Jacobs, Gerard A.
Humanitarian psychological support as an organized field is relatively young. Pioneers in the field were involved primarily in providing psychological support to refugees and internally displaced persons in conflict and nonconflict situations. This article describes basic principles for the design of psychological support programs and…
Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Catherine, Panter-Brick
Background: Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. Methods: From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and UN agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Results: Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. Conclusions: To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between
Richey, Lisa Ann
humanitarian practices can now take place in many different realms: in consumption, entertainment, or across social media. These are all areas that are traditionally considered outside of the humanitarian scope, not least because of their association with market-driven and celebrity-oriented activity rather......, humanitarianism has expanded in reach to include an assortment of nebulous interventions on behalf of an assumed shared humanity. “Humanitarianism” now signifies the effort to ‘do-good’, to express sympathy in response to distant suffering, whether this distance is actually geographical or social. Everyday...
Full Text Available Recently, new interest in terrorism and psychological factors related to supporting the war on terrorism has been growing in the field of psychology. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of various socio-political attitudes on the level of agreement with military and humanitarian counterterrorism interventions. 270 Italian participants responded to a news article concerning measures against terrorism. Half of the participants read an article regarding a military intervention while the other half read about a humanitarian intervention. They then evaluated the other type of intervention. Results showed that military intervention was supported by people with high authoritarian, dominant, ethnocentric attitudes and by people who attach importance to both positive and negative reciprocity norms. Instead, none of these variables was correlated with humanitarian intervention. Finally, there was a considerable influence of media on the acceptance of both interventions.
De Vos, Jan
Humanitarian aid's psycho-therapeutic turn in the 1990s was mirrored by the increasing emotionalization and subjectivation of fund-raising campaigns. In order to grasp the depth of this interconnectedness, this article argues that in both cases what we see is the post-Fordist production paradigm at work; namely, as Hardt and Negri put it, the direct production of subjectivity and social relations. To explore this, the therapeutic and mental health approach in humanitarian aid is juxtaposed with the more general phenomenon of psychologization. This allows us to see that the psychologized production of subjectivity has a problematic waste-product as it reduces the human to 'Homo sacer', to use Giorgi Agamben's term. Drawing out a double matrix of a de-psychologizing psychologization connected to a politicizing de-politicization, it will further become possible to understand psycho-therapeutic humanitarianism as a case of how, in these times of globalization, psychology, subjectivity and money are all interrelated.
Brooks, Samantha K; Dunn, Rebecca; Sage, Clara A M; Amlôt, Richard; Greenberg, Neil; Rubin, G James
When disasters occur, humanitarian relief workers frequently deploy to assist in rescue/recovery efforts. To conduct a systematic review of factors affecting the psychological wellbeing of disaster relief workers and identify recommendations for interventions. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO® and Web of Science for relevant studies, supplemented by hand searches. We performed thematic analysis on their results to identify factors predicting wellbeing. Sixty-one publications were included. Key themes were: pre-deployment factors (preparedness/training); peri-deployment factors (deployment length/timing; traumatic exposure; emotional involvement; leadership; inter-agency cooperation; support; role; demands and workload; safety/equipment; self-doubt/guilt; coping strategies) and post-deployment factors (support; media; personal and professional growth). As well as role-specific stressors, many occupational stressors not specific to humanitarian relief (e.g. poor leadership, poor support) present a significant health hazard to relief workers. Humanitarian organisations should prioritise strengthening relationships between team members and supervisors, and dealing effectively with non-role-specific stressors, to improve the psychological resilience of their workforce.
Greenough, P Gregg; Nazerali, Rahim; Fink, Sheri; VanRooyen, Michael J
As the humanitarian health response industry grows, there is a need for technical health expertise that can build an evidence base around outcome measures and raise the quality and accountability of the health relief response. We propose the formation of technical support units (TSUs), entities of health expertise institutionalized within humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs), which will bridge the gap between the demand for evidence-based, humanitarian programming and the field capacity to accomplish it. With the input of major humanitarian NGOs and donors, this paper discusses the attributes and capacities ofTSUs; and the mechanisms for creating and enhancing TSUs within the NGO management structure.
Barbara Lopes Cardozo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. OBJECTIVES: To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a longitudinal study in a sample of international non-governmental organizations. Study outcomes included anxiety, depression, burnout, and life and job satisfaction. We performed bivariate regression analyses at three time points. We fitted generalized estimating equation multivariable regression models for the longitudinal analyses. RESULTS: Study participants from 19 NGOs were assessed at three time points: 212 participated at pre-deployment; 169 (80% post-deployment; and 154 (73% within 3-6 months after deployment. Prior to deployment, 12 (3.8% participants reported anxiety symptoms, compared to 20 (11.8% at post-deployment (p = 0.0027; 22 (10.4% reported depression symptoms, compared to 33 (19.5% at post-deployment (p = 0.0117 and 31 (20.1% at follow-up (p = .00083. History of mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-12.50 contributed to an increased risk for anxiety. The experience of extraordinary stress was a contributor to increased risk for burnout depersonalization (AOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.17-1.83. Higher levels of chronic stress exposure during deployment were contributors to an increased risk for depression (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.02-1.20 comparing post- versus pre-deployment, and increased risk for burnout emotional exhaustion (AOR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04-1.19. Social support was associated with lower levels of depression (AOR 0.9; 95% CI 0.84-0.95, psychological distress (AOR = 0.9; [CI] 0.85-0.97, burnout lack of personal accomplishment (AOR 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.98, and greater life satisfaction (p = 0.0213. CONCLUSIONS: When recruiting and preparing aid workers for deployment, organizations should
Abstract: UNOSAT is part of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and has been hosted at CERN since 2001. This partnership allows UNOSAT to benefit from CERN's IT infrastructure whenever the situation requires, allowing the UN to be at the forefront of satellite-analysis technology. Specialists in geographic information systems (GIS) and in the analysis of satellite data, supported by IT engineers and policy experts, ensure a dedicated service to the international humanitarian and development communities 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The presentation will give an overview of the variety of activities carried out by UNOSAT over the last 15 years including support to humanitarian assistance and protection of cultural heritage, sustainable water management in Chad and training & capacity development in East Africa and Asia. The talk will be followed at 12:00 by the inauguration of the UNOSAT exhibition, in front of the Users' office. Speaker: Einar Bjor...
Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Gotway Crawford, Carol; Eriksson, Cynthia; Zhu, Julia; Sabin, Miriam; Ager, Alastair; Foy, David; Snider, Leslie; Scholte, Willem; Kaiser, Reinhard; Olff, Miranda; Rijnen, Bas; Simon, Winnifred
Background: International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. Objectives: To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. Methodology: We
Greene, M Claire; Jordans, Mark J D; Kohrt, Brandon A; Ventevogel, Peter; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Hassan, Ghayda; Chiumento, Anna; van Ommeren, Mark; Tol, Wietse A
Delivery of effective mental health and psychosocial support programs requires knowledge of existing health systems and socio-cultural context. To respond rapidly to humanitarian emergencies, international organizations often seek to design programs according to international guidelines and mobilize external human resources to manage and deliver programs. Familiarizing international humanitarian practitioners with local culture and contextualizing programs is essential to minimize risk of harm, maximize benefit, and optimize efficient use of resources. Timely literature reviews on traditional health practices, cultural beliefs and attitudes toward mental health and illness, local health care systems and previous experiences with humanitarian interventions can provide international practitioners with crucial background information to improve their capacity to work efficiently and with maximum benefit. In this paper, we draw on experience implementing desk review guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNHCR, the United Nations Refugee Agency (2012) in four diverse humanitarian crises (earthquakes in Haiti and Nepal; forced displacement among Syrians and Congolese). We discuss critical parameters for the design and implementation of desk reviews, and discuss current challenges and future directions to improve mental health care and psychosocial support in humanitarian emergencies.
The work challenges faced by doctors, nurses and other health professionals in the humanitarian field are overwhelming. This article highlights the psychological effects on humanitarian workers and the support available, both while on a 'mission' and on return home. It is impossible not to be psychologically affected by witnessing gross acts of violence, starvation, epidemics, displacement and despair, or hearing tales of slaughter, rape and killing. Just as those populations who are subjected to traumatic experiences develop post-traumatic psychological problems, so too can those humanitarian workers who assist them.
Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark
This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007-10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007-09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] -0·38, 95% CI -0·55 to -0·20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (-0·36, -0·83 to 0·10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD -0·24, -0·40 to -0·09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All
Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark
This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007–10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007–09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] −0.38, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (−0.36, −0.83 to 0.10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD −0.24, −0.40 to −0.09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. PMID:22008428
Perfetti, Marcelo R.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Since the beginning of this century, the Argentine Army has used Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) wireless products, equipment, and communication systems to support Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HA/DR) operations. The participation of Military, Governmental, and Non-Governmental Organizations in these activities requires more wireless coverage area. These communication systems are an integration of several subsystems that...
Augustinavicius, Jura L; Greene, M Claire; Lakin, Daniel P; Tol, Wietse A
Monitoring and evaluation of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programs is critical to facilitating learning and providing accountability to stakeholders. As part of an inter-agency effort to develop recommendations on MHPSS monitoring and evaluation, this scoping review aimed to identify the terminology and focus of monitoring and evaluation frameworks in this field. We collected program documents (logical frameworks (logframes) and theories of change) from members of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Reference Group on MHPSS, and systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature across five databases. We included program documents and academic articles that reported on monitoring and evaluation of MHPSS in low- and middle-income countries describing original data. Inclusion and data extraction were conducted in parallel by independent reviewers. Thematic analysis was used to identify common language in the description of practices and the focus of each monitoring and evaluation framework. Logframe outcomes were mapped to MHPSS activity categories. We identified 38 program documents and 89 peer-reviewed articles, describing monitoring and evaluation of a wide range of MHPSS activities. In both program documents and peer-reviewed literature there was a lack of specificity and overlap in language used for goals and outcomes. Well-validated, reliable instruments were reported in the academic literature, but rarely used in monitoring and evaluation practices. We identified six themes in the terminology used to describe goals and outcomes. Logframe outcomes were more commonly mapped to generic program implementation activities (e.g. "capacity building") and those related to family and community support, while outcomes from academic articles were most frequently mapped to specialized psychological treatments. Inconsistencies between the language used in research and practice and discrepancies in measurement have broader implications for monitoring and
Full Text Available Redefining of modern information and communication technologies (ICT from teaching aids to teaching process subjects, continuous growth of their subjectivity necessary demands appropriate knowledge, skills, appropriate attitude to didactic capabilities of ICT, ability to cooperate with them and to build pupils learning activity aimed at formation and development of self organization, self development skills, promoting their subjective position in getting education that will be readiness of modern teacher to organize effective professional activities in polysubjective learning environment (PLE. The new tasks of humanitarian teacher related to self selection and design of educational content as well as the modeling of the learning process in conditions of PLE virtualized alternatives choice, impose special requirements to professionally important teacher’s personality qualities, rather to his readiness to implement effective professional work in such conditions. In this article the essence of future humanitarian teacher readiness concept to professional activity in polysubjective educational environment is proved. The structure of the readiness is analyzed. Psychological strategy of cooperation, reflective, motivational and informational partials are substantiated and characterized as components of the future humanitarian teacher readiness to professional activities in polysubjective educational environment.
Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan
This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273
Richey, Lisa Ann
showing themselves in some “do-gooding” relationship that appears to take place in the South. Through the posting of a new photograph every day, the “Humanitarians of Tinder” Tumblr blog and Facebook page have generated a public discussion on the politics of representing suffering strangers in attempts...... to enhance the appeal of western image producers. This article will investigate the phenomenon of the Humanitarians of Tinder in order to understand its representations of North–South relations from the photographs themselves and from the debates held around them in new media and old. Critical development...... studies, media studies and sociology will provide an interdisciplinary theoretical framework to understand the moral panic that these Tinder humanitarians have created through posting private photographs of humanitarian performances to increase their personal desirability....
Passino, Kevin M
The creation of new technologies that serve humanity holds the potential to help end global poverty. Unfortunately, relatively little is done in engineering education to support engineers' humanitarian efforts. Here, various strategies are introduced to augment the teaching of engineering ethics with the goal of encouraging engineers to serve as effective volunteers for community service. First, codes of ethics, moral frameworks, and comparative analysis of professional service standards lay the foundation for expectations for voluntary service in the engineering profession. Second, standard coverage of global issues in engineering ethics educates humanitarian engineers about aspects of the community that influence technical design constraints encountered in practice. Sample assignments on volunteerism are provided, including a prototypical design problem that integrates community constraints into a technical design problem in a novel way. Third, it is shown how extracurricular engineering organizations can provide a theory-practice approach to education in volunteerism. Sample completed projects are described for both undergraduates and graduate students. The student organization approach is contrasted with the service-learning approach. Finally, long-term goals for establishing better infrastructure are identified for educating the humanitarian engineer in the university, and supporting life-long activities of humanitarian engineers.
The International Humanitarian Award recognizes extraordinary humanitarian services and activism by psychologists, including professional and volunteer work conducted primarily in the field with underserved populations. Award recipients are psychologists who, by their extraordinary service at a difficult time, improve the lives and contribute to the well-being of people in a large or small geographic area anywhere in the world. The 2017 recipient of the APA International Humanitarian Award was selected by the 2016 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2016 CIRP were Melissa Morgan Consoli, PhD, and Arpana G. Inman, PhD (Co-chairs); Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD; Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Frederic Bemak, EdD; Brigitte Khoury, PhD; Susan Nolan, PhD; Nancy Sidun, PsyD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Inman, Dr. Nolan, and Doctor Sidun were members of the subcommittee for the 2017 award. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Muhren, W.J.; van den Eede, G.G.P.; van de Walle, B.A.
This paper reintroduces concepts from sensemaking in media synchronicity theory (MST). It focuses on how media should support synchronicity to fit communication needs when making sense of a humanitarian crisis situation. Findings from interviews with senior management of humanitarian aid
Dr.Sc. Samet Dalipi
Full Text Available At the end of 20th century, parts of Europe get caught again by xenophobia’s which were hidden under the rug of the Cold War. Balkans was again at the heart of eruptions of nationalistic ideas and hegemonistic aspirations. In resolving the last unsettled Kosovo case in the Balkans, west democracies corrected the mistake made at the beginning of the same century. In this direction gave input the Jewish community of USA. “We need to come out in defence of the defenceless victims ... cannot let people like Milosevic to continue killing men, women and children. We had to do this earlier, but not later or now”, said Elie Wiesel, the most prominent Jewish Nobel Prize winner, in a meeting with Holocaust survivors and veterans. This was not the only voice of the Jewish members in defence of Kosovo Albanians. A significant number of elite American-Jewish prominent politicians and diplomats, senior U.S. administration, from public life,...have been cautious in pursuit of developments in Kosovo before the war. Altruism within Jewish elite influenced or advised U.S. policy makers on the necessity of intervention in Kosovo, to prevent scenarios prepared by the Serbian regime to de'albanize Kosovo. They decided and implemented the diplomacy of dynamic actions in stopping the repetition of the similarities of holocaust within the same century. What prompted this perfectly organized community in the U.S., with distinctive culture and other religious affiliations to people of Kosovo to support them during exterminating circumstances? Which were the driving factors on influencing the policy of most powerful state in the world in support of Albanians? This paper aims to illuminate some of the answers on the raised question as well as analyze the activities of most prominent AmericanJewish personalities, some of their philanthropic actions that are associated with emotions, their principles and beliefs to prevent human suffering and exodus of Kosovo
Most individuals participate in some of the rituals and/or regular activities of religious institutions such as churches or synagogues. Through such involvements, people are offered vital assistance in dealing with developmental changes, opportunities for personal development and for group support, and more generally, a sense of continuity and of meaning in life. This paper deals with only one small aspect of Jewish observance, an aspect of the centuries-old required weekly prayer groups-the minyan. The prime emphasis resides in the rarely recognized, nonliturgical dimension of this small group experience. Using psychoanalysis in the sense of a general psychology as background, I have considered the minyan as combining elements of a psychological support system and of a small group. In addition to the gratification of affiliative needs (social hunger) and the countering of loneliness and of isolation, this group experience helps its members maintain an intergenerational sense of personal identity and of self-esteem. In the face of marked life stressors such as death in the family, religious institutions such as the minyan, with its prescribed ritual steps for grieving (i.e., kaddish), fulfill especially significant preventive and restitutive mental health functions. I have also hypothesized that on a covert, fantasy level, the caring and nurturing family-like weekday minyan may even represent a mother-symbol (mother group) in line with people's universal need to establish a psychological union with others, thus restoring an earlier, conflict-free state of the child-mother bond. In an extended societal sense, the earlier emphasis in Western cultures on the virtual worship of individuality, autonomy, and independence has given way recently to a renewed appreciation of cooperation, communalism, and altruism. The minyan, as a small religious communal aggregate with its inherent climate of mutuality, reciprocity, and continuity, has, in a sense, anticipated these new
This study looks at the humanitarian space in Myanmar which includes not just the humanitarian operations in the country, the access to volatile zones by the humanitarian organisations, the humanitarian principles, but also a space which permits a complementary arrangement of diverse actors holding different positions and skill sets and deliver to those in need. The study is based on the practical experiences and reflections of these different actors on field and their operations in different...
In this research, to what extent the variables of perceived social support (family, friends and special people) and assertiveness predicted the psychological well-being levels of candidate psychological counselors. The research group of this study included totally randomly selected 308 candidate psychological counselors including 174 females…
Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr I Support food distribution with U.S. ARMY / WFP - 03 to 18Fev2010 15 Dias 637,5 Ton de alimentos ...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 – 21 a 28Mar2010 1.723 Ton de Alimentos em 30 Dias Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr II Supporting food...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 8 Dias 420 Ton de alimentos Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr III Supporting food distribution by
Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M; Conway, Neil
The authors surveyed 347 public sector employees on 4 measurement occasions to investigate the conceptual distinctiveness of the psychological contract and perceived organizational support (POS) and how they are associated over time. Results support the distinctiveness of the 2 concepts. In terms of their interrelationships over time, by drawing on psychological contract theory the authors found little support for a reciprocal relationship between POS and psychological contract fulfillment. Under an alternative set of hypotheses, by drawing on organizational support theory and by separating psychological contract fulfillment into its 2 components (perceived employer obligations and inducements), the authors found that perceived employer inducements were positively related to POS, which, in turn, was negatively related to perceived employer obligations. The results suggest that POS and the components of psychological contract fulfillment are more important in predicting organizational citizenship behavior than psychological contract fulfillment. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article deals with the definition of the concept of "incomplete family", describes the typology of single-parent families, the necessity of special social psychological and pedagogical support for children from such families and their parents has been proved. The analysis of various concepts of ―support‖has been made. The idea of psychological and pedagogical support of modern incomplete families has been determined. Key words: incomplete family, types of single-parent families, support, social support, psychological and pedagogical support of single-parent families.
Argon, Türkan; Ekinci, Serkan
This study aimed to determine the relationship between secondary school teachers' view regarding Organizational Support and Psychological Contract Violation. The study conducted with relational screening model included 230 secondary school teachers employed in Bolu central district in 2014-2015 academic year. Perceived Organizational Support Scale…
van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R
Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2
Pfob, H.; Heinemann, G.
The German Electricity Companies, organized by VDEW e.V., tried to support in manifold ways the areas and people affected by the Chernobyl accident in their management of the situation. Apart from their prompting numerous help projects of the German public; we must mention three efforts especially: 1. the program for partnership in security matters initiated by the German nuclear power plants has been serving a quick and efficient support of the Eastern European plants since 1990- parallel to the efforts on a European level (strategic exchange of views of the experts concerned, consultation and training on the management level, optimization of training programs). 2: the project [Scientists Help Chernobyl Children] of the Joint Committee for Radiation Research (GAST), an union of the scientific societies working on radiation research in Germany under the chairmanship of Prof. Reiners (Essen/Wuerzburg) in cooperation with Prof. Streffer (Essen), Dr. Parezke (Munich), Dr. Heinemann (Hannover) and Dr. Pfob (Karlsruhe), aims to give humanitarian and scientific help for children ill with thyroid cancer in Belarus. Therapy and training, molecular biological examinations, dosimetry, and risk evaluation, as well as consultation and coordination in Minsk are parts of the project. 3: the project of the Radiation Cytogenetics Association (RCA) under the chairmanship of Prof. Bauchinger (GSF Muenchen) has been giving coordinated help with biological dosimetry to institutions and scientist in the states of the former USSR. Through retrospective biological dosimetry, especially the employment of the FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization)-technology for the assessment of so-called stable translocations, both individual and population doses were analyzed. All three of these projects, even if to a different extent, have been leading to new and unique results up to the present day. Especially the GAST-project has been marked to a high extent by its humanitarian help for the
Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives.
Maxwell, Daniel; Bailey, Sarah; Harvey, Paul; Walker, Peter; Sharbatke-Church, Cheyanne; Savage, Kevin
Corruption is a threat to the purpose of humanitarian assistance. Until fairly recently, humanitarian assistance has not been considered an important arena in broader efforts aimed at curbing corruption, and corruption has not always been considered a particularly important concern for humanitarian assistance despite the obviously challenging nature of the context of humanitarian emergencies. Corruption, though, is a threat to humanitarian action because it can prevent assistance from getting to the people who most need it, and because it can potentially undermine public support for such assistance. This paper examines perceptions of corruption and its affects, documents best practices, and outlines gaps in understanding. It suggests recommendations for improving the capacity of humanitarian agencies to prevent and manage the risk of corruption. Agencies have taken steps to combat corruption and improve accountability--downwards and upwards--but scope remains for improvement and for greater sharing of learning and good practice. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.
Full Text Available Agencies working inside Myanmar to assist forcibly displacedpeople work within an extremely constricted operationalenvironment. Despite occasional glimmers of hope, carvingout sufficient humanitarian space to meet urgent needsremains an uphill struggle.
Jean-François Durieux; Sivanka Dhanapala
Agencies working inside Myanmar to assist forcibly displacedpeople work within an extremely constricted operationalenvironment. Despite occasional glimmers of hope, carvingout sufficient humanitarian space to meet urgent needsremains an uphill struggle.
Rianne ten Veen
Full Text Available Increasing violence is severely constraining the humanitarian space and making it next to impossible to deliver emergency relief to many vulnerable groups in the worst-affected areas of central Iraq.
Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between humanitarian aid and ecologically unequal exchange in the context of post-disaster reconstruction. I assess the manner in which humanitarian aid became a central part of the reconstruction process in India's Tamil Nadu state following the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. This article focuses on how the humanitarian “gift” of housing became a central plank of the state's efforts to push fishers inland while opening up coastal lands for various economic development projects such as ports, infrastructure, industries, and tourism. As part of the state and multilateral agency financed reconstruction process, the humanitarian aid regime provided “free” houses as gifts to recipients while expecting in return the formal abandonment of all claims to the coast. The humanitarian “gift” therefore helped depoliticize critical issues of land and resources, location and livelihood, which prior to the tsunami were subjects of long-standing political conflicts between local fisher populations and the state. The gift economy in effect played into an ongoing conflict over land and resources and effectively sought to ease the alienation of fishers from their coastal commons and near shore marine resource base. I argue that humanitarian aid, despite its associations with benevolence and generosity, presents a troubling and disempowering set of options for political struggles over land, resources, and social entitlements such as housing, thereby intensifying existing ecological and economic inequalities.
Cassel, Russell N.
Advocating "holistic" medicine, this article details the benefits to be derived from using a computerized clinical support system in a psychological laboratory focusing on internal healing where the client/patient becomes a committed partner utilizing biofeedback equipment, gaming, and simulation to achieve self-understanding and…
Keohane, Aisling; Richardson, Noel
Underpinning a general pattern of higher suicide rates in men is the assumption that men do not ask for help or utilize the health-care system during times of psychological distress. There has been a failure to grapple with the dynamic of when, how and from whom men might ask for help during times of psychological distress, and what key barriers or enabling factors are likely to influence potential help-givers' capacity or willingness to offer help to men in psychological distress. The aim of this study was to investigate how masculine norms impact men's help-seeking as well as care givers' behaviors and willingness to support men in need of psychological help or perceived to be at risk of suicide. Focus groups ( n = 13) were used with "high-risk suicide" groups of men and community gatekeepers. The principles of grounded theory were used for data analysis. Three themes emerged: "negotiating ways to ask for, offer and accept help without compromising masculinity"; "making and sustaining contact with men in psychological distress"; and "navigating roles responsibilities and boundaries to support men in psychological distress." Approaches to suicide prevention need to take account of how masculine norms shape men's willingness to ask for and accept help during times of psychological distress as well as care givers willingness to offer help. The findings address a gap in the literature by looking beyond men's help-seeking as a passive, one dimensional construct, to a more dynamic triad of help-seeking/giving/taking behaviors that are embedded in the sociocultural context of men's lives.
Sovada, Jennifer P
... the leadership of the military, federal government, and state governments since Hurricane Katrina. These organizations have deemed ISR support essential to conducting timely, effective, and responsive relief operations...
Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G
To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.
Operator psychological problems arising in the work with NPP operators support computerized systems (OSCS) are considered. The conclusion is made that the OSCS intellectual application will bring the operator into dangerous dependence on his computerized assistant. To avoid this danger it is necessary by creation of the OSCS to divide specially the tasks areas of the operator and OSCS in order to assure the active role of the operator in the NPP control
Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov
Amid good intentions, such as providing humanitarian assistance to refugees, the use of biometric technology in humanitarian refugee management may entail various risks for the implicated refugee populations. Drawing on insights from science and technology studies, this article introduces...... a distinction between risks stemming from technology failure and risks stemming from successful uses of biometric technology. The article thus departs from the literature in which technology failure has been in focus by showing that analysing the effect of technology success adds an important dimension to our...
humanitarian workers have observed a sharp rise in gender -based crimes, including rape and sexual violence, as well as exploitation and discrimination ...threatening conditions; gender -based violence prevention and response; emergency support to refugee women and girls; mental health care; protection...immediate surrounding region, including Turkey, Lebanon , Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and other parts of North Africa. The situation is fluid and continues to
Pat Garcia-Gonzalez of the Max Foundation accepted the first annual NCI Global Cancer Medicine Humanitarian Award for her work in chronic myeloid leukemia at the NCI, Center for Global Health Symposium for Global Cancer Research, held in Boston on March 25, 2015.
Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo
With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Ziemecki, Piotr; Ziemecka, Anna; Partyka, Iwona
The meaning of non medical forms of support in the treatment of psoriasis is discussed in the paper. Related with psoriasis negative self image and feeling of stigmatization cause various mental disorders. Stress, depression, mental condition affect the appearance of psoriasis. Because of numerous studies and identify the factors and relationships important for psoriasis, patients can take the appropriate psychological and social support. Relaxation techniques, cognitive-behavioral therapy and support groups have a positive effect on the treatment of psoriasis. They reduce the level of stress in the patient, learn emotional control, adequate self-esteem, which leads to the acceptance of the disease and improve the quality of life of the patient.
Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano
Reliably expanding our clinical practice and lowering our overhead with telepsychiatry, telepsychology, distance counseling and online therapy, requires resilient and antifragile system and tools. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include more reliable treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The wise and proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding social results. We present, as an example, the main steps to achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support, devoted to psychiatry and psychology application. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application.
Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan
In order to respond to crises with appropriate intervention, crisis workers are required to manage their own needs as well as the needs of those they respond to. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine whether telephone crisis support workers experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress and are impaired by elevated symptoms. Studies were identified in April 2015 by searching three databases, conducting a gray literature search, and forward and backward citation chaining. Of 113 identified studies, seven were included in the review. Results suggest that that telephone crisis support workers experience symptoms of vicarious traumatization, stress, burnout, and psychiatric disorders, and that they may not respond optimally to callers when experiencing elevated symptoms of distress. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the paucity and methodological limitations of available data. While the most comprehensive search strategy possible was adopted, resource constraints meant that conference abstracts were not searched and authors were not contacted for additional unpublished information. There is an urgent need to identify the impact of telephone crisis support workers' role on their well-being, the determinants of worker well-being in the telephone crisis support context, and the extent to which well-being impacts their performance and caller outcomes. This will help inform strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and their delivery of support to callers.
Stoyer, Michael Ryan
This study examined the relationship between course pedagogy and supportive group factors with variables of multicultural competency and multicultural counseling self-efficacy at the completion of a multicultural psychology course. The participants were students in graduate clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and school psychology programs…
Full Text Available In recent years, our increasingly connected world has provided us with a greater understanding of the needs of our fellow global citizens. The devastating worldwide impact of natural disasters, disease, and poverty has been raised in our collective awareness and our ability to collectively alleviate this suffering has been brought to the fore. While many of us are familiar with donating our funds to better the lives of those less fortunate than ourselves, it is often easy to overlook a core component of facing these global challenges: information technology. The humanitarian open source movement seeks to ameliorate these sufferings through the creation of IT infrastructure to support a wide array of goals for the public good, such as providing effective healthcare or microloans to the poorest of the poor. Achieving these goals requires a sophisticated set of software and hardware tools, all of which work to save and improve lives in some of the most difficult of situations where the availability of electricity, data, IT knowledge, etc. may be low or lacking altogether. It should come as no surprise that the humanitarian open source domain attracts a great deal of attention from software developers, engineers, and others who find that they are able to both solve intense technical challenges while helping to improve the lives of others. However, to support ongoing humanitarian needs, the communities who produce humanitarian free and open source software (HFOSS and hardware have increasingly identified the need for business models to support their efforts. While the lower cost of using open source software and hardware solutions means that more funds can be directed to aid and comfort those in need, the goodwill of developer communities and the funds of grantees alone cannot grow the ecosystem sufficiently to meet ever-growing global needs. To face these challenges - poverty, global health crises, disaster relief, etc. - humanitarian open source
Leeuw, Sander; Regattieri, Alberto; Souza, Robert
This contributed volume combines conceptual and strategic research articles dealing with the "why" and "to what end" of sustainable operations in humanitarian logistics, as well as operational research contributions regarding the "how" from the United Nations as well as from researchers and organizations from different countries (Germany, Australia, Singapore, Italy, Denmark, Jordan). The target audience primarily comprises research experts, decision makers and practitioners in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
References to this study should include the foregoing statement.) Fair use determination or copyright permission has been obtained for the inclusion of...Coordinators); representative and inclusive Humanitarian Country Teams.”16 To increase the effectiveness of these responses, OCHA has developed...2016, http://www.eird.org/esp/ revista /No1_2001/pagina27.htm. 24 “International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR),” accessed February 20, 2016
Full Text Available The paper explores the status of unilateral humanitarian interventions in international law. The United Nations Charter prohibits the use of force, except in case of self-defense and the collective action authorized by the Security Council. The question is whether the non-existence of unilateral humanitarian intervention among these exceptions means that they are not in conformity with the Charter and if so, whether the right to such interventions exists as the part of customary law. The issue has become even more controversial after the adoption of the “responsibility to protect” principle. Findings of legal scholars on this issue differ significantly. This paper analyzes and interprets the Charter provisions in order to answer the question of compatibility of humanitarian interventions with the Charter and examines the state practice in order to conclude whether the customary law rule allowing the humanitarian intervention exists. The conclusion of the paper is that there is no evidence to support the contentions that interventions without the Security Council authorization are permissible, although there are elements which point to the possibility of the creation of customary law allowing them.
Full Text Available The main subject of this paper are the ethical aspects of humanitarian military intervention. Author shows the weaknesses and difficulties of consequentialistic and deontological justification of humanitarian intervention. He points to the impossibility of a coherent moral theory of humanitarian intervention and argues that the humanitarian interventions of the nineties of the 20th century do not compliance just war. In his opinion, they represent an attempt of the quasi moral masking the real politics which lead the most powerful states in order to protect their national interests. .
The Rise of Digital HumanitariansMapping Haiti LiveSupporting Search And Rescue EffortsPreparing For The Long Haul Launching An SMS Life Line Sending In The Choppers Openstreetmap To The Rescue Post-Disaster Phase The Human Story Doing Battle With Big Data Rise Of Digital Humanitarians This Book And YouThe Rise of Big (Crisis) DataBig (Size) Data Finding Needles In Big (Size) Data Policy, Not Simply Technology Big (False) Data Unpacking Big (False) Data Calling 991 And 999 Big (
Evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a group psychological intervention using cognitive behavioural strategies for women with common mental disorders in conflict-affected rural Pakistan : Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Chiumento, Anna; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Dawson, Katie; Bryant, Richard A.; Sijbrandij, Marit; Nazir, Huma; Akhtar, Parveen; Masood, Aqsa; Wang, Duolao; Van Ommeren, Mark; Rahman, Atif
Background: The impact of humanitarian disasters upon mental health is well recognised. The evidence for psychological interventions for mental health is mounting, but few interventions have been rigorously tested in humanitarian settings. To be sustainable in humanitarian settings interventions
Sullivan, Donna Marie.
Due to the increasing demand on the military to conduct humanitarian operations, the need for logistics planning factors that are applicable to these operations has arisen. This thesis develops a model for humanitarian operations and employs the model to develop logistics planning factors for material consumption and a computer-assisted planning aid relating to the support of the victim population. U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author.
van de Walle, B.A.; van den Eede, G.G.P.; Muhren, W.J.; Loffler, J.; Klann, M.
In times of major disasters such as hurricane Katrina or the Sichuan earthquake, the need for accurate and timely information is as crucial as is rapid and coherent coordination among the responding humanitarian community. Effective humanitarian information systems that provide timely access to
Full Text Available but was described as fairly routine for a company of Walmart’s size with 117 distribution centres spread around the country. The nonchalant response by Rollin Ford, (Walmart’s executive vice president of logistics and supply chain) says it all, “that’s what we do...%20and%20challenges%22  Boorstin, J. 2005. New lessons to learn. Fortune. 3 October.  Davidson, A.L. 2006. Key Performance Indicators in Humanitarian Logistics. MLOG Thesis, 2006. Viewed 24 October 2006.  http...
Full Text Available The Parent Child Psychological Support Program (PCPS was established in an area of South West Dublin in 2001. Since then until May 2008 it has offered its services to over 700 children and their parents. This preventative, parenting support service is available to all parents of children aged 3 to 18 months within its catchment area. During periodical visits, the infant’s development and growth are measured and parents receive specific information about their child’s progress. Parents are empowered in their parenting practices, thus promoting consistency and synchrony in parent-child interaction. Between 2001 and 2006, 538 parents and their infants participated in the Program. Out of these cases, 130 (24.16% were considered to require additional support and were included in the Monthly Meeting Case Review (MM based on initial concerns The aims of this study were: 1. to review the first five years of MM cases and to explore the socio-demographic profile of the MM cases in comparison to those not in need of additional support (non-MM and 2. To illustrate an approach to refining the case review process which will inform practice and provides the service providers with better understanding of the early detection of parent-child relation difficulties. In pursuing this goal the cases screened over five years of practice were analyzed to explore the structure of the different factors by using statistical techniques of data reduction, i.e. factor analysis. The results showed that the MM group differed on several socio-demographic dimensions from the non-MM group and there was a four factor structure underlying the case review decision process. Implications of this research are discussed.
John M Quinn
Full Text Available Humanitarian crises are politically and socially charged, and as actors, donors and organizations move in to help, duplication of services can ensue. Despite the influx of humanitarian actors into the war zone of eastern Ukraine, more are still needed to address immediate threat to the health of more than 5 million at-risk people in the area. The humanitarian disaster in Ukraine requires fast support and stakeholder involvement to mitigate preventable death among at-risk populations. As the crisis unfolds and many more people are caught in the crossfire with no health security, WHO is leading the charge to organize healthcare and humanitarian action to relive human suffering and engender health security for all.
Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Derous, Eva; Born, Marise Ph
As diversity management activities become more prominent worldwide it is important to understand psychological reactions to them to ensure success, but empirical evidence is lacking. This study investigated employees' and managers' intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work in a variety of organizations in the Netherlands, using Ajzen's theory of planned behavior. Predictors of intentions to promote cultural diversity at work (N = 670) and actual behavior after 6 months were assessed among managers and employees using self-reports in a 2-wave survey design. Participants' average age at Time 1 was 38.26 years (SD = 11.86), 56% was female, and there were 78.1% Dutch ethnic majority and 21.9% ethnic minority participants. Attitude to cultural diversity promotion at work and perceived behavioral control (PBC) related positively to both individuals' intentions to promote cultural diversity at work, which in turn predicted behavior. The strongest driver, however, was attitude. Managers' reported PBC and behavior were higher compared to employees. This study supported the applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work. With an increasingly diverse workforce, this study aimed to advance our understanding of drivers of individual reactions and behavior to support cultural diversity at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Colon, E.; Cubber, G. De; Ping, H.; Habumuremyi, J-C; Sahli, H.; Baudoin, Y.
This paper summarises the main results of 10 years of research and development in Humanitarian Demining. The Hudem project focuses on mine detection systems and aims at provided different solutions to support the mine detection operations. Robots using different kind of locomotion systems have been designed and tested on dummy minefields. In order to control these robots, software interfaces, control algorithms, visual positioning and terrain following systems have also been developed. Typica...
Wong, Kenchi C K
This study investigated the mediating role of psychological well-being between work support and safety performance of 314 Hong Kong nurses, using self-reported questionnaires. Results showed that psychological well-being mediated the effects of work support on safety performance. The findings illustrate that work support was an important element to improve psychological well-being. This could generate better safety performance of the nurses. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Cammaert, P. C
... to provide psychological support to deployed troops. Key factors in Stress Management are realistic training, fostering unit cohesion in arduous environments, communicating and providing time outs...
Harrison, Madeleine; Ryan, Tony; Gardiner, Clare; Jones, Amanda
International stroke care guidelines recommend the routine assessment and management of psychological and emotional problems post-stroke. Understanding the experiences of those delivering and receiving these services is vital to improving the provision of psychological support post-stroke. To explore patients', carers', and health professionals' experiences of psychological need, assessment, and support post-stroke while in hospital and immediately post-discharge. Participants were recruited from seven specialist stroke services in the north of England. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with 31 stroke patients, 28 carers, and 66 health professionals. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Two central themes emerged minding the gap: psychological expertise, and protective factors perceived to reduce the need for formal psychological support. The lack of psychological expertise among healthcare professionals working on stroke units was a source of frustration and resulted in other disciplines assuming the role of a psychologist without the required skills and training. Multiple stakeholders discussed the importance of protective factors, including downward social comparison, social support, peer support, communication, and information provision, that were perceived to reduce the need for formal psychological support. Stroke patients need better access to psychological support, including information, advice, and peer or social support. More research is required to establish the effectiveness of alternative options to formal psychological support.
A subtheory of self-determination theory, basic needs theory (BNT), examines the ways in which social-environmental factors interact with athletes' physical and psychological wellness. When the three psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness) identified in BNT are met in a sport setting, athletes' perceptions of well-being and…
Dures, Emma; Almeida, Celia; Caesley, Judy; Peterson, Alice; Ambler, Nicholas; Morris, Marianne; Pollock, Jon; Hewlett, Sarah
The consequences of inflammatory arthritis can include depression, anxiety and low mood, reducing patients' quality of life and increasing pressure on the healthcare system. Treatment guidelines recommend psychological support, but data are lacking on the provision available. A postal survey concerning psychological support provision was sent to rheumatology units in 143 acute trusts across England. Nurses from 73 rheumatology units (51%) responded. Overall, 73% rated their unit's psychological support provision as 'inadequate' and only 4% rated it as 'good'. Few units believed that psychological support did not fall within their remit (12%), yet only 8% had a psychologist in the team. Most units (68%) did not routinely screen patients to identify psychological difficulties. Referral to other service providers was reported in 42% of units, with 3% very satisfied with this provision. Within units, services containing elements of psychological support ranged from occupational therapy (81%) to psychology/counselling (14%). Psychological approaches used by team members ranged from shared decision making (77%) to cognitive-behavioural approaches (26%). The current barriers to providing psychological support were lack of clinical time and available training (86% and 74%, respectively), and delivery costs (74%). Future facilitators included management support (74%) and availability of skills training (74%). Rheumatology units viewed psychological support provision as part of their remit but rated their overall provision as inadequate, despite some team members using psychological skills. To improve provision, clinicians' training needs must be addressed and organizational support generated, and further research needs to define adequate psychological support provision from the patient perspective. © 2014 The Authors. Musculoskeletal Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Ahmad, Zeba S; Thoburn, John W; Furman, Rich; Lambert, Ashly J; Shelly, Lauren; Gunn, Ginger
The current article introduces Embedded Indigenous Psychological Support Teams (IPST) as a possible addition to current disaster relief efforts. This article highlights psychological first aid in an international context by drawing on mainstream disaster relief models such as The American Red Cross, Critical Incident Stress Management, and Flexible Psychological First Aid. IPST are explained as teams utilizing techniques from both CISM and FPFA with a focus on resiliency. It is currently theorized that in utilizing IPST existing disaster relief models may be more effective in mitigating negative physical or mental health consequences post-disaster.
Full Text Available Humanitarian intervention in Kosovo did not happen by any geopolitical interest, but simply by an entirely humanitarian character which is closely connected with democratic principles, human rights, and the lack of moral order. Except for damages, massacres and destruction by fire of very sophisticated military artillery, Serbian army and police have forced with violence more than thousands of Kosovo Albanians to leave their home (Pllana, 2010, 241. With humanitarian intervention, NATO had shown it was ready to defend universal human values as the fundamental principle of humanity (free life. Main purpose of this article is an analysis of the international human intervention in Kosovo
This paper critically analyses from a political sociology standpoint the international conceptualization of war-affected populations as traumatized and in need of therapeutic interventions. It argues for the importance of looking beyond the epidemiological literature to understand trauma responses globally. The paper explores how the imperative for international psychosocial programmes lies in developments within donor countries and debates in their humanitarian sectors over the efficacy of traditional aid responses. The aim of the paper is threefold. First, it discusses the emotional norms of donor states, highlighting the psychologizing of social issues and the cultural expectations of individual vulnerability. Second it examines the demoralization of humanitarianism in the 1990s and how this facilitated the rise of international psychosocial work and the psychologizing of war. Third, it draws attention to the limitations of a mental health model in Croatia, a country which has been receptive to international psychosocial programmes. Finally it concludes that the prevalent trauma approaches may inhibit recovery and argues for the need to re-moralize resilience.
Fukui, Sakiko; Ozawa, Harumi
The objectives of this study were to examine the degree of psychological distress during the first 6 months after diagnosis of gastric cancer and investigate the relation to psychological support from public health nurses and family members. One hundred and five patients with stomach, colorectal, or esophagus cancer were mailed a questionnaire. They were asked questions concerning the level of shock on the day of diagnosis, at 1-week after the diagnosis, and at 6 months post diagnosis. In addition, their physical and psychological status was assessed at the 6-month time point. They were also asked about perceived psychological support from public health nurses and family members. The relation between psychological distress and such psychological support was then assessed using multiple regression analyses. The levels of shock on the day of diagnosis and after 1-week were both significantly related to the psychological support from public health nurses. Physical and psychological status at 6 months post diagnosis was significantly related to the level of psychological support from the patient's family members. The study revealed that psychological support from public health nurses improves the level of patient psychological distress during the first 1 week after the cancer diagnosis. Psychological support from family members facilitates the physical and psychological adjustment at 6 months post diagnosis. The results indicate that psychological support is important just after cancer diagnosis and for longer term adjustment, pointing to a major role of health care professionals alleviating problems associated with cancer diagnosis.
This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
are becoming increasingly commercialized. This paper explores the use of media discourse for the communication of ethical messages by humanitarian organizations, caught, as they are, in a tension between, on the one hand, the commercial strategies of visibility and still greater dependence on the media, and......The development of corporate communication in recent years has brought about a fading of the division of labor between commercial and non-commercial organizations. While the practices of commercial organizations are becoming increasingly ethicalized, so the practices of non-profit organizations......'s branding strategies testify to a high degree of reflexivity about the conditions of what Luc Boltanski calls a Crisis of Pity. The analysis illustrates how, in the face of compassion fatigue, the organization manages to carve out a new space for itself in the marketized ethical discourse, and leads...
Hofmeister, Ute; Navarro, Susana
Forensic humanitarian action is aimed at alleviating suffering and maintaining human dignity, with the victims and their families at the core. International recommendations emphasize the importance of psychological support and psychosocial work as an integral part of forensic investigations into missing persons. Psychosocial action does not simply refer to emotional support but is based on the idea of the individual being the holder of rights, encouraging decision taking, affirming actions, and elaborating personal and collective histories. In this framework, forensics and psychosocial sciences need to work in complementary and coordinated interaction for the benefit of the families and communities. For forensic investigations to be restorative - their ultimate humanitarian objective - there are certain additional conditions apart from those of scientific quality and ethics: respect, information and coordination are among the main pillars for forensic action with a psychosocial approach, taking into account the need to treat on an individual and collective level the continuous psychological affectations caused by the disappearance of a loved one. On this basis, psychological and psychosocial accompaniment of the victims can contribute to the victims' healing process and also improve the forensic investigations themselves. This article, which is based on the experience of two decades of practical forensic and psychosocial work in the field, explains the main psychological effects of disappearances and the resulting needs. It gives a short historical overview of the origins and developments in psychosocial support and a perspective in relation to the search for missing persons and forensic interventions in Latin America. It goes on to demonstrate how coordinated interaction among the forensic and psychosocial fields strengthens both of them to the benefit of the affected families, groups and communities. Finally, it takes up some of the international recommendations
Full Text Available From refugee flows to earthquake relief, it is invariably local groups which are on the humanitarian frontline. Should international agencies reinvent themselves as solidarity and advocacy networks and start letting Southern NGOs take the lead?
Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng
Objectives: This paper examines how peer social support mediates the association between school victimization and student psychological health among junior-high students in an Asian context (Taiwan), and further examines how gender and ethnicity differ in the interrelationships of school violence, peer social support and psychological health.…
Herbert, Matthew S; Leung, Desmond W; Pittman, James O E; Floto, Elizabeth; Afari, Niloofar
This study examined the relationship between race/ethnicity and psychological resilience, and the moderating role of social support in this relationship among non-Hispanic White (n = 605), Hispanic (n = 107), African American (n = 141), and Asian American (n = 97) Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combat veterans. Veterans were primarily male (88%) with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD = 8.35). An analysis of covariance showed that Asian American veterans reported significantly lower psychological resilience than non-Hispanic White veterans. The interaction of race/ethnicity and social support with psychological resilience was examined via linear regression. We found that the relationship between psychological resilience and social support significantly differed by race/ethnicity such that social support was positively associated with psychological resilience among non-Hispanic White veterans, but not among other racial/ethnic groups. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that show Asian American veterans report lower psychological resilience than non-Hispanic White veterans. Cultural differences in how and why individuals use social support may underlie racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between social support and psychological resilience. Future qualitative and quantitative research is encouraged to better understand how social support relates to psychological resilience among minority OEF/OIF combat veterans. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Laffan, Amanda J; Daniels, Jo; Osborn, Michael
The importance of training non-psychology healthcare professionals to offer psychological support to people with cancer is becoming increasingly recognized. This small-scale pilot project sought to identify the training and support needs of oncology staff and to evaluate the effectiveness of a Level 2 Psychological Support Training Program workshop. Semi-structured interviews with five members of multidisciplinary oncology staff identified that training needs were primarily around communication skills, recognizing and dealing with emotions, offering support and empathy, and self-care. Pre and post-training questionnaires developed with these themes in mind revealed that the Level 2 Training Program workshops run in this network of hospitals are effective in increasing participants' levels of perceived knowledge and confidence across each of these domains. Recommendations are made for further enhancing this effectiveness.
Sahli, H.; Bruschini, C.; Kempen, L. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Breejen, E. den
The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology
van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Loeys, Tom; Mabbe, Elien; Gargurevich, Rafael
Autonomy-supportive parenting yields manifold benefits. To gain more insight into the family-level dynamics involved in autonomy-supportive parenting, the present study addressed three issues. First, on the basis of self-determination theory, we examined whether mothers' satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Second, we investigated maternal autonomy support as an intervening variable in the mother-child similarity in psychological need satisfaction. Third, we examined associations between autonomy-supportive parenting and autonomy-supportive sibling interactions. Participants were 154 mothers (M age = 39.45, SD = 3.96) and their two elementary school-age children (M age = 8.54, SD = 0.89 and M age = 10.38, SD = 0.87). Although mothers' psychological need satisfaction related only to maternal autonomy support in the younger siblings, autonomy-supportive parenting related to psychological need satisfaction in both siblings and to an autonomy-supportive interaction style between siblings. We discuss the importance of maternal autonomy support for family-level dynamics. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Full Text Available SUMMARY: Humanitarian aid has been present in some form throughout human history, yet the modern concept of humanitarian aid has only truly emerged since the later half of the 20th century. Through a complex progression of world events and largely brought about in response to armed conflict, modern humanitarian aid is provided by a multitude of organizations and actors. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the history of humanitarian action, a review of the principles of humanitarian aid and an overview of the major documents which delineate those principles. Keywords: Humanitarian aid, human rights
López-Walle, Jeanette; Balaguer, Isabel; Castillo, Isabel; Tristán, José
Based on Basic Needs Theory, one of the mini-theories of Self-determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002), the present study had two objectives: (a) to test a model in the Mexican sport context based on the following sequence: perceived coach autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and psychological well-being, and b) to analyze the mediational effect of the satisfaction of perceived coach autonomy support on indicators of psychological well-being (satisfaction with life and subjective vitality). Six hundred and sixty-nine young Mexican athletes (Boys = 339; Girls = 330; M(age) = 13.95) filled out a questionnaire assessing the study variables. Structural equations analyses revealed that perceived coach autonomy support predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Furthermore, basic need satisfaction predicted subjective vitality and satisfaction with life. Autonomy, competence and relatedness partially mediated the path from perceived coach autonomy support to psychological well-being in young Mexican athletes.
Full Text Available The study aimed to discuss the possibility of providing psychological support for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders via traditional Russian tea party. Questionnaire results, according to which mothers of children with ASD are essentially focused on receiving psychological counseling in the area of child development and education are presented. However personal problems of the woman, including psychological weightiness is usually taken a back seat. The research supports a hypothesis that informal format of tea party allows mothers decreasing psychological distance with psychologist, feeling at ease. The article includes an analysis of psychological meetings focused on personal life questions of participants. The results obtained in the research showed effectiveness of this approach. The Russian tea party is a meeting form that fosters the growth of confidence toward psychologist, expanding the range of personal questions that could be discussed. The mothers had the opportunity of open communication with each other, reported psychological safety valve.
Dures, E.; Almeida, C.; Caesley, J.; Peterson, A.; Ambler, N.; Morris, M.; Pollock, J.; Hewlett, S.
Objectives: Inflammatory arthritis (IA) can lead to anxiety, depression, pain and fatigue. Psychological support can improve quality of life and self-management; and European and American guidelines recommend support be offered. This study examined patient views on psychological support for their IA.\\ud \\ud Methods: A questionnaire designed by researchers, patient partners and clinicians was administered to 2280 patients with IA.\\ud \\ud Results: 1210 patients responded (53%): 74% women; mean ...
N hasan neghad
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological hardiness is a personal factor and social support is regarded as an environmental factor that can facilitate adjustment to disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adaptation with psychological hardiness and social support in individuals with Multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Seventy two females with MS and 25 males with MSwere selected through randomized sampling from two MS centers. Main variables of the study including adaptation, psychological hardiness, and social supportwere assessed respectively by Adaptation Inventory, Personal Attitudes Survey, and Social Support Questionnaire. Results: Spearman correlation coefficients revealed that there are significant relationships between adaptation and psychological hardiness (p<0.0001, as well as between adaptation and social support (p<0.0001. In addition, Multiple linear Regression showed that psychological hardiness (β= -0.483 and social support (β= -0.240 can explain 35/1% of adaptation variance in individuals with MS. Psychological hardinessproved to have a more important role in adaptation of individuals with MS. Conclusion: The study data demonstrated that personal factors like psychological hardiness and environmental factors such as social support can predict adjustment in individuals with MS. In order to clarify mechanisms of these factors on adaptation in individuals with MS, morelongitudinal and experimental studiesare required. These results are alsoapplicable in designing therapeutic programs for individuals with MS.
Full Text Available This paper summarises the main results of 10 years of research and development in Humanitarian Demining. The Hudem project focuses on mine detection systems and aims at provided different solutions to support the mine detection operations. Robots using different kind of locomotion systems have been designed and tested on dummy minefields. In order to control these robots, software interfaces, control algorithms, visual positioning and terrain following systems have also been developed. Typical data acquisition results obtained during trial campaigns with robots and data acquisition systems are reported. Lessons learned during the project and future work conclude this paper.
NATO Task Group HFM-081/RTG on "Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations" has produced, in the form of a Military Leaders Guide, a series of guidelines for psychological support...
H. de Vries (Harwin)
markdownabstractHumanitarian crises like the Syrian war, Ebola, the earthquake in Haiti, the Indian Ocean tsunami, and the ongoing HIV epidemic prompt substantial demands for humanitarian aid. Logistics plays a key role in aid delivery and represents a major cost category for humanitarian
Nunes, Lenice Cruvinel; Pereira, Maria Emilia Pontes
The psychological support given to the victims of the Goiania accident are described. The assistance lasted two months on the average and was given while the victims were in the hospital and later on in the recuperation center
Juggins, K J; Feinmann, C; Shute, J; Cunningham, S J
(1) To evaluate consultant orthodontist opinion on referral of orthognathic patients to a liaison psychiatrist or psychologist and (2) To investigate the value of training orthodontic specialists in recognition of patients with psychological profiles that might affect orthognathic outcome. Questionnaire-based study. A structured questionnaire was distributed to all consultant orthodontists in the UK. Approximately 40% of consultants thought that up to 10% of their orthognathic patients would benefit from psychological assessment by appropriately trained personnel. Twenty per cent of consultants were not certain what proportion of their patients would benefit from referral and over half the respondents said they do not refer any orthognathic patients for assessment. The most common reasons for referral were past/current psychiatric history (36%), unrealistic expectations (32%), 'gut instinct' (14%), no significant clinical problem (13%). Reasons not to refer were: nobody to refer to (30.5%), fear of patient reacting badly (15.8%), not sure who to refer to (14.7%), response from mental health team not useful (12.4%), waiting list too long (9.6%). The majority of clinicians felt they would benefit from training in this field (84.7%), as over 80% reported no teaching or training in psychological assessment/management. Although we have no evidence to prove that interdisciplinary care is better for patients, clinical experience and reports from clinicians working in large centres, tells us there are probable advantages. The development of a training programme for both orthodontists and mental health teams would seem to be beneficial for both clinicians and patients.
Evans, Dabney P; Anderson, Mark; Shahpar, Cyrus; Del Rio, Carlos; Curran, James W
The objective of this report was to show how the Center for Humanitarian Emergencies (the Center) at Emory University (Atlanta, Georgia USA) has trained graduate students to respond to complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs) through innovative educational programs, with the goal of increasing the number of trained humanitarian workers. Natural disasters are on the rise with more than twice as many occurring from 2000-2009 as there were from 1980-1989. In 2012 alone, 144 million people were affected by a natural disaster or displaced by conflict worldwide. This has created an immense need for trained humanitarian workers to respond effectively to such disasters. The Center has developed a model for educational programming that targets learners along an educational continuum ranging from the undergraduate level through continuing professional education. These programs, based in the Rollins School of Public Health (RSPH) of Emory University, include: a competency-based graduate certificate program (the Certificate) in humanitarian emergencies; a fellowship program for mid-career professionals; and funded field practica. The competency-based Certificate program began in 2010 with a cohort of 14 students. Since then, 101 students have received the Certificate with 50 more due for completion in 2016 and 2017 combined. The fellowship program for mid-career professionals has hosted four fellows from conflict-affected or resource-poor countries, who have then gone on to assume leadership positions with humanitarian organizations. From 2009-2015, the field practicum program supported 34 students in international summer practicum experiences related to emergency response or preparedness. Students have participated in summer field experiences on every continent but Australia. Together the Certificate, funded field practicum opportunities, and the fellowship comprise current efforts in providing innovative education and training for graduate and post-graduate students of public
Humanitarian aid has been present in some form throughout human history, yet the modern concept of humanitarian aid has only truly emerged since the later half of the 20th century. Through a complex progression of world events and largely brought about in response to armed conflict, modern humanitarian aid is provided by a multitude of organizations and actors. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the history of humanitarian action, a review of the principles of humanitarian aid and an overview of the major documents which delineate those principles.
These show the central nature of the concept of social support not only to the Yorubas but to most if not all societies. In other words, social support can been seen as a universal phenomenon. This cocept is what is expoused in the present paper with its relevance to the societal well being in general. African Journal for the ...
I. V. Patlashynska
Therefore, the author stresses that despite the difference in approach, understanding the role and place of humanitarian operations in world politics, аnd their impact on the promotion of human rights and freedoms as essential moral guidance is extremely large.
Full Text Available Until recently, the humanitarian community had largely ignored the problem of climate change, thinking that mitigation – the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions – would minimise the need for adaptation to the effects of climate change. Events appear to be proving us wrong.
Information and Communication Technology and the Humanitarian Field, ... of complex emergencies, defined by internal conflicts and political .... response tool, is an area where innovative ideas can have a huge impact. ...... example of an IVR is the systems used by banks where a caller can access accounting information ...
Heyse, Liesbet; Zwitter, Andrej; Wittek, Rafael; Herman, Joost
This book presents a new framework of analysis to assess natural and man-made disasters and humanitarian crises, and the feasibility of interventions in these complex emergencies. The past half-century has witnessed a dramatic increase in such crises – such as in Haiti, Iraq and Sudan – and this
Saleh, Lena D; van den Berg, Jacob J; Chambers, Christopher S; Operario, Don
Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviours. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multilevel interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM.
Graves, Helen; Garrett, Christopher; Amiel, Stephanie A; Ismail, Khalida; Winkley, Kirsty
Evidence for the efficacy of psychological skills training as a method of supporting patients' self-management is growing, but there is a shortage of mental health providers with specialist diabetes knowledge to deliver them. Primary care nurses are now increasingly expected to learn and use these techniques. This study explores nurse experience of training in six psychological skills to support patients' self-management of type 2 diabetes. Semi-structured interviews elicited themes relating to nurses' experiences of participating in a trial of a psychological intervention, the Diabetes-6 study (D-6). Nurses were employed in GP surgeries in 5 South London boroughs. Thematic framework analysis was used to compare and contrast themes across participants. Nine nurses delivering the intervention (n=11), and 7 from the control intervention (n=12, no psychological element) were interviewed. Three key themes were identified: (i) positive and negative impact of D6 on nurses' practice: positives included patient empowerment; negatives included patients' capacity to engage; (ii) professional boundaries including concerns about over-stepping role as a nurse and (iii) concerns about degree of support from physicians at participating practices in integrating psychological and diabetes care. Primary care nurses report that psychological skills training can have a positive impact on patient care. Significant role adjustment is required, which may be aided by additional support from the practice team. Qualitative evaluation of effectiveness of psychological interventions may reveal processes that hinder or contribute to efficacy and translation. Appropriate support is necessary for primary care nurses to deliver psychological therapies with confidence. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov
Full Text Available The article presents a description of the author’s program to support the social and psychological safety of children with intellectual disabilities enrolled in boarding school of VIII kind. The object of the study were children with intellectual disabilities. The subject of research – features of formation to children with intellectual disabilities the social and psychological safety. The methodological base are the special psychology (L.S. Vygotsky, S.L. Rubinstein, A. Speck. The results. Complex psychological and pedagogical support of social and psychological safety of children with intellectual disabilities reflects the content of psychological and pedagogical tasks (target function and technologies of their solution (instrumental function aimed at reducing internal and external risk factors. The target functions are: social and psychological adaptation, personal and developmental, the function of social support and psychological and pedagogical assistance, preventive and correctional function. Psycho-pedagogical objectives are the formation of skills of safe behavior and confront the dangers through the development of appropriate social skills, mental, physical and cognitive abilities, establishing a real and more comfortable with social contact (including municipal and educational environment, thereby ensuring individual protection and psychosocial well-being, support emotional balance, development of harmonious personality, to facilitate adaptation to the social environment, correction of risk factors of dysontogenesis. The program includes informative, technological and diagnostic modules. The basis for the construction of educational information in the field of security us based on the principle of integratively – interdisciplinary cooperation of academic subjects; a mix of mandatory core classes and extra-curricular and remedial work. Technological support included the following teaching methods: interactive (psychotechnical
Schonfeld, I S
In the summer following graduation a sample of 125 female college graduates (mean age = 28) completed Cohen & Wills' ISEL (1985) which includes scales measuring four social support functions: belonging (social companionship), appraisal (availability of confidants), tangible (instrumental), and self-esteem support. In the summer and fall subject status on two outcome scales was ascertained: the Psychophysiologic Symptom Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Reliability of the difference scores suggested that the ISEL scales do not measure entirely different constructs and the ISEL Self-esteem Scale is operationally redundant with the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale and the CES-D. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that the ISEL scales were related to symptoms. By contrast, standard longitudinal and prospective MLR analyses indicated that only the Belonging Scale was significantly related to future symptoms. The issues of confounding support with symptoms and the dimensionality of the subscales were discussed. The study suggests that specific functions of support take on greater importance during major life transitions and that any one supportive behaviour often serves multiple functions.
Smeesters, Hannah; Skinner, Chas; Martin, Jo
A lack of knowledge in diabetes self management skills, such as insulin administration, glucose testing and diet, have been identified in a high percentage of adults with the condition ever since insulin treatment was first introduced (Watkins et al, 1967; Murata et al, 2003). Adult support weeke...
Emm-Collison, Lydia G; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B
Grounded within self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, in press), three studies were conducted to develop and psychometrically test a measure of adolescents' perceptions of psychological need support for exercise (viz., for autonomy, competence, and relatedness): the Adolescent Psychological Need Support in Exercise Questionnaire (APNSEQ). In Study 1, 34 items were developed in collaboration with an expert panel. Through categorical confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, responses from 433 adolescents were used to identify the best fitting and performing items in Study 2. Here, a three-factor nine-item measure showed good fit to the data. In Study 3, responses from an independent sample of 373 adolescents provided further evidence for the nine-item solution as well as for internal consistency, criterion validity, and invariance across gender and social agent (friends, family, and physical education teacher). The APNSEQ was supported as a measure of adolescents' perceptions of psychological need support within the context of exercise.
Kimberly A. Rapoza
Full Text Available This study investigated the extent to which perceived social support functioned as a protective factors, and dimensions of insecure attachment (i.e., avoidant and anxious functioned as risks factors for physical and psychological health. We explored whether insecure attachment was a mechanism that modified the relationship (i.e., protect against or increases risk between social support and adult health. Participants were 155 non-traditional adult college students from demographically diverse backgrounds. Students were approached in common areas on campus or in classrooms during break and were asked to complete the questionnaire. Bartholomew and Horowitz’s Attachment Questionnaire assessed avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions, the Brief Social Support Questionnaire assessed perceived social support, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale measured physical and psychological symptoms. Model results indicated that the anxious dimension of insecure attachment was more directly and positively associated with poorer general physical health and psychological symptoms, whereas greater perceived social support was linked with better reported health. However, an interesting pattern emerged with avoidant attachment through a moderated relationship with social support. The absence of a satisfying supportive network was significantly related to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes for those low in avoidant attachment, but not for those high in avoidant attachment. Results from this work suggest that insecure attachment plays a detrimental role in adult health. Perceived social support does not necessarily function as a blanket protective factor for health, as it seemed to offer less benefit to those high in attachment avoidance.
Panaccio, Alexandra; Vandenberghe, Christian
Using longitudinal data (N=220), we examined the contribution of perceived organizational support and four mindsets of organizational commitment (affective, normative, perceived sacrifice associated with leaving and perceived lack of alternatives) to employee psychological well-being. In order to assess the contribution of support and commitment…
Benson, Paul R.
This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment…
Jackson-Kersey, Rachel; Spray, Christopher
Physical educators have a responsibility to create a learning environment that is viewed as supportive of students' psychological needs and which helps reduce amotivation. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of students' perceived need support on four dimensions of amotivation in physical education (PE) ("deficiency in…
Warren, Christie D; Fowler, Ken; Speed, David; Walsh, Anna
Individuals with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) and bipolar II disorder (BD-II) are at higher risk for experiencing high levels of psychological distress and low levels of social support. The primary objectives of this study were to examine perceived social support and psychological distress among Canadian adults with self-reported BD-I or BD-II as diagnosed by a health professional and explore the relationship between types of social support and psychological distress within this sample. Using a cross-sectional, national datafile, 563 Canadian male and female adults (20-64 years) who reported being diagnosed with BD-I or BD-II were investigated using the Social Provisions Scale (SPS), and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). It was observed that while the BD-I or BD-II sample had significantly lower SPS scores and significantly higher K10 scores than the overall Canadian sample, age and support in the form of reassurance of worth and social integration were associated with decreased psychological distress. Further, a diagnosis of BD-I and BD-II was found to moderate the effect of social support on psychological distress. Despite the limitations, which include self-reported diagnosis of BD-I and BD-II and potential exclusion of those who are not diagnosed but have BD-I or BD-II, these findings suggest that reassurance of worth and social integration may act as protective factors for psychological distress among individuals with BD-I or BD-II.
Full Text Available The author's approach to the support of psychological safety in the educational process. As cadet classes make high demands to the capabilities and resources of the child, the task of tracking these educational programs in terms of psychological safety of children is particularly relevant. The study tested the assumption that the program support the state of psychological safety, implementing a risk-resource approach and aimed at updating / generation components of psychological safety (satisfaction, protection, reference, subjective well-being of the child in the Cadet educational environment, activity, will be effective when accompanied by cadet training programs. Testing of the developed program was carried out with students of third cadet classes (53 people in the experimental group and 26 in the control group. components and criteria of psychological safety of the younger schoolboy were determined on the basis of theoretical analysis. The methods of interrogation (questioning, testing, projective method examined the children, parents and teachers in the cadet classes to identify the initial and final levels of psychological safety of younger students. Statistical analysis were used cluster and discriminant analysis, chi-square test for contingency tables, sign test G. The article describes the features of the program, aimed at the formation and maintenance of psychological safety of younger pupils, pupils of cadet classes. The efficiency of it on all the selected criteria with a level of significance of not more than p <0,005. Ideas forming program can be used in the practice of psychological work in schools, as well as for further research of psychological safety of children in the educational environment of schools of different types and species.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that has negative effect on physical function, psychological condition, interpersonal, family and social relationship and in general, on psychological well being. The aim of this study was to investigate of psychological profile in diabetic patients and it's relatioship with social support. Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 120 diabetic patients have been selected among of those that systematically refered to Diabetes Clinic of Emam Khomeini Hospital in order to follow their therapeutic process in Ardabil . Data gathering was accomplished by two tests: SCL-90-R and Social Support Scale. Finally data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and T-test on SPSS-17 software and p-value less than 0.05 considered as significant. Results: Results showed that 70% of diabetic patients had problems in somatic complaint and obsession, 62.5% in sensitivity, 72.5% in depression, 62.5% in anxiety, 55% in hostility, 67.5% in paranoid thoughts, 27.5% in phobia and 37.5% in psychosis. Correlations between social support with somatic complaint, obsession, sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility and paranoid thoughts were negatively significant. Family support associated significantly with all of the psychological variables but friend Support had no significant correlation with them. Conclusion: The range of psychological problems experienced by diabetic patients is more extensive and these problems have significant relationship with social support. Thus, attention to different dimensions of psychological health is necessary and social support-based interventions can be more effective.
DeFreese, J D; Smith, Alan L
Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress-burnout and burnout-well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress-burnout or burnout-well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes.
Full Text Available Training within volunteer humanitarian organisations is one of the most important areas of adult education nowadays. It comprises informal types of education and independent learning (workshops, study circles, activities within small groups, project work, discussions, exchanging opinions and · experiences, visits, presentations, consulting for members. Its goal is primarily encouraging members to act more appropriately, to develop and change fixed habits, viewpoints and behaviour patterns, as well as developing the organisation they belong to.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L.
Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women’s experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15–25 weeks’ gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803
Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina
Full Text Available This article discusses the management of production team, in particular the developed theoretical model of socio-psychological support work processes for management of production team. The author of the research are formulated the purpose and objectives of social-psychological work on management of the production team. Developed in the study a theoretical model aimed at determining the conditions and the identification of features of effective management of the enterprise taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of its staff. Tasks include: definition of the main characteristics of the production team and their severity, the analysis of these characteristics and identifying opportunities for their transformation, development of recommendations for management of social-psychological work on effects on the characteristics of the collective enterprise.Practical study of the activities of a number of businesses have shown the need to improve socio-psychological support of management processes production team: introducing a social and psychological planning team and develop the practice of sociological research on the state of the team, to ensure the smoothing of relations between workers and management through periodic meetings, creations of conditions for feedback, maintaining healthy competition among team members.
action to support humanitarian relief and democratic movements " (Towell, 1992, p. 3761). The U.S. 2 led coalition, from December 1992 through May...similar to planning and executing the movement phase of wartime contingencies. Therefore, these activities in humanitarian relief missions also serve...DISASTZR _ CATUGORIZS ORIGINS ZXARPLUS NATURAL METEOROLOGICAL STORMS, DROUGHTS TOPOLOGICAL FLOODS, LANDSLIDES TELLURIC /TECTONIC EARTHQUAKES BIOLOGICAL
This paper explores the challenges facing humanitarian NGOs that work in authoritarian settings. Drawing on examples from North Korea, Myanmar, Darfur, and Sri Lanka, the paper examines some of the central dilemmas facing humanitarian actors in these contexts and the strategies they have deployed to address these. The paper then examines the oft-repeated recommendation that humanitarian agencies need to engage in more rigorous and more strategic analysis of their work in order to improve prac...
Full Text Available The paper reviews the social situation of development of children and adolescents in the modern society marked by rapid changes. The development of children and adolescents is described as ‘embedding into the culture’ through the education and is closely associated with the formation of their psychological culture. The paper analyses the conditions of personality development in modern children and adolescents, the factors which impede the communication and understanding of other people; it highlights the risks of escaping into the virtual reality or joining asocial groups. The paper also suggests important measures aimed at the formation of psychological culture in children in relation to age-specific tasks of development in primary school and adolescent ages. The development of psychological culture is regarded as the key means of supporting the implementation of modern educational standards as well as the foundation of psychological health in schoolchildren.
L'Hermitte, Cécile; Brooks, Benjamin; Bowles, Marcus; Tatham, Peter H
This study investigates the strategic antecedents of operational agility in humanitarian logistics. It began by identifying the particular actions to be taken at the strategic level of a humanitarian organisation to support field-level agility. Next, quantitative data (n=59) were collected on four strategic-level capabilities (being purposeful, action-focused, collaborative, and learning-oriented) and on operational agility (field responsiveness and flexibility). Using a quantitative analysis, the study tested the relationship between organisational capacity building and operational agility and found that the four strategic-level capabilities are fundamental building blocks of agility. Collectively they account for 52 per cent of the ability of humanitarian logisticians to deal with ongoing changes and disruptions in the field. This study emphasises the need for researchers and practitioners to embrace a broader perspective of agility in humanitarian logistics. In addition, it highlights the inherently strategic nature of agility, the development of which involves focusing simultaneously on multiple drivers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine (CDHAM) was formally established at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) by...
Relief organizations continue to provide humanitarian aid in sub-Saharan Africa, often with tough problems arising from inhospitable environment, insecurity, and political or ethnic generated conflicts...
Daniels, K; Guppy, A
Tests of the influence of affective psychological well-being on stressors, locus of control, and social support in a 1-month follow-up study of 210 male and 34 female British accountants is reported. There was a marginally significant association between the level of psychological symptoms and subsequent reports of intensity of quantitative workload stressors. A significant interaction between psychological symptoms and a measure of depression-enthusiasm was found to predict subsequent locus of control. The results indicate a differential pattern of associations between aspects of affective well-being and subsequent reports of social support. The results also indicate that initially more frequent stressors are associated with subsequently less intense stressors of the same type. The findings highlight the dynamic and reciprocal nature of the occupational stress process.
Educational psychology has recently experienced something of a revival in the provision of psychological therapy. This revival has aligned with general developments in evidence-based psychology. A product of this has been more frequent delivery of empirically supported therapies in practice settings, for example, anxiety reduction programmes in…
Okawa, Sumiyo; Yasuoka, Junko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Poudel, Krishna C; Ragi, Allan; Jimba, Masamine
Parental deaths due to AIDS seriously affect the psychological well-being of children. Social support may provide an effective resource in the care of vulnerable children in resource-limited settings. However, few studies have examined the relationships between social support and psychological well-being among AIDS orphans. This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore associations between perceived social support (PSS) and the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans, and to identify socio-demographic factors that are associated with PSS. Data were collected from 398 pairs of AIDS orphans (aged 10-18 years) and their caregivers in Nairobi, Kenya. The participants provided information on their socio-demographic characteristics, the children's PSS, and the children's psychological status (based on measures of depressive symptoms and self-esteem). Of the 398 pairs, 327 were included in the analysis. PSS scores of AIDS orphans showed significant correlations with depressive symptoms (ρ =-0.31, psiblings (β=3.044, p=0.016), were also associated with higher PSS scores. In particular, HIV-infected children (n=37) had higher scores of PSS from a special person (β=2.208, p=0.004), and children living with biological siblings (n=269) also had higher scores of PSS from both a special person (β=1.411, p=0.029) and friends (β=1.276, p=0.039). In conclusion, this study showed that PSS is positively associated with the psychological well-being of AIDS orphans. Siblings and special persons can be effective sources of social support for AIDS orphans, which help to promote their psychological well-being.
The Back Pack Health Worker Team (BPHWT), a community- based health organization, provides primary health care to ethnic people in conflict, remote, and internally displaced areas, in Burma (aka Myanmar), controlled by ethnic armed organizations fighting against the Burma government. Its services include both curative and preventative health care through a network of 1,425 health personnel including community health workers and village-embedded traditional birth attendants and village health workers. The BPHWT organizational and program model may prove useful to Special Operations medical actions in support of insurgent movements and conversely with a host nation's counterinsurgency strategies, which include the extension of its health services into areas that may be remote and/or inhabited by indigenous people and have insurgency potential. In the former respect, special attention is directed toward "humanitarian struggle" that uses health care as a weapon against the counterinsurgency strategies of a country's oppressive military. 2017.
...: To investigate the perceived psychological support requirements for service personnel on peacekeeping deployments when they return home from operations and examine their views on the requirement...
Albuquerque, Sara; Eriksson, Anneli; Alvesson, Helle M
Low retention of humanitarian workers poses constraints on humanitarian organisations' capacity to respond effectively to disasters. Research has focused on reasons for humanitarian workers leaving the sector, but little is known about the factors that can elucidate long-term commitment. To understand what motivates and supports experienced humanitarian health workers to remain in the sector. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 experienced nurses who had been on at least three field missions with Médecins Sans Frontières Sweden. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to go on missions, how nurses were supported and how they looked back on those experiences. Transcripts were analysed through content analysis informed by van Gennep's concept of 'Rite of Passage', combined with elements of the self-determination theory. The findings indicate that their motivations and how nurses thought of themselves, as individuals and professionals, changed over time. For initiation and continued engagement in humanitarian work, participants were motivated by several personal and professional ambitions, as well as altruistic principles of helping others. When starting their first humanitarian missions, nurses felt vulnerable and had low self-esteem. However, through experiencing feelings of autonomy, competence and relatedness during missions, they underwent a process of change and gradually adjusted to new roles as humanitarian health workers. Reintegration in their home community, while maintaining the new roles and skills from the missions, proved very challenging. They individually found their own ways of overcoming the lack of social support they experienced after missions in order to sustain their continuation in the sector. The findings highlight the importance of social environments that facilitate and support the adjustment of individuals during and after field missions. Learning from positive examples, such as nurses with several years of
Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…
Simsek, Omer Faruk; Demir, Meliksah
Past empirical research relying on self-determination theory (SDT) has consistently shown that parental support of basic psychological needs (BPN) is associated with adolescent happiness. Yet, the specific mechanisms accounting for this link are still undetermined. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by testing a…
Ruthig, Joelle C.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.
The first year of college presents numerous challenges experienced as overwhelming by some freshmen who may become overly stressed and depressed. This longitudinal study examined perceived academic control (PAC) as a mediator of optimism and social support's buffering effects on freshman students' psychological health. Multiple regressions…
Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti
Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…
Liu, Dong-Gen; Wang, Shu-Sen; Peng, Rou-Jun; Qin, Tao; Shi, Yan-Xia; Teng, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Xi; Chen, Wei-Qing; Yuan, Zhong-Yu
The aim of the present study was to assess the association of psychological stress and social support with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Four hundred and one patients with breast cancer were recruited. Their demographic characteristics, psychological stress and social support were determined with a structured questionnaire, and their anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Psychological stressors caused by breast cancer diagnosed originated from five major sources, as determined by factor analysis. These included "Worrying about health being harmed, " "Fear of decline of physical function, " "Fear of work being harmed, " "Worry about daily life and social relationship being restricted, " and "Fear of family being harmed. " Hierarchical linear regression analysis indicated that, after adjusting for gender, age, marital status, educational level, and duration of illness, solid social support can alleviate such symptoms. The results of this study suggest that there are strong associations between patients' needs and psychological distress with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Social support might affect these associations in Chinese women with breast cancer.
Bilgin, Okan; Tas, Ibrahim
This research investigated the effects of perceived social support and psychological resilience on social media addiction among university students. The research group was composed of 503 university students. The ages of participant students varied between 17 and 31 years old. 340 (67.6%) of the participants are female and 163 (32.4%) of them are…
Kirillova, Olga V.; Kirillova, Tatyana V.; Abramova, Lyudmila A.; Gavrilova, Irina V.; Vaibert, Margarita I.
The research urgency is caused by necessity of the accumulation of human capital as the main factor of economic growth. The purpose of this article is to identify methods of psychological and pedagogical support of formation of professional outlook of the university students. Methodological basis of the research was the principle of acmeology,…
Costa, Rosalia; Dunsford, Michael; Skagerberg, Elin; Holt, Victoria; Carmichael, Polly; Colizzi, Marco
Puberty suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) is prescribed to relieve the distress associated with pubertal development in adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) and thereby to provide space for further exploration. However, there are limited longitudinal studies on puberty suppression outcome in GD. Also, studies on the effects of psychological support on its own on GD adolescents' well-being have not been reported. This study aimed to assess GD adolescents' global functioning after psychological support and puberty suppression. Two hundred one GD adolescents were included in this study. In a longitudinal design we evaluated adolescents' global functioning every 6 months from the first visit. All adolescents completed the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS), a self-report measure of GD-related discomfort. We used the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) to assess the psychosocial functioning of adolescents. At baseline, GD adolescents showed poor functioning with a CGAS mean score of 57.7 ± 12.3. GD adolescents' global functioning improved significantly after 6 months of psychological support (CGAS mean score: 60.7 ± 12.5; P puberty suppression had significantly better psychosocial functioning after 12 months of GnRHa (67.4 ± 13.9) compared with when they had received only psychological support (60.9 ± 12.2, P = 0.001). Psychological support and puberty suppression were both associated with an improved global psychosocial functioning in GD adolescents. Both these interventions may be considered effective in the clinical management of psychosocial functioning difficulties in GD adolescents. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
R. Samii (Ramina)
textabstractThis thesis explores an under-researched field: humanitarian organizations and their supply chains. Humanitarian organizations respond to the basic needs of populations that experience a tragic disruption in their lives. Given the challenging contexts they operate in, this thesis first
In armed conflicts, death is not an exceptional occurrence, but becomes the rule and occurs on a daily basis. Dead bodies are sometimes despoiled, mutilated, abandoned without any funeral rite and without a decent burial. Unidentified remains may be counted by hundreds or thousands. As a result, families look for years for missing relatives, ignorant of the fate of their loved ones. International Humanitarian Law, also called the laws of war or the law of armed conflict, is an international law branch, which has been developed to regulate and, as far as possible, to humanize armed conflicts. It contains a number of clear and concrete obligations incumbent to belligerent parties on the management of dead bodies, which provide the legal framework for humanitarian forensic action. The purpose of this article is to present, in a simple and concise manner, these rules with a view to extrapolate some key legal principles, such as the obligation to respect the dignity of the dead or the right to know the fate of relatives, which shall guide anyone dealing with human remains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kaplan, Aaron V; Harvey, Elisa D; Kuntz, Richard E; Shiran, Hadas; Robb, John F; Fitzgerald, Peter
The Second Dartmouth Device Development Symposium held in October 2004 brought together leaders from the medical device community, including clinical investigators, senior representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration, large and small device manufacturers, and representatives from the financial community to examine difficult issues confronting device development. The role of the Humanitarian Use Device/Humanitarian Device Exemption (HUD/HDE) pathway in the development of new cardiovascular devices was discussed in this forum. The HUD/HDE pathway was created by Congress to facilitate the availability of medical devices for "orphan" indications, ie, those affecting HDEs have been granted (23 devices, 6 diagnostic tests). As the costs to gain regulatory approval for commonly used devices increase, companies often seek alternative ways to gain market access, including the HUD/HDE pathway. For a given device, there may be multiple legitimate and distinct indications, including indications that meet the HUD criteria. Companies must choose how and when to pursue each of these indications. The consensus of symposium participants was for the HUD/HDE pathway to be reserved for true orphan indications and not be viewed strategically as part of the clinical development plan to access a large market.
Olwig, Mette Fog; Christiansen, Lene Bull
trends, it can, in a local national setting, develop in ways that are contrary to the political correctness characteristic of global celebrity humanitarianism. In the Danish cultural context we found that anti-elitist cultural norms and social codes, rooted in local understandings of democratic inclusion...... and equality, must be inscribed into celebrity performances. This form of performativity is often achieved through ostensibly politically incorrect, unassuming and underplayed, irony. It is, however, an unenlightened democracy, unaware of those it excludes - i.e. the Other who is kept invisible through...
Ana Laura Santos
Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of Systems Design in addressing the challenges of healthcare provision by international emergency relief organizations in developing countries. More specifically the challenges related to the safety and performance of medical equipment that is transferred in the aftermath of a humanitarian crisis. The aim of this paper is to describe the transfer of medical equipment and its associated challenges from a systems perspective and to reflect on the value of Systems Design as an approach to humanitarian innovation, addressing the identified systemic challenges. The concepts of Human Factors and Ergonomics, and Product-Service Systems will be presented as valuable contributions to support designers in handling a larger degree of complexity throughout the design process and to support them to make informed choices regarding this particular context.
Parcesepe, Angela; Tymejczyk, Olga; Remien, Robert; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Hoffman, Susie; Melaku, Zenebe; Elul, Batya; Nash, Denis
Recent World Health Organization HIV treatment guideline expansion may facilitate timely antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, large-scale success of universal treatment strategies requires a more comprehensive understanding of known barriers to early ART initiation. This work aims to advance a more comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among three known barriers to ART initiation: psychological distress, HIV-related stigma, and low social support. We analyzed cross-sectional interview data on 1175 adults initiating ART at six HIV treatment clinics in Ethiopia. Experience of each form of HIV-related stigma assessed (e.g., anticipatory, internalized, and enacted) was associated with increased odds of psychological distress. However, among those who reported enacted HIV-related stigma, there was no significant association between social support and psychological distress. Interventions to improve mental health among people living with HIV should consider incorporating components to address stigma, focusing on strategies to prevent or reduce the internalization of stigma, given the magnitude of the relationship between high internalized stigma and psychological distress. Interventions to increase social support may be insufficient to improve the mental health of people living with HIV who experienced enacted HIV-related stigma. Future research should examine alternative strategies to manage the mental health consequences of enacted HIV-related stigma, including coping skills training.
Richey, Lisa Ann; Chouliaraki, Lillie
Our starting point in this special issue is in opening up traditional understandings and practices of humanitarianism to bring multi-faceted approaches to a classical area of political inquiry. As the rhetoric and practice of humanitarian good-doing becomes increasingly widespread in our public...... life—from celebrity culture to Twitter messaging and from Christmas shopping to concert-going—key questions arise. What does humanitarianism look like in the age of market-driven, digital media-based action? What happens to traditional humanitarian ideals, at the time of increasing bureaucratization...... and celebrification of humanitarian practice? What are the implications of such practices for the ethics and politics of contemporary benevolence? Do we live in an age of “post-humanitarianism” where doing good for others is intrinsically linked with feelings of gratification for the self? Universal questions...
The humanitarian sector has grown enormously over the past two decades. Some fear that professionalisation comes at the expense of altruistic volunteering. This may be a valid concern if altruism is the product of organisational culture and individual experiences rather than an innate trait. This paper examines advances in evolutionary biology and neurology that provide evidence in support of both the nature and nurture arguments, echoing earlier insights from social sciences. It then questions to what extent humanitarian principles build on altruistic impulses or instead seek to constrain them, and reviews recruitment profiles of selected humanitarian organisations and applicants' letters accordingly. This initial investigation warrants further research to identify how altruism as a personal trait and an organisational principle has influenced diverse humanitarian actors and traditions. This paper outlines how training curricula and organisational reward systems can build on-rather than stifle-natural altruism to nurture critical, reflexive practitioners. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
Longman, Huon; O'Connor, Erin; Obst, Patricia
Previous research examining players of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) suggests that players form meaningful relationships with each other. Other research indicates that people may derive social support from online sources, and this social support has been associated with greater well-being. This study used an online survey of players (N = 206) of the MMOG World of Warcraft (WoW) to examine if social support can be derived from MMOGs and to examine its relationship with negative psychological symptoms. Players of WoW were found to derive social support from playing and a positive relationship was found between game engagement and levels of in-game social support. Higher levels of in-game social support were associated with fewer negative psychological symptoms, although this effect was not maintained after accounting for social support derived from the offline sources. Additionally, a small subsample of players (n = 21) who played for 44 to 82 hours per week (M = 63.33) was identified. These players had significantly lower levels of offline social support and higher levels of negative symptoms compared to the rest of the sample. This study provides evidence that social support can be derived from MMOGs and the associated potential to promote well-being but also highlights the potential harm from spending excessive hours playing.
Full Text Available // Introduction: The impact of the diagnosis of an oncologic disease is well-known in terms of psychological adjustment and quality of life. On the other hand it is known that depressive symptoms may also overlap the physical symptoms of cancer and cancer treatment, which may interfere in their detection and appropriate treatment approach. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between psychological adjustment to lung cancer, self-compassion, social support and emotional negative states in patients with lung cancer. Method: Fifty-five patients diagnosed with lung cancer (38 men and 17 women with ages ranging from 44 to 87 years old participated in the study. A set of self-report instruments was used: the Mini Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MiniMac, the Self-compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003, the Social Support Satisfaction Scale (SSSS and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21. Results: Significant correlations were found between psychological adjustment, psychopathology, emotion regulation strategies (self-compassion, and social support. The predictive models for psychological adjustment and stress related symptomatology include self-compassion and social support as significant predictive variables. Regarding the predictive model for depressive symptomatology, mindfulness seems to be the only significant predictor. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that these patients may benefit, in their therapeutic approach, from the development of this kind of strategies (new ways of relating themselves with their emotional experiences and quality of their social networks in order to promote a better psychological adjustment to their clinical condition.
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane
PURPOSE: In this study, we identified the social and psychological characteristics of Danish cancer patients that determine use of the internet for support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We invited 230 cancer patients taking part in a public rehabilitation program to participate in an internet module...... observed no difference between the two groups in quality of life or psychological well-being, while coping to some extent seemed related to participation in internet support groups. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the discussion on social inequality in internet use by cancer patients, showing that patients...... comprising training in the retrieval of cancer-related information from the internet and self-support groups. Persons who were motivated to join the internet groups (N = 100; 47%) were compared with persons who chose not to participate (N = 111) on the basis of self-reported baseline questionnaire data...
Bae, Jeongyee; Kim, Key-Yong; Panuncio, Rosel L; Choi, Namhee; Im, Sook-Bin
Disasters can strike uncontrollably whenever or wherever, leaving horrendous marks of physical and psychological damage on people upon their passing. Asia remains the most widely affected area of the world, with high death tolls, casualties, and economic losses recorded in past years. In fact, a developed country like South Korea incurs huge deficits from disaster-related adversities. Restoration efforts and assistance for disaster survivors are generously provided by the Korean government. However, it is only recently that cases of postdisaster mental problems have been given attention. This article argues that, although material relief helps disaster victims to regain their physical losses, it is equally important to aid their psychological needs to prevent long-term mental health problems. This article highlights Korea's first regional Psychological Support Center for disaster victims, which can be accessed online. With this Center, the country continues to strive in providing her people with holistic approaches to further enhance each citizen's quality of life.
Uyanik, Hatice; Shogren, Karrie A; Blanck, Peter
Purpose This article reviews existing literature on positive psychology, supported decision-making (SDM), employment, and disability. It examines interventions and assessments that have been empirically evaluated for the enhancement of decision-making and overall well-being of people with disabilities. Additionally, conceptual themes present in the literature were explored. Methods A systematic review was conducted across two databases (ERIC and PsychINFO) using various combination of keywords of 'disabilit*', work rehabilitation and employment terms, positive psychology terms, and SDM components. Seven database searches were conducted with diverse combinations of keywords, which identified 1425 results in total to be screened for relevance using their titles and abstracts. Database search was supplemented with hand searches of oft-cited journals, ancestral search, and supplemental search from grey literature. Results Only four studies were identified in the literature targeting SDM and positive psychology related constructs in the employment and job development context. Results across the studies indicated small to moderate impacts of the assessment and interventions on decision-making and engagement outcomes. Conceptually there are thematic areas of potential overlap, although they are limited in the explicit integration of theory in supported decision-making, positive psychology, disability, and employment. Conclusion Results suggest a need for additional scholarship in this area that focuses on theory development and integration as well as empirical work. Such work should examine the potential utility of considering positive psychological interventions when planning for SDM in the context of career development activities to enhance positive outcomes related to decision-making, self-determination, and other positive psychological constructs.
Gerard Francis Hoyne
Full Text Available Increasing student engagement within higher education academic support services is a constant challenge. Whilst engagement with support is positively associated with successful retention, and non-engagement connected to attrition, the most vulnerable students are often the least likely to engage. Our data has shown that Health Science students are reluctant to engage with academic support services despite being made aware of their academic deficiencies. The “psychology of seeking support” was used as a lens to identify some of the multifaceted issues around student engagement. The School of Health Sciences made attendance at support courses compulsory for those students who were below the benchmark score in a post entrance literacy test. Since the policy change was implemented, there has been a 50% reduction in the fail rate of “at risk” students in a core literacy unit. These findings are encouraging and will help reduce student attrition in the long term.
Miriam Teresa Domínguez - Guedea
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the relationship of psychological aspects of family caregivers with the support that they offer to the diabetic patient’s adherence to treatment. The psychological aspects were: subjective well-being, attachment styles, coping strategies to problems and perceived social support. Methods: Joined in the study 29 family caregivers in a noneprobabilistic sample. Participants were contacted from three Mutual Aid Groups for diabetic and hypertensive patients in the city of Hermosillo, México. Questionnaires designed for the purposes of research were applied, as well as psychometric instruments previously validated in the cultural reference group. Results: The data showed that the psychological aspects that are statistically significant and negatively related to adherence therapy are avoidant attachment and negative affection, both associated to each other in a positive way, indicating that they occur in parallel. Avoidant attachment was positively associated with avoidant coping strategies and emotional disturbance, but negatively with secure attachment and material satisfaction. Negative affection were positively associated with emotional coping, but negatively with secure attachment and material satisfaction. Negative affect were positively associated with emotional confrontation, but negatively with positive affection, material satisfaction, emotional support and guidance support. Conclusions: More applied research in needed on the influence of family factors in achieving adherence to treatment, because so far, most work focuses more on the individual patient, disregarding the family factor.
Benson, Paul R
This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment directly, and (2) that network effects on adjustment would be indirect, mediated by perceived social support. Results primarily lent support to the latter hypotheses, with measures of network structure (network size) and function (proportion of network members providing emotional support) predicting increased levels of perceived social support which, in turn, predicted decreased depressed mood and increased well-being. Results also indicated that increased interpersonal strain in the maternal network was directly and indirectly associated with increased maternal depression, while being indirectly linked to reduced well-being. Study limitations and implications are discussed.
Feng, Danjun; Su, Shan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Fang
To determine the prevalence of psychological distress, and to explore the combined protective roles of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction against psychological distress. Few studies have explored the combined protective effect of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction on nurses' mental health in the same theoretical framework. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, a self-developed Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale were used to survey 581 nurses. The hypothesized model of the relationships among self-esteem, perceived social support, job satisfaction and psychological distress was tested with structural equation modelling. The prevalence of psychological distress was 92.3%. Job satisfaction exerted the strongest direct protective effect against psychological distress, with perceived social support and self-esteem exerting the second and third strongest direct protective effects, respectively. Additionally, self-esteem had an indirect protective effect. Chinese nurses showed a surprisingly high prevalence of psychological distress. Job satisfaction, self-esteem and perceived social support were identified, in this order of importance, as protective factors against psychological distress. Nurse administrators should take measures to improve nurses' job satisfaction and social support, and hire individuals with high self-esteem as nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Harper, Felicity W K; Peterson, Amy M; Albrecht, Terrance L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis A
This study examined the direct and buffering effects of social support on longer-term global psychological distress among parents coping with pediatric cancer. In both sets of analyses, we examined whether these effects depended on the dimension of social support provided (i.e., satisfaction with support versus size of support network). Participants were 102 parents of pediatric cancer patients. At study entry, parents reported their trait anxiety, depression, and two dimensions of their social support network (satisfaction with support and size of support network). Parents subsequently reported their psychological distress in 3- and 9-month follow-up assessments. Parents' satisfaction with support had a direct effect on longer-term psychological distress; satisfaction was negatively associated with distress at both follow-ups. In contrast, size of support network buffered (moderated) the impact of trait anxiety and depression on later distress. Parents with smaller support networks and higher levels of trait anxiety and depression at baseline had higher levels of psychological distress at both follow-ups; for parents with larger support networks, there was no relationship. Social support can attenuate psychological distress in parents coping with pediatric cancer; however, the nature of the effect depends on the dimension of support. Whereas interventions that focus on increasing satisfaction with social support may benefit all parents, at-risk parents will likely benefit from interventions that ensure they have an adequate number of support resources. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fabiana santos Lima
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology to identify and classify regions by the type and frequency of disasters. The data on the clusters allow you to extract information that can be used in the preparedness phase as well as to identify the relief items needed to meet each cluster. Using this approach, the clusters are formed by using a computing tool that uses as the input the history data of the disasters in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, with a specific focus on: windstorms, hail, floods, droughts, landslides, and flash floods. The results show that the knowledge provided by the clustering analysis contributes to the decision making process in the response phase of Humanitarian Logistics (HL.
Zhang, Wei; Chen, Min
The goal of this research is to examine if the long neglected correlates such as social and leisure activities, social support, and subjective social status contribute to variations in psychological distress among older Chinese. Using data collected in one of the most developed areas in China-Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, the authors find that engaging in various exercises, living with both spouse and adult children, perceived availability of social support from others as well as believing in the importance of caring for other family members are particularly beneficial for mental health whereas the perception of relative deprivation and low life quality is detrimental to mental health for older Chinese. This work is among the first studies that comprehensively examined various important correlates of psychological distress and indicate the unique patterns of distress among the elderly in the most developed area in the contemporary China.
Full Text Available Background Divorce is a transition period in which divorcing individuals face restructuring of the family system and adjustment to changes. The psychological well-being of divorcees can serve as an important indicator of the adjustment process. The achievement of well-being does not come easily for many reasons, one of which is the experience related to a sense of loss associated with the marriage break-up. Social support is a major relational resource for overcoming the crisis and successfully adjusting to post-divorce life. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 157 individuals after divorce: 120 women and 37 men (mean age = 41.29. Instruments employed in the study included the Sense of Loss Scale (DS, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ-23, and sociodemographic data. Results Our results show that perceived social support is a partial mediator of the relationship between the sense of loss associated with divorce and the psychological well-being of individuals after divorce. For the vast majority of the respondents their parents, friends and acquaintances were the major source of support. About one third of the participants were given support by their siblings and their own children. Conclusions The study confirms the mediating role of support in building well-being after experiencing loss related to dissolution of marriage. This means that for divorced women and men perceived social support is one of the key resources that have a significant impact on achieving psychological well-being after divorce, since it is related to mitigating the negative impact of the sense of loss associated with marriage break-up.
Full Text Available Although the legality of approved humanitarian intervention is undisputable in the positive international law, this legal institute should be further regulated in order to remove certain legal ambiguity and difficulties in its application. The future regulation of humanitarian intervention may be carried out in one of the three ways: by adopting a special international treaty, by entering amendments in the UN Charter, or by embarking on the factual revision of the UN Charter. Due to the limiting effects of Article 103 of the UN Charter as well as the problematic status of UN member states which would not ratify the international agreements on humanitarian intervention, the regulation of future humanitarian intervention seems to be the least likely option. Formal revision of the UN Charter is not a viable option either because, thus far, the major world powers have been against introducing any substantial changes to this treaty. For this reason, the factual revision of the UN Charter is currently the most appropriate way of regulating future humanitarian interventions. When it comes to substantive rules governing humanitarian intervention, it is necessary to focus on the problem of humanitarian intervention decision-making as well as on the conditions and criteria for the approval and carrying out a humanitarian intervention. The UN Security Council must retain the right to decide on approving such an intervention but it is also necessary to establish an independent expert body whose task would be to determine the presence of serious and mass violations of human rights in a specific country and notify the Security Council about such occurrences. The specification of conditions and criteria for undertaking a humanitarian intervention should strengthen its legitimacy and prevent unreasonable disruption of states' territorial integrity and political independence.
Costa, Rosalia; Dunsford, Michael; Skagerberg, Elin; Holt, Victoria; Carmichael, Polly; Colizzi, Marco
INTRODUCTION: Puberty suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) is prescribed to relieve the distress associated with pubertal development in adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) and thereby to provide space for further exploration. However, there are limited longitudinal studies on puberty suppression outcome in GD. Also, studies on the effects of psychological support on its own on GD adolescents' well-being have not been reported.AIM: This study aimed to assess GD ado...
Phillips, Kristin M; Burker, Eileen J; White, Hayley C
Social support appears to be an important component in lung transplantation. However, the relationship between social support, psychological distress, and listing status has not been evaluated in lung transplant candidates. To evaluate the relationships between depression, anxiety, and social support in patients with end-stage lung disease being evaluated for transplantation and determine (1) relationships between social support, depression, anxiety, and coping via seeking emotional and instrumental support; (2) whether social support explains a significant proportion of the variance in depression and anxiety; and (3) whether these factors were associated with whether a patient was listed for transplant. For this observational study, patients completed self-report questionnaires after their pretransplant evaluations. Listing status was subsequently obtained from medical records. Participants were patients with end-stage lung disease evaluated for transplantation at a major hospital. Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, COPE Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Social support was associated with depression, anxiety, and seeking support (P values social support explained a significant proportion of the variance in depression (9%), state anxiety (8%), and trait anxiety (7%; all P values anxiety, trait anxiety, or availability of social support. Results highlight the important role that coping via seeking support plays in transplant candidacy.
Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.
Vestergaard Jørgensen, Anne
politicization. Some say that humanitarianism is in crisis. This article examines the development of humanitarian advertising through analysis of 124 newspaper ads published in the period from 1970 to 2005. Using a discourse analytical approach which combines institution analysis with multimodal text analysis...... organizations to external demands, in terms of their choice of beneficiaries for public attention and in terms of the symbolic relations they set up between donors and beneficiaries. It is argued that this development is associated with a paradox of power and results in humanitarian organizations surrendering...
Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L
Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.
Mardon, Austin; Nichol, Kenneth; Mardon, Catherine
Time, too much of and the resulting boredom is a major psychological barrier to multi year inner solar system space missions. Cross training which could be facilitated by online in flight educational programs might serve mission purposes and distract astronauts from the natural multiyear boredom to and from Mars. The personnel selected will be motivated well educated and likely very intelligent. They might have even experience some educational online and computer based education during their educational history. Distance learning is become more and more common in the educational landscape in the world. The mission doctor might learn geology. The geologist might learn ship systems. The pilot might learn basic medical treatment. The advantage of having planned out learning schemes might have major morale boosting factors by giving the self motivated high achieving crew something to direct their energies toward. The time lag could be compensated for by AI spacecraft educational software. Also for recreational purposes archeology or cultural studies could be taught to give greater breadth of interest. Online educational institutions might even do curriculum for free if they could be used afterward and before. Many high achievers have diverse interests and this might boost morale by allowing them to learn about a field of study that they had always had an interest in but their career took them in a different direction
April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jing Xing
This is the second of two papers that discuss the literature review conducted as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) effort to develop a hybrid human reliability analysis (HRA) method in response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020. This review was conducted with the goal of strengthening the technical basis within psychology, cognitive science and human factors for the hybrid HRA method being proposed. An overview of the literature review approach and high-level structure is provided in the first paper, whereas this paper presents the results of the review. The psychological literature review encompassed research spanning the entirety of human cognition and performance, and consequently produced an extensive list of psychological processes, mechanisms, and factors that contribute to human performance. To make sense of this large amount of information, the results of the literature review were organized into a cognitive framework that identifies causes of failure of macrocognition in humans, and connects those proximate causes to psychological mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that can lead to the failure. This cognitive framework can serve as a tool to inform HRA. Beyond this, however, the cognitive framework has the potential to also support addressing human performance issues identified in Human Factors applications.
Brocklehurst, Paul R
The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.
Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana
Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.
Elizur, Y; Ziv, M
While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.
Field, Richard J.; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Schuldberg, David
Recent work has introduced social dynamic models of people's stress-related processes, some including amelioration of stress symptoms by support from others. The effects of support may be ;direct;, depending only on the level of support, or ;buffering;, depending on the product of the level of support and level of stress. We focus here on the nonlinear buffering term and use a model involving three variables (and 12 control parameters), including stress as perceived by the individual, physical and psychological symptoms, and currently active social support. This model is quantified by a set of three nonlinear differential equations governing its stationary-state stability, temporal evolution (sometimes oscillatory), and how each variable affects the others. Chaos may appear with periodic forcing of an environmental stress parameter. Here we explore this model carefully as the strength and amplitude of this forcing, and an important psychological parameter relating to self-kindling in the stress response, are varied. Three significant observations are made: 1. There exist many complex but orderly regions of periodicity and chaos, 2. there are nested regions of increasing number of peaks per cycle that may cascade to chaos, and 3. there are areas where more than one state, e.g., a period-2 oscillation and chaos, coexist for the same parameters; which one is reached depends on initial conditions.
Hundreds of millions of people are affected by disasters each year. This thesis explores the use of supply chain management techniques to overcome the barriers encountered by logistics managers during humanitarian relief operations...
Persons who international humanitarian law applies have .... problems in applying the principle of distinction and seeks to find a standard for distinguishing what may appear ..... The advantage of employing drones in armed operatin is that no.
Kenneth V. Iserson
Full Text Available “Humanitarian catastrophes,” conflicts and calamities generating both widespread human suffering and destructive events, require a wide range of emergency resources. This paper answers a number of questions that humanitarian catastrophes generate: Why and how do the most-developed countries—those with the resources, capabilities, and willingness to help—intervene in specific types of disasters? What ethical and legal guidelines shape our interventions? How well do we achieve our goals? It then suggests a number of changes to improve humanitarian responses, including better NGO-government cooperation, increased research on the best disaster response methods, clarification of the criteria and roles for humanitarian (military interventions, and development of post-2015 Millennium Development Goals with more accurate progress measures. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:231–240.
van den Akker, Olga B A
Personality differences between surrogate mothers (SMs) who gestate and relinquish and intended mothers (IMs) who commission a genetically related or unrelated baby have been unexplored in the UK. Furthermore, the psychological effects of the arrangement have not been determined in a prospective longitudinal study, making this the first quantitative report of psychological functioning in SMs and IMs. SMs and IMs (n = 81: 61 surrogate, 20 intended) undergoing genetic or gestational surrogacy (4 groups) were assessed by postal questionnaire during the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Those with a positive outcome were assessed again in the first week, at 6 weeks and 6 months post-delivery of the surrogate baby. There were no significant differences between or within SM and IM groups on personality characteristics. Social support, marital harmony and state anxiety differed significantly (to P pregnancy and the baby were also observed between groups during pregnancy (to P surrogate arrangement are notable and occur over an extended period of time. It also shows that psychological screening and support prior to, during and following surrogacy is indicated.
Bitelli, Gabriele; Eleias, Magdalena; Franci, Francesca; Mandanici, Emanuele
During the last years, remote sensing data along with GIS have been largely employed for supporting emergency management activities. In this context, the use of satellite images and derived map products has become more common also in the different phases of humanitarian crisis response. In this work very high resolution satellite imagery was processed to assess the evolution of Za'atari Refugee Camp, built in Jordan in 2012 by the UN Refugee Agency to host Syrian refugees. Multispectral satellite scenes of the Za'atari area were processed by means of object-based classifications. The main aim of the present work is the development of a semiautomated procedure for multi-temporal camp monitoring with particular reference to the dwellings detection. Whilst in the emergency mapping domain automation of feature extraction is widely investigated, in the field of humanitarian missions the information is often extracted by means of photointerpretation of the satellite data. This approach requires time for the interpretation; moreover, it is not reliable enough in complex situations, where features of interest are often small, heterogeneous and inconsistent. Therefore, the present paper discusses a methodology to obtain information for assisting humanitarian crisis management, using a semi-automatic classification approach applied to satellite imagery.
Full Text Available The article describes the aims, tasks and fundamental principles of psychological support of crime investigation with the involvement of minors as a one of the aspects of criminalistical support of the preliminary investigation in the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation are revealed. Discusses the following areas of psychological support of investigation of criminal cases with participation of minors: participation of a psychologist in the investigative actions, the preliminary interviews with the aim of preparing minors for investigation, the business of the investigator in the choice of tactics of investigative actions and other issues, psychological examination of the minor, the receipt of additional information from minors using methods of applied psychology, compiling a subjective portrait of the alleged offender, psychological analysis of testimonies of minors and others. Also this article discusses the basic principles end actual techniques of interview of minor sexual abuses victims are examined including NICHD Protocol developed by the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NICHD.
Skovbjerg, Sine; Rasmussen, Alice; Zachariae, Robert
this association has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to examine the association between psychological distress and IEI and to determine whether the association is confounded by social support and major life events. Methods Data were collected by postal questionnaires; other results from...... consequences, as the dependent variables, and psychological distress, social support and major life events as the independent variables. Results Our study confirmed positive and statistically significant associations between psychological distress and IEI. The associations remained statistically significant...... after adjusting for major life events and social support. Conclusions The results suggest that the association between IEI and psychological distress cannot be explained by known risk factors. More studies, including longitudinal studies, are needed to determine the role of psychological distress...
Vladimir Korolev; Nikolay Loktev; Irina Slastikhina
International humanitarian cooperation is one of the ways for Russia to propagate its interests abroad and maintain its image of a modern democratic state in front of the world community. The article discloses the multichannel implementation of Russias soft power potential, shows the necessity of a systemic organization of international humanitarian links, proposes the grouping of the implementation mechanisms of Russias potential soft powerinto program and extracurricular blocs.The object of...
Frazer, Andrew L; Fite, Paula J
The current study, operating from a stress-process framework, examined the interactive effects of supportive parenting practices (i.e., mothers' use of positive communication, positive parenting, and parental involvement) and maternal psychological control on mother- and child-reported child depressive symptoms in a community-recruited sample of 9-12 year-olds. Discrepancies between reports of depressive symptoms were also examined. Maternal psychological control was uniquely associated with child-, not mother-, reported depressive symptoms. Parental involvement was uniquely associated with mother-, not child-, reported depressive symptoms. Positive parent-child communication was associated with both reports of child depressive symptoms at the bivariate level, but not when unique associations were examined. Positive parenting was unrelated to either report of depressive symptoms. No interaction effects were detected. The current findings highlight the differential importance of parenting practices on child depressive symptoms, and also indicate the necessity of gathering both parent and child reports of symptomatology and family functioning.
Weinstein, Netta; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, William S; Sedikides, Constantine; Cozzolino, Philip J
Important others' perceptions influence self-perceptions. This presents a challenge for the critical developmental task of integrating all aspects of identity, as identities that are devalued or stigmatized by society are harder to own than valued ones. Across 3 studies, we tested the idea that conflictual or stigmatized identities are harder to own, or integrate into the self, than are nonconflictual ones, and we examine how receiving autonomy support for an identity-support for authentic identity exploration and expression-can facilitate ownership of that identity. Cross-sectional (n = 543), experience-sampling (n = 66), and experimental methods (n = 209) tested the dynamics of autonomy-supportive others on identity ownership. Data from these studies converge to show that conflictual identities are indeed harder to own than nonconflictual ones, but that autonomy support predicts greater ownership and psychological health, especially for conflictual identities. In the final study, we replicate these dynamics in 3 identities stigmatized by society: sexual minority, ethnic minority, and gender minority identities. Findings reveal the importance of integrating all aspects of identity-particularly those that are conflictual or stigmatized-into one's self-concept. We consider implications for counseling and clinical practice, as well as broadly for the psychological health of stigmatized individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Tromp, D.M.; Rheede, van A.; Blomme, R.J.
Turnover of highly educated employees in the hospitality industry is growing rapidly. A predictor of turnover in the hospitality industry recently put forward, but not yet fully researched, is psychological strain. This chapter investigates the role of psychological strain and organizational support
van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Mabbe, Elien
This study examined the unique relations between multiple sources (i.e., mothers, teachers, and siblings) of perceived daily autonomy support and psychological control and children's basic psychological needs and well-being. During 5 consecutive days, 2 children from 154 families (M[subscript age] youngest child = 8.54 years; SD = 0.89 and…
Muhammad Farid Ilhamuddin
Full Text Available This study aims to know the relation between religiousity (X1 and psychological well being (Y, the relation between optimism (X2 and psychological well being (Y, as well as the relation between social support (X3 and psychological well being (Y of students of MAN in the entire Malang city. This study was a non-experimental study with causal relationship study plan. The result of this research showed that there was a positive significant between X1 and Y, X2 and Y, X3 and Y; X1, X2, X3 had strong linear relation with Y; the influence of the three independent logical well being (Y, optimism (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 and psychological well being (Y student of MAN se-Kota Malang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan religiusitas (X1 dan psychological well being (Y, optimis (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 dan psychological well being (Y peserta didik MAN se-kota Malang. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah non experimental research dengan jenis penelitian causal relationship study. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada hubungan positif signifikan antara X1 dan Y, X2 dan Y, X3 dan Y; X1, X2, X3 memiliki hubungan linear yang kuat dengan Y; pengaruh ketiga variabel independen psychological well being (Y, optimism (X2 dan psychological well being (Y, social support (X3 dan psychological well being (Y peserta didik MAN se-Kota Malang.
In the early years of the Atomic Age, radiation accidents or exposure was limited to laboratories or facilities. After the major accidents at TMI, Goainia, Chernobyl, when a large proportion of the population were exposed, interest in the psychosocial aspects has developed. In order to understand the psychological impact, an understanding of the causation of symptoms is necessary. Stress, anxiety, fear, physiological correlates and psychological consequences are thus explained. The different clinical entities and the ways and means of tackling them are described. Further, 'psychological first aid' and ameliorating measures are discussed too. Finally, prevention of psychological impact including education, community support, information dissemination etc. is described. (author)
Bean, Corliss; Harlow, Meghan; Kendellen, Kelsey
Youth leadership programming has become an increasingly common context to foster basic psychological needs and promote youth development. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore strategies involved in fostering youth needs support within six leadership programs. Two leaders and 30 youth participated in semi-structured interviews to better understand the strategies used to foster needs support. Findings revealed that leaders were able to foster a sense of relatedness among youth through building trusting adult-youth relationships and nurturing an inclusive environment. Maximizing choice and negotiating youth voice helped to foster youth's autonomy. Finally, creating a task-oriented climate and providing intentional opportunities for skill-building helped to foster youth's competence. Findings suggest that training for leaders is critical in understanding what, and how strategies should be employed to help foster youth needs support in leadership programming. Limitations and future directions are outlined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aardema, Bastiaan; Churruca Muguruza, Cristina
The article presents the European Universities on Professionalisation on Humanitarian Action (EUPRHA) Project as an initiative that seeks to contribute to the professionalisation and quality assurance of the humanitarian sector. Its purpose is to explain the approach and the process leading to the
les meilleures pratiques de l’aide psychologique – avant, pendant et après les opérations –, et inventorié les instruments disponibles pour analyser le...moral d’une unité ainsi que les outils cliniques utilisés par les nations de l’OTAN et du PfP en vue d’évaluer, d’informer et d’intervenir auprès...practices in psychological support before, during and after operations, inventories of instruments used to survey unit morale as well and an
Natalia A. Rozhdestvenskaya
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to approbating the method of negative emotion processing as the main component of the psychological support of the first-year students experiencing difficulties in adapting to university life. Many teachers associate the gradual development of intellectual activity and knowledge with teaching of school subjects. The work of P.Ya. Galperin’s disciples and followers (e.g. O.Karabanova, A.Liders, Yu.Frolov, N. Rozhdestvenskaya showed that the scientific method is universal and can be used to develop and improve various mental properties and activities. Using method «Perfection of Interpersonal Cognition Strategies» in psychological counseling based on P.Ya. Galperin’s theory promotes the development of adolescent reflexive mechanisms of understanding the personal characteristics of people, reducing the number of interpersonal conflicts with peers and adults, and also improving teachers’ understanding of the student personal characteristics. There are conditions under which the efficacy of mastering knowledge and cognitive skills are achieved. The educational experiment of studying the adaptation to university conditions in rural school graduates shows that mastering the cognitive processing of negative emotional experiences plays a leading role in the psychological adaptation of students. This method is an independent variable with respect to the three dependent ones, i.e. psychological adaptation in general, self-regulation of behaviour and communicative competence. The educational experiment carried out in accordance with the requirements of P.Ya. Galperin’s theory once again confirmed the high efficiency of P.Ya. Galperin’s methodology and showed that its potential capabilities are far from exhausted.
Chiumento, Anna; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy
ABSTRACT Purpose: Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Method: Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented. Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country. Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. Results: A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples. Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure. Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Conclusions: Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice. These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing. PMID:29532739
Chiumento, Anna; Machin, Laura; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy
Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented. Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country. Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples. Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure. Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice. These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing.
At last year's THE Port hackathon, the Better Body Bags team emerged with a new approach to body-bag technology that catered to the needs of humanitarian organisations. What started as a weekend hack has developed into a full-scale R& D project, as the team joins forces with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to put their body bags into production. Ricardo Páramo Peláez, the team's product designer, presented the first prototype at THE Port Hackathon 2014. The "body" is his fellow team mate, João Cordovil Bárcia. A typical body bag is essentially a long plastic bag with handles: it breaks, leaks, smells and isn't cheap. “Little thought had gone into using new technology to improve the bags,” says Tim Head, an LHCb physicist who is leading the Better Body Bags team. “Simple improvements can keep bodies in better condition, thus improving the identification ...
While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey.
Walker-Springett, Kate; Jefferson, Rebecca; Böck, Kerstin; Breckwoldt, Annette; Comby, Emeline; Cottet, Marylise; Hübner, Gundula; Le Lay, Yves-François; Shaw, Sylvie; Wyles, Kayleigh
The success or failure of environmental management goals can be partially attributed to the support for such goals from the public. Despite this, environmental management is still dominated by a natural science approach with little input from disciplines that are concerned with the relationship between humans and the natural environment such as environmental psychology. Within the marine and freshwater environments, this is particularly concerning given the cultural and aesthetic significance of these environments to the public, coupled with the services delivered by freshwater and marine ecosystems, and the vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems to human-driven environmental perturbations. This paper documents nine case studies which use environmental psychology methods to support a range of aquatic management goals. Examples include understanding the drivers of public attitudes towards ecologically important but uncharismatic river species, impacts of marine litter on human well-being, efficacy of small-scale governance of tropical marine fisheries and the role of media in shaping attitudes towards. These case studies illustrate how environmental psychology and natural sciences can be used together to apply an interdisciplinary approach to the management of aquatic environments. Such an approach that actively takes into account the range of issues surrounding aquatic environment management is more likely to result in successful outcomes, from both human and environmental perspectives. Furthermore, the results illustrate that better understanding the societal importance of aquatic ecosystems can reduce conflict between social needs and ecological objectives, and help improve the governance of aquatic ecosystems. Thus, this paper concludes that an effective relationship between academics and practitioners requires fully utilising the skills, knowledge and experience from both sectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stroud, J B; Freeman, T P; Leech, R; Hindocha, C; Lawn, W; Nutt, D J; Curran, H V; Carhart-Harris, R L
Depressed patients robustly exhibit affective biases in emotional processing which are altered by SSRIs and predict clinical outcome. The objective of this study is to investigate whether psilocybin, recently shown to rapidly improve mood in treatment-resistant depression (TRD), alters patients' emotional processing biases. Seventeen patients with treatment-resistant depression completed a dynamic emotional face recognition task at baseline and 1 month later after two doses of psilocybin with psychological support. Sixteen controls completed the emotional recognition task over the same time frame but did not receive psilocybin. We found evidence for a group × time interaction on speed of emotion recognition (p = .035). At baseline, patients were slower at recognising facial emotions compared with controls (p psilocybin, this difference was remediated (p = .208). Emotion recognition was faster at follow-up compared with baseline in patients (p = .004, d = .876) but not controls (p = .263, d = .302). In patients, this change was significantly correlated with a reduction in anhedonia over the same time period (r = .640, p = .010). Psilocybin with psychological support appears to improve processing of emotional faces in treatment-resistant depression, and this correlates with reduced anhedonia. Placebo-controlled studies are warranted to follow up these preliminary findings.
Full Text Available Effective approaches and psychological support of pediatric patients provided by health professionals are complex processes. The negative reactions and fear that pediatric patients develop during their hospitalization hamper cooperation with health professionals. The pediatric nursing staff is called upon to apply appropriate techniques for managing these situations.The purpose of this paper was to investigate, through contemporary literature review, methods of technical and psychological support of pediatric patients, applied by nurses in everyday clinical practice. The management of negative reactions and fear of pediatric patients requires individualized approach, given the uniqueness of each one of them. However, there are some general measures which may bring the ultimate results. According to literature some of them are: creation of a sincere relationship through targeted discussion, application of documented interactive educational programs to familiarize with nursing and medical procedures, distraction during painful acts, such as venipuncture or bladder catheterization, and finally high perception to identify nonverbal reactions.Awareness and familiarization of health professionals with appropriate methods will improve the relationship between pediatric patients and healthcare providers.
An estimated 20% of children who present to hospital emergency departments following potentially traumatic events (e.g., serious injuries, road traffic accidents, assaults) will develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence. The development of PTSD can have a substantial impact on a child's developmental trajectory, including their emotional, social and educational wellbeing. Despite this, only a small proportion will access mental health services, with the majority relying on informal sources of support. Parents, in particular, are often the primary source of support. However, it remains unclear what types of parental responses may be effective, and parents themselves report experiencing uncertainty about the best approach. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the capacity for specific aspects of parental responding in the aftermath of child trauma to facilitate or hinder children's psychological recovery. We conducted a longitudinal study of 132 parent-child pairs, recruited following the child's experience of trauma and subsequent attendance at one of four regional emergency departments. At an initial assessment, within 1 month post-trauma, we examined how parents appraised and responded to their child following the event, using both questionnaires and direct observations. Child-report questionnaires were used to assess PTSD symptom severity at 1 month, and at a follow up 6 months later. Children also reported on their own appraisals of the trauma and their coping behaviours, which were considered as potential mediators between parental support and later child symptoms. Controlling for relevant covariates and initial PTSD symptoms, parent negative appraisals of the trauma and encouragement of avoidant coping in children were associated with higher child-reported PTSD symptoms at 6 month follow-up. There was some evidence that children's own trauma related appraisals and coping styles mediated these effects. Findings indicate that
Roessler, Kirsten K; Glintborg, Dorte; Ravn, Pernille
-intensity aerobic exercise followed by eight weeks of group counselling (n=8) or vice versa (n=9). Interpersonal communication, emotional and relational aspects were observed and analysed throughout the period focusing on changes in health behaviour. The most salient findings showed supportive relationships...... encouraging in the group that had initial counselling sessions before the physical intervention. It can be concluded that group counselling sessions focusing on supportive relationships followed by high-intensity aerobic training have beneficial effects on wellbeing, health and exercise behaviour.......The objective of the present study was to examine the psychological impact of a group-oriented approach to disease management and health behaviour in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Seventeen overweight PCOS women were randomised in a crossover design of eight weeks high...
The rise of China has altered the context of the international humanitarian community of donors and aid agencies. China is becoming one of the key actors in this grouping, undertaking infrastructure projects in areas in which paramount humanitarian challenges exist. The literature discusses how the Chinese approach differs from that of Western donors, but it does not pay much attention to why China concentrates on its state-centric and infrastructure-based approach. This paper seeks to shed some light on this subject by examining the historical evolution of the concept of humanitarianism in China. This evolution has produced three legacies: (i) the ideal of a well-ordered state; (ii) anti-Western sentiment; and (iii) the notion of comprehensive development based on a human-oriented approach. China's policies and discourses on assistance in humanitarian crises today rest on these three legacies. Traditional donors would be well advised to consider carefully the implications of the Chinese understanding of humanitarianism when engaging with the country. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Full Text Available Objective: The habit of smoking is more common in members of a family living in the same house. People with psychiatric symptoms smoke more cigarettes. We conducted a study to examine whether the psychological status of couples and partner support affects smoking cessation success. Methods: The outpatients who started taking a therapy for smoking cessation between July 2014 and January 2015 in our clinic were included in this prospective, single-center study. Each couple was assessed on the basis of the Marital Adjustment Scale (MAS and Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale (HADS. The smoking status of the participants was assessed after 6 months, and they filled out the Partner Interaction Questionnaire (PIQ. Results: Of 141 volunteers, 55% joined the smoking cessation program as couples. A total of 55.3% of the participants managed to quit smoking. Further, 42.3% of couples quitted smoking. Nearly 96.2% of couples had the same result regarding smoking cessation. The smoking cessation rate was significantly lower in couples with high anxiety depression scores (participant: p=0.028 and 0.037; partner: p=0.003 and 0.007, smoker partners (p<0.01, and participants with low marital adjustments (p<0.01. Logistic regression analysis showed that the independent parameters affecting smoking cessation success were support and the smoking status of partners (p<0.001 and 0.021, respectively. Conclusion: Partner support and psychological status were important parameters associated with smoking cessation. The presence of non-smoker partners made quitting smoking easier. Reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms and support of partners may help in smoking cessation.
Bastiaan L. Aardema
Full Text Available The article presents the European Universities on Professionalisation on Humanitarian Action (EUPRHA Project as an initiative that seeks to contribute to the professionalisation and quality assurance of the humanitarian sector. Its purpose is to explain the approach and the process leading to the development of the Humanitarian Action Qualifications Framework as an example of good practice for other sectors aiming at improving the recognition of qualifications as a precondition of academic and professional mobility. With this aim, it introduces the educational and humanitarian trends that led to this project: the move from transnational qualifications frameworks of which the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF is the best example to sectoral qualifications frameworks and the increasing demand from the sector seeking to determine the competencies and required skills of a professional humanitarian aid worker. Based on the EQF and the Tuning methodology the framework will act as a translating device to make national and sectoral qualifications more readable and promote humanitarian workers’ and learners’ mobility between countries and organisations. It will facilitate inter-system transparency and recognition of (non-formal and informal learning by linking occupations, skills, competences, and qualifications, thus benefiting the Humanitarian Sector as a whole.
Shannon, Rachel; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; Crowley, Dominic; Crichton, Peter
This paper contains a critical exploration of the social dimensions of the science-humanitarian relationship. Drawing on literature on the social role of science and on the social dimensions of humanitarian practice, it analyses a science-humanitarian partnership for disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia, an area threatened by tsunamigenic earthquakes. The paper draws on findings from case study research that was conducted between 2010 and 2011. The case study illustrates the social processes that enabled and hindered collaboration between the two spheres, including the informal partnership of local people and scientists that led to the co-production of earthquake and tsunami DRR and limited organisational capacity and support in relation to knowledge exchange. The paper reflects on the implications of these findings for science-humanitarian partnering in general, and it assesses the value of using a social dimensions approach to understand scientific and humanitarian dialogue. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.
Jachens, Liza; Houdmont, Jonathan; Thomas, Roslyn
There is a paucity of research on the subjective stress-related experiences of humanitarian aid workers. Most evaluations of stress among these individuals focus on trauma and related conditions or adopt a quantitative approach. This interview-based study explored how 58 humanitarian aid workers employed by a United Nations-aligned organisation perceived the transactional stress process. The thematic analysis revealed eight main topics of interest: an emergency culture was found where most employees felt compelled to offer an immediate response to humanitarian needs; employees identified strongly with humanitarian goals and reported a high level of engagement; the rewards of humanitarian work were perceived as motivating and meaningful; constant change and urgent demands resulted in work overload; and managing work-life boundaries and receiving positive support from colleagues and managers helped to buffer perceived stress, work overload, and negative health outcomes. The practical implications of the results are discussed and suggestions made in the light of current research and stress theory. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
The work is aimed at identifying the main social-humanitarian aspects and giving grounds for the imperative of humanitarian reflection of nuclear energy, development of the concept of 'human dimension' in this sphere. Historical-philosophical and futurological as well as rational-irrational approaches are used. There are suggested several possible chains to consider the interrelation between some global phenomena with the nuclear one, as well as their impact on the fate of humankind. There is shown the meaning of cultural, historical and religious perspectives as tools for reaching better understanding on the issue of possession of nuclear energy and improving the contemporary communication nuclear technosphere - society. There is determined the humanitarian task of the nearest future and designated the cultural-historical potential of Germany, Japan and Russia to increase international cooperation on the issue. (author)
Brunetto, Yvonne; Xerri, Matthew; Farr-Wharton, Ben; Shacklock, Kate; Farr-Wharton, Rod; Trinchero, Elisabetta
The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of nurses' psychological capital and managerial support, plus specific safety interventions (managerial safety priorities, safety training satisfaction), on nurses' in-role safety performance. Most hospitals in industrialized countries have adopted selective (often the least costly) aspects of safety, usually related to safety policies. However, patient safety remains a challenge in many countries. Research shows that training can be used to upskill employees in psychological capital, with statistically significant organizational and employee benefits, but this area is under-researched in nursing. Data were collected using a survey-based, self-report strategy. The emerging patterns of data were then compared with the findings of previous research. Quantitative survey data were collected during 2014 from 242 nurses working in six Australian hospitals. Two models were tested and analysed using covariance-based Structural Equation Modelling. Psychological capital and safety training satisfaction were important predictors of nurses' in-role safety performance and as predictors of nurses' perceptions of whether management implements what it espouses about safety ('managerial safety priorities'). Managerial support accounted for just under a third of psychological capital and together, psychological capital and managerial support, plus satisfaction with safety training, were important to nurses' perceptions of in-role safety performance. Organizations are likely to benefit from upskilling nurses and their managers to increase nurses' psychological capital and managerial support, which then will enhance nurses' satisfaction with training and in-role safety performance perceptions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Banks, Donice M; Weems, Carl F
Experiencing a disaster such as a hurricane places youth at a heightened risk for psychological distress such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Social support may contribute to resilience following disasters, but the interrelations of different types of support, level of exposure, and different symptoms among youth is not well understood. This study examined associations among family and peer social support, level of hurricane exposure, and their links to psychological distress using both a large single-time assessment sample (N = 1,098) as well as a longitudinal sample followed over a 6-month period (n = 192). Higher levels of hurricane exposure were related to lower levels of social support from family and peers. Higher levels of family and peer social support demonstrated both concurrent and longitudinal associations with lower levels of psychological distress, with associations varying by social support source and psychological distress outcome. Findings also suggested that the protective effects of high peer social support may be diminished by high hurricane exposure. The results of this study further our understanding of the role of social support in hurricane-exposed youths' emotional functioning and point to the potential importance of efforts to bolster social support following disasters.
Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M
Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.
as a place where celebrities intervene into existing politics and social processes, or as the generator of Southern celebrities engaged in ‘do-gooding’. This book examines what the diverse roster of celebrity humanitarians are actually doing in and across North and South contexts. Celebrity humanitarianism......Discussion over celebrity engagement is often limited to theoretical critique or normative name-calling, without much grounded research into what it is that celebrities are doing, the same or differently throughout the world. Crucially, little attention has been paid to the Global South, either...
Walker, Peter; Hein, Karen; Russ, Catherine; Bertleff, Greg; Caspersz, Dan
International humanitarian response to crises employs 210,000 people and accounts for nearly $15 billion in spending globally each year. Most action is carried out by not-for-profit organizations working with United Nations (UN) agencies, military organizations, and commercial entities. UN agencies employ many technical experts, often retaining them for five or more years. As yet there is no international professional apparatus to promote the quality and integrity of this workforce. This paper reports on research exploring the case for professionalizing humanitarian action through an international professional association, the development of core competencies, and the creation of a universal certification system for aid workers.
Full Text Available Efficiency of the system of psychological pedagogical accompaniment of sporting activity is certain. In research the sportsmen of high qualification took part in sport of invalids. Prevailing high level of readiness of swimmers is rotined to self-realization in competition activity. On results procedure of self-appraisal 68,75 % sportsmen were attained optimum level of readiness, 14,58 % - base (sufficient, 14,58 % - middle (insufficient, 02,08 % - low (critical.
HONDA, Ayumi; DATE, Yutaka; ABE, Yasuyo; AOYAGI, Kiyoshi; HONDA, Sumihisa
When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20...
Till Beiwinkel; Stefan Hey; Olaf Bock; Wulf Rössler; Wulf Rössler; Wulf Rössler
Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons...
Sharpley, Christopher; Hussain, Rafat; Wark, Stuart; Mcevoy, Mark; Attia, John
Social support is proposed as a coping mechanism against anxiety and depression amongst older persons, but few data have examined how this occurs. This study assessed the contributions of two sub-components of social support as mediators against psychological distress-broadly defined as anxiety and depression. 1,560 men and 1,758 women from the Hunter Community Study (Australia) completed the Duke Social Support Scale and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. The Duke Social Support Scale examined the amount of social interaction and satisfaction with social interactions. Significant mediating effects of social support were found in the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale items measuring depression but not anxiety. Satisfaction with social support was a significant predictor of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale total score and Sadness items, but the amount of social support was not a predictor of stress. Social support may assist with symptoms of depression, i.e., specific sadness/depressed mood, but not necessarily with anxiety. Implications for policy and service delivery were discussed.
Full Text Available Supportive activities may be one of the ways of the training process optimization. Support involves both components of the training process, i.e. training and rest. The training support is aimed at the training load increase or at such orientation of the adaptation processes to meet the training goals as closely as possible. The different aims lay behind the methods that support the rest mechanisms. It is about increasing the peace of the regeneration and recovery processes. This term describes all activities aimed at restoring the full exercise capacity of the athlete after work. The psychological support of the training process can be one of the ways to minimize training disturbances and it should therefore be an essential part of the training process management in case of the top ranked athletes. To improve the psychological support system of the training process and to improve the system quality, it is necessary to analyze the current situation. That’s why, authors of the paper decided to ask the members of the Polish Olympic team competed at the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro on types of relaxation techniques they accepted and used before the competition. The relaxation techniques were deliberately limited to the pre-start relaxation techniques as the study was treated as a pilot study dedicated to the problem identification. Therefore, the authors of the paper formulated its aim, as the identification of the pre-start relaxation preferences of the Olympic team members. The following research questions were formulated to meet the aim of the study: • What types of the pre-start relaxation techniques are declared and accepted by the Olympians? • Could the preferred pre-start relaxation techniques be considered rational, planned, and consciously implemented? A written interview with an online questionnaire was used as a research method. The study was conducted before the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de
Wei, Jie; Zhao, Ping; Chen, Li-Jun; Qin, Hui-Qing; Shi, Wang-Hong; Guo, Wei; Zhen, Ying
To explore the effects of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic of patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. From August 2009 to April 2010, 231 patients (obtained 217 effective responses) with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia were recruited. Among the patients, there were 123 males and 94 females, with an average age of (38.00 +/- 5.67) years (ranged from 15 to 66 years). Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used to test social support and psychological characteristic and compared the difference of psychological, personality traits and norm, then analyzed the effect of social support and personality traits on psychological characteristic. Two hundred and seventeen (93.9%) patients completed the questionnaire. Compared with normal 16PF scores, there were significant differences in factor scores of intelligence, stability, excitability, perseverance,social boldness, vigilance, sophistication, experimental, independence and tonicity (P characteristic between patients with chronic cervicodynia and lumbodynia and norms. Improving social support level and optimizing personality traits can improve psychological profile of these patients.
Park, Ki Tae
This study examines how levels of marital quality change the effect of social support on postpartum psychological distress among new Korean mothers using the Panel Study on Korean Children (N = 1585). In accord with findings from previous studies, this study shows that low marital quality negatively affects new mothers' mental health, but that social support alleviates psychological distress independent of marital quality. The main finding of this research is that the moderating effect of social support is contingent on levels of marital quality. Aggregated social support moderates the effects of marital quality on new mothers' mental health only when the level of marital quality is low. Furthermore, each dimension of social support (emotional, informational, and instrumental) only has a moderating effect when marital quality is low. The findings highlight the fact that the moderating effect of social support varies with the individual context and so customized social support that fits individual needs matters for the mental health of new mothers.
Full Text Available Pediatric psycho-oncology within psycho-oncology is a highly developed scientific discipline in the world, both at the level of basic research and the development of theoretical concepts and at the practical level, which refers to the creation and implementation of various models of psychosocial support to children and young people who are suffering from various malignant diseases and their families during all stages of the demanding oncology treatment. One of the models of psychosocial support for children are workshops, as a form of group psychological treatment in which children and young people who are in distress, crisis, shock and even trauma, acquire a new positive experience and which provides new insights and knowledge to empower and boost the quality of life for overcoming severe malignant disease and treatment through meaningful games, all of which leads to overcoming the 'downtime' and regression and encouraging further psychological development. The outcome of workshop activities are various products (drawings, photographs, videos, posters, written material, but also positive feelings and behaviours in children and adolescents. The main objectives of introducing psychological workshops at the department of pediatric hematology-oncology in our community are, on the one hand, to provide professional counselling and support to children and young people during hospitalization and, on the other, to introduce a standard psychological procedure and quality psychological practice of group psychological counselling for sick children and young people in the hospital environment.
Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa
When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work.
When British attention was drawn to the issue of leprosy in the Empire, humanitarian organisations rose to take on responsibility for the 'fight against leprosy'. In an effort to fundraise for a distant cause at a time when hundreds of charities competed for the financial support of British citizens, fundraisers developed propaganda to set leprosy apart from all other humanitarian causes. They drew on leprosy's relationship with Christianity, its debilitating symptoms, and the supposed vulnerability of leprosy sufferers in order to mobilise Britain's sense of humanitarian, Christian, and patriotic duty. This article traces the emergence of leprosy as a popular imperial humanitarian cause in modern Britain and analyses the narratives of religion, suffering, and disease that they created and employed in order to fuel their growth and sell leprosy as a British humanitarian cause.
Hays, J C; Kasl, S; Jacobs, S
This study describe the course and risk factors of psychological distress following bereavement, controlling for factors often omitted from studies of grief: psychiatric history, social support, and coping choices of the bereaved. Spouses of patients hospitalized for serious illness or elective surgery were systematically screened and followed longitudinally through the recovery or death of the hospitalized patient. Of 440 respondents, 154 were bereaved within 2 months. Spouses were interviewed in their homes by trained interviewers at intake and 2, 6, 13, and 25 months postintake. Dependent variables were measured with the CES-D (depressive symptoms) and the PERI (general anxiety and hopelessness/helplessness) scales. Independent variables were measured with the SADS-L (past personal history of dysphoria) and the Lazarus' Ways of Coping scale as well as sociodemographic measures. Lifetime prevalence of a brief period of dysphoric mood among spouses before the patient's illness was 22%; past personal history of dysphoric mood was related to female sex, smaller networks, and more depression and anxiety during the hospitalization of their spouses. Newly widowed persons with a past history of dysphoria perceived their networks to be relatively nonsupportive, but devoted similar amounts of coping effort to seeking social support and reported similar amounts of social interaction compared with persons with no history of dysphoria. Persons with a past history of dysphoria reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, general anxiety, and hopelessness/helplessness through 25 months postbereavement, yet their recovery trajectory was similar to those without a past history of dysphoria. It was concluded that a past history of subsyndromal symptomatology in conjunction with a stressful life event such as bereavement increases one's vulnerability to excess psychological distress.
Mukkamala, Alivelu Manga; Beck, Roman
In times of a crisis, disasters or extreme events, affected people use social media solutions to share information about the situation. Hence, the use of this information for supporting humanitarian operations is becoming a valuable source to develop a real time understanding about the situation ...
Comes, M.; Bergtora Sandvik, Kristin; van de Walle, B.A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze how far technology and information enable, facilitate or support the planning and implementation decisions in humanitarian vaccine cold chains for vaccination campaigns. The authors specifically focus on three emerging technologies that have the
Conclusion: The needs of children with disabilities and their carers in Turkana are not being met by either community social support systems or humanitarian aid programmes. There is an urgent need to mainstream disability into Turkana services and programmes.
Eagly, Alice H
Duarte et al.'s arguments for increasing political diversity in social psychology are based on mischaracterizations of social psychology as fundamentally flawed in understanding stereotype accuracy and the effects of attitudes on information processing. I correct their misunderstandings while agreeing with their view that political diversity, along with other forms of diversity, stands to benefit social psychology.
Full Text Available This is a report on the experience of implementing a mental health program in a maternity hospital and three mobile clinics in the city of Port-au-Prince. We started by listening to the difficulties faced by the national teams in their daily routines at the hospital and what they expected of a mental health program. The program was planned in a way to contemplate the perceived needs of the hospital teams as well as those of the target population, pre and post-natal women, within a systemic perspective. Thus the program covered the following aspects: training with the hospital team on communication and helping relationships, a series of speeches on mental health at the hospital, psychological treatment of the patients through counseling sessions, involvement of partners and families being assisted, support groups for peri-natal mourning, men's groups with the future fathers, psychoeducation in the mobile clinics, a survey of the social network in the city, psycho-social assistance and the introduction of relaxation strategies at the hospital. We concluded that in the context of a humanitarian crisis, as in the case of Haiti, a mental health program should contemplate different levels of need and take into consideration that health care professionals are also subject to the context of social stress. At the same time, the involvement of hospital teams in the process is fundamental to the success of the program.
Mitchell, A E P
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychological distress is a major health concern, and university student populations are at a risk due to high academic, economic and interpersonal demands at this time. While a number of studies have been conducted looking at distress and service uptake amongst university students, there is a lack of comparative information in the student nurse population. Therefore, this study focuses on level of psychological distress and service uptake in student nurses during their training. Student nurses in training are acknowledged as particularly vulnerable to anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression can interfere with educational achievement and interfere with working relationships, which are an important aspect of clinical practice. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study investigates psychological distress and service uptake in student nurses, in a single study, by measuring the level of distress and comparing this with adult nonpatient norms. The key findings suggest high levels of anxiety and depression and poor uptake of support in student nurses. The main barrier to seeking support was the fear of disclosure about their anxiety and/or depression, and feared impact on their suitability to train as a nurse. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Due to the fear of disclosure and low levels of support seeking, mental health nurses and academics have a key role to play in mental health literacy. It seems reasonable, given the key findings, to suggest that interventions be directed at decreasing anxiety and depression such as mindfulness training and other evidence-based strategies. It is recommended that psychological distress needs due attention from higher education sector and those health professionals involved in mental health service provision to support evidence-based strategies that target these issues. Introduction This study adds to the existing international evidence on psychological distress in the
Full Text Available The article considers the problem of modelling the specific structure of social psychological support of students with disabilities in the context of inclusive education development. The article reveals the functions, system character and means of application of this structure in the course of realization of professional and educational paths. The authors analyze different models of social psychological support in the university and address the question of the efficiency of these models and their compliance with resources and demands of the university. The problem of the optimal model is considered. The authors suggest outsourcing as a solution for universities with limited number of assistive resources and small amount of students with disabilities. Developing the model implies taking into account perceptions and assessments of social psychological support in students with disabilities in each step of their professional path.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section 515.575 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... meet basic human needs. Specific licenses may be issued authorizing transactions for multiple visits...
non-military development, such as the spreading of disease and movement of refugees. A shift in defence policy had to accommodate a broader, more inclusive mandate and roles for humanitarian peacekeeping operations in African countries such as Eritrea, Ethiopia, the DRC, Burundi and Sudan. Missions were to be.
This article explores the history of modern British humanitarianism. Specifically, it charts the rise of an extensive humanitarian aid 'industry' in Britain, between 1963 and 1985. It does so through a focus on the Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC), an umbrella body for joint emergency fundraising established in 1963. The DEC is an enduring and important presence in the British humanitarian landscape, as it brings together leading aid agencies to make fundraising campaigns on television after major disasters. This article represents the first systematic historical analysis of the DEC, which it uses to illuminate larger questions about the politics of non-state humanitarianism, state-voluntary sector relations, the political impact of television, and the end of empire. It is shown that while DEC appeals fuelled the growth of its members, this was also a problematic process. Many principal aid agencies wished to shift their focus away from short-term disaster relief work to tackling the long-term structural causes of global poverty instead. It is argued that, despite an increasing political focus, humanitarian organizations were constrained from doing so by the power of television; a perceived lack of public support; the interventions of the British government; and competition between aid agencies in a crowded marketplace. Consequently, continued involvement in short-term, apolitical emergency assistance remained a requirement even for agencies sceptical about its value and impact. This analysis complicates linear narratives of a transition from emergency relief to development aid in post-war British humanitarianism, instead presenting the period as characterized by competing and even contradictory trajectories.
Full Text Available We discuss two models (two types of organizations of educational psychological service, which has a fundamental difference in the workplace of a school psychologist: at school (educational institution or out of school (in counseling centers, PPMS center, PMPC, psychologist’s office in district or city departments of local authorities. We prove that the currently being developed professional standards of specialist in the field of educational psychology (activity on psychological and pedagogical support of students aimed at the development of a national counseling service in Russia, should provide a combination of both models and ensure interactions between psychologists working within an institution with experts from the district (city psychological centers, offices or counseling centers.
Brooks, Julia; Erickson, Timothy B; Kayden, Stephanie; Ruiz, Raul; Wilkinson, Stephen; Burkle, Frederick M
The repeated use of prohibited chemical weapons in the Syrian conflict poses serious health, humanitarian, and security threats to civilians, healthcare personnel, and first responders. Moreover, the use of chemical weapons constitutes a clear and egregious violation of international law-likely amounting to a war crime-for which continued impunity is setting a dangerous precedent in relation to current and future conflicts. This debate article calls upon concerned states, organizations, and individuals to respond urgently and unequivocally to this serious breach of international legal and humanitarian norms. Based on health, humanitarian, and legal findings, this article calls for concrete action to: 1) reduce the risk of chemical weapons being used in current and future conflicts; 2) review and support the preparedness equipment and antidote supplies of first responders, humanitarian organizations, and military forces operating in Syria; 3) support international mechanisms for monitoring and enforcing the prohibition on chemical weapons, including through criminal accountability; 4) support civilian victims of chemical weapons attacks, including refugees; and 5) re-commit to the complete elimination of chemical weapons in compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993), a comprehensive treaty that bans chemical weapons and requires their complete destruction. All involved states and organizations should take urgent steps to ensure the protection of the most vulnerable victims of conflict, including victims of chemical weapons attacks in Syria, and to reinforce international law in the face of such serious violations.
Pesántez-Avilés, Fernando; Cevallos-León Wong, Verónica; Robles-Bykbaev, Vladimir; Borck-Vintimilla, Estefanía.; Flores-Andrade, Santiago; Pineda-Villa, Yenner; Pacurucu-Pacurucu, Ana
When children are taken apart from their parents because of many violence situations, they are taken to foster homes, where they share place with kids who have lived similar situations. United Nations Children's Fund (2014) refer that Children who have been abused or neglected, often may have low self-esteem and other emotional problems, which can lead, at worst, to risky behaviors and self-harm . They also could tend to internalize that behavior, repeating the pattern of violence and abuse as a response to their environment. In this line, the latest estimates provided by SOS Children's Village International show a global complex picture: around 24 million of children in the world live in foster homes, one billion of children live in conflict-affected areas; and, furthermore, there is a lack of mental health professionals in most of the countries. On those grounds, in this paper we propose an intelligent ecosystem to provide support for psychologists during the psychodiagnosis and intervention with children, especially the ones who are in foster homes. Currently, the system is able to automatically determine some psychological traits, according to responses provided by each patient. One part of the diagnostic system is based on two psychological tests: the Draw-A-Person test and the Draw-A-Family test. The results obtained on the first stage let the system establish different challenges according to the skills that the evaluated child needs to develop. Our proposed approach was tested in a population of 124 children (93 school students, and 31 living in shelters), and has achieved encouraging results (80% of precision in patient's profile determination).
Full Text Available By the end of 2011, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP began to see a steady rise in the number of Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC from Central America, particularly from the Northern Triangle countries—El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala—arriving to the US-Mexico border. The number of children entering the United States from these countries more than doubled during fiscal year (FY 2012 and continued to grow through FY 2014. In FY 2013, CBP apprehended over 35,000 children. That number almost doubled to 66,127 in FY 2014, with Central American children outnumbering their Mexican counterparts for the first time. Research has identified high levels of violence perpetrated by gangs and drug cartels in the Northern Triangle countries and Mexico as a primary reason for this surge. Under the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA passed with bi-partisan support in 2008, children from Central America cannot be immediately deported and must be given a court hearing.In contrast, unless there are indicia of trafficking, Mexican children are returned immediately to their country. Advocates have expressed concern that expedited removal of Mexican children places children with valid humanitarian claims at risk of being returned to harm, including forcible recruitment into drug cartels and trafficking rings. After the spike in arrivals in FY 2014, several members of Congress called for a change in the TVPRA, urging that Central American children be treated like Mexican children and undergo expedited procedures for their removal. Many of their constituents supported such measures. The Obama administration requested additional funds to strengthen border security, speed up deportation procedures and implement measures to address the humanitarian crisis in Central America. Groups and individuals across the country came together to provide shelter, medical and psychological care and legal representation to many
Xu, Lijuan; Song, Rhayun
The purpose of the study was to determine how work-family-school role conflict and social support influence psychological well-being among registered nurses pursuing an advanced degree. A cross-sectional, correlational study design was used. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 320 registered nurses pursuing an advanced nursing degree at 13 hospitals in Korea, from June to October 2011. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling with the AMOS program. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate the measurement model prior to the testing of study hypotheses before and after controlling for extraneous variables. The fit parameters of the modified model (χ(2)/df=2.01, GFI=0.91, AGFI=0.89, CFI=0.92, SRMR=0.068, and RMSEA=0.065) indicated its suitability as the research model. This model explained 45% of the variance in work-related psychological well-being and 52% of the variance in general psychological well-being. Both social support and work-family-school role conflict exerted significant effects on work-related psychological well-being and general psychological well-being. The findings of the present study imply that work-family-school role conflict influences the psychological well-being of registered nurses pursuing an advanced degree. It is necessary for nursing administrators to develop strategies to help registered nurses to manage their multiple roles and improve both their work-related psychological well-being and their general psychological well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mellado, Carlos; Cumsille, Patricio; Martínez, M Loreto
The present study examined the relationship between parental support, demand, psychological control and adolescents' beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority for personal and multifaceted issues in a sample of 1342 Chilean adolescents (M = 16.38, SD = 1.24, age range 14-20). Results from multiple regression analyses separated by age indicated that demand was positively associated with adolescents' beliefs about the legitimacy of parental authority for personal and multifaceted issues and that psychological control was negatively associated with adolescents' legitimacy beliefs concerning personal issues. Furthermore, parental support moderated the relationship between parental demand and adolescents' beliefs about parental legitimacy for personal and multifaceted issues: those who display high levels of demand showed stronger beliefs about parental legitimacy at high level of support. These results support the interactive effect of parental support and demand on adolescent development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Heyes, Susan M; Bond, Malcolm J; Harrington, Ann; Belan, Ingrid
Bladder cancer is a genitourinary disease of increasing incidence. Despite improvements in treatment, outcomes remain equivocal with high recurrence rates. It is associated with poor psychosocial outcomes due to reduced functioning of the genitourinary system. The objective of these analyses was to query whether reported loss of function or the perception of psychological burden caused by this functional impedance was the key to understanding psychosocial outcomes. The sample comprised 119 participants with a confirmed diagnosis of bladder cancer. They completed a self-report questionnaire comprising the Bladder Cancer Index, Mini-mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale, Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale and standard sociodemographic details. Simple mediation and serial mediation were used to explore the potential for psychological burden to mediate associations between loss of function and cognitive distress, and the potential additional contribution of positive partner support on these relationships. Age and duration of cancer were considered as covariates. Simple mediation demonstrated that the association between function and cognitive distress was fully mediated by perceived psychological burden. Serial mediation, which allowed for the addition of partner support, again demonstrated full mediation, with partner support being the key predictive variable. These analyses emphasise the importance of an appreciation of individuals' interpretation of the burden occasioned by bladder cancer and the role of a supportive partner. The implications for management discussions and support services in alleviating negative psychological outcomes in bladder cancer are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Almost a million people from Middle East and North Africa have passed through the territory of Serbia on their way to Western Europe during 2015 and 2016. Although Serbia has predominantly been a transit country for migrants, this recent passage of a large number of people, as well as a longer retention of some migrants, opened up a number of questions on capacities for emergent acceptance but also on long term integration of this population. The paper examines the characteristics of citizens’ attitudes towards the migrant population with the intention of determining which perspective - security, humanitarian or integrative - is being distinguished as a dominant one? Under the security perspective, it is understood that migrants pose a potential risk for the security of domestic population. The humanitarian perspective refers to a belief that migrants need to be provided with necessary assistance on their way to destination countries. The third, integrative perspective represents the “most open” attitude towards migrants and implies that it is necessary to provide the opportunity for more permanent integration of the migrant population. In addition to that, the paper examines the existence of statistically significant variations in the degree of acceptance of the attitudes measuring mentioned perspectives in terms of socio-demographic and socio-cultural factors. The analysis is based on the data collected through the survey conducted in the spring of 2016 on a representative sample of Serbian citizens (without Kosovo that numbered 998 respondents. Findings show that the humanitarian perspective is the most prevalent in the population, which is in line with the transitional character of migration. Ethnic distance is the most influential factor in shaping attitudes towards migrants. This finding indicates that attitudes toward migrants are more the result of the socio-psychological factors than the micro-structural factors or the demographic
Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhu, Maoling
Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor) and social support (contextual protective factor) are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness) of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children) in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects) and subsequent (lagged effects) status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children ( M age = 14.09, SD = 1.40) who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1) left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2) After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of
Full Text Available Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor and social support (contextual protective factor are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects and subsequent (lagged effects status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children (Mage = 14.09, SD = 1.40 who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1 left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2 After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of
Aid agencies (AAs) provide a range of humanitarian and health related assistance globally. However, the trust placed on them is eroding. Evidence for this includes accusations of a decline in their humanitarianism, and the increasing number of conflicts with host states. An analysis of the concerns expressed yields two possible reasons: a relative lack of transparency of their work and weak accountability mechanisms. This is further supported by the existing milieu: an absence of internationally accepted instrument or mechanism to check the credentials of INGOs and an opaque system of close links between some of the INGOs and their donors. The article suggests two global strategies to tackle these issues: (a) Increase transparency by establishing a global register of aid agencies. This should have basic information: their main goals and activities, countries they are active in, number of employees, annual turnover of funds (updated regularly), principal financing sources and nature of links with donors. This could also be available as printed manual that should be freely available to client countries. (b) Ensure accountability by developing templates of fair legal instruments (to facilitate and regulate work), and a set of generic rules and procedures of engagement for the interactions between agencies and client states. These should be institutionalized within the regulatory frameworks of countries and included in the Codes of Conduct of NGOs. PMID:22110413
Aid agencies (AAs) provide a range of humanitarian and health related assistance globally. However, the trust placed on them is eroding. Evidence for this includes accusations of a decline in their humanitarianism, and the increasing number of conflicts with host states. An analysis of the concerns expressed yields two possible reasons: a relative lack of transparency of their work and weak accountability mechanisms. This is further supported by the existing milieu: an absence of internationally accepted instrument or mechanism to check the credentials of INGOs and an opaque system of close links between some of the INGOs and their donors. The article suggests two global strategies to tackle these issues: (a) Increase transparency by establishing a global register of aid agencies. This should have basic information: their main goals and activities, countries they are active in, number of employees, annual turnover of funds (updated regularly), principal financing sources and nature of links with donors. This could also be available as printed manual that should be freely available to client countries. (b) Ensure accountability by developing templates of fair legal instruments (to facilitate and regulate work), and a set of generic rules and procedures of engagement for the interactions between agencies and client states. These should be institutionalized within the regulatory frameworks of countries and included in the Codes of Conduct of NGOs.
Full Text Available Aid agencies (AAs provide a range of humanitarian and health related assistance globally. However, the trust placed on them is eroding. Evidence for this includes accusations of a decline in their humanitarianism, and the increasing number of conflicts with host states. An analysis of the concerns expressed yields two possible reasons: a relative lack of transparency of their work and weak accountability mechanisms. This is further supported by the existing milieu: an absence of internationally accepted instrument or mechanism to check the credentials of INGOs and an opaque system of close links between some of the INGOs and their donors. The article suggests two global strategies to tackle these issues: (a Increase transparency by establishing a global register of aid agencies. This should have basic information: their main goals and activities, countries they are active in, number of employees, annual turnover of funds (updated regularly, principal financing sources and nature of links with donors. This could also be available as printed manual that should be freely available to client countries. (b Ensure accountability by developing templates of fair legal instruments (to facilitate and regulate work, and a set of generic rules and procedures of engagement for the interactions between agencies and client states. These should be institutionalized within the regulatory frameworks of countries and included in the Codes of Conduct of NGOs.
Taha, Zahari; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Majeed, A. P. P. Abdul; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Aizzat Zakaria, Muhammad; Muaz Alim, Muhammad; Arif Mat Jizat, Jessnor; Fauzi Ibrahim, Mohamad
Support Vector Machine (SVM) has been revealed to be a powerful learning algorithm for classification and prediction. However, the use of SVM for prediction and classification in sport is at its inception. The present study classified and predicted high and low potential archers from a collection of psychological coping skills variables trained on different SVMs. 50 youth archers with the average age and standard deviation of (17.0 ±.056) gathered from various archery programmes completed a one end shooting score test. Psychological coping skills inventory which evaluates the archers level of related coping skills were filled out by the archers prior to their shooting tests. k-means cluster analysis was applied to cluster the archers based on their scores on variables assessed. SVM models, i.e. linear and fine radial basis function (RBF) kernel functions, were trained on the psychological variables. The k-means clustered the archers into high psychologically prepared archers (HPPA) and low psychologically prepared archers (LPPA), respectively. It was demonstrated that the linear SVM exhibited good accuracy and precision throughout the exercise with an accuracy of 92% and considerably fewer error rate for the prediction of the HPPA and the LPPA as compared to the fine RBF SVM. The findings of this investigation can be valuable to coaches and sports managers to recognise high potential athletes from the selected psychological coping skills variables examined which would consequently save time and energy during talent identification and development programme.
Rintala, Diana H
Compare predictive validity (relative to psychological well-being) of long and short versions of 2 measures of social support for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Sixty-nine men with SCI completed (a) a long and short version of the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL), (b) a structured interview regarding the frequency with which a person receives 11 kinds of support from each of their most important supporters (maximum of 5), and (c) a global measure of the same 11 kinds of support. Approximately 3 years later they completed 4 measures of psychological well-being--the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CESD), the Life Satisfaction Index A (LSIA), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Comparisons were made among the social support measures with regard to their ability to predict each of the 4 measures of psychological well-being at a later point in time. The long version of the ISEL had more predictive power than the long version of the structured interview. The long version of the ISEL is a good choice for measuring social support in persons with SCI and the short ISEL may be an acceptable choice when minimizing respondent burden is critical if the number of response options is increased to 4. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Poulin, John; Deng, Rong; Ingersoll, Travis Sky; Witt, Heather; Swain, Melanie
This study examines two sources of informal support-perceived family and friend support-and the psychological well-being-self-esteem, depression and loneliness-of 150 Chinese and 145 American elders. There were no significant differences between the elderly American and Chinese persons' mean scores on family and friend support. The multiple linear regression analyses with interaction terms (country x family support and country x friend support), however, indicated that the relationship between family support and depression and family support and loneliness was stronger for the Chinese elderly than the US elderly. Conversely, the relationship between friend support and depression and friend support and loneliness is stronger for US elderly than Chinese elderly. The implications of these findings for social work practice in both countries is discussed.
Li, Chieh; Li, Huijun
This study investigated Chinese immigrant parents' perspectives on Chinese immigrant children's psychological well-being, acculturative stress, and sources of support. We conducted focus groups with 22 Chinese immigrant parents of school-aged children (16 mothers and 6 fathers); obtained participants' sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds and…
Partners of cancer patients are an essential pillar in the cancer trajectory. The patient’s cancer can have an enormous impact on the partner’s life and (mental) health. To support them, psychological interventions are needed. However, partners of cancer patients are often extremely busy and
Dunn, Marianne G.; O'Brien, Karen M.
This study examined the relative contributions of (a) gender, (b) perceived stress, (c) social support from family and significant other, and (d) positive and negative dimensions of religious coping to the prediction of the psychological health and meaning in life among 179 Central American immigrants from El Salvador and Guatemala. Findings…
Arulrajah, Annette Ananthi; Harun, Lily Mastura Haji
The aim of this study was to: (a) explore the levels of four factors (psychological well-being, perceived stress, coping styles, and social support) among undergraduates; (b) acquire an accurate description of the demographic variables; (c) explore the relationships among the four factors after controlling for the possible intervening demographic…
The report analyzes the characteristics and attitudes of the population directly involved in the Goiania radiological accident. The inhabitants of the affected area were interviewed in their residence. Factual information about the accidents were given and specific psychological support were received whenever necessary
Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Byeong Seok
The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of…
Partners of cancer patients are an essential pillar in the cancer trajectory. The patient’s cancer can have an enormous impact on the partner’s life and (mental) health. To support them, psychological interventions are needed. However, partners of cancer patients are often extremely busy and
Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.
Objective: In this study, we examined the influence of pre-disaster perceived social support on post-disaster psychological distress among survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Method: Participants (N = 386) were low-income mothers between 18 and 34 years of age at baseline (M = 26.4, SD = 4.43). The majority (84.8%) was African American; 10.4%…
This study examines the relationships among Taiwanese ninth graders' perceptions of autonomy support versus psychological control in the classroom context, work engagement versus academic burnout, and their avoidance of help seeking as well as self-handicapping behaviors. Four hundred and thirty-five ninth-grade Taiwanese students completed a…
Hustache, Sarah; Moro, Marie-Rose; Roptin, Jacky; Souza, Renato; Gansou, Grégoire Magloire; Mbemba, Alain; Roederer, Thomas; Grais, Rebecca F; Gaboulaud, Valérie; Baubet, Thierry
Background Little is known about the impact of psychological support in war and transcultural contexts and in particular, whether there are lasting benefits. Here, we present an evaluation of the late effect of post-rape psychological support provided to women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Methods Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1) Women aged more than 15 years; 2) raped by unknown person(s) wearing military clothes; 3) admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4) living in Brazzaville. Results The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1%) and acute stress disorders (24.6%). One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ), the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP). Two patients (3.1%) met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3%) had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6%) after psychological care; p = 0.04). When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6%) presenting extreme or medium impairment). Conclusion We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these findings in
Fu, J; Sun, W; Wang, Y; Yang, X; Wang, L
The huge population basic and the transformational changes to healthcare system in China have gained wide public attention in recent years. Along with these issues is a growing literature about doctor's job satisfaction; however, more is known about its negative related factors. Thus, this study was an attempt to assess the level of job satisfaction among Chinese doctors and to explore factors that enhance their job satisfaction. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of September/October 2010. A questionnaire containing job satisfaction assessed by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), demographic characteristics, work conditions, psychological capital (PsyCap) and perceived organizational support (POS) was distributed to 1300 registered doctors in Liaoning province. A total of 984 respondents became our subjects (effective response rate 75.7%). Hierarchical regression was performed to explore the factors associated with satisfaction. The average MSQ score was 65.86 (level ranking for MSQ, 20-100) in our study population. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that POS (β = 0.412, P work environment and developing doctors' PsyCap should be considered by health administrators in order to promote job satisfaction among Chinese doctors. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schepers, J.J.L.; Jong, de A.; Wetzels, M.G.M.; Ruyter, de J.C.
In this paper, the authors propose that psychological safety, a sense of interpersonal trust and being valued in a work team, is an important determinant of groupware technology adoption in an educational setting. They develop and test a model of antecedents and consequences of psychological safety.
Bernad, Daniel Maxwell
The US FDA established the Humanitarian Use Device (HUD) and Humanitarian Device Exemption (HDE) program to encourage medical device firms to address rare diseases. Despite being in existence for over a decade, there has only been one peer-reviewed publication examining this field. The objective of this report is to investigate how the HUD/HDE program differs from the standard regulatory system, discuss its potential advantages and disadvantages, and to speculate which humanitarian devices will be brought to market within the next 5 years. A total of 40 semistructured interviews with stakeholders, representing approximately half (n = 20, 49%) of the firms that have successfully obtained HDE-approved products, were performed in order to acquire the primary data for this paper. There appear to be short-term gains and long-term drains associated with launching humanitarian devices to market. This report aims to provide sponsors with information that may allow them to make better decisions during their product development of humanitarian devices and may, hopefully, also play a role in encouraging other sponsors to take the necessary steps forward in helping to find treatments for patients with rare diseases.
Asikhia, Olubusayo Aduke; Mohangi, Kesh
Various studies have reported a huge increase in the numbers of orphaned adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effects on their psychological, emotional and behavioural development. Yet, their needs are seldom recognised or adequately addressed in policy and programmes.This article uses a qualitative study to report the experiences of 11 orphaned adolescents (5 boys and 6 girls aged between 15 and 18 years) affected by HIV and AIDS in a secondary school (in Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa) and the school support provided by them. The primary data-generation strategies were informal interviews and the Beck Youth Inventories-II (BYI-II) (adopted to measure the participants' level of emotional, behavioural and psychological problems). All interview transcriptions with the participants were thematically analysed. BYI-II data were subjected to T scores (in percentages) to know the participant's psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in order to compare it with their perceptions on the degree of support provided by the school. Result shows that participants have a high prevalence of psychological, behavioural and emotional problems and that the school support provided to them (teachers' support, the general school environment and the degree of discrimination, labelling and bullying that exists in the school) was not sufficient. The participants, however, reported a high level of support from the principal. In conclusion, we have suggested the urgent need for teachers to acquire and possess basic knowledge and skills in caring and paying attention to learners affected by HIV and AIDS and for government agencies and NGOs working with HIV-and AIDS-affected children, to focus on proposals that address the psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in such affected adolescents.
VanderSteen, J. D. J.; Hall, K. R.; Baillie, C. A.
There is an increasing interest in the humanitarian engineering curriculum, and a service-learning placement could be an important component of such a curriculum. International placements offer some important pedagogical advantages, but also have some practical and ethical limitations. Local community-based placements have the potential to be transformative for both the student and the community, although this potential is not always seen. In order to investigate the role of local placements, qualitative research interviews were conducted. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted and analysed, resulting in a distinct outcome space. It is concluded that local humanitarian engineering placements greatly complement international placements and are strongly recommended if international placements are conducted. More importantly it is seen that we are better suited to address the marginalised in our own community, although it is often easier to see the needs of an outside populace.
Christiansen, Lene Bull
and proposes to look beyond the mainstream US/UK contexts in order to make this point. The paper takes point of departure in the annual Danish aid telethon Danmarks Indsamling (Denmark’s Collection). Against the backdrop of the local identity politics in Denmark revolving around immigration policies...... of a collective identity narrative are seen to draw on the above-mentioned gendered and colonialist discourses while simultaneously engaging in local politics around diversity and national identity......., 2009; Jefferess, 2002; Repo and Yrjölä, 2011). While these studies provide important insights, another side remains – that of collective identity narratives associated with humanitarian appeals. This paper posits that collective identity narratives have a vital importance in many humanitarian appeals...
Gupta, Vishal; Agarwal, Upasna A; Khatri, Naresh
This study examines the factors that mediate and moderate the relationships of perceived organizational support with work engagement and organization citizenship behaviour. Specifically, affective commitment is posited to mediate and psychological contract breach to moderate the above relationships. Nurses play a critical role in delivering exemplary health care. For nurses to perform at their best, they need to experience high engagement, which can be achieved by providing them necessary organizational support and proper working environment. Data were collected via a self-reported survey instrument. A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 750 nurses in nine large hospitals in India during 2013-2014. Four hundred and seventy-five nurses (63%) responded to the survey. Hierarchical multiple regression was used for statistical analysis of the moderated-mediation model. Affective commitment was found to mediate the positive relationships between perceived organizational support and work outcomes (work engagement, organizational citizenship behaviour). The perception of unfulfilled expectations (psychological contract breach) was found to moderate the perceived organizational support-work outcome relationships adversely. The results of this study indicate that perceived organizational support exerts its influence on work-related outcomes and highlight the importance of taking organizational context, such as perceptions of psychological contract breach, into consideration when making sense of the influence of perceived organizational support on affective commitment, work engagement and citizenship behaviours of nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vladimir L. Kubyshko
Full Text Available Background. Since psychological work in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation is one of the professional activities, the departments must perform the tasks of the following two tiers: professionally-based and system-wide. Those tasks of the first tier perform the tree groups of individual and group diagnostics, personal and professional development, and professional and psychological support. When implemented they are determined by system-wide goals, with the main one shaping the patriotic worldview, corporate culture and the significantprofessionalproperties of the employees. Objective. Within the framework of the approach mentioned above, the paper considers static and dynamic models of psychological work in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation at the present stage, current issues and ways to resolve them are revealed. Progress Report. Based on the brief analysis of the static model of psychological work it is concluded that there are forces and means for the successful accomplishment of the assigned tasks which is confirmed by the external indicators. When considering the on-line dynamic model issues, the issues of scientific and methodological character are identifiedand also the corporate personnel and the systemwide (worldview typeof work are determined. Their essence and content are specified, and also the ways to constructively eliminate these issues are highlighted. Research results. The author emphasizes that the worldviewissues require special consideration as their solution demand a set of measures connected with the extension of the functional duties of the psychologists working in the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Conclusion. In the conditions of negative information and psychological impact on the professional and corporate consciousness of the Ministry of Internal Affairs employees, the increased attention of some researchers to the negative moments of the history of the police when its
Humanitarian organisations operate in increasingly hostile environments. Although authoritative statistics are scarce, anecdotal evidence suggests that aid workers face life-threatening risks that are exacerbated by the growing number of humanitarian organisations operating in the field, the diversity of their mandates, the lack of common professional security standards, and limited success in inter-agency security coordination. Despite broad acceptance of the need for better security management and coordination, many humanitarian organisations remain ambivalent about devoting increased resources to security management and security coordination. A critical lack of basic empirical knowledge of the field security environment hampers efforts to enhance security management practices. The absence of a systematic means of sharing incident data undermines the capacity of the humanitarian community to address proactively security threats. In discussions about humanitarian staff safety and security, the least common denominator remains cumulative anecdotal evidence provided by the many security personnel working for humanitarian organisations in the feld.
Wilna L. Bean
Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.
Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel
Abstract: Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier Gender and Development approach and the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda, analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, gender often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs...
Decaro, Daniel; Stokes, Michael
Community-based natural resource conservation programs in developing nations face many implementation challenges underpinned by social-psychological mechanisms. One challenge is garnering local support in an economically and socially sustainable fashion despite economic hardship and historical alienation from local resources. Unfortunately, conservationists' limited understanding of the social-psychological mechanisms underlying participatory conservation impedes the search for appropriate solutions. We address this issue by revealing key underlying social-psychological mechanisms of participatory conservation. Different administrative designs create social atmospheres that differentially affect endorsement of conservation goals. Certain forms of endorsement may be less effective motivators and less economically and socially sustainable than others. From a literature review we found that conservation initiatives endorsed primarily for nonautonomous instrumental reasons, such as to avoid economic fines or to secure economic rewards, are less motivating than those endorsed for autonomous reasons, such as for the opportunity for personal expression and growth. We suggest that successful participatory programs promote autonomous endorsement of conservation through an administrative framework of autonomy support-free and open democratic participation in management, substantive recognition and inclusion of local stakeholder identity, and respectful, noncoercive social interaction. This framework of the autonomy-supportive environment (self-determination theory) has important implications for future research into program design and incentive-based conservation and identifies a testable social-psychological theory of conservancy motivation.
Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel
Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier 'Gender and Development' approach and the 'Women, Peace, and Security Agenda', analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, 'gender' often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs and proposes a more relational approach to gender. It explores how the contributions to this special issue of Disasters revisit classic gender issues pertaining to violence, livelihoods, and institutions in different settings of humanitarian emergencies, while expanding one's vision beyond them. It draws from the seven papers a number of lessons for humanitarianism, concerning the entangled nature of gender relations, the risks of the unintended effects of gender programming, and the importance of paying sustained attention to how gender relations unfold in a time of crisis. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Russell, Roberta S.; Hiller, Janine S.
With the growth in length and breadth of extended supply chains, more companies are employing risk management techniques and resilience planning to deal with burgeoning and costly supply chain disruptions. As companies can learn from humanitarian groups, so can humanitarian groups learn from industry how to respond, recover, and prepare for these disruptive events. This paper looks at industry leaders in supply chain risk management and explores how humanitarian supply chains can learn from i...
Mohd, S.; Fathi, M. S.; Harun, A. N.
Humanitarian aid distribution is associated with many activities, numerous disaster management stakeholders, enormous effort and different processes. For effective communication, humanitarian aid distribution activities require appropriate and up-to-date information to enhance collaboration, and improve integration. The purpose of this paper is to develop a humanitarian aid distribution framework for disaster management in Malaysia. The findings of this paper are based on a review of the huma...
Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Bolstridge, Mark; Rucker, James; Day, Camilla M J; Erritzoe, David; Kaelen, Mendel; Bloomfield, Michael; Rickard, James A; Forbes, Ben; Feilding, Amanda; Taylor, David; Pilling, Steve; Curran, Valerie H; Nutt, David J
Psilocybin is a serotonin receptor agonist that occurs naturally in some mushroom species. Recent studies have assessed the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for various conditions, including end-of-life anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and smoking and alcohol dependence, with promising preliminary results. Here, we aimed to investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression. In this open-label feasibility trial, 12 patients (six men, six women) with moderate-to-severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 mg and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting. There was no control group. Psychological support was provided before, during, and after each session. The primary outcome measure for feasibility was patient-reported intensity of psilocybin's effects. Patients were monitored for adverse reactions during the dosing sessions and subsequent clinic and remote follow-up. Depressive symptoms were assessed with standard assessments from 1 week to 3 months after treatment, with the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS) serving as the primary efficacy outcome. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14426797. Psilocybin's acute psychedelic effects typically became detectable 30-60 min after dosing, peaked 2-3 h after dosing, and subsided to negligible levels at least 6 h after dosing. Mean self-rated intensity (on a 0-1 scale) was 0·51 (SD 0·36) for the low-dose session and 0·75 (SD 0·27) for the high-dose session. Psilocybin was well tolerated by all of the patients, and no serious or unexpected adverse events occurred. The adverse reactions we noted were transient anxiety during drug onset (all patients), transient confusion or thought disorder (nine patients), mild and transient nausea (four patients), and transient headache (four patients). Relative to baseline, depressive symptoms were markedly reduced 1
Martin-Simpson, S; Parkinson, J; Katsou, E
The use of cash transfers and market based programming (CT/MBP) to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency responses is gaining prominence in the humanitarian sector. However, there is a lack of existing indicators and methodologies to monitor activities designed to strengthen water and sanitation (WaSH) markets. Gender and vulnerability markers to measure the impact of such activities on different stakeholders is also missing. This study identifies parameters to monitor, evaluate and determine the added value of utilising CT/MBP to achieve WaSH objectives in humanitarian response. The results of the work revealed that CT/MBP can be used to support household, community and market level interventions to effectively reduce transmission of faeco-oral diseases. Efficiency, effectiveness, sustainability, appropriateness and equity were identified as useful parameters which correlated to widely accepted frameworks against which to evaluate humanitarian action. The parameters were found to be directly applicable to the case of increasing demand and supply of point of use water treatment technology for a) disaster resilience activities, and b) post-crisis response. The need for peer review of the parameters and indicators and pilot measurement in humanitarian contexts was recognised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bennecke, Elena; Werner-Rosen, Knut; Thyen, Ute; Kleinemeier, Eva; Lux, Anke; Jürgensen, Martina; Grüters, Annette; Köhler, Birgit
Disorders/diversity of sex development (dsd) is an umbrella term for congenital conditions often diagnosed within childhood. As most parents are unprepared for this situation, psychological support (PsySupp) is recommended. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which parents express a need for PsySupp. Three hundred twenty-nine parents of children with dsd were included; 40.4 % of the parents indicated to have a need for PsySupp, only 50 % of this group received it adequately. The diagnoses partial gonadal dysgenesis, partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (pAIS) and disorders of androgen synthesis are associated with a high need for PsySupp in parents (54, 65, and 50 %). Sex assignment surgery neither reduced nor increased the need for PsySupp. Taking a picture, radiography, laparoscopy, gonadal biopsy, gonadectomy and hormonal puberty induction are associated with a high need for PsySupp. There was no association between the need for PsySupp and the parents' perception of the appearance of the genitalia. Having a child with dsd is associated with a high need for PsySupp in parents. In particular, parents of children with XY-dsd with androgen effects other than hypospadias expressed a high need of PsySupp. PsySupp for parents should be an obligatory part of interdisciplinary care to reduce fears and concerns. What is known • In parents, having a child with dsd provokes insecurities and fears. Hence, psychological support is recommended as part of the interdisciplinary care. What is new • This is the first study investigating the subjective need for psychological support in a large sample of parents of children with dsd in Germany. We present data on the subjective need for psychological support of the parents, related diagnoses and factors, which should be considered in psychological counselling.
Lapointe, Julie; Dorval, Michel; Noguès, Catherine; Fabre, Roxane; Julian-Reynier, Claire
Receiving the results of genetic tests for a breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility can be a stressful experience. Here we studied the effects of social support (SS) and the sharing of test results on the psychological impact of BRCA1/2 test result disclosure. We also compared carriers and non-carriers on sharing, SS and psychological impact. Five-hundred and twenty-two unaffected women were followed prospectively for 2 years after receiving their test results. Psychological impact was measured on the impact of event scale. Multivariate multi-level models were used, and all the analyses were stratified depending on mutation status (carriers vs non-carriers). Two weeks after receiving their BRCA1/2 results, carriers had shared their test results less frequently than non-carriers (p test results was not significantly associated with psychological impact. Availability of SS was significantly associated with better psychological adjustment across time among carriers (p importance of SS should be stressed, and possible ways of enlisting people in their entourage for this purpose should be discussed in the context of clinical encounters.
Hollon, Steven D.; Ponniah, Kathryn
Background The mood disorders are prevalent and problematic. We review randomized controlled psychotherapy trials to find those that are empirically supported with respect to acute symptom reduction and the prevention of subsequent relapse and recurrence. Methods We searched the PsycINFO and PubMed databases and the reference sections of chapters and journal articles to identify appropriate articles. Results One hundred twenty-five studies were found evaluating treatment efficacy for the various mood disorders. With respect to the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and behavior therapy (BT) are efficacious and specific and brief dynamic therapy (BDT) and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) are possibly efficacious. CBT is efficacious and specific, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) efficacious, and BDT and EFT possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence following treatment termination and IPT and CBT are each possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence if continued or maintained. IPT is possibly efficacious in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. With respect to bipolar disorder, CBT and family-focused therapy (FFT) are efficacious and interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) possibly efficacious as adjuncts to medication in the treatment of depression. Psycho-education (PE) is efficacious in the prevention of mania/hypomania (and possibly depression) and FFT is efficacious and IPSRT and CBT possibly efficacious in preventing bipolar episodes. Conclusions The newer psychological interventions are as efficacious as and more enduring than medications in the treatment of MDD and may enhance the efficacy of medications in the treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:20830696
Shafran, Roz; Bennett, Sophie D.; McKenzie Smith, Mhairi
There are strong calls from many national and international bodies for there to be a ‘holistic’ and integrated approach to the understanding and management of psychological and physical health needs. Such holistic approaches are characterized by the treatment of the whole person, taking into account mental and social factors, rather than just the symptoms of a disease. Holistic approaches can impact on mental and physical health and are cost-effective. Several psychological interventions have...
Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.
Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…
Full Text Available In the last 10 years sport psychology expanded its applicability in a variety of fields which have helped to address some of the challenges related to high level performance and sport competition. When we talk about performance in its wider sense, sport psychology is able to help develop a better understanding on how strategies can be adopted in improving general human performance levels. This includes increasing the knowledge of key concepts such as motivation, self-confidence and resilience. Furthermore performance in its wider sense helps in the understanding of the impact of stress and arousal and how these can affect both positively and negatively performance levels including appreciating individual differences as well as dynamics between groups of individuals. In this paper performance rather than solely be related to the field of competitive or professional sport has been discussed in people with ASCs and aims to explore how by adopting a positive psychological model in the formulation of individual assessments and subsequent interventions have led to improvement in individual skills, participation, engagement and ultimately quality of life. Positive psychological principles, such as the role of wellbeing and wellness, the PERMA Model has increased our understanding of human potentials, performance and wellbeing. The aim of this paper is to present and reflect on the applicability and benefits of adopting sport psychology models, the PERMA model and positive psychological principles in special education and care settings with the presentation and discussion of their theoretical and some practical implementation in two case studies.
Petersen, Yvonne; Koehler, Lotte
The situation leading to the death of a close relative is a unique and irrevocable experience of separation which evokes a state of emotional strain for the patient and the family. This situation therefore is an especially effective trigger of the so-called 'attachment system'. Attachment research in recent decades has shown that already in early infancy every person develops special attachment strategies activated in cases whenever a person cannot cope on its own with dangers. Only four such patterns of attachment have been specified, namely 'secure', 'insecure-avoidant', 'insecure-ambivalent/enmeshed' and 'disoriented/disorganized'. Since the dying are usually brought to the hospital by members of the family, the doctor responsible for treatment can perceive with unusual clarity the patterns of attachment within the family system, and can integrate such observation into her treatment strategy. This article suggests an attachment-informed therapy in the field of palliative medicine. It seems apparent that such approaches provided by the attachment theory for relief during the terminal phase are not only relevant in a palliative context but also applicable within the overall field of medicine and care-giving relating to terminal patients and their families. To the doctor familiar with the attachment patterns and the conditions of their formation, clinical observation easily reveals which pattern is active among the dying and the accompanying members of the family. Here, cases are used to show how these insights can be realized in the psychotherapeutic care of patients and their families on a palliative ward. For example, in a case of 'avoidant' attachment, denied emotions can be addressed carefully and still existent hopes for protection and support can be reinforced; in a case of so-called 'ambivalent-enmeshed' attachment, overly intense relationships can be disentangled, and in a case of 'disorganized' attachment, emotion regulation can be supported and clarity
Garnets, O. [UNESCO-Chernobyl Programme Project (Ukraine)
Community Centers for Psycho-social Rehabilitation created within UNESCO - Chernobyl Programme (Project no 64) is aimed at providing psychological support to population suffered from the catastrophe. Centers are located in communities that in different ways suffered from Chernobyl - people evacuated and relocated from the contaminated territories, people who are still living in contaminated regions, employees of the nuclear power plant etc. Centres are providing psychological support to people suffered from Chernobyl catastrophe, trough developing adaptive behavior models under living conditions that changed - both ecological and social and economic crises, developing of personal and social responsibility in community members. The professionals of Community Centers implement activities aimed on coping victimization, on community interaction and communities restructuring. They are working with all age and social groups in the communities, with acute crises and suicide prevention, creating mutual support mechanisms. Centres performance results in decrease of psycho-social tension and anxiety in population. Centers present successfully functioning model of social and psychological support under complicated ecological and social conditions in post soviet countries. They have accumulated unique professional and organizational experience of efficient work in, a post-catastrophe period under social and economic crisis. (author)
Community Centers for Psycho-social Rehabilitation created within UNESCO - Chernobyl Programme (Project no 64) is aimed at providing psychological support to population suffered from the catastrophe. Centers are located in communities that in different ways suffered from Chernobyl - people evacuated and relocated from the contaminated territories, people who are still living in contaminated regions, employees of the nuclear power plant etc. Centres are providing psychological support to people suffered from Chernobyl catastrophe, trough developing adaptive behavior models under living conditions that changed - both ecological and social and economic crises, developing of personal and social responsibility in community members. The professionals of Community Centers implement activities aimed on coping victimization, on community interaction and communities restructuring. They are working with all age and social groups in the communities, with acute crises and suicide prevention, creating mutual support mechanisms. Centres performance results in decrease of psycho-social tension and anxiety in population. Centers present successfully functioning model of social and psychological support under complicated ecological and social conditions in post soviet countries. They have accumulated unique professional and organizational experience of efficient work in, a post-catastrophe period under social and economic crisis. (author)
Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek
This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.
Are there more than cross-sectional relationships of social support and support networks with functional limitations and psychological distress in early rheumatoid arthritis? the European Research on Incapacitating Diseases and Social Support Longitudinal
Demange, V.; Guillemin, F.; Suurmeijer, T.P.; Moum, T.; Doeglas, D.; Briancon, S.; van den Heuvel, W.J.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether greater social support and support network are cross-sectionally associated with less functional limitations and psychological distress in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA); whether this association is constant over time; and whether increases in social
Simşek, Omer Faruk; Demir, Melikşah
A significant number of empirical studies have reported that parental support for basic psychological needs is a robust correlate of adolescent happiness. Yet, less is known about the mechanisms responsible for this link. The present study proposed a model suggesting that personal sense of uniqueness explains why satisfaction of basic psychological needs in parent-child relationships is related to happiness. This mediational model was tested among late adolescents in Turkey and the United States. Analyses relying on structural equation modeling and bootstrapping supported the model in both cultures. Implications of the findings for theory and cross-cultural research are discussed. Directions for future research that could improve our understanding of the dynamic interplay between basic needs, sense of uniqueness and well-being are provided.
Full Text Available Childhood vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most successful public health interventions. Yet, the effective delivery of vaccination depends upon public willingness to vaccinate. Recently, many countries have faced problems with vaccine hesitancy, where a growing number of parents perceive vaccination to be unsafe or unnecessary, leading some to delay or refuse vaccines for their children. Effective intervention strategies for countering this problem are currently sorely lacking, however. Here, we propose that this may be because existing strategies are grounded more in intuition than insights from psychology. Consequently, such strategies are sometimes at variance with basic psychological principles and assumptions. By going against the grain of cognition, such strategies potentially run the risk of undermining persuasive efforts to reduce vaccine hesitancy. We demonstrate this by drawing on key insights from cognitive and social psychology to show how various known features of human psychology can lead many intuitively appealing intervention strategies to backfire, yielding unintended and undesirable repercussions. We conclude with a summary of potential avenues of investigation that may be more effective in addressing vaccine hesitancy. Our key message is that intervention strategies must be crafted that go with the grain of cognition by incorporating key insights from the psychological sciences.
Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association (APA has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses. Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a case study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting online students with an equivalent learning experience, we recommend that future research investigates means of successfully facilitating collaborative group-work assessment
McParland, Joanna L; Knussen, Christina
The impact of pain beliefs on coping and adjustment is well established. However, less is known about how beliefs unrelated to pain might impact upon this experience. In particular, just world beliefs could impact upon and be influenced by chronic pain, given that pain is not experienced in a vacuum but instead is experienced in a social context where justice issues are potentially salient. The focus of this study was the ability of personal and general just world beliefs to moderate the relationships psychological distress held with pain intensity and disability in chronic pain. The sample (N=95) was recruited from members of arthritis and fibromyalgia support groups to investigate these social beliefs in a controlled community pain context. A cross-sectional, questionnaire design was adopted. The personal just world belief was endorsed significantly more than the general just world belief, and endorsement of the personal just world belief was negatively correlated with pain intensity, disability and psychological distress, while the general just world belief was unrelated to these variables. When interaction terms relating to personal and general just world beliefs were entered simultaneously into regression analyses, the personal just world belief did not predict psychological distress. However, pain intensity positively predicted psychological distress at low but not high levels of the general just world belief, while disability predicted psychological distress at low and high levels of this belief. This suggests that a strong general just world belief has implications for psychological well-being in chronic pain, and as such this belief may occupy a potential coping function in this context.
Longstaff, Fran; Gervis, Misia
This study examined how practitioners who provide sport psychology support use counselling principles and skills to develop practitioner-athlete relationships. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirteen competent practitioners (Mean age = 41.2 ± 10.9 years old, five men, eight women). Thematic analysis revealed that the participants used a range of counselling principles to develop practitioner-athlete relationships including: the facilitative conditions, self-disclosure, counsel...
operational readiness Megan M. Thompson DRDC Toronto Monique A. M. Gignac Division of Population Health, University of Toronto Donald R. McCreary DRDC...support are related to increased mortality rates in population health studies (Berkman & Syme, 1994; House, Landis , & Umberson, 2003). Interestingly...of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 1146-1163. 55. House, J. S., Landis , K. R., & Umberson, D. (2003). Social relationships and health. In P
Molozhavenko A. V.
Psychological preparation of teachers we associate with the humanitarian and holistic approach. It is therefore assumed an active and interested participation, the student teacher in the educational process and educational activity is thought of as a co-activity.
Dijkzeul, D.; Hilhorst, D.; Walker, P.
This introductory paper sets the stage for this special issue of Disasters on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises. It reviews definition(s) of evidence and it examines the different disciplinary and methodological approaches to collecting and analysing evidence. In humanitarian action, the
Rodrigues Santos, A.L.
Humanitarian emergencies like the natural disasters in Nepal, Haiti or Pakistan or the thousands of refugees and internally displaced people fleeing from long-term conflict in Syria or South Sudan are likely to increase. To provide healthcare assistance, international humanitarian organizations
Full Text Available Refugee-led humanitarian initiatives by ‘established’ Palestinian refugees in response to the arrival of ‘new’ displaced Syrians to Shatila camp raise key questions about the limitations of the humanitarian system and representations of refugees as passive victims.
Murphy, Richard A; Chua, Arlene C
Humanitarian medical organizations focus on vulnerable patients with increased risk for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and are obligated to minimize them in inpatient departments (IPDs). However, in doing so humanitarian groups face considerable obstacles. This report will focus on approaches to reducing common HAIs that the authors have found to be helpful in humanitarian settings. HAIs are common in humanitarian contexts but there are few interventions or guidelines adapted for use in poor and conflict-affected settings to improve prevention and guide surveillance. Based on existing recommendations and studies, it appears prudent that all humanitarian IPDs introduce a basic infection prevention infrastructure, assure high adherence to hand hygiene with wide accessibility to alcohol-based hand rub, and develop pragmatic surveillance based on clinically evident nosocomial infection. Although microbiology remains out of reach for most humanitarian hospitals, rapid tests offer the possibility of improving the diagnosis of HAIs in humanitarian hospitals in the decade ahead. There is a dearth of new studies that can direct efforts to prevent HAIs in IPDs in poor and conflict-affected areas and there is a need for practical, field-adapted guidelines from professional societies, and international bodies to guide infection prevention efforts in humanitarian environments.
The increasing importance of services in SCM leads to a stronger focus on the customer perspective. Donors and beneficiaries are two distinct customer groups of humanitarian supply chains. This paper will analyse how this impacts performance measurement for example in the commonly used balanced scorecard, which includes a customer perspective. Keywords: Performance measurement, Humanitarian logistics, Customer perspective
Sangiamkul, Esther; van Hillegersberg, Jos
This article systematically reviews the literature on using IT (Information Technology) in humanitarian logistics focusing on disaster relief operations. We first discuss problems in humanitarian relief logistics. We then identify the stage and disaster type for each article as well as the article’s
Full Text Available Justice, sovereignty and self-determination for all human beings are fundamental foundations for healthcare and human rights. In any civilised society, the balance between medical ethics and human rights is critical for the delivery of healthcare. War is a deeply ethical issue. Combatants, whose violations of international conventions, laws and codes of ethics during war and political conflict are detrimental to civilian non-combatants, including healthcare workers, commit crimes against humanity. The war in Gaza is a humanitarian crisis.
Since 2001, there has been a growing consensus that sexual exploitation and abuse of intended beneficiaries by humanitarian workers is a real and widespread problem that requires governance. Codes of conduct have been promoted as a key mechanism for governing the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers and, ultimately, preventing sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA). This article presents a systematic study of PSEA codes of conduct adopted by humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and how they govern the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers. It draws on Foucault's analytics of governance and speech act theory to examine the findings of a survey of references to codes of conduct made on the websites of 100 humanitarian NGOs, and to analyse some features of the organisation-specific PSEA codes identified. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
S V Shcherbatykh
Full Text Available The article deals with the formation of students’ mathematical competence in higher humanitarian education. The scientific literature analysis and pedagogical experience has shown that in spite of the numerous studies conducted in this area, the idea of coupling mathematical education of the humanitarians with their cultural, methodological and professional training remains. In our opinion, the design of mathematical training of the humanitarians must rely on the theory of activity, which brings together the main statements of methodology, pedagogy, psychology, such as the principles and methods of teaching, the problems of the peculiarities of students’ thinking, the increase of the level of their cognitive activity, the person’s education as a whole.The article presents the components of mathematical competence, criteria indicators, stages and levels of its formation. For the formation of mathematical competence it is proposed to apply context- empirical approach and developed on the basis of its organizational and pedagogical model (the main elements of this model are described in the article. In conclusion the pedagogical conditions of effective formation of mathematical competence in students in the system profile of humanitarian education are highlighted and revealed.
Rini, Christine; Redd, William H.; Austin, Jane; Mosher, Catherine E.; Meschian, Yeraz Markarian; Isola, Luis; Scigliano, Eileen; Moskowitz, Craig H.; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Labay, Larissa E.; Rowley, Scott; Burkhalter, Jack E.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; DuHamel, Katherine N.
Objective: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) survivors who are 1 to 3 years posttransplant are challenged by the need to resume valued social roles and activities--a task that may be complicated by enduring transplant-related psychological distress common in this patient population. The present study investigated whether transplant…
Jansen, J.J.P.; Kostopoulos, K.C.; Mihalache, R.O.; Papalexandris, A
In addressing the notion of team ambidexterity, we propose that socio-psychological factors (i.e., team cohesion and team efficacy) may help team members to resolve paradoxical challenges and to combine exploratory and exploitative learning efforts. In addition, we theorize that senior executives
Claes, Laurence; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Witcomb, Gemma; Thurston, Megan; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon
There is a paucity of systematic research in the area of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in trans people. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NSSI in trans people and the associations with intra- and interpersonal problems. Participants were 155 untreated individuals with a diagnosis of transsexualism (according to International Classification of Disease-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic. All participants completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale, the Experiences of Transphobia Scale, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. The sample consisted of 66.5% trans women and 33.5% trans men and 36.8% of them had a history of engaging in NSSI. The prevalence of NSSI was significantly higher in trans men (57.7%) compared with trans women (26.2%). Trans individuals with NSSI reported more psychological and interpersonal problems and perceived less social support compared with trans individuals without NSSI. Moreover, the probability of having experienced physical harassment related to being trans was highest in trans women with NSSI (compared with those without NSSI). The study found that with respect to psychological symptoms, trans women reported significantly more intrapersonal and interpersonal symptoms compared with trans men. Finally, the results of the regression analysis showed that the probability of engaging in NSSI by trans individuals was significantly positively related to a younger age, being trans male, and reporting more psychological symptoms. The high levels of NSSI behavior and its association with interpersonal and interpersonal difficulties and lack of social support need to be taken into consideration when assessing trans individuals. The effect of cross-sex hormones and sex reassignment surgery on psychological functioning, including NSSI behavior
Mukkamala, Alivelu Manga; Beck, Roman
In times of a crisis, disasters or extreme events, affected people use social media solutions to share information about the situation. Hence, the use of this information for supporting humanitarian operations is becoming a valuable source to develop a real time understanding about the situation even before they arrive at the ground. From a scholarly perspective, the use of social media management during and after a disaster has hit has been researched, but no special focus has been given to ...
den Heijer, Mariska; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vanheusden, Kathleen; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Bartels, Carina C M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Tibben, Aad
Hereditary breast cancer has a profound impact on individual family members and on their mutual communication and interactions. The way at-risk women cope with the threat of hereditary breast cancer may depend on the quality of family communication about hereditary breast cancer and on the perceived social support from family and friends. To examine the associations of family communication and social support with long-term psychological distress in a group of women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, who opted either for regular breast surveillance or prophylactic surgery. The study cohort consisted of 222 women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, who previously participated in a study on the psychological consequences of either regular breast cancer surveillance or prophylactic surgery. General and breast cancer specific distress, hereditary cancer-related family communication, perceived social support, and demographics were assessed. Using structural equation modelling, we found that open communication about hereditary cancer within the family was associated with less general and breast cancer specific distress. In addition, perceived support from family and friends was indirectly associated with less general and breast cancer-specific distress through open communication within the family. These findings indicate that family communication and perceived social support from friends and family are of paramount importance in the long-term adaptation to being at risk for hereditary breast cancer. Attention for these issues needs to be incorporated in the care of women at risk for hereditary breast cancer. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare basic psychological needs, stressful life events, and social support in addicts and non-addicts. The study was a causal-comparative research. Two hundreds residents of Khorramabad were chosen by available sampling (130 healthy and 70 addicts and were asked to respond to Basic Psychological Need Scale La Guardia, Ryan, Couchman & Deci, Multi-facet Perceived Social Support Scale Zimet, Powell, Farley, Werkman, & Berkoff, Addiction Acceptance Scale Weed, Butcher, McKenna, & Ben-Porath, and Weekly Stress Inventory Brantley, Jones & Boudreaux. Results of analysis of variance and and discriminant analysis showed singnificant differences between men and women. The results also showed significant differences competency and friend social support in the two groups of men, and autonomy, competency and family social support in the two groups of women. Discriminant analysis revealed that stressful life events and competency predict addiction in men. and relationship and family social support predict addiction in women.Results were discussed according to different protecting factors in men and women and possible reciprocal relationships between addiction and protecting factors.
Jannesari, Milad; Wang, Zhongming; McCall, Jacob; Zheng, Boyang
This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) and their host-country nationals (HCNs) colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them. PMID:29225587
Full Text Available This research examined the role of psychological availability as a means of psychological engagement between self-initiated expatriates (SIEs and their host-country nationals (HCNs colleagues during their work and interaction adjustment. To reveal this process, this study presented the concept of psychological availability, which refers to an individual’s belief that they are physically, cognitively, and emotionally ready or confident to engage the self with their colleagues, as a mediator between proactive personality and adjustment. Also, it investigated the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability and how it was moderated by supportive supervisor relations. We hypothesized, this relationship would be weakened/strengthened when SIEs and HCNs received low/high level of support from their supervisor. This study was conducted as a quantitative study, data was used from 342 SIEs and 342 HCNs working in mainland China. Our finding supported the hypothesis that psychological availability mediated the relationship between proactive personality and their adjustment to an international work environment; in addition, the relationship between proactive personality and psychological availability would be stronger when the level of superiors relations support is high between SIEs and HCNs. This study demonstrated the value of proactive personality as an antecedent effect and supportive supervisor relations as a moderating effect, and investigated how these factors can lead to a sense of psychological availability and boost psychological engagement between SIEs and HCNs in order to improve the adjustment between them.
Davey, Amanda; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline
There is a paucity of research in the area of social support and psychological well-being among people with gender dysphoria. The present study aimed to investigate levels of social support among individuals with gender dysphoria compared with a matched control group. It also aimed to examine the relationship between social support and psychological well-being. Participants were 103 individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria (according to ICD-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic and an age- and gender-matched nonclinical control group recruited via social networking websites. All participants completed measures of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, SCL), quality of life (Short Form 36 version 2, SF), and life satisfaction (Personal Wellbeing Index, PWI). Trans women reported significantly lower MSPSS total and MSPSS family scores compared with control women, although these differences in levels of social support were no longer significant when SCL depression was controlled for. No significant differences were found between trans men and any other group. MSPSS scores did not significantly predict SCL subscales but did predict both SF subscales and PWI total scores. Trans women perceived themselves to be lacking social support. Given that social support is beneficial to quality of life and life satisfaction in those with gender dysphoria, this is of great concern. Though these findings have been derived from correlational results, extended research may highlight the value of clinicians helping trans women to seek out and maintain social support. Additionally, efforts could be made to educate and challenge attitudes of nontrans people towards those with gender dysphoria. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Chang, Yia-Ling; Chiou, Ai-Fu; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Lin, Kuan-Chia
Up to 74% of patients with heart failure report poor sleep in Taiwan. Poor symptom management or sleep hygiene may affect patients' sleep quality. An effective educational programme was important to improve patients' sleep quality and psychological distress. However, research related to sleep disturbance in patients with heart failure is limited in Taiwan. To examine the effects of a tailored educational supportive care programme on sleep disturbance and psychological distress in patients with heart failure. randomised controlled trial. Eighty-four patients with heart failure were recruited from an outpatient department of a medical centre in Taipei, Taiwan. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=43) or the control group (n=41). Patients in the intervention group received a 12-week tailored educational supportive care programme including individualised education on sleep hygiene, self-care, emotional support through a monthly nursing visit at home, and telephone follow-up counselling every 2 weeks. The control group received routine nursing care. Data were collected at baseline, the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks after patients' enrollment. Outcome measures included sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and depression. The intervention group exhibited significant improvement in the level of sleep quality and daytime sleepiness after 12 weeks of the supportive nursing care programme, whereas the control group exhibited no significant differences. Anxiety and depression scores were increased significantly in the control group at the 12th week (p.05). Compared with the control group, the intervention group had significantly greater improvement in sleep quality (β=-2.22, pquality and psychological distress in patients with heart failure. We suggested that this supportive nursing care programme should be applied to clinical practice in cardiovascular nursing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nina B. Hansen
Full Text Available Background: Research has documented severe mental health problems in female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV. Therefore, providing effective treatment is pivotal. Few studies have investigated the effects of intervention programs on reducing the harmful consequences of IPV. Objective: The present study examined the effects of a specific three-phase intervention program for female victims of IPV on psychological symptoms (PTSD, anxiety, and depression and perceived social support. Given that many of the women dropped out before and during the intervention program, potential differences in initial levels of psychological symptoms, perceived social support, as well as descriptive variables were explored between the women who completed the whole program and the groups of women who dropped out prematurely. Method: The initial sample consisted of 212 female victims of IPV. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and level of perceived social support were measured with validated scales before the start of the intervention and after completion of each treatment phase. Results: Results showed a significant effect of the intervention program on reducing psychological symptoms and increasing levels of perceived social support. Effect sizes ranged from medium to very high. Significant positive effects were found for each of the treatment phases. There were no significant differences between the women who completed the whole program and those women who dropped out prematurely in terms of initial level of symptoms and perceived social support as well as descriptive characteristics. Conclusions: Specifically developed intervention programs for female victims of IPV are effective in reducing the harmful personal consequences of IPV. Future studies should consider employing controlled study designs and address the issue of high drop out rates found in intervention studies.
Bhui, Kamaldeep; Silva, Maria Joao; Harding, Seeromanie; Stansfeld, Stephen
The purpose of the study is to test whether bullying in adolescents relates to poor mental health and whether social support mitigated this effect. In 2001, 28 schools in East London were randomly selected for surveys of two representative mixed ability classes: year 7 (11-12 years) and year 9 (13-14 years). Repeated measures were obtained from the same pupils 2 years later, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (total difficulties score [TDS]) as a measure of psychological distress. A simple one-level random intercepts model with measurements nested within pupils was used to investigate the effects of bullying and social support from friends and family on TDS. We also assessed whether culturally congruent friendships offered a mental health advantage. Bullying was associated with a higher mean TDS (coefficient, 95% confidence interval: White British: 2.15, 1.41-2.88; Bangladeshi: 1.65, .91-2.4); a high level of family social support was associated with a lower TDS (White British: -2.36, -3.33 to -1.39; Bangladeshi: -2.34, -3.15 to -.149). Social support from friends was helpful for White British adolescents (-1.06, -2.07 to -.04). Culturally congruent friendships offered no general advantage. Bullying is associated with psychological distress; family social support is independently associated with less psychological distress. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
National Geospatial Intelligence Agency — In support of the ongoing Ebola crisis in Africa, NGA is providing to the public and humanitarian disaster response community these Ebola support data services. They...
Full Text Available Intimate partner violence offenders often use victim-blaming attributions to explain their own violentbehavior. These attributions represent an important challenge for intervention programs for intimatepartnerviolence offenders. The main objectives of this study were to analyze both the influence of socialsupport and stressful life events on the psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressivesymptomatology of intimate partner violence offenders and the relationship between offenders’psychological adjustment and their victim-blaming attributions. The sample consists of 314 men convictedof intimate partner violence who were referred to a community-based intervention program. Results froma structural equation model showed that social support and stressful life events were related topsychological adjustment. Psychological adjustment also was related to victim-blaming attributions amongintimate partner violence offenders. A better understanding of the relationships between psychologicaladjustment of intimate partner violence offenders and its determinants, as well as its impact on victimblamingattributions, may provide support to new intervention strategies. Implications of these results forimproving the effectiveness of intervention programs are discussed.
Schweitzer, Robert; Melville, Fritha; Steel, Zachary; Lacherez, Philippe
This paper explores the impact of pre-migration trauma, post-migration living difficulties and social support on the current mental health of 63 resettled Sudanese refugees. A semistructured interview including questionnaires assessing sociodemographic information, pre-migration trauma, anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress, post-migration living difficulties and perceived social support were administered assisted by a bilingual community worker. Resettled refugees from Sudan evidenced a history of trauma. Less than 5% met criteria for posttraumatic stress but 25% reported clinically high levels of psychological distress. The results indicate that social support--particularly perceived social support from the migrant's ethnic community--play a significant role in predicting mental health outcomes. Pre-migration trauma, family status and gender were also associated with mental health outcomes. Refugees in Australia may constitute a particularly vulnerable group in terms of mental health outcomes. Culturally specific sequelae in terms of social isolation and acculturation may be particularly problematic for these migrants.
O'Dempsey, T J D; Munslow, B
A new political economy of conflict has emerged in the aftermath of colonialism and the Cold War. Complex political emergencies have been simmering in the post-colonial world for more than three decades. Intra-country armed conflict, often combined with natural disasters, at present contributes to the displacement of over 20 million people world-wide. The international community remains profoundly uncomfortable with the complex political emergencies of the new era, torn between the respect for national sovereignty upon which the international political system of the United Nations and other agencies is built, and the growth of concern with human rights and a burgeoning International Humanitarian Law. Globalisation may have brought many benefits to some but there are also many losers. The Word Bank and the International Monetary Fund imposed structural adjustment policies to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring that have resulted in a net reduction in expenditure on health, education and development. A downward spiral has been created of debt, disease, malnutrition, missed education, economic entrapment, poverty, powerlessness, marginalization, migration and instability. Africa's complex political emergencies are particularly virulent and tenacious. Three examples that are among the most serious humanitarian emergencies to have faced the world in recent times--those in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan--are reviewed here in detail. The political evolution of these emergencies and their impact on the health of the affected populations are also explored.
Full Text Available The differential-cognitological point of view, giftedness is “a systemic quality of a personality that develops throughout life and determines their abilities to achieve exceptionally high results in one or more activities compared to those of other people”. Herewith, it is the fundamental concept of general aptitude, under which “the level of general abilities development that determines the range of activities in which a person can achieve great success” is understood. Within the structure of general aptitude intellectual giftedness is singled out as the level of development, as well as the type of organization of individual mental experience, which ensure an opportunity of creative intellectual activity, i. e. an activity, related to the creation of subjectively and objectively new ideas, to the use of innovative approaches to solving problems and openness to controversial aspects of the situation and so on. In order to identify talented children and adults the value of intellectual quotient (IQ is still most commonly used. Psychometric approach (the measurement of psychic phenomena with the help of standardized IQ tests to the diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, which is dominant in psychological diagnostics today, by definition, cannot “measure” the phenomena of an individual psyche, since the modern level of psychological science does not allow to proceed to psychological diagnosis, let alone prediction of a certain person`s behavior, on the basis of individual results in performing a psychological test (psychometric test of intelligence, personality questionnaire, projective methods etc. In our opinion, many problems in psychological and pedagogical support of gifted children could be avoided by making use of cognitive-style approach to diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, creative abilities, propensities and peculiar mental traits of a separate individuality. Objectivity of such an approach is corroborated by the results
Corbett, Teresa; Ivers, Mary E.
Research and clinical practice in oncology has focused on prevention, detection and the improvement of cancer treatments. However, there is something missing from this representation of the cancer trajectory. There is little attention given to life after treatment has ended, that period when the patient moves into what is termed ‘long-term survivorship’. There is a growing interest within Health Psychology in the quality of life of those whose lives have been prolonged by early detection and ...
Dubrovina I.V.; Lubovsky D.V.,
The paper reviews the social situation of development of children and adolescents in the modern society marked by rapid changes. The development of children and adolescents is described as ‘embedding into the culture’ through the education and is closely associated with the formation of their psychological culture. The paper analyses the conditions of personality development in modern children and adolescents, the factors which impede the communication and understanding of other people; it hi...
Didem Rodoplu Şahin
Full Text Available The relation with the work and the role of managers and organizational factors are effective on psychological capital and individual performance of employees. This article investigates the impact of the work engagement, performanmce, empowerment, organizational support and transformational leadership on psychological capital using survey data.
Shafran, Roz; Bennett, Sophie D; McKenzie Smith, Mhairi
There are strong calls from many national and international bodies for there to be a 'holistic' and integrated approach to the understanding and management of psychological and physical health needs. Such holistic approaches are characterized by the treatment of the whole person, taking into account mental and social factors, rather than just the symptoms of a disease. Holistic approaches can impact on mental and physical health and are cost-effective. Several psychological interventions have demonstrated efficacy in improving holistic health outcomes, for example Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Behavioural Therapies and Problem Solving Therapies. They have shown to impact upon a wide range of outcomes, including psychological distress, pain, physical health, medication adherence, and family outcomes. There is increasing recognition that the holistic goals of the child and family should be prioritised, and that interventions and outcomes should reflect these goals. A focus on holistic goals in therapy can be achieved through a combination of personalised goal-based outcomes in addition to symptom-based measures.
Collinson, Sarah; Elhawary, Samir; Muggah, Robert
This paper explores the evolution of international stabilisation agendas and their significance for humanitarian action. Stabilisation includes a combination of military, humanitarian, political and economic activities to control, contain and manage areas affected by armed conflict and complex emergencies. Encompassing narrow security objectives and broader peace-building efforts, stabilisation is both a conservative and potentially transformative, comprehensive and long-term agenda. The open-ended approach allows for widely varying interpretations and applications in different circumstances and by different actors with an assortment of implications for humanitarian action. The relationship between the two is highly uncertain and contentious, due not only to the controversies surrounding stabilisation policies, but also to deep-seated ambiguities at the heart of humanitarianism. While humanitarian actors are preoccupied with the growing involvement of the military in the humanitarian sphere, the paper argues that it is trends in the humanitarian-political interface that represent the more fundamental dilemma. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to critically explore whether crowdsourced Big Data enables an inclusive humanitarian response at times of crisis. We argue that all data, including Big Data, are socially constructed artefacts that reflect the contexts and processes of their creation. To support our argument, we qualitatively analysed the process of ‘Big Data making’ that occurred by way of crowdsourcing through open data platforms, in the context of two specific humanitarian crises, namely the 2010 earthquake in Haiti and the 2015 earthquake in Nepal. We show that the process of creating Big Data from local and global sources of knowledge entails the transformation of information as it moves from one distinct group of contributors to the next. The implication of this transformation is that locally based, affected people and often the original ‘crowd’ are excluded from the information flow, and from the interpretation process of crowdsourced crisis knowledge, as used by formal responding organizations, and are marginalized in their ability to benefit from Big Data in support of their own means. Our paper contributes a critical perspective to the debate on participatory Big Data, by explaining the process of in and exclusion during data making, towards more responsive humanitarian relief.
Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James
There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development
Uchino, Bert N.; Bowen, Kimberly; Carlisle, McKenzie; Birmingham, Wendy
Contemporary models postulate the importance of psychological mechanisms linking perceived and received social support to physical health outcomes. In this review, we examine studies that directly tested the potential psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and health-relevant physiological processes (1980s to 2010). Inconsistent with existing theoretical models, no evidence was found that psychological mechanisms such as depression, perceived stress, and other affective processes are directly responsible for links between support and health. We discuss the importance of considering statistical/design issues, emerging conceptual perspectives, and limitations of our existing models for future research aimed at elucidating the psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and physical health outcomes. PMID:22326104
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…
Lowe, SR; Chan, CS; Rhodes, JE
Objective: In this study, we examined the influence of pre-disaster perceived social support on post-disaster psychological distress among survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Method: Participants (N = 386) were low-income mothers between 18 and 34 years of age at baseline (M = 26.4, SD = 4.43). The majority (84.8) was African American; 10.4 identified as Caucasian, 3.2 identified as Hispanic, and 1.8 identified as other. Participants were enrolled in an educational intervention study in 2004 and ...
Full Text Available SUMMARY: The right to water and sanitation is an inextricable human right. Water and sanitation are critical determinants for survival in the initial stages of a disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is necessary to prevent death from dehydration, to reduce the risk of water-related disease and to provide for consumption, cooking and personal and domestic hygienic requirements. The main objective of WASH – (Water supply, Sanitation and Hygenie promotion programmes in disasters is to reduce the transmission of faeco-oral diseases and exposure to disease-bearing vectors through the promotion of: good hygiene practices, the provision of safe drinking water, the reduction of environmental health risks, the conditions that allow people to a healthy life with dignity, comfort and security. Keywords: Water, sanitation, disasters, humanitarian response, hygenie promotion, drainage, vector control, waste disposition
Recently and for first time, an organism of the orbit of the human rights put the finger in the wound of the problem that represents for Colombia the pipelines explosion and the social and environmental impact that those actions in this case the Defense of the People office, the institution that published a document related this denounces, in the one that sustains that the country it cannot continue of back with a serious and evident reality as the related with the explosions of pipelines. We are the only country of the world where happen these facts and enormous losses are not only causing to the Colombian economy, but rather our environmental wealth is affecting, the document, denounced the ignorance of the humanitarian international right on the part of those who apply to that class of attacks
Full Text Available The study employed a self-determination theory (SDT framework to explore pre-service teachers’ perceptions of their professional training in relation to motivational outcomes. We hypothesized that students’ perceptions of basic psychological need support will be positively associated with their sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation and negatively associated with controlled motivation. Sense of relatedness, competence, and autonomous motivation were hypothesized to be positively associated with personal accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration and negatively associated with emotional exhaustion. The study was conducted within a multicultural context, which enabled exploration of the hypotheses among students from two different cultural backgrounds. Based on the universality of SDT, we expected that the general models would be similar for both cultures, although some mean level and correlational paths may be different. The sample (N = 308; mean age 23.4 consisted of Muslim Arab-Bedouin (55.3% and Jewish (44.7% pre-service teachers enrolled in the same teachers’ college in Israel. The participants completed self-report surveys assessing their sense of basic psychological need support, autonomous and controlled motivation, self-accomplishment, engagement, self-exploration, and emotional exhaustion. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that need support contributed positively to autonomous motivation, sense of relatedness, and sense of competence in both cultures. Autonomous motivation contributed positively to sense of self-accomplishment, engagement, and self-exploration. Competence in turn was positively related to engagement and negatively related to emotional exhaustion, and relatedness was associated with engagement only among the Bedouin students, and with self-accomplishment only among the Jewish students. These results indicate that sense of need support is highly important regardless
Jakubiak, Brittany K.; Feeney, Brooke C.
In two daily-diary studies, we tested the consequences and precursors of daily goal progress throughout the adult lifespan. Attachment theory posits that exploration—including the pursuit of autonomous goals—promotes well-being across the lifespan and is facilitated by support from close others. For both young-adult newlyweds (Study 1) and married couples in late adulthood (Study 2), daily independent goal progress predicted same-day and next-day improvements in psychological, physical, and relational well-being. Specifically, when participants made more progress on their goals than usual on one day, they reported increases in positive affect, sleep quality, and relationship quality, and decreased physical symptoms, the following day (as well as concurrently). Additionally, spousal support (i.e., availability, encouragement, and noninterference) enabled same-day and next-day goal progress. Mediational analyses showed indirect links between spousal support and well-being through goal progress. Some effects were moderated by attachment orientation in the newlywed sample; individuals with greater insecure attachment benefited most from goal progress, and spousal support enabled goal progress most strongly for individuals with less anxious attachment. Overall, these results support and extend attachment theoretical propositions regarding the importance of the exploration system across the adult lifespan. They contribute to existing literature by demonstrating wide-ranging consequences of successful exploration for well-being and by providing evidence for the importance of both exploration and support for exploration into late adulthood. PMID:27560610
This is a review of Patrick Meier's 2015 book, Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response. The book explores the role of technologies such as high-resolution satellite imagery, online social media, drones, and artificial intelligence in humanitarian responses during disasters such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In this analysis, the book is examined using a humanitarian health ethics perspective.
McCabe, O Lee; Everly, George S; Brown, Lisa M; Wendelboe, Aaron M; Abd Hamid, Nor Hashidah; Tallchief, Vicki L; Links, Jonathan M
Surges in demand for professional mental health services occasioned by disasters represent a major public health challenge. To build response capacity, numerous psychological first aid (PFA) training models for professional and lay audiences have been developed that, although often concurring on broad intervention aims, have not systematically addressed pedagogical elements necessary for optimal learning or teaching. We describe a competency-based model of PFA training developed under the auspices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Schools of Public Health. We explain the approach used for developing and refining the competency set and summarize the observable knowledge, skills, and attitudes underlying the 6 core competency domains. We discuss the strategies for model dissemination, validation, and adoption in professional and lay communities.
Fox, John G
The U.S.-led military intervention in Somalia, which began in 1992, had profound consequences for how the United States would view later humanitarian operations overseas and the use of military force, in general...
Do you fancy donating your brain to a good cause for 60 hours? Would you like to apply your knowledge and skills to solving humanitarian challenges? Are you motivated to demonstrate the value of science to society? Apply for our humanitarian hackathon taking place in IdeaSquare at CERN, from the 14 to the 16 October. You will work in an interdisciplinary team on challenges proposed by international organisations, humanitarian NGOs and academic institutions, e.g. ICRC, Handicap International, Global Humanitarian Lab, University of Geneva and Anglia Ruskin University. Example topics: Better emergency shelters Reducing risks posed by counterfeit drugs Sound for health Safe & clean field disposal of medical waste Sixty hand-picked innovators will be assembled into teams six weeks ahead of the event to give time for a “virtual preparation”, where you can dive into the problem, assisted by field experts, and start to conceptualise a possible solution. The applicatio...
Humanitarian intervention is a controversial concept in international law. It is not .... See Corten, O. and Klein, P. 'Droit d' ingerence ou obligation de reaction? ... but should be preceded by a formal public declaration of the political objectives.
Daly, A. L
.... States could conduct acts of genocide against their own population with impunity. After the intervention in Kosovo and the genocide in Rwanda, international law evolved to allow humanitarian intervention...
Hoyt, Michael A; Stanton, Annette L
Unmitigated agency (UA), a gender-linked characteristic, has been associated with poorer cancer adjustment. Support from one's social network typically predicts adjustment but may be poorly matched to UA. The influence of UA on the utility of social support on adjustment over time is examined. Men with cancer (N=55) were assessed initially and 6 months later on three indicators of adjustment. Multilevel modeling analyses varied by adjustment indicator. UA was associated with increased cancer-related psychosocial symptoms but not depressive symptoms or cancer-related thought intrusion. Social support predicted fewer depressive symptoms and less cancer-related thought intrusion. However, a cross-level interaction revealed that the utility of social support on cancer-related thought intrusion was weaker for men with greater levels of UA. Men with cancer likely respond differently to changes in social support depending on their endorsement of UA. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene; Jensen, Niels Holm
Do politically irrelevant events influence important policy opinions? Previous research on social welfare attitudes has emphasized the role of political factors such as economic self-interest and ideology. Here, we demonstrate that attitudes to social welfare are also influenced by short-term flu......—we consistently find that hungry individuals act in a greedier manner but describe themselves as more cooperative and express greater support for social welfare.......Do politically irrelevant events influence important policy opinions? Previous research on social welfare attitudes has emphasized the role of political factors such as economic self-interest and ideology. Here, we demonstrate that attitudes to social welfare are also influenced by short......-term fluctuations in hunger. Using theories in evolutionary psychology, we predict that hungry individuals will be greedier and take more resources from others while also attempting to induce others to share by signaling cooperative intentions and expressing support for sharing, including evolutionarily novel forms...
Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily
To identify unmet needs and assistance priorities of displaced and female-headed households in government-controlled areas of Syria. In mid-2016, we undertook a survey of accessible areas, largely urban and government-controlled, to identify unmet needs and assistance priorities. We used a cluster design with probability sampling to attain a final sample of 2405 households from 10 of 14 governorates; 31 of 65 (47.7%) districts were included that are home to 38.1% of people in need. Displaced and female-headed households were more vulnerable than nondisplaced and male-headed households in numerous sectors. Despite approximately half of surveyed households reporting receipt of humanitarian assistance in the preceding month and apparently effective targeting of assistance by vulnerability, unmet needs were nearly ubiquitous. The humanitarian situation in inaccessible areas of Syria is likely to be considerably worse; thus, findings presented here likely underestimate humanitarian needs. Efforts to expand support to Syria's most vulnerable households are desperately needed as are innovative targeting and modalities that enable more efficient and effective assistance.
Hudson, Joanna L; Moss-Morris, Rona; Norton, Sam; Picariello, Federica; Game, David; Carroll, Amy; Spencer, Jonathan; McCrone, Paul; Hotopf, Matthew; Yardley, Lucy; Chilcot, Joseph
Psychological distress is prevalent in haemodialysis (HD) patients yet access to psychotherapy remains limited. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of online cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) tailored for HD patients, with or without therapist support, for managing psychological distress. This feasibility randomised controlled trial recruited patients from a UK HD centre. Following psychological distress screens, patients with mild-moderate psychological distress (Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9; score: 5-19 and/or Generalised Anxiety Disorder; GAD-7 score: 5-14) who met remaining inclusion criteria were approached for consent. Consenters were individually randomised (1:1) to online-CBT or online-CBT plus three therapist support calls. Outcomes included recruitment, retention, and adherence rates. Exploratory change analyses were performed for: psychological distress, quality of life (QoL), illness perceptions, and costs. The statistician was blinded to allocation. 182 (44%) out of 410 patients approached completed psychological distress screens. 26% found screening unacceptable; a further 30% found it unfeasible. Psychological distress was detected in 101 (55%) patients, 60 of these met remaining inclusion criteria. The primary reason for ineligibility was poor computer literacy (N=17, 53%). Twenty-five patients were randomised to the supported (N=18) or unsupported arm (N=7); 92% were retained at follow-up. No differences in psychological distress or cost-effectiveness were observed. No trial adverse events occurred. Online CBT appears feasible but only for computer literate patients who identify with the label psychological distress. A definitive trial using the current methods for psychological distress screening and online care delivery is unfeasible. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02352870. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dion, Jacinthe; Matte-Gagné, Célia; Daigneault, Isabelle; Blackburn, Marie-Eve; Hébert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre; Auclair, Julie; Veillette, Suzanne; Perron, Michel
Transition into adulthood is a critical developmental period that may be influenced by adverse life events as well as by protective factors. This study aimed at investigating the effect of different forms of child maltreatment experienced prior to age 14 (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence), and of friend support at age 14 on the psychological distress trajectory from age 14 to 24. Participants were 605 adolescents from the general population involved in a 10-year longitudinal study. Psychological distress was evaluated at ages 14, 16, 18 and 24. Child maltreatment prior to 14 years was retrospectively assessed at 14 and 24 years while perception of support from friends was evaluated at age 14. Multilevel growth modeling indicated that psychological distress followed a significant decreasing curvilinear trajectory, with participants reporting fewer distressing psychological symptoms after 18 years. All three forms of child maltreatment, as well as their cumulative effect, predicted more psychological distress over 10 years above and beyond the protective effect of support from friends. Higher support from friends at age 14 was related to lower distress at baseline andover 10 years, beyond the effect of child maltreatment. Self-report nature of all measures, attrition, and measures of child maltreatment forms. Psychological distress decreased during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Results also revealed the detrimental impact of child maltreatment and the promotive role of friend support, which underscore the importance of early intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
organization consisted of military and civilian leadership, which managed the Pacification Programs throughout Vietnam. This program was a historic example...assistance efforts. The directorate that manages humanitarian assistance operations varies from theater to theater. The J9 Directorate labeled as either...2012) 12 (JP) 3-07.3, I-6. 13 A. Cooper Drury et al, The Politics of Humanitarian Aid: U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, 1964-1995, (Cambridge
Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of
Goins, R Turner; Noonan, Carolyn; Gonzales, Kelly; Winchester, Blythe; Bradley, Vickie L
Among older American Indian women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we examined the association between mental health and T2DM control and if social support modifies the association. Survey data were linked to T2DM medical record information. Mental health measures were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale and the National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day instrument. T2DM control was all HbA1c values taken post mental health measures. There was not a significant association between depressive symptomatology and higher HbA1c although increased depressive symptomatology was associated with higher HbA1c values among participants with low social support. There was a significant association between psychological trauma and higher HbA1c values 12months [mean 7.5, 95% CI 7.0-8.0 for no trauma vs. mean 7.0, 95% CI 6.3-7.6 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.7-9.1 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)] and 6months later [mean 7.2, 95% CI 6.7-7.7 for no trauma vs. mean HbA1c 6.8, 95% CI 6.2-7.4 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.6-9.2 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)]. High social support attenuated the association between psychological trauma and HbA1c values. T2DM programs may consider activities that would strengthen participants' social support and thereby building on an intrinsic community strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Noonan, Carolyn; Gonzales, Kelly; Winchester, Blythe; Bradley, Vickie L.
Aims Among older American Indian women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we examined the association between mental health and T2DM control and if social support modifies the association. Methods Survey data were linked to T2DM medical record information. Mental health measures were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale and the National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day instrument. T2DM control was all HbA1c values taken post mental health measures. Results There was not a significant association between depressive symptomatology and higher HbA1c although increased depressive symptomatology was associated with higher HbA1c values among participants with low social support. There was a significant association between psychological trauma and higher HbA1c values 12 months [mean 7.5, 95% CI 7.0–8.0 for no trauma vs. mean 7.0, 95% CI 6.3–7.6 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.7–9.1 for trauma with =1 symptom(s)] and 6 months later [mean 7.2, 95% CI 6.7–7.7 for no trauma vs. mean HbA1c 6.8, 95% CI 6.2–7.4 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.6–9.2 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)]. High social support attenuated the association between psychological trauma and HbA1c values. Conclusions T2DM programs may consider activities that would strengthen participants’ social support and thereby building on an intrinsic community strength. PMID:28161383
Boeckers, Anja; Brinkmann, Anke; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Traue, Harald C; Boeckers, Tobias M
The dissection course (DC) is an essential part of the preclinical medical curriculum that mediates professionalism. The process of dissecting, however, has an inherent additional stress potential. Our study determined student mental stress, their need of psychological support and factors influencing this need. A quantitative longitudinal query before, during and after the DC was performed including the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) as well as self-formulated questions used a 5-point Likert scale. Half of the students who anticipated dissection to be a stress factor reported that this declined significantly over time. Instead, student fear of not being able to cope with the work load increased significantly. As many as 64% of the students favored psychological support on the first course day, while 75% rejected this during the period of dissection and 39% appreciated this after the course. Moreover, 42% emphasized the importance of the funeral ceremony. Additionally, 75% documented their need for support in coping with stress and learning strategies. Gender, previous medical training, and BSI levels were identified as psychosocial influence factors. A majority of students named friends, members of their family or workmates as partners with whom they could talk about mental stress. Our results document the need to develop an optimum support during the DC taking into account the ascertained indicators. Exemplarily the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology at Ulm University suggests several options like a step by step approach for optimization. These measures reduce mental stress and help students to cope with it by the development of "detached concern" towards their "first patient" as this will decisively influence their future professional behavior. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
E I Ganshina
Full Text Available The article is devoted to Russian-Chinese humanitarian cooperation in the 90-ies of XX century. The author emphasizes the special importance of humanitarian cooperation between Russia and China for the promotion of national interests and the expansion of Russia's presence in China after the collapse of the USSR, as well as creating a positive image of the Russian state in China by applying the mechanism of “soft power”. The author notes that the 90-ies of XX century were the starting point of cooperation between Russia and China in the humanitarian sphere, it laid the legal foundation of Russian-Chinese humanitarian cooperation, moreover, the main directions and priorities of cooperation between the two countries in the humanitarian field have been identified. However, the author stresses that the practical realization of the objectives of the signed intergovernmental documents was carried out in an insufficiently wide format. And the main reason is the deep socio-economic crisis, which Russia had faced after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and, as a consequence, the lack of funding for joint Russian-Chinese projects in the humanitarian field.
Taylor, Ian M; Lonsdale, Chris
Using basic psychological needs theory (BPNT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) as our guiding framework, we explored cultural differences in the relationships among physical education students' perceptions of teacher autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality and effort in class. Seven hundred and fifteen students (age range from 13 to 15 years) from the U.K. and Hong Kong, China, completed a multisection inventory during a timetabled physical education class. Multilevel analyses revealed that the relationships among autonomy support, subjective vitality and effort were mediated by students' perceptions of psychological need satisfaction. The relationship between autonomy support and perceptions of competence was stronger in the Chinese sample, compared with the U.K. sample. In addition, the relationship between perceptions of relatedness and effort was not significant in the Chinese students. The findings generally support the pan-cultural utility of BPNT and imply that a teacher-created autonomy supportive environment may promote positive student experiences in both cultures.
Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Zhang, Wei
Problematic online game use (POGU) has become a serious global public health concern among adolescents. However, its influencing factors and mediating mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study provides the first longitudinal design to test stage-environment fit theory empirically in POGU. A total of 356 Chinese students reported on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, and POGU in the autumn of their 7th-9th grade years. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: 7th grade teacher autonomy support increased 8th grade basic psychological needs satisfaction, which in turn increased 9th grade school engagement, which ultimately decreased 9th grade POGU. Furthermore, 7th grade teacher autonomy support directly increased 9th grade school engagement, which in turn decreased 9th grade POGU. These findings suggest that teacher autonomy support is an important protective predictor of adolescent POGU, and basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement are the primary mediators in this association.
Due to the lack of Ebola outbreak early warning alert, preparedness, surveillance and response systems, the most deadly, complex and largest ever seen Ebola war has been devastating West African communities. The unparalleled Ebola tsunami has prompted interrogations into, and uncertainties about, the effectiveness and efficiency of national, regional and international community's illed- responses using conventional humanitarian control and containment approaches and methods. The late humanitarian and local non-government organisations emergency responses and challenges to curb transmission dynamics and stop the ongoing spread in the Ebola outbreak in West Africa have led to an unprecedented toll of 14,413 reported Ebola cases in eight countries since the outbreak began, with 5,177 reported deaths including 571 health-care workers and 325 died as 14 November 2014. These indications the need of further evaluation of monitoring as substantial proportion of infections outside the context of Ebola epicentres, Ebola health centres treatment and care, infection prevention and control quality assurance checks in these countries. At the same time, exhaustive efforts should target ensuring an sufficient supply of optimal personal protective equipment (PPE) to all Ebola treatment facilities, along with the provision of training and relevant guidelines to limit to the minimum possible level of risk. The continent hosts a big proportion of the world's wealth, yet its people live in abject poverty, with governments unable to feed and govern them effectively, and who are condemned to endure even darker moments with the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Institutionalisation of practical and operational non-conventional emergency response models efficient health systems, and tailored programmes can clearly support to prevent, control and eventually stamp out Ebola geo-distribution in addition to population mental health services that are requisite to address the massive range of the
Tomcikova, Z; Madarasova Geckova, A; Orosova, O; van Dijk, J P; Reijneveld, S A
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. We obtained data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%). Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the last 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced, their socioeconomic position (education of parents, family affluence), the composition of the household (one or two parents/step-parents), social support from the family and their own well-being. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks, as well as high socioeconomic position, low social support from the family and high depression/anxiety. The effect of divorce on drunkenness decreased only slightly after adding social support into the model. Our findings indicate that parental divorce has a persistent influence on risk behavior independent of the influence of socioeconomic position and well-being. Parental divorce may increase the likelihood of drunkenness more than other factors such as low parental support and poor socioeconomic position. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
VanderArk, Steve; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert; Cockrell, Gabrielle
The Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA Johnson Space Center provides psychological support services and behavioral health monitoring for ISS astronauts and their families. The ISS began as an austere outpost with minimal comforts of home and minimal communication capabilities with family, friends, and colleagues outside of the Mission Control Center. Since 1998, the work of international partners involved in the Space Flight Human Behavior and Performance Working Group has prepared high-level requirements for behavioral monitoring and support. The "buffet" of services from which crewmembers can choose has increased substantially. Through the process of development, implementation, reviewing effectiveness and modifying as needed, the NASA and Wyle team have proven successful in managing the psychological health and well being of the crews and families with which they work. Increasing the crew size from three to six brought additional challenges. For the first time, all partners had to collaborate at the planning and implementation level, and the U.S. served as mentor to extrapolate their experiences to the others. Parity in available resources, upmass, and stowage had to be worked out. Steady progress was made in improving off-hours living and making provisions for new technologies within a system that has difficulty moving quickly on certifications. In some respect, the BHP support team fell victim to its previous successes. With increasing numbers of crewmembers in training, requests to engage our services spiraled upward. With finite people and funds, a cap had to placed on many services to ensure that parity could be maintained. The evolution of NASA BHP services as the ISS progressed from three- to six-crew composition will be reviewed, and future challenges that may be encountered as the ISS matures in its assembly-complete state will be discussed.
Kraft, Kathryn; Smith, Jonathan D
This paper explores the crucial part that faith-based organisations (FBOs) play in acting as intermediaries between international donors and local faith communities (LFCs) implementing humanitarian relief projects for Syrian refugees. Humanitarian responses to the mounting Syrian refugee crisis have coincided with greater collaboration between international donors and LFCs. This cooperation often is facilitated by a complex web of non-state intermediaries at the international, national, and local level. This study probes the breadth of roles of these intermediaries, drawing on primary data from case studies of two Christian intermediaries supporting Christian LFCs as they deliver aid primarily to Muslim Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon. The results of the study are connected to the wider literature on LFCs in humanitarian response, revealing how intermediaries address issues of accountability, capacity-building, impartiality, neutrality, and professionalism. The paper concludes by offering suggestions for further research on intermediaries as key actors in the localisation of humanitarian assistance. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Tomcikova, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J. P.; Reijneveld, S. A.
Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. Methods: We
N. V. Mazurova
Full Text Available Study aim: to study the peculiarities of parents' emotional responses to the stress caused by their child’s hospitalization and operation to distinguish risk factors of losing personality potential by family members. Study participants and methods. The empirical study involved 82 parents (15 fathers and 67 mothers and 76 children of preschool, primary school and juvenile age. A package of techniques involving analysis of medical cards, observation, structured conversation, mental stress calculation questionnaire, the “Incomplete sentences” technique, systematization of results and mathematical data treatment methods was defined. Theoretical analysis of the issue of emotional response of parents to stressful situations connected with their child’s congenital malformations and the need in operative intervention was made. Results. It was shown that all members of a family as a single system are subject to stress. The reaction of parents to their child’s operation depends on their personal characteristics, system of beliefs and life attitudes. Conclusions. The emotional condition of parents influences their child’s psychological condition and the efficacy of treatment. Supporting the family psychologically during pre- and post-operative stages allows to reduce the level of emotional discomfort of children and their parents.
Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed; Ahadzadeh, Ashraf Sadat; Sharif Nia, Hamid
To examine the relationship between organizational support for nursing practice and nurse-assessed quality of care and nurses' job satisfaction in hospital settings and to investigate the mediating role of psychological well-being in the aforementioned relationships. There has been growing concern about quality of care in healthcare organizations. The past research has documented the effect of nurse practice environment on nurses' quality of care and job satisfaction. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism behind these associations. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken. Data were collected from two large public hospitals in Iran between February - March 2017. A sample of 345 nurses participated in the study. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and partial least squared-structural equation modelling. The results showed that nurses' perception of organizational support was related to their quality of care, job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Also, there was a positive relationship between nurses' psychological well-being and their quality of care and job satisfaction. Moreover, psychological well-being partially mediated the relationship between organizational support with nurse-assessed quality of care and nurses' job satisfaction. The findings suggest that organizational support for nursing practice and psychological well-being are two factors that contribute to caring behaviour of nurses and their job satisfaction. Also, positively perceived organizational support generates favourable psychological well-being which in turn enhances nurses' quality of care and job satisfaction. The findings highlight the importance of establishing a supportive nurse practice environment and paying attention to the nurses' psychological well-being in healthcare sectors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Diseases that cause comparatively few problems in developed countries kill millions of people in the Third World each year. In many cases, people die because they cannot afford the medication needed to save their lives. In others, there are simply no drugs available because there are no wealthy western patients to justify pharmaceutical companies investing in a cure. This reveals a deep-seated problem within the patent system and the pharmaceutical industry that emphasises markets and profits at the expense of health and global welfare. Global efforts have seen substantial improvements in access to medicines in isolated areas, but with international agreements driving towards stronger patent protection and the expiry date for the TRIPS grace period fast approaching, it is time to consider alternatives which will allow the patent system to work for the humanitarian cause rather than against it. This paper considers two such problems in the patent system and pharmaceutical industry - prohibitive pricing and misdirected incentives - to offer a mode of regulation and enforcement that will support both a viable pharmaceutical industry and the human right to health and medication.
Jones, Gudrun; Browning, Mary
The value of various types of psychosocial support for people with cancer is now becoming well established. Typically the term 'psychosocial' includes: counselling and psychotherapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, education and information, and social support. The research literature sometimes fails to clarify the exact nature of the different approaches and their relative efficacy. Inevitably, even within a specific type of therapeutic approach, there is variation owing to the professional background and skills of different practitioners. This article describes the relative contributions made by an art psychotherapist and a clinical psychologist working together in a cancer and palliative care service in Wales. The referrals come from the same sources and tend to be for similar types of problem. The assessment and formulation processes are also broadly similar. Interventions, however, are markedly different. These are described in some detail through case study examples.
Almeida, David M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Lee, Soomi; Lawson, Katie M.; Walter, Kim; Moen, Phyllis
Using a daily diary design, the current study assessed within-person associations of work-to-family conflict with negative affect and salivary cortisol. Furthermore, we investigated whether supervisor support moderated these associations. Over eight consecutive days, 131 working parents employed by an information technology company answered telephone interviews about stressors and mood that occurred in the previous 24 hours. On Days 2–4 of the study protocol, they also provided five saliva sa...
Basic aspects of V.A. Mashin's article on NPP operator support computerized systems and problems of man-machine interrelation are analyzed. Sharing in the significant degree Mashin's point of view the author of this article considers that the most important aspects of this problem consist in dividing the responsibility for NPP safe operation between all participants of the NPP creation and operation and in the area of practical experience in assuring control functions reliability
Sakamoto, Nobuhiro; Takiguchi, Shuji; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Okuyama, Toru; Nakaguchi, Tomohiro; Kubota, Yosuke; Ito, Yoshinori; Sugano, Koji; Wada, Makoto; Akechi, Tatsuo
Although currently many advanced colorectal cancer patients continuously receive chemotherapy, there are very few findings with regard to the supportive care needs of such patients. The purposes of this study were to investigate the patients' perceived needs and the association with psychological distress and/or quality of life, and to clarify the characteristics of patients with a high degree of unmet needs. Ambulatory colorectal cancer patients who were receiving chemotherapy were asked to complete the Short-Form Supportive Care Needs Survey questionnaire, which covers five domains of need (health system and information, psychological, physical, care and support, and sexuality needs), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire. Complete data were available for 100 patients. Almost all of the top 10 most common unmet needs belonged to the psychological domain. The patients' total needs were significantly associated with both psychological distress (r = 0.65, P quality of life (r = -0.38, P patients' needs and psychological distress and/or quality of life suggest that interventions that respond to patients' needs may be one possible strategy for ameliorating psychological distress and enhancing quality of life. Female patients' needs should be evaluated more carefully. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Sales de Gauzy, J; Trinchero, J-F; Jouve, J-L
Pediatric orthopedic surgery in humanitarian aid is conducted mainly in cooperation with emerging countries. Each mission is different, and depends on numerous parameters such as the country, the frequency of such missions, the pathologies encountered, the local structure and team, and the non-governmental organization (NGO) involved. Pathologies vary in etiology (tuberculosis, poliomyelitis) and severity. Each mission requires the presence of an experienced surgeon. Working conditions are often rudimentary. Surgical indications should be restricted to procedures that are going to be effective, with minimal postoperative complications, without any surgical "acrobatics". Teaching should be in association with the local university, and adapted to local needs. Mission objectives need to be realistic. Surgical indications should be adapted to local conditions, and the surgeon needs to be able to say "no" to procedures involving undue risk. The surgeon on mission should cooperate with local teams and be able to adapt to unusual situations. Assessment of results is essential to improving efficacy and evaluating the success of the mission. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Lucariello, Joan M.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Anderman, Eric M.; Dwyer, Carol; Ormiston, Heather; Skiba, Russell
Psychological science has much to contribute to preK-12 education because substantial psychological research exists on the processes of learning, teaching, motivation, classroom management, social interaction, communication, and assessment. This article details the psychological science that led to the identification, by the American Psychological…
Almeida, David M; Davis, Kelly D; Lee, Soomi; Lawson, Katie M; Walter, Kim; Moen, Phyllis
Using a daily diary design, the current study assessed within-person associations of work-to-family conflict with negative affect and salivary cortisol. Furthermore, we investigated whether supervisor support moderated these associations. Over eight consecutive days, 131 working parents employed by an information technology company answered telephone interviews about stressors and mood that occurred in the previous 24 hours. On Days 2-4 of the study protocol, they also provided five saliva samples throughout the day that were assayed for cortisol. Results indicated a high degree of day-to-day fluctuation in work-to-family conflict, with employed parents having greater negative affect and poorer cortisol regulation on days with higher work-to-family conflict compared to days when they experience lower work-to-family conflict. These associations were buffered, however, when individuals had supervisors who offered support. Discussion centers on the use of dynamic assessments of work-to-family conflict and employee well-being.
or contractors. Some coalition troops may uti - lize the theater medical system in ways it was not intended. Coalition partners’ own medical assets...agencies, and the State Depart- ment often urge the Army to expand medical services and to uti - lize any excess capacity for purposes other than the...Psychologists (new 67D). Similar concerns involved comptrollers and preventive medicine officers, field medical pharmacists , and personnel managers
Full Text Available The phenomenon of job stress is an inevitable part of professional life and in the activities and efficiency is reflected in the organization. This study aimed to identify and predict the relationship between psychological capital and job deviation behavior through job stress regarding the moderating role of perceived organizational support. This study is correlation by using descriptive methods for applied goals. Standard questionnaire was used to collect data. 180 participants was estimated and stratified random sampling. The results showed the significance of the relationship between the variables except the relationship between deviant behaviors with psychological capital. Also, the interactive role of job stress and perceived organizational support on psychological capital and job deviation behavior was confirmed. This means that for the hospital's nurses and staffs with job stress, increasing perceived organizational support associated with enhancing psychological capital and decreasing job deviation behavior. These results emphasize necessity of recognizing interactive role of job stress and perceived organizational support in psychological capital and job deviation behavior
Full Text Available This paper reviews and presents findings on mini-case studies done on the difficulties and problems faced by humanitarian organisations in running logistics systems in Zimbabwe. Document analysis was done and this was complemented by mini-case studies and semi-structured interviews and site visits. Mini-case studies of the operations of the World Food Programme, the International Red Cross Society and the Zimbabwe Red Cross Society, the World Health Organisation, the United Nations Children's Fund and the Zimbabwean Civil Protection Organisation in Zimbabwe are discussed. These clarify the difficulties and problems faced such as the lack of trained logistics personnel, lack of access to specialised humanitarian logistics courses and research information, the difficulty in using and adapting existing logistics systems in attending to humanitarian logistics and the lack of collaborative efforts that address the area specifically. This study seeks to use primary and secondary information to inform decision-making in humanitarian logistics with possible lessons for neighbouring countries, other regions in Africa and beyond. Activities on collaborative networks that are beneficial to humanitarian logistics are also suggested.
Full Text Available This article explores prospects of using Ubuntu and Capabilities Approach to expand the scope of humanitarian action, to design one which serves humanity better even in the absence of disaster to essentially fulfil human development needs. It is considerate of the fact that humanitarian works contributes immensely in determining the extent to which humanity thrives. The traditional view on humanitarianism presupposes action-driven initiatives geared towards devising interventions to restore or reinforce human social order, improve livelihoods and quality of life. In sociological terms, human development is dependent on realizing and safeguarding, amongst others, human well-being, civil liberties and social security. The article utilizes core values enshrined in Ubuntu, Africa’s historic philosophy of life, and Amartya Sen’s Capabilities Approach as tools of analysis, with the view to expressing how to operationalize what should be considered stable humanitarian conditions and human well-being. Owing to persistent socio-economic challenges, especially the poverty problem, it is asserted that humanitarian action ought to depart from being a post-disaster intervention strategy, to being a pro-active and preventative pre-disaster orientated action, intended to nurture well-being and resultantly enable human development.
Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano
Human beings have increasingly shown a willingness to adopt Internet, mHealth and telehealth applications as a part of managing their health. Recent technological advances in the use of the Internet and video technologies has greatly impacted the provision of psychotherapy and other clinical services as well as how the training of psychotherapists may be conducted. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The major issue in such a development is whether online interventions will be structured or unstructured. The proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding results. We present a strategic review and, as an example, the main steps to develop and achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application.
Korff, Valeska P.; Balbo, Nicoletta; Mills, Melinda; Heyse, Liesbet; Wittek, Rafael
High employee turnover rates constitute a major challenge to effective aid provision. This study examines how features of humanitarian work and aid workers' individual characteristics affect retention within one humanitarian organisation, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) Holland. The study extends
Caroline Abu Sa’Da
Full Text Available The massive and continuing flows of Syrian and Palestinian refugees to Syria’s neighbours have shown the limitations of humanitarian practice and present new challenges for medical and humanitarian interventions.
... Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace, Announcement of Request for..., Policy and Technical Division, Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian...
Senneseth, Mette; Hauken, May A; Matthiesen, Stig B; Gjestad, Rolf; Laberg, Jon C
Partners of cancer patients report psychological distress and reduced quality of life. However, partners' mental health status and quality of life during child-rearing years and the influence of social support and hardiness on their well-being have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to describe psychological distress, quality of life, social support, and hardiness of the partners facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years and investigate whether social support or hardiness moderated the relationship between psychological distress and quality of life. Cross-sectional data were collected in Norway from December 2013 to July 2015 as part of the Cancer-PEPSONE study. Five questionnaires were administered to 14 females and 21 males (n = 35). Participants reported more psychological distress and lower quality-of-life scores than other healthy Norwegian populations. Psychological distress seemed to be associated with their not being in control of their futures. Received social support moderated the effect of psychological distress on quality of life. Facing spousal cancer during child-rearing years seemed to have a substantial impact on partners' mental health and an adverse impact on their quality of life. Accordingly, these partners' self-care abilities may be reduced. Received social support may reduce the multiple burdens and consequently allow for enhancement of self-care. Interventions should aim to improve the social support provided to child-rearing partners, which may improve their quality of life. Providing adequate information about their partner's cancer illness and treatment may enhance their feelings of control, which may be beneficial for their mental health status.
Wang, Qian; Chan, Hoi-Wing; Lin, Li
Despite ample evidence for the benefits of parental autonomy support and the harms of parental psychological control to Chinese adolescents' well-being, little is known about what foreshadows these parenting behaviors among Chinese parents. The current research addressed this gap in the literature. It tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of self-development socialization goals (i.e., regarding a positive sense of self in terms of holding optimistic attitudes toward oneself, feeling autonomous in one's actions, and establishing one's independence from others, as important for adolescents to develop) and adolescents' school performance may interact to predict parental autonomy support and psychological control in urban China. Three hundred and forty-one Chinese seventh graders (mean age = 13.30 years, 58 % female) and their parents (186 mothers and 155 fathers) participated. Parents reported on their own and their spouses' endorsement of self-development socialization goals; adolescents reported on parental autonomy support and psychological control; and adolescents' grades were obtained from school records. Significant interactions were found between parents' socialization goals and adolescents' grades in predicting parenting behaviors. When adolescents were doing well at school, the stronger parents' endorsement of self-development socialization goals, the greater their autonomy support and the lesser their psychological control; when adolescents were doing poorly at school, regardless of parents' socialization goals, their autonomy support was relatively low and their psychological control was relatively high. These findings highlight a tension between parental concerns over adolescents' self-development and academic success, which needs to be resolved to promote autonomy support and prevent psychological control among urban Chinese parents.
Hurd, Noelle M; Albright, Jamie; Wittrup, Audrey; Negrete, Andrea; Billingsley, Janelle
The current study explored whether cumulative appraisal support from as many as five natural mentors (i.e., nonparental adults from youth's pre-existing social networks who serve a mentoring role in youth's lives) led to reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety via improved global self-worth among underrepresented college students. Participants in the current study included 340 college students (69% female) attending a 4-year, predominantly White institution of higher education. Participants were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and/or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups. Participants completed surveys during the Fall and Spring of their first year of college and in the Spring of their second and third years of college. Results of the structural equation model (including gender, race/ethnicity, and extraversion as covariates) indicated that greater total appraisal support from natural mentoring relationships predicted decreases in students' psychological distress via increases in self-worth (indirect effects assessed via boot-strapped confidence intervals; 95% CI). The strength of association between appraisal support and self-worth was not moderated by the proportion of academic natural mentors. Findings from the current study extend previous research by measuring multiple natural mentoring relationships and pinpointing supportive exchanges that may be of particular consequence for the promotion of healthy youth development. Institutional efforts to reinforce pre-existing natural mentoring relationships and encourage the onset of new natural mentoring relationships may serve to bolster the well-being and success of underrepresented students attending predominantly White universities.
Education is a complex process that involves the individual in the course of his entire life and leads to the maturation and the overall development of his personality. The educational process involves the complete growth of each and completes the infinite possibilities that every child has potential since birth. Education also is a necessity for the human being, as only adequate environmental stimulation causes the mental processes to begin. In fact, the higher intellectual functions, such as language, thought, memory, emerge only from social and educational experiences of the child. The educational surgery creates experiences and learning that allow the person to change by improving the efficiency of synaptic connections. Clinical pedagogy has developed in Italy in the last decades of the twentieth century with the aim of research and experimenting educational purposes suitable for different situations in order to provide each subject with appropriate development opportunities. Clinical pedagogical support is offered in the form of artistic or bodily activities and represents for the individual a positive environment that allows the development of different brain areas and the potential inherent in them. The various methods are suitable for any situation of existential discomfort, which are understood as moments of personal growth.
Carhart-Harris, R L; Bolstridge, M; Day, C M J; Rucker, J; Watts, R; Erritzoe, D E; Kaelen, M; Giribaldi, B; Bloomfield, M; Pilling, S; Rickard, J A; Forbes, B; Feilding, A; Taylor, D; Curran, H V; Nutt, D J
Recent clinical trials are reporting marked improvements in mental health outcomes with psychedelic drug-assisted psychotherapy. Here, we report on safety and efficacy outcomes for up to 6 months in an open-label trial of psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression. Twenty patients (six females) with (mostly) severe, unipolar, treatment-resistant major depression received two oral doses of psilocybin (10 and 25 mg, 7 days apart) in a supportive setting. Depressive symptoms were assessed from 1 week to 6 months post-treatment, with the self-rated QIDS-SR16 as the primary outcome measure. Treatment was generally well tolerated. Relative to baseline, marked reductions in depressive symptoms were observed for the first 5 weeks post-treatment (Cohen's d = 2.2 at week 1 and 2.3 at week 5, both p psilocybin. Reductions in depressive symptoms at 5 weeks were predicted by the quality of the acute psychedelic experience. Although limited conclusions can be drawn about treatment efficacy from open-label trials, tolerability was good, effect sizes large and symptom improvements appeared rapidly after just two psilocybin treatment sessions and remained significant 6 months post-treatment in a treatment-resistant cohort. Psilocybin represents a promising paradigm for unresponsive depression that warrants further research in double-blind randomised control trials.
Cruwys, Tegan; An, Soontae; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling; Lee, Hannah
Mental health literacy has been hailed as a public health priority to reduce stigma and increase help seeking. We examined the effect of suicide literacy on the type of help provided to those experiencing suicidal ideation. A community sample of 363 Australians were randomly assigned to read one of three messages from a member of their social network (the target). The target reported symptoms consistent with either (1) subclinical distress, (2) clinical depression, or (3) suicidal ideation. Participants were most likely to recommend social support and least likely to recommend professional help. Suicide literacy interacted with the target's presentation, such that participants with higher suicide literacy who considered a suicidal target were less likely to recommend self-help or no action, and more likely to recommend professional help. Suicide literacy was also associated with lower suicide stigma, and unexpectedly, this indirectly predicted more reluctance to recommend professional help. Overall, results indicated that the relationship between mental health literacy, stigma, and provision of help is not straightforward. While suicide literacy was associated with greater sensitivity to a person's risk of suicide, it also predicted fewer recommendations for professional help overall, partly due to the stigma associated with seeking professional help. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Driessche, Anne; Jotheeswaran, A T; Murthy, G V S; Pilot, Eva; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pant, Hira; Singh, Vivek; Dpk, Babu
Parents of children with hearing impairment are at increased risk of mental health morbidities. We examined the predictive factors associated with caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities in parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment. In total, n = 201 parents and family caregivers of children with and without hearing impairment aged 3 to 16 years were recruited. Caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities were measured using the Zarit Burden scale and the World Health Organization's Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Presence of behavioural problems in children was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After adjustment, low educational attainment and domestic violence were found to be associated with caregiving strain, whereas dissatisfaction with social support from family, behavioural problems in children, and domestic violence strongly predicted psychological morbidities. Addressing the mental healthcare needs of parents may help in downsizing the impact of psychological morbidities on the well-being of children with hearing impairment.
vice a large-scale international effort like the 2004 tsunami. Myanmar also did not make it easier for humanitarian workers to get expedited visas or...Affected Areas of Myanmar : A Review,” Humanitarian Exchange, no. 41 (December 2008), 2–4, http://www.odihpn.org/ humanitarian -exchange-magazine/issue-41...negotiating- humanitarian -access-to-cyclone-affected-areas-of- myanmar -a-review. 21 Ibid. 6 Management and Emergency Response,” and on May 9 the
Lee, H Erin; Cho, Jaehee
This study examined the relationships across social media use, social support, depression, and general psychological disposition among people with movement or mobility disabilities in Korea. First, with survey data (n = 91) collected from users of social network sites (SNSs) and online communities, hypotheses regarding positive associations between intensity of an individual's engagement in social media and four different types of social support-emotional, instrumental, informational, and appraisal support-were tested as well as hypotheses regarding mediation effects of the social support variables in the association between social media use and depression. Second, through focus group interviews (n = 15), influences of social media use on social support were more thoroughly explored as well as their influences on general psychological disposition. Results from hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that both intensity of SNS use and online community use significantly predicted instrumental, informational, and appraisal support, while they did not predict emotional support. Further regression and Sobel tests showed that higher levels of intensity of SNS use and of online community use both led to lower levels of depression through the mediation of instrumental and informational support. Analysis of the interviews further revealed the positive roles of social media use in building social support and healthy psychological dispositions. However, analysis also revealed some negative consequences of and limitations to social media use for those with physical disabilities. These findings expand our knowledge of the context and implications of engaging in online social activities for people with physical disabilities.
Full Text Available Mobile health (mHealth could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks, and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user’s daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.
Beiwinkel, Till; Hey, Stefan; Bock, Olaf; Rössler, Wulf
Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks), and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user’s daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:28983477
Beiwinkel, Till; Hey, Stefan; Bock, Olaf; Rössler, Wulf
Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks), and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user's daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330 completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%. Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.
Wang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Li; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui; Wu, Hui
This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.
The tendency today to privatise many activities hitherto considered the exclusive preserve of the state has given rise to sharp debate. The specific nature of humanitarian emergencies elucidates in particularly stark contrast some of the main challenges connected to the privatisation and outsourcing of essential public services, such as the provision of drinking water and health care. Privatising the realms of defence and security, which are at the very core of state prerogative, raises several legal and humanitarian concerns. This article focuses on the roles and responsibilities of the various parties involved in armed conflicts, especially those of private companies engaged in security, intelligence and interrogation work, and in the provision of water supply and health services. It highlights the need for humanitarian and development actors to grasp better the potential risks and opportunities related to privatisation and outsourcing with a view to supplying effective protection and assistance to communities affected by war.
Although the war in Liberia in July 2003 claimed hundreds of lives, the international community was reluctant to intervene. In this article, the author debates the question: does international military intervention equal protection of populations? The role of humanitarian organisations in military intervention is considered. Aid organisations cannot call for deployment of a protection force without renouncing their autonomy or appealing to references outside their own practices. Such organisations provide victims with vital assistance and contribute to ensuring that their fate becomes a stake in political debate by exposing the violence that engulfs them, without substituting their own voices for those of the victims. The political content of humanitarian action is also outlined and military intervention in the context of genocide is discussed. The author concludes that the latter is one of the rare situations in which humanitarian actors can consider calling for an armed intervention without renouncing their own logic.
Kynes, J Matthew; Zeigler, Laura; McQueen, Kelly
Low- and middle-income countries carry a disproportionate share of the global burden of pediatric surgical disease and have limited local healthcare infrastructure and human resources to address this burden. Humanitarian efforts that have improved or provided access to necessary basic or emergency surgery for children in these settings have included humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, short-term surgical missions, and long-term projects such as building pediatric specialty hospitals and provider networks. Each of these efforts may also include educational initiatives designed to increase local capacity. This article will provide an overview of pediatric humanitarian surgical outreach including reference to available evidence-based analyses of these platforms and make recommendations for surgical outreach initiatives for children.
...] Extension of the Application Deadline for Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program AGENCY: United States Patent and... Trademark Office (USPTO) announced the Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program, which recognizes patent holders... extending the deadline for applications to the Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program by two months until October...
JUAN FRANCISCO LOBO FERNÁNDEZ
Full Text Available After analyzing war as an institutional fact, and particularly humanitarian intervention as a way of Just War, this article studies the current humanitarian crisis in Syria to determine if an eventual humanitarian intervention would be considered as a Just War.
Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola
Cleft in the lip and/or the palate (CL/P) is considered to be a lifelong condition, yet relatively little is known about the long-term outcomes for patients. Existing literature is largely outdated and conflicted, with an almost exclusive focus on medical aspects and deficits. To explore the psychological adjustment and possible support needs of a large number of adults born with CL/P from their own perspective. Fifty-two individual telephone interviews eliciting qualitative data. Qualitative analysis identified five themes. Participants reported a range of challenges in relation to discharge from the service, additional surgery as an adult, social and romantic relationships, higher education, vocational achievement, and access to psychological support. The findings imply that most adults with a cleft adjust well to these challenges and report many positive outcomes. For a minority of patients, issues attributed to the cleft may continue to cause distress in adulthood. Adults with CL/P may require psychological support, information about the heritability of cleft, signposting and referrals from nonspecialists, support regarding further treatment, and opportunities to take part in research and activities. New issues arising in adulthood, such as entering the workplace, forming long-term relationships, and starting a family, may warrant both further investigation and additional support. Further work is needed to identify the factors that contribute to psychological distress and resilience, as well as the timing of particular points of risk and opportunity for personal growth.
van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Verstuyf, Joke; Boone, Liesbet; Smets, Jos
Although several studies have established the beneficial effects of self-endorsed forms of motivation for lasting therapeutic change, the way patients with an eating disorder can be encouraged to volitionally pursue change has received less attention. On the basis of Self-Determination Theory, this longitudinal study addressed the role of an autonomy-supportive environment and psychological need satisfaction in fostering self-endorsed motivation for change and subsequent weight gain. Female inpatients (n = 84) with mainly anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa filled out questionnaires at the onset of, during, and at the end of treatment regarding their perceived autonomy support from parents, staff members, and fellow patients, their psychological need satisfaction, and their reasons for undertaking change. Furthermore, the body mass index (BMI) of the patients at the onset and end of treatment was assessed by the staff. Path analyses were used to investigate the relations between these constructs. At the start of treatment, perceived parental autonomy support related positively to self-endorsed motivation through psychological need satisfaction. Perceived staff and fellow patients autonomy support related to changes in self-endorsed motivation over the course of treatment through fostering change in psychological need satisfaction. Finally, relative increases in self-endorsed motivation related to relative increases in BMI throughout treatment in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa. These results point to the importance of an autonomy-supportive context for facilitating self-endorsed motivation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sahli, Hichem; Bruschini, Claudio; Van Kempen, Luc; Schleijpen, Ric; den Breejen, Eric
The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology Development (RTD) situation from early 1990 until 2006. The situation at the European level was analyzed with emphasis on activities sponsored by the European Commission (EC). This was also done for four European countries and Japan, with emphasis on national activities. The developments in HD during the last 10 years underline the fact that in a number of cases demining related developments have been terminated or at least put on hold. The study also showed that the funding provided by the EC under the Framework Program for RTD has led directly to the creation of an extensive portfolio of Humanitarian Demining technology development projects. The latter provided a range of research and supporting measures addressing the critical issues identified as a result of the regulatory policies developed in the field of Humanitarian Demining over the last ten years. However, the range of instruments available to the EC to finance the necessary research and development were limited, to pre-competitive research. The EC had no tools or programs to directly fund actual product development. As a first consequence, the EC funding program for development of technology for Humanitarian Demining unfortunately proved to be largely unsuitable for the small-scale development needed in a field where there is only a very limited market. As a second consequence, most of the research has been demonstrator-oriented. Moreover, the timeframe for RTD in Humanitarian Demining has not been sufficiently synchronized with the timeframe of the EC policies and regulations. The separation of the Mine Action and RTD funding streams in the EC did also negatively affect the take-up of new technologies. As a
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health needs of children and adolescents in humanitarian emergencies are critical to the success of relief efforts and reduction in mortality. Measles has been one of the major causes of child deaths in humanitarian emergencies and further contributes to mortality by exacerbating malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency. Here, we review measles vaccination activities in humanitarian emergencies as documented in published literature. Our main interest was to review the available evidence focusing on the target age range for mass vaccination campaigns either in response to a humanitarian emergency or in response to an outbreak of measles in a humanitarian context to determine whether the current guidance required revision based on recent experience. Methods We searched the published literature for articles published from January 1, 1998 to January 1, 2010 reporting on measles in emergencies. As definitions and concepts of emergencies vary and have changed over time, we chose to consider any context where an application for either a Consolidated Appeals Process or a Flash Appeal to the UN Central Emergency Revolving Fund (CERF occurred during the period examined. We included publications from countries irrespective of their progress in measles control as humanitarian emergencies may occur in any of these contexts and as such, guidance applies irrespective of measles control goals. Results Of the few well-documented epidemic descriptions in humanitarian emergencies, the age range of cases is not limited to under 5 year olds. Combining all data, both from preventive and outbreak response interventions, about 59% of cases in reports with sufficient data reviewed here remain in children under 5, 18% in 5-15 and 2% above 15 years. In instances where interventions targeted a reduced age range, several reports concluded that the age range should have been extended to 15 years, given that a significant proportion of cases occurred
Full Text Available Regulating documents of the Bulgarian Army considered norms for support classic combat operations and in fact Bulgarian Army has no planning methods to be used for planning of humanitarian operations. Solving this problem can be achieved through the use of planning factors. Planning factors are generally based on experience or data on the use of resources from previous operations. The participation of units of the Bulgarian Army in humanitarian operations have failed to bring to the accumulation of data needed to create a suitable planning factors. The purpose of the study is to develop a model by which to bring out planning factors in determining the the consumption of machinery, tableware, fuel, oils and lubricants with the participation of units from the Bulgarian Army in humanitarian operations.
Garcia, Kelli K.; Gostin, Lawrence O.
Today’s global health challenges require a multi-sectoral approach in which health is a fundamental value within global governance and international law. “One Health, One World” provides a unified, harmonious vision of global health governance that supports the wellbeing of humans and animals living in a clean and temperate environment. This article focuses on five legal regimes—trade law, food security law, environmental law, humanitarian law, and refugee law—that play a pivotal role in infl...
Full Text Available Based on a short field research conducted at the refugee transit center in Slavonski Brod, the paper analyzes contemporary asylum policies in Croatia. The author is suggesting that the structure and function of a centre plays a crucial role in the securitization and humanitarization of the asylum policy. The analysis has shown that the asylum policy in Croatia has the same structure as the dominant asylum policies in Europe. Both of them oscillate between two poles: compassion and repression. Humanitarian policy in Croatia is more restrictive and is based on radical inequality, nationalism, racism, the suspension of rights and the normalization of structural violence. Due to its exclusive national focus, it will not provide any long term solutions for dealing with refugees in the future.
Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond
Experiencing terrorism is associated with high levels of psychological distress among survivors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether work environmental factors such as role clarity and predictability, role conflicts, and leader support may protect against elevated levels of psychological distress after a workplace terrorist attack. Data from approximately 1800 ministerial employees were collected ten months after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack which targeted the Norwegian ministries. The results show that after a traumatic event, lower role conflicts, higher role clarity, higher predictability, and higher leader support were independently associated with lower psychological distress. These findings suggest that the workplace environment may be a facilitator of employees' mental health after stressful events.
Beek, Kristen; Dawson, Angela; Whelan, Anna
A lack of access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among displaced women and girls of reproductive age. Efforts to address this public health emergency in humanitarian settings have included the widespread delivery of training programmes to address gaps in health worker capacity for SRH. There remains a lack of data on the factors which may affect the ability of health workers to apply SRH knowledge and skills gained through training programmes in humanitarian contexts. We searched four electronic databases and ten key organizations' websites to locate literature on SRH training for humanitarian settings in low and lower-middle income countries. Papers were examined using content analysis to identify factors which contribute to health workers' capacity to transfer SRH knowledge, skills and attitudes learned in training into practice in humanitarian settings. Seven studies were included in this review. Six research papers focused on the response stage of humanitarian crises and five papers featured the disaster context of conflict. A range of SRH components were addressed including maternal, newborn health and sexual violence. The review identified factors, including appropriate resourcing, organisational support and confidence in health care workers that were found to facilitate the transfer of learning. The findings suggest the presence of factors that moderate the transfer of training at the individual, training, organisational, socio-cultural, political and health system levels. Supportive strategies are necessary to best assist trainees to apply newly acquired knowledge and skills in their work settings. These interventions must address factors that moderate the success of learning transfer. Findings from this review suggest that these are related to the individual trainee, the training program itself and the workplace as well as the broader environmental context. Organisations which provide SRH
Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Mulder, Regina H; König, Christoph; Anselmann, Veronika
Given the lack of active nurses in industrialized countries throughout the world, in combination with demographic changes, it is of utmost importance to protect nurses' well-being and to prevent psychological distress, because of their strong association with premature occupational leave. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quality of leadership and social support at work on well-being and psychological distress of nurses and to determine whether nurses' overcommitment mediates the relationship between the abovementioned determinants and the outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design was used to gather our data. This study utilized part of the database of the Nurses' Early Exit Study. A total of 34,771 nurses (covering all nurse qualifications) working in hospitals, nursing homes, and home-care institutions in 8 European countries filled out a questionnaire (response rate = 51.4%). For all model variables (job satisfaction, satisfaction with salary, positive affectivity, personal burnout, negative affectivity, quality of leadership, social support from immediate supervisor, social support from near colleagues, and overcommitment), psychometrically sound, that is, valid and reliable measures were used. Outcomes from testing a structural equation mediation model indicated that, respectively, positive and negative influences of leadership quality and social support from supervisor and colleagues on nurses' well-being and psychological distress are partially mediated, that is, reduced, by nurses' overcommitment. Social work environment is highly important in relation to nurses' well-being and psychological distress.
Wang, Qian; Chan, Hoi-Wing; Lin, Li
Despite ample evidence for the benefits of parental autonomy support and the harms of parental psychological control to Chinese adolescents' well-being, little is known about what foreshadows these parenting behaviors among Chinese parents. The current research addressed this gap in the literature. It tested the hypothesis that parents'…
Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel
This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret
The psychological sense of community is an important aspect of community life; yet, it remains largely unexamined among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). Sense of community represents the strength of bonding among community members; and this social phenomenon likely impacts the process by which individuals with SMI integrate into community life. The current study examined sense of community (SOC) for individuals with SMI by assessing the relationships between neighborhood experiences, unique factors related to SMI (e.g., mental illness diagnosis), and sense of community in the neighborhood. Participants were 402 residents of supported housing programs who used mental health services in South Carolina. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to determine which components of community life helped to explain variability in sense of community. In total, 214 participants reported that it is very important for them to feel a sense of community in their neighborhoods. Neighbor relations, neighborhood safety, neighborhood satisfaction, neighborhood tolerance for mental illness, and housing site type emerged as significant explanatory variables of sense of community. These findings have implications for interventions aimed at enhancing SOC and community integration for individuals with SMI.
Full Text Available Institutions play a central role in advancing the field of reproductive health in humanitarian settings (RHHS, yet little is known about organizational capacity to deliver RHHS and how this has developed over the past decade. This study aimed to document the current institutional experiences and capacities related to RHHS.Descriptive study using an online questionnaire tool.Respondents represented 82 institutions from 48 countries, of which two-thirds originated from low-and middle-income countries. RHHS work was found not to be restricted to humanitarian agencies (25%, but was also embraced by development organizations (25% and institutions with dual humanitarian and development mandates (50%. Agencies reported working with refugees (81%, internally-displaced (87% and stateless persons (20%, in camp-based settings (78%, and in urban (83% and rural settings (78%. Sixty-eight percent of represented institutions indicated having an RHHS-related policy, 79% an accountability mechanism including humanitarian work, and 90% formal partnerships with other institutions. Seventy-three percent reported routinely appointing RH focal points to ensure coordination of RHHS implementation. There was reported progress in RHHS-related disaster risk reduction (DRR, emergency management and coordination, delivery of the Minimum Initial Services Package (MISP for RH, comprehensive RH services in post-crisis/recovery situations, gender mainstreaming, and community-based programming. Other reported institutional areas of work included capacity development, program delivery, advocacy/policy work, followed by research and donor activities. Except for abortion-related services, respondents cited improved efforts in advocacy, capacity development and technical support in their institutions for RHHS to address clinical services, including maternal and newborn health, sexual violence prevention and response, HIV prevention, management of sexually-transmitted infections
Dearani, Joseph A; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Bolman, R Morton; Swain, JaBaris D; Vricella, Luca A; Weinstein, Samuel; Farkas, Emily A; Calhoon, John H
Noncommunicable diseases account for 38 million deaths each year, and approximately 75% of these deaths occur in the developing world. The most common causes include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Many adults with acquired cardiothoracic disease around the world have limited access to health care. In addition, congenital heart disease is present in approximately 1% of live births and is therefore the most common congenital abnormality. More than one million children in the world are born with congenital heart disease each year, and approximately 90% of these children receive suboptimal care or have no access to care. Furthermore, many children affected by noncongenital cardiac conditions also require prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Medical and surgical volunteerism can help facilitate improvement in cardiothoracic health care in developing countries. As we move into the future, it is essential for physicians and surgeons to be actively involved in political, economic, and social aspects of society to serve health care interests of the underprivileged around the world. Consequently, in developing countries, a critical need exists to establish an increased number of reputable cardiothoracic programs and to enhance many of the programs that already exist. The optimal strategy is usually based on a long-term educational and technical model of support so that as case volumes increase, quality improves and mortality and morbidity decrease. Humanitarian outreach activities should focus on education and sustainability, and surgical tourism should be limited to those countries that will never have the capability to have free-standing cardiothoracic programs. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Gidado, Saheed; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Shuaib, Faisal; Adeyemi, Joseph; Uzoma, Ogbonna; Ahmed, Abubakar; Doherty, Funmi; Nyanti, Sarah Beysolow; Nzuki, Charles Kyalo; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Oyemakinde, Akin; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Abdus-Salam, Ismail Adeshina; Obiako, Reginald O
By September 2014, an outbreak of Ebola Viral Disease (EVD) in West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal and Nigeria, had recorded over 4500 and 2200 probable or confirmed cases and deaths respectively. EVD, an emerging infectious disease, can create fear and panic among patients, contacts and relatives, which could be a risk factor for psychological distress. Psychological distress among this subgroup could have public health implication for control of EVD, because of potential effects on patient management and contact tracing. We determined the Prevalence, pattern and factors associated with psychological distress among survivors and contacts of EVD and their relatives. In a descriptive cross sectional study, we used General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological distress and Oslo Social Support Scale to assess social support among 117 participants who survived EVD, listed as EVD contacts or their relatives at Ebola Emergency Operation Center in Lagos, Nigeria. Factors associated with psychological distress were determined using chi square/odds ratio and adjusted odds ratio. The mean age and standard deviation of participants was 34 +/ - 9.6 years. Of 117 participants, 78 (66.7%) were females, 77 (65.8%) had a tertiary education and 45 (38.5%) were health workers. Most frequently occurring psychological distress were inability to concentrate (37.6%) and loss of sleep over worry (33.3%). Losing a relation to EVD outbreak (OR = 6.0, 95% CI, 1.2-32.9) was significantly associated with feeling unhappy or depressed while being a health worker was protective (OR = 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2-0.9). Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) showed losing a relation (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI, 1.2-28.0) was a predictor of "feeling unhappy or depressed", loss of a relation (AOR = 10.1, 95% CI, 1.7-60.7) was a predictor of inability to concentrate. Survivors and contacts of EVD and their relations develop psychological distress. Development of psychological distress could be
Manne, Sharon; Sherman, Marne; Ross, Stephanie; Ostroff, Jamie; Heyman, Richard E.; Fox, Kevin
This study examined associations between couple communication about cancer and psychological distress and relationship satisfaction of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. One hundred forty-eight couples completed a videotaped discussion of a cancer-related issue and a general issue. Patients completed measures of psychological distress…
Yurevich, Andrey V
As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental "ruptures" are identified: the "horizontal" rupture between various schools and trends, the "vertical" rupture between natural science and humanitarian psychology, and the "diagonal" rupture between academic research and applied practice of psychology. These manifestations of the crisis of psychology have recently been compounded by the crisis of its rationalistic foundations. This situation is described in terms of the cognitive systems in psychology which include meta-theories, paradigms, sociodigms and metadigms.
M. M. Lebedeva
Full Text Available Since the end of the 20th century, with the increasing role of the human factor in the world, the importance of the social and humanitarian component in world politics has also increased. This manifested itself not only in humanitarian and social issues, but also in the fact that the human factor has become an important component of other issues, including military and economic ones. The analysis of the Russian international studies on social and humanitarian issues in the article has been carried out in two main areas related to each other: 1 soft power and public diplomacy; 2 human capital. Various approaches to understanding soft power and public diplomacy in Russia are analyzed under the framework of the first area. It is shown that rather often both these terms are understood as informational and propagandistic influence on the societies of other countries. In this regard, in recent years, Russian authors have paid special attention to the issues of information and hybrid wars. Russian researches on human capital in quantitative terms is much inferior to the research of the first area. At the same time Russian works on the issues of the role of higher education, its use as a soft power were to a great extend a pioneer ones. The main conclusion of the article is that humanitarian issues do not occupy the some prominaut place in the international studies they do in real life world politics.
Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Appel-Hansen, Jørgen
to 1 bandwidth with a return loss better than 10 dB from 0.4 to 3.8 GHz is presented. A wideband balun covering the frequency range of the antenna was developed. The constructed spiral antenna is very useful in a stepped frequency ground penetrating radar for humanitarian demining due to the very...
Scarnecchia, Daniel P; Raymond, Nathaniel A; Greenwood, Faine; Howarth, Caitlin; Poole, Danielle N
Crisis-affected populations and humanitarian aid providers are both becoming increasingly reliant on information and communications technology (ICTs) for finding and provisioning aid. This is exposing critical, unaddressed gaps in the legal and ethical frameworks that traditionally defined and governed the professional conduct of humanitarian action. The most acute of these gaps is a lack of clarity about what human rights people have regarding information in disaster, and the corresponding obligations incumbent upon governments and aid providers. This need is lent urgency by emerging evidence demonstrating that the use of these technologies in crisis response may be, in some cases, causing harm to the very populations they intend to serve. Preventing and mitigating these harms, while also working to responsibly ensure access to the benefits of information during crises, requires a rights-based framework to guide humanitarian operations. In this brief report, we provide a commentary that accompanies our report, the Signal Code: A Human Rights Approach to Information During Crisis, where we have identified five rights pertaining to the use of information and data during crisis which are grounded in current international human rights and customary law. It is our belief that the continued relevance of the humanitarian project, as it grows increasingly dependent on the use of data and ICTs, urgently requires a discussion of these rights and corresponding obligations.
Wijnmaalen, Julia; Heyse, Liesbet; Voordijk, Johannes T.
Unwanted staff turnover is a prominent HRM problem in humanitarian organisations. In the profit sector, HRM tools such as pay, benefits, socialisation and training have proven to be effective in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing staff turnover. This study explores whether such
Full Text Available The Fleet Forum, a group of more than 40 aid agencies, is working to slash by 25% the annual $800 million cost of running some 60,000 vehicles. Darfur has shown the need to work together to achieve more cost-efficient and safe humanitarian transport.
Full Text Available Approximately 60,000 Syrians are trapped in ‘the Berm’, a desolate area on the Syria-Jordan border. When security concerns are prioritised over humanitarian needs, and aid agencies turn to militant groups to deliver aid, the consequences can be deplorable.
May 5, 2016 ... Young women ask for help in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan's destruction in the Philippines ... decades have pushed the global humanitarian system to the limits. ... even years, resources are quickly exhausted and the lines between ... in harder to access areas, and that are cost-efficient, accountable, ...
... behaviour and ability to cooperate with other actors in a complex emergency. Humanitarian actors may act in concert or in contention with one another, or somewhere in between. Conflict of interest, competition for resources, incompatible organisational structures and cultures and overlapping functions are the challenges ...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Humanitarian projects authorized. 500.572 Section 500.572 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... from private sources, including but not limited to accredited degree-granting institutes of education...
Abidi, H.; de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Klumpp, M.
Design/methodology/approach - A literature review has been conducted using a structured method based on Denyer and Tranfield (2009) and Rousseau et al. (2008). The state of the art on humanitarian supply chain performance management with a focus on measurement frameworks and indicators and their
Full Text Available The article analyses the humanitarian education as a representative sphere of cultural creativity in the Crimean polyethnic space. Under conditions of contact zone of dominant macroethnoses, the Crimean Turkic people and Crimean Slavs, the system of education should be orientated not only to harmonisation of inter-ethnic relations but mainly to consolidation of nation, creation of integral polyethnic cultural space.
Full Text Available With the frequency and magnitude of disasters on the rise, millions of people suffer huge losses every year. Scholars have recently proposed various frameworks in disaster relief management in order to guide the research in this field. Although successful disaster relief requires the entire humanitarian supply chain to respond in harmony, it is surprising that there exists no humanitarian relief framework drawn from the perspective of supply chain management. In this article, we create a new research framework for Humanitarian Supply Chain Management (HSCM that is complimentary but distinct from commercial supply chain management (CSCM frameworks. The framework we developed offers a new lens for humanitarian researchers. We also conduct a systematic literature review in this field and identify some opportunities for future research. The results strongly suggest the need for additional empirical research to test the existing concepts and models. Second, there is evidence that research focusing on “upstream” relief chain has been neglected relative to “downstream”. Additionally, due to its rapid advancement, information technology related research opportunities in this field would always be there. Keyword
... culturally sensitive to the needs of the victims of the humanitarian crisis. In emergency situations, the roles of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) may have to be modified without compromising the ethical standards that health researchers have globally attempted to achieve. Malawi Medical Journal Vol. 20 (2) 2008: pp.
... lay at the bar of international justice to call the international community to account for failures of performance on humanitarian obligations. It is their case that I take up here, as a problem of ethics in international affairs, as the minimum of a philosopher's recompense owed this people today. African Studies Monograph Vol.
Gry Høngsmark Knudsen
Full Text Available In this paper we address the interplay between networked media and humanitarian communication through the lens of meditization theory in order to forward a more balanced understanding of networked humanitarianism. We analyze a case of humanitarian communication that travelled Facebook in unpredictable ways and demonstrate the breakdown between sender and receiver positions. The case shows how communicative practices are challenged and how humanitarian organizations are destabilized in a new and unpredictable communication environment. We argue that in order to deepen the critical perspective on networked humanitarian communication, it is important to better understand how the institutional logic of humanitarianism changes when mediatized through networked media. Further, we suggest that a broader consideration of media amalgamation enables a critical discussion of networked media influence humanitarianism.
Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine
Introduction Sexual-minority youths (SMY) report high rates of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, Sucato et Friedman, 2013; Williams & Chapman, 2011). Several studies confirm that the poor mental health outcomes are partly related to their high likelihood of experiencing homophobic victimization (Blais, Gervais, Boucher, Hébert & Lavoie, 2013; Taylor & Peter, 2011; Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West & Boyd, 2010; Chamberland, Richard & Bernier, 2013). Whereas the development of a positive sexual minority identity is crucial for the mental health of SMY (Chamberland, Richard & Chevrier, 2011; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011; Luhtanen, 2002), the victimization they experience put them at risk of internalizing societal homophobia and heterosexism (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, 2009). It is important to identify variables that may influence the impact of distal and proximal factors that impact SMY's mental health.Objectives The objectives of this paper are 1) to document different forms of homophobic victimization experienced by SMY, according to gender and age, and 2) to test the potential moderating effect of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization, internalized homophobia and psychological distress.Method Data come from 228 SMY aged 14 to 22 years old recruited through online means as part of the Quebec Youth's Romantic Relationships Survey. The impact of homophobic victimization, parental support, and internalized homophobia on psychological distress is explored by a linear regression model including moderated mediation effects.Results Results show the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress as well as indirect significant relationship through internalized homophobia. The moderated mediation analysis also confirms the moderating role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress. Thus
Gritsenko Valentina Vasilievna
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to describe the psychological characteristics of communication of forum members concerning the situation of forced separation of married couples in a situation of labor migration. Practical relevance and novelty of the work is to identify opportunities of the Internet environment for psychological support for migrant workers’ families. Through the method of content analysis of materials of the Internet forums, the motives for applying for psychological support of family members to the participants of virtual communication in the situations of labor migration are identified, the reactions of the forum members on the suggested topics are analyzed. It is noted that the actuality of applying to the Internet resources often occurs at the stage of taking a decision of labor migration, rarely - at the stage of separation, as a rule, by the remaining partner. Most forum members assess a situation of going of one of the partners to work critically, describing negative scenarios. The article deals with coping strategies described on the forum which are estimated as the point of support, the expansion of psychological experience in a situation of forced separation. The examples of adaptive, not adaptive or relatively adaptive coping mechanisms implemented by the Forum members are given. The final conclusion of the article is an overview of possibility of communication in the Internet forums to search for effective strategies for coping with the situation of forced separation due to migration.
Ingeborg Flåten Backe
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine associations between selected physical functional limitations related to performing daily activities and psychological distress. We also aimed to investigate if these associations vary across age (moderation, and to explore pain, sense of mastery and social support as potential moderators and mediators. The study was based on pooled data from two rounds (2008 and 2012 of a Norwegian nationally representative cross-sectional health survey (N = 8520 including individuals aged ≥ 16 years (Age groups = 16–44 and ≥ 45 years. Physical functional limitations comprised decreased ability to: i climb stairs, ii carry objects, or iii both. Psychological distress was measured as anxiety and depressive symptoms occurring separately or in combination (CAD. Of respondents reporting physical functional limitations, 8–14% reported depressive symptoms, 5–7% anxiety symptoms, and 13–28% reported CAD. Physical functional limitations were significantly associated with all three forms of psychological distress, particularly among individuals 16–44 years, and were more strongly related to CAD than to anxiety or depression occurring separately. The association with CAD was twice as strong when both types of physical functional limitations were present. Pain, sense of mastery and social support were significant modifiers of depression, whereas all three were significant mediators of the relationship between physical functional limitations and anxiety, depression and CAD. Sense of mastery mediated the relationship between physical functional limitations and CAD, but most strongly among those 16–44 years. Social support was only a significant mediator among those ≥ 45 years. Close associations between physical functional limitations and psychological distress highlight special needs among individuals experiencing daily functional limitations. The results also suggest that pain, low social support, and low sense of
Backe, Ingeborg Flåten; Patil, Grete Grindal; Nes, Ragnhild Bang; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne
The aim of this study was to examine associations between selected physical functional limitations related to performing daily activities and psychological distress. We also aimed to investigate if these associations vary across age (moderation), and to explore pain, sense of mastery and social support as potential moderators and mediators. The study was based on pooled data from two rounds (2008 and 2012) of a Norwegian nationally representative cross-sectional health survey (N = 8520) including individuals aged ≥ 16 years (Age groups = 16-44 and ≥ 45 years). Physical functional limitations comprised decreased ability to: i) climb stairs, ii) carry objects, or iii) both. Psychological distress was measured as anxiety and depressive symptoms occurring separately or in combination (CAD). Of respondents reporting physical functional limitations, 8-14% reported depressive symptoms, 5-7% anxiety symptoms, and 13-28% reported CAD. Physical functional limitations were significantly associated with all three forms of psychological distress, particularly among individuals 16-44 years, and were more strongly related to CAD than to anxiety or depression occurring separately. The association with CAD was twice as strong when both types of physical functional limitations were present. Pain, sense of mastery and social support were significant modifiers of depression, whereas all three were significant mediators of the relationship between physical functional limitations and anxiety, depression and CAD. Sense of mastery mediated the relationship between physical functional limitations and CAD, but most strongly among those 16-44 years. Social support was only a significant mediator among those [Formula: see text] 45 years. Close associations between physical functional limitations and psychological distress highlight special needs among individuals experiencing daily functional limitations. The results also suggest that pain, low social support, and low sense of mastery may
This study outlines how consensus in the development of an online intervention designed to support midwives in work-related psychological distress may be achieved. Study outcomes will steer the design and development of an intervention, and highlight the most salient themes and elements to be included within an online intervention to support midwives. Midwives are entitled to psychological support, yet this is an area in which a paucity of knowledge in relation to their needs resides. This early research is the first of its kind to highlight the needs of midwives. Its’ vision is to develop an evidence based solution to improve the health and well-being of midwives, as they, in turn, care for our mothers and babies.
Although considerable achievements in the global reduction of hunger and poverty have been made, progress in Africa so far has been very limited. At present, a third of the African population faces widespread hunger and chronic malnutrition and is exposed to a constant threat of acute food crisis and famine. The most affected are rural households whose livelihood is heavily dependent on traditional rainfed agriculture. Rainfall plays a major role in determining agricultural production and hence the economic and social well being of rural communities. The rainfall pattern in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by large-scale intra-seasonal and inter-annual climate variability including occasional El Niño events in the tropical Pacific resulting in frequent extreme weather event such as droughts and floods that reduce agricultural outputs resulting in severe food shortages. Households and communities facing acute food shortages are forced to adopt coping strategies to meet the immediate food requirements of their families. These extreme responses may have adverse long-term, impacts on households' ability to have sustainable access to food as well as the environment. The HIV/AIDS crisis has also had adverse impacts on food production activities on the continent. In the absence of safety nets and appropriate financial support mechanisms, humanitarian aid is required to enable households effectively cope with emergencies and manage their limited resources more efficiently. Timely and appropriate humanitarian aid will provide households with opportunities to engage in productive and sustainable livelihood strategies. Investments in poverty reduction efforts would have better impact if complemented with timely and predictable response mechanisms that would ensure the protection of livelihoods during crisis periods whether weather or conflict-related. With an improved understanding of climate variability including El Niño, the implications of weather patterns for the food
Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide an analysis of the features that have shaped the state's decision-making process in the United Nations, with regard to the humanitarian intervention in Darfur from 2003 onwards. Design/methodology/approach: The methodological approach to the study is a review of political statement papers grounded in…
This paper examines how nutrition has been used to raise humanitarian relief resources through the United Nations appeals process, from 1992 to early 2009. Recent calls for "nutrition safety nets" as a response to the world food price crisis reflect a growing recognition of nutrition as a key element in crisis management, not simply as a metric of how bad things have become. The evolution in thinking about the role of nutrition in emergency programming is reflected in changes in how nutrition has been conceptualized and presented in the consolidated appeals process. Based on a desk review, supported by key informant interviews, the paper highlights important changes that include an increasing distinction that separates nutrition from food, water, and health; the importance of synergies across sectors; increased emphasis on "essential packages" of inputs and services versus stand-alone activities; the importance of technical rigor in food and nutrition assessment and surveys; the need for technical competency and capacity in the design and management of nutrition interventions; and the importance of planning for long-term change even in delivering a short-term response. There has also been growing emphasis on specificity in objectives--a trend linked to demand for more accountability across the humanitarian system. Enhanced emergency preparedness will require further capacity building and improved systems for surveillance and data management. Without more systematic, targeted attention to pre-crisis malnutrition, the resources needed to tackle nutrition problems during emergencies will continue to grow.
Delaitre, Maxime; Barroca, Bruno; Vargas, Jorge; Cornejo, Christian; Sierra, Alexis
Challenges in post-disaster crisis of natural origin seem to have a strong relation with territory characteristics (location, habitat, propagation, etc.). Moreover, they determine those requirements needed for humanitarian interventions. Decision-making at response and recuperation stages are supported or limited depending on the availability of public spaces to be used for victims' accommodation, field hospitals and rubble deposits. In the case of Lima and Callao (Peru), the presence and superposition of multiple governmental levels - national, regional (1), provincial (2) and district (50) - result in a highly-complex local Disaster Risk Management system for response coordination. The diversity of actors, their responsibilities and individual initiative suggest competition for the resources available in an emergency situation. Resource location determines if humanitarian operations can be run in an effective and efficient way. In this context, public space is a fundamental resource; if it is well-selected, it will provide access to accumulated resources such as water, electricity and telecommunications for the affected population. To increase urban resilience, it requires previous planning and coordination for emergency response, where institutional and territorial configurations are decisive factors for the recuperation and rehabilitation processes performance. This communication will present the institutional and territorial dimensions of the Peruvian capital which condition emergency management performances to consider the crisis management opportunities, offered by territorial analysis and estimations of actors' needs. It would be a starting point for decision-making on emergence activities locations and for establishing coordination frameworks concerning territorial issues and challenges.
Full Text Available Being one of the largest movements of displaced people through European borders since World War Two, the Syrian refugee crisis of 2015 and 2016, tested the coordination of the states and international organizations, and as well as the strategies for response of the latter to such enormous fluxes of displaced people along the Balkan corridor. The quick on-time reaction of the specialized humanitarian international organizations made significant achievements by the international organizations in terms of humanitarian assistance for the refugees and support for the governments of the region. Their approach mainly sought to create a partnership with the governments of the Balkan route in handling the serious humanitarian challenges (with a different strategy compared to other experiences, mainly this time through providing assistance and protection to the refugees throughout the corridor of the refugee crisis, it showed how important is such coordination at the end, with an aim to avoid further human catastrophes along refugee routes, and to avoid major security repercussions for the countries of the region.
Molder, te H.F.M.
Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus
Mills, Patrick; Evers, Ken; Kinlin, Donna; Tripp, Robert S
During the past decade, the U.S. military has supported continuous deployments of forces around the world, often on very short notice and for prolonged duration, to meet the needs of a wide range of peacekeeping and humanitarian...
Li, Andrew; Shaffer, Jonathan; Bagger, Jessica
We draw on the cross-domain model of work-family conflict and conservation of resources theory to examine the relationship between disability caregiving demands and the psychological well-being of employed caregivers. Using a sample of employed disability caregivers from a national survey, we found that the relationship between caregiving demands and family-to-work conflict was stronger when employees experienced high levels of strain from family. Additionally, we found high levels of family to-work conflict were subsequently associated with decreases in life satisfaction and increases in depression, but only when perceived supervisor support was low. Overall, our findings suggest an indirect relationship between caregiving demands and psychological well-being that is mediated by family-to-work conflict and is conditional on family strain and perceived supervisor support. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Solrun Brenk Rønning, Stål Bjørkly Faculty of Health Sciences and Social Care, Molde University College, Molde, Norway Abstract: One of the prioritizations in the World Health Organization’s (WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020 is the provision of community mental health and social care services, such as supported housing. The ongoing process of such deinstitutionalization has raised issues concerning the impact on users’ quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how residents in supported housing experience receiving professional help and how they perceived their relationships with nurses. The second aim was to investigate the relevance of Giorgi’s method of analysis and self psychology in analyzing these experiences. Four residents were interviewed individually. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by Giorgi’s method of analysis. Relations were interpreted within self psychology. The residents reported that they not only felt safe in the community but also felt a greater awareness of wanting to appear normal. They seemed to have an easier daily life and felt that the personnel met their selfobject needs when routines allowed for it. Professional awareness of empathic attunement and selfobject roles might enhance residents’ self-cohesiveness. The interviews were analyzed by Giorgi’s method of analysis, and the use of clinical concepts from self psychology was chosen to achieve a more dynamic understanding of the participants’ relational experiences and needs in supported housing. Keywords: mental health, nursing relationship, self psychology, supported housing, experiences
Nekouei, Zohreh Khayyam; Doost, Hamid Taher Neshat; Yousefy, Alireza; Manshaee, Gholamreza; Sadeghei, Masoumeh
Background: Although psychological factors are now recognized as playing a significant and independent role in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its complications, many of these factors are correlated with each other. The present study is aimed at examining the association between alexithymia and anxiety depression, stress, quality of life, and social support in CHD patients. Materials and Methods: In this research 398 patients with coronary heart disease (166 females and 23...
James J. Annesi
Full Text Available Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors was accounted for by the behavioral model (2adj=0.23. Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity.
Ager, A; Burnham, G; Checchi, F; Gayer, M; Grais, R F; Henkens, M; Massaquoi, M B F; Nandy, R; Navarro-Colorado, C; Spiegel, P
Given the growing scale and complexity of responses to humanitarian crises, it is important to develop a stronger evidence base for health interventions in such contexts. Humanitarian crises present unique challenges to rigorous and effective research, but there are substantial opportunities for scientific advance. Studies need to focus where the translation of evidence from noncrisis scenarios is not viable and on ethical ways of determining what happens in the absence of an intervention. Robust methodologies suited to crisis settings have to be developed and used to assess interventions with potential for delivery at scale. Strengthening research capacity in the low- to middle-income countries that are vulnerable to crises is also crucial. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Full Text Available This article explores how I teach about human rights and so-called humanitarian interventions to MA and Ph.D. students. The course has three main themes or foci. First, what are human rights and why have the social and economic human rights laid out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights been so neglected or rejected, especially by the U.S. Second, how has American foreign policy used and abused human rights. Third, why have liberal or humanitarian interventions of a militarized sort become so prevalent since the end of the Cold War and why are they so damaging. The goal is to get students to look critically at the meaning and uses of human rights, about which many display a naive enthusiasm.
This article argues that international and national humanitarian NGOs have a far more fundamental bearing on the social reconstitution of Sri Lankan society as a political, cultural, and moral entity than is usually acknowledged. Through their interventions, humanitarian agencies affect the power...... relationship between state and non-state actors and between local organizations and the war-affected populations that make up their constituencies. But NGOs also affect the political order by introducing new understandings of the citizen and providing alternative moral arguments to legitimize power...... and authority. What is taking place, the author contends, is best conceived of as mediations, since the global and the local, the modern and the traditional are coexistent as sources to be strategically drawn upon by the actors....
Full Text Available Preparedness addresses the strategy in disaster management that allows the implementation of successful operational response immediately after a disaster. With speed as the main driver, product design for humanitarian aid purposes is a key factor of success in situations of high uncertainty and urgency. Within this context, a telecommunications container (TC has been designed that belongs to a group of containers that serve the purpose of immediate response to global disasters. The TC includes all the necessary equipment to establish a telecommunication centre in the destroyed area within the first 72 hours of humanitarian operations. The design focuses on defining the topology of the various parts of equipment by taking into consideration factors of serviceability, functionality, human-product interaction, universal design language, energy consumption, sustainability and the interrelationship with the other containers. The concept parametric design has been implemented with SolidWorks® CAD system.
Kaidar-Person, Orit; Meattini, Icro; Deal, Allison M; Francolini, Giulio; Carta, Giulio; Terzo, Lauren; Camporeale, Jayne; Muss, Hyman; Marks, Lawrence B; Livi, Lorenzo; Mayer, Deborah K; Zagar, Timothy M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health consumption among patients with early-stage breast cancer in two radiation oncology departments in two countries (USA and Italy). Data were extracted from the medical records of consecutive patients treated between 2014 and 2015 in two centers. Extracted data included patient's demographics, treatment, referral to psychological supportive care programs, and prescribed psychotropic drugs. Data from the two centers were compared using Student's t, Wilcoxon, Fisher's exact, and Jonckheere-Terpstra tests. Adjusted relative risks (RR) were estimated using Poisson regression. A total of 231 (Italy = 110, USA = 121) patients were included, with a mean age of 60 years. The crude rate of psychological supportive care visits was similar in the US versus the Italian cohort (28.9 vs. 21.8%, p = 0.23). The crude rate of prescribed psychotropic drug was higher in the US cohort versus Italian cohort (43.8 vs. 18.2%, p < 0.0001). These differences remained significant after adjusting for breast cancer subtype, stage, and treatment (RR 1.8, 95 CI 1.17-2.76). Between 20 and 30% of patients receive psychological supportive care during treatment for breast cancer. The use of psychotropic medication was higher in the US cohort than the cohort from Italy. The reasons for these differences might be related to social and cultural differences and the method of prescribing medication.
Rønning, Solrun Brenk; Bjørkly, Stål
One of the prioritizations in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 is the provision of community mental health and social care services, such as supported housing. The ongoing process of such deinstitutionalization has raised issues concerning the impact on users' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how residents in supported housing experience receiving professional help and how they perceived their relationships with nurses. The second aim was to investigate the relevance of Giorgi's method of analysis and self psychology in analyzing these experiences. Four residents were interviewed individually. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by Giorgi's method of analysis. Relations were interpreted within self psychology. The residents reported that they not only felt safe in the community but also felt a greater awareness of wanting to appear normal. They seemed to have an easier daily life and felt that the personnel met their selfobject needs when routines allowed for it. Professional awareness of empathic attunement and selfobject roles might enhance residents' self-cohesiveness. The interviews were analyzed by Giorgi's method of analysis, and the use of clinical concepts from self psychology was chosen to achieve a more dynamic understanding of the participants' relational experiences and needs in supported housing.
Full Text Available With several rising powers emerging as new actors on the humanitarian scene, viewing all ‘emerging donors’ as a homogenous group inevitably undermines efforts to constructively engage with them. With Turkey’s widely recognized engagement in Somalia and Syria, the country merits a nuanced analysis. How does it conceptualize humanitarian assistance? What norms and interests shape its humanitarian engagement? How is such an engagement financed and organized? Thoroughly evaluating how foreign and domestic agendas shape Turkey’s humanitarian engagement, the paper details how Ankara designs and implements its humanitarian assistance. The collaborative relationship between the government, faith-based businesses, and the religious segment of a generally deeply divided civil society emerges as a unique feature of Turkey’s humanitarian assistance. This set-up calls for an informed approach towards working with specific Turkish actors. It also questions the sustainability and scalability of current aid levels.
The paper seeks to link contemporary thinking on urban shelter in the humanitarian sector to debates in the field of 'critical urban theory'. It argues that current humanitarian thinking on urban shelter shares many common concerns with critical urban theory, but that these concerns are rarely translated effectively into humanitarian practice. It attributes this disconnect not only to weaknesses in implementation capacity, but also to the need to reorient humanitarian action to address more definitively questions of power and justice. Humanitarian actors need to step back from product-delivery approaches and find ways of integrating into their analytical, planning, implementation and monitoring tools questions about access, exclusion and the historically specific ways in which these aspects converge in particular urban spaces. By doing so, the humanitarian community would benefit from a more explicit, systematic and sustained engagement with the catalytic theoretical resources that critical urban theory has to offer. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.
Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree
New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Somalia today is the site of three major threats: the world's worst humanitarian crisis; the longest-running instance of complete state collapse; and a robust jihadist movement with links to Al-Qa'ida. External state-building, counter-terrorism and humanitarian policies responding to these threats have worked at cross-purposes. State-building efforts that insist humanitarian relief be channelled through the nascent state in order to build its legitimacy and capacity undermine humanitarian neutrality when the state is a party to a civil war. Counter-terrorism policies that seek to ensure that no aid benefits terrorist groups have the net effect of criminalising relief operations in countries where poor security precludes effective accountability. This paper argues that tensions between stabilisation and humanitarian goals in contemporary Somalia reflect a long history of politicisation of humanitarian operations in the country. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.
response to the flood in Pakistan: "According to the [National Disaster Management Authority] NDMA , unusually heavy rainfall and flooding in late July...Widespread flooding affected 82 ofPakistan’s 122 districts, according to the NDMA . As a result, more than 12 million people required humanitarian...MAGTF Marine Air Ground Task Force MEDCAPS Medical Civic Assistance Programs MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit NDMA National Disaster Management
civil war . Africa’s worst drought hit the country in 1992, driving up food prices and causing extreme malnutrition . People began to leave their...affect the region’s overall leveragement to conduct humanitarian aid. Buchanan (2008) mentions the ethnic civil war and genocide occurring in the...Darfur region that began in February 2003. The war started because nomadic herders traveled farther south than normal into Sudan due to 29 drought and
Vitoriano, Begoña; Ortuño, M. Teresa; Tirado, Gregorio; Montero, Javier
Natural disasters are phenomenons which strike countries all around the world. Sometimes, either by the intensity of the phenomenon or the vulnerability of the country, help is requested from the rest of the world and relief organizations respond by delivering basic aid to those in need. Humanitarian logistics is a critical factor in managing relief operations and, in general, there is a lack of attention on the development of mathematical models and solution algorithms for strategic and tact...
Abdi, H; De Leeuw, S; Klumpp, M
Purpose - The main purposes of this study are 1) to identify the state of the art of performance measurement and management in humanitarian supply chains, 2) to categorize performance measurement indicators in the five supply chain phases of Gunasekaran and Kobu (2007) and evaluate them based on the evaluation criteria of Caplice and Sheffi (1995), 3) to define gaps as well as challenges in this field and give insights for future research in this domain. Design/methodology/approach - A litera...
Throughout Africa today Christian missionaries from the United States and Europe are providing more medical assistance than ever before and yet they remain, in much recent scholarship, more often associated with the colonial past than the humanitarian present. In many rural areas of Africa these missionaries provide much of the day-to-day healthcare that is available, treating commonplace afflictions, such as malaria, broken limbs or complications associated with childbirth. This dissertation...
Grayman, Jesse Hession
After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kunz, Nathan; Gold, Stefan
Disaster response operations aim at helping as many victims as possible in the shortest time, with limited consideration of the socio-economic context. During the disaster rehabilitation phase, the perspective needs to broaden and comprehensively take into account the local environment. We propose a framework of sustainable humanitarian supply chain management (SCM) that facilitates such comprehensive performance. We conceptualize the framework by combining literature from the fields of susta...
necessities of life. In these situations, individuals, groups and nations join together to provide food, water , clothing, shelter, and medical supplies ...Humanitarian Daily Rations (HDR), bottled water and other supplies between 501-2,200-lb in mass quantities. It utilizes an A-22 cargo container and a 64-ft...A C-17 can carry a total of 40 CDS bundles equating to nearly 6,000-gal of water . With a conservative 25% loss rate (unfound and damaged packages
Full Text Available This text gives a brief account of the norms and perceptions regarding IHL (international humanitarian law and Human Rights have been applied in Colombia, and on moving the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, FARC-EP, ELN National Liberation and the Army, in which requires the exclusion of civilians from direct attacks in the context of the conduct of hostilities by armed forces in war, these settings are accompanied Martells Clause and Article 3 common.
PRISM 2, no. 1 leSSoNS leaRNed | 131 On Christmas morning 2005, at Saint Patrick’s Catholic Church in Auckland , New Zealand, a priest stepped up to... economically difficult to sustain. However, the HA/DR cam- paign in Pakistan, Operation Lifeline, provides a useful model of how humanitarian...35 The two field hospitals became symbols of the American-Pakistani military partnership and an asymmetric advantage for the United States as
Pedraza-Martinez, Alfonso J; Stapleton, Orla; Van Wassenhove, Luk N
This paper presents the reflections of the authors on the differences between the language and the approach of practitioners and academics to humanitarian logistics problems. Based on a long-term project on fleet management in the humanitarian sector, involving both large international humanitarian organisations and academics, it discusses how differences in language and approach to such problems may create a lacuna that impedes trust. In addition, the paper provides insights into how academic research evidence adapted to practitioner language can be used to bridge the gap. When it is communicated appropriately, evidence strengthens trust between practitioners and academics, which is critical for long-term projects. Once practitioners understand the main trade-offs included in academic research, they can supply valuable feedback to motivate new academic research. Novel research problems promote innovation in the use of traditional academic methods, which should result in a win-win situation: relevant solutions for practice and advances in academic knowledge. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
THE Port is ready for the third edition of its hackathon with eight new challenges. Join us to discover how science can make a huge difference in people's life. Humanitarian hackathons organised by THE Port and hosted by CERN IdeaSquare have already confirmed that fundamental science can provide tech-enabled responses to humanitarian issues affecting the lives of millions of people around the globe. A great example of the success that technology and collaboration can bring is the substantial improvement of the food airdrop bags, requested by the ICRC to deliver assistance in South Sudan and other critical regions. Watch a 360° video or check out the pictures using the QR code. This year, eight teams will innovate the way humanitarian organisations handle the most critical aspects of field work during a 60-hour event. Groups of experts from all over the world will provide out-of-the-box proposals to tackle challenges set up by the ICRC, Handicap International, the United Natio...
Hardie, Kate; Selgelid, Michael J; Waldman, Ronald J; Strebel, Peter; Rees, Helen; Durrheim, David N
Abstract Humanitarian emergencies result in a breakdown of critical health-care services and often make vulnerable communities dependent on external agencies for care. In resource-constrained settings, this may occur against a backdrop of extreme poverty, malnutrition, insecurity, low literacy and poor infrastructure. Under these circumstances, providing food, water and shelter and limiting communicable disease outbreaks become primary concerns. Where effective and safe vaccines are available to mitigate the risk of disease outbreaks, their potential deployment is a key consideration in meeting emergency health needs. Ethical considerations are crucial when deciding on vaccine deployment. Allocation of vaccines in short supply, target groups, delivery strategies, surveillance and research during acute humanitarian emergencies all involve ethical considerations that often arise from the tension between individual and common good. The authors lay out the ethical issues that policy-makers need to bear in mind when considering the deployment of mass vaccination during humanitarian emergencies, including beneficence (duty of care and the rule of rescue), non-maleficence, autonomy and consent, and distributive and procedural justice. PMID:23599553
Full Text Available At 9 November 2010, the European Court of Justice, in a preliminary ruling, decided to depart from the interpretation promoted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, in the matter of the application of the exclusion clauses. The European Court considered that no proportionality test between human rights protection and gravity of a crime is to be applied in the case of a person suspected of having committed an act contrary to the principles and purposes of the United Nations. By eliminating this test, the Court is sending a signal on rethinking the asylum institution, from a humanitarian tool that it became, to a political instrument. This decision could not be read alone; corroborated to the concerns already raised on the suitable use of the asylum instrument to address massive humanitarian needs, it would indicate a reorientation in the interpretation of international norms governing the refugee law. Still, the human rights organs and the European Court of Human Rights continue to refer to the asylum as a situation where a humanitarian perspective, reflected in the proportionality test, or for those mechanisms the risk of human rights violation probability test, is still valid. The two apparently divergent directions will need to converge in the implementation of the European Union regulations on asylum. This paper is exploring the possible reinterpretation of the European norms, trying to identify the new trends in the political perspective of asylum and the limitations to these trends that the respect for human rights is establishing.
Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu
With the deployment of lethal autonomous weapons, there is the requirement that any such platform complies with the precepts of International Humanitarian Law. Humanitarian Algorithms[9: p. 9] ensure that lethal autonomous weapon systems perform military/security operations, within the confines of International Humanitarian Law. Unlike other existing techniques of regulating lethal autonomy this scheme advocates for an approach that enables Machine Learning. Lethal autonomous weapons must be ...
Humanitarian intervention is a contraversial concept of international law doctrine because of its compatibility with the principles of state’s sovereignty and non - use of force in the contemporary international law. The Dissertation is intended for a systematic analysis of the concept of humanitarian intervention and its legality problem in order to provide coherent concept of humanitarian intervention in contemporary international law. This is one of the first efforts in the international l...
Sainsbury, Kirby; Halmos, Emma P; Knowles, Simon; Mullan, Barbara; Tye-Din, Jason A
A strict lifelong gluten free diet (GFD) is the only treatment for coeliac disease (CD). Theory-based research has focused predominantly on initiation, rational, and motivational processes in predicting adherence. The aim of this study was to evaluate an expanded collection of theoretical constructs specifically relevant to the maintenance of behaviour change, in the understanding and prediction of GFD adherence. Respondents with CD (N = 5573) completed measures of GFD adherence, psychological distress, intentions, self-efficacy, and the maintenance-relevant constructs of self-regulation, habit, temptation and intentional and unintentional lapses (cognitive and behavioural consequences of lowered or fluctuating psychological resources and self-control), motivation, social and environmental support, and goal priority, conflict, and facilitation. Correlations and multiple regression were used to determine their influence on adherence, over and above intention and self-efficacy, and how relationships changed in the presence of distress. Better adherence was associated with greater self-regulation, habit, self-efficacy, priority, facilitation, and support; and lower psychological distress, conflict, and fewer self-control lapses (e.g., when busy/stressed). Autonomous and wellbeing-based, but not controlled motivations, were related to adherence. In the presence of distress, the influence of self-regulation and intentional lapses on adherence were increased, while temptation and unintentional lapses were decreased. The findings point to the importance of considering intentional, volitional, automatic, and emotional processes in the understanding and prediction of GFD adherence. Behaviour change interventions and psychological support are now needed so that theoretical knowledge can be translated into evidence-based care, including a role for psychologists within the multi-disciplinary treatment team. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aims: Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent childhood neurological disorders. As the primary caregivers, the mothers of epileptic children undergo different psychological pressures. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of empowerment on the self-efficacy of the mothers of the epileptic children, concerning psychological adaptation, gaining support, and receiving information. Materials & Methods: In the controlled two-group random clinical trial with pretest and posttest steps, 100 mothers of epileptic children hospitalized in the Neurology Ward of Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad were studied in 2014. The subjects, selected via convenience sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including experimental (n=50 and control (n=50 groups. Data was collected using the caregiver’s self-efficacy questionnaire. Only experimental group received the empowerment program, and no intervention was conducted in control group. The mothers’ self-efficacy was measured before and after the intervention in both groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software using independent T, paired T, Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and covariance tests. Findings: The mean scores of self-efficacy, including psychological adjustment, gain a support, and receiving information, were not significantly different between the groups before the intervention (p>0.05. Nevertheless, the groups were significantly different after the intervention (p<0.001. In addition, the mean score after the intervention in experimental group was significantly higher than the score in the same group before the intervention (p<0.001. Conclusion: The empowerment program enhances the self-efficacy of the mothers of the epileptic children in psychological adjustment, gain a support, and receiving information.
Steele, John Joseph
The Afghanistan Surge saw NATO troops working with their Afghan partners to remove Taliban governance and replace it with a more democratic model. As part of this endeavor, medical support for both trauma and humanitarian cases was needed. Identify and discuss disease trends to better prepare for future combat medical treatments. Retrospective review of operative experience from a neurosurgeon from November 2010 to April 2011. 63 cases were performed on 20 NATO and 43 Afghan patients. Combat-related neurotrauma represented 73% (46/63) of cases and humanitarian cases represented the remainder. The most common diseases among humanitarian cases were benign tumors (29%, 5/17), cranioplasty (23%, 4/17), obstructive hydrocephalus (11%, 2/17), nonobstructive hydrocephalus (11%, 2/17), hemifacial spasm (11%, 2/17), and cerebral angiography (11%, 2/17). There was 1 death from ventriculitis for a complication rate of 6%. In select well-nourished, patients with minimal risk of needing tracheostomy, humanitarian neurosurgery can be safely performed in theater with a complication rate (6%) no worse than patients operated on in the United States. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
This study sought to identify how humanitarian actors in natural disasters coordinate (or communicate) with the military to identify the needs of disaster-affected populations, identify how coordination should be undertaken for the delivery of relief goods, perceive the effectiveness of such coordination, perceive the role that training played in preparation for coordinating with the military and the effectiveness of this training, and view the overall civil-military engagement and its implications for the independence of the humanitarian sector. A survey instrument focused on participant perceptions of the civil-military engagement in response to Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines was sent to country directors and agency leads who played a role in the response. Although the data supported anecdotal accounts that the coordination between civilian and military actors during the disaster relief efforts in Typhoon Haiyan worked well, they also revealed that fewer than half of the respondents were familiar with the Guidelines on the Use of Foreign Military and Civil Defence Assets in Disaster Relief (the "Oslo Guidelines") and only 12% of respondents thought that the Oslo Guidelines were used to develop organizational policy on humanitarian aid agency engagement with military actors. Humanitarians felt that international militaries and the Philippines Armed Forces played an important role in ensuring that aid reached people in need, particularly in the early days of the response. However, less than half of the respondents were familiar with the Oslo Guidelines.
Kienzler, Hanna; Pedersen, Duncan
This essay analyses how the relationships between Cold War and post-Cold War politics, military psychiatry, humanitarian aid and mental health interventions in war and post-war contexts have transformed over time. It focuses on the restrictions imposed on humanitarian interventions and aid during the Cold War; the politics leading to the transfer of the PTSD diagnosis and its treatment from the military to civilian populations; humanitarian intervention campaigns in the post-Cold War era; and the development of psychosocial intervention programs and standards of care for civilian populations affected by armed conflict. Viewing these developments in their broader historical, political and social contexts reveals the politics behind mental health interventions conducted in countries and populations affected by warfare. In such militarized contexts, the work of NGOs providing assistance to people suffering from trauma-related health problems is far from neutral as it depends on the support of the military and plays an important role in the shaping of international politics and humanitarian aid programs.
Bajde, Domen; Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark
Social media have been argued to have transformed humanitarian communication and those involved in it. Networked humanitarian organizations are supposedly more open and transparent (Kanter and Fine 2010) and their “audiences” too are networked and "cause-wired" (Watson 2009), implying an unpreced......Social media have been argued to have transformed humanitarian communication and those involved in it. Networked humanitarian organizations are supposedly more open and transparent (Kanter and Fine 2010) and their “audiences” too are networked and "cause-wired" (Watson 2009), implying...
Full Text Available Humanitarian intervention is an attempt to prevent or stop the gross human rights violations with particular strengths (diplomatic and military in a State, either with or without the consent of the State (countries with internal conflict. The problems in this journal are: first, how the arrangement of international law on humanitarian intervention. Secondly, the role of the UN in humanitarian intervention in armed conflicts. The method used is a normative legal research methods with the main source of data collection procedures is a legal substance that contains of normative law. The results showed that the rules of international law on humanitarian intervention by the United Nations stipulated in the UN Charter and general principles of international law. Humanitarian intervention legally justified by following provisions in applicable international law, namely Articles 39-51 of UN Charter. While the role of the UN in humanitarian intervention in armed conflicts carried out by the Security Council as the organ of the United Nations in maintaining peace with the decision issued in the form of a resolution for areas experiencing conflict. Therefore, it takes an international treaty that regulates clearly about humanitarian intervention, so that in practice, remain consistent with the objectives and executive organs of humanitarian intervention. Keywords: Humanitarian Intervention, Security Council of UN, Armed Conflict.
Alexander V. Shuvalov
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a theoretical study carried out in the framework of the research project «Determinants of psychological health of the modern person». The issue of psychological health is considered in the context of the anthropological crisis that affects public body and causes a decrease in synergetic social life. On the level of specific manifestations, it is associated with damage to the spiritual and moral sphere, distortion of personal way of life and interpersonal relationships, which leads to a general decline in viability. A growing number of people, whose subjective state can be described as mentally fit, but personally sick is identified. Secondary symptoms of such conditions are depression, aggression, dependent behaviour. However, their essential characteristics are not captured by the existing social psychological, psychological pedagogical and medical psychological concepts and also do not fit the typical description of psychological emotional and/or behavioural disorders. The author adheres to the hypothesis that these states have specific spiritual and psychological conditions and symptoms that deserve scientific analysis and philosophical reflection. The leitmotif of the paper is the issue of mental health in its scientific and philosophical sense. Representation of health from the standpoint of modern humanitarian knowledge and traditional spiritual culture are generalized. The theory of general psychological health is developed. The main approaches to the problem of psychological health are presented. Comparative analysis of the humanistic and anthropological models of mental health is shown. Correspondence between the anthropological conditions and criteria of mental health concepts of the modern national educational ideal is presented. Educational activity is described as anthropological practice aimed at acquiring by a child the wide range of values as a person. As such, it is the most conducive to
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an intervention to support the basic psychological needs on the satisfaction of these needs, intrinsic motivation, intention to be physically active and some enjoyment-related outcomes in Physical Education. The present study incorporated strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 in a previous study. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two groups (nexperimental = 30; ncontrol = 23 of 2nd year Secondary Education students aged between 13 and 15 (M = 13.35, SD = .62 by delivering 24 physical education classes. The teacher in the experimental group underwent prior and continual training. The results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the perception of autonomy and competence. Furthermore, the experimental group showed a greater perception than the control group in the enjoyment related to learning and contents. These results provide information about the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012 to foster satisfaction of basic psychological needs and facilitate support for basic psychological needs to promote the development of positive learning-related outcomes.
Franco, Evelia; Coterón, Javier
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an intervention to support the basic psychological needs on the satisfaction of these needs, intrinsic motivation, intention to be physically active and some enjoyment-related outcomes in Physical Education. The present study incorporated strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012) in a previous study. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with two groups (n experimental = 30; n control = 23) of 2nd year Secondary Education students aged between 13 and 15 (M = 13.35, SD = .62) by delivering 24 physical education classes. The teacher in the experimental group underwent prior and continual training. The results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed a significant increase in the perception of autonomy and competence. Furthermore, the experimental group showed a greater perception than the control group in the enjoyment related to learning and contents. These results provide information about the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the strategies presented by Standage and Ryan (2012) to foster satisfaction of basic psychological needs and facilitate support for basic psychological needs to promote the development of positive learning-related outcomes.
Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John
of key features of geoscience and humanitarian Communities of Practice. It focuses on the barriers to and enablers of learning on the boundaries between CoPs and explores the important role played by boundary workers/brokers at this interface. Wenger's (2000) typology of knowledge brokers is used to analyse the different forms this role can take and identify the challenges that hinder it. For example, boundary workers often find themselves in a 'no man's land' between CoP, where their efforts are not recognised or rewarded by either community of practice. We conclude by drawing out wider conclusions on the potential for boundary workers to bridge the science-policy-practice interface particularly ways of developing appropriate boundary infrastructure (for example, recognised career paths, funding mechanisms and organisational support structures).
resolve, and the assurance that everything they had done and were feeling was entirely alright…. I don’t have any miracle cures to offer you... cure lies in experience but, in its absence, it lies in the training at the Training Centre, which is quite simply the best preparation a man can have...Indications of Lack of Psychological Fitness” Absenteeism Insubordination Inappropriate aggression Discipline problems Family-related conflict
San Lazaro Campillo, Indra; Meaney, Sarah; McNamara, Karen; O'Donoghue, Keelin
The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of interventions to reduce stress in pregnant women with a history of miscarriage. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A total of 13 medical, psychological and social electronic databases were searched from January 1995 to April 2016 including PUBMED, CENTRAL, Web of Science and EMBASE. This review focused on women in their subsequent pregnancy following miscarriage. All published RCTs which assessed the effect of non-medical interventions such as counselling or support interventions on psychological and mental health outcomes such as stress, anxiety or depression when compared with a control group were included. Stress, anxiety or depression had to be measured at least preintervention and postintervention. This systematic review found no RCT which met our initial inclusion criteria. Of the 4140 titles screened, 17 RCTs were identified. All of them were excluded. One RCT, which implemented a caring-based intervention, included pregnant women in their subsequent pregnancy; however, miscarriage was analysed as a composite variable among other pregnancy losses such as stillbirth and neonatal death. Levels of perceived stress were measured by four RCTs. Different types of non-medical interventions, time of follow-up and small sample sizes were found. Cohort studies and RCTs in non-pregnant women suggest that support and psychological interventions may improve pregnant women's psychological well-being after miscarriage. This improvement may reduce adverse pregnancy-related outcomes in subsequent pregnancies. However, this review found no RCTs which met our criteria. There is a need for targeted RCTs that can provide reliable and conclusive results to determine effective interventions for this vulnerable group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly
Cho, Jaehee; Yu, Hongsik
Unlike previous research on international students' social support, this current study applied the concept of organizational support to university contexts, examining the effects of university support. Mainly based on the social identity/self-categorization stress model, this study developed and tested a path model composed of four key…
Developing Capacity or a Culture of Dependency: Are Humanitarian Assistance Projects Initiated by the Provincial Reconstruction Teams Reinforcing Dependency or True Capacity in the Paktia-Khost Provinces of Afghanistan?
Maslow7 hierarchy of needs influenced the development principles behind the conflict stability framework used to win hearts and minds and determine what...the Army, FM 3-24. 7A. H. Maslow , “A Theory of Human Evolution,” Psychological Review 50 (1943): 370-396, http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/ Maslow ...motivation.htm (accessed February 28, 2012). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs pyramid is utilized to understand local populations when conducting humanitarian
Uprety, M.; Dugar, S.; Gautam, D.; Kanel, D.; Kshetri, M.; Kharbuja, R. G.; Acharya, S. H.
Advances in flood forecasting have provided opportunities for humanitarian responders to employ a range of preparedness activities at different forecast time horizons. Yet, the science of prediction is less understood and realized across the humanitarian landscape, and often preparedness plans are based upon average level of flood risk. Working under the remit of Forecast Based Financing (FbF), we present a pilot from Nepal on how available flood and weather forecast products are informing specific pre-emptive actions in the local preparedness and response plans, thereby supporting government stakeholders and humanitarian agencies to take early actions before an impending flood event. In Nepal, forecasting capabilities are limited but in a state of positive flux. Whilst local flood forecasts based upon rainfall-runoff models are yet to be operationalized, streamflow predictions from Global Flood Awareness System (GLoFAS) can be utilized to plan and implement preparedness activities several days in advance. Likewise, 3-day rainfall forecasts from Nepal Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) can further inform specific set of early actions for potential flash floods due to heavy precipitation. Existing community based early warning systems in the major river basins of Nepal are utilizing real time monitoring of water levels and rainfall together with localised probabilistic flood forecasts which has increased warning lead time from 2-3 hours to 7-8 hours. Based on these available forecast products, thresholds and trigger levels have been determined for different flood scenarios. Matching these trigger levels and assigning responsibilities to relevant actors for early actions, a set of standard operating procedures (SOPs) are being developed, broadly covering general preparedness activities and science informed anticipatory actions for different forecast lead times followed by the immediate response activities. These SOPs are currently being rolled out and
Ma, Gloria Y K; Mak, Winnie W S
The present study tested a model on the relationship between functional status of children with physical disability, caregiving-specific worry, affiliate stigma, and psychological distress among their caregivers. One hundred thirty-one caregivers of children with physical disability in Hong Kong completed a self-report questionnaire. Structural equation modeling showed that the final model had good fit to the data: χ2 = 102.05, (df = 83, p = .08), comparative fit index = .98, nonnormed fit index = .98, standardized root mean square residual = .08, root mean square error of approximation = .04. Caregivers whose children had a lower functional status reported more caregiving-specific worry. Affiliate stigma had significant and positive indirect effect on psychological distress through increasing worry. Results also supported the direct and indirect effects of perceived social support in ameliorating worry, affiliate stigma, and psychological distress. Findings suggested that health care and social service providers should consider the functional impairment of each child when designing stress reduction interventions for their caregivers. Findings implicate the importance of establishing barrier-free environment and public facilities in the society. Caregivers are encouraged to distinguish those worries that are actionable and convert them into problem solving plans and to actively engage in peer support and social activities to reduce their affiliate stigma. To truly promote inclusion and well-being of individuals with disability and their caregivers, the scope and targets of social services and stigma reduction programs by the government should include not only the persons with disabilities, but also their caregivers and family members who play essential roles in the rehabilitation journey. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Report of the psychological support given to victims of the Goiania radiological accident in Brazil; Relatorio das atividades desenvolvidas pela Psicologia no Hospital Geral de Goiania (HGC) e CRF (FEBEM) com as vitimas diretas do Cesio-137
Nunes, Lenice Cruvinel; Pereira, Maria Emilia Pontes
The psychological support given to the victims of the Goiania accident are described. The assistance lasted two months on the average and was given while the victims were in the hospital and later on in the recuperation center 1 tab.
Tei-Tominaga, Maki; Nakanishi, Miharu
The healthcare industry in Japan has experienced many cases of work-related injuries, accidents, and workers’ compensation claims because of mental illness. This study examined the influence of supportive and ethical work environments on work-related accidents, injuries, and serious psychological distress among hospital nurses. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to nurses (n = 1114) from 11 hospitals. Valid responses (n = 822, 93% women, mean age = 38.49 ± 10.09 years) were used for analyses. The questionnaire included items addressing basic attributes, work and organizational characteristics, social capital and ethical climate at the workplace, psychological distress, and experience of work-related accidents or injuries in the last half year. The final model of a multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that those who work less than 4 h of overtime per week (OR = 0.313), those who work on days off more than once per month (OR = 0.424), and an exclusive workplace climate (OR = 1.314) were significantly associated with work-related accidents or injuries. Additionally, an exclusive workplace climate (OR = 1.696) elevated the risk of serious psychological distress. To prevent work-related compensation cases, which are caused by these variables, strengthening hospitals’ occupational health and safety is necessary. PMID:29385044
Full Text Available The healthcare industry in Japan has experienced many cases of work-related injuries, accidents, and workers’ compensation claims because of mental illness. This study examined the influence of supportive and ethical work environments on work-related accidents, injuries, and serious psychological distress among hospital nurses. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to nurses (n = 1114 from 11 hospitals. Valid responses (n = 822, 93% women, mean age = 38.49 ± 10.09 years were used for analyses. The questionnaire included items addressing basic attributes, work and organizational characteristics, social capital and ethical climate at the workplace, psychological distress, and experience of work-related accidents or injuries in the last half year. The final model of a multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that those who work less than 4 h of overtime per week (OR = 0.313, those who work on days off more than once per month (OR = 0.424, and an exclusive workplace climate (OR = 1.314 were significantly associated with work-related accidents or injuries. Additionally, an exclusive workplace climate (OR = 1.696 elevated the risk of serious psychological distress. To prevent work-related compensation cases, which are caused by these variables, strengthening hospitals’ occupational health and safety is necessary.
Tei-Tominaga, Maki; Nakanishi, Miharu
The healthcare industry in Japan has experienced many cases of work-related injuries, accidents, and workers' compensation claims because of mental illness. This study examined the influence of supportive and ethical work environments on work-related accidents, injuries, and serious psychological distress among hospital nurses. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to nurses ( n = 1114) from 11 hospitals. Valid responses ( n = 822, 93% women, mean age = 38.49 ± 10.09 years) were used for analyses. The questionnaire included items addressing basic attributes, work and organizational characteristics, social capital and ethical climate at the workplace, psychological distress, and experience of work-related accidents or injuries in the last half year. The final model of a multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that those who work less than 4 h of overtime per week (OR = 0.313), those who work on days off more than once per month (OR = 0.424), and an exclusive workplace climate (OR = 1.314) were significantly associated with work-related accidents or injuries. Additionally, an exclusive workplace climate (OR = 1.696) elevated the risk of serious psychological distress. To prevent work-related compensation cases, which are caused by these variables, strengthening hospitals' occupational health and safety is necessary.
Armitage, Christopher J; Lees, Deborah; Lewis, Kathryn; Munro, Kevin J
this study add? The study tests a brief theory-based psychological intervention to reduce anxiety about ageing and promote hearing aid use. Results show that the brief psychological intervention reduced anxiety and marginally increased objective hearing aid use. Further work is required to identify other situations in which anxieties about ageing undermine behaviour change efforts. The very brief, flexible nature of the intervention means it could be adapted and deployed in numerous other health care settings. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Health Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
Humanitarian NGOs face difficult choices about whom to help and whom not on a daily basis. The research question in this article is how humanitarian NGOs make these difficult decisions and why in a particular way. March's study on consequential and appropriate decision-making processes is used to
... from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury....532 Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0847] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian Use Device (HUD) Designations... public comment ``Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian Use...
Anatoly V. Zavrazhin
Full Text Available In the article the author emphasizes the role and importance of humanitarian knowledge not only in education, training future professionals, but in an objective, true evaluation of the events which occur today in the modern world. Reveals the methodological foundations, purpose, main directions and methods of humanitarian knowledge. Highlighted the special role in the Humanities.
Turhan, Muhammed; Akgül, Tülin
This study investigates the relationship between students' perception of school climate and their adherence to humanitarian values. To this end, the study group consisted of 1094 students in 21 secondary schools in Elazig province of Turkey. The "School Climate Scale," developed by Çalik and Kurt, and the "Humanitarian Values…
Abidi, H.; de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Klumpp, M.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the value of fourth-party logistics (4PL) services in a humanitarian supply chain. Furthermore, it shows a framework for a fourth-party humanitarian logistics concept. Design/methodology/approach – The research paper presents a framework of
... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance Office of Food for Peace Announcement of Draft Request for Applications for Title II Non-Emergency Food... Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. [FR Doc. 2010-20874 Filed 8-20-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE P ...
... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace; Announcement of FFP Response to Zimbabwe Country Specific Guidance Comments..., Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. [FR Doc. 2010-1777 Filed 1-27-10; 8:45 am...
S A Bokeriya
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the ground aspects of NATO’s humanitarian activities after the termination of the Cold War. Main principles of NATO’s concept of humanitarian intervention and its application in the territory of former Yugoslavia, in Afghanistan, Iraq and Sudan are under analysis.
Humanitarian aid workers are faced with many challenges, from possible terrorist attacks to dealing with difficult stakeholders and securing operational space free from violence. To do their work properly and safely, they need effective intelligence. Humanitarian intelligence refers to the use of
van den Boogaard, J.C.; Matthee, M.; Toebes, B.; Brus, M.
The rules of international humanitarian law of armed conflict are codified in a rather extensive body of treaty law. In addition, extensive research has been conducted into the rules of customary international humanitarian law. The author of this contribution will argue that there is another