred. Fluorescence cell sorting results in a stable colony, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis. The simultaneous delivery of siRNA and linearized plasmid DNA on the surface of a single nanocrystal provides a unique method for definitive genetic control within a single cell and leads to a very efficient cell transfection protocol. In Chapter 3, we wanted to understand the NP complex within the cell, and to look at the dynamics of release utilizing nanometal surface energy transfer as

  18. Imaging enabled platforms for development of therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Jonathan; Rizvi, Imran; Blanden, Adam R.; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Spring, Bryan Q.; Muzikansky, Alona; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-03-01

    Advances in imaging and spectroscopic technologies have enabled the optimization of many therapeutic modalities in cancer and noncancer pathologies either by earlier disease detection or by allowing therapy monitoring. Amongst the therapeutic options benefiting from developments in imaging technologies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is exceptional. PDT is a photochemistry-based therapeutic approach where a light-sensitive molecule (photosensitizer) is activated with light of appropriate energy (wavelength) to produce reactive molecular species such as free radicals and singlet oxygen. These molecular entities then react with biological targets such as DNA, membranes and other cellular components to impair their function and lead to eventual cell and tissue death. Development of PDT-based imaging also provides a platform for rapid screening of new therapeutics in novel in vitro models prior to expensive and labor-intensive animal studies. In this study we demonstrate how an imaging platform can be used for strategizing a novel combination treatment strategy for multifocal ovarian cancer. Using an in vitro 3D model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer in conjunction with quantitative imaging we examine dose and scheduling strategies for PDT in combination with carboplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent presently in clinical use for management of this deadly form of cancer.

  19. How Internet of Things Influences Human Behavior Building Social Web of Services via Agent-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov Mikhail

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discovers potential human interactions with growing amount of internet of things (IoT via proposed concept of Social Web of Services (classical social web with smart things - daily life objects connected to the internet. To investigate the impact of IoT on user behaviour patterns we modelled human-thing interactions using agent-based simulation (ABM. We have proved that under certain conditions SmartThings, connected to the IoT, are able to change patterns of Human behaviour. Results of this work predict our way of living in the era of caused by viral effects of IoT application (HCI and M2M connections, and could be used to foster business process management in the IoT era.

  20. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  1. A comparative study of different bleaching agents on the morphology of human enamel: an in vitro SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthappa, Roshan; Suprith, M L; Bhandary, Shreetha; Dash, Sumit

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare two different commercial bleaching agents, Opalescence with Colgate Platinum, and 30% phosphoric acid used as aggressive agent on the morphology of human enamel. Ten freshly extracted, noncarious, human maxillary central incisors extracted for periodontal reasons were used in this study. The labial surface of the disinfected teeth were polished using a polishing paste with the help of rubber cup and a slow speed handpiece. Each tooth was sectioned at cement-enamel junction and the crown was separated into four specimens, all taken from labial surface. Group 1 was treated with Colgate Platinum for 7 hours, group 2 with Opalescence for 7 hours, group 3 was treated with 30% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds and group 4 was untreated and used as control. After the treatment period, the specimens were washed with normal saline and stored in sterile bottle and sealed. Photomicrographs obtained from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after surface treatments were examined for no alteration, slight alteration, moderate alteration and severe alterations. The specimens treated with commercial bleaching agents revealed no enamel surface morphologic alterations compared to control group. The specimen treated with phosphoric acid showed severe alterations. Ten percent carbamide peroxide evaluated in this study does not etch tooth enamel or alter enamel surface morphology as do conventional etching techniques. Carbamine peroxide is a safe and effective tooth whitening agent even when used for extended period of time. The enamel surface remains smooth which reduces caries due to plaque collection.

  2. Speciation in Metal Toxicity and Metal-Based Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Templeton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metallic elements, ions and compounds produce varying degrees of toxicity in organisms with which they come into contact. Metal speciation is critical to understanding these adverse effects; the adjectives “heavy” and “toxic” are not helpful in describing the biological properties of individual elements, but detailed chemical structures are. As a broad generalization, the metallic form of an element is inert, and the ionic salts are the species that show more significant bioavailability. Yet the salts and other chelates of a metal ion can give rise to quite different toxicities, as exemplified by a range of carcinogenic potential for various nickel species. Another important distinction comes when a metallic element is organified, increasing its lipophilicity and hence its ability to penetrate the blood brain barrier, as is seen, for example, with organic mercury and tin species. Some metallic elements, such as gold and platinum, are themselves useful therapeutic agents in some forms, while other species of the same element can be toxic, thus focusing attention on species interconversions in evaluating metal-based drugs. The therapeutic use of metal-chelating agents introduces new species of the target metal in vivo, and this can affect not only its desired detoxification, but also introduce a potential for further mechanisms of toxicity. Examples of therapeutic iron chelator species are discussed in this context, as well as the more recent aspects of development of chelation therapy for uranium exposure.

  3. 2-Arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives as potent human lipoxygenase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Li; Dong, Ningning; Wu, Deyan; Yao, Xue; Lu, Weiqiang; Zhang, Chen; Ouyang, Ping; Zhu, Jin; Tang, Yun; Wang, Wei; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Human lipoxygenases (LOXs) have been emerging as effective therapeutic targets for inflammatory diseases. In this study, we found that four natural 2-arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus exhibited potent inhibitory activities against human LOXs, including moracin C (1), artoindonesianin B-1 (2), moracin D (3), moracin M (4). In our in vitro experiments, compound 1 was identified as the most potent LOX inhibitor and the moderate subtype selective inhibitor of 12-LOX. Compounds 1 and 2 act as competitive inhibitors of LOXs. Moreover, 1 significantly inhibits LTB4 production and chemotactic capacity of neutrophils, and is capable of protecting vascular barrier from plasma leakage in vivo. In addition, the preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis was performed based on the above four naturally occurring (1-4) and six additional synthetic 2-arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives. Taken together, these 2-arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives, as LOXs inhibitors, could represent valuable leads for the future development of therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases.

  4. Advances in Virus-Directed Therapeutics against Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal K. Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the causal agent in the etiology of Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is also associated with multiple human malignancies, including Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease, as well as sporadic cancers of other tissues. A causal relationship of EBV to these latter malignancies remains controversial, although the episomic EBV genome in most of these cancers is clonal, suggesting infection very early in the development of the tumor and a possible role for EBV in the genesis of these diseases. Furthermore, the prognosis of these tumors is invariably poor when EBV is present, compared to their EBV-negative counterparts. The physical presence of EBV in these tumors represents a potential “tumor-specific” target for therapeutic approaches. While treatment options for other types of herpesvirus infections have evolved and improved over the last two decades, however, therapies directed at EBV have lagged. A major constraint to pharmacological intervention is the shift from lytic infection to a latent pattern of gene expression, which persists in those tumors associated with the virus. In this paper we provide a brief account of new virus-targeted therapeutic approaches against EBV-associated malignancies.

  5. Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Nano-Therapeutics and Photo-Thermal Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Mukti; Mishra, Sumit Kumar; Baghini, Mahdieh Shojaei; Chauhan, Deepak S.; Srivastava, Rohit; De, Abhijit

    2017-01-01

    The unresolved and paramount challenge in bio-imaging and targeted therapy is to clearly define and demarcate the physical margins of tumor tissue. The ability to outline the healthy vital tissues to be carefully navigated with transection while an intraoperative surgery procedure is performed sets up a necessary and under-researched goal. To achieve the aforementioned objectives, there is a need to optimize design considerations in order to not only obtain an effective imaging agent but to also achieve attributes like favorable water solubility, biocompatibility, high molecular brightness, and a tissue specific targeting approach. The emergence of near infra-red fluorescence (NIRF) light for tissue scale imaging owes to the provision of highly specific images of the target organ. The special characteristics of near infra-red window such as minimal auto-fluorescence, low light scattering, and absorption of biomolecules in tissue converge to form an attractive modality for cancer imaging. Imparting molecular fluorescence as an exogenous contrast agent is the most beneficial attribute of NIRF light as a clinical imaging technology. Additionally, many such agents also display therapeutic potentials as photo-thermal agents, thus meeting the dual purpose of imaging and therapy. Here, we primarily discuss molecular imaging and therapeutic potentials of two such classes of materials, i.e., inorganic NIR dyes and metallic gold nanoparticle based materials. PMID:28452928

  6. Proposed Methodology for Application of Human-like gradual Multi-Agent Q-Learning (HuMAQ) for Multi-robot Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Dip Narayan; Majumder, Somajyoti

    2014-01-01

    Several attempts have been made by the researchers around the world to develop a number of autonomous exploration techniques for robots. But it has been always an important issue for developing the algorithm for unstructured and unknown environments. Human-like gradual Multi-agent Q-leaming (HuMAQ) is a technique developed for autonomous robotic exploration in unknown (and even unimaginable) environments. It has been successfully implemented in multi-agent single robotic system. HuMAQ uses the concept of Subsumption architecture, a well-known Behaviour-based architecture for prioritizing the agents of the multi-agent system and executes only the most common action out of all the different actions recommended by different agents. Instead of using new state-action table (Q-table) each time, HuMAQ uses the immediate past table for efficient and faster exploration. The proof of learning has also been established both theoretically and practically. HuMAQ has the potential to be used in different and difficult situations as well as applications. The same architecture has been modified to use for multi-robot exploration in an environment. Apart from all other existing agents used in the single robotic system, agents for inter-robot communication and coordination/ co-operation with the other similar robots have been introduced in the present research. Current work uses a series of indigenously developed identical autonomous robotic systems, communicating with each other through ZigBee protocol

  7. Human antibodies to the dengue virus E-dimer epitope have therapeutic activity against Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Estefania; Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa; Cao, Bin; Scheaffer, Suzanne M; Supasa, Piyada; Wongwiwat, Wiyada; Esakky, Prabagaran; Drury, Andrea; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Moley, Kelle H; Mysorekar, Indira U; Screaton, Gavin R; Diamond, Michael S

    2017-11-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has resulted in congenital abnormalities in fetuses and neonates. Although some cross-reactive dengue virus (DENV)-specific antibodies can enhance ZIKV infection in mice, those recognizing the DENV E-dimer epitope (EDE) can neutralize ZIKV infection in cell culture. We evaluated the therapeutic activity of human monoclonal antibodies to DENV EDE for their ability to control ZIKV infection in the brains, testes, placentas, and fetuses of mice. A single dose of the EDE1-B10 antibody given 3 d after ZIKV infection protected against lethality, reduced ZIKV levels in brains and testes, and preserved sperm counts. In pregnant mice, wild-type or engineered LALA variants of EDE1-B10, which cannot engage Fcg receptors, diminished ZIKV burden in maternal and fetal tissues, and protected against fetal demise. Because neutralizing antibodies to EDE have therapeutic potential against ZIKV, in addition to their established inhibitory effects against DENV, it may be possible to develop therapies that control disease caused by both viruses.

  8. FY1995 distributed control of man-machine cooperative multi agent systems; 1995 nendo ningen kyochogata multi agent kikai system no jiritsu seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In the near future, distributed autonomous systems will be practical in many situations, e.g., interactive production systems, hazardous environments, nursing homes, and individual houses. The agents which consist of the distributed system must not give damages to human being and should be working economically. In this project man-machine cooperative multi agent systems are studied in many kind of respects, and basic design technology, basic control technique are developed by establishing fundamental theories and by constructing experimental systems. In this project theoretical and experimental studies are conducted in the following sub-projects: (1) Distributed cooperative control in multi agent type actuation systems (2) Control of non-holonomic systems (3) Man-machine Cooperative systems (4) Robot systems learning human skills (5) Robust force control of constrained systems In each sub-project cooperative nature between machine agent systems and human being, interference between artificial multi agents and environment and new function emergence in coordination of the multi agents and the environment, robust force control against for the environments, control methods for non-holonomic systems, robot systems which can mimic and learn human skills were studied. In each sub-project, some problems were hi-lighted and solutions for the problems have been given based on construction of experimental systems. (NEDO)

  9. Quantifying human behavior uncertainties in a coupled agent-based model for water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, J. Y.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling human behaviors and decisions in water resources management is a challenging issue due to its complexity and uncertain characteristics that affected by both internal (such as stakeholder's beliefs on any external information) and external factors (such as future policies and weather/climate forecast). Stakeholders' decision regarding how much water they need is usually not entirely rational in the real-world cases, so it is not quite suitable to model their decisions with a centralized (top-down) approach that assume everyone in a watershed follow the same order or pursue the same objective. Agent-based modeling (ABM) uses a decentralized approach (bottom-up) that allow each stakeholder to make his/her own decision based on his/her own objective and the belief of information acquired. In this study, we develop an ABM which incorporates the psychological human decision process by the theory of risk perception. The theory of risk perception quantifies human behaviors and decisions uncertainties using two sequential methodologies: the Bayesian Inference and the Cost-Loss Problem. The developed ABM is coupled with a regulation-based water system model: Riverware (RW) to evaluate different human decision uncertainties in water resources management. The San Juan River Basin in New Mexico (Figure 1) is chosen as a case study area, while we define 19 major irrigation districts as water use agents and their primary decision is to decide the irrigated area on an annual basis. This decision will be affected by three external factors: 1) upstream precipitation forecast (potential amount of water availability), 2) violation of the downstream minimum flow (required to support ecosystems), and 3) enforcement of a shortage sharing plan (a policy that is currently undertaken in the region for drought years). Three beliefs (as internal factors) that correspond to these three external factors will also be considered in the modeling framework. The objective of this study is

  10. Synthetic Curcumin Analogs as Inhibitors of β -Amyloid Peptide Aggregation: Potential Therapeutic and Diagnostic Agents for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    There is a crucial need to develop new effective drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the currently available AD treatments provide only momentary and incomplete symptomatic relief. Amongst natural products, curcumin, a major constituent of turmeric, has been intensively investigated for its neuroprotective effect against β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced toxicity in cultured neuronal cells. The ability of curcumin to attach to Aβ peptide and prevent its accumulation is attributed to its three structural characteristics such as the presence of two aromatic end groups and their co-planarity, the length and rigidity of the linker region and the substitution conformation of these aromatics. However, curcumin failed to reach adequate brain levels after oral absorption in AD clinical trials due to its low water solubility and poor oral bioavailability. A number of new curcumin analogs that mimic the active site of the compound along with analogs that mimic the curcumin anti-amyloid effect combined with anticholinesterase effect have been developed to enhance the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, water solubility, stability at physiological conditions and delivery of curcumin. In this article, we have summarized all reported synthetic analogs of curcumin showing effects on β-amyloid and discussed their potential as therapeutic and diagnostic agents for AD.

  11. Human Monoclonal antibodies - A dual advantaged weapon to tackle cancer and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurosawa G

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are powerful tools as pharmaceutical agents to tackle cancer and infectious diseases. Antibodies (Abs are present in blood at the concentration of 10 mg/ml and play a vital role in humoral immunity. Many therapeutic Abs have been reported since early 1980s. Human mAb technology was not available at that time and only the hybridoma technology for making mouse mAbs had been well established. In order to avoid various potential problems associated with use of mouse proteins, two different technologies to make human/mouse chimeric Ab as well as humanized Ab were developed crossing the various hurdles for almost twenty years and mAb based drugs such as rituximab, anti-CD20 Ab, and trastuzumab, anti-HER2 Ab, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer in 1997 and 1998, respectively. These drugs are well recognized and accepted by clinicians for treatment of patients. The clinical outcome of the treatment with mAb has strongly encouraged the researchers to develop much more refined mAbs. In addition to chimeric Ab and humanized Ab, now human mAbs can be produced by two technologies. The first is transgenic mice that produce human Abs and the second is human Ab libraries using phage-display system. Until now, several hundreds of mAbs against several tens of antigens (Ags have been developed and subjected to clinical examinations. While many Abs have been approved as therapeutic agents against hematological malignancies, the successful mAbs against solid tumors are still limited. However, many researchers have suggested that developing potential mAbs agents should be possible and incurable cancers may become curable within another decade. Though it is hard to say explicitly that this prediction is correct, a passion for this development should be worth supporting to lead to a successful outcome which will lead to patient benefits. Our institute

  12. DNA excision repair in cell extracts from human cell lines exhibiting hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, J.; Keyse, S.M.; Lindahl, T.; Wood, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Whole cell extracts from human lymphoid cell lines can perform in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids damaged by agents including UV or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP). Extracts from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells are defective in repair synthesis. We have now studied in vitro DNA repair synthesis using extracts from lymphoblastoid cell lines representing four human hereditary syndromes with increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Extracts of cell lines from individuals with the sunlight-sensitive disorders dysplastic nevus syndrome or Cockayne's syndrome (complementation groups A and B) showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids with UV photoproducts. This is consistent with in vivo measurements of the overall DNA repair capacity in such cell lines. A number of extracts were prepared from two cell lines representing the variant form of XP (XP-V). Half of the extracts prepared showed normal levels of in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing UV lesions, but the remainder of the extracts from the same cell lines showed deficient repair synthesis, suggesting the possibility of an unusually labile excision repair protein in XP-V. Fanconi's anemia (FA) cells show cellular hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents including cis-DDP. Extracts from cell lines belonging to two different complementation groups of FA showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing cis-DDP or UV adducts. Thus, there does not appear to be an overall excision repair defect in FA, but the data do not exclude a defect in the repair of interstrand DNA cross-links

  13. Recent Trends in Nanotechnology-Based Drugs and Formulations for Targeted Therapeutic Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Rodriguez, Angel M V; Khandia, Rekha; Munjal, Ashok; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2017-01-01

    In the recent past, a wider spectrum of nanotechnologybased drugs or drug-loaded devices and systems has been engineered and investigated with high interests. The key objective is to help for an enhanced/better quality of patient life in a secure way by avoiding/limiting drug abuse, or severe adverse effects of some in practice traditional therapies. Various methodological approaches including in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo techniques have been exploited, so far. Among them, nanoparticles-based therapeutic agents are of supreme interests for an enhanced and efficient delivery in the current biomedical sector of the modern world. The development of new types of novel, effective and highly reliable therapeutic drug delivery system (DDS) for multipurpose applications is essential and a core demand to tackle many human health related diseases. In this context, nanotechnology-based several advanced DDS have been engineered with novel characteristics for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications that include but not limited to the enhanced/improved bioactivity, bioavailability, drug efficacy, targeted delivery, and therapeutically safer with an extra advantage of overcoming demerits of traditional drug formulations/designs. This review work is focused on recent trends/advances in nanotechnology-based drugs and formulations designed for targeted therapeutic delivery. Moreover, information is also reviewed and given from recent patents and summarized or illustrated diagrammatically to depict a better understanding. Recent patents covering various nanotechnology-based approaches for several applications have also been reviewed. The drug-loaded nanoparticles are among versatile candidates with multifunctional characteristics for potential applications in biomedical, and tissue engineering sector. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. HFE polymorphisms influence the response to chemotherapeutic agents via induction of p16INK4A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Y; Liu, Siying; Mitchell, Ryan M; Slagle-Webb, Becky; Hong, Young-Soo; Sheehan, Jonas M; Connor, James R

    2011-11-01

    HFE is a protein that impacts cellular iron uptake. HFE gene variants are identified as risk factors or modifiers for multiple diseases. Using HFE stably transfected human neuroblastoma cells, we found that cells carrying the C282Y HFE variant do not differentiate when exposed to retinoic acid. Therefore, we hypothesized HFE variants would impact response to therapeutic agents. Both the human neuroblastoma and glioma cells that express the C282Y HFE variant are resistant to Temodar, geldanamycin and γ-radiation. A gene array analysis revealed that p16INK4A (p16) expression was increased in association with C282Y expression. Decreasing p16 protein by siRNA resulted in increased vulnerability to all of the therapeutic agents suggesting that p16 is responsible for the resistance. Decreasing HFE expression by siRNA resulted in a 85% decrease in p16 expression in the neuroblastoma cells but not the astrocytoma cells. These data suggest a potential direct relationship between HFE and p16 that may be cell specific or mediated by different pathways in the different cell types. In conclusion, the C282Y HFE variant impacts the vulnerability of cancer cells to current treatment strategies apparently by increasing expression of p16. Although best known as a tumor suppressor, there are multiple reports that p16 is elevated in some forms of cancer. Given the frequency of the HFE gene variants, as high as 10% of the Caucasian population, these data provide compelling evidence that the C282Y HFE variant should be part of a pharmacogenetic strategy for evaluating treatment efficacy in cancer cells. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  15. Increased Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure Facilitates the Uptake of Therapeutic Macromolecules in a Xenograft Tumor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hofmann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP is a characteristic of most solid tumors. Clinically, TIFP may hamper the uptake of chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumor tissue reducing their therapeutic efficacy. In this study, a means of modulating TIFP to increase the flux of macromolecules into tumor tissue is presented, which is based on the rationale that elevated plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP pulls water from tumor interstitium lowering the TIFP. Concentrated human serum albumin: (20% HSA, used as an agent to enhance COP, reduced the TIFP time-dependently from 8 to 2 mm Hg in human tumor xenograft models bearing A431 epidermoid vulva carcinomas. To evaluate whether this reduction facilitates the uptake of macromolecules, the intratumoral distribution of fluorescently conjugated dextrans (2.5 mg/ml and cetuximab (2.0 mg/ml was probed using novel time domain nearinfrared fluorescence imaging. This method permitted discrimination and semiquantification of tumor-accumulated conjugate from background and unspecific probe fluorescence. The coadministration of 20% HSA together with either dextrans or cetuximab was found to lower the TIFP significantly and increase the concentration of the substances within the tumor tissue in comparison to control tumors. Furthermore, combined administration of 20%HSA plus cetuximab reduced the tumor growth significantly in comparison to standard cetuximab treatment. These data demonstrate that increased COP lowers the TIFP within hours and increases the uptake of therapeutic macromolecules into the tumor interstitium leading to reduced tumor growth. This model represents a novel approach to facilitate the delivery of therapeutics into tumor tissue, particularly monoclonal antibodies.

  16. New structural analogues of curcumin exhibit potent growth suppressive activity in human colorectal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Ling; Hutzen, Brian; Ball, Sarah; DeAngelis, Stephanie; Chen, Chun-Liang; Fuchs, James R; Li, Chenglong; Li, Pui-Kai; Lin, Jiayuh

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Novel therapeutic approaches are needed for colorectal carcinoma. Curcumin, the active component and yellow pigment of turmeric, has been reported to have several anti-cancer activities including anti-proliferation, anti-invasion, and anti-angiogenesis. Clinical trials have suggested that curcumin may serve as a potential preventive or therapeutic agent for colorectal cancer. We compared the inhibitory effects of curcumin and novel structural analogues, GO-Y030, FLLL-11, and FLLL-12, in three independent human colorectal cancer cell lines, SW480, HT-29, and HCT116. MTT cell viability assay was used to examine the cell viability/proliferation and western blots were used to determine the level of PARP cleavages. Half-Maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) were calculated using Sigma Plot 9.0 software. Curcumin inhibited cell viability in all three of the human colorectal cancer cell lines studied with IC 50 values ranging between 10.26 μM and 13.31 μM. GO-Y030, FLLL-11, and FLLL-12 were more potent than curcumin in the inhibition of cell viability in these three human colorectal cancer cell lines with IC 50 values ranging between 0.51 μM and 4.48 μM. In addition, FLLL-11 and FLLL-12 exhibit low toxicity to WI-38 normal human lung fibroblasts with an IC-50 value greater than 1,000 μM. GO-Y030, FLLL-11, and FLLL-12 are also more potent than curcumin in the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 in all three human colorectal cancer cell lines studied. The results indicate that the three curcumin analogues studied exhibit more potent inhibitory activity than curcumin in human colorectal cancer cells. Thus, they may have translational potential as chemopreventive or therapeutic agents for colorectal carcinoma

  17. Development of new therapeutic methods of lung cancer through team approach study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Ho; Zo, Jae Ill; Baek, Hee Jong; Jung, Jin Haeng; Lee, Jae Cheol; Ryoo, Baek Yeol; Kim, Mi Sook; Choi, Du Hwan; Park, Sun Young; Lee, Hae Young

    2000-12-01

    The aims of this study were to make the lung cancer clinics in Korea Cancer Center Hospital, and to establish new therapeutic methods of lung cancer for increasing the cure rate and survival rate of patients. Also another purpose of this study was to establish a common treatment method in our hospital. All patients who were operated in Korea Cancer Center Hospital from 1987 due to lung cancer were followed up and evaluated. And we have been studied the effect of postoperative adjuvant therapy in stage I, II, IIIA non-small cell lung cancer patients from 1989 with the phase three study form. Follow-up examinations were scheduled in these patients and interim analysis was made. Also we have been studied the effect of chemo-therapeutic agents in small cell lung cancer patients from 1997 with the phase two study form. We evaluated the results of this study. Some important results of this study were as follows. 1. The new therapeutic method (surgery + MVP chemotherapy) was superior to the standard therapeutic one in stage I Non-small cell lung cancer patients. So, we have to change the standard method of treatment in stage I NSCLC. 2. Also, this new therapeutic method made a good result in stage II NSCLC patients. And this result was reported in The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 3. However, this new therapeutic method was not superior to the standard treatment method (surgery only) in stage IIIA NSCLC patients. So, we must develop new chemo-therapeutic agents in the future for advanced NSCLC patients. 4. In the results of the randomized phase II studies about small cell lung cancer, there was no difference in survival between Etoposide + Carboplatin + Ifosfamide + Cisplatin group and Etoposide + Carboplatin + Ifosfamide + Cisplatin + Tamoxifen group in both the limited and extended types of small cell lung cancer patients

  18. DNA molecules and human therapeutics | Danquah | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nucleic acid molecules are championing a new generation of reverse engineered biopharmaceuticals. In terms of potential application in gene medicine, plasmid DNA (pDNA) vectors have exceptional therapeutic and immunological profiles as they are free from safety concerns associated with viral vectors, display ...

  19. The Growing Complexity of Cancer Cell Response to DNA-Damaging Agents: Caspase 3 Mediates Cell Death or Survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmik Mirzayans

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is widely stated that wild-type p53 either mediates the activation of cell cycle checkpoints to facilitate DNA repair and promote cell survival, or orchestrates apoptotic cell death following exposure to cancer therapeutic agents. This reigning paradigm has been challenged by numerous discoveries with different human cell types, including solid tumor-derived cell lines. Thus, activation of the p53 signaling pathway by ionizing radiation and other DNA-damaging agents hinders apoptosis and triggers growth arrest (e.g., through premature senescence in some genetic backgrounds; such growth arrested cells remain viable, secrete growth-promoting factors, and give rise to progeny with stem cell-like properties. In addition, caspase 3, which is best known for its role in the execution phase of apoptosis, has been recently reported to facilitate (rather than suppress DNA damage-induced genomic instability and carcinogenesis. This observation is consistent with an earlier report demonstrating that caspase 3 mediates secretion of the pro-survival factor prostaglandin E2, which in turn promotes enrichment of tumor repopulating cells. In this article, we review these and related discoveries and point out novel cancer therapeutic strategies. One of our objectives is to demonstrate the growing complexity of the DNA damage response beyond the conventional “repair and survive, or die” hypothesis.

  20. An update on anti-TNF agents in ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samaan, Mark A.; Bagi, Preet; Vande Casteele, Niels; D'Haens, Geert R.; Levesque, Barrett G.

    2014-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents are key therapeutic options for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Their efficacy and safety have been shown in large randomized controlled trials. The key evidence gained from these trials of infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab is reviewed along with their

  1. Agent based simulation on the process of human flesh search-From perspective of knowledge and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hou; Hu, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Human flesh search as a new net crowed behavior, on the one hand can help us to find some special information, on the other hand may lead to privacy leaking and offending human right. In order to study the mechanism of human flesh search, this paper proposes a simulation model based on agent-based model and complex networks. The computational experiments show some useful results. Discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio are highly correlated, and most of net citizens will take part in the human flesh search or will not take part in the human flesh search. Knowledge quantity does not influence involved personal ratio, but influences whether HFS can find out the target human. When the knowledge concentrates on hub nodes, the discovered information quantity is either perfect or almost zero. Emotion of net citizens influences both discovered information quantity and involved personal ratio. Concretely, when net citizens are calm to face the search topic, it will be hardly to find out the target; But when net citizens are agitated, the target will be found out easily.

  2. An integrative in-silico approach for therapeutic target identification in the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Babar Jamal

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd is a Gram-positive human pathogen responsible for diphtheria infection and once regarded for high mortalities worldwide. The fatality gradually decreased with improved living standards and further alleviated when many immunization programs were introduced. However, numerous drug-resistant strains emerged recently that consequently decreased the efficacy of current therapeutics and vaccines, thereby obliging the scientific community to start investigating new therapeutic targets in pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, our contributions include the prediction of modelome of 13 C. diphtheriae strains, using the MHOLline workflow. A set of 463 conserved proteins were identified by combining the results of pangenomics based core-genome and core-modelome analyses. Further, using subtractive proteomics and modelomics approaches for target identification, a set of 23 proteins was selected as essential for the bacteria. Considering human as a host, eight of these proteins (glpX, nusB, rpsH, hisE, smpB, bioB, DIP1084, and DIP0983 were considered as essential and non-host homologs, and have been subjected to virtual screening using four different compound libraries (extracted from the ZINC database, plant-derived natural compounds and Di-terpenoid Iso-steviol derivatives. The proposed ligand molecules showed favorable interactions, lowered energy values and high complementarity with the predicted targets. Our proposed approach expedites the selection of C. diphtheriae putative proteins for broad-spectrum development of novel drugs and vaccines, owing to the fact that some of these targets have already been identified and validated in other organisms.

  3. Development of 68Ga-labeled mannosylated human serum albumin (MSA) as a lymph node imaging agent for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Yeon; Jeong, Jae Min; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Kyunggon; Kim, Youngsoo; Yang, Bo Yeun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Although many sentinel lymph node (SLN) imaging agents labeled with 99m Tc have been developed, no positron-emitting agent has been specifically designed for SLN imaging. Furthermore, the development of the beta probe and the requirement for better image resolution have increased the need for a positron-emitting SLN imaging agent. Here, we describe the development of a novel positron-emitting SLN imaging agent labeled with 68 Ga. Methods: A mannosylated human serum albumin (MSA) was synthesized by conjugating α-D-mannopyranosylphenyl isothiocyanate to human serum albumin in sodium carbonate buffer (pH 9.5), and then 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid was conjugated to synthesize NOTA-MSA. Numbers of mannose and NOTA units conjugated in NOTA-MSA were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. NOTA-MSA was labeled with 68 Ga at room temperature. The stability of 68 Ga-NOTA-MSA was checked in labeling medium at room temperature and in human serum at 37 o C. Biodistribution in normal ICR mice was investigated after tail vein injection, and micro-positron emission tomography (PET) images were obtained after injecting 68 Ga-NOTA-MSA into a tail vein or a footpad. Results: The numbers of conjugated α-D-mannopyranosylphenyl isothiocyanate and 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid units in NOTA-MSA were 10.6 and 6.6, respectively. The labeling efficiency of 68 Ga-NOTA-MSA was greater than 99% at room temperature, and its stability was greater than 99% at 4 h. Biodistribution and micro-PET studies of 68 Ga-NOTA-MSA showed high liver and spleen uptakes after intravenous injection. 68 Ga-NOTA-MSA injected into a footpad rapidly migrated to the lymph node. Conclusions: 68 Ga-NOTA-MSA was successfully developed as a novel SLN imaging agent for PET. NOTA-MSA is easily labeled at high efficiency, and subcutaneously administered 68 Ga-NOTA-MSA was

  4. The therapeutic journey of benzimidazoles: a review.