WorldWideScience

Sample records for humanitarian remedial statute

  1. 'Tinder Humanitarians'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann

    2016-01-01

    to enhance the appeal of western image producers. This article will investigate the phenomenon of the Humanitarians of Tinder in order to understand its representations of North–South relations from the photographs themselves and from the debates held around them in new media and old. Critical development...... studies, media studies and sociology will provide an interdisciplinary theoretical framework to understand the moral panic that these Tinder humanitarians have created through posting private photographs of humanitarian performances to increase their personal desirability....

  2. Mediatized Humanitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates the implications of mediatization for the legitimation strategies of humanitarian organizations. Based on a (full population) corpus of ~400 pages of brochure material from 1970 to 2007, the micro-textual processes involved in humanitarian organizations' efforts to legiti......The article investigates the implications of mediatization for the legitimation strategies of humanitarian organizations. Based on a (full population) corpus of ~400 pages of brochure material from 1970 to 2007, the micro-textual processes involved in humanitarian organizations' efforts...... legitimation by accountancy, legitimation by institutionalization, and legitimation by compensation. The analysis relates these changes to a problem of trust associated with mediatization through processes of mediation....

  3. BPA Statutes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-08-01

    This report contains the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) authorizing statutes--the Bonneville Project Act, the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and other laws that contain provisions that define BPA's mission and affect the way it is carried out.

  4. 'Tinder Humanitarians'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann

    2016-01-01

    to enhance the appeal of western image producers. This article will investigate the phenomenon of the Humanitarians of Tinder in order to understand its representations of North–South relations from the photographs themselves and from the debates held around them in new media and old. Critical development...... showing themselves in some “do-gooding” relationship that appears to take place in the South. Through the posting of a new photograph every day, the “Humanitarians of Tinder” Tumblr blog and Facebook page have generated a public discussion on the politics of representing suffering strangers in attempts...... studies, media studies and sociology will provide an interdisciplinary theoretical framework to understand the moral panic that these Tinder humanitarians have created through posting private photographs of humanitarian performances to increase their personal desirability....

  5. Experimentation in humanitarian locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov

    2015-01-01

    Amid good intentions, such as providing humanitarian assistance to refugees, the use of biometric technology in humanitarian refugee management may entail various risks for the implicated refugee populations. Drawing on insights from science and technology studies, this article introduces...

  6. Rise of humanitarian logistics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maspero, EL

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ethical debates raged for both sides. This further complicated a complex supply chain as aid already in the pipeline was halted and returned. After extensive negotiations between the humanitarian sector and the national governments in each country... and financial cost (Tomasini & Van Wassenhove, 2005). 3. COMPARING THE HUMANITARIAN SUPPLY CHAIN TO A COMMERCIAL ONE Anyisa Thomas, Executive Director of the Fritz Institute is quoted by Rodman (2004) as saying: “humanitarian logistics has much in common...

  7. Carving out humanitarian space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Durieux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Agencies working inside Myanmar to assist forcibly displacedpeople work within an extremely constricted operationalenvironment. Despite occasional glimmers of hope, carvingout sufficient humanitarian space to meet urgent needsremains an uphill struggle.

  8. Architecture for Humanitarian Emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobos, Jorge; Gomez-Guillamon, Maria; Thake, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    Bogen dokumenterer viden og projekter som resultat af udviklingsarbejdet og workshoppen om Humanitarian Disaster tilrettelagt på Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut for Planlægning. Baggrundsviden om katastrofernes geografi, typer og arkitektoniske udfordringer belyst med cases fra Mozambique...

  9. Humanitarian situation in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne ten Veen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing violence is severely constraining the humanitarian space and making it next to impossible to deliver emergency relief to many vulnerable groups in the worst-affected areas of central Iraq.

  10. Geoengineering: A humanitarian concern

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suarez, Pablo; van Aalst, Maarten K

    2017-01-01

    .... Geoengineering is a humanitarian concern: the potential for deliberate large‐scale intervention in the Earth's climate system has major implications in terms of impacts on the most vulnerable...

  11. Humanitarian Issues: the EU Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Navarro

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO and the 15 membercountries of the EU provide more than 50% of the humanitarian aid worldwide: ECHO assigns more than 90% of its budget (only 0.9% of the Community’s total to victims of man-made conflicts. For the author, the experience of ECHO shows the "limits of what is humanitarian": that is, the lack of security for humanitarian workers, the still-to-beoperational Permanent Tribunal for Crimes Against Humanity, the difficult access to refugees, and the fact that humanitarian efforts are not a substitute for policy and, therefore, that humanitarian efforts can not resolve a crisis that has a political origin and solution. The challenges to be faced in the coming years include denouncing the violations of humanitarian values, transferring these values into a future CFSP, organizing humanitarian aid efficiently, combating “donor fatigue” and supporting conflict prevention.

  12. 31 CFR 575.330 - Humanitarian activities, humanitarian purposes, and humanitarian support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rights-related activities, and activities to ameliorate the effects of or to investigate war crimes. Such... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Humanitarian activities, humanitarian purposes, and humanitarian support. 575.330 Section 575.330 Money and Finance: Treasury...

  13. Global Cancer Humanitarian Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat Garcia-Gonzalez of the Max Foundation accepted the first annual NCI Global Cancer Medicine Humanitarian Award for her work in chronic myeloid leukemia at the NCI, Center for Global Health Symposium for Global Cancer Research, held in Boston on March 25, 2015.

  14. Humanitarian fleet management : impacts on humanitarian logistics by outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Hajdarovic, Mina; Jensen, Jannicke

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to contribute with insights to outsourcing in the humanitarian sector, by focusing on fleet management activities. The theoretical framework showed little research combining outsourcing and fleet literature with humanitarian science. Therefore we aimed to answer the following research question: How can outsourcing of fleet management activities influence humanitarian logistics? To provide an answer to this question we looked at both the demand-side and the s...

  15. Humanitarian logistics and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Leeuw, Sander; Regattieri, Alberto; Souza, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume combines conceptual and strategic research articles dealing with the "why" and "to what end" of sustainable operations in humanitarian logistics, as well as operational research contributions regarding the "how" from the United Nations as well as from researchers and organizations from different countries (Germany, Australia, Singapore, Italy, Denmark, Jordan). The target audience primarily comprises research experts, decision makers  and practitioners in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  16. International Humanitarian Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The International Humanitarian Award recognizes extraordinary humanitarian services and activism by psychologists, including professional and volunteer work conducted primarily in the field with underserved populations. Award recipients are psychologists who, by their extraordinary service at a difficult time, improve the lives and contribute to the well-being of people in a large or small geographic area anywhere in the world. The 2016 recipient of the APA International Humanitarian Award was selected by the 2015 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2015 CIRP were Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD (Chair); Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Silvia S. Canetto, PhD; Amanda Clinton, PhD; Melissa L. Morgan Consoli, PhD; Chryse G. Hatzichristou, PhD; Arpana G. Inman, PhD; Lori Foster Thompson, PhD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Abdulrehman, Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Thompson, and Dr. Wedding were members of the subcommittee for the 2016 award. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. [Humanitarian action threatened by standardization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamou, J

    2002-01-01

    The author analyses the new international context in which humanitarian action is being undertaken. He raises the problem caused by the diverging objectives of impartial, neutral humanitarianism and politically motivated actions that implement strategies of prevention and conflict resolution. He reviews the criticism that humanitarian has come under in recent years and that has resulted in establishment of codes of conduct. However he points out the threat that the concepts of control and "jurisdiction" over humanitarian action represent and analyzes discrepancies between minimal standards and universal principles. The article concludes with a presentation of an alternative solution based on the "Quality" platform being developed by several French NGOs.

  18. Humanitarian war: a new consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, S L

    2001-12-01

    The NATO bombing operation Allied Force against Yugoslavia in March-June 1999 represents the final disappearance of the narrowing divide between humanitarianism and politics: a war initiated and justified on humanitarian grounds. Although unlikely to be repeated any time soon, the Kosovo case appears to have cemented an ideological shift on the international right and even necessity of sing military force to protect civilians within sovereign states. Rather than humanitarians acknowledging the political context and consequences of their work, however, the case suggests the embrace of humanitarian principles of universality and neutrality by military organisations. This article discusses some consequences of the new consensus: neglect of the political context (both local and foreign) of such operations, interaction between the operational dynamics of relief operations and the logic of war and the political consequences of using the humanitarian legitimation and mission in such cases.

  19. Humanitarian demining technology toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joynt, Vernon P.

    2003-09-01

    This is a keynote address surveying the field of Humanitarian Demining (HD) from the viewpoint of a participating company. The controlling bodies, funding structures and some of the important sources of R&D relevant to HD are identified. The various techniques and technologies in common use as also technologies freshly put into field use are mentioned. The way in which they all fit into the demining toolbox is explained. Finally a view of future technologies that are potentially able to change HD efficiency and safety is discussed.

  20. International Humanitarian intervention in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Hylenaj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian intervention in Kosovo did not happen by any geopolitical interest, but simply by an entirely humanitarian character which is closely connected with democratic principles, human rights, and the lack of moral order. Except for damages, massacres and destruction by fire of very sophisticated military artillery, Serbian army and police have forced with violence more than thousands of Kosovo Albanians to leave their home (Pllana, 2010, 241. With humanitarian intervention, NATO had shown it was ready to defend universal human values as the fundamental principle of humanity (free life. Main purpose of this article is an analysis of the international human intervention in Kosovo

  1. Virtues and humanitarian ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  2. Humanitarian Branding & the Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anne

    2006-01-01

    are becoming increasingly commercialized. This paper explores the use of media discourse for the communication of ethical messages by humanitarian organizations, caught, as they are, in a tension between, on the one hand, the commercial strategies of visibility and still greater dependence on the media, and......The development of corporate communication in recent years has brought about a fading of the division of labor between commercial and non-commercial organizations. While the practices of commercial organizations are becoming increasingly ethicalized, so the practices of non-profit organizations......'s branding strategies testify to a high degree of reflexivity about the conditions of what Luc Boltanski calls a Crisis of Pity. The analysis illustrates how, in the face of compassion fatigue, the organization manages to carve out a new space for itself in the marketized ethical discourse, and leads...

  3. Who should drive humanitarian responses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Cater

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available From refugee flows to earthquake relief, it is invariably local groups which are on the humanitarian frontline. Should international agencies reinvent themselves as solidarity and advocacy networks and start letting Southern NGOs take the lead?

  4. A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273

  5. 20 CFR 1002.311 - Is there a statute of limitations in an action under USERRA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Compliance Assistance, Enforcement and Remedies Enforcement of... unreasonably delays asserting his or her rights, and that unreasonable delay causes prejudice to the employer... applicability of the Federal statute of limitations has been resolved and, in any event, act promptly...

  6. The Evolution of Charles Dickens' Humanitarian Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆华

    2001-01-01

    Charles Dickens, as an important English novelist, criticised the English society of the Victorian Age,which reflects his humanitarian outlook. His humanitarian outlook includes his early optimism and mature satire as well as sentiment during the climax of his creation and his late years. Furthermore, Dickens' life experience as a man which helped to form his humanitarian outlook provided him with boundless writing resources, and then, he produced many excellent works.key words: Charles Dickens; the Victorian Age; Humanitarian Outlook; Evolution.

  7. Humanitarian Assistance in Syria Analysis Technical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    TRAC-M-TM-15-012 December 2014 Humanitarian Assistance in Syria Analysis Technical Review TRADOC Analysis...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK TRAC-M-TM-14- December 2014 Humanitarian Assistance in Syria Analysis Technical Review Author Mr...2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Technical Memorandum, July 2014 to October 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Humanitarian Assistance in Syria Analysis

  8. Specifics of international humanitarian operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Patlashynska

    2016-06-01

    Therefore, the author stresses that despite the difference in approach, understanding the role and place of humanitarian operations in world politics, аnd their impact on the promotion of human rights and freedoms as essential moral guidance is extremely large.

  9. Sustainable Robots for Humanitarian Demining

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a roadmap for the application of advanced technology (in particular robotics) for the humanitarian demining domain. Based on this roadmap, a portable demining kit to handle urgent situations in remote locations is described. A low-cost four-wheel steering robot with a biologically inspired locomotion control is the base of the kit. On going research on a method for all-terrain piloting, under the morphological computation paradigm is also introduced, along with the behavio...

  10. US statutes for enforcement by security inspectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, J.J.; Ruger, C.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document is one of a three volume set. BNL 52201 is titled `Selected Text of Atomic Energy Act Executive Orders and Other Laws of General Interest to Safeguards and Security Executives`, and it contains detailed information for use by executives. BNL 52202 is titled `U.S. Statutes of General Interest to Safeguards and Security Officers`, and contains less detail than BNL 52201. It is intended for use by officers. BNL 52203 is titled `U.S. Statutes for Enforcement by Security Inspectors`, and it contains statutes to be applied by uniformed security inspectors.

  11. Center for Disaster & Humanitarian Assistance Medicine

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine (CDHAM) was formally established at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) by...

  12. Page THE PROBLEM WITH INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    a code governing the game of war, but for humanitarian reasons to reduce or limit the suffering .... 15 J Picket, Development and Principles of International Humanitarian Law (Nijoff Publishers: Geneva 1985) 7-. 8. 16 S Tzu ..... Indiscriminate launch of computer attacks is the norm ... Solution for this problem lies heavily with.

  13. Humanitarian Politics. Headline Series No. 304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, Larry; Weiss, Thomas G.

    This booklet examines the issue of humanitarian aid in times of crises and how the political and military conditions that generate the need for humanitarian action have changed in the post-cold-war era. There are different faces of civil war, changes in international assistance, and complex emergencies that demand new world responses to help those…

  14. Justified Humanitarian Intervention: Operation ALLIED FORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    Intervention” in J.L. Holzgrefe and Robert O. Keohane , eds. Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal and Political Dilemmas (Cambridge: Cambridge...Gamble. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2007. Holzgrefe, J.L. and Robert O. Keohane . eds. Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal and

  15. Humanitarian visas: building on Brazil's experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lyra Jubilut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s humanitarian visas are an important tool in complementary protection, offering legal pathways for forced migrants to reach a safer country. However, they have shortcomings that need to be addressed in order for the practice to serve as a model for an enhanced instrument of protection for humanitarian migrants elsewhere.

  16. Humanitarian Appeal and the Paradox of Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Jørgensen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    politicization. Some say that humanitarianism is in crisis. This article examines the development of humanitarian advertising through analysis of 124 newspaper ads published in the period from 1970 to 2005. Using a discourse analytical approach which combines institution analysis with multimodal text analysis...

  17. Leveraging Logistics Partnerships: Lessons from Humanitarian Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Samii (Ramina)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis explores an under-researched field: humanitarian organizations and their supply chains. Humanitarian organizations respond to the basic needs of populations that experience a tragic disruption in their lives. Given the challenging contexts they operate in, this thesis first e

  18. Sustainable Robots for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Correia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a roadmap for the application of advanced technology (in particular robotics for the humanitarian demining domain. Based on this roadmap, a portable demining kit to handle urgent situations in remote locations is described. A low-cost four-wheel steering robot with a biologically inspired locomotion control is the base of the kit. On going research on a method for all-terrain piloting, under the morphological computation paradigm is also introduced, along with the behavioural architecture underlying it, the Survival Kit. A multi-agent architecture, the DSAAR architecture, is also proposed as a way of promoting short time-to-market and soft integration of different robots in a given mission. A common denominator for all developments is the quest for sustainability with respect to (re-engineering and maintainability effort, as well as economical and ecological impact. Failing to cope with these requirements greatly reduces the applicability of a given technology to the humanitarian demining domain. Finally it is concluded that biologically inspired design fits considerably well to support a sustainable demining paradigm.

  19. Sustainable Robots for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. Santana

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a roadmap for the application of advanced technology (in particular robotics for the humanitarian demining domain. Based on this roadmap, a portable demining kit to handle urgent situations in remote locations is described. A low-cost four-wheel steering robot with a biologically inspired locomotion control is the base of the kit. On going research on a method for all-terrain piloting, under the morphological computation paradigm is also introduced, along with the behavioural architecture underlying it, the Survival Kit. A multi-agent architecture, the DSAAR architecture, is also proposed as a way of promoting short time-to-market and soft integration of different robots in a given mission. A common denominator for all developments is the quest for sustainability with respect to (re-engineering and maintainability effort, as well as economical and ecological impact. Failing to cope with these requirements greatly reduces the applicability of a given technology to the humanitarian demining domain. Finally it is concluded that biologically inspired design fits considerably well to support a sustainable demining paradigm.

  20. Portable humanitarian mine detector overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsopp, David J.; Dibsdall, Ian M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper will present an overview and early results of the QinetiQ Portable Humanitarian Mine Detector project, funded by the UK Treasury Capital Modernization Fund. The project aims to develop a prototype multi-sensor man-portable detector for humanitarian demining, drawing on experience from work for UK MoD. The project runs from July 2000 to October 2002. The project team have visited mined areas and worked closely with a number of demining organizations and a manufacturer of metal detectors used in the field. The primary objective is to reduce the number of false alarms resulting from metallic ground clutter. An analysis of such clutter items found during actual demining has shown a large proportion to be very small when compared with anti-personnel mines. The planned system integrates: a lightweight multi-element pseudo-random-code ground penetrating radar array; a pulse induction metal detector and a capacitive sensor. Data from the GPR array and metal detector are fused to provide a simple audio-visual operator interface. The capacitive sensor provides information to aid processing of the radar responses and to provide feedback to the operator of the position of the sensors above the ground. At the time of presentation the project should be in the final stages of build, prior to tests and field trials, which QinetiQ hope to carry out under the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) banner.

  1. [Health culture in the Statute of Lastovo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovic Karic, Grozdana; Milovic, Dorde

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the elements of health culture in the Statute of Lastovo, from its declaration in 1310 to amendments made in the 18th century. The source we used was a recently published translation of the Statute from Latin, in which we identified the lawmaker's stipulations directly or indirectly related to public health of the times. The Statute stipulates several preventive measures to keep plague at bay and to control it if it breaks out. Stipulations on communal slaughterhouses and fish markets, even if not directly intended to address healthcare issues, brought a definite improvement to public hygiene and sanitation. Penal provisions for the perpetrators included death, whipping, branding, cutting fingers off, standing on logs, and pillorying. The article concludes that even though the Statute of Lastovo is quite comprehensive and voluminous, it does not give much space to health culture, in fact, even less space than other Medieval statutes of towns along the east coast of the Adriatic.

  2. Emergency Response and Humanitarian Assistance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr I Support food distribution with U.S. ARMY / WFP - 03 to 18Fev2010 15 Dias 637,5 Ton de alimentos ...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 – 21 a 28Mar2010 1.723 Ton de Alimentos em 30 Dias Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr II Supporting food...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 8 Dias 420 Ton de alimentos Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr III Supporting food distribution by

  3. The United States Military and Humanitarian Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    stated that, "The wave of the future will be putting together task forces that will be able to respond to crisis management or humanitarian...examine three options for the military’s role in humanitaria operations at home and abroad. Option 1: Virtually Eliminate Anv Military Role This is the...humanitarian aid in almost any crisis .36 The military resists the creation of specially designated units because such specialization reduces the

  4. Medical humanitarianism: anthropologists speak out on policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Sharon; Marten, Meredith; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, anthropologists have become increasingly present in medical humanitarian situations as scholars, consultants, and humanitarian practitioners and have acquired insight into medical humanitarian policy and practice. In 2012, we implemented a poll on anthropology, health, and humanitarian practice in which 75 anthropologists discussed their experiences in medical humanitarianism. Our goal was to move beyond the existing anarchy of individual voices in anthropological writing and gain an aggregate view of the perspective of anthropologists working in medical humanitarian contexts. Responses lead to six inductively derived thematic priorities. The findings illustrate how anthropologists perceive medical humanitarian practice; which aspects of medical humanitarianism should be seen as priorities for anthropological research; and how anthropologists use ethnography in humanitarian contexts.

  5. 5 CFR 2635.902 - Related statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....902 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Related Statutory Authorities § 2635.902 Related statutes... applicable to former employees (18 U.S.C. 207, with implementing regulations at parts 2637 and 2641 of...

  6. Humanitarian response: improving logistics to save lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives.

  7. The Humanitarian Action Qualifications Framework : A Quality Assurance Tool for the Humanitarian Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, Bastiaan; Churruca Muguruza, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the European Universities on Professionalisation on Humanitarian Action (EUPRHA) Project as an initiative that seeks to contribute to the professionalisation and quality assurance of the humanitarian sector. Its purpose is to explain the approach and the process leading to the d

  8. Thematic Maps for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Krtalić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian Mine Action Centre (CROMAC reviewed, defined and marked the entire mine suspected area (MSA in Croatia by the year 2004. However, due to the need to reduce risk and the lack of information from the deepest reaches of the MSA, its surface area was defined as larger than in reality. Mine clearance is a long-term, expensive process, and Croatia has committed itself to resolving the problem of landmines on its territory by 201 9. Such developments have led to searching for and finding solutions to speed up resolution of the mine problem in Croatia (and in the world through reducing the defined MSA. The reduction of an already defined MSA requires additional data and information from the deepest reaches of the MSA, on the basis of which a revision of existing SMEs to make reductions will be carried out. Based on these data and revision of the existing MSA, reduction can be performed. All subsequently collected data and information, together with previously known data from the CROMAC Mine Information System (MIS, are processed in the decision support system in conditions of uncertainty. The results obtained are displayed on different thematic maps, showing the positions of objects and their spatial impact on the environment. Thus, thematic maps allow insights into topics which experts in humanitarian demining can use to make decisions in the process. These thematic maps are the result of the methodology created within the project Space and Airborne Mined Area Reduction Tools (SMART, and further developed in the technological project System for Multisensor Airborne Reconnaissance and Surveillance in Emergency Situations and Environmental Protection, TP-06/0007-01 , Ministry of Science, Education and Sports; Deployment of Advanced Intelligence Decision Support System for Mine Suspected Area Reduction in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the author's doctoral dissertation. This paper establishes the new terminology for new, improved thematic maps

  9. CERN innovators tackle humanitarian needs

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    At last year's THE Port hackathon, the Better Body Bags team emerged with a new approach to body-bag technology that catered to the needs of humanitarian organisations. What started as a weekend hack has developed into a full-scale R& D project, as the team joins forces with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to put their body bags into production.   Ricardo Páramo Peláez, the team's product designer, presented the first prototype at THE Port Hackathon 2014. The "body" is his fellow team mate, João Cordovil Bárcia. A typical body bag is essentially a long plastic bag with handles: it breaks, leaks, smells and isn't cheap. “Little thought had gone into using new technology to improve the bags,” says Tim Head, an LHCb physicist who is leading the Better Body Bags team. “Simple improvements can keep bodies in better condition, thus improving the identification ...

  10. Increasing efficiency of humanitarian organizations with volunteer driven information products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Kenny; van de Walle, B.A.

    Emerging technologies provide new opportunities to humanitarian organizations for enhancing their response to crisis situations. Since the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, online volunteer communities have been activated to gather data and generate information products to improve humanitarian organizations'

  11. Increasing efficiency of humanitarian organizations with volunteer driven information products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Kenny; van de Walle, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging technologies provide new opportunities to humanitarian organizations for enhancing their response to crisis situations. Since the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, online volunteer communities have been activated to gather data and generate information products to improve humanitarian organizations' s

  12. Challenges of collective humanitarian response in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firzan Hashim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Grappling with how to respond to both conflict and tsunami-induced displacement, Sri Lanka is an ideal testing groundfor the principles of humanitarian partnership which areat the heart of the Global Humanitarian Platform (GHP.

  13. Legal basis for unilateral humanitarian intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajnić Jelena M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author examines whether there is a legal basis for unilateral humanitarian intervention in contemporary international law. The legality of unilateral humanitarian intervention will be examined from two perspectives, from the point of Treaty International Law and Customary International Law, since these are two main sources of international law. The author first deals with some general issues, such as the historical development of the concept, the concept and elements of the concept of humanitarian intervention. Then the UN Charter and certain international documents will be analyzed, in order to determine whether there is a legal basis for unilateral intervention in Treaty Law. The starting point of the analysis will be the norm prohibiting the use of force contained in the Article 2(4 of the Charter, and will be presented arguments in favor and against the extensive interpretation of this norm by some theorists. After that, the provisions of certain international documents, for which it is believed in the theory that can serve as a legal basis for humanitarian intervention, will be analyzed. Finally, the state practice will be examined in order to determine the veracity of the claim that the right to humanitarian intervention belongs to a body of rules of customary law. Since the elements of customary rule are practice and opinio juris, state practice will be explored from the standpoint of both of these elements.

  14. 19 CFR 210.67 - Remedy, the public interest, and bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remedy, the public interest, and bonding. 210.67... PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.67 Remedy, the public interest... appropriate form of temporary relief, whether the public interest factors enumerated in the statute...

  15. Celebrity Humanitarianism and North-South Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Discussion over celebrity engagement is often limited to theoretical critique or normative name-calling, without much grounded research into what it is that celebrities are doing, the same or differently throughout the world. Crucially, little attention has been paid to the Global South, either...... as a place where celebrities intervene into existing politics and social processes, or as the generator of Southern celebrities engaged in ‘do-gooding’. This book examines what the diverse roster of celebrity humanitarians are actually doing in and across North and South contexts. Celebrity humanitarianism...... is an effective lens for viewing the multiple and diverse relationships that constitute the links between North and South. New empirical findings on celebrity humanitarianism on the ground in Thailand, Malawi, Bangladesh, South Africa, China, Haiti, Congo, US, Denmark and Australia illustrate the impact...

  16. THE ESSENCE OF PERSONAL HUMANITARIAN CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Dmitrievna Zhukova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to explore the development dynamics of the ≪humanitarian culture≫ concept, single out the ways of its renewal, and specify the origins of personal humanitarian culture.The methods include the theoretical analysis of existing viewpoints on the given issue, formalization of related characteristics, and observation of motivating attitudes to reality. The research is based on the ideas of A. Moles related to cultural socio-dynamics.The research findings prove the discrepancy between the humanitarian and technocratic, cultural and civilizational attitudes to reality, and consider the humanitarian culture as a personified socio-cultural characteristic rather than cultural context.Scientific novelty includes identification of development dynamics of the ≪humanitarian culture≫ concept, the ways for updating its content, and the effect on education development.Practical significance of the present study lies in developing the theoretical tools for further empirical research in the process of personal humanitarian culture formation, and ways for activating the theoretical components of teacher training both in the postgraduate education system and self-studying.

  17. Humanism and Humanitarianism before the Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Allen S.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics of the humanism and humanitarianism of the developed Renaissance are revival of classicism, delight in life, experimentalism, individualism, realism, love of beauty, increased secularism, and versatility of gifted individuals. An examination of artistic works created from 1260 to 1310 suggests that these qualities were evident…

  18. Analysis of Humanitarian Assistance Cargo Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    are located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; Norfolk, Virginia; Mayport, Florida; Singapore; and Yokosuka, Japan. At its core, PH is a Navy program, funded...Thomas, A., & Kopczak, L. (2005). From logistics to supply chain management: The path forward in the humanitarian sector. Fritz Institute, 15, 1

  19. Humanitarian interventions in Macedonia: an NGO perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Morris

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Media coverage of the Kosovo crisis has given the impressionthat UNHCR and the relief agencies were overwhelmed by the influx ofrefugees into Macedonia and that it was highly fortunate that NATO was on hand to save the day. Such is the aftermath of NATO’s large and slickly publicized humanitarian operation. This impression is questionable.

  20. Legal Permissibility of Unilateral Humanitarian Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Perisic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the status of unilateral humanitarian interventions in international law. The United Nations Charter prohibits the use of force, except in case of self-defense and the collective action authorized by the Security Council. The question is whether the non-existence of unilateral humanitarian intervention among these exceptions means that they are not in conformity with the Charter and if so, whether the right to such interventions exists as the part of customary law. The issue has become even more controversial after the adoption of the “responsibility to protect” principle. Findings of legal scholars on this issue differ significantly. This paper analyzes and interprets the Charter provisions in order to answer the question of compatibility of humanitarian interventions with the Charter and examines the state practice in order to conclude whether the customary law rule allowing the humanitarian intervention exists. The conclusion of the paper is that there is no evidence to support the contentions that interventions without the Security Council authorization are permissible, although there are elements which point to the possibility of the creation of customary law allowing them.

  1. Editorial: Humanitarian Open Source (December 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Hawthorn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, our increasingly connected world has provided us with a greater understanding of the needs of our fellow global citizens. The devastating worldwide impact of natural disasters, disease, and poverty has been raised in our collective awareness and our ability to collectively alleviate this suffering has been brought to the fore. While many of us are familiar with donating our funds to better the lives of those less fortunate than ourselves, it is often easy to overlook a core component of facing these global challenges: information technology. The humanitarian open source movement seeks to ameliorate these sufferings through the creation of IT infrastructure to support a wide array of goals for the public good, such as providing effective healthcare or microloans to the poorest of the poor. Achieving these goals requires a sophisticated set of software and hardware tools, all of which work to save and improve lives in some of the most difficult of situations where the availability of electricity, data, IT knowledge, etc. may be low or lacking altogether. It should come as no surprise that the humanitarian open source domain attracts a great deal of attention from software developers, engineers, and others who find that they are able to both solve intense technical challenges while helping to improve the lives of others. However, to support ongoing humanitarian needs, the communities who produce humanitarian free and open source software (HFOSS and hardware have increasingly identified the need for business models to support their efforts. While the lower cost of using open source software and hardware solutions means that more funds can be directed to aid and comfort those in need, the goodwill of developer communities and the funds of grantees alone cannot grow the ecosystem sufficiently to meet ever-growing global needs. To face these challenges - poverty, global health crises, disaster relief, etc. - humanitarian open source

  2. 45 CFR 302.17 - Inclusion of State statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inclusion of State statutes. 302.17 Section 302.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT... PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.17 Inclusion of State statutes. The State plan shall provide a copy of State...

  3. Genealogy Remediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...... and technological competences, which helps to anchor the owner within the genealogical community....

  4. Preventing corruption in humanitarian assistance: perceptions, gaps and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Daniel; Bailey, Sarah; Harvey, Paul; Walker, Peter; Sharbatke-Church, Cheyanne; Savage, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Corruption is a threat to the purpose of humanitarian assistance. Until fairly recently, humanitarian assistance has not been considered an important arena in broader efforts aimed at curbing corruption, and corruption has not always been considered a particularly important concern for humanitarian assistance despite the obviously challenging nature of the context of humanitarian emergencies. Corruption, though, is a threat to humanitarian action because it can prevent assistance from getting to the people who most need it, and because it can potentially undermine public support for such assistance. This paper examines perceptions of corruption and its affects, documents best practices, and outlines gaps in understanding. It suggests recommendations for improving the capacity of humanitarian agencies to prevent and manage the risk of corruption. Agencies have taken steps to combat corruption and improve accountability--downwards and upwards--but scope remains for improvement and for greater sharing of learning and good practice. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  5. Disaster management and humanitarian logistics – A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilna L. Bean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.

  6. National Energy Act statutes and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.

    1980-02-01

    The National Energy Act of 1978 contains many provisions that will significantly affect solar technology commercialization and solar energy users. Four of the five statutes that comprise the National Energy Act deserve close attention. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act will promote residential solar installations. The Energy Tax Act will accelerate both residential and commercial solar system applications. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act promotes efficient use of utility resources as well as decentralized power production. And, the Power Plan and Industrial Fuel Use Act places severe restrictions on future burning of petroleum and natural gas, which should lead some operators to build or convert to solar energy systems. Each of the preceding acts are considered in separate sections of this report. Federal regulations issued pursuant to the various provisions are also identified and discussed, and some of the problems with the provisions and regulations are noted.

  7. The national identity politics of Danish humanitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull

    , 2009; Jefferess, 2002; Repo and Yrjölä, 2011). While these studies provide important insights, another side remains – that of collective identity narratives associated with humanitarian appeals. This paper posits that collective identity narratives have a vital importance in many humanitarian appeals...... and proposes to look beyond the mainstream US/UK contexts in order to make this point. The paper takes point of departure in the annual Danish aid telethon Danmarks Indsamling (Denmark’s Collection). Against the backdrop of the local identity politics in Denmark revolving around immigration policies...... and the aftermath of the so-called Muhammad Cartoon Crisis, the paper posits that the telethon represents a particular version of a national narrative. Two interconnected articulations of the local understandings of community (the Danish concept fællesskab) contribute to this narrative. Firstly, a version...

  8. Humanitarian law: the controversial historical construction of a universal moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Nour Sckell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian law was conceived by legal and moral normativism founded on universal principles. Despite its undeniable universal moral content, its formulations and application methods are however the result of historical conflicts. This article aims to analyze how the universality of humanitarian law is produced by highly controversial conflicts. It is necessary to overcome the antagonism between an analysis that focuses on the moral undeniable value of humanitarian law by ignoring its controversies and an analysis that focuses on social antagonism questioning the achievability of the moral and universal value of humanitarian law. For this, we must consider that humanitarian law is a construction. It appears as autonomous and independent of power relationships, as based on the rationality of morality and thus worthy of universal recognition. Yet its development is only possible when one considers the historical roots of reason. It is only through political struggle that humanitarian law is realized in history. The aim of this paper is to analyze how the universal nature of humanitarian law is produced by highly controversial conflicts. Firstly, an analysis is offered on the universal but at the same controversial character in the codification of humanitarian law, recalling controversies around the creation of the Additional Protocols of 1977 (Section 1. Next, an analysis is given on the conflictual character of organizations supporting humanitarian law, taking in account conflicts between the Red Cross and Doctors Without Borders and controversies around the ambitions to pass from an humanitarian law to a right of humanitarian intervention (Section 2. Finally, a reflection is offered on how the theories of international relations that most appropriately grasp the universal nature of humanitarian law must be complemented by a "historical sociology of the universal" that embraces the conflicting historical dimension in the construction of the

  9. Syria: Overview of the Humanitarian Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    United Nations Children’s Fund ( UNICEF ) $68,148,698 Maintaining or resuming primary, secondary, and vocational education in Syria; improving...Nations Children’s Fund ( UNICEF ) $279,419,059 $90,026,772 UNICEF projects include humanitarian response activities in Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iraq...Hommes Un Ponte Per Union Des Organisations Syrienne de Secours Medicaux United Nations Children’s Fund ( UNICEF ) United Nations Department of Safety

  10. Integrated Robotic Systems for Humanitarian Demining

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarises the main results of 10 years of research and development in Humanitarian Demining. The Hudem project focuses on mine detection systems and aims at provided different solutions to support the mine detection operations. Robots using different kind of locomotion systems have been designed and tested on dummy minefields. In order to control these robots, software interfaces, control algorithms, visual positioning and terrain following systems have also been developed. Typica...

  11. Comparative analysis regarding the procedure for granting the refugee statute in Romania and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina COCOŞATU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyday realities demonstrate more and more the fact that there are people who are constraint to leave their countries of origin, as a consequence of dangers of a nature to seriously harm their right to life, liberty or integrity and who are forced to remain for a period of time, or even for the rest of their lives, in the country offering them asylum. From the analysis of the current legal framework in Romania and France, we can state that at the level of the two states there is a tendency to give norms applicable both to the seekers of the refugee status, as well as to asylum-seekers. In spite of the fact that the two notions cannot be confused with one another, their common regulation is the result of the numerous resemblances between the two institutions, such as, most times, the state that recognized the statute of refugee as immediate protection form will also grant the right to asylum as final protection form. Thus, both at the level of Romania, and at the level of France, the two institutions represent humanitarian protection forms for aliens persecuted for their beliefs, opinions or the political belonging or their belonging to a social group, or as a consequence of their race, religion, nationality, which is granted by the state by virtue of its sovereignty. In addition, the Romanian state and the French state undertake to grant similar rights and liberties to the refugees and asylum-seekers, equal to those of their own citizens, out of which stands out the right not to be banished. Following the direction imposed by the U.N. Convention of year 1951, neither Romania, nor France grant the statute of refugee to the alien who committed a crime against peace or mankind, a serious common law offence, outside the state, before being admitted to its territory as a refugee, or facts contrary to the goals and principles stated by the U.N. Charter. By granting the statute of refugee, the alien receives the permission to stay of the territory of

  12. Facing the challenges in human resources for humanitarian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani; Nowak, Kristin; Hein, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The human resources crisis in humanitarian health care parallels that seen in the broader area of health care. This crisis is exacerbated by the lack of resources in areas in which humanitarian action is needed--difficult environments that often are remote and insecure--and the requirement of specific skill sets is not routinely gained during traditional medical training. While there is ample data to suggest that health outcomes improve when worker density is increased, this remains an area of critical under-investment in humanitarian health care. In addition to under-investment, other factors limit the availability of human resources for health (HRH) in humanitarian work including: (1) over-reliance on degrees as surrogates for specific competencies; (2) under-development and under-utilization of national staff and beneficiaries as humanitarian health workers; (3) lack of standardized training modules to ensure adequate preparation for work in complex emergencies; (4) and the draining of limited available HRH from countries with low prevalence and high need to wealthier, developed nations also facing HRH shortages. A working group of humanitarian health experts from implementing agencies, United Nations agencies, private and governmental financiers, and members of academia gathered at Hanover, New Hampshire for a conference to discuss elements of the HRH problem in humanitarian health care and how to solve them. Several key elements of successful solutions were highlighted, including: (1) the need to develop a set of standards of what would constitute "adequate training" for humanitarian health work; (2) increasing the utilization and professional development of national staff; (3) "training with a purpose" specific to humanitarian health work (not simply relying on professional degrees as surrogates); (4) and developing specific health task-based competencies thereby increasing the pool of potential workers. Such steps would accomplish several key goals, such as

  13. Yemen's Unprecedented Humanitarian Crisis: Implications for International Humanitarian Law, the Geneva Convention, and the Future of Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Burkle, Frederick M; Ragazzoni, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The current humanitarian crisis in Yemen is unprecedented in many ways. The Yemeni War tragedy is symptomatic of gross failures to recognize, by combatants, existing humanitarian law and the Geneva Convention that have become the new norm in unconventional armed conflicts and are increasingly replicated in Africa, Afghanistan, and other areas of the Middle East with dire consequences on aid workers and the noncombatant population. The health and humanitarian professions must take collective responsibility in calling for all belligerent parties to cease the massacre and commit to guaranteed medical assistance, humanitarian aid, and the free flow of information and respect for the humanitarian principles that protect the neutrality and impartiality of the humanitarian workforce. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 3).

  14. 75 FR 74678 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace Announcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office..., Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. BILLING CODE P...

  15. 76 FR 34639 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office..., Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. BILLING CODE P...

  16. Digital humanitarians how big data is changing the face of humanitarian response

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Rise of Digital HumanitariansMapping Haiti LiveSupporting Search And Rescue EffortsPreparing For The Long Haul Launching An SMS Life Line Sending In The Choppers Openstreetmap To The Rescue Post-Disaster Phase The Human Story Doing Battle With Big Data Rise Of Digital Humanitarians This Book And YouThe Rise of Big (Crisis) DataBig (Size) Data Finding Needles In Big (Size) Data Policy, Not Simply Technology Big (False) Data Unpacking Big (False) Data Calling 991 And 999 Big (

  17. Challenges in humanitarian information management and exchange: evidence from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Nezih; Labonte, Melissa

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing recognition of the critical role information management can play in shaping effective humanitarian response, coordination and decision-making. Quality information, reaching more humanitarian actors, will result in better coordination and better decision-making, thus improving the response to beneficiaries as well as accountability to donors. The humanitarian response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake marked a watershed moment for humanitarian information management. Yet the fragmented nature of the response and the use of hierarchical models of information management, along with other factors, have led some observers to label the Haiti response a failure. Using an analytical framework often found in humanitarian emergencies, this study analyses challenges to information flow in the Haiti case and the implications for effective humanitarian response. It concludes by offering possible paths for overcoming such challenges, and for restoring the value and utility of humanitarian information management and exchange in humanitarian relief settings. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  18. Mind the Gap: Designing Sustainable Healthcare for Humanitarian Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues Santos, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Humanitarian emergencies like the natural disasters in Nepal, Haiti or Pakistan or the thousands of refugees and internally displaced people fleeing from long-term conflict in Syria or South Sudan are likely to increase. To provide healthcare assistance, international humanitarian organizations tran

  19. Tragic choices in humanitarian health work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R; Sinding, Christina; Schwartz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Humanitarian healthcare work presents a range of ethical challenges for expatriate healthcare professionals, including tragic choices requiring the selection of a least-worst option. In this paper we examine a particular set of tragic choices related to the prioritization of care and allocation of scarce resources between individuals in situations of widespread and urgent health needs. Drawing on qualitative interviews with clinicians, we examine the nature of these choices. We offer recommendations to clinical teams and aid organizations for preparing and supporting frontline clinicians in their efforts to determine the least-worst option, and in their responsibility for making such choices.

  20. Integrated Robotic Systems for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-C Habumuremyi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the main results of 10 years of research and development in Humanitarian Demining. The Hudem project focuses on mine detection systems and aims at provided different solutions to support the mine detection operations. Robots using different kind of locomotion systems have been designed and tested on dummy minefields. In order to control these robots, software interfaces, control algorithms, visual positioning and terrain following systems have also been developed. Typical data acquisition results obtained during trial campaigns with robots and data acquisition systems are reported. Lessons learned during the project and future work conclude this paper.

  1. The 2016 World Humanitarian Summit Report Card: Both Failing Marks and Substantive Gains for an Increasingly Globalized Humanitarian Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Canyon, Deon; Burkle, Frederick M.

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes of the World Humanitarian Summit were mixed with some refreshing new directions being endorsed and a lack of systemic reform. The selective agenda and OCHAs lack of success in engaging pre-meeting political participation not only hampered the Summit’s ability to deal with global issues and institutional reform, but also alienated it from leading aid agencies and governments. The UN’s failure to commit to humanitarian principles and global disarray of the humanitarian system indicates the need for extensive reform or a new global humanitarian body. This agency needs to employ a decentralized model to manage aid funds, assume coordination of international responses, resolve civil-military coordination, cater for people affected by both conflict and disasters, and professionalize the humanitarian career.  PMID:27679738

  2. Rape in war: the humanitarian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, L; Schull, M J

    2000-10-31

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care workers must have a keen awareness of the problem and be prepared to respond appropriately. This requires a comprehensive intervention protocol, including antibiotic prophylaxis, emergency contraception, referral for psychological support, and proper documentation and reporting procedures. Preventing widespread sexual violence requires increasing the security in refugee camps. It also requires speaking out and holding states accountable when violations of international law occur. The challenge is to remain alert to these often hidden, but extremely destructive, crimes in the midst of a chaotic emergency relief setting.

  3. Globalisation, complex humanitarian emergencies and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dempsey, T J D; Munslow, B

    2006-01-01

    A new political economy of conflict has emerged in the aftermath of colonialism and the Cold War. Complex political emergencies have been simmering in the post-colonial world for more than three decades. Intra-country armed conflict, often combined with natural disasters, at present contributes to the displacement of over 20 million people world-wide. The international community remains profoundly uncomfortable with the complex political emergencies of the new era, torn between the respect for national sovereignty upon which the international political system of the United Nations and other agencies is built, and the growth of concern with human rights and a burgeoning International Humanitarian Law. Globalisation may have brought many benefits to some but there are also many losers. The Word Bank and the International Monetary Fund imposed structural adjustment policies to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring that have resulted in a net reduction in expenditure on health, education and development. A downward spiral has been created of debt, disease, malnutrition, missed education, economic entrapment, poverty, powerlessness, marginalization, migration and instability. Africa's complex political emergencies are particularly virulent and tenacious. Three examples that are among the most serious humanitarian emergencies to have faced the world in recent times--those in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan--are reviewed here in detail. The political evolution of these emergencies and their impact on the health of the affected populations are also explored.

  4. Needs for new tools in humanitarian Demining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Alois J.

    2000-12-01

    Humanitarian demining is interdisciplinary, encompassing subjects that span from Engineering, Chemistry, and Physics to the Social Sciences. Partners in this field are not only the suffering community and the deminers, but also researchers, industrial developers, Non Governmental Organisations, policymakers, etc. There is common agreement, that the present approach in demining, means by making use of dogs, prodders, metal detectors and mechanical devices will not allow the global scourge of landmines to be overcome within the next 10 to 15 years, as requested by the Ottawa convention. New tools are needed. Especially in the domains of minefield survey, of close-in mine detection, of quality assurance after finishing clearance and last but not least for the verification of the adherence with the Ottawa Convention. The aim of the talk is to introduce experts in remote sensing sensor systems of different kinds, make them aware about the need for advanced tools for humanitarian demining, and to invite an active brainstorming in order to find new solutions. Furthermore, the presentation will focus on the assessment of the potential of air- and space-borne systems for mine field survey.

  5. Analyzing Humanitarian Intervention from an African Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Okoh ThankGod Emeka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the concept of humanitarian intervention from the African perspectives, owing to the none existed of agreed definition or codification of this concept in international law, it has continued to generate considerable interest among scholars and public servants. With a large share of global conflicts, Africa finds itself at the centre of this controversy surrounding the concept of humanitarian intervention. The author tries to present and analyze the reasons behind Africa's tendency to exhibit extreme skepticism to any notion of intervention of external forces in the continent even when beautifully dressed with the word humanitarian.

  6. Humanitarian engineering in the engineering curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James

    There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development

  7. Statutes of limitations: the special problem of DES suits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, C A

    1981-01-01

    In 1971, medical studies determined that DES causes a rare type of vaginal cancer in a small number of daughters of mothers who took DES during pregnancy. Subsequently, medical studies determined that exposure to DES can cause other vaginal abnormalities in the daughters, some of which may be precancerous. As a result of these discoveries, many lawsuits have been filed by these daughters against DES manufacturers. Many DES suits may be barred by statutes of limitations, both because the number of years between the daughters' exposure to DES in utero and the discovery that DES can cause injuries exceeds the statutory period, and because the cancer or other injuries caused by DES may not develop for many additional years. This Note discusses two methods that DES plaintiffs may be able to use to overcome the potential statutes of limitations bar: the discovery rule, and state provisions which toll the statute of limitations for minors. The Note contends that courts should apply an expanded discovery rule to DES suits to avoid the unfair result of barring a claim before the plaintiff could have known that she had a cause of action. In addition, the Note argues that the injury which causes the statute of limitations to begin to run in DES suits should not be rigidly defined. Finally, the Note urges that courts allow eligible DES plaintiffs to take advantage of applicable state provisions that toll the statute of limitations for minors.

  8. Sexual violence interventions: Considerations for humanitarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, David

    2017-07-01

    Sexual and gender based violence may result in a range of destructive consequences to the individual, their family and the wider community. Addressing such violence and its immediate aftermath in circumstances of civil turmoil requires a timely, planned and coordinated multidisciplinary response. Such interventions need to be cognisant of, and address a range of challenges which might include economic barriers, religious and cultural divides, a dearth of respect for human rights and limited access or capacity of medical, policing and legal services. In addition to addressing the immediate humanitarian prerogatives of health and safety issues, further objectives include the provision of support and justice for victims and the goal of ending impunity for perpetrators of sexual violence. Forensic medicine and its practitioners have the potential to make significant contributions in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microwave radiometry for humanitarian demining: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joel T.; Kim, Hyunjin; Wiggins, David R.; Cheon, Yonghun

    2002-08-01

    Previous modeling studies have indicated that a multi-frequency radiometer could prove advantageous for humanitarian demining due to the oscillatory patterns in brightness temperature versus frequency that would be observed in the presence of a sub-surface target. Initial experimental results are reported in this paper from a multi-frequency radiometer (MFRAD) system operating at 19 frequencies in the 2.1-6.5 GHz band. The basic design of MFRAD is reviewed, and the calibration and noise background removal procedures discussed. Experimental results with sub-surface metallic and styrofoam targets are then provided that demonstrate the predicted oscillatory behavior. An FFT-based detection algorithm is also described and applied to measured data. Further plans for experiments and tests with this system are also detailed.

  10. Humanitarian mine detection by acoustic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    The JASON Committee at MITRE Corp. was tasked by DARPA to inquire into suitable technologies for humanitarian mine detection. Acoustic resonance was one of the very few technologies that the JASONs determined might be promising for the task, but was as yet unexplored at the time that they conducted their inquiry. The objective of this Seed Money investigation into acoustic resonance was to determine if it would be feasible to use acoustic resonance to provide an improvement to present methods for humanitarian mine detection. As detailed in this report, acoustic resonance methods do not appear to be feasible for this task. Although acoustic resonant responses are relatively easy to detect when they exist, they are very difficult to excite by the non-contact means that must be used for buried objects. Despite many different attempts, this research did not discover any practical means of using sound to excite resonant responses in objects known to have strong resonances. The shaker table experiments did see an effect that might be attributable to the resonance of the object under test, but the effect was weak, and exploited the a priori knowledge of the resonant frequency of the object under test to distinguish it from the background. If experiments that used objects known to have strong acoustic resonances produced such marginal results, this does not seem to be a practical method to detect objects with weak resonances or non-existent resonances. The results of this work contribute to the ORNL countermine initiative. ORNL is exploring several unconventional mine detection technologies, and is proposed to explore others. Since this research has discovered some major pitfalls in non-metallic mine detection, this experience will add realism to other strategies proposed for mine detection technologies. The experiment provided hands-on experience with inert plastic mines under field conditions, and gives ORNL additional insight into the problems of developing practical

  11. Improving effective surgical delivery in humanitarian disasters: lessons from Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Chu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Chu and colleagues describe the experiences of Médecins sans Frontières after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and discuss how to improve delivery of surgery in humanitarian disasters.

  12. Some thoughts on humanitarian logistics and quantitative methods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Some of the research issues in humanitarian logistics and quantitative methods discussed in this presentation are Identifying people in a disaster; Facilitating movement of people and aid; Geographic Information Services (GIS) to support...

  13. Applications open for THE Port 2016: Humanitarian Hackathon

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Do you fancy donating your brain to a good cause for 60 hours? Would you like to apply your knowledge and skills to solving humanitarian challenges? Are you motivated to demonstrate the value of science to society? Apply for our humanitarian hackathon taking place in IdeaSquare at CERN, from the 14 to the 16 October. You will work in an interdisciplinary team on challenges proposed by international organisations, humanitarian NGOs and academic institutions, e.g. ICRC, Handicap International, Global Humanitarian Lab, University of Geneva and Anglia Ruskin University. Example topics: Better emergency shelters Reducing risks posed by counterfeit drugs Sound for health Safe & clean field disposal of medical waste Sixty hand-picked innovators will be assembled into teams six weeks ahead of the event to give time for a “virtual preparation”, where you can dive into the problem, assisted by field experts, and start to conceptualise a possible solution. The applicatio...

  14. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of

  15. Humanitarian Assistance and ’Soft’ Power Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    challenge the current dogma that U.S. military humanitarian support must maintain the ‘status quo’ and remain reactionary. The decoupling will occur in...future challenges that go beyond humanitarian assistance. These were not an all inclusive list of similarities between Peace Operations and...Civil Authorities  Intergovernmental organizations (United Nations)  Local population This is not an all inclusive list, but it helps set the

  16. Statute of limitation of labor actions: substance and form issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Carlos Toledo Filho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to place the statute of limitation legal definition in the general context of labor law analyzing its compatibility with fundamental precepts of that specific legislation area: identifying also features, boundaries and deadlines adopted by Ibero-American countries, mainly members of the southern cone.

  17. Privileged Communication in Selected Helping Professions: A Comparison among Statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Barbara; Sheeley, Vernon Lee

    1987-01-01

    Presents findings of an examination and assessment of existing privileged communication statutes and rules of evidence in the 50 states and the District of Columbia for clients of selected helping professionals: psychologists, social workers, marriage and family therapists or counselors, school counselors, and licensed professional counselors.…

  18. FID Statutes, Rules of Procedures, Terms of Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Following a brief historical chronology of the International Federation for Documentation (FID), the organization's statutes are presented in the original French text and in English. The rules of procedures outline membership policy, conduct of technical bodies, FID conferences, publications, and regional commissions. Terms of reference are…

  19. 5 CFR 1639.3 - Application to other statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application to other statutes. 1639.3 Section 1639.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD CLAIMS COLLECTION.... (a) The Executive Director may exercise his or her compromise authority for those debts not exceeding...

  20. 32 CFR 516.29 - Federal statutes and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 516.29 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Individual Liability § 516.29 Federal statutes and regulations. (a... individual. (b) Federal Employees Liability Reform and Tort Compensation Act of l988 (FELRTCA or the...

  1. 12 CFR 711.4 - Interlocking relationships permitted by statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 711.4 Section 711.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 711.4 Interlocking relationships permitted by statute. The... being served by a management official of another credit union; (d) A depository organization that...

  2. 22 CFR 120.27 - U.S. criminal statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false U.S. criminal statutes. 120.27 Section 120.27 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS... (relating to espionage involving defense or classified information) or § 2339A of such title (relating...

  3. 29 CFR 790.3 - Provisions of the statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Activities Engaged in by Employees on Or After May 14, 1947 § 790.3 Provisions of the statute. Section 4 of the Portal Act, which relates to so-called “portal-to-portal” activities engaged in by employees on or... subject to any liability or punishment under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, * * *...

  4. International Law as Remedy: When the State Breaches Child Protection Statutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Judith

    2011-01-01

    While legislative frameworks prescribe the legal obligations of the parents to protect and nurture their children, there is no equivalent legal framework requiring and sanctioning the conduct of agents of the state who act in loco parentis. In consequence some children continue to be "at risk" and may even be in greater danger once the state has…

  5. International Law as Remedy: When the State Breaches Child Protection Statutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Judith

    2011-01-01

    While legislative frameworks prescribe the legal obligations of the parents to protect and nurture their children, there is no equivalent legal framework requiring and sanctioning the conduct of agents of the state who act in loco parentis. In consequence some children continue to be "at risk" and may even be in greater danger once the…

  6. An Empirical Analysis of Humanitarian Warehouse Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander de Leeuw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to empirically verify characteristics of current warehouse locations of humanitarian organizations (based on public information and to relate those to the model developed by Richardson, de Leeuw and Dullaert (2016. This paper is based on desk research. Public data such as (annual reports and databases are used to determine the features of the location in empirical terms. We find that a significant proportion of our sample co-locates their products at UNHRD premises. This suggests that organizations prefer to cluster their warehouse activities, particularly when there is no fee involved for using the warehouse (as is the case in the UNHRD network. The geographic map of the current warehouses, together with the quantified location factors, provides an overview of the current warehouse locations. We found that the characteristics of the current warehouse locations are aligned with literature on location selection factors. Current location can be characterized by infrastructure characteristics (in particular closeness to airport and safety concerns and by the low occurrence of disasters. Other factors that were considered by us but were not supported by empirical evidence were labor quality and availability as well as the political environment. In our study we were only able to use a limited sample of warehouses. We also focused our research on countries where two or more organizations have their warehouses located. We did not account for warehouse sizes or the kinds of products stored in our analysis.

  7. Humanitarian and medical challenges of assisting new refugees in Lebanon and Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Abu Sa’Da

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The massive and continuing flows of Syrian and Palestinian refugees to Syria’s neighbours have shown the limitations of humanitarian practice and present new challenges for medical and humanitarian interventions.

  8. The impact of humanitarian context conditions and individual characteristics on aid worker retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korff, Valeska P.; Balbo, Nicoletta; Mills, Melinda; Heyse, Liesbet; Wittek, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    High employee turnover rates constitute a major challenge to effective aid provision. This study examines how features of humanitarian work and aid workers' individual characteristics affect retention within one humanitarian organisation, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) Holland. The study extends exi

  9. Innovation in Graduate Education for Health Professionals in Humanitarian Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dabney P; Anderson, Mark; Shahpar, Cyrus; Del Rio, Carlos; Curran, James W

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this report was to show how the Center for Humanitarian Emergencies (the Center) at Emory University (Atlanta, Georgia USA) has trained graduate students to respond to complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs) through innovative educational programs, with the goal of increasing the number of trained humanitarian workers. Natural disasters are on the rise with more than twice as many occurring from 2000-2009 as there were from 1980-1989. In 2012 alone, 144 million people were affected by a natural disaster or displaced by conflict worldwide. This has created an immense need for trained humanitarian workers to respond effectively to such disasters. The Center has developed a model for educational programming that targets learners along an educational continuum ranging from the undergraduate level through continuing professional education. These programs, based in the Rollins School of Public Health (RSPH) of Emory University, include: a competency-based graduate certificate program (the Certificate) in humanitarian emergencies; a fellowship program for mid-career professionals; and funded field practica. The competency-based Certificate program began in 2010 with a cohort of 14 students. Since then, 101 students have received the Certificate with 50 more due for completion in 2016 and 2017 combined. The fellowship program for mid-career professionals has hosted four fellows from conflict-affected or resource-poor countries, who have then gone on to assume leadership positions with humanitarian organizations. From 2009-2015, the field practicum program supported 34 students in international summer practicum experiences related to emergency response or preparedness. Students have participated in summer field experiences on every continent but Australia. Together the Certificate, funded field practicum opportunities, and the fellowship comprise current efforts in providing innovative education and training for graduate and post-graduate students of public

  10. An unmanned ground vehicle for landmine remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Steven R.; Guilberto, Jose; Ogg, Wade; Wedeward, Kevin; Bruder, Stephen; El-Osery, Aly

    2004-09-01

    Anti-tank (AT) landmines slow down and endanger military advances and present sizeable humanitarian problems. The remediation of these mines by direct human intervention is both dangerous and costly. The Intelligent Systems & Robotics Group (ISRG) at New Mexico Tech has provided a partial solution to this problem by developing an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) to remediate these mines without endangering human lives. This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of this UGV. Current results and future work are also described herein. To initiate the remediation process the UGV is given the GPS coordinates of previously detected landmines. Once the UGV autonomously navigates to an acceptable proximity of the landmine, a remote operator acquires control over a wireless network link using a joystick on a base station. Utilizing two cameras mounted on the UGV, the operator is able to accurately position the UGV directly over the landmine. The UGV houses a self-contained drill system equipped with its own processing resources, sensors, and actuators. The drill system deploys a neutralizing device over the landmine to neutralize it. One such device, developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), employs incendiary materials to melt through the container of the landmine and slowly burn the explosive material, thereby safely and remotely disabling the landmine.

  11. Ubuntu and Capabilities Approach: Basic Doctrines for Calibrating Humanitarian Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapatsa Mashele

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores prospects of using Ubuntu and Capabilities Approach to expand the scope of humanitarian action, to design one which serves humanity better even in the absence of disaster to essentially fulfil human development needs. It is considerate of the fact that humanitarian works contributes immensely in determining the extent to which humanity thrives. The traditional view on humanitarianism presupposes action-driven initiatives geared towards devising interventions to restore or reinforce human social order, improve livelihoods and quality of life. In sociological terms, human development is dependent on realizing and safeguarding, amongst others, human well-being, civil liberties and social security. The article utilizes core values enshrined in Ubuntu, Africa’s historic philosophy of life, and Amartya Sen’s Capabilities Approach as tools of analysis, with the view to expressing how to operationalize what should be considered stable humanitarian conditions and human well-being. Owing to persistent socio-economic challenges, especially the poverty problem, it is asserted that humanitarian action ought to depart from being a post-disaster intervention strategy, to being a pro-active and preventative pre-disaster orientated action, intended to nurture well-being and resultantly enable human development.

  12. Humanitarian logistics: Review and case study of Zimbabwean experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mbohwa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and presents findings on mini-case studies done on the difficulties and problems faced by humanitarian organisations in running logistics systems in Zimbabwe. Document analysis was done and this was complemented by mini-case studies and semi-structured interviews and site visits. Mini-case studies of the operations of the World Food Programme, the International Red Cross Society and the Zimbabwe Red Cross Society, the World Health Organisation, the United Nations Children's Fund and the Zimbabwean Civil Protection Organisation in Zimbabwe are discussed. These clarify the difficulties and problems faced such as the lack of trained logistics personnel, lack of access to specialised humanitarian logistics courses and research information, the difficulty in using and adapting existing logistics systems in attending to humanitarian logistics and the lack of collaborative efforts that address the area specifically. This study seeks to use primary and secondary information to inform decision-making in humanitarian logistics with possible lessons for neighbouring countries, other regions in Africa and beyond. Activities on collaborative networks that are beneficial to humanitarian logistics are also suggested.

  13. The Military Logistics Support of Humanitarian Relief Efforts during Low-Intensity Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    of military logistics support of relief efforts low-intensity conflict, a study of the land, people, government, economy and history of each country...U.S. policy goals, the actual humanitarian relief operation, and the military logistics support provided used to the question: ’What are the key...elements to provide successful logistics support of humanitarian relief efforts during low-intensity conflict? Military Logistics , Humanitarian Relief, Low-Intensity Conflict, Afghanistan, Chad, Humanitarian Aid, Logistics

  14. A Simulation to Evaluate Joint Military Logistics in a Humanitarian Assistance Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    A SIMULATION TO EVALUATE JOINT MILITARY LOGISTICS IN A HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE ENVIRONMENT THESIS...protection in the United States. AFIT/LSCM/ENS/12-04 A SIMULATION TO EVALUATE JOINT MILITARY LOGISTICS IN A HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE ENVIRONMENT...FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/LSCM/ENS/12-04 A SIMULATION TO EVALUATE JOINT MILITARY LOGISTICS IN A HUMANITARIAN

  15. Florida state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-27

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with DOE, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Florida. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  16. Ohio state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by POLITECH CORPORATION to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Ohio. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full test of relevant statutes and regulations.

  17. California state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of California. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  18. Oregon state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administater, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  19. Oregon state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  20. Iowa state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, By Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Iowa. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full test of relevant statutes and regulations.

  1. Pennsylvania state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and State levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Pennsylvania. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  2. Maryland State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Handbook Series Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Maryland. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  3. Massachusetts state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Massachusetts. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  4. Optimizing detector trials for humanitarian demining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, Mate; Baer, Sylke; Bloodworth, Thomas J.; Guelle, Dieter; Lewis, Adam M.; Mueller, Christina; Scharmach, Martina

    2004-09-01

    The performance of mine detecting instruments is embedded in the behavior of a complex system. The total reliability is always composed of the intrinsic physical detection capability of the sensor, application/environmental influences and human factors. The intrinsic capability and some application factors can be investigated in laboratory measurements. Human factors, other application factors and the overall reliability, can only be evaluated in blind field trials in which the probability of detection (PoD) and false alarm rate (FAR) are measured statistically. Both of these approaches are included in CEN Workshop Agreement CWA 14747:2003, which standardizes detector testing in Humanitarian Demining. We report here the results of a study to investigate how to optimize such testing. For efficient and statistically valid field trials, the number, types and burial depths of targets, and the number of test lanes, soil types, repetitions and operators need to be carefully chosen. Laboratory results should be used to help construct field trial protocols and also to help distinguish the different contributions to the PoD and FAR, to determine where to improve insufficient performance. In this study, four models of metal detector were tested in three field trials and in the laboratory. The repeatability of the field trials is assessed, taking into account operator training and experience. Results of the laboratory tests are compared with results of the field trials and used to construct a "modular model" of the system, as used in nondestructive testing. The conclusions are, in principle, applicable to trials of other types of sensor.

  5. Measles vaccination in humanitarian emergencies: a review of recent practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson John

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health needs of children and adolescents in humanitarian emergencies are critical to the success of relief efforts and reduction in mortality. Measles has been one of the major causes of child deaths in humanitarian emergencies and further contributes to mortality by exacerbating malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency. Here, we review measles vaccination activities in humanitarian emergencies as documented in published literature. Our main interest was to review the available evidence focusing on the target age range for mass vaccination campaigns either in response to a humanitarian emergency or in response to an outbreak of measles in a humanitarian context to determine whether the current guidance required revision based on recent experience. Methods We searched the published literature for articles published from January 1, 1998 to January 1, 2010 reporting on measles in emergencies. As definitions and concepts of emergencies vary and have changed over time, we chose to consider any context where an application for either a Consolidated Appeals Process or a Flash Appeal to the UN Central Emergency Revolving Fund (CERF occurred during the period examined. We included publications from countries irrespective of their progress in measles control as humanitarian emergencies may occur in any of these contexts and as such, guidance applies irrespective of measles control goals. Results Of the few well-documented epidemic descriptions in humanitarian emergencies, the age range of cases is not limited to under 5 year olds. Combining all data, both from preventive and outbreak response interventions, about 59% of cases in reports with sufficient data reviewed here remain in children under 5, 18% in 5-15 and 2% above 15 years. In instances where interventions targeted a reduced age range, several reports concluded that the age range should have been extended to 15 years, given that a significant proportion of cases occurred

  6. Humanitarian NGOs and Mediations of Political Order in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that international and national humanitarian NGOs have a far more fundamental bearing on the social reconstitution of Sri Lankan society as a political, cultural, and moral entity than is usually acknowledged. Through their interventions, humanitarian agencies affect the power...... relationship between state and non-state actors and between local organizations and the war-affected populations that make up their constituencies. But NGOs also affect the political order by introducing new understandings of the citizen and providing alternative moral arguments to legitimize power...

  7. Refugees, humanitarian aid and the right to decline vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, A L; Curry, David R

    2015-03-01

    Recent instances of governments and others refusing humanitarian assistance to refugees and IDPs (internally-displaced persons) unless they agreed to polio immunization for their children raise difficult ethical challenges. The authors argue that states have the right and a responsibility to require such vaccinations in instances where the serious vaccine-preventable disease(s) at issue threaten others, including local populations, humanitarian workers, and others in camps or support settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Everyday practices of humanitarian aid: tsunami response in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernando, U.; Hilhorst, D.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article underlines the importance of grounding the analysis of humanitarian aid in an understanding of everyday practice. It presents ethnographic vignettes illustrating three aspects of aid response in Sri Lanka following the tsunami disaster in 2004. The first deals with the nature of humanit

  9. Energy solutions with both humanitarian and development pay-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Grafham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The normal approach to energy delivery during refugee crises tends to lock in reliance on dirty, dangerous and expensive fuels. Sustainable energy solutions require a long-term planning framework. There are opportunities to align the energy resilience and access goals of host nations with the greening of humanitarian operations and objectives for refugee self-reliance.

  10. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office...- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K....

  11. Humanitarian aid operations in Republica Srpska during Operation Resolute 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, R; Cordell, R F; Edmonds, K E

    1997-10-01

    The humanitarian aid experience of a unit in Bosnia is described. Data are presented for primary care clinics undertaken, showing the range of conditions and age of patients seen. The role of the civilian aid agencies involved is described, together with recommendations for future training requirements for similar operations.

  12. The Nutritious Supply Chain : Optimizing Humanitarian Food Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Koen; Fleuren, Hein; den Hertog, Dick; Kavelj, Mirjana; Silva, Sergio; Goncalves, Rui; Ergun, Ozlem; Soldner, Mallory

    2016-01-01

    The UN World Food Programme (WFP) is the largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger worldwide, reaching around 80 million people with food assistance in 75 countries each year. To deal with the operational complexities inherent to its mandate, WFP has been developing tools to assist their decision

  13. Research in Humanitarian Supply Chain Management and a New Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degan YU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the frequency and magnitude of disasters on the rise, millions of people suffer huge losses every year. Scholars have recently proposed various frameworks in disaster relief management in order to guide the research in this field. Although successful disaster relief requires the entire humanitarian supply chain to respond in harmony, it is surprising that there exists no humanitarian relief framework drawn from the perspective of supply chain management. In this article, we create a new research framework for Humanitarian Supply Chain Management (HSCM that is complimentary but distinct from commercial supply chain management (CSCM frameworks. The framework we developed offers a new lens for humanitarian researchers. We also conduct a systematic literature review in this field and identify some opportunities for future research. The results strongly suggest the need for additional empirical research to test the existing concepts and models. Second, there is evidence that research focusing on “upstream” relief chain has been neglected relative to “downstream”. Additionally, due to its rapid advancement, information technology related research opportunities in this field would always be there. Keyword

  14. HUMANITARIAN EDUCATION IN ASPECT OF INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE OF THE CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGROBOVA Y.Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the humanitarian education as a representative sphere of cultural creativity in the Crimean polyethnic space. Under conditions of contact zone of dominant macroethnoses, the Crimean Turkic people and Crimean Slavs, the system of education should be orientated not only to harmonisation of inter-ethnic relations but mainly to consolidation of nation, creation of integral polyethnic cultural space.

  15. Investigating the strategic antecedents of agility in humanitarian logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Hermitte, Cécile; Brooks, Benjamin; Bowles, Marcus; Tatham, Peter H

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the strategic antecedents of operational agility in humanitarian logistics. It began by identifying the particular actions to be taken at the strategic level of a humanitarian organisation to support field-level agility. Next, quantitative data (n=59) were collected on four strategic-level capabilities (being purposeful, action-focused, collaborative, and learning-oriented) and on operational agility (field responsiveness and flexibility). Using a quantitative analysis, the study tested the relationship between organisational capacity building and operational agility and found that the four strategic-level capabilities are fundamental building blocks of agility. Collectively they account for 52 per cent of the ability of humanitarian logisticians to deal with ongoing changes and disruptions in the field. This study emphasises the need for researchers and practitioners to embrace a broader perspective of agility in humanitarian logistics. In addition, it highlights the inherently strategic nature of agility, the development of which involves focusing simultaneously on multiple drivers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  16. Humanitarian Curriculum and Psychosocial Interventions: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Gonzalo; Low, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an analytical description of the impact of violence and natural disasters on schoolchildren. It attempts to explore the present state of the art in psychosocial aspects of education and the curriculum in humanitarian settings. This is carried out through a compilation and a brief annotated bibliography of existing literature…

  17. Determining Medical Staffing Requirements for Humanitarian Assistance Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Medical Staffing Requirements for Humanitarian Assistance Missions complicated by the cooperative nature of working with NGOs, since it is difficult...Improved mortality rate Improved psychological health Hernia repair Cataracts siuge:y Sîurgery Postoperative care OR Nursing Staff Anesthesiobgjsts

  18. Organisational commitment and turnover intentions in humanitarian organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmaalen, Julia; Heyse, Liesbet; Voordijk, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted staff turnover is a prominent HRM problem in humanitarian organisations. In the profit sector, HRM tools such as pay, benefits, socialisation and training have proven to be effective in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing staff turnover. This study explores whether such tool

  19. The Relevance of Humanitarian Intervention in the New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The end of the Cold War has enabled a fundamental shift in the concept of ... removed systemic constraints on intervention in internal affairs of states. ... Explain briefly; what were your expectations of the role of ... African context, debate over humanitarian intervention has broadened ...... Department of public information.

  20. HUMANITARIAN EDUCATION IN ASPECT OF INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE OF THE CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGROBOVA Y.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the humanitarian education as a representative sphere of cultural creativity in the Crimean polyethnic space. Under conditions of contact zone of dominant macroethnoses, the Crimean Turkic people and Crimean Slavs, the system of education should be orientated not only to harmonisation of inter-ethnic relations but mainly to consolidation of nation, creation of integral polyethnic cultural space.

  1. Ultra wideband coplanar waveguide fed spiral antenna for humanitarian demining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    to 1 bandwidth with a return loss better than 10 dB from 0.4 to 3.8 GHz is presented. A wideband balun covering the frequency range of the antenna was developed. The constructed spiral antenna is very useful in a stepped frequency ground penetrating radar for humanitarian demining due to the very...

  2. Organizational commitment and turnover intentions in humanitarian organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, Julia; Heyse, Liesbet; Voordijk, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted staff turnover is a prominent HRM problem in humanitarian organisations. In the profit sector, HRM tools such as pay, benefits, socialisation and training have proven to be effective in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing staff turnover. This study explores whether such

  3. Organisational commitment and turnover intentions in humanitarian organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmaalen, Julia; Heyse, Liesbet; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted staff turnover is a prominent HRM problem in humanitarian organisations. In the profit sector, HRM tools such as pay, benefits, socialisation and training have proven to be effective in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing staff turnover. This study explores whether such

  4. Role of the private sector in humanitarian response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Narfeldt

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available All companies are in business to make a profit - but it’s how a company makes a profit that counts. They should be encouraged to see the many benefits of supporting humanitarian response and operating in an ethical fashion.

  5. National survey of patients' bill of rights statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Jacob, Dan M; Hochhauser, Mark; Parker, Ruth M

    2009-04-01

    Despite vigorous national debate between 1999-2001 the federal patients' bill of rights (PBOR) was not enacted. However, states have enacted legislation and the Joint Commission defined an accreditation standard to present patients with their rights. Because such initiatives can be undermined by overly complex language, we surveyed the readability of hospital PBOR documents as well as texts mandated by state law. State Web sites and codes were searched to identify PBOR statutes for general patient populations. The rights addressed were compared with the 12 themes presented in the American Hospital Association's (AHA) PBOR text of 2002. In addition, we obtained PBOR texts from a sample of hospitals in each state. Readability was evaluated using Prose, a software program which reports an average of eight readability formulas. Of 23 states with a PBOR statute for the general public, all establish a grievance policy, four protect a private right of action, and one stipulates fines for violations. These laws address an average of 7.4 of the 12 AHA themes. Nine states' statutes specify PBOR text for distribution to patients. These documents have an average readability of 15th grade (range, 11.6, New York, to 17.0, Minnesota). PBOR documents from 240 US hospitals have an average readability of 14th grade (range, 8.2 to 17.0). While the average U.S. adult reads at an 8th grade reading level, an advanced college reading level is routinely required to read PBOR documents. Patients are not likely to learn about their rights from documents they cannot read.

  6. National Survey of Patients’ Bill of Rights Statutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Dan M.; Hochhauser, Mark; Parker, Ruth M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite vigorous national debate between 1999–2001 the federal patients’ bill of rights (PBOR) was not enacted. However, states have enacted legislation and the Joint Commission defined an accreditation standard to present patients with their rights. Because such initiatives can be undermined by overly complex language, we surveyed the readability of hospital PBOR documents as well as texts mandated by state law. METHODS State Web sites and codes were searched to identify PBOR statutes for general patient populations. The rights addressed were compared with the 12 themes presented in the American Hospital Association’s (AHA) PBOR text of 2002. In addition, we obtained PBOR texts from a sample of hospitals in each state. Readability was evaluated using Prose, a software program which reports an average of eight readability formulas. RESULTS Of 23 states with a PBOR statute for the general public, all establish a grievance policy, four protect a private right of action, and one stipulates fines for violations. These laws address an average of 7.4 of the 12 AHA themes. Nine states’ statutes specify PBOR text for distribution to patients. These documents have an average readability of 15th grade (range, 11.6, New York, to 17.0, Minnesota). PBOR documents from 240 US hospitals have an average readability of 14th grade (range, 8.2 to 17.0). CONCLUSIONS While the average U.S. adult reads at an 8th grade reading level, an advanced college reading level is routinely required to read PBOR documents. Patients are not likely to learn about their rights from documents they cannot read. PMID:19189192

  7. Civil Rights for Trafficked Persons: Recommendations for a More Effective Federal Civil Remedy

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Lack

    2008-01-01

    In response to increasing public awareness of human trafficking in the United States, the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) was signed into law by President Bill Clinton in October of 2000. The TVPA consolidated existing legislation to create a comprehensive civil remedy; this ensures that trafficking victims are no longer forced to seek redress under multiple criminal and civil statutes that target only components of the human trafficking offense. However, despite its...

  8. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H. [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  9. Discrepancies between international humanitarian law on the battlefield and in the courtroom: the challenges of applying international humanitarian law during international criminal trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.; Toebes, B.; Brus, M.; Matthee, M.

    2013-01-01

    International humanitarian law and international criminal law are distinct but related fields. The application of international humanitarian law to concrete facts by international tribunals and courts has contributed to the development and clarification of this body of law. However, using a law in

  10. Humanitarian assistance and accountability: what are we really talking about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y S Andrew; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-06-01

    In the past two decades, there has been a worldwide increase in the number of disasters, as well as the number of people affected, along with the number of foreign medical teams (FMTs) deployed to provide assistance. However, in the wake of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, multiple reports and anecdotes questioned the actual, positive contribution of such FMTs and even the intentions behind these aid efforts. This brought on a renewed interest in the humanitarian community towards accountability. Between 2000 and 2012, the number of "Quality and Accountability" initiatives and instruments more than tripled from 42 to 147. Yet, to date, there is no single accepted definition of accountability in the humanitarian context. The aim of this report was to explore and assess how accountability in the humanitarian context is used and/or defined in the literature. The electronic database PubMed and a predefined list of grey literature comprising 46 organizations were searched for articles that discussed or provided a definition of accountability in the humanitarian context. The definitions found in these articles were analyzed qualitatively using a framework analysis method based on principles of grounded theory as well as using a summative content analysis method. A total of 85 articles were reviewed in-depth. Fifteen organizations had formal definitions of accountability or explained what it meant to them. Accountability was generally seen in two paradigms: as a "process" or as a "goal." A total of 16 different concepts were identified amongst the definitions. Accountability to aid recipients had four main themes: empowering aid recipients, being in an optimal position to do the greatest good, meeting expectations, and being liable. The concepts of "enforcement/enforceability" under the last theme of "being liable" received the least mention. The concept of accountability is defined poorly in many humanitarian organizations. Humanitarian providers often refer to different

  11. REGULASI WAKAF DI INDONESIA PASCA KEMERDEKAAN DITINJAU DARI STATUTE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudirman Sudirman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This Article focusing on wakaf regulation in Indonesia after its independence day. The research used statute approach, it also used regulation No. 5 Year 1960 and regulation No. 41 Year 2004 as its primary legal source. In analyzing data it used three legal basis; Lex Superior Derogat Legi Inferiori, Lex Specialis Derogat Legi Generali, and Lex Posterior Derogat Legi Priori.  Firstly, it concludes that the background of regulating the wakaf regulation in Indonesia was conducted because of public needs to a special regulation which can rules wakaf and its legal contemporary development. Secondly, the comparison of wakaf regulations regulated from post-independence until reformation era explained that in the first concept of wakaf and its implementation opportunity was realized in The Reg. 5/1960. But the concept of Nâdzir firstly introduced in Gov. Regulation No. 28/1977 and established by the Indonesian compilation of Islamic Law. Thirdly, penal punishment changes, and according to statute approach analysis using those three legal basis, the Reg. 41/2004 is the most updated wakaf regulation in Indonesia.

  12. Wisconsin statutes regarding HIV testing in primary care: frequent questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeront, J M; Reiser, W J; Druckenmiller, J K; Krchnavek, K A; Davis, J P

    1998-12-01

    The authors review Wisconsin statutes related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in primary care, including the areas of written informed consent, documentation of consent, testing without consent, testing of minors, disclosure of test results without the consent of the test subject, reporting requirements, discrimination, access by insurance companies and third-party payors to HIV test results, and civil liabilities and criminal penalties associated with violation of HIV-related state statutes. During the course of the HIV epidemic in Wisconsin, many individuals (service providers, legislators, consumers and advocates) supported the enactment of HIV-related legislation. Today, Wisconsin has some of the nation's most comprehensive HIV legislation. These laws have set a legal framework that balances the rights of individuals with protection of public's health. The relatively low seroprevalence of HIV infection in Wisconsin can be attributed, in part, to the state's HIV-related legislation. While Wisconsin HIV legislation is broadly focused, much of it is concerned with HIV testing. This article examines common questions as they pertain to HIV testing in primary care and to the following areas addressed by state statutes: counseling and referral for health and support services [Wisconsin statute s. 252 14(3)] informed consent for testing or disclosure [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] written consent to disclose [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(3) & (4)] testing without consent of the test subject [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] confidentiality of an HIV test [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(5)] reporting of positive test results [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(7)] discrimination [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(2)] civil and criminal liabilities [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(4); 252.15(8) & (9)].

  13. Shelter strategies, humanitarian praxis and critical urban theory in post-crisis reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lilianne

    2012-07-01

    The paper seeks to link contemporary thinking on urban shelter in the humanitarian sector to debates in the field of 'critical urban theory'. It argues that current humanitarian thinking on urban shelter shares many common concerns with critical urban theory, but that these concerns are rarely translated effectively into humanitarian practice. It attributes this disconnect not only to weaknesses in implementation capacity, but also to the need to reorient humanitarian action to address more definitively questions of power and justice. Humanitarian actors need to step back from product-delivery approaches and find ways of integrating into their analytical, planning, implementation and monitoring tools questions about access, exclusion and the historically specific ways in which these aspects converge in particular urban spaces. By doing so, the humanitarian community would benefit from a more explicit, systematic and sustained engagement with the catalytic theoretical resources that critical urban theory has to offer.

  14. The Shape and Sustainability of Turkey’s Booming Humanitarian Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Binder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With several rising powers emerging as new actors on the humanitarian scene, viewing all ‘emerging donors’ as a homogenous group inevitably undermines efforts to constructively engage with them. With Turkey’s widely recognized engagement in Somalia and Syria, the country merits a nuanced analysis. How does it conceptualize humanitarian assistance? What norms and interests shape its humanitarian engagement? How is such an engagement financed and organized? Thoroughly evaluating how foreign and domestic agendas shape Turkey’s humanitarian engagement, the paper details how Ankara designs and implements its humanitarian assistance. The collaborative relationship between the government, faith-based businesses, and the religious segment of a generally deeply divided civil society emerges as a unique feature of Turkey’s humanitarian assistance. This set-up calls for an informed approach towards working with specific Turkish actors. It also questions the sustainability and scalability of current aid levels.

  15. Invitation withdrawn: humanitarian action, United Nations peacekeeping, and state sovereignty in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsrud, John; Felix da Costa, Diana

    2013-10-01

    This paper looks at the three-way relationship between the Government of Chad, humanitarians, and the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) from 2004 until June 2011. Chad was never comfortable with the international presence of either humanitarians or peacekeepers and asserted its sovereignty increasingly during this period. MINURCAT was deployed in 2008 to protect humanitarian workers and to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad. This association between the UN mission and humanitarian agencies contributed to making the latter the target of repressive practices by the government, such as the imposition of armed escorts. Facing a steep learning curve, Chad and its state officials gradually appropriated the discourse of the humanitarian and international community and ultimately, in 2010, requested the departure of MINURCAT, claiming that they could meet the protection needs of vulnerable populations in eastern Chad on their own.

  16. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation.

  17. Teaching the History of Human Rights and "Humanitarian" Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Nolan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how I teach about human rights and so-called humanitarian interventions to MA and Ph.D. students.  The course has three main themes or foci.  First, what are human rights and why have the social and economic human rights laid out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights been so neglected or rejected, especially by the U.S.  Second, how has American foreign policy used and abused human rights.  Third, why have liberal or humanitarian interventions of a militarized sort become so prevalent since the end of the Cold War and why are they so damaging.  The goal is to get students to look critically at the meaning and uses of human rights, about which many display a naive enthusiasm.

  18. Systems Design Perspective of Healthcare Provision in Humanitarian Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of Systems Design in addressing the challenges of healthcare provision by international emergency relief organizations in developing countries. More specifically the challenges related to the safety and performance of medical equipment that is transferred in the aftermath of a humanitarian crisis. The aim of this paper is to describe the transfer of medical equipment and its associated challenges from a systems perspective and to reflect on the value of Systems Design as an approach to humanitarian innovation, addressing the identified systemic challenges. The concepts of Human Factors and Ergonomics, and Product-Service Systems will be presented as valuable contributions to support designers in handling a larger degree of complexity throughout the design process and to support them to make informed choices regarding this particular context.

  19. Conceptual design of a telecommunications equipment container for humanitarian logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Parisi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preparedness addresses the strategy in disaster management that allows the implementation of successful operational response immediately after a disaster. With speed as the main driver, product design for humanitarian aid purposes is a key factor of success in situations of high uncertainty and urgency. Within this context, a telecommunications container (TC has been designed that belongs to a group of containers that serve the purpose of immediate response to global disasters. The TC includes all the necessary equipment to establish a telecommunication centre in the destroyed area within the first 72 hours of humanitarian operations. The design focuses on defining the topology of the various parts of equipment by taking into consideration factors of serviceability, functionality, human-product interaction, universal design language, energy consumption, sustainability and the interrelationship with the other containers. The concept parametric design has been implemented with SolidWorks® CAD system.

  20. The (de)Militarization of Humanitarian Aid: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Humanitarian workers often complain that international aid to victims of armed conflicts is more and more militarized because relief organizations are embedded into peacekeeping operations, used as a "force multiplier", or manipulated as an instrument of diplomacy by proxy. Historically, however, charity has always been a military issue in times of war. We can distinguish four types of militarization of relief organizations in this regard. First is the use of charities to make "war by proxy",...

  1. Humanitarian Aid, Internal Displacement and Social Impacts in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.; Osman, Kamal M.

    2011-01-01

    The study presented here reviews activities of NGOs in Sudan by surveying and studying the activities of Save the Children of United Kingdom. Activities of NGOs in Sudan were always a controversial issue that resulted in the expulsion of many in 2009. There were also precedents of such expulsions in previous and following years. The paper discusses humanitarian work in Sudan, positive and negative sides. The case study's activities of the Save the Children efforts in Jebel Aulia Internally Di...

  2. Humanitarian aid, internal displacement and social impacts in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.; Osman, Kamal M.

    2011-01-01

    The study presented here reviews activities of NGOs in Sudan by surveying and studying the activities of Save the Children of United Kingdom. Activities of NGOs in Sudan were always a controversial issue that resulted in the expulsion of many in 2009. There were also precedents of such expulsions in previous and following years. The paper discusses humanitarian work in Sudan, positive and negative sides. The case study's activities of the Save the Children efforts in Jebel Aulia Internally Di...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH ALTITUDE LOW OPENING HUMANITARIAN AIRDROP SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-12

    program was two-fold: provide a rapid humanitarian aid response capability for the first days after a disaster and aerially deliver food and water ...aerially deliver food and water directly onto a population. This effort involved research into the injury thresholds of free-falling aid items, the...necessities of life. In these situations, individuals, groups and nations join together to provide food , water , clothing, shelter, and medical supplies

  4. Rapid response: email, immediacy, and medical humanitarianism in Aceh, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayman, Jesse Hession

    2014-11-01

    After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Congressional Statutory Responses to Supreme Court Precedent: Comparing the Breadth and Potency of Statutes Invalidated by the Rehnquist Court and Analogous Statutes Subsequently Repassed by Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberger, Justin Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    Many people assume that when the U.S. Supreme Court invalidates a federal statute as unconstitutional, the Court's decision establishes binding precedent that narrows the U.S. Congress's available options. This thesis examines whether Congress has in practice been able to effectively circumvent Supreme Court precedents while still acting consistently with such precedents in a narrow sense by not repassing an identical statute. More specifically, this work explores whether the U.S. Congress w...

  6. Humanitarian Hackathon @CERN | 14-16 October | Are you ready?

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    THE Port is ready for the third edition of its hackathon with eight new challenges. Join us to discover how science can make a huge difference in people's life.   Humanitarian hackathons organised by THE Port and hosted by CERN IdeaSquare have already confirmed that fundamental science can provide tech-enabled responses to humanitarian issues affecting the lives of millions of people around the globe. A great example of the success that technology and collaboration can bring is the substantial improvement of the food airdrop bags, requested by the ICRC to deliver assistance in South Sudan and other critical regions. Watch a 360° video or check out the pictures using the QR code. This year, eight teams will innovate the way humanitarian organisations handle the most critical aspects of field work during a 60-hour event. Groups of experts from all over the world will provide out-of-the-box proposals to tackle challenges set up by the ICRC, Handicap International, the United Natio...

  7. On the use of evidence in humanitarian logistics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Martinez, Alfonso J; Stapleton, Orla; Van Wassenhove, Luk N

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the reflections of the authors on the differences between the language and the approach of practitioners and academics to humanitarian logistics problems. Based on a long-term project on fleet management in the humanitarian sector, involving both large international humanitarian organisations and academics, it discusses how differences in language and approach to such problems may create a lacuna that impedes trust. In addition, the paper provides insights into how academic research evidence adapted to practitioner language can be used to bridge the gap. When it is communicated appropriately, evidence strengthens trust between practitioners and academics, which is critical for long-term projects. Once practitioners understand the main trade-offs included in academic research, they can supply valuable feedback to motivate new academic research. Novel research problems promote innovation in the use of traditional academic methods, which should result in a win-win situation: relevant solutions for practice and advances in academic knowledge. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  8. THE ASYLUM, BETWEEN HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE AND POLITICAL INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATRINEL BRUMAR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available At 9 November 2010, the European Court of Justice, in a preliminary ruling, decided to depart from the interpretation promoted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, in the matter of the application of the exclusion clauses. The European Court considered that no proportionality test between human rights protection and gravity of a crime is to be applied in the case of a person suspected of having committed an act contrary to the principles and purposes of the United Nations. By eliminating this test, the Court is sending a signal on rethinking the asylum institution, from a humanitarian tool that it became, to a political instrument. This decision could not be read alone; corroborated to the concerns already raised on the suitable use of the asylum instrument to address massive humanitarian needs, it would indicate a reorientation in the interpretation of international norms governing the refugee law. Still, the human rights organs and the European Court of Human Rights continue to refer to the asylum as a situation where a humanitarian perspective, reflected in the proportionality test, or for those mechanisms the risk of human rights violation probability test, is still valid. The two apparently divergent directions will need to converge in the implementation of the European Union regulations on asylum. This paper is exploring the possible reinterpretation of the European norms, trying to identify the new trends in the political perspective of asylum and the limitations to these trends that the respect for human rights is establishing.

  9. BALKAN CRISIS AND “HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTIONS” CONCEPT DEVELOMPENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Иванна Ивановна Пинчук

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the evolution of “humanitarian interventions” concept from to appearance to nowadays appliance. The objective of the research was to find out different characters of humanitarian interventions: not only to apply force for preventing human rights violations but also to support the opposition, to arrange the global pressure and to enforce the define regimes to provide define reforms, to support revolutionary sentiments and etc. Besides the purpose of the study was to approve that technologies of the “humanitarian interventions” concept are  used nowadays on the international arena.As a result of the comparison study of the Balkan crises and the conflict in Libya it is becoming clear that the USA and their NATO alliance methods have been used a lot of times. For the first time all of them was being tested during the Balkan conflicts at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. These results were based on many facts and comparisons of the Balkan conflicts with situations in Libya at the beginning of the years 2010.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-12

  10. BALKAN CRISIS AND “HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTIONS” CONCEPT DEVELOMPENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinchuk Ivanna Ivanovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the evolution of “humanitarian interventions” concept from to appearance to nowadays appliance. The objective of the research was to find out different characters of humanitarian interventions: not only to apply force for preventing human rights violations but also to support the opposition, to arrange the global pressure and to enforce the define regimes to provide define reforms, to support revolutionary sentiments and etc. Besides the purpose of the study was to approve that technologies of the “humanitarian interventions” concept are used nowadays on the international arena. As a result of the comparison study of the Balkan crises and the conflict in Libya it is becoming clear that the USA and their NATO alliance methods have been used a lot of times. For the first time all of them was being tested during the Balkan conflicts at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. These results were based on many facts and comparisons of the Balkan conflicts with situations in Libya at the beginning of the years 2010.

  11. 41 CFR Appendix A to Part 102 - 37-Miscellaneous Donation Statutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Donation Statutes A Appendix A to Part 102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Pt. 102-37, App. A Appendix A to Part 102-37—Miscellaneous Donation Statutes...

  12. 40 CFR 35.935-5 - Davis-Bacon and related statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Davis-Bacon and related statutes. 35... § 35.935-5 Davis-Bacon and related statutes. Before soliciting bids or proposals for step 3-type work, the grantee must consult with the Regional Administrator concerning compliance with Davis-Bacon...

  13. Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaba, J.M. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

  14. 22 CFR 1421.1 - Foreign Service Labor-Management Relations Statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Foreign Service Labor-Management Relations... RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.1 Foreign Service Labor-Management Relations Statute. The term Foreign Service Labor-Management Relations Statute means chapter 10 of title 1...

  15. 75 FR 16100 - Enforcement of Statutes, Orders, Rules and Regulations; Notice of Workshops on Penalty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enforcement of Statutes, Orders, Rules and Regulations; Notice of Workshops... registration list or registration fee to attend. \\1\\ Enforcement of Statutes, Orders, Rules, and...

  16. 75 FR 17708 - Enforcement of Statutes, Orders, Rules and Regulations; Second Notice of Workshops on Penalty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enforcement of Statutes, Orders, Rules and Regulations; Second Notice of... call 703- 993-3100. \\1\\ Enforcement of Statutes, Orders, Rules, and Regulations, 130 FERC ]...

  17. 75 FR 57261 - Request for Comments on Incentivizing Humanitarian Technologies and Licensing Through the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... the USPTO consider statements from independent third parties (particularly humanitarian organizations...? Would considering economic or logistical factors suffice? Should qualifying research efforts meet...

  18. Missouri State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Missouri. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; a description of the organization and structure of local governments affected by remedial action at the St. Louis area sites; a summary of relevant local ordinances and regulations; an identification of relevant public interest groups; a list of radio stations, television stations, and newspapers that provide public information to the St. Louis area or to Jefferson City; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  19. The impact of employment statutes on independent contract workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, L.F. [Field Atkinson Perraton, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The minimum statutory entitlements that apply to employees and independent contractors engaged in Alberta's petroleum industry were reviewed. The importance of employers being aware of the potential applications of these statutes to its independent contractors was emphasized. The employment relationship between independent contractors and employers are regulated by the Employment Standards Code and the Human Rights, Citizenship and Multiculturalism Act. The paper also described the obligations that the Occupational Health and Safety Act and theWorkers' Compensation Act impose on both employers and independent contractors. This presentation also listed the criteria used in determining if a person is performing a contract of employment or a contract for service. An employee/non-employee questionnaire was also included.

  20. The impact of employment statutes on independent contract workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, L.F. [Field Atkinson Perraton, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    The minimum statutory entitlements that apply to employees and independent contractors engaged in Alberta`s petroleum industry were reviewed. The importance of employers being aware of the potential applications of these statutes to its independent contractors was emphasized. The employment relationship between independent contractors and employers are regulated by the Employment Standards Code and the Human Rights, Citizenship and Multiculturalism Act. The paper also described the obligations that the Occupational Health and Safety Act and the Workers` Compensation Act impose on both employers and independent contractors. This presentation also listed the criteria used in determining if a person is performing a contract of employment or a contract for service. An employee/non-employee questionnaire was also included.

  1. 40 CFR 33.202 - How does an entity qualify as an MBE or WBE under EPA's 8% statute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does an entity qualify as an MBE or WBE under EPA's 8% statute? 33.202 Section 33.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MBE or WBE under EPA's 8% statute? To qualify as an MBE or WBE under EPA's 8% statute, an entity...

  2. Tragic Choices in Humanitarian Aid : A Framework of Organizational Determinants of NGO Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyse, Liesbet

    2013-01-01

    Humanitarian NGOs face difficult choices about whom to help and whom not on a daily basis. The research question in this article is how humanitarian NGOs make these difficult decisions and why in a particular way. March's study on consequential and appropriate decision-making processes is used to an

  3. Tragic Choices in Humanitarian Aid : A Framework of Organizational Determinants of NGO Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyse, Liesbet

    2013-01-01

    Humanitarian NGOs face difficult choices about whom to help and whom not on a daily basis. The research question in this article is how humanitarian NGOs make these difficult decisions and why in a particular way. March's study on consequential and appropriate decision-making processes is used to an

  4. 77 FR 49782 - Extension of the Application Deadline for Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Pilot'', also known as Patents for Humanity). See Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program, 77 FR 6544 (Feb. 8... Pilot Program AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... Pilot Program, which recognizes patent holders who use their technology for humanitarian purposes....

  5. Achievements & bottlenecks in humanitarian demining EU-funded research: Final results from the EC DELVE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahli, H.; Bruschini, C.; Kempen, L. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Breejen, E. den

    2008-01-01

    The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology

  6. Humanitarian Information Management Network Effectiveness: An Analysis at the Organizational and Network Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamassi Tchouakeu, Louis-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Massive international response to humanitarian crises such as the South Asian Tsunami in 2004, the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010 highlights the importance of humanitarian inter-organizational collaboration networks, especially in information management and exchange. Despite more than a decade old call for more research…

  7. Humanitarian Intelligence : A Practitioner's Guide to Crisis Analysis and Project Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Humanitarian aid workers are faced with many challenges, from possible terrorist attacks to dealing with difficult stakeholders and securing operational space free from violence. To do their work properly and safely, they need effective intelligence. Humanitarian intelligence refers to the use of

  8. Fighting by the principles: principles as a source of international humanitarian law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, J.C.; Matthee, M.; Toebes, B.; Brus, M.

    2013-01-01

    The rules of international humanitarian law of armed conflict are codified in a rather extensive body of treaty law. In addition, extensive research has been conducted into the rules of customary international humanitarian law. The author of this contribution will argue that there is another importa

  9. THE QUESTION OF HUMANITARIAN KNOWLEDGE: THE ESSENCE, MAIN DIRECTIONS AND METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Zavrazhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author emphasizes the role and importance of humanitarian knowledge not only in education, training future professionals, but in an objective, true evaluation of the events which occur today in the modern world. Reveals the methodological foundations, purpose, main directions and methods of humanitarian knowledge. Highlighted the special role in the Humanities.

  10. Humanitarian Intelligence : A Practitioner's Guide to Crisis Analysis and Project Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Humanitarian aid workers are faced with many challenges, from possible terrorist attacks to dealing with difficult stakeholders and securing operational space free from violence. To do their work properly and safely, they need effective intelligence. Humanitarian intelligence refers to the use of in

  11. Fighting by the principles: principles as a source of international humanitarian law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, J.C.; Matthee, M.; Toebes, B.; Brus, M.

    2013-01-01

    The rules of international humanitarian law of armed conflict are codified in a rather extensive body of treaty law. In addition, extensive research has been conducted into the rules of customary international humanitarian law. The author of this contribution will argue that there is another

  12. Managing information cycles for intra-organisational coordination of humanitarian logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Laan (Erwin); M.P. de Brito (Marisa); P.C. van Fenema (Paul); S.C. Vermaesen

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAs the humanitarian aid sector is expanding, the need for enhancing coordination capabilities increases as well. This holds especially for the area of logistics, because humanitarian operations typically take place in unstable and risky environments, where infrastructure is poor, while s

  13. Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…

  14. Tragic Choices in Humanitarian Aid : A Framework of Organizational Determinants of NGO Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyse, Liesbet

    Humanitarian NGOs face difficult choices about whom to help and whom not on a daily basis. The research question in this article is how humanitarian NGOs make these difficult decisions and why in a particular way. March's study on consequential and appropriate decision-making processes is used to

  15. 78 FR 5185 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian Use Device (HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian Use Device (HUD) Designations; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... public comment ``Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian...

  16. Humanitarian Intelligence : A Practitioner's Guide to Crisis Analysis and Project Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Humanitarian aid workers are faced with many challenges, from possible terrorist attacks to dealing with difficult stakeholders and securing operational space free from violence. To do their work properly and safely, they need effective intelligence. Humanitarian intelligence refers to the use of in

  17. Development and Humanitarian Agencies Behind the Lines: Establishing Security in the Operational Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Zhili

    2006-01-01

    @@ It has been widely recognized that development and humanitarian agencies play a key role in post-conflict peace building. The anarchical and chaotic conditions of failing states are considered the sources of conflict. International military response is not enough to uproot the sources or to prevent conflict from reviving. In the long term, coordinated development and humanitarian program are required to help failing states reform their political institutions, improve security and judicial systems, promote social and economic development, and eradicate underlying socio-economic, cultural and humanitarian problems leading to the conflict. ① It is not equally recognized,however, that development and humanitarian agencies also contribute in the campaign by international military forces to establish a workable level of security in the operational space. In this essay, I examine three important roles that development and humanitarian agencies play in this regard, namely: mine action, Disarmament, Demobilization,Rehabilitation and Reintegration (DDRR) , and intelligence.

  18. Save the Children, the humanitarian project, and the politics of solidarity: reviving Dorothy Buxton's vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughan, Emily; Fiori, Juliano

    2015-10-01

    This paper reflects on the foundational years of Save the Children, one of the oldest and largest Western humanitarian agencies and a mainstay of the humanitarian project. In doing so, it considers how and why, at an early stage, the organisation depoliticised its activities, centring its narrative on the innocent, pre-political child-the image of unsullied humanity. In addition, it seeks to recover the internationalist vision of Save the Children's 'forgotten founder', Dorothy Buxton. Save the Children's turn to non-politics is indicative of the broader depoliticisation of Western humanitarian action. Given the intensely contested spaces in which Western humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) operate, these entities cannot escape politics. This paper argues that Buxton's efforts to build an international solidarity network through humanitarian action after the end of the First World War in 1918 provide an instructive basis on which these NGOs can pursue a politics of solidarity in the present day.

  19. Social dimensions of science-humanitarian collaboration: lessons from Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Rachel; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; Crowley, Dominic; Crichton, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This paper contains a critical exploration of the social dimensions of the science-humanitarian relationship. Drawing on literature on the social role of science and on the social dimensions of humanitarian practice, it analyses a science-humanitarian partnership for disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia, an area threatened by tsunamigenic earthquakes. The paper draws on findings from case study research that was conducted between 2010 and 2011. The case study illustrates the social processes that enabled and hindered collaboration between the two spheres, including the informal partnership of local people and scientists that led to the co-production of earthquake and tsunami DRR and limited organisational capacity and support in relation to knowledge exchange. The paper reflects on the implications of these findings for science-humanitarian partnering in general, and it assesses the value of using a social dimensions approach to understand scientific and humanitarian dialogue.

  20. Humanitarian presence and urban development: new opportunities and contrasts in Goma, DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büscher, Karen; Vlassenroot, Koen

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the impact of the presence of international humanitarian organisations on local urban transformation processes in the city of Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Rather than evaluating the direct effects of humanitarian interventions and strategies, it focuses on the indirect but profound effects of the presence of this 'humanitarian sector'. It argues that the international humanitarian presence became a significant factor in the recent shaping and reshaping of the city's profile and has reinforced competition over the urban political and socioeconomic space. The paper evaluates the direct and indirect impact of the international humanitarian presence on the local urban economy and the larger political economy of war in eastern DRC. It analyses how this presence has reinforced processes of spatial reconfiguration, how it has influenced urban planning, and how it has affected dynamics of gentrification and marginalisation on the urban spatial level.

  1. India-Africa: trade, investments and humanitarian projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Vidadievich Suleymanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Active growth of trade volume between India and Africa which has increased in twenty times since the beginning of the twenty-first century or in seventy times since 1991, certainly actualized a question of features of the modern Indo-African relations. In this regard the purpose of article is consideration of features of policy of India to the African countries. The author does the short historical review of the Indo-African relations, and considers key spheres of realization of modern regional strategy of India on the African continent - humanitarian projects, foreign trade and investments. The main methods of research are the comparative-historical approach and the statistical analysis, being used for identification of positive or negative dynamics of development of the Indo-African cooperation. Now the African region takes strategic significance for India. Rapid economic development of the African countries and increase in a standard of living of the population turn the continent into a perspective sales market of the Indian goods and services. Besides, India actively develops humanitarian projects and renders the financial help to many African countries. However, India faces set of problems and factors - geographical remoteness, the discrimination and racism, instability of political systems of many African countries and the African policy of China. The active economic policy of China on the African continent has compelled India to develop cooperation with the countries of Africa more actively. In recent years India also as well as China tries to make active and modernize the economic and humanitarian policy in Africa. Struggle for commodity markets of the goods and services in Africa makes Africa by strategic region not only in the Indo-Chinese relations, but in foreign policy of India as a whole.

  2. Is the Humanitarian Failure in Haiti a System Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Binder

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become common sense in humanitarian circles to refer to the emergency responses to the 2010 Haiti earthquake and subsequent cholera outbreak as a failure. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF began doing so publicly in a December 2010 article published in The Guardian. In this regard, Jean-Marc Biquet’s article – ‘Haiti: Between Emergency and Reconstruction. An Inadequate Response‘ – reflects a long list of publications that describe and analyse the international system’s shortcomings in res...

  3. Mental health in humanitarian settings: shifting focus to care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordans, Mark J D; Tol, Wietse A

    2013-03-01

    Mental health in low- and middle income countries has received increasing attention. This attention has shifted focus, roughly moving from demonstrating the burden of mental health problems, to establishing an evidence base for interventions, to thinking about care delivery frameworks. This paper reviews these trends specifically for humanitarian settings and discusses lessons learned. Notably, that mental health assessments need to go beyond measuring the impact of traumatic events on circumscribed psychiatric disorders; that evidence for effectiveness of interventions is still too weak and its focus too limited; and that development of service delivery in the context of instable community and health systems should be an area of key priority.

  4. What are the systematic needs andexperiences of LGBTQ humanitarian workers?

    OpenAIRE

    McLellan, Iain

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is the product of the author’s personal experience as a gay person working in the humanitarian sector who has experience of the challenges faced in countries of conflict and in countries where the rights of LGBTQ people are not assured. LGBTQ people have specific needs that are documented through research, highlighting the risks they face while working in high risk locations. With such limitations in the way that LGBTQ people are supported in the field, or in their home nations, w...

  5. Why don’t humanitarian organizations provide safe abortion services?

    OpenAIRE

    McGinn, Therese; Casey, Sara E

    2016-01-01

    Background Although sexual and reproductive health services have become more available in humanitarian settings over the last decade, safe abortion services are still rarely provided. The authors’ observations suggest that four reasons are typically given for this gap: ‘There’s no need’; ‘Abortion is too complicated to provide in crises’; ‘Donors don’t fund abortion services’; and ‘Abortion is illegal’. Discussion However, each of these reasons is based on false premises. Unsafe abortion is a...

  6. Dynamics of soil parameters relevant for humanitarian demining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obhodas, Jasmina [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Department of Experimental Physics, Bijenicka c. 54, P.O. Box 180, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vdovic, Neda [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Department of Experimental Physics, Bijenicka c. 54, P.O. Box 180, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, Vlado [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Department of Experimental Physics, Bijenicka c. 54, P.O. Box 180, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)]. E-mail: valkovic@irb.hr

    2005-12-15

    In this paper we analyzed characteristics of 6 different soils from the test field at the Ruder Boskovic Institute. Many soil properties relevant for the performance of humanitarian demining tools strongly depend on water content. This is an effort to understand better the soil moisture variability and to find soil parameters that can predict the water content regarding the weather conditions. Such knowledge will allow to optimize demining operations. To gather the main parameters like field capacity, rate and delay of water infiltration and soil water retention which are all related to soil texture, daily time-series of soil moisture from August to November 2001, where analyzed.

  7. Human Trafficking and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARE FRANCES MORAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The case for extending the reach of the Rome Statute to the crime of human trafficking has not yet been made in detail. The brutality which occurs when human beings are trafficked by criminal gangs is of an equally egregious nature as the other crimes covered by the Rome Statute and yet it does not fall within the remit of the International Criminal Court. Such trafficking may also fall outwith the definition of slavery as a crime against humanity, particularly given the State policy threshold set by the Statute. This paper seeks to explore the viability of the inclusion of human trafficking as a discrete international crime within the Rome Statute as a response to this loophole.

  8. Erosion of trust in humanitarian agencies: what strategies might help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Jayasinghe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aid agencies (AAs provide a range of humanitarian and health related assistance globally. However, the trust placed on them is eroding. Evidence for this includes accusations of a decline in their humanitarianism, and the increasing number of conflicts with host states. An analysis of the concerns expressed yields two possible reasons: a relative lack of transparency of their work and weak accountability mechanisms. This is further supported by the existing milieu: an absence of internationally accepted instrument or mechanism to check the credentials of INGOs and an opaque system of close links between some of the INGOs and their donors. The article suggests two global strategies to tackle these issues: (a Increase transparency by establishing a global register of aid agencies. This should have basic information: their main goals and activities, countries they are active in, number of employees, annual turnover of funds (updated regularly, principal financing sources and nature of links with donors. This could also be available as printed manual that should be freely available to client countries. (b Ensure accountability by developing templates of fair legal instruments (to facilitate and regulate work, and a set of generic rules and procedures of engagement for the interactions between agencies and client states. These should be institutionalized within the regulatory frameworks of countries and included in the Codes of Conduct of NGOs.

  9. The Role of Private Stakeholders in Disaster and Humanitarian Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharcisio Cotta Fontainha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of private stakeholders in disaster operations goes far beyond the delivery of profits to its shareholders. Disasters and humanitarian operations literature acknowledges the importance of private sector in disaster lifecycle; however, it lacks an analysis of the risks and benefits of each different form of their engagement in such operations (contractual relationships, one-off relationships and CSR - Corporate Social Responsibility partnerships. To address this research gap, a literature review was conducted on papers covering the perspective of private stakeholders when engaging in disaster and humanitarian operations with stakeholders from public and social groups. The results revealed that some challenges are specific from one approach and others are common for all of them. Moreover, despite the increasing of reputation capital and organizational learning being used to motivate CSR approach, they are mentioned as benefits in approaches with lower engagement - contractual and one-off relationship approaches. Thus, the benefits and risks of each approach need to be carefully addressed by scholars and field professionals in order to seek better results from the engagement of private organizations.

  10. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  11. Field note from Tajikistan Compound disaster - A new humanitarian challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kelly

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available During the winter of 2007-2008 the Central Asian country of Tajikistan experienced an unusually cold winter which led to shortages of electricity, water and heating as well as food losses and these impacts occurred at the same time as a combined with a drought, and dramatically increased food prices and increased food insecurity. These impacts were exacerbated by a lack of investment in the water, power and fuel supplies, health care and education systems since independence in 1991. This combination of events was termed a compound disaster. The note explores the conditions in Tajikistan which created the compound disaster, the humanitarian response and how this disaster became a neglected event. The concept of compound disaster has gained limited acceptance in Central Asia but may also be applicable elsewhere. The difficulty of identifying and responding to a compound disaster creates a particular challenge for humanitarian organisations if they are to be effective in reducing human su%ering due to disasters.

  12. Use of imagery and GIS for humanitarian demining management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Jack; Gustafson, Glen C.; Kimsey, Mary; Kraenzle, Helmut; Wilson, James; Wright, Stephen

    1997-11-01

    In the Fall of 1996, the Center for Geographic Information Science at James Madison University became involved in a project for the Department of Defense evaluating the data needs and data management systems for humanitarian demining in the Third World. In particular, the effort focused on the information needs of demining in Cambodia and in Bosnia. In the first phase of the project one team attempted to identify all sources of unclassified country data, image data and map data. Parallel with this, another group collected information and evaluations on most of the commercial off-the-shelf computer software packages for the management of such geographic information. The result was a design for the kinds of data and the kinds of systems necessary to establish and maintain such a database as a humanitarian demining management tool. The second phase of the work involved acquiring the recommended data and systems, integrating the two, and producing a demonstration of the system. In general, the configuration involves ruggedized portable computers for field use with a greatly simplified graphical user interface, supported by a more capable central facility based on Pentium workstations and appropriate technical expertise.

  13. The (deMilitarization of Humanitarian Aid: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian workers often complain that international aid to victims of armed conflicts is more and more militarized because relief organizations are embedded into peacekeeping operations, used as a “force multiplier”, or manipulated as an instrument of diplomacy by proxy. Historically, however, charity has always been a military issue in times of war. We can distinguish four types of militarization of relief organizations in this regard. First is the use of charities to make “war by proxy”, as in Afghanistan or Nicaragua in the 1980s. The second pattern is “embedment”, like the Red Cross during the two world wars. The third is “self-defense”, as with the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem (now Malta in the 12th Century. The fourth, finally, is the model of “International Brigades” alongside the Spanish Republicans in 1936 or various liberation movements in the 1970s. In comparison, humanitarian aid today appears to be much less militarized. However, this perception also depends on the various definitions of the word “humanitarian”.

  14. The statute of governance: A pivotal linkage between principles of governance and corporate practices

    OpenAIRE

    Apreda, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    This paper puts forward an innovative construct called the Statute of Governance, by which a company can foster and enhance its corporate governance. The paper argues that it is not enough to list some principles of governance and a set of related good practices, as the Australian Stock Exchange has done, albeit it comprises the best available guidelines for the time being. We contend, however, that a step further should be taken, consisting of a Statute of Governance designed and passed by t...

  15. The statute of governance: A pivotal linkage between principles of governance and corporate practices

    OpenAIRE

    Apreda, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    This paper puts forward an innovative construct called the Statute of Governance, by which a company can foster and enhance its corporate governance. The paper argues that it is not enough to list some principles of governance and a set of related good practices, as the Australian Stock Exchange has done, albeit it comprises the best available guidelines for the time being. We contend, however, that a step further should be taken, consisting of a Statute of Governance designed and passed by t...

  16. New Mexico state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Informaion Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  17. New Mexico state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  18. New York state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying our the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New York. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  19. Informality and economic inclusion through national statute of microenterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Antonio Azedo Monteiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and conclude whether the current National Statute of Micro and Small Businesses (LC 123/06 effectively has the potential to promote the right economic inclusion in Brazil. The theoretical foundations of research have by reference the work The Capital of Mystery (2001 of Hernando de Soto, which features analysis and points out ways given the fact that capitalism did not promote inclusions, like the economy, in undeveloped countries, among which can include Brazil. Data confirm that informality is a reality that should concern governments face the negative externalities inherent in this economic and social environment. Hernando de Soto points out the need for legal decisions and inclusion policies at the market what he calls dead capital; potential that having access to legal mechanisms which guarantees them the right to property, seek the formal capital condition and can contribute to the positive dynamics of capitalism. The research aims in the Federal Constitution of 1988 the jurisdiction of the State (Art. 174 FC/88 for, through regulatory intervention (Legislative, supervision (Executive and incentives (legislative and executive, promote opportunities and reduce informality. Such state initiative aims to access and stay in the market, and contribute to the effectiveness of the Economic Constitutional Legal Framework (Art. 170 FC/88 and national development goals (Art. 3 FC/88. Complementary Law 123/06, as amended, introduced general rules under Art. 179 of FC/88, so a uniform system of federal nature, which prescribes the right to a different legal regime for tax, administrative, social security and lending to microentrepreneurs.

  20. Disaster relief in post-earthquake Haiti: unintended consequences of humanitarian volunteerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of US humanitarian relief efforts in Haiti following the earthquake on January 12, 2010. Humanitarian aid arrived rapidly from many sources and was largely provided by organized and skilled humanitarian volunteers. There are however multiple impacts on the existing health care systems, as well as the pharmaceutical and medical supply chain created by massive relief efforts involving personnel, medicines, supplies and equipment that should be considered even in the immediate post-disaster period. Additionally the consequences of short-term medical missions by secular and non-secular NGOs should be considered carefully both in the post-disaster period and as ongoing support to underserved populations.

  1. 2002 annual report. SFEN statutes and organization. Members list; Rapport annuel 2002. Statuts et organisation de la SFEN. Annuaire des adherents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 annual report of the French society of nuclear energy (SFEN) presents the statutes and organization of the association: internal regulations, office and administration council, representatives and personalities, committees, technical sections, regional groups, transversal groups, national and international conferences etc.. A list of the adherents completes the document. (J.S.)

  2. Federal government information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the Federal Government. It contains a summary of the organization and responsibilities of agencies within the executive branch of the Federal government which may be relevant to FUSRAP activities; a brief summary of relevant Federal statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the US Congress, identification of the officers, relevant committees and committee chairmen; a description of the Federal legislative process; a summary of legislation enacted and considered in the recently-adjourned 96th Congress; a description of the Federal budgetary process; a summary of the Carter Administration's comprehensive radioactive waste management program; and excerpts from the text of relevant federal statutes and regulations.

  3. Federal government information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the Federal Government. It contains a summary of the organization and responsibilities of agencies within the executive branch of the Federal government which may be relevant to FUSRAP activities; a brief summary of relevant Federal statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the US Congress, identification of the officers, relevant committees and committee chairmen; a description of the Federal legislative process; a summary of legislation enacted and considered in the recently-adjourned 96th Congress; a description of the Federal budgetary process; a summary of the Carter Administration's comprehensive radioactive waste management program; and excerpts from the text of relevant federal statutes and regulations.

  4. Humanitarian interventions and public opinion: from demands to disillusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ajangiz Sánchez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War, foreign and defence policies of the NATO member states have been focussed on missions intervening in third countries, a circumstance that has led to far-reaching reforms in military structures and a new discourse of legitimacy. Public opinion has played a decisive role in the push toward humanitarian and peacemaking interventions and, has backed a new line of action. The scant resolution and effectiveness shown by the governments in these missions and their interest in carrying out others most motivated by interests of state, however, have discouraged that mighthave been a way to a real democratization of foreign policy and produces disillusionment. Evidence is for an end to this cycle and a return to the traditional divorce between governments and societies in this area.

  5. Characteristics of an Effective International Humanitarian Assistance: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Ardalan, Ali; Waugh, William; Tirone, Daniel C.; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study is to identify the effectiveness characteristics, review the definition of them, and develop a conceptual mapping of existing domains in the field of International Humanitarian Assistance (IHA). Methods: We conducted a systematic review and searched the major databases (Science Direct, Scopus, Springer and Pubmed) and grey literature, including references of potentially eligible articles and conference proceedings through March 2015. Articles were included if they focused on IHA effectiveness. Reviewers independently identified the eligible studies and extracted data. Results: 10 studies were included and 48 characteristics were identified. There is a lack of scientific studies and agreement on the characteristics of IHA effectiveness.  Conclusion: This study could be the step toward an understanding of IHA effectiveness characteristics and its definitions with the findings making a base line for more research in this area.  PMID:26981325

  6. The practice of humanitarianism: a village birthing clinic in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Livia

    2011-01-01

    Discourses and practices surrounding humanitarian organisations have changed over time. This is certainly the case for Palestinian non-governmental organisations, which have followed the structural and ideological transformations observed in local, regional and international contexts. There have been three successive but interlocking generations of groups active in health in Palestine: charitable societies, popular committees, and donor-based entities. Against this background, a village clinic in the West Bank is seen to have gone through various incarnations in the context of an emerging neo-liberal economic, administrative and political environment. Despite the critiques justifiably addressed towards them, non-governmental organisations may in some cases be functionally fluid. Communities and people continue to use them strategically in their relations with states, political groups, individuals and receivers of aid, making them potential networking sites in the context of an ongoing occupation.

  7. On humanitarian refugee biometrics and new forms of intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov

    2017-01-01

    This article traces a development from UNHCR's initial use of biometrics in a few pilot projects (early/mid-2000s), to the emergence of a UNHCR policy where biometric registration is considered a "strategic decision". Next it engages key insights from current debates about 'materiality' and agentic...... capacity in combination with current debates about new forms of intervention. Finally, these insights are combined into a framework through which the last part of the article engages critically with this development of humanitarian refugee biometrics by posing the following question: how does an approach...... biometric refugee data, has affected the relationship between UNHCR, donor states, host states and refugees, the article shows how UNHCR's trialling of new biometric technologies, combined with actual and potential data-sharing practices, has advanced the technology's performance as well as its...

  8. Development of a thermal neutron sensor for Humanitarian Demining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinausero, M; Lunardon, M; Nebbia, G; Pesente, S; Viesti, G; Filippini, V

    2004-07-01

    A thermal neutron sensor prototype for Humanitarian Demining has been developed, trying to minimize cost and complexity of the system as required in such application. A (252)Cf source or a sealed-tube neutron generator is employed to produce primary fast neutrons that are thermalized in a moderator designed to optimize the neutron capture reaction yield in buried samples. A description of the sensor, including the performances of the acquisition system based on a Flash ADC card and final tests with explosive simulants are reported. A comparison of the sensor performance when using a radioactive source to that when employing a sealed-tube neutron generator is presented. Limitations and possible applications of this technique are discussed.

  9. Intelligent Multisensor Prodder for Training Operators in Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemi Fernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool.

  10. Intelligent Multisensor Prodder for Training Operators in Humanitarian Demining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a) the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b) to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool. PMID:27347963

  11. Development of a thermal neutron sensor for Humanitarian Demining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinausero, M.; Lunardon, M. E-mail: lunardon@pd.infn.it; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Viesti, G.; Filippini, V

    2004-07-01

    A thermal neutron sensor prototype for Humanitarian Demining has been developed, trying to minimize cost and complexity of the system as required in such application. A {sup 252}Cf source or a sealed-tube neutron generator is employed to produce primary fast neutrons that are thermalized in a moderator designed to optimize the neutron capture reaction yield in buried samples. A description of the sensor, including the performances of the acquisition system based on a Flash ADC card and final tests with explosive simulants are reported. A comparison of the sensor performance when using a radioactive source to that when employing a sealed-tube neutron generator is presented. Limitations and possible applications of this technique are discussed.

  12. Intelligent Multisensor Prodder for Training Operators in Humanitarian Demining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2016-06-24

    Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a) the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b) to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool.

  13. Dynamics of soil parameters relevant for humanitarian demining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obhođaš, Jasmina; Vdović, Neda; Valković, Vlado

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we analyzed characteristics of 6 different soils from the test field at the Ruđer Bošković Institute. Many soil properties relevant for the performance of humanitarian demining tools strongly depend on water content. This is an effort to understand better the soil moisture variability and to find soil parameters that can predict the water content regarding the weather conditions. Such knowledge will allow to optimize demining operations. To gather the main parameters like field capacity, rate and delay of water infiltration and soil water retention which are all related to soil texture, daily time-series of soil moisture from August to November 2001, where analyzed.

  14. Passive IR polarimetric hyperspectral imaging contributions to multisensor humanitarian demining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannarilli, Frank J., Jr.; Scott, Herman E.; Jones, Stephen H.

    2001-10-01

    Supported by the Army Humanitarian Demining MURI, we most recently have focused on determining the unique strengths of passive IR sensing as a function of attribute diversity. Our initial findings identify polarimetric hyperspectral imaging.as a robust means to rapidly survey and detect partially exposed, non-metallic anti-personnel (AP) mines. We are investigating the discrimination gains expected from the combined polarimetric hyperspectral attributes under laboratory and field conditions. A principal components analysis of our earliest data indicates that this combination of attributes is about three times more effective in discriminating AP mines or mine-like materials than conventional hyperspectral sensing. In addition, we have uncovered a distinguishing spectral behavior of the Fresnel reflectance across resonance features that can be measured only by spectrally-resolved polarimetry.

  15. Evaluation test of ALIS in Cambodia for humanitarian demining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    2010-04-01

    ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.

  16. New Jersey state information handbook: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Under the implied authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, radiological surveys and research work has been conducted to determine radiological conditions at former MED/AEC sites. As of this time, 31 sites in 13 states have been identified that require or may require remedial action. This volume is one of a series produced under contract with DOE, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, by POLITECH CORPORATION to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of New Jersey. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations. The loose-leaf format used in these volumes will allow the material to be updated periodically as the Remedial Action Program progresses.

  17. Book Review--Humanitarian Intelligence: A Practitioner’s Guide to Crisis Analysis and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Prunckun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of: "Humanitarian Intelligence: A Practitioner’s Guide to Crisis Analysis and Design" by Andrej Zwitter, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Maryland, 2016, hardcover, 232 pages, ISBN–9781442249486 Reviewed by Henry Prunckun

  18. The supply of pharmaceuticals in humanitarian assistance missions: implications for military operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization's guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations.

  19. Humanitarian aid and political aims in Eastern Ukraine: Russian involvement and European response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei SCRINIC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent events in Ukraine revealed several humanitarian issues against the background of strong pressures from Russian Federation, in its attempt to block Ukraine’s accession to the European Union (EU. This article examines how the UE, as a normative force, responds to the humanitarian crisis in Eastern Ukraine and to Russian moves to support the separatist forces, under the guise of humanitarian aid. The Russian convoys that reached the Donbas region have repeatedly breached international legislation in the humanitarian field, as documented by both Ukrainian authorities and international missions in the disputed regions. Moscow’s “humanitarian” vision appears to be a part of a wider attempt to impose the Eurasian project in its near abroad, alongside information war and outright military support for anti-government forces.

  20. How sex- and age-disaggregated data and gender and generational analyses can improve humanitarian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis.

  1. What is the relationship of medical humanitarian organisations with mining and other extractive industries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Calain

    Full Text Available Philippe Calain discusses the health and environmental hazards of extractive industries like mining and explores the tensions that arise when medical humanitarian organizations are called to intervene in emergencies involving the extractive sector.

  2. The United Nations' humanitarian pillar: refocusing the UN's disaster and emergency roles and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Randolph C

    2004-06-01

    Changes in the nature of humanitarian crises and in the ways that the international community responds to such crises demand a radically overhauled role for the United Nations system. At a time when the UN and its member states are pursuing reform of some of that institution's most fundamental peace and security functions, this paper suggests that reform, too, is required to meet humanitarian crises of the future. This paper proposes a new type of operational role for the UN, while at the same time arguing that the UN has to place itself in the vanguard of humanitarian assistance as "the standard-bearer". The article draws many of its conclusions and recommendations from a recently completed study, requested by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee, concerning the effect for the UN system of changes in humanitarian financing.

  3. An Electronic Competency-Based Evaluation Tool for Assessing Humanitarian Competencies in a Simulated Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrea B; Hulme, Jennifer M; Nugus, Peter; Cranmer, Hilarie H; Coutu, Melanie; Johnson, Kirsten

    2017-06-01

    The evaluation tool was first derived from the formerly Consortium of British Humanitarian Agencies' (CBHA; United Kingdom), now "Start Network's," Core Humanitarian Competency Framework and formatted in an electronic data capture tool that allowed for offline evaluation. During a 3-day humanitarian simulation event, participants in teams of eight to 10 were evaluated individually at multiple injects by trained evaluators. Participants were assessed on five competencies and a global rating scale. Participants evaluated both themselves and their team members using the same tool at the end of the simulation exercise (SimEx). All participants (63) were evaluated. A total of 1,008 individual evaluations were completed. There were 90 (9.0%) missing evaluations. All 63 participants also evaluated themselves and each of their teammates using the same tool. Self-evaluation scores were significantly lower than peer-evaluations, which were significantly lower than evaluators' assessments. Participants with a medical degree, and those with humanitarian work experience of one month or more, scored significantly higher on all competencies assessed by evaluators compared to other participants. Participants with prior humanitarian experience scored higher on competencies regarding operating safely and working effectively as a team member. This study presents a novel electronic evaluation tool to assess individual performance in five of six globally recognized humanitarian competency domains in a 3-day humanitarian SimEx. The evaluation tool provides a standardized approach to the assessment of humanitarian competencies that cannot be evaluated through knowledge-based testing in a classroom setting. When combined with testing knowledge-based competencies, this presents an approach to a comprehensive competency-based assessment that provides an objective measurement of competency with respect to the competencies listed in the Framework. There is an opportunity to advance the use of

  4. Characteristics, determinants and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarians: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine

    2014-12-08

    To explore the characteristics, motivations, ideologies, experience and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarian workers. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted in-depth semistructured interviews, containing open-ended questions with directing probes, with 44 experienced international medical aid workers from a wide range of humanitarian organisations. Interviews were coded and analysed, and themes were developed. International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN). 61% of participants were female; mean age was 41.8 years with an average of 11.8 years of humanitarian work experience with diverse major INGOs. Significant core themes included: population's rights to assistance, altruism and solidarity as motives; self-identification with the mission and directives of INGOs; shared personal and professional morals fostering collegiality; accountability towards beneficiaries in areas of programme planning and funding; burnout and emotional burdens; uncertainties in job safety and security; and uneasiness over changing humanitarian principles with increasing professionalisation of aid and shrinking humanitarian access. While dissatisfied with overall aid operations, participants were generally satisfied with their work and believed that they were well-received by, and had strong relationships with, intended beneficiaries. Despite regular use of language and ideology of rights, solidarity and concepts of accountability, tension exists between the philosophy and practical incorporation of accountability into operations. To maintain a humanitarian corps and improve aid worker retention, strategies are needed regarding management of psychosocial stresses, proactively addressing militarisation and neo-humanitarianism, and nurturing individuals' and organisations' growth with emphasis on humanitarian principles and ethical practices, and a culture of internal debate, reflection and reform. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  5. Multicriteria Cost Assessment and Logistics Modeling for Military Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Aerial Delivery Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    goal programming model , and we used Excel/ VBA to create an auto- matic, user-friendly interface with the decision maker for model input and analysis of...ARL-TR-7229•MAR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Multicriteria Cost Assessment and Logistics Modeling for Military Humanitarian Assistance and...Cost Assessment and Logistics Modeling for Military Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Aerial Delivery Operations by Nathaniel Bastian

  6. What Methods May Be Used in Impact Evaluations of Humanitarian Assistance?

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, Jyotsna; Aladysheva, Anastasia; Iversen, Vegard; Ghorpade, Yashodhan; Brück, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread occurrence of humanitarian emergencies such as epidemics, earthquakes, droughts, floods and violent conflict and despite the significant financial resources devoted to humanitarian assistance, systematic learning from such interventions using rigorous theory-based impact evaluations are very rare. The objective of this paper is therefore to examine the extent to which scientific impact evaluation methods can provide evidence to help improve the effectiveness and efficie...

  7. The Role of Ethics in U.S. Military Humanitarian Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    hasten to acclaim that no decision to intervene takes place within a historical vacuum or upon a tabula rasa . More often than not, decisions of...NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE THE ROLE OF ETHICS IN U.S. MILITARY HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION CAPTAIN MEL FERGUSON, CHC, USN...2001 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2001 to 00-00-2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Role of Ethics in U.S. Military Humanitarian

  8. Malaria control in humanitarian emergencies: An interagency field handbook, 2nd Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, N; Clements-Hunt, A

    2013-01-01

    This second edition represents a thorough updating and revision of the first edition. The structure remains similar, but includes an additional chapter on humanitarian coordination. All chapters have been revised to reflect changes in best practices, improvements in technologies, availability of new tools, and changes in WHO recommendations. The interagency handbook was developed to set out effective malaria control responses in humanitarian emergencies, particularly during the acute phase wh...

  9. Evaluation of Reports Required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tugcu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Physicians have to write reports in accordance with the relevant laws, statutes and regulations when requested by the administrations for distribution of monetary donations and allowances. The Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances show the conditions requiring monetary support, the people who need monetary donations and the types of making monetary donations in cases of disabilities and injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the reports written in accordance with the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances in the Department of Forensic Medicine of Gulhane Military Medical Academy between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2006. There were 87 reports written in accordance with the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances. The mean age of the cases was 25.93 ±5.8 years (20-43 years. The most frequent condition requiring monetary support was gun shot wounds (42.6%. The most frequent location of the wounds was the head (31% and there was an increase in the duration of work leave caused by disabilities (p<0.05. The aim of this study was to determine problems which physicians face when they write reports required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances and to underline the points concerning writing those reports based on the relevant laws. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 475-478

  10. Evaluation of Reports Required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tugcu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Physicians have to write reports in accordance with the relevant laws, statutes and regulations when requested by the administrations for distribution of monetary donations and allowances. The Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances show the conditions requiring monetary support, the people who need monetary donations and the types of making monetary donations in cases of disabilities and injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the reports written in accordance with the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances in the Department of Forensic Medicine of Gulhane Military Medical Academy between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2006. There were 87 reports written in accordance with the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances. The mean age of the cases was 25.93 ±5.8 years (20-43 years. The most frequent condition requiring monetary support was gun shot wounds (42.6%. The most frequent location of the wounds was the head (31% and there was an increase in the duration of work leave caused by disabilities (p<0.05. The aim of this study was to determine problems which physicians face when they write reports required by the Statutes for Distribution of Monetary Donations and Allowances and to underline the points concerning writing those reports based on the relevant laws. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 475-478

  11. Remedial design/remedial action strategy report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieffenbacher, R.G.

    1994-06-30

    This draft Regulatory Compliance Strategy (RCS) report will aid the ER program in developing and implementing Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) projects. The intent of the RCS is to provide guidance for the implementation of project management requirements and to allow the implementation of a flexible, graded approach to design requirements depending on the complexity, magnitude, schedule, risk, and cost for any project. The RCS provides a functional management-level guidance document for the identification, classification, and implementation of the managerial and regulatory aspects of an ER project. The RCS has been written from the perspective of the ER Design Manager and provides guidance for the overall management of design processes and elements. The RCS does not address the project engineering or specification level of detail. Topics such as project initiation, funding, or construction are presented only in the context in which these items are important as sources of information or necessary process elements that relate to the design project phases.

  12. Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Henrik K.

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  13. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  14. I’m from the Government and I’m Here to Help: Humanitarian Assistance in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    economy . The biggest problem that humanitarian 48 assistance and social change alone will not solve is that of violence perpetrated by VEOs like...military working with other organizations provide humanitarian assistance and drive social change in the region, the existence of R2P situations...military working with other organizations provide humanitarian assistance and drive social change in the region, the existence of R2P situations, the

  15. The Influence of the Concept of International Legal Personality on the Drafting of the PCIJ Statute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    . It would therefore seem safe to assume that the limited role of individuals under the adopted Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ Statute) was a direct result of the orthodox ‘states-only’ conception, which by definition barred individuals from being subjects of international law......), and 2) the establishment of a High Court of International Justice with jurisdiction over international crimes. Rather than doctrinal quandaries relating to the concept of international legal personality, the conclusions of the vast majority of members of the Advisory Committee appear to have turned upon...

  16. EU Humanitarian Programs and regional identity in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipova Ekaterina Vladimirovna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available EU Humanitarian Programs in the Southern Caucasus States are considered in the article. The increasing number and importance of the programs developing person-toperson contacts for the conflicting areas are noted. The influence of TRACECA and INOGATE programs was very significant in developing the local economies. Humanitarian aspects became important since 1992 when the first peace-building conferences of the Minsk group on Nagorno-Karabakh conflict took place. The political cooperation was institutionalized in 2004 with the implementing the European Neighborhood program. According to the “Eastern Partnership” a number of grants was offered to develop so called “new democracies”. A lot of educational programs provided the space for the personal cooperation in the area now are implementing. Mobility Partnerships program provides the regional cooperation in the migration policy. Consequently all the EU programs make the European volumes popular for the Caucasian inhabitants. That’s why the author puts the question about possible transformations in the regional identity. The states elites declare the importance for developing close contacts with EU institutes. Still there are some arguable issues. The status of sexual minorities in Azerbaijan provides the base for the mutual discontent in their relations with EU. Yet Azerbaijan has enough financial resources (based on the petrol supplies to reduce the EU influence in some objectionable fields. Georgia under M. Saakashvili ruling showed a strong trend towards EU and “Western” values on the whole. But this trend was mainly based on the strategies of the state financial surviving. There are some evidences proving that the main target of this police was to make a distance from the Russian policy. Armenia may be introduces as the state with strong interests in European cooperation for developing its economy. But there are also some important projects connecting Armenia with Russia, still

  17. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we...

  18. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...

  19. Bioaugmentation for Groundwater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    emulsified vegetable oil EX extraction well FRTR Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable gpm gallon per minute GSA General Services Administration...logic controller PRB permeable reactive barrier PVC polyvinyl chloride ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS (continued) viii qPCR quantitative...situ growth of DHC and degradation of target contaminants. A slow-release carbon source, such as emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) is often utilized with

  20. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  1. 45 CFR Appendix I to Part 617 - List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I Appendix I to Part 617.... 617, App. I Appendix I to Part 617—List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I. Section 6 of Pub. L. 94-86, 42...

  2. 38 CFR 14.560 - Procedure where violation of penal statutes is involved including those offenses coming within...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure where violation of penal statutes is involved including those offenses coming within the purview of the Assimilative... where violation of penal statutes is involved including those offenses coming within the purview of...

  3. Development of a Course on Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: Preparation for the Impact of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Holly; Downes, Elizabeth

    2017-09-28

    The effects of climate change are far-reaching and multifactorial, with potential impacts on food security and conflict. Large population movements, whether from the aftermath of natural disasters or resulting from conflict, can precipitate the need for humanitarian response in what can become complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs). Nurses need to be prepared to respond to affected communities in need, whether the emergency is domestic or global. The purpose of the article is to describe a novel course for nursing students interested in practice within the confines of CHEs and natural disasters. The authors used the Sphere Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards as a practical framework to inform the course development. They completed a review of the literature on the interaction on climate change, conflict and health, and competencies related to working CHEs. Resettled refugees, as well as experts in the area of humanitarian response, recovery, and mitigation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and nongovernmental organizations further informed the development of the course. This course prepares the nursing workforce to respond appropriately to large population movements that may arise from the aftermath of natural disasters or conflict, both of which can comprise a complex humanitarian disaster. Using The Sphere Project e-learning course, students learn about the Sphere Project, which works to ensure accountability and quality in humanitarian response and offers core minimal standards for technical assistance. These guidelines are seen globally as the gold standard for humanitarian response and address many of the competencies for disaster nursing (http://www.sphereproject.org/learning/e-learning-course/). © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Geoengineering: re-making climate for profit or humanitarian intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Holly Jean

    2012-01-01

    Climate engineering, or geoengineering, refers to large-scale climate interventions to lower the earth's temperature, either by blocking incoming sunlight or removing carbon dioxide from the biosphere. Regarded as ‘technofixes’ by critics, these strategies have evoked concern that they would extend the shelf life of fossil-fuel driven socio-ecological systems for far longer than they otherwise would, or should, endure. A critical reading views geoengineering as a class project that is designed to keep the climate system stable enough for existing production systems to continue operating. This article first examines these concerns, and then goes on to envision a regime driven by humanitarian agendas and concern for vulnerable populations, implemented through international development and aid institutions. The motivations of those who fund research and implement geoengineering techniques are important, as the rationale for developing geoengineering strategies will determine which techniques are pursued, and hence which ecologies are produced. The logic that shapes the geoengineering research process could potentially influence social ecologies centuries from now.

  5. ACHIEVING AN HONEST RECONCILIATION: ISLAMIC AND INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajri Matahati Muhammadin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility between Islamic law and international law has been a long lasting source of both academic discussion and social friction. This includes the Islamic laws on conduct of war (IsHL, especially in context of the Middle East conflicts. This article explores how there are two extreme opinions: ‘Islamophobes’ and apologists –both of them being dishonest. It will be shown that there are multi-level possibilities of relations between IsHL and International Humanitarian Law including possible incompatibilities, and that an ijma is a good room for reconciliation. Kompatibilitas hukum Islam dan hukum internasional telah lama menjadi sumber debat akademis dan friksi social. Termasuk diantaranya adalah hukum Islam terkait pelaksanaan perang, terutama di tengah konflik Timur Tengah seperti sekarang. Artikel ini mengamati dua pendapat ekstrim: ‘Islamofobik’ dan ‘apologist’ –keduanya tidak jujur. Akan ditunjukan ada berbagai tingkat kemunginan hubungan antara hukum perang Islam dan Hukum Humaniter Internasional, termasuk diantaranya adalah kemungkinan pertentangan, lalu bagaimana dibutuhkan sebuah ijma untuk menyelesaikan masalah tersebut.

  6. Measurements of the Russian identity: Sociological assessments and humanitarian expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Onosov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the existing scientific approaches, the authors consider the process of ethnization of the Russians’ mass consciousness under the expanding internal and external labor migration in Russia. The article presents the results of the situational analysis and humanitarian expertise of the set of key challenges determined by the migration. Based on the statistics, opinion polls data and expert assessments the article describes the empirical model of the identity of ethnic Russian population of Moscow and the Moscow region as the major centers of attraction for international migrants. The comprehensive analysis of the issues and controversies of the labor migration in the region and relationships of ethnic groups living in the region is preceded by the description of the identity of native inhabitants of the region as perceived by the ethnic Russian population. To measure the identity for the axiological ranking the authors use a number of relatively independent variables besides ethnic (national identity: religious involvement, civilizational orientation, cultural, professional, territorial and other important features. Thus, the authors present a multi-dimensional space of identity, in which each dimension has its specific meaning for personal self-identification and its own scale for assessing particular attributes.

  7. Development of low cost composite plates for humanitarian demining operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabet, L.; Scheppers, J.; Verpoest, I.; Pirlot, M.; Desmet, B.; Gilson, L.; Pirard, P.

    2006-08-01

    Composite plates using flax fabrics and maleic anhydride modified polypropylene were fabricated on laboratory scale. The aim of the current research was to develop a low cost composite plate or a hybrid structure based on those plates and steel sheet, for making humanitarian demining clothes protecting against secondary fragmentation caused by anti-personnel blast mines. Ballistic impact tests according to STANAG 2920 were carried out for determining the v{50}-limit. So called field tests were performed by means of simulated anti-personnel mines using M112 explosive; the repeatability and the spatial distribution of the projected fragments were checked before fixing the final experimental setup. The performance of the bare composite plate was compared with the hybrid structures in terms of v{50} and in terms of damage mechanisms. All tested configurations performed amazingly well during the field tests, which was not the case for the ballistic impact tests. This led to the conclusion that v{50} might not be the best criterion to characterize protective clothing. This conclusion is sustained by energetic considerations and by field tests on plates with half the thickness of the initial plates.

  8. Charte des Nations Unies et statut de la Cour internationale de justice

    CERN Document Server

    United Nations. New York. Department of Public Information

    1979-01-01

    The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and came into force on 24 October 1945. The Statute of the International Court of Justice is an integral part of the Charter.

  9. Charter of the United Nations and statute of the International Court of Justice

    CERN Document Server

    United Nations. New York. Department of Public Information

    1993-01-01

    The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and came into force on 24 October 1945. The Statute of the International Court of Justice is an integral part of the Charter.

  10. 78 FR 48464 - Comment request for Information Collection for Quick Turnaround Surveys of All Statutes and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... States and local areas, are too general in nature to meet ETA's specific informational needs. Quarterly... Surveys of All Statutes and Programs for Which the Employment and Training Administration (ETA) is... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). This program helps to ensure that requested...

  11. Public Rules on Private Schools: Measuring the Regulatory Impact of State Statutes and School Choice Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a framework for understanding the impacts of state government statutes regulating private schools, regulations distinct to a given school choice program, and any regulatory growth over a program's lifespan. Examining school choice programs in operation for at least a few years provides important context and comparisons for…

  12. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 0 - Statutes Governing Conduct of Federal Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... no private word which can be binding on public duty. “ENGAGE in no business with the Government... There are numerous statutes pertaining to the ethical and other conduct of Federal employees, far too... do or omit to do any act in violation of his lawful duty. As used in section 201, “Public officials...

  13. 5 CFR 2421.1 - Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Service Labor-Management... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.1 Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute. The term Federal Service... COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL FEDERAL LABOR...

  14. Earth Science Data and Models for Improved Targeting of Humanitarian Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    Humanitarian assistance to developing countries has long focused on countries that have political, economic and strategic interest to the United States. Recent changes in global security concerns have heightened the perception that humanitarian action is becoming increasingly politicized. This is seen to be largely driven by the 'global war on terror' along with a push by donors and the United Nations for closer integration between humanitarian action and diplomatic, military and other spheres of engagement in conflict and crisis-affected states (HPG 2010). As we enter an era of rising commodity prices and increasing uncertainty in global food production due to a changing climate, scientific data and analysis will be increasingly important to improve the targeting of humanitarian assistance. Earth science data enables appropriate humanitarian response to complex food emergencies that arise in regions outside the areas of current strategic and security focus. As the climate changes, new places will become vulnerable to food insecurity and will need emergency assistance. Earth science data and multidisciplinary models will enable an information-based comparison of need that goes beyond strategic and political considerations to identify new hotspots of food insecurity as they emerge. These analyses will improve aid targeting and timeliness while reducing strategic risk by highlighting new regions at risk of crisis in a rapidly changing world. Improved targeting with respect to timing and location could reduce cost while increasing the likelihood that those who need aid get it.

  15. 'The deserving': Moral reasoning and ideological dilemmas in public responses to humanitarian communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seu, Irene Bruna

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates everyday moral reasoning in relation to donations and prosocial behaviour in a humanitarian context. The discursive analysis focuses on the principles of deservingness which members of the public use to decide who to help and under what conditions. The study discusses three repertoires of deservingness - 'seeing a difference', 'waiting in queues', and 'something for nothing' - to illustrate participants' dilemmatic reasoning and to examine how the position of 'being deserving' is negotiated in humanitarian crises. Discursive analyses of these dilemmatic repertoires of deservingness identify the cultural and ideological resources behind these constructions and show how humanitarianism intersects and clashes with other ideologies and value systems. The data suggest that a neoliberal ideology, which endorses self-gratification, materialistic and individualistic ethics, and cultural assimilation of helper and receiver play important roles in decisions about humanitarian helping. The study argues for the need for psychological research to engage more actively with the dilemmas involved in the moral reasoning related to humanitarianism and to contextualize decisions about giving and helping within the sociocultural and ideological landscape in which the helper operates.

  16. From disaster to development: a systematic review of community-driven humanitarian logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bealt, Jennifer; Mansouri, S Afshin

    2017-04-28

    A plethora of untapped resources exist within disaster-affected communities that can be used to address relief and development concerns. A systematic review of the literature relating to community participation in humanitarian logistics activities revealed that communities are able to form ad hoc networks that have the ability to meet a wide range of disaster management needs. These structures, characterised as Collaborative Aid Networks (CANs), have demonstrated efficient logistical capabilities exclusive of humanitarian organisations. This study proposes that CANs, as a result of their unique characteristics, present alternatives to established humanitarian approaches to logistics, while also mitigating the challenges commonly faced by traditional humanitarian organisations. Furthermore, CANs offer a more holistic, long-term approach to disaster management, owing to their impact on development through their involvement in humanitarian logistics. This research provides the foundation for further theoretical analysis of effective and efficient disaster management, and details opportunities for policy and practice. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  17. Dividing disasters in Aceh, Indonesia: separatist conflict and tsunami, human rights and humanitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeccola, Paul

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the interface between human rights and humanitarian action in the context of the conflict and tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia, between 1998 and 2007. It looks at the challenges international humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) faced as they engaged in human rights work in the conflict period and in conflict-related activities in the post-tsunami period. The paper argues that many large NGOs may have compromised what some would hold to be essential principles for humanitarian action because of domestic political concerns, donor restrictions and resistance among certain NGO chiefs. In contrast with the pre-tsunami period, in which NGOs worked for years amid military operations, in the post-tsunami period NGOs were decidedly apolitical, neglecting the conflict in their tsunami response--despite significant developments that permitted greater political engagement in Aceh's post-conflict transformation. The evidence suggests that NGOs are challenged in contextualising humanitarian responses and that there is a need to underscore donor flexibility and independence in humanitarian action.

  18. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  19. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we intert...... universe. We believe our approach can be more generally useful for designing future rich, enjoyable and meaningful transmedia experiences....

  20. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  1. 75 FR 26344 - Temporary Exclusion of the Assessment of Overflight Fees for Humanitarian Flights Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Humanitarian Flights Related to the January 12, 2010, Earthquake in Haiti AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Fees for humanitarian flights in response to the earthquake in Haiti. SUMMARY: On January 12, 2010, the... capital, Port-au-Prince. Within hours, there was a significant increase in the volume of air traffic in...

  2. Cracking the humanitarian logistic coordination challenge: lessons from the urban search and rescue community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatham, Peter; Spens, Karen

    2016-04-01

    The challenges of achieving successful inter-agency logistic coordination in preparing for and responding to natural disasters and complex emergencies are both well understood and well documented. However, although many of these challenges remain unresolved, the literature reveals that the organisations that form the urban search and rescue (USAR) community have attained a high level of coherence and interoperability that results in a highly efficient and effective response. Therefore, this paper uses the idea of 'borrowing' from other fields as it explores how the processes and procedures used by the USAR community might be applied to improve humanitarian logistic operations. The paper analyses the USAR model and explores how the resultant challenges might be addressed in a humanitarian logistic context. The paper recommends that further research be undertaken in order to develop a modified USAR model that could be operationalised by the international community of humanitarian logisticians.

  3. Support to Military or Humanitarian Counterterrorism Interventions: The Effect of Interpersonal and Intergroup Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new interest in terrorism and psychological factors related to supporting the war on terrorism has been growing in the field of psychology. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of various socio-political attitudes on the level of agreement with military and humanitarian counterterrorism interventions. 270 Italian participants responded to a news article concerning measures against terrorism. Half of the participants read an article regarding a military intervention while the other half read about a humanitarian intervention. They then evaluated the other type of intervention. Results showed that military intervention was supported by people with high authoritarian, dominant, ethnocentric attitudes and by people who attach importance to both positive and negative reciprocity norms. Instead, none of these variables was correlated with humanitarian intervention. Finally, there was a considerable influence of media on the acceptance of both interventions.

  4. The psychologization of humanitarian aid: skimming the battlefield and the disaster zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Humanitarian aid's psycho-therapeutic turn in the 1990s was mirrored by the increasing emotionalization and subjectivation of fund-raising campaigns. In order to grasp the depth of this interconnectedness, this article argues that in both cases what we see is the post-Fordist production paradigm at work; namely, as Hardt and Negri put it, the direct production of subjectivity and social relations. To explore this, the therapeutic and mental health approach in humanitarian aid is juxtaposed with the more general phenomenon of psychologization. This allows us to see that the psychologized production of subjectivity has a problematic waste-product as it reduces the human to 'Homo sacer', to use Giorgi Agamben's term. Drawing out a double matrix of a de-psychologizing psychologization connected to a politicizing de-politicization, it will further become possible to understand psycho-therapeutic humanitarianism as a case of how, in these times of globalization, psychology, subjectivity and money are all interrelated.

  5. THE LOSS OF MALAYSIA AIRLINES FLIGHT MH17: A FORENSIC AND HUMANITARIAN TASK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, David

    2015-06-01

    While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey.

  6. Bill project authorizing the ratification of the statutes of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA); Projet de Loi autorisant la ratification des statuts de l'Agence internationale pour les energies renouvelables (IRENA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    After a presentation text describing the content of each of the 20 articles of the statutes of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), this document contains the full text of these statutes. A third text is the bill project authorizing the ratification of these statutes, and described the economic, financial, social, environmental, administrative or juridical consequences of the implementation of the agreement or convention associated with the creation of the agency. The text also recalls the negotiation process, and indicates the place given to the French language

  7. Violence against children in humanitarian settings: A literature review of population-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lindsay; Landis, Debbie

    2016-03-01

    Children in humanitarian settings are thought to experience increased exposure to violence, which can impair their physical, emotional, and social development. Violence against children has important economic and social consequences for nations as a whole. The purpose of this review is to examine population-based approaches measuring violence against children in humanitarian settings. The authors reviewed prevalence studies of violence against children in humanitarian contexts appearing in peer-reviewed journals within the past twenty years. A Boolean search procedure was conducted in October 2014 of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and PsychInfo. If abstracts contained evidence of the study's four primary themes--violence, children, humanitarian contexts and population-based measurement--a full document review was undertaken to confirm relevance. Out of 2634 identified articles, 22 met the final inclusion criteria. Across studies, there was varying quality and no standardization in measurement approach. Nine out of 22 studies demonstrated a relationship between conflict exposure and adverse health or mental health outcomes. Among studies that compared rates of violence between boys and girls, boys reported higher rates of physical violence, while girls reported higher rates of sexual violence. Children in infancy and early childhood were found to be among the most under-researched. Ultimately, the body of evidence in this review offers an incomplete picture regarding the prevalence, nature and impact of violence against children in emergencies, demonstrating a weak evidence base for some of the basic assumptions underpinning humanitarian practice. The development of standardized approaches to more rigorously measure violence against children is urgently needed in order to understand trends of violence against children in humanitarian contexts, and to promote children's healthy development and well-being.

  8. The "War on Terror" and the Principle of Distinction in International Humanitarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noëlle Quénivet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available New security threats, which have surfaced in the past few years, are seriously jeopardizing the relevance and implementation of international humanitarian law. This paper investigates the impact of the war on terror on the principle of distinction in international humanitarian law, examining in particular whether the practices of some States, notably the US, have led to the emergence of new rules in relation to the principle of distinction. For this it looks at the principle from two separate, yet correlated, perspectives: a targeting and a detention perspective.

  9. Speech for the Establishment of Wuhan University Research Center for International Humanitarian Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Dear President Huang Jin,Dean Xiao Yongping and Professor Yu Minyou, Ladies and Gentlemen, As you all know,the International Committee of the Red Cross(ICRC) is an impartial,neutral and independent organization whose exclusively humanitarian mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of war and internal violence,and to provide them with assistance on the basis of international humanitarian law(IHL).The ICRC also endeavors to prevent suffering by promoting and strengthening instruments of this law and works for its development,application,comprehension and dissemination.

  10. Distance breached or distance transformed? Dilemmas of simulated and banal closeness in humanitarian communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen; Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark

    an unprecedented closeness (i.e., erasure of distance) between actors, institutions and causes. On the other hand, new media have been argued to contribute to a narcissistic culture (Chouliaraki 2012), beleaguered with “improper distance” (Silverstone 2006, Chouliaraki 2011). Our examination of two cases...... of networked humanitarianism (the global case of Kiva.org and the more local case of Kirkens Korshær) shows that networked technology does not erode distance between humanitarian actors, but rather reformats it into simulated closeness (Kiva) or banal closeness (KK), thus giving rise to several dilemmas...

  11. Shkodra statutes and Canon, as regulatory selfgoverning instruments of Shkodra and North mountain tribes in Middle Age

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Shtjefni

    2015-01-01

    In a little-known period of development of history of the Albanian people, before the Ottoman invasion, the life of the residents of some Albanian cities and mountain provinces was self governed through a set of moral rules and norms of behavior accepted by all this population.There was a difference of these norms in urban areas, where these self regulating roles/norms were written and “codified”, examples are the Statute of Shkodra, Statute of Ulqin, Statute of Durres and customary legal nor...

  12. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  13. The co-creation of a video to inspire humanitarianism: How an Educational Entrepreneurial approach inspired humanitarian workers to be mindfully innovative whilst working with technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crotty Yvonne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the value of embracing digital technology in order to effect positive change in a non-governmental (NGO charity organisation, in this case the Irish Charity Crosscause. The outcome of the research was the creation of a charity video, Crosscause: Making a Difference, to showcase humanitarian work in Ireland and Romania with a view to inspiring others to contribute in some capacity to this cause. Video is an important medium to provide connections with a wider audience, as it gives humanitarian workers and marginalised communities an opportunity to tell their story by making a compelling and evocative case to others. Visual media not only makes connections with an audience, but can also positively challenge people to consider what is happening in the world around them.

  14. Phytotechnologies: remediation of environmental contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anjum, Naser A

    2013-01-01

    .... The book offers an evaluation of the known plant species for their different roles in phytotechnological applications in relation to remediation of varied environmental contaminants and also explores...

  15. THE NETTED HUMANITARIAN: IMPROVING THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT PROCESS FOR HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE/DISASTER RELIEF (HA/DR) MISSIONS C

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Christian X.

    2013-01-01

    Setting up reliable communications after a disaster is an extremely difficult yet crucial requirement for coordinating relief efforts. Lessons learned from recent humanitarian disasters point to major difficulties in establishing communications to quickly and accurately assess responder needs in the affected area and communicating this information to first responders from government relief agencies, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the military. The militarys growing role in Humanita...

  16. Remediating Remediation: From Basic Writing to Writing across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges faculty members and administrators to rethink current definitions of remediation. First year college students are increasingly placed into basic writing courses due to a perceived inability to use English grammar correctly, but it must be acknowledged that all students will encounter the need for remediation as they attempt…

  17. Du statut au contrat : vers une fonction publique “déstatufiée” ?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Le statut général de la fonction publique est octroyé par la loi générale2 et par des décrets d’application et des décrets portant statut particulier des différents corps ou cadres d’emplois. Pareil légalisme porte un objectif pratique clair : rendre applicable un droit dérogatoire au droit commun, le droit commun du travail en particulier. Il est la conséquence logique, comme l’exposait le député Yves Fagon devant l’Assemblée nationale constituante dans son rapport su...

  18. The Influence of the Concept of International Legal Personality on the Drafting of the PCIJ Statute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    In 1920, when the Advisory Committee of Jurists was appointed by the Council of the League of Nations to be responsible for the development of a Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ), it was conventional wisdom among scholars that only states could possess international legal personality....... It would therefore seem safe to assume that the limited role of individuals under the adopted Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ Statute) was a direct result of the orthodox ‘states-only’ conception, which by definition barred individuals from being subjects of international law....... But, as present article aims to show, this assumption falls apart upon closer scrutiny of the discussions of the Advisory Committee of Jurists in relation to two separate issues involving individuals: 1) The procedural role of the individual before the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ...

  19. Best Interest of the Child and Parental Alienation: A Survey of State Statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amy J L; Asayan, Mariann; LaCheen-Baker, Alianna

    2016-07-01

    State statutes regarding the best interests of the child (BIC) in deciding disputed custody were reviewed and independently coded with respect to three issues (i) the child's preference and any limits (ii) parental alienation and (iii) psychological maltreatment. Results revealed that many states allowed for the child's preferences to be considered and none qualified that preference when undue influence has occurred; parental alienation as a term was not found in any state statutes but 70% of the states included at least one BIC factor relevant to its core construct of the parent supporting the child's relationship to the other parent; and many states included a history of domestic violence or child abuse but only three states explicitly mentioned psychological maltreatment. These findings highlight yet another way in which the BICS factors lack specificity in ways that could negatively impact children caught in their parents' conflict.

  20. Managing soil remediation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okx, J P; Hordijk, L; Stein, A

    1996-12-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history but the problem addressed is a significant one. Cost estimates for the clean-up of contaminated sites in the European Union and the United States are in the order of magnitude of 1,400 billion ECU. Such an enormous operation deserves the best management it can get. Reliable cost estimations per contaminated site are an important prerequisite. This paper addresses the problems related to site-wise estimations.When solving soil remediation problems, we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines. Too often solutions are presented from the viewpoint of only one discipline. In order to benefit from the combined disciplinary knowledge and experience, we think that it is necessary to describe the interrelations between these disciplines. This can be realized by developing an adequate model of the desired process which enables to consider and evaluate the essential factors as interdependent components of the total system.The resulting model provides a binding paradigm to the contributing disciplines which will result in improved efficiency and effectivity of the decision and the cost estimation process. In the near future, we will release the "Biosparging and Bioventing Expert Support System", an expert support system for problem owners, consultants and authorities dealing with the design and operation of a biosparging and/or a bioventing system.

  1. Rapport annuel 2011 Chapitre VI des Statut et Règlement du Personnel

    CERN Document Server

    Schepens, A

    2012-01-01

    Le rapport annuel 2012 concernant l’application du Chapitre VI (Règlement des différends et discipline) des Statut et Règlement du personnel a pour objet de rendre compte des demandes de réexamen, des recours internes, des recours auprès du Tribunal administratif de l’Organisation internationale du travail (TAOIT) et des cas où une sanction disciplinaire a été prise.

  2. Rapport annuel 2012 Chapitre VI des Statut et Règlement du Personnel

    CERN Document Server

    Schepens, A

    2013-01-01

    Le rapport annuel 2012 concernant l’application du Chapitre VI (Règlement des différends et discipline) des Statut et Règlement du personnel a pour objet de rendre compte des demandes de réexamen, des recours internes, des recours auprès du Tribunal administratif de l’Organisation internationale du travail (TAOIT) et des cas où une sanction disciplinaire a été prise.

  3. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Strohmeier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective: This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method: Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results: Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion: All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic.

  4. Motivations, concerns, and expectations of Scandinavian health professionals volunteering for humanitarian assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerneld, Magdalena; Lindmark, Gunilla; McSpadden, Lucia Ann; Garrett, Martha J

    2006-01-01

    International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in humanitarian assistance employ millions of volunteers. One of the major challenges for the organizations is the high turnover rate among their personnel. Another is recruiting the right persons. As part of a series of studies investigating factors that affect the recruitment process and the success of assignment, this qualitative study examined health professionals' motivations for volunteering, their various concerns, and their expectations about themselves and the organizations for which they would work. The findings from focus group interviews with potential humanitarian volunteers were considered within the framework of Hertzberg's theory of motivations and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The study has significant implications for personnel policy and practice in the humanitarian sector. Recruitment officers should have the self-actualized person, as described by Maslow, in mind when interviewing candidates. This perspective would make it easier for them to understand the candidates' thoughts and concerns and would lead to more effective interventions. Program officers should have satisfiers and dissatisfiers, as identified by Herzberg, in mind when planning programs. The probability that personnel will leave humanitarian work is lower if they perceive working conditions as good.

  5. Childhood disability in Turkana, Kenya: Understanding how carers cope in a complex humanitarian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurmond, Maria; Nyapera, Velma; Mwenda, Victoria; Kisia, James; Rono, Hilary; Palmer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Although the consequences of disability are magnified in humanitarian contexts, research into the difficulties of caring for children with a disability in such settings has received limited attention. Based on in-depth interviews with 31 families, key informants and focus group discussions in Turkana, Kenya, this article explores the lives of families caring for children with a range of impairments (hearing, vision, physical and intellectual) in a complex humanitarian context characterised by drought, flooding, armed conflict, poverty and historical marginalisation. The challenging environmental and social conditions of Turkana magnified not only the impact of impairment on children, but also the burden of caregiving. The remoteness of Turkana, along with the paucity and fragmentation of health, rehabilitation and social services, posed major challenges and created opportunity costs for families. Disability-related stigma isolated mothers of children with disabilities, especially, increasing their burden of care and further limiting their access to services and humanitarian programmes. In a context where social systems are already stressed, the combination of these factors compounded the vulnerabilities faced by children with disabilities and their families. The needs of children with disabilities and their carers in Turkana are not being met by either community social support systems or humanitarian aid programmes. There is an urgent need to mainstream disability into Turkana services and programmes.

  6. Disaster management and social media use for decision making by humanitarian organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Alivelu Manga; Beck, Roman

    2016-01-01

    In times of a crisis, disasters or extreme events, affected people use social media solutions to share information about the situation. Hence, the use of this information for supporting humanitarian operations is becoming a valuable source to develop a real time understanding about the situation ...

  7. Personal Protective Equipment in the humanitarian governance of Ebola: between individual patient care and global biosecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of Personal Protective Equipment in humanitarianism. It takes the recent Ebola outbreak as a case through which to explore the role of objects in saving individual lives and protecting populations. The argument underlines the importance of PPE in mediating between ind

  8. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  9. Challenges and Psychosocial Growth for Older Volunteers Giving Intensive Humanitarian Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, Kathleen W.; Cheek, Cheryl; Teemant, Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: We conducted a qualitative study of 38 mid-late life volunteers in intensive humanitarian service to ascertain the challenges, personal changes, and benefits they experienced from their volunteer activities. Intensive volunteering was defined as service done on a 24-hr a day basis at a location away from home. Design and…

  10. The Arms Trade and States' Duty to Ensure Respect for Humanitarian and Human Rights Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Maya

    2007-01-01

    The unregulated international trade in conventional arms, especially in small arms and light weapons, has come to be viewed as an exacerbating factor in armed conflict, violent crime and internal repression. Concern about the negative humanitarian, development and security impact of this trade has...

  11. 75 FR 4526 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace; Announcement... Manager, Policy and Technical Division, Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict...

  12. 75 FR 51749 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance Office of Food for Peace Announcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 162 (Monday, August 23, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 51749-51750] [FR Doc No: 2010-20874] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and... Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. [FR Doc. 2010-20874 Filed 8-20-10;...

  13. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  14. Developing a Relative Ranking of Social Vulnerability of Governorates of Yemen to Humanitarian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kandeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The social vulnerability of the Yemeni population to humanitarian emergencies is not evenly distributed between the governorates. Some governorates may be more susceptible to the impacts than others, based on the circumstances of the people residing within them. In this paper, we present a methodology for assessing social vulnerability of governorates of Yemen to humanitarian emergencies using a Geographic Information Systems approach. We develop a spatial index of social vulnerability from an initial list of 80 variables that were reduced to 12 factors through Principal Component Analysis. Our findings show that the differences in social vulnerability between governorates are primarily driven by 12 factors, of which education, lack of basic services in health, water and sanitation, electricity, housing quality, poverty, limited livelihood opportunities, and internal and external displacement are the major determinants. The results show that the factors that contribute to social vulnerability are different for each governorate, underpinning the need for context-specific vulnerability reduction approaches. The most vulnerable governorates are characterized by conflicts, armed clashes and violence. The geographic variability in social vulnerability further underpins the need for different mitigation, humanitarian response and recovery actions. The use of Geographic Information Systems approach has contributed to our understanding of the geographies of vulnerability to humanitarian emergencies in Yemen.

  15. Review of Collaboration Mechanisms in Humanitarian Logistics%人道物流的协同机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范光敏; 冯春; 张怡

    2011-01-01

    Because disaster occurs frequently, great attention is paid to disaster response and management. It is believed that the humanitarian logistics collaboration can help to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of disaster relief. Thus, the research on collaboration mechanisms in humanitarian logistics is a hot topic in the field of disaster management and logistics management. This paper reviews the relevant literature , elaborates the concept and characteristics of humanitarian logistics, analyzes the challenges and advantages of collaboration in humanitarian logistics, introduces some collaboration mechanisms. Because the research on this field is still in its infant stage, we point out the future research directions.%人道物流协同机制的研究有助于提高灾难救援的效率和效益,现已成为灾难管理和物流管理领域关注的焦点.在回顾相关研究文献的基础上,阐述了人道物流的概念和特点;分析了人道物流协同的影响因素和优势;介绍了目前人道物流协同机制的研究进展;并提出了进一步的研究方向.

  16. Interns at an International, Humanitarian Organization: Career Pathways and Meaning Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the career shaping experiences and related meaning making processes of 12 interns at The Carter Center, an international, humanitarian organization. Experiences shaping participants' careers were grouped into the following themes--academics and intellectual curiosity; travel abroad; religion; relationships--family,…

  17. Host government impact on the logistics performance of international humanitarian organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dube, N.; van der Vaart, T.; Teunter, R. H.; Van Wassenhove, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Host governments severely impact international relief operations. An openness to assistance can lead to the timely delivery of aid whereas a reluctance to receive assistance can have devastating consequences. With lives at stake and no time to lose in humanitarian crises, understanding the host gove

  18. Humanitarian principles and organisational culture : the case of medecins sans-frontieres, Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, D.; Schmiemann, N.

    2002-01-01

    Organisational principles or value standards are considered crucial for maintaining quality in humanitarian assistance. Research among staff members of Médecins Sans Frontières-Holland (MSF-H) showed that fieldworkers construct their own interpretations of principles and priorities in response to de

  19. Host government impact on the logistics performance of international humanitarian organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dube, N.; van der Vaart, T.; Teunter, R. H.; Van Wassenhove, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Host governments severely impact international relief operations. An openness to assistance can lead to the timely delivery of aid whereas a reluctance to receive assistance can have devastating consequences. With lives at stake and no time to lose in humanitarian crises, understanding the host

  20. A solution from hell: the United States and the rise of humanitarian interventionism, 1991-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the rise of humanitarian interventionist ideas in the US from 1991 to 2003. Until 1997, humanitarian intervention was a relatively limited affair, conceived ad hoc more than systematically, prioritized below multilateralism, aiming to relieve suffering without transforming foreign polities. For this reason, US leaders and citizens scarcely contemplated armed intervention in the Rwandan genocide of 1994: the US 'duty to stop genocide' was a norm still under development. It flourished only in the late 1990s, when humanitarian interventionism, like neoconservatism, became popular in the US establishment and enthusiastic in urging military invasion to remake societies. Now inaction in Rwanda looked outrageous. Stopping the genocide seemed, in retrospect, easily achieved by 5,000 troops, a projection that ignored serious obstacles. On the whole, humanitarian interventionists tended to understate difficulties of halting ethnic conflict, ignore challenges of postconflict reconstruction, discount constraints imposed by public opinion, and override multilateral procedures. These assumptions primed politicians and the public to regard the Iraq war of 2003 as virtuous at best and unworthy of strenuous dissent at worst. The normative commitment to stop mass killing outstripped US or international capabilities—a formula for dashed hopes and dangerous deployments that lives on in the 'responsibility to protect'.

  1. Beans, Bullets and Band-Aids: Attaining Unity of Effort in Humanitarian Intervention Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-06

    and delivery of humanitarian reliet guaranteeing rights of passage , imposing sanctions, peace enforcement, and other military, para-military, or non...agreements, armed forces, assis- tance, and facilities, including rights of passage , necessary for the purpose of maintain- ing international peace and

  2. Medical resource preparation and allocation for humanitarian assistance based on module organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Ruxue; Zhong, Shaobo; Qian, Yangming; Huang, Quanyi

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to associate the allocation of medical resources with the function of the modular organization and the possible needs for humanitarian assistance missions. The overseas humanitarian medical assistance mission, which was sent after a disaster on the hospital ship Peace Ark, part of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) Navy, was considered as study model. The cases used for clustering and matching sample formation were randomly selected from the existing information related to Peace Ark's mission. Categories of the reusable resources clustered by this research met the requirement of the actual consumption almost completely (more than 95%) and the categories of non-reusable resources met the requirement by more than 80%. In the mission's original resource preparing plan, more than 30% of the non-reusable resource categories remained unused during the mission. In the original resource preparing plan, some key non-reusable resources inventories were completely exhausted at the end of the mission, while 5% to 30% of non-reusable resources remained in the resource allocation plan generated by this research at the end of the mission. The medical resource allocation plan generated here can enhance the supporting level for the humanitarian assistance mission. This research could lay the foundation for an assistant decision-making system for humanitarian assistance mission.

  3. Personal Protective Equipment in the humanitarian governance of Ebola: between individual patient care and global biosecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of Personal Protective Equipment in humanitarianism. It takes the recent Ebola outbreak as a case through which to explore the role of objects in saving individual lives and protecting populations. The argument underlines the importance of PPE in mediating between

  4. To License or Not to License: An Examination of State Statutes Regarding Private Investigators and Digital Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lonardo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors examine statutes that regulate, license, and enforce investigative functions in each US state. After identification and review of Private Investigator licensing requirements, the authors find that very few state statutes explicitly differentiate between Private Investigators and Digital Examiners. After contacting all state agencies the authors present a distinct grouping organizing state approaches to professional Digital Examiner licensing. The authors conclude that states must differentiate between Private Investigator and Digital Examiner licensing requirements and oversight.

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil;

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  6. Soil remediation : a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history, but the problem addressed is a significant one. When solving soil remediation problems we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines, however solutions are often presented from the viewpoint of just one discipline. In order to

  7. Fermentative processes for environmental remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Grilli, Selene

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in environmental protection has led to the development of emerging biotechnologies for environmental remediation also introducing the biorefinery concept. This work mainly aimed to evaluate the applicability of innovative biotechnologies for environmental remediation and bioenergy production, throught fermentative processes. The investigated biotechnologies for waste and wastewater treatment and for the valorisation of specific feedstocks and energy recovery, were m...

  8. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  9. Who should be undertaking population-based surveys in humanitarian emergencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel Paul B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely and accurate data are necessary to prioritise and effectively respond to humanitarian emergencies. 30-by-30 cluster surveys are commonly used in humanitarian emergencies because of their purported simplicity and reasonable validity and precision. Agencies have increasingly used 30-by-30 cluster surveys to undertake measurements beyond immunisation coverage and nutritional status. Methodological errors in cluster surveys have likely occurred for decades in humanitarian emergencies, often with unknown or unevaluated consequences. Discussion Most surveys in humanitarian emergencies are done by non-governmental organisations (NGOs. Some undertake good quality surveys while others have an already overburdened staff with limited epidemiological skills. Manuals explaining cluster survey methodology are available and in use. However, it is debatable as to whether using standardised, 'cookbook' survey methodologies are appropriate. Coordination of surveys is often lacking. If a coordinating body is established, as recommended, it is questionable whether it should have sole authority to release surveys due to insufficient independence. Donors should provide sufficient funding for personnel, training, and survey implementation, and not solely for direct programme implementation. Summary A dedicated corps of trained epidemiologists needs to be identified and made available to undertake surveys in humanitarian emergencies. NGOs in the field may need to form an alliance with certain specialised agencies or pool technically capable personnel. If NGOs continue to do surveys by themselves, a simple training manual with sample survey questionnaires, methodology, standardised files for data entry and analysis, and manual for interpretation should be developed and modified locally for each situation. At the beginning of an emergency, a central coordinating body should be established that has sufficient authority to set survey standards

  10. SYNERGY OF HUMANITARIAN AND MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE AS A PEDAGOGICAL CONDITION FOR SOLVING INTERDISCIPLINARY PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Dvoryatkina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article is concerned with the topical problem of the humanitarian and mathematical knowledge synergy in the context of solving important crosscutting issues. Since the authors have given a theoretical justification of mathematical integration of humanitarian and information knowledge and its implementation in the educational activities of universities. There is a description of the genesis and the main aspects of synergy. It is shown that the synergy of mathematical and humanitarian knowledge with using information technology is the complex educational environment dominant approach to many inter¬disciplinary problems. Materials and Methods: the synergetic approach is a conceptual framework for solving cross-cutting problems. The initial, exploratory and training options of the experimental research method are used to identify synergies problems of humanitarian and mathematical knowledge; mathematical modeling method is applied in solving professional problems for the development of a probabilistic model of analysis and comparison of styles of text works. Results: the complex of pedagogical conditions is defined, substantiated and tested, taking into account the dominant synergy of humanitarian and mathematical knowledge through the developed integrative course. The draft of the integrative course “Mathematical Methods in Linguistics” is presented; the optimum modular structure of the course is defined (“Formation of Modern Mathematics as a New Cultural Paradigm”, “Basic Mathematical Concepts in Linguistics”, “Mathematical Methods in Linguistics”; the essential elements of every mathematical module are practice-oriented tasks of philol ogical contents. Discussion and Conclusions: the synergy of mathematics and humanities is highly productive thing in scientific and research activities of students and in the learning process. The submitted materials can be included in lectures, practical exercises, integrative

  11. Exploring the Role of Ad Hoc Grassroots Organizations Providing Humanitarian Aid on Lesvos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, George Tjensvoll; J Haavik, Hanne; Tandstad, Birgit J; Zaman, Muhammad; Darj, Elisabeth

    2016-11-17

    Syrian refugees displaced into Turkey have attempted high-risk sea migrations to reach safer destinations in Europe, most often initially arriving on the Greek island of Lesvos. These refugees were often in need of basic humanitarian assistance that has been provided in part by a new category of ad hoc grassroots organizations (AHGOs). The aim of this study was to understand the internal and external operations of these AHGOs and their role on Lesvos. The experiences of AHGOs were investigated through a qualitative research design utilizing semi-structured interviews with organization leaders and spokespersons. AHGOs identified through media and social media sources as new Lesvos-specific organizations were purposively invited to complete an interview over phone, Skype or email. Data analysis of the transcribed interviews was performed by Systematic Text Condensation. Forty-one organizations were contacted and 13 interviews were conducted. Most organizations were formed in autumn 2015 responding to the greater influx of refugees and migrants at that time and reported an absence of professional humanitarian agencies providing aid on Lesvos. Three categories emerged from the material. Features of organizations; Features of volunteers and; Evolution of AHGOs. The organizations perceived themselves capable of evaluating needs, mobilizing resources, funding and providing quick response. The volunteers came with limited humanitarian experience and from a wide variety of nationalities and professional backgrounds, and the organizations developed while on Lesvos. Knowledge from our findings of AHGOs response to this complex disaster on Lesvos could be utilized in future catastrophes. We conclude that AHGOs may prove effective at providing humanitarian aid in a surge response when international non-governmental organizations are unable to respond quickly. In future complex disasters AHGOs should be recognized as new humanitarian actors and conditions should be made

  12. Policy Debate | Humanitarian Protection in the Midst of Civil War: Lessons from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah Niland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Editor’s note: This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.Authored by Norah Niland, the initial paper addresses the protection dimension of humanitarian action in the Sri Lankan Civil War. The end phase of this long-standing war and subsequent internment of survivors illustrate the limited capacity of the international relief system to adequately protect civilians. The author argues that the failure of intergovernmental crisis management and the human rights machinery was exacerbated by the relief system’s lack of agency in safeguarding humanitarian space and the protected status of civilians. According to Norah Niland, relief actors largely ignored the instrumentalisation of humanitarianism and the use of sovereignty and Global War on Terror (GWOT narratives to rationalise the slaughter of thousands. The lack of accountability for and reflection on the humanitarian  operation  in Sri Lanka will likely complicate future relief efforts and add to the suffering of  civilians in other crisis settings. The paper  is followed by critical comments by Sir John Holmes, Former UN Under-Secretary General and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Head of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and Miriam Bradley, Postdoctoral Researcher, Programme for the Study of International Governance, the Graduate Institute, Geneva.This debate can be pursued on the eJournal’s blog http://devpol.hypotheses.org/69Download the full debate in .pdf

  13. Exploring the Role of Ad Hoc Grassroots Organizations Providing Humanitarian Aid on Lesvos, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, George Tjensvoll; J. Haavik, Hanne; Tandstad, Birgit J.; Zaman, Muhammad; Darj, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Syrian refugees displaced into Turkey have attempted high-risk sea migrations to reach safer destinations in Europe, most often initially arriving on the Greek island of Lesvos. These refugees were often in need of basic humanitarian assistance that has been provided in part by a new category of ad hoc grassroots organizations (AHGOs). The aim of this study was to understand the internal and external operations of these AHGOs and their role on Lesvos. Methods: The experiences of AHGOs were investigated through a qualitative research design utilizing semi-structured interviews with organization leaders and spokespersons. AHGOs identified through media and social media sources as new Lesvos-specific organizations were purposively invited to complete an interview over phone, Skype or email. Data analysis of the transcribed interviews was performed by Systematic Text Condensation. Results: Forty-one organizations were contacted and 13 interviews were conducted. Most organizations were formed in autumn 2015 responding to the greater influx of refugees and migrants at that time and reported an absence of professional humanitarian agencies providing aid on Lesvos. Three categories emerged from the material. Features of organizations; Features of volunteers and; Evolution of AHGOs. The organizations perceived themselves capable of evaluating needs, mobilizing resources, funding and providing quick response. The volunteers came with limited humanitarian experience and from a wide variety of nationalities and professional backgrounds, and the organizations developed while on Lesvos. Discussion: Knowledge from our findings of AHGOs response to this complex disaster on Lesvos could be utilized in future catastrophes. We conclude that AHGOs may prove effective at providing humanitarian aid in a surge response when international non-governmental organizations are unable to respond quickly. In future complex disasters AHGOs should be recognized as new humanitarian

  14. DDE remediation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; All-Agely, Abid

    2008-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites, DDD and DDE, have been shown to be recalcitrant to degradation. The parent compound, DDT, was used extensively worldwide starting in 1939 and was banned in the United States in 1973. The daughter compound, DDE, may result from aerobic degradation, abiotic dehydrochlorination, or photochemical decomposition. DDE has also occurred as a contaminant in commercial-grade DDT. The p,p'-DDE isomer is more biologically active than the o,p-DDE, with a reported half-life of -5.7 years. However, when DDT was repeatedly applied to the soil, the DDE concentration may remain unchanged for more than 20 yr. Remediation of DDE-contaminated soil and water may be done by several techniques. Phytoremediation involves translocating DDT, DDD, and DDE from the soil into the plant, although some aquatic species (duckweed > elodea > parrot feather) can transform DDT into predominantly DDD with some DDE being formed. Of all the plants that can uptake DDE, Cucurbita pepo has been the most extensively studied, with translocation values approaching "hyperaccumulation" levels. Soil moisture, temperature, and plant density have all been documented as important factors in the uptake of DDE by Cucurbita pepo. Uptake may also be influenced positively by amendments such as biosurfactants, mycorrhizal inoculants, and low molecular weight organic acids (e.g., citric and oxalic acids). DDE microbial degradation by dehalogenases, dioxygenases, and hydrolases occurs under the proper conditions. Although several aerobic degradation pathways have been proposed, none has been fully verified. Very few aerobic pure cultures are capable of fully degrading DDE to CO2. Cometabolism of DDE by Pseudomonas sp., Alicaligens sp., and Terrabacter sp. grown on biphenyl has been reported; however, not all bacterial species that produce biphenyl dioxygenase degraded DDE. Arsenic and copper inhibit DDE degradation by aerobic microorganisms. Similarly, metal chelates such as EDTA inhibit the

  15. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Requirements for independent community-based quality assessment and accountability practices in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thomas D; Perrin, Paul; Burkle, Frederick M; Canny, William; Purdin, Susan; Lin, William; Sauer, Lauren

    2012-06-01

    During responses to disasters, the credibility of humanitarian agencies can be threatened by perceptions of poor quality of the responses. Many initiatives have been introduced over the last two decades to help address these issues and enhance the overall quality of humanitarian response, often with limited success. There remain important gaps and deficiencies in quality assurance efforts, including potential conflicts of interest. While many definitions for quality exist, a common component is that meeting the needs of the "beneficiary" or "client" is the ultimate determinant of quality. This paper examines the current status of assessment and accountability practices in the humanitarian response community, identifies gaps, and recommends timely, concise, and population-based assessments to elicit the perspective of quality performance and accountability to the affected populations. Direct and independent surveys of the disaster-affected population will help to redirect ongoing aid efforts, and generate more effective and comparable methods for assessing the quality of humanitarian practices and assistance activities.

  17. Refugee flow or brain-drain? The humanitarian policy and post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu X-f

    1997-03-01

    "The humanitarian policy that the Canadian government implemented in response to the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown changed a migration system primarily based on personal networks into a brain drain. Post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigrants (MCIs) were better educated than those arriving in Canada previously. Among the post-Tiananmen MCIs, those who landed under the policy were better educated than those landing in other categories. The analysis suggests that post-Tiananmen MCIs represented a brain-drain rather than a refugee flow, that the humanitarian policy implicitly contained ideological and human capital concerns in addition to humanitarian concerns, and that Canada benefited from the policy by obtaining human capital as well as satisfying its humanitarian obligations and ideological aspirations."

  18. Suspended Disbelief: The Role of the Department of Defense in Interagency Foreign Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Relief: Operation Damayan,” 8. 70 Center For Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Response ( CFE - DMHR), “Lessons from Civil-Military...74 CFE -DMHR, “Lessons from Civil-Military Disaster Management and Humanitarian Response to Typhoon Haiyan...https://www2.mccll.usmc.mil/index.cfm?disp=COPS/COP_View.cfm& ssiteid=465, 3. 76 CFE -DMHR, “Lessons from Civil-Military Disaster Management and

  19. The impact of digital technology on health of populations affected by humanitarian crises: Recent innovations and current gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesmar, Sandra; Talhouk, Reem; Akik, Chaza; Olivier, Patrick; Elhajj, Imad H; Elbassuoni, Shady; Armoush, Sarah; Kalot, Joumana; Balaam, Madeline; Germani, Aline; Ghattas, Hala

    2016-11-01

    Digital technology is increasingly used in humanitarian action and promises to improve the health and social well-being of populations affected by both acute and protracted crises. We set out to (1) review the current landscape of digital technologies used by humanitarian actors and affected populations, (2) examine their impact on health and well-being of affected populations, and (3) consider the opportunities for and challenges faced by users of these technologies. Through a systematic search of academic databases and reports, we identified 50 digital technologies used by humanitarian actors, and/or populations affected by crises. We organized them according to the stage of the humanitarian cycle that they were used in, and the health outcomes or determinants of health they affected. Digital technologies were found to facilitate communication, coordination, and collection and analysis of data, enabling timely responses in humanitarian contexts. A lack of evaluation of these technologies, a paternalistic approach to their development, and issues of privacy and equity constituted major challenges. We highlight the need to create a space for dialogue between technology designers and populations affected by humanitarian crises.

  20. THE DESULTORY POLITICS OF MOBILITY AND THE HUMANITARIAN-MILITARY BORDER IN THE MEDITERRANEAN. MARE NOSTRUM BEYOND THE SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tazzioli

    Full Text Available Abstract This article investigates the reshaping of the military-humanitarian border in the Mediterranean, focusing on the Italian military-humanitarian mission Mare Nostrum, that started for rescuing migrants at sea after the deaths of hundreds of migrants in October 2013 near the coasts of the island of Lampedusa. The main argument is that in order to understand the working of the military-humanitarian border at sea and its impacts, we must go beyond the space of the sea, and analysing it in the light of the broader functioning of migration governmentality. The notion of desultory politics of mobility is deployed here for describing the specific temporality of the humanitarian border working and its politics of visibility. In particular, an analytical gaze on the military-humanitarian operations at sea to rescue-and-control of migrants’ movements shows that what is at stake is the production of some practices of mobility as exceptional. Then, this article takes on Mare Nostrum operation for exploring the ways in which the military and the humanitarian are rearticulated and how they currently work together.

  1. Approaches for assessing sustainable remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. This paper presents an overview of available approaches for assessing the sustainability of alternative...... remediation strategies for a contaminated site. Most approaches use multi-criteria assessment methods (MCA) to structure a decision support process. Different combinations of environmental, social and economic criteria are employed, and are assessed either in qualitative or quantitative forms with various...... tools such as life cycle assessment and cost benefit analysis. Stakeholder involvement, which is a key component of sustainable remediation, is conducted in various ways. Some approaches involve stakeholders directly in the evaluation or weighting of criteria, whereas other approaches only indirectly...

  2. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  3. Durability of radon remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    In the UK, approximately 3600 householders are believed to have taken action to reduce high radon concentrations in their homes. In 1993 a number of those householders who had taken successful remedial actions were invited to participate in a study of durability of radon remedial actions. This involved the radon concentration being remeasured annually. Results for 26 such homes where a complete set of data are available and a further 32 with incomplete data are discussed here. All remedial actions were shown to remain durable during a period of 5 years. The largest variation in effectiveness was found in houses with natural ventilation of the underfloor void. The failure rate for all remedial measures was found to be 4.0% per annum, but in most cases the problems were noticed by the householder and corrected. The frequency of failures which were not noticed until a remeasurement was carried out was 0.4% per annum. (Author).

  4. Durability of radon remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    It is estimated that at least 3600 householders in the UK have taken remedial action to reduce radon concentrations found to be above the government Action Level. A study has been carried out on the durability of these remedial actions. It involved annual reassessment of the radon levels in a number of homes. The results for 26 of these homes where data over five years are available show that in general the remedial actions remained effective. The remedy with the largest variation in efficacy was natural ventilation of the underfloor void. The failure rate was found to be 4.0% per annum for all measures, but in the majority of cases the failure was discovered by the householder and rectified. The rate of failures not noticed by the householders was 0.4% per annum. (UK).

  5. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  6. BPA Statutes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    This publication includes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) authorities. It combines the two previous booklets of BPA authorities` and adds: sections of certain Appropriation Acts affecting BPA; a list of all other Appropriation Acts affecting BPA; a list of the acts authorizing Federal hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin; portions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 that specifically apply to BPA; portions of the Federal Power Act to provide context for the Energy Policy Act. The laws are in their United States Code format, rather than in the Public Law format as passed. Thus, the citation for Bonneville Project Act section 2(f) is shown as 16 USC {section}832a(f). Most people are familiar with the Public Law citations, so they have been retained and appear in italics at the end of each paragraph. In addition, later amendments to earlier laws are reflected in the United States Code language. For example, the Preference Act`s definition of ``Pacific Northwest`` (16 USC {section}837(b)) reflects the Northwest Power Act`s amendment of that term. The laws are presented in the numerical order they appear in the United States Code, rather than in the order in which they became law. Therefore, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 is presented first. This booklet is not, nor is it intended to be, an official reporter. All citations should be made to the United States Code or some other officially recognized reporter.

  7. Opium the Best Remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sydenham was the leading English physician of the 17th century and probably to the present time. He was using a well tried remedy. It had been known by then for about 4000 years, frequently mentioned by Hippocrates, and recognized in use in medieval Europe where it probably came through Arabic traders and was well established in use in Paris by the 12th century (2. Professional concerns up to the time of Sydenham were not about addiction. As can be seen from his text, they were about whether the drug was available in adequate preparations, whether there was any difference between opium and other narcotics, particularly comparing the natural juice with "its artificial preparations" (1 (all of which he thought to be about equal in effect, whether it was stimulant or restorative and invigorating, and whether it was being properly used for all the conditions in which it could be helpful. Addiction, dependence and insanity are not mentioned, although the fact that it could occasionally promote excitement ("frenzy" was known.

  8. Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and State Violence: Medical Documentation of Torture in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Başak

    2016-09-01

    State authorities invested in developing official expert discourses and practices to deny torture in post-1980 coup d'état Turkey. Documentation of torture was therefore crucial for the incipient human rights movement there in the 1980s. Human rights physicians used their expertise not only to treat torture victims but also to document torture and eventually found the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT) in 1990. Drawing on an ethnographic and archival research at the HRFT, this article examines the genealogy of anti-torture struggles in Turkey and argues that locally mediated intimacies and/or hostilities between victims of state violence, human rights physicians, and official forensics reveal the limitations of certain universal humanitarian and human rights principles. It also shows that locally mediated long-term humanitarian encounters around the question of political violence challenge forensic denial of violence and remake the legitimate levels of state violence. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.

  9. Books vs bombs? Humanitarian development and the narrative of terror in Northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nosheen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of humanitarian discourse and development in reconfiguring the contemporary culture of empire and its war on terror. It takes as its point of entry the immensely popular biographical tale, Three Cups of Tea, which details how the American mountaineer Greg Mortenson has struggled to counter terrorism in Northern Pakistan through the creation of schools. Even as this text appears to provide a self-critical and humane perspective on terrorism, the article argues that it constructs a misleading narrative of terror in which the realities of Northern Pakistan and Muslim life-worlds are distorted through simplistic tropes of ignorance, backwardness and extremism, while histories of US geopolitics and violence are erased. The text has further facilitated the emergence of a participatory militarism, whereby humanitarian work helps to reinvent the military as a culturally sensitive and caring institution in order to justify and service the project of empire.

  10. UNOSAT at CERN – 15 years of satellite imagery support to the humanitarian and development community

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: UNOSAT is part of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and has been hosted at CERN since 2001. This partnership allows UNOSAT to benefit from CERN's IT infrastructure whenever the situation requires, allowing the UN to be at the forefront of satellite-analysis technology. Specialists in geographic information systems (GIS) and in the analysis of satellite data, supported by IT engineers and policy experts, ensure a dedicated service to the international humanitarian and development communities 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The presentation will give an overview of the variety of activities carried out by UNOSAT over the last 15 years including support to humanitarian assistance and protection of cultural heritage, sustainable water management in Chad and training & capacity development in East Africa and Asia. The talk will be followed at 12:00 by the inauguration of the UNOSAT exhibition, in front of the Users' office. Speaker: Einar Bjor...

  11. The Arms Trade and States' Duty to Ensure Respect for Humanitarian and Human Rights Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Maya

    2007-01-01

    The unregulated international trade in conventional arms, especially in small arms and light weapons, has come to be viewed as an exacerbating factor in armed conflict, violent crime and internal repression. Concern about the negative humanitarian, development and security impact of this trade has...... been growing over the last decade. Against this backdrop, the UN General Assembly invited states in December 2006 to consider the feasibility of an instrument establishing common international standards for conventional arms transfers-also known as the ‘Arms Trade Treaty' (ATT). The legality of arms...... transfers has traditionally been treated as a question of arms control law, but in the recent debate about legal restrictions on states' liberty to transfer arms, norms of international humanitarian and human rights law have frequently been invoked. This article surveys the existing international legal...

  12. Frontex, the Euro-Mediterranean border and the paradoxes of humanitarian rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Campesi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the ambiguous dialectic between the technocratic ideology of risk management and the recurrent call for emergency measures which characterizes Euro-Mediterranean border control policies, showing how Frontex has ultimately succeeded in capitalising on the recurring cry to humanitarian emergencies coming from some Member Countries. Far from seeing its legitimacy undermined as a risk management agency that should predict and prevent potential migratory crisis, it has incorporated the emergency rethoric into its official communication, making it a legitimating tool for a steady expansion of its role, prerogatives and resources to the detriment of alternative actors in migration policy. This reproduces the paradoxes of a humanitarian policy which is intended at protecting the bare life of migrants and asylum seekers, while violating their fundamental rights to escape and find asylum elsewhere.

  13. Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lotfi, Tamara; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Darzi, Andrea; Hajjar, Rayan; El Rahyel, Ahmed; El Eid, Jamale; Itani, Mira; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. Methods: We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Tr...

  14. Continuing promise 2009--assessment of a recent pediatric surgical humanitarian mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, Ryan M; Glaser, Jacob; Marmon, Louis M; Donahue, Timothy F; Bastien, John; Safford, Shawn D

    2012-04-01

    Surgical organizations have begun to focus their efforts on providing humanitarian assistance in international communities. Most surgeons do not have previous international experience and lack an understanding of what is expected and what care they can provide. The unknown factors include case types, patient volume, postoperative care, and equipment. This abstract presents humanitarian assistance mission and highlights the importance of preparation, host nation involvement, and understanding the local politics of each country. In April to July 2009, the USNS (United States Naval Ship) Comfort deployed to provide humanitarian assistance to 7 countries through Central and South America. Data collected included numbers and types of procedures, rate of rejection of patients for operation, patient age, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score, and length of procedure. These data represent the total mission of Continuing Promise 2009 including a total of 1137 surgical procedures of which 340 were pediatric (pediatric cases for each country in 7 days was 48.3 ± 21.4, with a range of 24 to 84. The average age was 7.5 years (range, 1 month to 18 years). In partnership with host physicians, preoperative screening occurred over 2 to 3 days for every 7 operative days. We maintained a low threshold for rejection (rate of 43%; range, 21%-62%) and average ASA score of 1.3. Including all pediatric subspecialties, the most frequent procedures were inguinal (23%) and umbilical (14%) hernias. Although these were the most frequent procedure, the range and variety of cases varied widely. We had a very low early complication rate (1.2%), including 3 wound infections and 1 early hernia recurrence. Our data represent the largest collection to date on the pediatric surgical care of children in a humanitarian effort. Our experience can be used to identify the most likely types of cases in South and Central America and as a model for the safe and efficient treatment of children in a

  15. Childhood disability in Turkana, Kenya: Understanding how carers cope in a complex humanitarian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zuurmond

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the consequences of disability are magnified in humanitarian contexts, research into the difficulties of caring for children with a disability in such settings has received limited attention.Methods: Based on in-depth interviews with 31 families, key informants and focus group discussions in Turkana, Kenya, this article explores the lives of families caring for children with a range of impairments (hearing, vision, physical and intellectual in a complex humanitarian context characterised by drought, flooding, armed conflict, poverty and historical marginalisation.Results: The challenging environmental and social conditions of Turkana magnified not only the impact of impairment on children, but also the burden of caregiving. The remoteness of Turkana, along with the paucity and fragmentation of health, rehabilitation and social services, posed major challenges and created opportunity costs for families. Disability-related stigma isolated mothers of children with disabilities, especially, increasing their burden of care and further limiting their access to services and humanitarian programmes. In a context where social systems are already stressed, the combination of these factors compounded the vulnerabilities faced by children with disabilities and their families.Conclusion: The needs of children with disabilities and their carers in Turkana are not being met by either community social support systems or humanitarian aid programmes. There is an urgent need to mainstream disability into Turkana services and programmes.

  16. Leadership and Behavior in Humanitarian and Development Transnational Non-Governmental Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret G. Hermann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Does leadership matter in the governance of civil society organizations? In particular, do the CEOs of humanitarian and development NGOs exhibit different leadership styles and perceive their work environments in different ways as the literature suggests. To explore this question we interviewed 96 CEOs—32 from humanitarian NGOs and 64 from development NGOs. In the process we found support for the descriptions of the leadership of these two types of organizations extant in the research and practitioner literatures. Those in charge of humanitarian NGOs were more likely to challenge the constraints in their environments, to be interested in influencing what was happening, to want to affect outcomes, and to be focused on addressing the needs of those in the communities facing the crisis, disaster, or emergency. They viewed themselves as having short time in which to respond and chose to communicate and act informally as well as to only collaborate with other organizations if pushed. Providing direct aid and service were high priorities as was advocacy to secure the funding necessary for completing their task. In contrast, CEOs leading development NGOs focused more on respecting and working within the constraints of their positions, being adaptable and flexible in working on having an impact—in effect, being interested in building coalitions and achieving consensus as well as indulging in compromise with the intent of solving the endemic problems that they were there to address. They had a longer time perspective than their humanitarian counterparts and were willing to work within fairly hierarchical structures as well as with a variety of types of collaborators to reach their goals.

  17. An Analysis of U.S. Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The Fritz Institute uses Haas, Kates, and Bowden’s model of emergency recovery to create its own illustration of the different phases a supply chain...Humanitarian logistics: Enabling disaster response. San Francisco, CA: The Fritz Institute. Tomasini, R., & Van Wassenhove, L. N. (2009...ar^qb p`elli  Outsourcing the Pearl Harbor MK-48 Intermediate Maintenance Activity  Pallet Management System  PBL (4)  Privatization-NOSL

  18. Humanity Must Be Defended: War, Politics and Humanitarian Relief in Iraq, 1990-2004

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Iraq was the first political and humanitarian crisis to be described as a "complex emergency." Contested claims about human suffering there -- beginning shortly after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and continuing for over a decade under UN sanctions -- became the justification for multiple forms of engagement and intervention by religious and secular NGOs, human rights organizations, journalists, political activists and foreign military forces. This dissertation explores how the internatio...

  19. The Therapeutic Turn in International Humanitarian Law: War Crimes Tribunals as Sites of "Healing"?

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, Diana Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    AbstractThe Therapeutic Turn in International Humanitarian Law: War Crimes Tribunals as Sites of "Healing"? by Diana Elizabeth Anders Doctor of Philosophy in Rhetoric Designate Designated Emphasis in Women, Gender, and SexualityUniversity of California, Berkeley Professor Judith Butler, Co-Chair Professor David Cohen, Co-Chair This dissertation examines the growing tendency to figure international war crimes tribunals in terms of their therapeutic value for their victims. My project do...

  20. Analysis of United States Marine Corps operations in support of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief

    OpenAIRE

    Gastrock, Jared R.; Iturriaga, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In order to improve the effectiveness of the United States Marine Corps (USMC) response to future international humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) missions, an analysis of the demands created by such disasters as well as the capabilities of the USMC is necessary. This research focuses on the primary response organization within the USMC, the Marine expeditionary unit (MEU),and those resources available to the MEU to condu...

  1. Logistics and supply chain management for the informal business and humanitarian sectors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available centres End-users $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ Retail outlets What are we talking about? ? CSIR 2012 Slide 3 $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ Logistics What are we talking about? ? CSIR 2012 Slide 4 $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ Supply chain... Create a platform where consultants can donate ?services? What will it take: Time for legwork, humility, sacrificing your agenda Logistics and supply chain management for the informal business and humanitarian sectors CSIR 4th Biennial Conference...

  2. Making the Case for Humanitarian Intervention: National Interest and Moral Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    November 2014. 4 C. BEGINNINGS OF HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION The 19th century British philosopher John Stuart Mill published the essay A Few Words on...population to pressure government 12 John Stuart Mill , “A Few Words on Non-Intervention” Foreign Policy...Marcus Mohlin, and Charlotte Wagnsson, 19–40. New York: Routledge, 2014. Mill , John Stuart . “A Few Words on Non-Intervention.” Foreign Policy

  3. Undertaking the Responsibility: international community, states, R2P and humanitarian intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Gozen Ercan, Mine Pinar

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, an increasing awareness of instances of grave violation of human rights on a massive scale has brought to attention the problematic that whether states and the international community have an ethical responsibility to react to such cases, and (when the conditions require so) to undertake humanitarian military interventions. In the immediate post-Cold War environment, this has taken place parallel to the shift of focus in the security literature from national security towa...

  4. The Responsibility to Protect by Military Means : Emerging Norms on Humanitarian Intervention?

    OpenAIRE

    Amnéus, Diana

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is an interdisciplinary study on the external ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (R2P) and international law. It focuses on the legal customary process on jus ad bellum by which states try to address the gap between the legitimacy and legality of humanitarian intervention to protect human security within a state against genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. The development of specific legal rights for the Security Council, regional organisations and ‘coalitions of the w...

  5. Introducing Jus ante Bellum as a cosmopolitan approach to humanitarian intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Garrett W.; Bohm, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Cosmopolitans often argue that the international community has a humanitarian responsibility to intervene militarily in order to protect vulnerable individuals from violent threats and to pursue the establishment of a condition of cosmopolitan justice based on the notion of a “global rule of law.” The purpose of this article is to argue that many of these cosmopolitan claims are incomplete and untenable on cosmopolitan grounds because they ignore the systemic and chronic structural factors th...

  6. Assessment of disaster planning in humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM, Khuzestan: 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat Jahanbani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Disasters are scarce events; nevertheless, to prepare organizations for events and return to normal condition the accurate planning and education is essential. This study aimed to assess disaster planning in humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM in Khuzestan Province in 2012. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, statistical population involved the top managers of the crisis management unit, emergency medicine services (EMS and relief and rescuing center of the West Country in the Khuzestan Province. Because of the limited number of the statistical population, a census method was used. The data were collected using a checklist developed by reviewing literature and through observation and interview. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage and mean percentage and using by SPSS v.18. Results: The results indicated that generally the status of planning of humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM in the response phase was good. Emergency Medicine Services (EMS and center of relief and rescuing were ranked respectively in the moderate and good situations. The dimensions of human resource and the control were respectively in the best and the worst condition. Conclusions: According to findings, disaster planning in humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM in the response phase requires more attention in aspect of control. Generally, at the occurrence of disasters stage, particularly in supervision and control, paying attention to HSCM is necessary. So, we stress on the necessary reform of the program to ensure the proper supply of resources and cover the needs.

  7. Core Competencies in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Gotz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fisher, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Stal, Marc; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2015-08-01

    Disaster response demands a large workforce covering diverse professional sectors. Throughout this article, we illustrate the results of a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to identify existing competency sets for disaster management and humanitarian assistance that would serve as guidance for the development of a common disaster curriculum. A systematic review of English-language articles was performed on PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, ERIC, and Cochrane Library. Studies were included if reporting competency domains, abilities, knowledge, skills, or attitudes for professionals involved disaster relief or humanitarian assistance. Exclusion criteria included abstracts, citations, case studies, and studies not dealing with disasters or humanitarian assistance. Thirty-eight papers were analyzed. Target audience was defined in all articles. Five references (13%) reported cross-sectorial competencies. Most of the articles (81.6%) were specific to health care. Eighteen (47%) papers included competencies for at least 2 different disciplines and 18 (47%) for different professional groups. Nursing was the most widely represented cadre. Eighteen papers (47%) defined competency domains and 36 (94%) reported list of competencies. Nineteen articles (50%) adopted consensus-building to define competencies, and 12 (31%) included competencies adapted to different professional responsibility levels. This systematic review revealed that the largest number of papers were mainly focused on the health care sector and presented a lack of agreement on the terminology used for competency-based definition.

  8. Trauma and humanitarian translation in Liberia: the tale of open mole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane

    2010-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the intercultural process through which Open Mole and trauma-related mental illnesses are brought together in the postconflict mental health encounter. In this paper, I explore the historical dimension of this process by reviewing the history of Open Mole, and the ways in which it has been interpreted, acted on, and objectified by external observers over the last half-century. Moving into Liberia's recent war and postconflict period, I examine the process by which Open Mole is transformed from a culture-bound disorder into a local idiom of trauma, and how it has become a gateway diagnosis of PTSD-related mental illnesses, and consider how it is produced as an objectified experience of psychiatric disorder in clinical humanitarian contexts. By studying how Open Mole is transformed in the humanitarian encounter, I address the structure and teleology of the humanitarian encounter and challenge some of the foundational assumptions about cultural sensitivity and community-based mental health care in postconflict settings that are prevalent in scholarship and practice today.

  9. Neoliberal Sexual Humanitarianism and Story-Telling: The case of Somaly Mam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Hoefinger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stories of trafficking into the sex industry in Cambodia are a popular feature in local and international media, academic and development literature, policy and humanitarian debates, social and political discourse, and NGO interventions. These stories are powerful for their ability to evoke deep emotions and outrage from their intended audiences. However, they are equally powerful for the ways in which they can cause harm—namely to already marginalised populations of migrants and people involved in the sex trade either by choice, circumstance or coercion. One of the most contentious contemporary trafficking stories is that of the controversial case of Somaly Mam—the self-declared ‘sex slave’ turned ‘modern-day hero’. This paper outlines Mam’s prolific trajectory of self-representation according to the tropes of sexual humanitarianism and argues that these narratives helped to set in motion one of the most lucrative, and in many ways, most exploitative and problematic anti-trafficking endeavours in Cambodia, to date. The paper concludes with offering suggestions for how the anti-trafficking industry might better address real cases of trafficking and exploitation by focusing on structural violence and systemic injustice rather than on sensationalised humanitarian rhetoric, which can perpetuate harms.

  10. Questioning Big Data: Crowdsourcing crisis data towards an inclusive humanitarian response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Mulder

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to critically explore whether crowdsourced Big Data enables an inclusive humanitarian response at times of crisis. We argue that all data, including Big Data, are socially constructed artefacts that reflect the contexts and processes of their creation. To support our argument, we qualitatively analysed the process of ‘Big Data making’ that occurred by way of crowdsourcing through open data platforms, in the context of two specific humanitarian crises, namely the 2010 earthquake in Haiti and the 2015 earthquake in Nepal. We show that the process of creating Big Data from local and global sources of knowledge entails the transformation of information as it moves from one distinct group of contributors to the next. The implication of this transformation is that locally based, affected people and often the original ‘crowd’ are excluded from the information flow, and from the interpretation process of crowdsourced crisis knowledge, as used by formal responding organizations, and are marginalized in their ability to benefit from Big Data in support of their own means. Our paper contributes a critical perspective to the debate on participatory Big Data, by explaining the process of in and exclusion during data making, towards more responsive humanitarian relief.

  11. The role of international humanitarian organizations of the western Balkans: Serbia case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Ljubomir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Western Balkans in the period from 1992 to 2000 and later was the site of serious armed conflicts in which there was a significant threat to human life and other human rights of the civilian population. The deployment of international humanitarian organizations in this area was significant and with somewhat different role than the example of the African continent or elsewhere. Period of the ten war years as many post-war years of their engagement was quite enough for methodologically correct examination of their role, problems and attitudes of the 'beneficiaries' of these organizations on the activities of these organizations and their synchronization with the government. Numerous problems were noted from the practice of humanitarian organizations that are potentially useful for improvements in the future. In this paper we present only some parts of the expert group from Serbia extensive research who exactly talking about these problems. Particularly interesting are the data on the abuse of humanitarian aid as well as data that are different from those presented by some official international organizations.

  12. Engendering care: HIV, humanitarian assistance in Africa and the reproduction of gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindry, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    This paper draws upon recent research in Durban, South Africa to unravel the complexities of care ethics in the context of humanitarian aid. It investigates how the gendering of care shapes the provision of aid in the context of the HIV in Africa constructing an image of 'virile' and 'violent' African masculinity. Humanitarian organisations construct imagined relations of caring, invoking notions of a shared humanity as informing the imperative to facilitate change. This paper draws on varied examples of research and NGO activity to illustrate how these relations of care are strongly gendered. Humanitarian interventions that invoke universalising conceptions of need could instead draw on feminist care ethics that seeks to balance rights, justice and care in ways that attend to the webs of relationships through which specific lived realities are shaped. Essentialising feminized discourses on care result in a skewed analysis of international crises that invariably construct women (and children) as victims in need of care, which at best ignore the lived experiences of men and, at worst, cast men as virile and violent vectors of disease and social disorder.

  13. Effectiveness of Mechanisms and Models of Coordination between Organizations, Agencies and Bodies Providing or Financing Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akl, Elie A; El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou Karroum, Lama; El-Eid, Jamale; Brax, Hneine; Akik, Chaza; Osman, Mona; Hassan, Ghayda; Itani, Mira; Farha, Aida; Pottie, Kevin; Oliver, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this review was to assess how, during and after humanitarian crises, different mechanisms and models of coordination between organizations, agencies and bodies providing or financing...

  14. A IMPORTÂNCIA E OS DESAFIOS DO CUMPRIMENTO DOS PRINCÍPIOS HUMANITÁRIOS / THE IMPORTANCE AND THE CHALLENGES OF ACCOMPLISHMENT WITH HUMANITARIAN PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Oliveira Peter da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian assistance and protection of victims of war are not an easy task. The success of its implementation, in a large extent, depends on respect and care given to the humanitarian principles. The aim of this study is to analyze what these principles are, their importance and the challenges to its fulfillment in the state of humanitarian crises. The methodology used is bibliographic and documental research. On the first topic, the discussion is about the convergences between International Law of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law, especially looking at human rights protection. Then, it presents the principles of impartiality, neutrality, independence, volunteerism, unity, universality and humanity proclaimed at the XX International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in 1965. After establishing the general notions, it is possible to make a critical analysis of the importance and the challenges of compliance in the principles of impartiality, neutrality and independence, taking as its starting point the specific situations reported in the official documents of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC. At the end, the conclusion is that, despite the difficultiesand several challenges, we should not spare any effort to ensure accomplishment of the humanitarian principles during crises. The search for an effective humanitarian assistance and, in fact, effective power for laws that protect victims of war and also humanitarian workers goes into a necessary hermeneutical system founded on humanitarian principles.

  15. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE COMPLEMENTARITY PRINCIPLE WITHIN THE ROME STATUTE IN INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heribertus Jaka Triyana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In practice, the application of the complementarity principle in the Rome Statute remains unclear, particularly with respect to the prioritization of national penal law jurisdiction. This paper willdiscuss the relevance of the complementarity principle to the development of a national criminal justice system and to the investigation and prosecution of the most serious crimes provided for in the Statute. It was concluded that the complementarity principle should be used to unravel the twisted development of the national criminal justice system in accordance with the provisions of international law. We need to establish our national criminal justice system as the main and foremost forum (hence, willing and able in the process of investigating and prosecuting the most serious crimes on earth. Dalam praktik, aplikasi Asas Pelengkap (the complementarity principle dalam Statuta Roma masihbelum jelas, khususnya terkait dengan pengutamaan (prioritization yurisdiksi hukum pidana nasional. Oleh karena itu, tulisan ini akan membahas relevansi asas tersebut terhadap pembangunan sistem hukum pidana nasional dan terhadap penyelidikan dan penuntutan kejahatan paling serius yang diatur dalam Statuta. Disimpulkan bahwa Asas Pelengkap harus Mahkamah digunakan sebagai pengurai benang kusutpembangunan sistem hukum pidana nasional Indonesia sesuai dengan ketentuan hukum internasional supaya menjadi forum utama (mau dan mampu dalam proses penyelidikan dan penuntutan kejahatan paling serius di muka bumi.

  16. [Evaluation of injuries by means of photographs in a homicide (manslaughter or murder) barred by the statute of limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madea, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    Pursuant to Section 78 German Criminal Code, criminal offences under Section 220a (genocide) and Section 211 (murder) are not subject to a statute of limitations. To the extent that prosecution is subject to a statute of limitations, the period of limitation is thirty years in the case of acts punishable by imprisonment for life. After the expiration of the period of limitation, evidence and investigation records relevant for the offence may no longer be available. Once a homicide is statute-barred, main proceedings may be opened only, if the elements of murder are present. The problems arising from the statute of limitations are discussed on the basis of a case on which the author had to give an export opinion. The homicide was committed in Amsterdam in 1967. In 2004, after the period of limitation had expired in The Netherlands and--as far as manslaughter is concerned, also in the Federal Republic of Germany--a meanwhile 60-year-old man accused himself of having committed the offence (manual strangulation of a tied male). After the expiration of the statute of limitations the results of the police investigations and the autopsy report were no longer available. How the offence might have been committed and whether the elements of murder were present therefore had to be discussed on the basis of still available photographs of the crime scene and the victim. After studying these pieces of evidence, the criminal court decided that the accused had actually committed a voluntary homicide, but that it was no longer ascertainable, if the elements of murder were fulfilled. The issues relevant to legal medicine are presented against the background of the problems associated with the statute of limitations.

  17. To License or Not to License Revisited: An Examination of State Statutes Regarding Private Investigators and Digital Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lonardo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this update to the previous year's study, the authors examine statutes that regulate, license, and enforce investigative functions in each US state. After identification and review of Private Investigator licensing requirements, the authors find that very few state statutes explicitly differentiate between Private Investigators and Digital Examiners. After contacting all state agencies the authors present a distinct grouping organizing state approaches to professional Digital Examiner licensing. The authors conclude that states must differentiate between Private Investigator and Digital Examiner licensing requirements and oversight.

  18. Remedial Action Contacts Directory - 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This document, which was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), is a directory of 2628 individuals interested or involved in environmental restoration and/or remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. This directory contains a list of mailing addresses and phone numbers of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor offices; an index of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor office sorted by state; a list of individuals, presented by last name, facsimile number, and e-mail address; an index of affiliations presented alphabetically, with individual contacts appearing below each affiliation name; and an index of foreign contacta sorted by country and affiliation. This document was generated from the Remedial Action Contacts Database, which is maintained by the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC).

  19. Myths and facts about Minnesota's new safe patient handling statute and your dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Stephen; Simonson, Peggy; Tschida, Breca; Owen, Mary; Ofstehage, John; Glasrud, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of a safe patient handling statute in 2009, Minnesota became one of a growing number of states requiring health care providers to become more aware and accountable about providing appropriate assistance during the movement of patients in clinical care settings. The Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry and the Minnesota Dental Association have been working together to ensure that Minnesota's SPH regulations are as practical as possible for dental providers while still achieving the objectives of the statute. A template Safe Patient Handling Program for Clinics has been developed with substantial input from MDA's ESNA Committee and is now available on the DLI website: www.dli.mn.gov/WSC/SPHlegislation.asp. All Minnesota dental practices should use this template to develop their own safe patient handling program as soon as possible. Additional background information and resources related to Minnesota's SPH regulations are also available on the DLI website. MDA and DLI are currently also developing a hazard assessment tool for dental practices to assess their specific risks associated with patient movement. This hazard assessment will, in turn, guide decisions about what type of safe patient handling equipment and staff training will be necessary for total compliance with the new statute. MDA, in cooperation with DLI, will continue to keep dental professionals informed about when these materials will be available. Additionally, MDA is working to ensure appropriate training options will be available for compliance with SPH regulations. The University of Minnesota's School of Dentistry's Oral Health Services for Older Adults Program and Department of Continuing Dental Education have been regularly providing such training in conjunction with the school's "Miniresidency in Nursing Home and Long-term Care for the Dental Team," and efforts are now underway at the dental school to create stand-alone training options for Minnesota's dental professionals

  20. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  1. Bioelectrical Perchlorate Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    low-level perchlorate (100 μg.L-1) influent as well as mixed-waste influents more typically found in the environment containing both nitrate and perchlorate. Through extended periods of operation (>70 days), no loss in treatment efficiency was noted and no measurable growth in biomass was observed. Gas phase analysis indicated that low levels of H2 produced at the cathode surface through electrolysis can provide enough reducing equivalents to mediate this metabolism. The results of these studies demonstrate that perchlorate remediation can be facilitated through the use of a cathode as the primary electron donor, and that continuous treatment in such a system approaches current industry standards. This has important implications for the continuous treatment of this critical contaminant in industrial waste streams and drinking water. Such a process has the advantage of long-term, low-maintenance operation with ease of online monitoring and control while limiting the injection of additional chemicals into the water treatment process and outgrowth of the microbial populations. This would negate the need for the continual removal and disposal of biomass produced during treatment and also the downstream issues associated with corrosion and biofouling of distribution systems and the production of toxic disinfection byproducts.

  2. The League of Nations' rescue of Armenian genocide survivors and the making of modern humanitarianism, 1920-1927.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Keith David

    2010-01-01

    The essay centers of the efforts by the League of Nations to rescue women and children survivors of the 1915 Armenian Genocide. This rescue -- a seemingly unambiguous good -- was at once a constitutive act in drawing the boundaries of the international community, a key moment in the definition of humanitarianism, and a site of resistance to the colonial presence in the post-Ottoman Eastern Mediterranean. Drawing from a wide range of source materials in a number of languages, including Turkish, Armenian, and Arabic, the essay brings the intellectual and social context of humanitarianism in initiating societies together with the lived experience of humanitarianism in the places where the act took form. In so doing, it draws our attention to the proper place of the Eastern mediterranean, and its women and children, in the global history of humanitarianism. The prevailing narrative of the history of human rights places much of its emphasis on the post-World War II era, the international reaction to the Holocaust, and the founding of the United Nations. yet contemporary human rights thinking also took place within practices of humanitarianism in the interwar period, and is necessarily inseparable from the histories of refugees, colonialism, and the non-West.

  3. Solidarity and humanitarian intervention: a brazilian action in Haiti as a new legal paradigm of international solidarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovane Machado Alves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, considering the exponential growth of the human knowledge, undeniably due to the proliferation of academic disciplines, any deeper analysis of society becomes more and more impossible, viewing it only from an individualist look and distant from the other branches and dimensions of knowledge. Therefore, the present study aims to formulate new concepts and perspectives, able, in turn, to foster the development of new theoretical nuances and models of observation of reality, and having, as an essential assumption, the examination of the elements necessary for the construction of a new legal paradigm of humanitarian intervention. At first, we will analyze the elements that are part of the concept of solidarity so that, afterwards, we can propose their application to the humanitarian international law, considering, at this point, the specificities surrounding the Brazilian action in Haiti. Thus, this approach on the issue of international humanitarian aid aims at proposing the inauguration of a new kind of international solidarity, which will conceive the international humanitarian intervention not as a mere sending of troops or supplies, but as the necessary moment for the formulation of transnational public policies. Key-words: Solidarity; Humanitarian intervention; Solidarism; Public policy; Haiti

  4. About the Phenomenological Statute of Social Issues: The Beginning of a Pure Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Belvedere

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a forthcoming book on the problems of social phenomenology, based on readings of the work of Alfred Schutz and his significance for contemporary social theory. Here, we will concentrate on the preliminary problems of a pure sociology. We will investigate the meaning of the categorial act according to Husserl, aiming to enlighten the fundamental question of the ontological statute of social issues. We will notice that a longstanding sociological tradition, which begins with Durkheim and continues until Schutz, has faced this issue in an unfruitful way. We will see, in both works, a “Kantian dilemma” which we believe would find solution in the Husserlian conception of the categorial act. We hope to make, with this work, a modest contribution to a future pure sociology.

  5. Defining mental disorder when it really counts: DSM-IV-TR and SVP/SDP statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, Allen; Sreenivasan, Shoba; Weinberger, Linda E

    2008-01-01

    Civil commitment under the sexually violent predator (SVP) statutes requires the presence of a statutorily defined diagnosed mental disorder linked to sexual offending. As a consequence of broad statutory definitions and ambiguously written court decisions, a bright line separating an SVP mental disorder from ordinary criminal behavior is difficult to draw. Some forensic evaluators reject whole categories of DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Text Revision) diagnoses as qualifying disorders (e.g., personality and substance abuse disorders), while others debate whether recurrent rape constitutes a paraphilic disorder. We argue that the ramifications of the SVP process, in representing both the balancing of public safety and the protection of an individual's right to liberty, demand that decisions about what is a legally defined mental disorder not be made in an arbitrary and idiosyncratic manner. Greater clarity and standardization must come from both sides: the legalists who interpret the law and the clinicians who apply and work under it.

  6. Putting polluters in jail: the imposition of criminal sanctions on corporate defendants under environmental statutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Congress included criminal sanctions in several current environmental statutes in an attempt to punish those who jeopardize the public's health and well being by polluting. After exploring how criminal sanctions are actually employed by the courts against corporate defendants, the author argues that these sanctions are ineffective deterrents. Special problems which exist for the prosecutor or judge who attempts to invoke criminal sanctions against a corporate defendant raise questions about the feasibility and propriety of punishing the corporate entities and difficulties associated with proceeding against a corporate official or responsible individual within the corporate organization. The only way to make the sanctions effective is to use them and to impose both fines and jail sentences on the guilty parties.

  7. Shkodra statutes and Canon, as regulatory selfgoverning instruments of Shkodra and North mountain tribes in Middle Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Shtjefni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a little-known period of development of history of the Albanian people, before the Ottoman invasion, the life of the residents of some Albanian cities and mountain provinces was self governed through a set of moral rules and norms of behavior accepted by all this population.There was a difference of these norms in urban areas, where these self regulating roles/norms were written and “codified”, examples are the Statute of Shkodra, Statute of Ulqin, Statute of Durres and customary legal norms applicable in the mountainous regions of northern Albania. Statutes of the cities and the common law or Canon served as moral, ethical and legal foundation for Albanian communities. The rule of these norms was not imposed on these communities through force but through reason that these customary rules were “according to conscience and common needs of the people”. The diversity of these acts that regulate the legal and social organization of the city of Shkodra and life of the population in Northern Mountains show that these populations, although they lived under very different circumstances, had the common substrate and values of Albanian population, which was not lost after centuries of Ottoman rule.

  8. 7 CFR 1.29 - Subpoenas relating to investigations under statutes administered by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subpoenas relating to investigations under statutes administered by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1.29 Section 1.29 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Departmental Proceedings § 1.29 Subpoenas relating to...

  9. 8 CFR 319.5 - Public international organizations in which the U.S. participates by treaty or statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public international organizations in which... UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.5 Public international organizations in which the U.S. participates by treaty or statute. Organizations designated by the President as international organizations pursuant...

  10. 40 CFR 33.204 - Where does an entity become certified under EPA's 8% and 10% statutes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under EPA's 8% and 10% statutes? 33.204 Section 33.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Certification § 33.204 Where does an entity become...'s U.S. citizenship requirement under § 33.202 or § 33.203. (3) An entity may only apply to EPA...

  11. State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sautter, John A.

    2010-10-15

    In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

  12. Matrix of Key Federal Statutes and Federal and State Court Decisions Reflecting the Core Concepts of Disability Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Stowe, Matt; Klein, Samara; Riffel, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    This matrix displays the decisions of the United States Supreme Court and the federal statutes most relevant to individuals with disabilities and their families. It is organized according to the core concepts of disability policy as identified by Rud Turnbull and his colleagues at the Beach Center on Disability, the University of Kansas, Lawrence,…

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and... Supplement No. 2 to Part 740—Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian... Equipment for the Handicapped (f) Basic Support Equipment and Supplies Necessary To Operate and Administer...

  14. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  15. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  16. Efficacy of radon remedial measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom))

    1994-04-01

    About 2000 householders in the UK have taken remedial action to reduce high radon levels in their homes. Some 800 of these householders have sought measurements to confirm the effectiveness of the action. Results for 528 such homes are discussed. (author).

  17. Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2008-01-01

    Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…

  18. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  19. Remediation Technology for Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediation is the most commonly selected technology for remediation of ground water at Superfund sites in the USA. The next most common technology is Chemical treatment, followed by Air Sparging, and followed by Permeable Reactive Barriers. This presentation reviews the the...

  20. THE PROBLEM OF PREPARATION OF FUTURE TEACHERS OF HUMANITARIAN CYCLE SUBJECTS TO THE USE OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMATIC FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena S. Tselykh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The actual questions related to the development of methods and receptions of improvement of preparation of future teachers of humanitarian cycle subjects to application the educational programmatic facilities (EPF in their professional activity are examined in the article. On the basis of the conducted research the level of readiness of students of humanitarian faculties of the South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University by K. D. Ushinskogo is analyzed the noted activity. It is set that application of educational programmatic facilities considerably intensifies professional preparation of future teachers of humanitarian cycle subjects. It is well-proven that teaching technologies which oriented on application of EPF in professional activity can considerably facilitate and improve teacher’s work to high-quality level, increase the level of knowledge and abilities of students.

  1. Engaging Ethical Issues Associated with Research and Public Health Interventions During Humanitarian Crises: Review of a Dialogic Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave, Anushree

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On November 7th, 2014 the Humanitarian Health Ethics Workshop was held at McGill University, in Montreal. Co-hosted by the Montreal Health Equity Research Consortium and the Humanitarian Health Ethics Network, the event included six presentations and extensive discussion amongst participants, including researchers from Canada, Haiti, India, Switzerland and the US. Participants had training in disciplines including anthropology, bioethics, medicine, occupational therapy, philosophy, physical therapy, political science, public administration and public health. The objective of the workshop was to create a forum for discussion amongst scholars and practitioners interested in the ethics of healthcare delivery, research and public health interventions during humanitarian crises. This review is a summary of the presentations given, key themes that emerged during the day’s discussions, and avenues for future research that were identified.

  2. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial Plan. 85.1803 Section 85.1803... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is... manufacturer shall submit a plan to the Administrator to remedy such nonconformity. The plan shall contain...

  3. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process was developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. P-2 Soil Remediation, Inc. formed a partnership with Weiss Associates and ElectroPetroleum, Inc. to apply the technology to contaminated sites. The ECRTs process was evaluated ...

  4. 48 CFR 2009.570-10 - Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570-10 Remedies. In addition to other remedies permitted by law or contract for a breach of the restrictions in this subpart or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Remedies....

  5. Where There Is a (Collective) Will, There Are (Effective) Ways: Integrating Individual- and Group-Level Factors in Explaining Humanitarian Collective Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emma F; McGarty, Craig; Reese, Gerhard; Berndsen, Mariette; Bliuc, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    The 21st century has borne witness to catastrophic natural and human-induced tragedies. These disasters necessitate humanitarian responses; however, the individual and collective bases of support are not well understood. Drawing on Duncan's motivational model of collective action, we focus on how individual differences position a person to adopt group memberships and develop a "group consciousness" that provides the basis for humanitarian action. Longitudinal mediation analyses involving supporters of international humanitarian action (N = 384) sampled annually for 3 years provided support for the hypothesized model, with some twists. The results revealed that within time point, a set of individual differences (together, the "pro-social orientation") promoted a humanitarian group consciousness that, in turn, facilitated collective action. However, longitudinally, there was evidence that a more general pro-social orientation undermined subsequent identification with, and engagement in, the humanitarian cause. Results are discussed in terms of understanding the interplay between individual and group in collective actions.

  6. Employing moderate resolution sensors in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Andrew J.

    Organizations concerned with human rights are increasingly using remote sensing as a tool to improve their detection of human rights and international humanitarian law violations. However, as these organizations have transitioned to human rights monitoring campaigns conducted over large regions and extended periods of time, current methods of using fine- resolution sensors and manpower-intensive analyses have become cost- prohibitive. To support the continued growth of remote sensing in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring campaigns, this study researches how moderate resolution land observatories can provide complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates the capacity of moderate resolutions to provide data to monitoring efforts by developing an approach that uses Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) as part of a system for the detection of village destruction in Darfur, Sudan. Village destruction is an indicator of a human rights or international humanitarian law violations in Darfur during the 2004 study period. This analysis approach capitalizes on Landsat's historical archive and systematic observations by constructing a historic spectral baseline for each village in the study area that supports automated detection of a potentially destroyed village with each new overpass of the sensor. Using Landsat's near-infrared band, the approach demonstrates high levels of accuracy when compared with a U.S. government database documenting destroyed villages. This approach is then applied to the Darfur conflict from 2002 to 2008, providing new data on when and where villages were destroyed in this widespread and long-lasting conflict. This application to the duration of a real-world conflict illustrates the abilities and shortcomings of moderate resolution sensors in human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates that moderate resolution satellites have the capacity to contribute

  7. State humanitarian verticalism versus universal health coverage: a century of French international health assistance revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia; Dozon, Jean-Pierre; Wilson, Andrew; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-28

    The French contribution to global public health over the past two centuries has been marked by a fundamental tension between two approaches: State-provided universal free health care and what we propose to call State humanitarian verticalism. Both approaches have historical roots in French colonialism and have led to successes and failures that continue until the present day. In this paper, the second in The Lancet's Series on France, we look at how this tension has evolved. During the French colonial period (1890s to 1950s), the Indigenous Medical Assistance structure was supposed to bring metropolitan France's model of universal and free public health care to the colonies, and French State imperial humanitarianism crystallised in vertical programmes inspired by Louis Pasteur, while vying with early private humanitarian activism in health represented by Albert Schweitzer. From decolonisation to the end of the Cold War (1960-99), French assistance to newly independent states was affected by sans frontièrisme, Health for All, and the AIDS pandemic. Since 2000, France has had an active role in development of global health initiatives and favoured multilateral action for health assistance. Today, with adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and the challenges of non-communicable diseases, economic inequality, and climate change, French international health assistance needs new direction. In the context of current debate over global health as a universal goal, understanding and acknowledging France's history could help strengthen advocacy in favour of universal health coverage and contribute to advancing global equity through income redistribution, from healthy populations to people who are sick and from wealthy individuals to those who are poor.

  8. Of special humanitarian concern: U.S. refugee admissions since passage of the Refugee Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D; Forbes, S; Fagan, P W

    1986-01-01

    The Refugee Act of 1980 is the 1st comprehensive legislation on the admission of refugees to the US; in the 5+ years since its enactment, over 500,000 refugees from more than 25 countries have been admitted to the US. This report assesses the effectiveness of the law in achieving its objectives in making and implementing decisions about the admission of refugees. The objectives of the Act include 1) a desire for a humanitarian response to refugee emergencies and a desire for control over that response, 2) a concern that ideological and geographic restrictions on refugee admissions be removed, and 3) a desire to balance international concerns and domestic impacts in making decisions on refugee admissions. The authors conclude that the refugee program does not serve the broad humanitarian purposes of previous parole programs, due to its stringent review requirements. The formal Congressional Consultations on refugee numbers should be rescheduled to allow regular Congressional input. The program needs a contingency budget for changing situations. The program needs more input from nongovernmental agencies and information sources. Recommendations on refugee admission numbers and allocations have not been well substantiated. Determinations as to which refugees are of "special humanitarian concern" are made solely on the basis of nationality; these decisions should also incorporate other factors. Admissions priorities are generally based on ties to this country, but this makes the refugee program a surrogate immigration program. Although the application of the refugee definition is difficult in practice, it forms the essence of the admission process. US staff must be trained to make these decisions; indecisiveness must not be allowed to jeopardize refugees.

  9. E-marketing of Humanitarian Organizations in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanka Dukić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The early 21st century marked the start of a new era in which information and communications technologies have played a key role. Owing to these technologies, a large part of the physical processes has moved into a virtual environment. As a result, there is a noticeable trend of ever-increasing volume of business activity carried out in the virtual environment – electronic business (e-business. In much the same way, business operations have transformed from a physical into a virtual form, so has the marketing assumed a new form called e-marketing. E-marketing is basically global; it operates 365 days a year/24 hours a day, and, in principle, uses a free resource provided by the global information infrastructure, i.e., the Internet. Businesses today have no choice but to use e-marketing. The same applies to non-profit sector to which humanitarian organizations belong. There are a large number of humanitarian organizations in the Republic of Croatia. However, these organizations are often run by people with no knowledge of marketing or management. It is therefore not surprising that as a result the production concept has been applied instead of the marketing concept. As the business environment changes, those who fail to adapt are bound for failure. This research was conducted to find an optimal model for application of e-marketing in humanitarian organizations working in the Republic of Croatia. In view of the rapid development of information and communications technologies, the model defined in this research will be viable for the next five to eight years.

  10. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ramesh

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear.To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts.A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980-2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed.Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS and 35% using household water treatment (HWT. All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions. 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence.The current evidence base on the impact of WASH interventions on health outcomes in

  11. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Anita; Blanchet, Karl; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear. Aim To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980–2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed. Results Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU) water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS) and 35% using household water treatment (HWT). All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions). 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap) as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence. Conclusion The current evidence base on the impact of WASH

  12. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Anita; Blanchet, Karl; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear. To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts. A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980-2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed. Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU) water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS) and 35% using household water treatment (HWT). All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions). 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap) as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence. The current evidence base on the impact of WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian

  13. TOWARDS FULFILLMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL RULES OF HUMANITARIAN LAW IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s. Bagheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT is an international treaty that should be implemented during both peace and wartime. However, the obligations included in the treaty are dependent upon states' attitudes regarding other issues. Non-use of nuclear weapons is directly related to negotiations done for the purpose of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, non-production or accumulation by other means and disarmament. In our day, prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been one of the issues of international law.The present study is of crucial significance due to its endeavor to clarify the general principles of Humanitarian Law in a relationship to the threat of nuclear weapons' up to now, a special norm; significantly limiting or completely prohibiting the use of nuclear weapons, has not been accepted in international law. However, customary international humanitarian law regarding the use of nuclear weapons holds great value because of its purpose in eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of war through ascertaining their non-use and also appeasing the importance of nuclear ascendancy. In this respect, the NPT regime and its relationship with international humanitarian law will be discussed. Firstly, the NPT background, formation, main objectives and principles will be analyzed. In order to evaluate the relationship between the NPT and humanitarian law, the humanitarian obligations in general, humanitarian obligations in the context of the NPT and fulfillmen t of these obligations under the NPT should be studied. One of the main parts of the study is nuclear disarmament obligation included in the NPT. In this section, nuclear disarmament obligation in the context of the NPT and the legal framework of possible, general and comprehensive disarmament will be examined.

  14. Access to healthcare for the most vulnerable migrants: a humanitarian crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottie, Kevin; Martin, Jorge Pedro; Cornish, Stephen; Biorklund, Linn Maria; Gayton, Ivan; Doerner, Frank; Schneider, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    A series of Médecins Sans Frontières projects for irregular migrants over the past decade have consistently documented high rates of 14 physical and sexual trauma, extortion and mental illness amidst severe healthcare, food, and housing limitations. Complex interventions were needed to begin to address illness and barriers to healthcare and to help restore dignity to the most vulnerable women, children and men. Promising interventions included mobile clinics, use of cultural mediators, coordination with migrant-friendly entities and NGOs and integrating advocacy programs and mental health care with medical services. Ongoing interventions, research and coordination are needed to address this neglected humanitarian crisis.

  15. Refugiados diante da nova ordem mundial Refugees face the new humanitarian order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Agier

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Em um contexto em que as guerras se transformaram, envolvendo cada vez mais civis e meios urbanos, e no quadro de uma nova tensão nas relações norte-sul (em particular entre a Europa e a África a respeito das migrações internacionais, a intervenção humanitária muda de sentido e de função. Cada vez mais ela se orienta para o controle e o confinamento dos desenraizados, dos refugiados, dos que reivindicam asilo e de todos os que, em um momento ou outro de sua trajetória, são qualificados de clandestinos. Em sua intervenção, os funcionários da ajuda humanitária lidam com a "vida destituída" dos dependentes de auxílio, tratados como vítimas absolutas e despojados de qualquer inserção social. Entretanto, na clandestinidade ou nos próprios campos, os refugiados tomam a palavra e desenvolvem iniciativas e respostas a seu confinamento, elegendo muitas vezes como alvo as organizações humanitárias governamentais ou da ONU. A linguagem humanitária é, assim, reutilizada ou redirecionada.The meaning and function of humanitarian interventions have changed as an outcome of a new scenario: war in urban spaces with increased involvement of civilians and new tensions between north and south (in particular Europe and Africa about international migration. More and more humanitarian action tries to control and to confine displaced people, refugees, asylum claimers and all that people designated as clandestine. These people are regarded as victim and devoid of any social ties. However, as clandestine or as inhabitants of champs, the refugees work out responses and initiatives to the confinement. The target is often humanitarian organizations supported by ONU or governments. The humanitarian language is in this way recycled and politicized by its subjects.

  16. Progress and gaps in reproductive health services in three humanitarian settings: mixed-methods case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sara E; Chynoweth, Sarah K; Cornier, Nadine; Gallagher, Meghan C; Wheeler, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive health (RH) care is an essential component of humanitarian response. Women and girls living in humanitarian settings often face high maternal mortality and are vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and sexual violence. This study explored the availability and quality of, and access barriers to RH services in three humanitarian settings in Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and South Sudan. Data collection was conducted between July and October 2013. In total, 63 purposively selected health facilities were assessed: 28 in Burkina Faso, 25 in DRC, and nine in South Sudan, and 42 providers completed a questionnaire to assess RH knowledge and attitudes. Thirty-four focus group discussions were conducted with 29 members of the host communities and 273 displaced married and unmarried women and men to understand access barriers. All facilities reported providing some RH services in the prior three months. Five health facilities in Burkina Faso, six in DRC, and none in South Sudan met the criteria as a family planning service delivery point. Two health facilities in Burkina Faso, one in DRC, and two in South Sudan met the criteria as an emergency obstetric and newborn care service delivery point. Across settings, three facilities in DRC adequately provided selected elements of clinical management of rape. Safe abortion was unavailable. Many providers lacked essential knowledge and skills. Focus groups revealed limited knowledge of available RH services and socio-cultural barriers to accessing them, although participants reported a remarkable increase in use of facility-based delivery services. Although RH services are being provided, the availability of good quality RH services was inconsistent across settings. Commodity management and security must be prioritized to ensure consistent availability of essential supplies. It is critical to improve the attitudes, managerial and technical capacity of providers to ensure that RH

  17. Performance of non-profit organizations: Empirical contrasts between privately and publicly funded Croatian humanitarian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Nikša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we contrast different aspects of non-profit organizations’ performance from the perspective of their funding sources. Based on previous empirical results indicating that sources of funding influence fundraising performance, we extend the existing research to the analysis of overall non-profit organizational performance. We use the social constructivist approach to non-profit performance to discuss contrasts between privately and publicly funded humanitarian organizations in Croatia. Some differences in growth- and development-oriented measures of nonprofit performance for these groups are identified and discussed in the context of future regional research.

  18. Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Menghestab

    2005-11-29

    Although considerable achievements in the global reduction of hunger and poverty have been made, progress in Africa so far has been very limited. At present, a third of the African population faces widespread hunger and chronic malnutrition and is exposed to a constant threat of acute food crisis and famine. The most affected are rural households whose livelihood is heavily dependent on traditional rainfed agriculture. Rainfall plays a major role in determining agricultural production and hence the economic and social well being of rural communities. The rainfall pattern in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by large-scale intra-seasonal and inter-annual climate variability including occasional El Niño events in the tropical Pacific resulting in frequent extreme weather event such as droughts and floods that reduce agricultural outputs resulting in severe food shortages. Households and communities facing acute food shortages are forced to adopt coping strategies to meet the immediate food requirements of their families. These extreme responses may have adverse long-term, impacts on households' ability to have sustainable access to food as well as the environment. The HIV/AIDS crisis has also had adverse impacts on food production activities on the continent. In the absence of safety nets and appropriate financial support mechanisms, humanitarian aid is required to enable households effectively cope with emergencies and manage their limited resources more efficiently. Timely and appropriate humanitarian aid will provide households with opportunities to engage in productive and sustainable livelihood strategies. Investments in poverty reduction efforts would have better impact if complemented with timely and predictable response mechanisms that would ensure the protection of livelihoods during crisis periods whether weather or conflict-related. With an improved understanding of climate variability including El Niño, the implications of weather patterns for the food

  19. The Good Samaritan and the marketer: public perceptions of humanitarian and international development NGOs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a nationwide study investigating public responses to humanitarian communications.\\ud Based on focus group data with members of the UK public, the paper discusses two key models\\ud through which NGOs identities and activities are understood and judged, both positively and negatively:\\ud the Good Samaritan and the Marketer. Thematic analysis of the focus groups extracts exposes the salience\\ud of these models in people’s thinking, how they speak to each other and how the...

  20. Replacing The Responsibility to Protect: The Equitable Theory of Humanitarian Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciarán Burke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Ciarán J. Burke argues that the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ initiative has failed. Burke presents a series of fundamental flaws, both with the doctrine advanced by the ICISS, and with the subsequent attempts to incorporate it into the international legal framework. Burke opines that equity, as a source of international law, should instead be used to shed fresh light on the debate, keeping the discourse within the law and away from subjective ethics, and drafting a novel framework which he dubs ‘equitable humanitarian intervention’.

  1. Dilemma and Prospects of International Humanitarian Intervention---take Somalia for instance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Yong-qin

    2014-01-01

    The paper analysizes dilemma of international humanitarian intervention, covering justification, legitimacy, hegemony politics and unilateral intervention; the sovereignty and human rights of the native; abuse of military force and departure from the aim and effect of the intervention, and then proposes desirable prospects. To guarantee its normalization, institutionalization and function in human rights-assuring and peace-keeping, we should enhance the function and empowerment of United Nations, regulate its procedure, use economic sanctions, world opinion and political stress rather than military force, and improve international supervision mechenism.

  2. The Colombian Policy of Rewards from the perspective of International Humanitarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Galvis - Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The scandal caused by the assassination of a guerrilla leader by one of his subordinates and the payment of a substantial economic reward made to him by the State, led to the first questionings regarding the legality of the reward system in Colombia. This article seeks to establish if the state spon sored reward policy respects the rules of International Humanitarian Law applicable to the Colombian armed conflict. For this purpose the article will analyze both the legislative development and three of the most controversial situations raised in practice which prove the range and effects of the use of rewards as a strategic tactic within the armed conflict.

  3. Developing Institutional Capacity for Reproductive Health in Humanitarian Settings: A Descriptive Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen-Toan Tran

    Full Text Available Institutions play a central role in advancing the field of reproductive health in humanitarian settings (RHHS, yet little is known about organizational capacity to deliver RHHS and how this has developed over the past decade. This study aimed to document the current institutional experiences and capacities related to RHHS.Descriptive study using an online questionnaire tool.Respondents represented 82 institutions from 48 countries, of which two-thirds originated from low-and middle-income countries. RHHS work was found not to be restricted to humanitarian agencies (25%, but was also embraced by development organizations (25% and institutions with dual humanitarian and development mandates (50%. Agencies reported working with refugees (81%, internally-displaced (87% and stateless persons (20%, in camp-based settings (78%, and in urban (83% and rural settings (78%. Sixty-eight percent of represented institutions indicated having an RHHS-related policy, 79% an accountability mechanism including humanitarian work, and 90% formal partnerships with other institutions. Seventy-three percent reported routinely appointing RH focal points to ensure coordination of RHHS implementation. There was reported progress in RHHS-related disaster risk reduction (DRR, emergency management and coordination, delivery of the Minimum Initial Services Package (MISP for RH, comprehensive RH services in post-crisis/recovery situations, gender mainstreaming, and community-based programming. Other reported institutional areas of work included capacity development, program delivery, advocacy/policy work, followed by research and donor activities. Except for abortion-related services, respondents cited improved efforts in advocacy, capacity development and technical support in their institutions for RHHS to address clinical services, including maternal and newborn health, sexual violence prevention and response, HIV prevention, management of sexually-transmitted infections

  4. International legal cooperation of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the cultural and humanitarian spheres – important part of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriddin Mamajonov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the International legal cooperation of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the cultural and humanitarian spheres. Analysis of the influence of the cultural and humanitarian spheres in the international relations of the states, including Uzbekistan, was carried out in the article. Additionally, more and more growing role of the so-called “culture factor” in the international politics is discussed in it. The analysis is based on the legal base of the Republic of Uzbekistan, international legal documents, research works of domestic and foreign scholars in such areas as culture, education, science, tourism and medical science.

  5. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  6. New IAEA guidelines on environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency, A2444, Seibersdorf (Austria); Howard, Brenda [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, LA1 4AP, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kashparov, Valery [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, 08162, 7, Mashinobudivnykiv str., Chabany, Kyivo-Svyatoshin region, Kyiv (Ukraine); Sanzharova, Natalie [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Russian Federation, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry Department-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In response to the needs of its Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published many documents covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These documents range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical documents describing remedial technologies. Almost all the documents on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a document related to accidents, namely the IAEA TRS No. 363 'Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides'. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. In response, the IAEA initiated the development of a new document, which incorporated new knowledge obtained during last 20 years, lessons learned and subsequent changes in the regulatory framework. The new document covers all aspects related to the environmental remediation from site characterisation to a description of individual remedial actions and decision making frameworks, covering urban, agricultural, forest and freshwater environments. Decisions taken to commence remediation need to be based on an accurate assessment of the amount and extent of contamination in relevant environmental compartments and how they vary with time. Major aspects of site characterisation intended for remediation are described together with recommendations on effective sampling programmes and data compilation for decision making. Approaches for evaluation of remedial actions are given in the document alongside the factors and processes which affect their implementation for different environments. Lessons learned following severe radiation accidents indicate that remediation should be considered with respect to many different

  7. THE PRINCIPLES OF THE HUMANITARIAN THINKING IN MODELING EDUCATION SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vladimirovna Sazina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to consider the current conditions for modeling education systems and processes based methodologically on the principles of “the humanitarian thinking” in a special for Russia moment in history, when educational and cultural types are changing radically; to determine the subject of inquiry and the language of modeling.Methodology: approaches developed by the author as a part of «the aesthetic paradigm of education»Results: the subject of modeling is an integral network of moral and aesthetical values in education systems and processes based on the so-called «humanitarian thinking»; the possibly most successful models of education systems and processes are: «aesthetic education paradigm» as a complete and integral network modeling main values and purposes for strategic planning (“culture creation” and a school everyday life; “moral (value communication” organized through the “network interactions” (interaction between the students and the lecturer of the Pedagogical Academy as a practical model of culture-creating activity.Field of application: educational process in the graduate school (teaching the Humanities, and in the secondary school as an integral network of moral and aesthetical values and purposes in the education system.

  8. Militarized humanitarianism meets carceral feminism: the politics of sex, rights, and freedom in contemporary antitrafficking campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, abolitionist feminist and evangelical Christian activists have directed increasing attention toward the “traffic in women” as a dangerous manifestation of global gender inequalities. Despite renowned disagreements around the politics of sex and gender, these groups have come together to advocate for harsher penalties against traffickers, prostitutes’ customers, and nations deemed to be taking insufficient steps to stem the flow of trafficked women. In this essay, I argue that what has served to unite this coalition of "strange bedfellows" is not simply an underlying commitment to conservative ideals of sexuality, as previous commentators have offered, but an equally significant commitment to carceral paradigms of justice and to militarized humanitarianism as the preeminent mode of engagement by the state. I draw upon my ongoing ethnographic research with feminist and evangelical antitrafficking movement leaders to argue that the alliance that has been so efficacious in framing contemporary antitrafficking politics is the product of two historically unique and intersecting trends: a rightward shift on the part of many mainstream feminists and other secular liberals away from a redistributive model of justice and toward a politics of incarceration, coincident with a leftward sweep on the part of many younger evangelicals toward a globally oriented social justice theology. In the final section of this essay, I consider the resilience of these trends given a newly installed and more progressive Obama administration, positing that they are likely to continue even as the terrain of militarized humanitarian action shifts in accordance with new sets of geopolitical interests.

  9. Fluid technologies: The Bush Pump, the LifeStraw and microworlds of humanitarian design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, many ingenious, small-scale gadgets have appeared in response to problems of disaster and extreme poverty. Focusing on the LifeStraw, a water filtration device invented by the company Vestergaard Frandsen, I situate this wave of humanitarian design relative to Marianne de Laet and Annemarie Mol's classic article on the Zimbabwe Bush Pump. The LifeStraw shares the Bush Pump's principle of technical minimalism, as well as its ethical desire to improve the lives of communities. Unlike the pump, however, the straw defines itself through rather than against market logic, accepting the premise that one can 'do well while doing good'. Moreover, it does not share the assumed framework of de Laet and Mol's Zimbabwean socio-technical landscape: a postcolonial state happily en route to national self-definition. Nonetheless, it clearly embodies moral affect, if in the idiom of humanitarian concern rather than development. My aim is to open up three interrelated lines of inquiry for discussion. First, I consider aspects of a postcolonial condition at the micro-level of immediate needs, including assumptions about nation-state politics and markets. Second, I emphasize science and technology in the form of infrastructure, the material frontline of norms. Third, I return reflexively to love, and the complicated allure of engagement in academic work.

  10. [Intervention priorities in the acute stage of complex emergencies drafted by nine humanitarian aid agencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Jaimes, Carmen Sofía; Arcos González, Pedro Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    Complex Emergencies are an international Public Health problem currently becoming increasingly more frequent and of growing proportions which lead to major death and disease rates, especially during the acute stage thereof. This study is aimed at identifying and analyzing the top-priority areas of intervention in the acute stage of a complex emergency drafted in the operating manuals of the main aid agencies, as well as the degree of development and structuring of the activities proposed in each area on which priority has been placed. The intervention manuals drafted by nine major aid agencies were used as study material. A quantitative analysis was then made of the 16 intervention priorities set out, as well as of the degree to which each priority was defined based on the development of 73 variables of aspects of the proposals set out in the manuals. The ACNUR manual includes 90% of the 73 variables for further expansion upon the priorities, the UN Humanitarian Affaire Coordination Office manual including 35% of the 73 variables. ACNUR better expands upon the non-healthcare variables, followed by MSF and USAID. Doctors without borders shows a 97.3% degree of expansion of the healthcare variables) followed by ACNUR (94.7%), USAID (92.1%). ACNUR has been found to have the most integral proposal, the UN Humanitarian Affairs Coordination Office having the most discreet. There is a general trend towad further expanding upon and unifying the health indicators, whilst other aspects are not further expanded upon.

  11. Secondary harm mitigation: A more humanitarian framework for international drug law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Jarrett; McLay, Miki; McCulloch, Jude

    2017-08-01

    This article introduces the concept of 'secondary harm mitigation' as a framework for improving the humanitarian credentials of international drug law enforcement agencies. The concept is rooted in a critical analysis of the compatibility of the harm reduction philosophy with Australia's international drug law enforcement practices. On a utilitarian level, the net benefits of international drug law enforcement are determined to be, at best inconclusive, arguably counterproductive and in most cases, incalculable. On a humanitarian level, international drug law enforcement is also determined to be problematic from a criminological standpoint because it generates secondary harms and it is indifferent to the vulnerability of individuals who participate in illicit drug trafficking. Accordingly, the article concludes that a philosophy of harm reduction grounded in the public health perspective is inadequate for mitigating secondary harms arising from Australia's efforts to combat international illicit drug trafficking. A tentative list of secondary harm mitigation principles is presented and the article argues that secondary harm mitigation should replace supply reduction as a core tenet of Australia's National Drug Strategy. The article also concludes that secondary harm mitigation may provide a viable framework for stimulating a productive dialogue between those who advocate prohibition and those who call for decriminalisation at the global level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The for-profit sector in humanitarian response: integrating ethical considerations in public policy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Negin, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of the for-profit private sector in health, social and humanitarian services has become a topic of keen interest. It is particularly contentious in those instances where for-profit organizations have become recipients of public funds, and where they become key decision-makers in terms of how, and to whom, services are provided. We put forward a framework for identifying and organizing the ethical questions to be considered when contracting government services to the for-profit sector, specifically in those areas that have traditionally remained in the public or not-for-profit spheres. The framework is designed to inform both academic debate and practical decision-making regarding the acceptability, feasibility and legitimacy of for-profit organizations carrying out humanitarian work. First, we outline the importance of posing ethical questions in government contracting for-profit vs. not-for-profit organizations. We then outline five key areas to be considered before then examining the extent to which ethics concerns are warranted and how they may be safeguarded.

  13. Increase urban resilience by planning the public spaces uses for humanitarian interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaitre, Maxime; Barroca, Bruno; Vargas, Jorge; Cornejo, Christian; Sierra, Alexis

    2017-04-01

    Challenges in post-disaster crisis of natural origin seem to have a strong relation with territory characteristics (location, habitat, propagation, etc.). Moreover, they determine those requirements needed for humanitarian interventions. Decision-making at response and recuperation stages are supported or limited depending on the availability of public spaces to be used for victims' accommodation, field hospitals and rubble deposits. In the case of Lima and Callao (Peru), the presence and superposition of multiple governmental levels - national, regional (1), provincial (2) and district (50) - result in a highly-complex local Disaster Risk Management system for response coordination. The diversity of actors, their responsibilities and individual initiative suggest competition for the resources available in an emergency situation. Resource location determines if humanitarian operations can be run in an effective and efficient way. In this context, public space is a fundamental resource; if it is well-selected, it will provide access to accumulated resources such as water, electricity and telecommunications for the affected population. To increase urban resilience, it requires previous planning and coordination for emergency response, where institutional and territorial configurations are decisive factors for the recuperation and rehabilitation processes performance. This communication will present the institutional and territorial dimensions of the Peruvian capital which condition emergency management performances to consider the crisis management opportunities, offered by territorial analysis and estimations of actors' needs. It would be a starting point for decision-making on emergence activities locations and for establishing coordination frameworks concerning territorial issues and challenges.

  14. GIS and Optimisation: Potential Benefits for Emergency Facility Location in Humanitarian Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodríguez-Espíndola

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Floods are one of the most dangerous and common disasters worldwide, and these disasters are closely linked to the geography of the affected area. As a result, several papers in the academic field of humanitarian logistics have incorporated the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS for disaster management. However, most of the contributions in the literature are using these systems for network analysis and display, with just a few papers exploiting the capabilities of GIS to improve planning and preparedness. To show the capabilities of GIS for disaster management, this paper uses raster GIS to analyse potential flooding scenarios and provide input to an optimisation model. The combination is applied to two real-world floods in Mexico to evaluate the value of incorporating GIS for disaster planning. The results provide evidence that including GIS analysis for a decision-making tool in disaster management can improve the outcome of disaster operations by reducing the number of facilities used at risk of flooding. Empirical results imply the importance of the integration of advanced remote sensing images and GIS for future systems in humanitarian logistics.

  15. Institutionalized humanitarian actions and ethnic distance given in the example of Greeks and Serbs nowadays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work views the relationship between humanitarian actions and ethnic distance in the example of Greeks and Serbs nowadays. There is an issue of a motive and a role of ethnic distance in the manner of conveying humanitarian help, as well as its wider social consequences. The activities of two organizations are taken as an example: the Red Cross and the Greek Caravan of Solidarity. During wars on the territory of Yugoslavia in the 1990s the Red Cross of Serbia was included in an action with the aim of enabling the continuation of education for the children from the war stricken parts. Many other organizations were also included in giving help. The work of the Greek Caravan of Solidarity as an institution which has a specific method of giving help is viewed here. Apart from extenuating the children's war traumas, the numerous gifts and hospitality over the years brought to the deepening of ethnic closeness. Among other things, the expansion of Greek language and culture came as a result of this. The hospitality and friendship have been continued after the war until today.

  16. Soil information requirements for humanitarian demining: the case for a soil properties database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Yogadhish; McFee, John E.; Russell, Kevin L.; Cross, Guy; Katsube, T. John

    2003-09-01

    Landmines are buried typically in the top 30 cm of soil. A number of physical, chemical and electromagnetic properties of this near-surface layer of ground will potentially affect the wide range of technologies under development worldwide for landmine detection and neutralization. Although standard soil survey information, as related to conventional soil classification, is directed toward agricultural and environmental applications, little or no information seems to exist in a form that is directly useful to humanitarian demining and the related R&D community. Thus, there is a general need for an information database devoted specifically to relevant soil properties, their geographic distribution and climate-driven variability. A brief description of the various detection technologies is used to introduce the full range of related soil properties. Following a general description of the need to establish a comprehensive soil property database, the discussion is then narrowed to soil properties affecting electromagnetic induction metal detectors - a problem of much restricted scope but of immediate and direct relevance to humanitarian demining. In particular, the complex magnetic susceptibility and, to a lesser degree, electrical conductivity of the host soil influence the performance of these widely used tools, and in the extreme instance, can render detectors unusable. A database comprising these properties for soils of landmine-affected countries would assist in predicting local detector performance, planning demining operations, designing and developing improved detectors and establishing realistic and representative test-evaluation facilities. The status of efforts made towards developing a database involving soil electromagnetic properties is reported.

  17. Space and the chapter organization in accordance with the statutes of the cathedral of Viseu in the transition to the Modern Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Filipe Pereira Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1561, Bishop D. Gonçalo Pinheiro (1552-1567 sent draft the statutes of the Cathedral of Viseu. These statutes are the first symptom of council meetings that were held in Trento with the aim of reforming the customs of the secular clergy and restore credibility to an institution that was now threatened by Protestant attacks from Central Europe. However, the reality of the Viseu’s cathedral was quite different from that imposed by statute. We have to do a review on the main statutory and verify how the council adapted to these regulations.

  18. Environmental Remediation Data Management Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierowski, J. V.; Henry, L. G.; Dooley, D. A.

    2002-02-26

    Computer software tools for data management can improve site characterization, planning and execution of remediation projects. This paper discusses the use of two such products that have primarily been used within the nuclear power industry to enhance the capabilities of radiation protection department operations. Advances in digital imaging, web application development and programming technologies have made development of these tools possible. The Interactive Visual Tour System (IVTS) allows the user to easily create and maintain a comprehensive catalog containing digital pictures of the remediation site. Pictures can be cataloged in groups (termed ''tours'') that can be organized either chronologically or spatially. Spatial organization enables the user to ''walk around'' the site and view desired areas or components instantly. Each photo is linked to a map (floor plan, topographical map, elevation drawing, etc.) with graphics displaying the location on the map and any available tour/component links. Chronological organization enables the user to view the physical results of the remediation efforts over time. Local and remote management teams can view these pictures at any time and from any location. The Visual Survey Data System (VSDS) allows users to record survey and sample data directly on photos and/or maps of areas and/or components. As survey information is collected for each area, survey data trends can be reviewed for any repetitively measured location or component. All data is stored in a Quality Assurance (Q/A) records database with reference to its physical sampling point on the site as well as other information to support the final closeout report for the site. The ease of use of these web-based products has allowed nuclear power plant clients to plan outage work from their desktop and realize significant savings with respect to dose and cost. These same tools are invaluable for remediation and decommissioning

  19. The silent victims of humanitarian crises and livelihood (in)security: a case study among migrants in two Chadian towns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djindil, N.S.; Bruijn, de M.

    2009-01-01

    Once a humanitarian disaster receives coverage in the global media, the international community usually mobilises to reduce the most severe consequences. However people in Chad are experiencing endemic crises that are detached from speci!c triggers, and they are not receiving any international assis

  20. To Walk the Earth in Safety: The United States’ Commitment to Humanitarian Mine Action and Conventional Weapons Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    community. demining, mechanical, community liaison and mobile EOD teams in Battambang and Preah Vihear provinces. The Golden West Humanitarian...teams, and mobile EOD teams to benefit economic development projects in Battambang and Preah Vihear provinces. PM/WRA also granted $75,000 to Clear

  1. A Public Health Approach to Address the Mental Health Burden of Youth in Situations of Political Violence and Humanitarian Emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.V.M. de Jong; L.H. Berckmoes; B.A. Kohrt; S.J. Song; W.A. Tol; R. Reis

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes how socio-ecological theory and a syndemic health systems and public health approach may help address the plight of youth in situations of political violence and humanitarian emergencies. We describe the treatment gap caused by discrepancies in epidemiological prevalence rates,

  2. 76 FR 77542 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian Use Device...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian Use Device Designations; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a...

  3. The doctrine of joint criminal action in the ad hoc tribunals and its scope in the Rome Statute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Odriozola-Gurrutxaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The first judgment of the International Criminal Court has confirmed that article 25 (3 of the Rome Statute adopts the theory of control of the act to distinguish between principals and accessories. On the contrary, since 2003, the ad hoc tribunals’ case law bases the notion of co-perpetration on the Joint Criminal Enterprise doctrine, using a subjective criterion approach. In this article we will first analyze the problems raised by that case law of the ad hoc tribunals, and then, we will study the article of the Rome Statute which apparently most resembles the Joint Criminal Enterprise doctrine: article 25 (3 (d. The article concludes that none of the three categories of that doctrine is included in the said provision.

  4. To License or Not to License Updated: An Examination of State Statutes Regarding Private Investigators and Digital Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lonardo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this update to the 2009 year's study, the authors examine statutes that regulate, license, and enforce investigative functions in each US state. After identification and review of Private Investigator licensing requirements, the authors find that very few state statutes explicitly differentiate between Private Investigators and Digital Examiners, but do see a trend of more states making some distinction. The authors contacted all state regulatory agencies where statutory language was not explicit, and as a result, set forth the various state approaches to professional Digital Examiner licensing. As was the case in the previous two iterations of this research, the authors conclude that states must differentiate between Private Investigator and Digital Examiner licensing requirements and oversight.

  5. Implications of the Subject's Ontological Statute in the Bakhtin, Medvedev, Vološinov Circle's Discursive Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Pires

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the dialogical ontology from a Bakhtinian perspective for this is an essential topic linked to subjects’ agency in the context of dialogism. From this acting definition emerges a conception of language that is the basis of the Bakhtin, Medvedev, VoloŠinov Circle’s theory of enunciation. Thus, one intends to examine here the implications of the statute of the subject in Bakhtin’s philosophical theory and its resulting application in the Circle’s enunciative theory, which makes necessary to explore the philosophical bases of the Bakhtinian architecture as regards the dialogical principle, the conceptions of identity and intersubjectivity, social evaluation, the ethics of responsibility and the relationship among subjects. One aims to show that sense, resulting from enunciation, has to do with the ontological statute, understood as a social and historical one, of interacting subjects.

  6. Cumulative Risk Assessment and Environmental Equity in Air Permitting: Interpretation, Methods, Community Participation and Implementation of a Unique Statute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Pratt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the statute authorizing the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA to issue air permits was amended to include a unique requirement to analyze and consider “cumulative levels and effects of past and current environmental pollution from all sources on the environment and residents of the geographic area within which the facility's emissions are likely to be deposited.” Data describing the Statute Area suggest it is challenged by environmental and socioeconomic concerns, i.e., concerns which are often described by the phrase ‘environmental equity’. With input from diverse stakeholders, the MPCA developed a methodology for implementing a cumulative levels and effects analysis when issuing air permits in the designated geographic area. A Process Document was created defining explicit steps a project proposer must complete in the analysis. An accompanying Reference Document compiles all available environmental health data relevant to the Statute Area that could be identified. The final cumulative levels and effects methodology is organized by health endpoint and identifies hazard, exposure and health indices that require further evaluation. The resulting assessment is summarized and presented to decision makers for consideration in the regulatory permitting process. We present a description of the methodology followed by a case study summary of the first air permit processed through the “cumulative levels and effects analysis”.

  7. Cumulative risk assessment and environmental equity in air permitting: interpretation, methods, community participation and implementation of a unique statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson, Kristie M; Sevcik, Sarah M; Burman, Shelley; Pak, Steven; Kohlasch, Frank; Pratt, Gregory C

    2011-11-01

    In 2008, the statute authorizing the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) to issue air permits was amended to include a unique requirement to analyze and consider "cumulative levels and effects of past and current environmental pollution from all sources on the environment and residents of the geographic area within which the facility's emissions are likely to be deposited." Data describing the Statute Area suggest it is challenged by environmental and socioeconomic concerns, i.e., concerns which are often described by the phrase 'environmental equity'. With input from diverse stakeholders, the MPCA developed a methodology for implementing a cumulative levels and effects analysis when issuing air permits in the designated geographic area. A Process Document was created defining explicit steps a project proposer must complete in the analysis. An accompanying Reference Document compiles all available environmental health data relevant to the Statute Area that could be identified. The final cumulative levels and effects methodology is organized by health endpoint and identifies hazard, exposure and health indices that require further evaluation. The resulting assessment is summarized and presented to decision makers for consideration in the regulatory permitting process. We present a description of the methodology followed by a case study summary of the first air permit processed through the "cumulative levels and effects analysis".

  8. On Statute-law System Reform Deeply%论深化司法体制改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方令

    2001-01-01

    司法体制改革正步入攻坚阶段,针对这个阶段的特点,提出抓住司法公正这个突破口,抓好司法监督这个重点,解决体制改革中的各种矛盾,为中国特色的社会主义政治制度、经济制度、社会文化制度保驾护航。%Statute-law system reform is going into the stage in urgency. In view of the characteristics at this stage, this paper proposes that it should pay special attention to statute-law selfless and stress the emphasis of statute-law supervise,so as to settle a variety of contradictions in the system reform gradually and service for the socialist political system, economic system and social culture system owning Chinese characteristics.

  9. [Natural remedies during pregnancy and lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, E; Melzer, J; von Mandach, U; Saller, R

    2004-10-01

    Up to date there is a lack of systematically gathered data on the use of natural remedies (phytotherapeutic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, spagyric, Bach and Schussler remedies) during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this non-representative pilot study on 139 women, who came for delivery to three institutions between mid-1997 and the beginning of 1998, was to receive data about how often and within which spectrum natural remedies are used during pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy 96% and within the lactation period 84% of the women consumed at least 1 natural remedy. Phytotherapeutic drugs were used most frequently. In contrast to the widespread use of natural remedies by pregnant women and nursing mothers in this study, little information on the effectiveness and possible risks is available. Therefore it seems necessary to examine and evaluate natural remedies used during pregnancy and lactation.

  10. 25 CFR 1000.130 - Does a Tribe/Consortium need to be identified in an authorizing statute in order for a program or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does a Tribe/Consortium need to be identified in an authorizing statute in order for a program or element of a program to be included in a non-BIA AFA? 1000.130... § 1000.130 Does a Tribe/Consortium need to be identified in an authorizing statute in order for a...

  11. El Niño-Flood Predictability for Early Humanitarian Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerton, Rebecca; Stephens, Liz; Cloke, Hannah; Woolnough, Steve; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a mode of variability which sees anomalously high or low sea surface temperatures in the Pacific, is known to have a significant impact on both hydrology and meteorology across the globe. One significant influence is that of El Niño, the warm phase of ENSO, on flooding in the Piura region of Peru. The anticipation and forecasting of floods is crucial for flood preparedness, and the link between El Niño and flooding in Peru, alongside the predictive skill of El Niño up to seasons ahead, may provide an early indication of upcoming severe flood events. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been used to create the first 110-year global reanalysis dataset of river discharge, using the ECMWF ERA-20C atmospheric reanalysis. These datasets are being used to analyse the predictability of flood events in Peru in relation to ENSO, using both hydrological and meteorological approaches; with the aim of providing early indicators of potential flood events and thresholds for early humanitarian action in the region. In particular, this research also aims to determine the causes of the most extreme flood events, such as those observed in 1982/83 and 1997/98, through investigation of the changes in atmospheric circulation during these events. Forecast-based Financing (FbF) is an initiative of the German Red Cross, for disbursing humanitarian funding as soon as a forecast threshold is crossed, prior to a severe event. Collaboration with the Peruvian Red Cross and SENAHMI during 2015 led to the use of such research to define thresholds for action in Piura during an El Niño, as part of an FbF pilot study. We will present here the link between El Niño and flooding, with a focus on the Piura region of Peru, and how this El Niño-flood predictability may be used for flood preparedness and early humanitarian action in regions across the globe.

  12. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 8 Air-Based Remediation Technology Selection Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  13. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) - IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaulation Report summarizes the results of the evaluation of the Electrochemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process, developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. (in partnership with Weiss Associates and Electro-Petroleum, Inc.). This evaluation was co...

  14. Humanitarian Emergency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce Shuindu

    2011-01-01

    TWO things happen when violent conflict and widespread famine meet - people die and those deaths grab headlines.And that's the reality of the sad news coming out of the Horn of Africa about drought,dire starvation and famine.It all sounds far-fetched when you tell a person who has never slept on a hungry stomach about hunger,famine and the resultant death.

  15. Humanitarian Emergency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce; Shuindu

    2011-01-01

    Food security crisis in the Horn is Africa’s worst since Somalia’s 1991-92 famine TWO things happen when violent conflict and widespread famine meet -people die and those deaths grab headlines.And that’s the reality of the sad news coming out of the Horn of Africa about drought,dire starvation and famine.

  16. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  17. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  18. [Advance in enzymological remediation of polluted soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Chen, Lijun; Liu, Guifen; Wu, Zhijie

    2003-12-01

    Soils enzymes play an important role in the remediation of polluted soils. The enzymological remediation of polluted soils has the characteristics of high specialization, wide applicability, and little sensitivity to the ambient factors. This paper reviewed the advantages of enzymological remediation of polluted soils, the methods and technologies of enzyme immobilization, and the removal mechanisms of pollutants by oxidoreductases. The sources and characteristics of the enzymes used to remediation were also introduced, and some suggestions about the research in the future were put forward.

  19. Electrokinetic remediation of oil-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Vladimir A; Romanyukha, Olga V; Abyzova, Anna M

    2008-07-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the factors influencing electrokinetic remediation of soils from petroleum pollutants. The remediation method was applied in two versions: (i) static and (ii) flowing, when a sample was washed with leaching solution. It was found that all the soils studied can be purified using this technique. It was also observed that the mineral and grain-size composition of soils, their properties, and other parameters affect the remediation efficiency. The static and flowing versions of the remediation method removed 25-75% and 90-95% of the petroleum pollutants, respectively from the soils under study.

  20. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tank Waste Remediation System Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robershotte, M.A.; Dirks, L.L.; Seaver, D.A.; Bothers, A.J.; Madden, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties.

  2. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  3. Legal issues of humanitarian assistance after the 2007 earthquake in Pisco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambarén, Celso

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the central coast of Peru on 15 August 2007 was a disaster that mobilized international humanitarian assistance to address the needs of the affected people in the regions of Huancavelica, Ica, and Lima. It also was an opportunity to prove the effectiveness of regulations and procedures to facilitate the entry and distribution of donations and medical goods during a major emergency. In the first month after the earthquake, the national government approved new regulations that aimed to reduce waiting time while reducing the number of requisites required by customs. More than 5,500 tons of international donations arrived in Peru in a short period of time. Many donated medicines arrived unsorted, without an international non-proprietary (generic) name on the label, and some medicines did not have any relationship with the diseases that would appear in the aftermath of the event.

  4. Perspectives on the Contribution of Higher Education to Education as a Humanitarian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Brock

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The context assumed in this argument is that of a potential catastrophe for humanity and the global environment within a century or two. The contention is that education in a radical form, centrally involving universities and other higher education institutions (HEIs, is the most likely weapon available to mankind that can avert such a disastrous scenario. The discussion focuses on the crucial issue of scale and the need to move from national and even provincial level policy and practice to that of local communities. This involves radical reform of the content and delivery of schooling through the involvement of universities with localinstitutions of delivery. Recourse is made to important recent sources promoted by UNESCO focusing on these crucial partnerships between universities, schools and communities, linking the global with the local through information and communications Technology ICT in the interests of education as a humanitarian response.

  5. How economic, humanitarian, and religious concerns shape European attitudes toward asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansak, Kirk; Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik

    2016-10-14

    What types of asylum seekers are Europeans willing to accept? We conducted a conjoint experiment asking 18,000 eligible voters in 15 European countries to evaluate 180,000 profiles of asylum seekers that randomly varied on nine attributes. Asylum seekers who have higher employability, have more consistent asylum testimonies and severe vulnerabilities, and are Christian rather than Muslim received the greatest public support. These results suggest that public preferences over asylum seekers are shaped by sociotropic evaluations of their potential economic contributions, humanitarian concerns about the deservingness of their claims, and anti-Muslim bias. These preferences are similar across respondents of different ages, education levels, incomes, and political ideologies, as well as across the surveyed countries. This public consensus on what types of asylum seekers to accept has important implications for theory and policy. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Hegemony and Humanitarian Norms: The U.S. Legitimation of Toxic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bonds

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite widespread beliefs that the United States has not used chemical weapons since the distant past of World War I, this study suggests a more complicated history by examining U.S. use of herbicides and incapacitating gases in the Vietnam War and its use of herbicides in the "War on Drugs." This article places such use of toxic violence within a context of U.S. hegemony, by which U.S. officials have used contested forms of violence to secure geopolitical goals, but have also been pressured to comply with humanitarian norms or-when there is a gap between norms and state policy-to do legitimating work in order to maintain domestic and international consent. Based on case study analysis of archival and secondary sources, this article identifies three main techniques U.S. officials use to legitimate contested forms of violence. These techniques are defensive categorization, humanitizing discourse, and surrogacy.

  7. When "humanitarianism" becomes "development": the politics of international aid in Syria's Palestinian refugee camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabiam, Nell

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has attempted to go beyond its role as a provider of relief and basic services in Palestinian refugee camps and emphasize its role as a development agency. In this article, I focus on the Neirab Rehabilitation Project, an UNRWA-sponsored development project taking place in the Palestinian refugee camps of Ein el Tal and Neirab in northern Syria. I argue that UNRWA's role as a relief-centered humanitarian organization highlights the everyday suffering of Palestinian refugees, suffering that has become embedded in refugees’ political claims. I show that UNRWA's emphasis on “development” in the refugee camps is forcing Palestinian refugees in Ein el Tal and Neirab to reassess the political narrative through which they have understood their relationship with UNRWA.

  8. Humanitarian relief supply chain: a multi-objective model and solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ADITYA JHA; DAMODAR ACHARYA; M K TIWARI

    2017-07-01

    This paper models a humanitarian relief chain that includes a relief goods supply chain and an evacuation chain in case of a natural disaster. Optimum network flow is studied for both the chains by considering three conflicting objectives, namely demand satisfaction in relief chain, demand satisfaction in evacuation chain and overall logistics cost.The relief goods supply chain consists of three echelons: suppliers, relief camps and affected areas. The evacuation chain consists of two echelons: evacuation camps and affected areas. The model has been made more resilient by considering multiple paths between any two locations and disruptionof camps and paths due to natural factors. The Mixed Integer Programming problem has been solved using NSGA-III and results have been compared to those from benchmark algorithms. The model has been successfully tested on generated real-life-like data.

  9. The problem of surplus body mass of humanitarian specialities students (girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterova T.V.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Have been defined a degree of conformity of body mass to length of humanitarian specialities students. Have been research 526 students, the middle age of them is 18 years and 4 month. For definition conformity of body mass to length of body is used BMI. It is set that on the average 13,5% of all students have surplus mass of body, which they inherited on a female line. From childhood 36,4% students have surplus mass of body, 45,4% - from teens, At others this problem has arisen at the age of 16-17 years. Most of them would like to bring it over to the norm and to join regular employment by physical exercises.

  10. New trends of short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism: professional and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Junck, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism has grown significantly among both clinicians and trainees over the past several years. Increasingly, both volunteers and their respective institutions have faced important challenges in regard to medical ethics and professional codes that should not be overlooked. We explore these potential concerns and their risk factors in three categories: ethical responsibilities in patient care, professional responsibility to communities and populations, and institutional responsibilities towards trainees. We discuss factors increasing the risk of harm to patients and communities, including inadequate preparation, the use of advanced technology and the translation of Western medicine, issues with clinical epidemiology and test utility, difficulties with the principles of justice and clinical justice, the lack of population-based medicine, sociopolitical effects of foreign aid, volunteer stress management, and need for sufficient trainee supervision. We review existing resources and offer suggestions for future skill-based training, organisational responsibilities, and ethical preparation.

  11. Early Flood Detection for Rapid Humanitarian Response: Harnessing Near Real-Time Satellite and Twitter Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden Jongman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian organizations have a crucial role in response and relief efforts after floods. The effectiveness of disaster response is contingent on accurate and timely information regarding the location, timing and impacts of the event. Here we show how two near-real-time data sources, satellite observations of water coverage and flood-related social media activity from Twitter, can be used to support rapid disaster response, using case-studies in the Philippines and Pakistan. For these countries we analyze information from disaster response organizations, the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS satellite flood signal, and flood-related Twitter activity analysis. The results demonstrate that these sources of near-real-time information can be used to gain a quicker understanding of the location, the timing, as well as the causes and impacts of floods. In terms of location, we produce daily impact maps based on both satellite information and social media, which can dynamically and rapidly outline the affected area during a disaster. In terms of timing, the results show that GFDS and/or Twitter signals flagging ongoing or upcoming flooding are regularly available one to several days before the event was reported to humanitarian organizations. In terms of event understanding, we show that both GFDS and social media can be used to detect and understand unexpected or controversial flood events, for example due to the sudden opening of hydropower dams or the breaching of flood protection. The performance of the GFDS and Twitter data for early detection and location mapping is mixed, depending on specific hydrological circumstances (GFDS and social media penetration (Twitter. Further research is needed to improve the interpretation of the GFDS signal in different situations, and to improve the pre-processing of social media data for operational use.

  12. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability.

  13. The humanitarian emergency in Burundi: evaluation of the operational strategy for management of nutritional crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Laura; Verna, Daniel; Villeneuve, Susie L

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the impact and appropriateness of programmes for the management and treatment of severe malnutrition in emergency situations. A central unified database was set up with all data and statistics provided by nutritional centres (NC) active in Burundi. The paper describes the case of Burundi as an example of the response of the humanitarian community to nutritional crisis. Since 1999, more than one million (1,054,210) severely malnourished patients were treated in NC established in Burundi. Peaks of beneficiaries were registered in 2000 and 2001; the admission rate started to decrease in 2002. In 2004, twenty therapeutic feeding centres (TFC) and 224 supplementary feeding centres (SFC) were active for the treatment of 127,420 beneficiaries. Nutritional programmes were present in every province with a coverage rate of 55%. The most convincing impact of the nutritional programme in Burundi was the reduction of mortality rate in children under 5 years of age; an impact on the prevalence of acute malnutrition could not be demonstrated. Children under 5 years old accounted for 62% of beneficiaries in TFC and 76% in SFC. TFC performance indicators fulfilled the minimum standards in disaster response; the performance of SFC was not so optimal with a low recovery rate (69% v. >80%) and a high non-respondent rate (16% v. <5%). With the combination of coverage and cure rate, the programme met 44% of the assessed needs in 2004. In Burundi the stabilisation of security conditions permitted a combination of humanitarian responses ranging from emergency activities to strengthening of community-based initiatives that could correct the coverage and impact limitations.

  14. A psychosocial approach in humanitarian forensic action: The Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Ute; Navarro, Susana

    2017-09-01

    Forensic humanitarian action is aimed at alleviating suffering and maintaining human dignity, with the victims and their families at the core. International recommendations emphasize the importance of psychological support and psychosocial work as an integral part of forensic investigations into missing persons. Psychosocial action does not simply refer to emotional support but is based on the idea of the individual being the holder of rights, encouraging decision taking, affirming actions, and elaborating personal and collective histories. In this framework, forensics and psychosocial sciences need to work in complementary and coordinated interaction for the benefit of the families and communities. For forensic investigations to be restorative - their ultimate humanitarian objective - there are certain additional conditions apart from those of scientific quality and ethics: respect, information and coordination are among the main pillars for forensic action with a psychosocial approach, taking into account the need to treat on an individual and collective level the continuous psychological affectations caused by the disappearance of a loved one. On this basis, psychological and psychosocial accompaniment of the victims can contribute to the victims' healing process and also improve the forensic investigations themselves. This article, which is based on the experience of two decades of practical forensic and psychosocial work in the field, explains the main psychological effects of disappearances and the resulting needs. It gives a short historical overview of the origins and developments in psychosocial support and a perspective in relation to the search for missing persons and forensic interventions in Latin America. It goes on to demonstrate how coordinated interaction among the forensic and psychosocial fields strengthens both of them to the benefit of the affected families, groups and communities. Finally, it takes up some of the international recommendations

  15. Achievements and bottlenecks in humanitarian demining EU-funded research: final results from the EC DELVE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Hichem; Bruschini, Claudio; Van Kempen, Luc; Schleijpen, Ric; den Breejen, Eric

    2008-04-01

    The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology Development (RTD) situation from early 1990 until 2006. The situation at the European level was analyzed with emphasis on activities sponsored by the European Commission (EC). This was also done for four European countries and Japan, with emphasis on national activities. The developments in HD during the last 10 years underline the fact that in a number of cases demining related developments have been terminated or at least put on hold. The study also showed that the funding provided by the EC under the Framework Program for RTD has led directly to the creation of an extensive portfolio of Humanitarian Demining technology development projects. The latter provided a range of research and supporting measures addressing the critical issues identified as a result of the regulatory policies developed in the field of Humanitarian Demining over the last ten years. However, the range of instruments available to the EC to finance the necessary research and development were limited, to pre-competitive research. The EC had no tools or programs to directly fund actual product development. As a first consequence, the EC funding program for development of technology for Humanitarian Demining unfortunately proved to be largely unsuitable for the small-scale development needed in a field where there is only a very limited market. As a second consequence, most of the research has been demonstrator-oriented. Moreover, the timeframe for RTD in Humanitarian Demining has not been sufficiently synchronized with the timeframe of the EC policies and regulations. The separation of the Mine Action and RTD funding streams in the EC did also negatively affect the take-up of new technologies. As a

  16. Talking the talk, what about walking the walk? : Investigation of barriers to the implementation of gender equality policies in humanitarian action

    OpenAIRE

    Atterby, Carin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the possible barriers to why the implementation of gender equality policies in the everyday activities on the ground of humanitarian action is not evident in practice. To investigate this arena, in-depth interviews were conducted with gender advisors of humanitarian organisations. The data was analysed using thematic analysis through the lens of the theoretical framework of systems theory and the concept of `knowledge into practice’. The findings indic...

  17. CHILDREN, CONFLICT AND INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE: EXPLORING THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD DURING ARMED CONFLICT WITH RESPECT TO HUMANITARIAN LAW AND TO HUMAN RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehari Fisseha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between humanitarian law and human rights has become at once more enigmatically ambiguous and more tightly bound during recent years. The ratification of the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children during armed conflicts (hereinafter “Protocol” in February of 2002 is indicative of how inextricably linked international, humanitarian law and human rights have become within the first decade of the twenty-first century.

  18. An Expert support model for ex situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Frankhuizen, E.M.; Wit, de J.C.; Pijls, C.G.J.M.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an expert support model recombining knowledge and experience obtained during ex situ soil remediation. To solve soil remediation problems, an inter-disciplinary approach is required. Responsibilities during the soil remediation process, however, are increasingly decentralised, wh

  19. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  20. Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This document describes how to investigate and evaluate moisture and mold problems in educational facilities, and presents the key steps for implementing a remediation plan. A checklist is provided for conducting mold remediation efforts along with a resource list of helpful organizations and governmental agencies. Appendices contain a glossary,…

  1. LCA of Soil and Groundwater Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2017-01-01

    Today, there is increasing interest in applying LCA to support decision-makers in contaminated site management. In this chapter, we introduce remediation technologies and associated environmental impacts, present an overview of literature findings on LCA applied to remediation technologies and pr...

  2. Apples, pears and porridge: the origins and impact of the search for 'coherence' between humanitarian and political responses to chronic political emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, J; Leader, N

    2001-12-01

    During the 1990s a consensus emerged within the international humanitarian system that there was a need to enhance the 'coherence' between humanitarian and political responses to complex political emergencies. Closer integration between aid and political responses was seen to be necessary in order to address the root causes of conflict-induced crises, and to ensure that aid did not exacerbate political tensions. This paper explores the theory and practice of coherence over the past decade. It argues that, by sleight of hand, the coherence agenda has been reinterpreted such that humanitarian action has become the primary form of political action, rather than merely a substitute for it. The coherence agenda has been driven by geopolitical events, domestic policy considerations in donor countries and the more parochial concerns of aid policy, and is reflected in a number of substantive changes in the humanitarian architecture. Many of the tenets of this 'new humanitarianism' have been embraced by the majority of relief agencies, and thus legitimised it. The paper concludes that political humanitarianism, as opposed to active engagement by political and military actors, is flawed ethically and technically. It will provide neither an effective palliative for the ill effects of war, nor address its causes.

  3. Site remediation techniques in India: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anomitra Banerjee; Miller Jothi [BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    India is one of the developing countries operating site remediation techniques for the entire nuclear fuel cycle waste for the last three decades. In this paper we intend to provide an overview of remediation methods currently utilized at various hazardous waste sites in India, their advantages and disadvantages. Over the years the site remediation techniques have been well characterized and different processes for treatment, conditioning and disposal are being practiced. Remediation Methods categorized as biological, chemical or physical are summarized for contaminated soils and environmental waters. This paper covers the site remediation techniques implemented for treatment and conditioning of wastelands arising from the operation of nuclear power plant, research reactors and fuel reprocessing units. (authors)

  4. Light Pollution Responses and Remedies

    CERN Document Server

    Mizon, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Light pollution is a major threat to astronomy across the entire developed world. The night sky that most of us can see bears little relationship to the spectacular vistas that our ancestors have gazed at for tens of thousands of years. It is ironic that as our understanding of the universe has improved, our ability to see it has been dramatically reduced by the skyglow of our civilization. In the second edition of Light Pollution - Responses and Remedies, Bob Mizon delves into the history and practice of lighting and how its misue has not only stolen the stars, but blighted our lives and those of our fellow-creatures on this planet. This book suggests how we can win back the night sky and at the same time save energy and money, improve our health, and even lower crime rate! It also includes a list of targets for urban stargazers, and recommendations for ensuring sane lighting worldwide.

  5. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  6. Introduction: Mediating and Remediating Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    In this second volume we explore how people, groups and institutions deal with death through processes of mediation (the presentation of something through media), remediation (the representation of one medium in another, see below) and mediatization (the process through which core elements...... of a social or cultural activity assume media form, see below). The volume presents a wide variety of ethnographies of death from Norway, Finland, Sweden, the US, Papua New Guinea, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Libya, Tibet, Uganda and Denmark as well as a number of online sites and social media material....... These are analyzed through a vast number of theoretical and analytical perspectives in order to investigate how very diverse practices surrounding death and dying - mourning and commemoration, ritualization, politicization, re-enactment, traditionalization, activism or documentarism: private or public, offline...

  7. Novel sorbents for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Werner, David

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the major environmental problems is the pollution of aquatic systems and soil by persistent pollutants. Persistent pollutants have been found widespread in sediments, surface waters, and drinking water supplies. The removal of pollutants can be accomplished prior to their discharge to receiving bodies or by immobilizing them onto soil. Sorption is the most commonly applied process, and activated carbons have been widely used. Rapid progress in nanotechnology and a new focus on biomass-based instead of non-renewable starting materials have produced a wide range of novel engineered sorbents including biosorbents, biochars, carbon-based nanoparticles, bio-nano hybrid materials, and iron-impregnated activated carbons. Sorbent materials have been used in environmental remediation processes and especially in agricultural soil, sediments and contaminated soil, water treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Furthermore, sorbents may enhance the synergistic action of other processes, such as volatilization and biodegradation. Novel sorbents have been employed for the removal or immobilization of persistent pollutants such as and include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg), halogenated organic compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals, metalloids and non-metallic elements, and other organic pollutants. The development and evaluation of novel sorbents requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing environmental, nanotechnology, physical, analytical, and surface chemistry. The necessary evaluations encompass not only the efficiency of these materials to remove pollutants from surface waters and groundwater, industrial wastewater, polluted soils and sediments, etc., but also the potential side-effects of their environmental applications. The aim of this work is to present the results of the use of biochar and impregnated carbon sorbents for the removal of organic pollutants and metals. Furthermore, the new findings from the forthcoming session

  8. Space Debris Environment Remediation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Klinkrad, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Long-term projections of the space debris environment indicate that even drastic measures, such as an immediate, complete halt of launch and release activities, will not result in a stable environment of man-made space objects. Collision events between already existing space hardware will within a few decades start to dominate the debris population, and result in a net increase of the space debris population, also in size regimes which may cause further catastrophic collisions. Such a collisional cascading will ultimately lead to a run-away situation ("Kessler syndrome"), with no further possibility of human intervention. The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) has been investigating the status and the stability of the space debris environment in several studies by first looking into space traffic management possibilities and then investigating means of mitigating the creation of space debris. In an ongoing activity, an IAA study group looks at ways of active space debris environment remediation. In contrast to the former mitigation study, the current activity concentrates on the active removal of small and large objects, such as defunct spacecraft, orbital stages, and mission-related objects, which serve as a latent mass reservoir that fuels initial catastrophic collisions and later collisional cascading. The paper will outline different mass removal concepts, e.g. based on directed energy, tethers (momentum exchange or electrodynamic), aerodynamic drag augmentation, solar sails, auxiliary propulsion units, retarding surfaces, or on-orbit capture. Apart from physical principles of the proposed concepts, their applicability to different orbital regimes, and their effectiveness concerning mass removal efficiency will be analyzed. The IAA activity on space debris environment remediation is a truly international project which involves more than 23 contributing authors from 9 different nations.

  9. Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

  10. Impact of international humanitarian service-learning on emerging adult social competence: A mixed-methods evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Schvaneveldt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results from a study into international humanitarian service-learning experiences on young adult volunteers. Specifically, the service-learning experiences of emerging adults who had served in orphanages in Latin America were assessed, in a pre- and post-test design, for their development in areas of social competency such as identity, self-efficacy, self-esteem and ethnocentric attitudes. A mixed-methods design using both qualitative and quantitative measures was used. Both qualitative and quantitative results identified significant and important impacts on the development of the social competencies of these emerging adults. In addition, several qualitative themes illustrated that longer term international service-learning experiences have a profound impact on the social competence of emerging adults. Keywords: International humanitarian service, service-learning, emerging adult competency

  11. Users' guides to the medical literature: how to use an article about mortality in a humanitarian emergency

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, EJ; Checchi, F; Orbinski, JJ; Schull, MJ; Burkle, F.M., Jr; Beyrer, C; Cooper, C; Hardy, C.; S Singh; Garfield, R.; Woodruff, BA; Guyatt, GH

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The accurate interpretation of mortality surveys in humanitarian crises is useful for both public health responses and security responses. Recent examples suggest that few medical personnel and researchers can accurately interpret the validity of a mortality survey in these settings. Using an example of a mortality survey from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we demonstrate important methodological considerations that readers should keep in mind when reading a mortality survey...

  12. The Colorado Humanitarian Surgical Skills Workshop: A Cadaver-Based Workshop to Prepare Residents for Surgery in Austere Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Meguid, Robert A; Kuwayama, David P

    2017-08-29

    Interest in humanitarian surgery is high among surgical and obstetric residents. The Colorado Humanitarian Surgical Skills Workshop is an annual 2-day course exposing senior residents to surgical techniques essential in low- and middle-income countries but not traditionally taught in US residencies. We evaluated the course's ability to foster resident comfort, knowledge, and competence in these skills. The cohort of course participants was studied prospectively. Participants attended didactic sessions followed by skills sessions using cadavers. Sample areas of focus included general surgery (mesh-free hernia repair), orthopedics (powerless external fixation), and neurosurgery (powerless craniotomy). Before and after the course, participants answered a questionnaire assessing confidence with taught skills; took a knowledge-based test composed of multiple choice and open-ended questions; and participated in a manual skills test of tibial external fixation. The Center for Surgical Innovation, University of Colorado School of Medicine. A total of 12 residents (11 general surgical and 1 obstetric) from ten US institutions. After the course, participants perceived increased confidence in performing all 27 taught procedures and ability to practice in low- and middle-income countries. In knowledge-based testing, 10 of 12 residents demonstrated improvement on multiple choice questioning and 9 of 12 residents demonstrated improvement on open-ended questioning with structured scoring. In manual skills testing, all external fixator constructs demonstrated objective improvement on structured scoring and subjective improvement on stability assessment. For senior residents interested in humanitarian surgery, a combination of skills-focused teaching and manual practice led to self-perceived and objective improvement in relevant surgical knowledge and skills. The Colorado Humanitarian Surgical Skills Workshop represents an effective model for transmitting essential surgical

  13. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Assessment Teams for First Responders in Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    Immediately following a natural disaster requiring Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR), a myriad of organizations respond. Typically, these early responders send small assessment teams to determine critical needs, which are then paired with the resources available. The needs can range from basic subsistence (food, shelter, and water) to transportation and infrastructure, yet the paramount factor among each team is the need to communicate. To assist in this effort, an Information a...

  14. Strategy to achieve energy and water sustainability in Latin America through humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations

    OpenAIRE

    Romps, William D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States is a leader in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, and the Department of Defense is called upon by Department of Defense Directive 5105.65 to lead efforts to assist nations in need of education support, health support, disaster preparedness, and basic infrastructure. Latin America is a strategic neighbor of the United States and is susceptible to man-made and natural disasters. Many of the countries that make...

  15. Supreme Court refuses to review clinic access law; Second Appeals Court upholds statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-30

    On June 19, the US Supreme Court refused to review "Woodall v. Reno," a challenge to the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) filed in Virginia by an anti-choice individual. FACE prohibits the use of force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to intentionally injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone providing or obtaining reproductive health services. By denying the petition for "certiorari," the High Court let stand the US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit decision in February. In that ruling, the midlevel federal court affirmed a lower court's dismissal of two of the eight anti-choice lawsuits challenging FACE, "Woodall v. Reno" and "American Life League v. Reno," which were consolidated by the appeals panel. Although plaintiffs in the first case filed a request for review by the High Court within days of the appellate court ruling, plaintiffs in the latter case waited until May to do so. The Department of Justice, which is defending the federal statute, and CRLP and the NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund, who are intervening on behalf of women and health care providers, will file their opposition to the review by July 26. The Justices will then decide to hear the case. On June 23, a three-judge panel for the US Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit affirmed a lower court's decision to dismiss "Cheffer v. Reno," a facial challenge by Florida anti-choice activists seeking to invalidate FACE. The appeals court had ruled the law did not infringe on First Amendment rights, and the panel rejected the argument that Congress had exceeded its authority under the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution by finding that the measure "protects and regulates commercial enterprises." The appeals court accepted an "amicus" brief filed by CRLP and NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund on behalf of the National Abortion Federation, the National Organization of Women, physicians, and women's health clinics, but denied their request to intervene in the

  16. Humanitarian space and well-being: effectiveness of training on a psychosocial intervention for host community-refugee interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Zeina; Borba, Christina P C; Johnson, Kelsey; Hock, Rebecca S; Parnarouskis, Lindsey; Henderson, David C; Fricchione, Gregory L

    2017-06-01

    Social and fieldworkers face enormous challenges in assisting millions of Syrian refugees in Lebanon since the Syrian war in 2011. We sought to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an adapted version of the SMART-3RP (Stress Management Relaxation Response Resilience Training) training to address the emotional and physical burden on the humanitarian field. Data were collected using the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), blood pressure, pulse and a brief qualitative survey at months 0, 3, 6 and 9. We compared mean SCL-90 scores and physiological measures from these time points and subjected qualitative data to a thematic analysis. Mean values of all measures decreased from months 0 to 9, with significance in SCL-90 changes increasing at each visit. Qualitative themes included decreased stress, increased positivity and problem-solving skills, interpersonal and personal benefits of mindfulness practice and the need to continue and expand the programme. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed a decrease in stress perception and blood pressure, demonstrating the physiological benefits of mind body approaches. We highlight the importance of self-care for humanitarian workers as the basis for the mission's success. We invite additional research to confirm these findings and their implications for the humanitarian field.

  17. The International Humanitarian Response to the Refugee Crisis Along the Balkan Route in the View of Strategies of International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifi Veton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the largest movements of displaced people through European borders since World War Two, the Syrian refugee crisis of 2015 and 2016, tested the coordination of the states and international organizations, and as well as the strategies for response of the latter to such enormous fluxes of displaced people along the Balkan corridor. The quick on-time reaction of the specialized humanitarian international organizations made significant achievements by the international organizations in terms of humanitarian assistance for the refugees and support for the governments of the region. Their approach mainly sought to create a partnership with the governments of the Balkan route in handling the serious humanitarian challenges (with a different strategy compared to other experiences, mainly this time through providing assistance and protection to the refugees throughout the corridor of the refugee crisis, it showed how important is such coordination at the end, with an aim to avoid further human catastrophes along refugee routes, and to avoid major security repercussions for the countries of the region.

  18. Satisfaction with the humanitarian response to the 2010 Pakistan floods: a call for increased accountability to beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thomas; Siddiqui, Muhammad Ahmed; Perrin, Paul Clayton; Robinson, W Courtland; Sauer, Lauren M; Doocy, Shannon

    2013-07-01

    Ascertain recipients' level of satisfaction with humanitarian response efforts. A multi-stage, 80×20 cluster sample randomized survey (1800 households) with probability proportional to size of households affected by the 2010 Indus river floods in Pakistan. The floods affected over 18 million households and led to more than 8 billion USD in response dollars. Less than 20% of respondents reported being satisfied with response, though a small increase in satisfaction levels was observed over the three time periods of interest. Within the first month, receipt of hygiene items, food and household items was most strongly predictive of overall satisfaction. At 6 months, positive receipt of medicines was also highly predictive of satisfaction. The proportion of households reporting unmet needs remained elevated throughout the 6-month period following the floods and varied from 50% to 80%. Needs were best met between 1 and 3 months postflood, when response was at its peak. Unmet needs were the greatest at 6 months, when response was being phased down. Access-limiting issues were rarely captured during routine monitoring and evaluation efforts and seem to be a significant predictor in dissatisfaction with relief efforts, at least in the case of Pakistan, another argument in favor of independent, population-based surveys of this kind. There is also need to better identify and serve those not residing in camps. Direct surveys of the affected population can be used operationally to assess ongoing needs, more appropriately redirect humanitarian resources, and ultimately, judge the overall quality of a humanitarian response.

  19. Non-Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect in Humanitarian Crisis: The Role of United Nations Permanent Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okibe, H. B.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on examining the United Nations Security Council permanent member’s behavior towards decisions to intervene in internal affairs of states for humanitarian purposes. Rational Actor Model of Decision-Making Theory was adopted to explain the matrix of this activity, using secondary data and content analysis methods. Nonintervention in internal affairs has been the practice of states before late 20th Century when internal crisis became recurrent phenomena with its horrifying consequences, thus gravitating towards Responsibility to Protect in humanitarian crisis. The study identified that the method and manner the UNSC permanent members implement the mandate shows selectivity, violation of R2P norm and aiding internal wars and crisis. A Syria and Ukraine crisis was used to illustrate the postures of U.S and Russia towards R2P. The study concludes that the UNSC is overwhelmed by politics of national interest by its permanent veto wielding members and it affects the form of decisions it makes on intervention in humanitarian crisis.

  20. The International Space Station: New Capabilities for Disaster Response and Humanitarian Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been acquiring Earth imagery since 2000, primarily in the form of astronaut photography using hand-held film and digital cameras. Recent additions of more sophisticated multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems have expanded both the capabilities and relevance of the ISS to basic research, applied Earth science, and development of new sensor technologies. Funding opportunities established within NASA, the US National Laboratories and the international partner organizations have generated instrument proposals that will further enhance these capabilities. With both internal and external sensor location options, and the availability of both automated and human-tended operational environments, the ISS is a unique platform within the constellation of Earth-observing satellites currently in orbit. Current progress and challenges associated with development of ISS terrestrial remote sensing capabilities in the area of disaster response and support of relief efforts will be presented. The ISS orbit allows for imaging of the Earth's surface at varying times of day and night, providing opportunities for data collection over approximately 95% of the populated regions. These opportunities are distinct from--yet augment--the data collection windows for the majority of sensors on polar-orbiting satellites. In addition to this potential for "being in the right place at the right time" to collect critical information on an evolving disaster, the presence of a human crew also allows for immediate recognition of an event from orbit, notification of relevant organizations on the ground, and re-tasking of available remote sensing resources to support humanitarian response and relief efforts. Challenges to establishing an integrated response capability are both technical (coordination of sensor targeting and data collection, rapid downlink and posting of data to a central accessible hub, timely generation and distribution of relevant data