Sample records for humane endeavor retrospective

  1. Space Weather: Linking Stellar Explosions to the Human Endeavor (United States)

    Knipp, Delores


    Arguably humans have flourished as a result of stellar explosions; we are, after all, stardust. Nonetheless, rapid technology advances of the last 200 years sometimes put society and individuals on a collision course with the natural variability of stellar and solar atmospheres. Human space exploration, routine satellite navigation system applications, aviation safety, and electric power grids are examples of such vulnerable endeavors. In this presentation I will outline how global society relies on ‘normal’ solar and stellar emissions, yet becomes susceptible to extremes of these emissions. The imprints of these astronomical-terrestrial interactions abound. In particular, I will highlight ways in which stellar/solar bursts link with our space-atmosphere-interaction region, producing multi-year patterns in cosmic ray detection, gorgeous aurora, and deep concern for good order and function of global community.

  2. Dawn Mission Education and Public Outreach: Science as Human Endeavor (United States)

    Cobb, W. H.; Wise, J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Ristvey, J.


    general public into the thrill of NASA science. Helping teachers develop a picture of the history and evolution of our understanding of the solar system, and honing in on the place of asteroids in helping us answer old questions and discover new ones, students and the general public sees the power and excitement underlying planetary science as human endeavor. Research indicates that science inquiry is powerful in the classroom and mission scientists are real-life models of science inquiry in action. Cross-curricular elements include examining research-based strategies for enhancing English language learners' ability to engage in higher order questions and a professional astronomy artist's insight into how visual analysis requires not just our eyes engaged, but our brains: comparing, synthesizing, questioning, evaluating, and wondering. Dawn Education and Public Outreach will share out perspectives and lessons learned, backed by extensive evaluation examining the efficacy of the mission's efforts.

  3. A Human Endeavor: Lessons from Shakespeare and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Matt; Frincke, Deb A.


    This article discusses human-oriented educational activities that support the study of computer security. It poses the point that technology is perhaps the least important aspect of security solutions, and that because of this, the fields of psychology, literature, business, and political science have significant value for any serious student of the science of security.

  4. On the Normative Function of Metatheoretical Endeavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Stein


    Full Text Available I reconstruct an historical understanding of metatheory that emphasizes its normative function. The pioneering work of James Mark Baldwin inspires an account of how metatheoretical constructs emerge developmentally and come to serve a discourse-regulative function—overseeing, organizing, and regulating whole fields of discourse. Then I look to Charles S. Peirce as an exemplary normatively oriented metatheorist and explain how both continue a philosophical tradition concerned with the normative function of humanity more broadly. Thus, while I think it is valuable to pursue a variety of metatheoretical endeavors, including descriptive and empirical ones—mapping the terrain of various discourses, or summarizing their contributions—I argue for a specific vision of metatheory as a normative endeavor with rich intellectual and historical precedence. Unpacking some of the implications involved with this way of viewing and doing metatheory lead to considerations about the differences between two general types of metatheory (scholastic-reductionist and cosmopolitan-comprehensivist, the role of philosophical interlocutors in the public-sphere, and the trajectory of human evolution in the coming decades.

  5. Retrospective review of serological testing of potential human milk donors. (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald S; Xiong, Sean C; Sakamoto, Pauline


    To estimate the prevalence of positive serology among potential donors to a human milk bank. Retrospective review of our experience with donor serological testing at our milk bank over a 6-year interval. Not-for-profit, regional human milk bank. Volunteer, unpaid potential donors of human milk. Serological testing for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2). Results of serological screening tests performed on potential donors. Of 1091 potential donors, 3.3% were positive on screening serology, including 6 syphilis, 17 hepatitis B, 3 hepatitis C, 6 HTLV and 4 HIV. There is a significant incidence of positive serology among women interested in donating human milk. This implies that there may be significant risk associated with peer-to-peer distribution of human milk from unscreened donors.

  6. Bernoulli's Principle: Science as a Human Endeavor (United States)

    McCarthy, Deborah


    What do the ideas of Daniel Bernoulli--an 18th-century Swiss mathematician, physicist, natural scientist, and professor--and your students' next landing of the space shuttle via computer simulation have in common? Because of his contribution, referred in physical science as Bernoulli's principle, modern flight is possible. The mini learning-cycle…

  7. Departmental Assessment: Productive Endeavor or Painful Encounter. (United States)

    Roberts, Elizabeth A.

    The spring of 1995 brought the onus of assessment to the Department of Communication Arts at Ohio Northern University (ONU). Often seen as a painful process, departmental assessments can become productive endeavors. Although, as a private institution, ONU is not subject to the dictates for assessment from the State Board of Education, assessment…

  8. Public awareness, education and international cooperative endeavors

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Satish R. Shetye National Institute of Oceanography, Goa Public Awareness Education and International cooperative Endeavors The Tsunamis that hit the coast of India on 26 December, 2004, caught..., etc.). None of these features, however, find mention in text books used in teaching post-graduate, undergraduate, or high school courses in our educational system. To make matters worse, popular science books on these topics are not popular...

  9. The Iranian space endeavor ambitions and reality

    CERN Document Server

    Tarikhi, Parviz


    For those who see the trend of progress and movement of the Iranian space endeavor from the outside, it can be difficult to understand what goes on behind the scenes. However, for one who observes these events firsthand, they take on a very different meaning. In this book, the author brings new and different profiles of Iran’s space endeavor to light. Iran claims to be the ninth leading country in the world capable of manufacturing satellites and launching them, plans to land an astronaut on the Moon within a decade, and says its own president plans to be the first Iranian astronaut to travel into space. The author explains in this book that not all of these claims are quite as they seem.  In addition to technical explanations, the book also includes historical, legal, social and cultural aspects of Iran’s space program as well. It is the author’s goal to create a tangible feeling of Iran’s space endeavor for the readers.

  10. Endeavors to Represent the Non-Representational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    and findings emerged through the development of a conceptual understanding of the non-representational and pre-linguistic nature and structure of corporeal-locomotive gameplay. Through the effort of trying to think and talk about games as corporeal-locomotive activities and experiences it quickly became...... the corporeal-locomotive dimension of gameplay where hands and bodies where moving to the (kin)aesthetic rhythms of the game’s choreography. Consequently, I found myself barred from ‘meaningfully’ communicating the expressive, sensuous and (kin)aesthetic meaning and significance of corporeal-locomotive gameplay...... of this hazardous, messy and meticulous endeavor to represent the non-representational nature of corporeal-locomotive gameplay activity and experience. Furthermore, the article points towards the importance of letting the expressive research field or subject dictate the method, rather than letting the method...

  11. Biochemistry in Endeavor Adventure Racers Study (BEARS). (United States)

    Wetschler, Matthew; Radler, David; Christensen, Mark; Lipman, Grant


     Adventure sports events consist of a combination of two or more endurance disciplines, such as orienteering, running, and rock climbing, that range from a day's to a week's duration. No studies have examined acute kidney injury (AKI) in adventure sports athletes. To describe the prevalence of AKI in participants in the Endeavor Team Challenge, a 30-hour, 40-mile adventure race. In this prospective observational study, body weights were recorded at race registration. At the finish line, blood sample results by point-of-care testing and weights were recorded. Changes in serum creatinine (Cr) from an estimated baseline value and severity of AKI were calculated, with "risk of injury" defined as 1.5 x baseline Cr, and "injury" defined as 2 x baseline Cr. These two categories of AKI were combined to calculate the total prevalence.  Results: There were 88 enrolled study participants with complete data available on 46 (52%). The mean age of those enrolled in the study was 36.8 years (+/- 7.7), 90% were males, and body mass index (BMI) was 25.7 kg/m(2) (+/- 2.4). Of the competitors who completed the study, 34 (73%) had some degree of AKI, with 27 (58%) found to be at "risk" and seven (15%) with "injury". There was a significant correlation between weight loss and elevated Cr (r = -0.29, p = 0.047), with a trend towards nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use being correlated with AKI (p = 0.058).  Acute kidney injury was observed in the majority of the Endeavor Team Challenge adventure racers, similar to what has been observed in multistage ultramarathons, and greater than after standard marathons and single-stage ultramarathons.

  12. Retrospectivity and Human Rights in Indonesia: How Can Irregularities Be Resolved


    Suhaeb, Irsyad Dhahri S


    To join the International community in committing protection to human rights, Indonesia consequently manifested the commitment through its constitution. However, there are still homework need to be done, including how to clarify the meaning of retrospective, also acknowledged as ‘retroaktif', indicated in the Article 28I (1) of the 1945 Constitution. Three retrospective cases decided by the Constitutional Court were used to examine Indonesian practitioners' understanding on retrospective prin...

  13. 79 A retrospective study of Human African Trypanosomiasis in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was conducted in three Malawian districts: Nkhotakota, Rumphi and Kasungu to describe the prevalence of HAT. Hospital laboratory registers from January 2000 to December 2006 were used. The calculated annual district prevalence of Trypanosomiasis ranged from 0.29 cases per 100,000.

  14. San Pedro Martir Telescope: Mexican design endeavor (United States)

    Toledo-Ramirez, Gengis K.; Bringas-Rico, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Uribe, Jorge; Lopez, Aldo; Tovar, Carlos; Caballero, Xochitl; Del-Llano, Luis; Martinez, Cesar; Macias, Eduardo; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; Richer, Michael; González, Jesús; Sanchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Segura, Jose; Rubio, Saul; Gonzalez, German; Hernandez, Obed; García, Mary; Lazaro, Jose; Rosales-Ortega, Fabian; Herrera, Joel; Sierra, Gerardo; Serrano, Hazael


    two Nasmyth focal stations are contemplated, nominally with focal ratios of f/5 and f/11. The concept will allow the use of existing instruments like MMIRS and MEGACAM. Available experience from currently working ground-based telescopes will be integrated with up-to-date technology specially for control and information management systems. Its mount is the well-known azimuth-elevation configuration. The telescope total mass is estimated in about 245 metric tons, with a total azimuth load of 185 metric tons including around 110 metric tons as the total elevation load. A tracking error lower than 0.03 arcsec RMS is expected under steady wind up to 50 Km/h. An open-loop pointing accuracy between 10 and 2 arcsec is planned. The TSPM is in its design phase. It is the first large optical ground-based telescope to be designed and developed primarily by Mexican scientists and engineers. This endeavor will result in the improvement of the scientific and technical capabilities of Mexico including complex scientific instruments development, systems engineering and project management for large engineering projects. In this paper, which aims to gather the attention of the community for further discussions, we present the engineering preliminary design, the basic architecture and challenging technical endeavors of the TSPM project.

  15. Human and animal anthrax in Ethiopia: A retrospective record ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    case of human anthrax was when any person shows an acute onset of the disease ... by nausea, vomiting, anorexia and followed by fever. Pulmonary .... Ministry of Agriculture should strength their surveillance system and early preparedness.

  16. Streptococcus canis infections in humans: retrospective study of 54 patients. (United States)

    Galpérine, Tatiana; Cazorla, Cécile; Blanchard, Elodie; Boineau, Françoise; Ragnaud, Jean-Marie; Neau, Didier


    This 5-year retrospective study reports 54 patients with infection, caused by Streptococcus canis, a pyogenic Lancefield group G streptococcus initially isolated from various animal sources. During 1997-2002, Streptococcus canis accounted for 1% of all streptococci isolated. The clinical signs, outcome and bacteriological characteristics were reviewed. All except eight were symptomatic. Clinical manifestations were: soft tissue infection (n=35), bacteremia (n=5), urinary infection (n=3), bone infection (n=2) and pneumonia (n=1). The course was favorable in 52 cases while two died from sepsis. Cultures were often polymicrobial (n=42, 77.8%) apart from hemocultures. The isolates were sensitive to most antibiotics. Presence of the bacteria did not always signify infection owing to the possible occurrence of colonization. The frequency of S. canis infections is rare and likely underestimated owing to the fact that streptococci are sought only on the basis of the Lancefield classification. The search for S. canis is recommended whenever patients present with symptoms evocative of exposure to a potentially contaminated animal.

  17. Human and animal anthrax in Ethiopia: A retrospective record ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though anthrax is a reportable disease in Ethiopia, data have not been analyzed and interpreted for ... respectively) This data analysis revealed that less number of human anthrax cases were reported than animal ..... four big regions which have comparatively good surveillance system and trained manpower. The four ...

  18. Human and animal anthrax in Ethiopia: A retrospective record ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, 10,000-100,000 human anthrax incidences occur annually with significant number of cases from Chad, Ethiopia, Zambia, Zimbabwe and India. Even though anthrax is a reportable disease in Ethiopia, data have not been analyzed and interpreted for public health intervention. During the past five years, 2009-2013, ...

  19. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing

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    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; reduce environmental pollution by bioconversion of huge organic wastes into mushrooms; recycle huge quantity of organic wastes to mushroom crops, biofertilizers, and biogas; restore damaged environment by mushroom mycelia through mycoforestry, mycoremediation, mycofiltration and mycopesticides in a zero emission fashion. They can be used to degrade radioactive industrial biocide wastes in an eco-friendly fashion. Since mushroom cultivation is an indoor agribusiness, it could have great economic impact by generating employment, income and functional food requirements for rural people especially in developing countries. How far mushroom cultivation can meet the functional food requirements; address the domestic food challenges, rising food prices and crisis vis a vis environmental sustainability will be thrust areas of this communication.

  20. Treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds using human fibroblast-derived dermis: a retrospective analysis. (United States)

    Carlson, Russell M; Smith, Nicholas C; Dux, Katherine; Stuck, Rodney M


    Human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute is a well-studied treatment for diabetic foot ulcers; however, no case series currently exist for its use in healing postoperative wounds of the lower extremity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 lower extremity postoperative wounds treated weekly with human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute. Postoperative wounds were defined as a wound resulting from an open partial foot amputation, surgical wound dehiscence, or nonhealing surgical wound of the lower extremity. Wound surface area was calculated at 4 and 12 weeks or until wound closure if prior to 12 weeks. Postoperative wounds treated with weekly applications showed mean improvement in surface area reduction of 63.6% at 4 weeks and 96.1% at 12 weeks. More than 56% of all wounds healed prior to the 12-week endpoint. Additionally, only one adverse event was noted in this group. This retrospective review supports the use of human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute in the treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds. This advanced wound care therapy aids in decreased total healing time and increased rate of healing for not only diabetic foot wounds but also postoperative wounds of the lower extremity, as demonstrated by this retrospective review.

  1. The Process of Sensemaking in Complex Human Endeavors (United States)


    sense making. Expert Systems with Applications, 20, 7-16. Nonaka , I. and Takeuchi , H. (1995). The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies...applications. This is echoed by Nonaka (1995), that “what makes sense in one context can change or even lose its meaning when communicated to people in a

  2. Creative Endeavors: Inspiring Creativity in a First Grade Classroom (United States)

    Cress, Susan W.; Holm, Daniel T.


    With an emphasis on high-stakes testing and a focused curriculum, it would seem at times, the joy of creativity is missing from the classroom. This article describes a curricular approach the children named "Creative Endeavors", as implemented by a first grade teacher. The approach is described in three phases. In the exploratory stage…

  3. Retrospective analysis of main and interaction effects in genetic association studies of human complex traits

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    Brasch-Andersen Charlotte


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology of multifactorial human diseases involves complex interactions between numerous environmental factors and alleles of many genes. Efficient statistical tools are demanded in identifying the genetic and environmental variants that affect the risk of disease development. This paper introduces a retrospective polytomous logistic regression model to measure both the main and interaction effects in genetic association studies of human discrete and continuous complex traits. In this model, combinations of genotypes at two interacting loci or of environmental exposure and genotypes at one locus are treated as nominal outcomes of which the proportions are modeled as a function of the disease trait assigning both main and interaction effects and with no assumption of normality in the trait distribution. Performance of our method in detecting interaction effect is compared with that of the case-only model. Results Results from our simulation study indicate that our retrospective model exhibits high power in capturing even relatively small effect with reasonable sample sizes. Application of our method to data from an association study on the catalase -262C/T promoter polymorphism and aging phenotypes detected significant main and interaction effects for age-group and allele T on individual's cognitive functioning and produced consistent results in estimating the interaction effect as compared with the popular case-only model. Conclusion The retrospective polytomous logistic regression model can be used as a convenient tool for assessing both main and interaction effects in genetic association studies of human multifactorial diseases involving genetic and non-genetic factors as well as categorical or continuous traits.

  4. Human and animal leptospirosis in Southern Brazil: A five-year retrospective study. (United States)

    Jorge, Sérgio; Schuch, Rodrigo Andrade; de Oliveira, Natasha Rodrigues; da Cunha, Carlos Eduardo Pouey; Gomes, Charles Klazer; Oliveira, Thais Larré; Rizzi, Caroline; Qadan, Aisha Farid; Pacce, Violetta Dias; Coelho Recuero, Ana Lúcia; Soares Brod, Claudiomar; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis attributed to multiple reservoirs. Climatic conditions influence the transmission of pathogenic leptospires, which require warm and humid conditions for survival. The influence of seasonality in human and animal leptospirosis in the subtropical region of Brazil remains poorly understood. We performed a retrospective study to describe the patterns of human and animal exposure to leptospirosis and their association with precipitation events in Southern Brazil. Rainfall data were obtained from satellite images. Serum samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT); samples with titer ≥ 100 were defined as seroreactive. Linear regression and Pearson's correlation were performed to assess whether there is a relationship between these variables. We found that precipitation events were not significantly associated with the exposure to leptospirosis in humans or animal species, except for dogs. The interspecies analysis revealed an association between canine and human exposure to leptospirosis. Leptospira kirschneri serovar Butembo (serogroup Autumnalis) presented the highest seroreactivity in humans. This study provides valuable insights in human and animal leptospirosis in Southern Brazil. These insights will be essential to design intervention measures directed to reduce disease dissemination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High Incidence of Human Rabies Exposure in Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia: A Four-Year Retrospective Study. (United States)

    Teklu, Gebreyohans Gebru; Hailu, Teweldemedhn Gebretinsae; Eshetu, Gebremedhin Romha


    Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease that has been known in Ethiopia for centuries in society as "Mad Dog Disease". It is an important disease with veterinary and public health significance in the North western zone of Tigray where previous studies have not been conducted. Frequent occurrence of outbreaks in the area led the researchers to carry out a four year retrospective study to estimate the incidence of human rabies exposure in Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia. A referent study was conducted on human rabies exposure cases recorded from 2012 to 2015 at Suhul hospital, Shire Endaselase, Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia. Exposure cases included in this research constituted victims bitten by unprovoked dogs and who received post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) at the hospital. Two thousand one hundred eighty human rabies exposure cases retrieved from the rabies case database were included in this study. The majority of the exposed cases were males (1363/2180, 63%). Age wise, the most exposed age group was ≥15 years in all the study years: 166 (58%), 335 (65%), 492 (66%) and 394 (63%) in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Similarly, exposure cases for human rabies increased with age in both males and females across the study years. The incidence of human rabies exposure cases calculated per 100,000 populations was 35.8, 63.0, 89.8 and 73.1 in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that being male was a risk for human rabies exposure in all the study years. The study discovered the highest annual human rabies exposure incidence in Ethiopia. This suggests an urgent need for synergistic efforts of human and animal health sectors to implement prevention and control strategies in this area.

  6. Human papillomavirus infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a retrospective study

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    M.O.O Carvalho

    Full Text Available There is considerable data to support a central role for human papillomavirus (HPV in the etiology of cervical cancer. More than a 100 HPV types have been described, and 40 have been isolated from benign and malignant genital lesions. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Few studies concerning the natural history of HPV infection have been conducted in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We determined the prevalence of HPV types in female genital lesions by using Hybrid Capture Assay (HCA and we retrospectively analyzed the course of HPV infection. Our sample included 788 women attended at Laboratórios Sérgio Franco. The average age of the participants was 29.6 years. HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis were determined. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in the study group was 50.1% (395/788, ranging from 25% (NORMAL to 100% in high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. High risk HPV was found in 12% inflammatory, 58.3% HPV, 63.2% LSIL and 100% HSIL. A retrospective analysis of 78 patients showed that 22 presented persistent lesions, 2 had progressive lesions, 4 had regressive lesions, 13 showed latent infections, 18 were transiently infected and 19 were submitted to curative treatment. No cases of cancer were registered in this population, which can afford private medical care and regular follow-up exams. We suggest that HCA be used in specific cases involving persistent and recurrent lesions.

  7. Surgical crown lengthening in a population with human immunodeficiency virus: a retrospective analysis). (United States)

    Kolhatkar, Shilpa; Mason, Suzanne A; Janic, Ana; Bhola, Monish; Haque, Shaziya; Winkler, James R


    Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of developing health problems, including some that are life threatening. Today, dental treatment for the population with a positive HIV diagnosis (HIV+) is comprehensive. There are limited reports on the outcomes of intraoral surgical therapy in patients with HIV, such as crown lengthening surgery (CLS) with osseous recontouring. This report investigates the outcome of CLS procedures performed at an urban dental school in a population of individuals with HIV. Specifically, this retrospective clinical analysis evaluates the healing response after CLS. Paper and electronic records were examined from the year 2000 to the present. Twenty-one individuals with HIV and immunosuppression, ranging from insignificant to severe, underwent CLS. Pertinent details, including laboratory values, medications, smoking history/status, and postoperative outcomes, were recorded. One such surgery is described in detail with radiographs, photographs, and a videoclip. Of the 21 patients with HIV examined after CLS, none had postoperative complications, such as delayed healing, infection, or prolonged bleeding. Variations in viral load (healing. In addition, variations in medication regimens (highly active anti-retroviral therapy [18]; on protease inhibitors [1]; no medications [2]) did not have an impact. The results of this retrospective analysis show the absence of postoperative complications after CLS in this population with HIV. Additional investigation into this area will help health care practitioners increase the range of surgical services provided to this group of patients.

  8. A retrospective audit of bacterial culture results of donated human milk in Perth, Western Australia. (United States)

    Almutawif, Yahya; Hartmann, Benjamin; Lloyd, Megan; Erber, Wendy; Geddes, Donna


    The bacterial content of donated human milk is either endogenous or introduced via contamination. Defining milk bank bacterial content will allow researchers to devise appropriate tests for significant and commonly encountered organisms. A retrospective audit was conducted on data recorded from the Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Subiaco, Western Australia. This aimed to describe the incidence of bacterial species detected in donated human milk and to identify potentially pathogenic bacteria. The data comprised of 2890 batches donated by 448 women between 2007 and 2011. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) represented the highest prevalence of bacteria in donated milk, isolated from 85.5% of batches (range: 20 to 650,000CFU/mL) followed by Acinetobacter species in 8.1% of batches (range: 100 to 180,000CFU/mL). Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent potentially pathogenic bacteria in 5% of batches (range: 40 to 100,000CFU/mL). Further investigation is warranted to better define the risks posed by the presence of toxin-producing S. aureus in raw and pasteurized human milk which may allow minimization of risk to the preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neila Ben Afia; Sana Harbi


    .... A distinction is drawn between the direct and the indirect impact of military endeavor on happiness which operates through the impact of military endeavor on income and the impact of income on happiness...

  10. Usutu virus infections in humans: a retrospective analysis in the municipality of Modena, Italy. (United States)

    Grottola, A; Marcacci, M; Tagliazucchi, S; Gennari, W; Di Gennaro, A; Orsini, M; Monaco, F; Marchegiano, P; Marini, V; Meacci, M; Rumpianesi, F; Lorusso, A; Pecorari, M; Savini, G


    To monitor the spread and to evaluate the role for public health of Usutu virus (USUV) in an endemic area of Italy. The survey was retrospectively conducted by detecting USUV RNA and USUV antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples collected between 2008 and 2011 from 915 patients with or without neurologic impairments in the area of the municipality of Modena, Italy. Organs of birds and pools of mosquitoes were also tested for USUV RNA. Positive samples were partially sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. The presence of USUV RNA (1.1%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-2.0) was significantly (p <0.05) higher than that of West Nile virus (0%; 95% CI 0-0.33). USUV antibody level was 6.57% (95% CI 4.87-8.82), and it was significantly higher (p <0.05) compared to that of West Nile virus (p 2.96, 95% CI 1.89-4.62). Partial genome sequencing of USUV strains detected in humans, birds and mosquitoes revealed high nucleotide sequence identity within them and with the USUV strains isolated in Central Europe. USUV infection in humans is not a sporadic event in the studied area, and USUV neuroinvasiveness has been confirmed. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A retrospective longitudinal study of animal and human rabies in Botswana 1989-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Moagabo


    Full Text Available A longitudinal study of animal and human rabies covering 18 years from 1989 to 2006 was retrospectively conducted in order to highlight the epidemiological features and trends of the disease in Botswana. Over the 18-year period, a total of 4 306 brain specimens collected from various species of animals including human beings with clinical signs consistent with rabies were submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory in Gaborone for confirmatory diagnosis. Of the samples submitted, 2 419 cases were found to be positive for lyssavirus antigen; this presents an overall prevalence rate of 56.18 ± 1.48 %. About 85.7 % (2 074/2 419 of the cases were from domestic animals, 14.2 % (343/2 419 cases were from wild animals and two cases (0.1 % were from human beings. During the first half of the study (1989-1997 the prevalence rate of the disease was estimated at 62.79 ± 1.85 % (1 645/2 620 positive whereas during the second half (1998-2006 it was estimated at 45.91 ± 2.38 % (774/1 686 positive and the difference between the two estimates was statistically, highly significant (Δ % = 16.88, SE 95 diff % = 3.015, SD = 5.599; P < 0.001. Ruminant rabies accounted for 79.99 % (50.92 % bovine, 28.40 % caprine and 0.67 % ovine whereas canine (domestic dog and feline (domestic cat accounted for 16.01 and 0.87 %, respectively. Equine rabies accounted for 3.13 % with 1.35 and 1.78 %, respectively, for horses and donkeys. Jackal rabies accounted for more than 60 % of the total cases in wild animals. These findings are discussed in relation to the previous epidemiological situation of the disease (1979-1988, its socio-economic impact, monitoring and control in Botswana.

  12. Immunohistochemical localization of human papilloma virus in conjunctival neoplasias: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Seema


    Full Text Available Background: The extent of association of human papilloma virus (HPV in human conjunctival neoplasias has been debated in studies originating from different parts of the world, but no substantial evidence has been generated on Indian subjects. This prompted us to carry out a retrospective study on conjunctival neoplasias diagnosed over the past 12 years. Materials and Methods: Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 65 specimens of ocular neoplasias and 30 normal controls diagnosed between 1991 and 2002 at a tertiary eye care hospital, was undertaken. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were reviewed for confirming histopathological diagnosis, presence of koilocytosis and changes related to actinic keratosis. Immunohistochemical analysis was done using HPV-specific monoclonal antibodies. Clinicopathological correlation and the association of HPV antigen with the histopathological features were performed. Results: Out of the 65 cases analyzed, 35 were papillomas and 30 were ocular surface squamous neoplasias (OSSN. The mean age was 48 years with a male preponderance. Histologically, koilocytosis was observed in 17.1% of papillomas and 36.6% of OSSN. Actinic keratosis was present in 33% of OSSN. Immunohistochemically 17.1% conjunctival papillomas stained positive for HPV antigen, all cases of OSSN were negative for HPV. There was no correlation between koilocytosis or actinic keratosis and the detection of HPV antigen. Conclusions: The association between HPV and conjunctival neoplasias is variable in different geographical areas and also depends on the methods of detection used. This study warrants the need for applying more advanced techniques at a molecular level to determine the possible etiology of HPV in conjunctival neoplasias among Asian-Indians.

  13. Prospects of a computational origin of life endeavor. (United States)

    Shenhav, Barak; Lancet, Doron


    While the last century brought an exquisite understanding of the molecular basis of life, very little is known about the detailed chemical mechanisms that afforded the emergence of life on early earth. There is a broad agreement that the problem lies in the realm of chemistry, and likely resides in the formation and mutual interactions of carbon-based molecules in aqueous medium. Yet, present-day experimental approaches can only capture the synthesis and behavior of a few molecule types at a time. On the other hand, experimental simulations of prebiotic syntheses, as well as chemical analyses of carbonaceous meteorites, suggest that the early prebiotic hydrosphere contained many thousands of different compounds. The present paper explores the idea that given the limitations of test-tube approaches with regards to such a 'random chemistry' scenario, an alternative mode of analysis should be pursued. It is argued that as computational tools for the reconstruction of molecular interactions improve rapidly, it may soon become possible to perform adequate computer-based simulations of prebiotic evolution. We thus propose to launch a computational origin of life endeavor (, involving computer simulations of realistic complex prebiotic chemical networks. In the present paper we provide specific examples, based on a novel algorithmic approach, which constitutes a hybrid of molecular dynamics and stochastic chemistry. As one potential solution for the immense hardware requirements dictated by this approach, we have begun to implement an idle CPU harvesting scheme, under the title ool@home.

  14. Operation Joint Endeavor in Bosnia: telemedicine systems and case reports. (United States)

    Calcagni, D E; Clyburn, C A; Tomkins, G; Gilbert, G R; Cramer, T J; Lea, R K; Ehnes, S G; Zajtchuk, R


    For the last several years the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) has operated a telemedicine test bed at the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command's Medical Advanced Technology Management Office. The goal of this test bed is to reengineer the military health service system from the most forward deployed forces to tertiary care teaching medical centers within the United States by exploiting emerging telemedicine technologies. The test bed has conducted numerous proof-of-concept telemedicine demonstrations as part of military exercises and in support of real-world troop deployments. The most ambitious of those demonstrations is Primetime III, an ongoing effort to provide telemedicine and other advanced technology support to medical units supporting Operation Joint Endeavor in Bosnia. Several of the first instances of the clinical use of the Primetime III systems are presented as case reports in this paper. These reports demonstrate capabilities and limitations of telemedicine. The Primetime III system demonstrates the technical ability to provide current telecommunications capabilities to medical units stationed in the remote, austere, difficult-to-serve environment of Bosnia. Telemedicine capabilities cannot be used without adequate training, operations, and sustainment support. Video consultations have eliminated the need for some evacuations. The system has successfully augmented the clinical capability of physicians assigned to these medical units. Fullest clinical utilization of telemedicine technologies requires adjustment of conventional clinical practice patterns.

  15. Human papilloma virus dermatosis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: A 14-year retrospective study in 965 patients. (United States)

    Nuno-Gonzalez, Almudena; Losa Garcia, Juan Emilio; López Estebaranz, José Luis; Martin-Rios, María Dolores


    The incidence of the human papilloma virus (HPV) has not dropped in HIV-positive patients despite the discovery of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our goal is to assess the prevalence of HPV in HIV patients and its relationship with the epidemiological and virological characteristics of HIV patients. Retrospective cohort of 965 patients diagnosed with HIV from 1998 to 2012. We analyzed patients' demographic factors and factors related to the HPV. Of the 965 patients examined, 333 consulted a dermatologist. Of these, 52 patients had genital warts (15.6%), 43 had common warts (12.9%) and 8% had both conditions. In total, 28.5% of patients had a skin lesion caused by HPV. This is the first longitudinal observational study carried out on HIV-positive patients in the era of ART in which HPV infection is the most common skin pathology. We observed a similar trend in countries with access to ART. This study spreads awareness on the importance of preventing HPV and the difficulty of treating it in HIV-positive patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of alcohol administration on human timing: a comparison of prospective timing, retrospective timing and passage of time judgements. (United States)

    Ogden, Ruth S; Wearden, John H; Gallagher, Denis T; Montgomery, Catharine


    Previous research suggests that human timing may be affected by alcohol administration. The current study aimed to expand on previous research by examining the effect of alcohol on prospective timing, retrospective timing and passage of time judgements. A blind between-subjects design was employed in which participants were either administered 0 g of alcohol per kilogramme of body weight (placebo), 0.4 g/kg (low dose) or 0.6g/kg (high dose). Participants completed four types of temporal task; verbal estimation and temporal generalisation, a retrospective timing task and a passage of time judgement task. A high dose of alcohol resulted in overestimations of duration relative to the low dose and placebo group in the verbal estimation task. A high dose of alcohol was also associated with time passing more quickly than normal. Alcohol had no effect on retrospective judgements. The results suggest that a high dose of alcohol increases internal clock speed leading to over-estimations of duration on prospective timing tasks, and the sensation of time passing more quickly than normal. The absence of an effect of alcohol on retrospective timing supports the suggestion that retrospective judgements are not based on the output of an internal clock. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Status of Developing Afghan Governance and Lessons for Future Endeavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H Sternlieb


    Full Text Available Building the capacity of and reforming Afghan governance is widely viewed as the key to success in Afghanistan. Assessing progress, however, is hampered by limited data outside the Afghan security ministries – the Ministries of Defense and Interior – and by the lack of a common definition of governance. Available reporting suggests building governance capacity is far from complete. Varying definitions of governance, coupled with the use of the term by numerous organizations without defining it, results in addressing too broad a range of issues. It would be more useful to concentrate on the core of governance – providing the services the Afghan government has committed to provide to its citizens. This, in turn, requires that Afghan ministries have the functional capacity to carry out their responsibilities, including financial management, budget formulation and execution, policy and strategic planning, and service delivery. However, time is growing short. The Afghan experience provides some important lessons that could guide future endeavors for the international community. First, this paper discusses progress in building ministerial capacity. Second, it discusses recent efforts to link continued financial assistance to Afghanistan with improved governance. Third, it describes how the lack of a commonly accepted definition of governance complicates assessing progress. Finally, it offers conclusions and observations about the failure to establish an autonomous Afghan governance capacity. For more than a decade, improving governance has been recognized as the most difficult and critical challenge involving Afghan reconstruction. The Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR reports that U.S. policymakers have consistently identified building the capacity of and reforming Afghan governance as the key to success in Afghanistan (SIGAR 2012, 22.

  18. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study (United States)


    Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9) and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064) were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, 75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving milk fortifier was related to human milk intake (p = 0.04). Among infants receiving > 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54). Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal), 21% (mixed), p = 0.08). Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk. PMID:22900590

  19. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colaizy Tarah T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9 and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064 were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, th percentile at birth, and 34% of infants were SGA at discharge. Infants fed >75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54. Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal, 21% (mixed, p = 0.08. Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk.

  20. Retrospective analysis of main and interaction effects in genetic association studies of human complex traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte


    with that of the case-only model. RESULTS: Results from our simulation study indicate that our retrospective model exhibits high power in capturing even relatively small effect with reasonable sample sizes. Application of our method to data from an association study on the catalase -262C/T promoter polymorphism...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In human liver transplantation, air embolism is seldom encountered after graft reperfusion. Nevertheless, despite adequate flushing and clamping routines, air emboli have been reported in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) studies performed during the reperfusion phase, We retrospectively

  2. Bold endeavors: behavioral lessons from polar and space exploration (United States)

    Stuster, J. W.


    Anecdotal comparisons frequently are made between expeditions of the past and space missions of the future. Spacecraft are far more complex than sailing ships, but from a psychological perspective, the differences are few between confinement in a small wooden ship locked in the polar ice cap and confinement in a small high-technology ship hurtling through interplanetary space. This paper discusses some of the behavioral lessons that can be learned from previous expeditions and applied to facilitate human adjustment and performance during future space expeditions of long duration.

  3. Annual trends of human brucellosis in pastoralist communities of south-western Uganda: a retrospective ten-year study. (United States)

    Kansiime, Catherine; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Asiimwe, Benon B; Makumbi, Fredrick; Bazira, Joel; Mugisha, Anthony


    Human brucellosis is prevalent in both rural and urban Uganda, yet most cases of the disease in humans go unnoticed and untreated because of inaccurate diagnosis, which is often due to the disease not manifesting in any symptoms. This study was undertaken to describe trends in laboratory-confirmed human brucellosis cases at three health facilities in pastoralist communities in South-western, Uganda. Data were collected retrospectively to describe trends of brucellosis over a 10-year period (2003-2012), and supplemented with a prospective study, which was conducted from January to December 2013. Two public health facilities and a private clinic that have diagnostic laboratories were selected for these studies. Annual prevalence was calculated and linearly plotted to observe trends of the disease at the health facilities. A modified Poisson regression model was used to estimate the risk ratio (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) to determine the association between brucellosis and independent variables using the robust error variance. A total of 9,177 persons with suspected brucellosis were identified in the retrospective study, of which 1,318 (14.4 %) were confirmed cases. Brucellosis cases peaked during the months of April and June, as observed in nearly all of the years of the study, while the most noticeable annual increase (11-23 %) was observed from 2010 to 2012. In the prospective study, there were 610 suspected patients at two public health facilities. Of these, 194 (31.8 %) were positive for brucellosis. Respondents aged 45-60 years (RR = 0.50; CI: 0.29-0.84) and those that tested positive for typhoid (RR = 0.68; CI: 0.52-0.89) were less likely to have brucellosis. With the noticeable increase in prevalence from 2010 to 2012, diagnosis of both brucellosis and typhoid is important for early detection, and for raising public awareness on methods for preventing brucellosis in this setting.

  4. A retrospective study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands

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    Grandjean Philippe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs in wildlife and humans remain a cause of global concern, both in regard to traditional POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and emerging POPs, such as the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. To determine the time related concentrations, we analyzed human milk for these substances at three time points between 1987 and 1999. Polychlorobiphenylols (OH-PCBs, the dominating class of PCB metabolites, some of which are known to be strongly retained in human blood, were also included in the assessment. Methods We obtained milk from the Faroe Islands, where the population is exposed to POPs from their traditional diet (which may include pilot whale blubber. In addition to three pools, nine individual samples from the last time point were also analyzed. After cleanup, partitioning of neutral and acidic compounds, and separation of chemical classes, the analyses were carried out by gas chromatography and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Compared to other European populations, the human milk had high PCB concentrations, with pool concentrations of 2300 ng/g fat 1987, 1600 ng/g fat in 1994, and 1800 ng/g fat in 1999 (based on the sum of eleven major PCB congeners. The nine individual samples showed great variation in PCB concentrations. The OH-PCBs were present in trace amounts only, at levels of approximately 1% of the PCB concentrations. The PBDE concentrations showed a clear increase over time, and their concentrations in human milk from 1999 are among the highest reported so far from Europe, with results of individual samples ranging from 4.7 to 13 ng/g fat Conclusion Although remote from pollution sources, the Faroe Islands show high concentrations of POPs in human milk, particularly PCBs, but also PBDEs. The PBDEs show increasing concentrations over time. The OH-PCB metabolites are poorly transferred to human milk, which likely is related to their acidic character.

  5. A retrospective time trend study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faengstroem, B.; Strid, A.; Athanassiadis, I.; Bergman, Aa. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Grandjean, P. [Inst. of Public Health, Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Weihe, P. [Faroese Hospital System, Torshavn (Denmark)


    The Faroe Islands are located quite far from the European continent and from industrial sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). However, the Faroese population may be exposed to these substances through contaminated food, via goods and products in their homes, and in their work environment. High trophic level marine species, including pilot whale and seabirds, such as fulmars, have been shown to accumulate high concentrations of organohalogen substances (OHS) like PCBs and PBDEs. Possibly due to dietary differences, wide differences exist in regard to PCB exposures among the Faroese. In a birth cohort from 1987, milk pools contained relatively high PCB concentrations between 1.9-2.5 {mu}g/g lipid weight (l.w.). In another cohort from 1994, serum from pregnant Faroese women was analyzed for PCB and OH-PCBs, with results ranging from 0.15 to 22 {mu}g/g l.w. and 0.02 to 1.8 {mu}g/g l.w., respectively. In a time trend study for PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from Sweden from the early 1970s to 1997, the PBDE concentrations showed a significant increase while the PCB levels showed a decrease. Human milk samples from 1997 to 2000 indicate a decrease for the PBDEs, mainly due to reduced concentrations of BDE-47. A similar trend has been seen in human milk from Japan. In Norway, PBDE in human milk increased from 1986 to 2001, with similar concentration levels as reported in Sweden and Japan. In the United States the PBDE levels reported in human milk are about 4 times higher than those seen in Europe and Japan. The aim of the present study was to determine PBDE and PCB concentrations in a temporal trend study with samples from 1987-1999 in human milk samples from the Faroe Islands.

  6. The human role in changing fluvial systems: Retrospect, inventory and prospect (United States)

    James, L. Allan; Marcus, W. Andrew


    Historical and modern scientific contexts are provided for the 2006 Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium on the Human Role in Changing Fluvial Systems. The 2006 symposium provides a synthesis of research concerned with human impacts on fluvial systems — including hydrologic and geomorphic changes to watersheds — while also commemorating the 50th anniversary of the 1955 Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth Symposium [Thomas, Jr., W. L. (Ed.), 1956a. Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago. 1193 pp]. This paper examines the 1955 symposium from the perspective of human impacts on rivers, reviews current inquiry on anthropogenic interactions in fluvial systems, and anticipates future directions in this field. Although the 1955 symposium did not have an explicit geomorphic focus, it set the stage for many subsequent anthropogeomorphic studies. The 1955 conference provided guidance to geomorphologists by recommending and practicing interdisciplinary scholarship, through the use of diverse methodologies applied at extensive temporal and geographical scales, and through its insistence on an integrated understanding of human interactions with nature. Since 1956, research on human impacts to fluvial systems has been influenced by fundamental changes in why the research is done, what is studied, how river studies are conducted, and who does the research. Rationales for river research are now driven to a greater degree by institutional needs, environmental regulations, and aquatic restoration. New techniques include a host of dating, spatial imaging, and ground measurement methods that can be coupled with analytical functions and digital models. These new methods have led to a greater understanding of channel change, variations across multiple temporal and spatial scales, and integrated watershed perspectives; all changes that are reflected by the papers in this volume. These new methods also bring a set of technical demands for the

  7. Animal and human bite injuries: a 5-year retrospective study in a large urban public hospital in Venezuela. (United States)

    Gelvez, Muñoz; Enrique, Ruben; Gajos, Golaszewski; Bladimir, Jose; Carvajal, Diaz; Luis, Alvaro


    Animal bite injuries to the head and neck regions are an important public health problem. Most of these bites are from dogs. A 10-year retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of animal and human bites. This retrospective study was done from January 2011 to December 2016 and included 387 patients with a mean age of 21.51 years. Data collection included age, sex, days of hospitalization, lesion type, and clinical management. Majority of patients were in age group of 21-29 years, followed by 31-55 years. Out of the total 281 patients, 42 patients (51.60%) were males and 34 patients (48.40%) were females. Mean hospital stay was 7.2 days with a minimum of 5 days and a maximum of 12 days. Surgical management included cleansing and primary closure of the wound. We concluded that the use of empiric antibiotic prophylaxis is essential for management of facial animal bite, and the antibiotic of first choice is amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. The aim of immediate surgical repair (Venezuela.

  8. Retrospective detection of exposure to organophosphorus anti-cholinesterases: Mass spectrometric analysis of phosphylated human butyrylcholinesterase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidder, A.; Hulst, A.G.; Noort, D.; Ruiter, R. de; Schans, M.J. van der; Benschop, H.P.; Langenberg, J.P.


    In this paper a novel and general procedure is presented for detection of organophosphate-inhibited human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE), which is based on electrospray tandem mass spectrometric analysis of phosphylated nonapeptides obtained after pepsin digestion of the enzyme. The utility of this

  9. What distinguishes the Gordon Research Conference on Oceans and Human Health? A retrospective 2008-2012. (United States)

    Doyle, John J


    This piece is being submitted as a short commentary for the special edition on Oceans and Human Health (OHH). It is written from the perspective of a student who has attended all three biennial Gordon Research Conferences and Seminars on OHH beginning in 2008.

  10. Human fascioliasis in Argentina: retrospective overview, critical analysis and baseline for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuervo Pablo


    Full Text Available Abstract In Argentina, human fascioliasis has never been adequately analysed, although having a physiography, climate, animal prevalences and lymnaeids similar to those of countries where the disease is endemic such as Bolivia, Peru and Chile. We performed a literature search identifying 58 reports accounting for 619 cases, involving 13 provinces, their majority (97.7% from high altitudes, in central mountainous areas and Andean valleys, concentrated in Cordoba (430 cases, Catamarca (73, San Luis (29 and Mendoza (28, the remaining provinces being rarely affected. This distribution does not fit that of animal fascioliasis. Certain aspects (higher prevalence in females in a local survey, although a trend non-significant throughout Argentina but not others (patient's age 3-95 years, mean 37.1 years resemble human endemics in Andean countries, although the lack of intensity studies and surveys in rural areas does not allow for an adequate evaluation. Human infection occurs mainly in January-April, when higher precipitation and temperatures interact with field activities during summer holidays. A second June peak may be related to Easter holidays. The main risk factor appears to be wild watercress ingestion (214 during recreational, weekend outings or holiday activities, explaining numerous family outbreaks involving 63 people and infection far away from their homes. Diagnosis mainly relied on egg finding (288, followed by serology (82, intradermal reaction (63, surgery (43, and erratic fluke observation (6. The number of fascioliasis-hydatidosis co-infected patients (14 is outstanding. Emetine appears as the drug most used (186, replaced by triclabendazole in recent years (21. Surgery reports are numerous (27.0%. A long delay in diagnosis (average almost 3.5 years and high lithiasis proportion suggest that many patients are frequently overlooked and pose a question mark about fascioliasis detection in the country. High seroprevalences found in

  11. The phenomenon of social assistance in the humanities: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Lazarenko


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of social assistance in humanitarian schools. Such as: 1 Philosophy; 2 Cultural Studies; 3 Law; 3 Socio-pedagogical science. Retrospective analysis allowed revealing the research principles of social assistance analysis, functional features and differences of this phenomenon. Established that the theoretical basis of social assistance study incorporated in works of ancient philosophers (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle. Analyzed influence on the formation of social assistance scientific research by religious philosophers of the Middle Ages (F. Aquinas, A. Blessed. Deals the transformation of social assistance understanding from a part of society moral to forms of social interaction. Civilizational approach outlined in the cultural mainstream schools (B. Malinowski, C. Polanyi. It was determined that the cultural research traditions of social assistance understood this phenomena as a repeater of cultural heritage through the traditions of the community. Outlined scientific approach to social assistance in Law sciences. It was found that representatives of Socio-pedagogical and Political Science have used theoretical developments sociologists (M. Weber, J. Mead, H. Blumer, T. Parsons, R. Merton, E Giddens. Demonstrated that in Political Science social assistance acts as a functional tool for implementation of social policy. Characterized the role of social assistance within different models of social policy and its positions in state and international organization. Deals with the fundamental difference between the concepts of «social assistance» and «social work». Outlined limits the use of these concepts in humanitarian studies. The analysis allows us to formulate research strategies study the phenomenon of social assistance in modern society. In particular sociological perspective updated study of the phenomenon of social assistance. Actually, applied achievements of classic theory of social capital in the

  12. The growth and development of the Annals of Human Biology: a 25-year retrospective. (United States)

    Tanner, J M


    The history of the founding in 1958 of the Society for the Study of Human Biology is outlined, and the circumstances in which the Annals of Human Biology began publication in 1974. The contents of the papers published 1974-1997 are reviewed; about 40% concern Population Biology, 40% Auxology and 20% Population Physiology. Some outstanding contributions in the first two of these fields are mentioned. Many consist of groups of papers from an ongoing study: 11 papers from the Otmoor villages study by Harrison and colleagues, and 11 concerning the growth of children in the Zurich Longitudinal Study, by Gasser and colleagues. Papers concerning the analysis of growth data and modelling of the growth curve, especially by Healy, are noted, and papers giving evidence of mini-spurts in growth and the saltation-stasis growth model are recalled. Wilson's papers on catch-up and growth regulation in twins are reviewed; also the contribution to growth-as-a-mirror of social conditions by workers at the Stockholm Institute of Education. The National Study of Health and Growth, led by Rona, contributed 13 papers over 14 years to the Annals, and there were outstanding one-off papers from the National Child Development Study, and the Cuban National Growth Study of 1972, and concerning the secular trend towards greater leg length in Japan, the upward social mobility of the taller of pairs of brothers, the growth of 18th century children in Vienna and Stuttgart and the measurements of 19th century slaves in the USA.

  13. Ochratoxin A in human blood serum - retrospective long-term data. (United States)

    Märtlbauer, Erwin; Usleber, Ewald; Dietrich, Richard; Schneider, Elisabeth


    In a long-term study (1990-1997) on ochratoxin A (OTA) in human blood serum, 102 serum samples from 36 persons of the Munich Institute for Hygiene and Technology of Food of Animal Origin were analysed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for control. Detection limits were at 50 pg/ml (EIA) and 50-70 pg/ml (HPLC), recoveries were 80-120% (EIA) and 30-60% (LC). OTA was detected in 98% (EIA, 368 ± 217 pg/ml) and 93% (HPLC, 271 ± 170 pg/ml) of samples (maximum 1,290 pg/ml). Using published conversion factors for serum/intake estimates (1.34 or 1.97), the mean daily OTA intake of these 36 persons was 493-725 pg/kg bw. Long-term individual mean OTA levels of nine persons ranged from 162 ± 80 pg/ml to 549 ± 172 pg/ml. Our data were compared with published OTA serum levels (1985-2008) for apparently healthy persons from a total of 30 countries. On a worldwide basis, the mean of means for OTA in human serum was estimated to be 700 pg/ml, corresponding to a mean daily OTA intake of 940-1380 pg/kg bw. This level, which was relatively stable over the last decades, is well below published tolerable daily intake values (14,000-18,000 pg/kg bw).

  14. [A retrospective study of clinical manifestation and human papilloma virus detection of oral condyloma acuminate in children]. (United States)

    He, Zhixiu; Liu, Laikui; Chen, Yan


    The aim of this study is to study genotype, transmission, clinical and pathological characteristics, and prognosis of oral condyloma acuminate (CA) in children. The authors retrospected the clinical characteristics and slices of HE staining of six cases which have been diagnosed as oral CA and, performed inmunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis to detect the DNA of human papilloma virus in 5 cases. Oral CA often happened in the hard or soft plates of children of two-year-old. Most of them came from the families had been infected by human papilloma virus (HPV). Histological examination demonstrated that koilocytes were common in the upper spinous and corneal layers. HPV was detected in all cases. HPV16/18-E6 antigen was positive in 4 of 5 cases examined. The result of ISH only show one case was HPV6- and HPV11-positive, and the other case was HPV-positive, but HPV could not be detected when recurring. The pathogen leading to oral condyloma acuminate (CA) and the transmission way of children may be different from that of adults.

  15. A retrospective analysis of the added value of 1-year dog studies in pesticide human health risk assessments. (United States)

    Linke, Brenda; Mohr, Sara; Ramsingh, Deborah; Bhuller, Yadvinder


    The 1-year dog toxicity study is no longer required by certain pesticide regulatory jurisdictions, including the United States and the European Union. Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) examined its current requirement for this study to determine if it could be refined or eliminated. A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the impact of the 1-year dog study on human health risk assessment. The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), a measure of the amount of a pesticide in food that can be ingested on a daily basis over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk, was the metric for this analysis. For 143 pesticides evaluated by the PMRA between 2008 and 2015, the supporting toxicology databases were examined to determine if other toxicology studies were protective of the findings in the 1-year dog study. When this criterion was not met, further investigation was undertaken to determine the potential impact of not having the 1-year dog study. For most of the pesticides, effect levels in the 1-year dog study were not substantially different from those in other toxicology studies, when considering factors such as dose-spacing and known experimental variability. The results of this analysis suggest that absence of the 1-year dog study would have minimal impact on the assessment of human health risk. Therefore, Health Canada's PMRA has removed the routine requirement for the 1-year dog study from its pesticide data requirements.

  16. Retrospective analysis of treatments with recombinant FSH and recombinant LH versus human menopausal gonadotropin in women with reduced ovarian reserve. (United States)

    Mignini Renzini, Mario; Brigante, Claudio; Coticchio, Giovanni; Dal Canto, Mariabeatrice; Caliari, Ilaria; Comi, Ruggero; De Ponti, Elena; Fadini, Rubens


    The aim of this study is to determine whether a clinical advantage is gained with use of LH in combination with FSH or as a component of human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) to achieve optimal ovarian stimulation. In this study, we compared retrospectively two regimens, r-FSH/r-LH and hMG, for the treatment of women with reduced ovarian reserve, identified as subjects with antral follicle count (AFC) < 11 and AMH ≤ 1.1 ng/ml. Overall, the clinical pregnancy per started cycle was higher in the r-FSH/r-LH group (12.5 vs. 8.1%, P < 0.02), while implantation (11.1 vs. 9.5%) and miscarriage rates (29.9 vs. 35.9%) were comparable. Data were further analysed performing separate comparisons in subpopulations with different ranges of AFC, i.e. < 4, 4-6 and 7-10. Major differences between the two regimens were observed in women with AFC < 4. In this subpopulation, not only was the clinical pregnancies per started cycle higher in the r-FSH/r-LH group (10.2 vs. 1.5%, P < 0.01), but also implantation was significantly higher (13.0 vs. 2.8%, P < 0.02). A r-FSH/r-LH regimen appears to be beneficial for the treatment of women with extremely poor ovarian reserve. It should be considered however that, being retrospective, this study is affected by obvious limitations, such as post-treatment patient selection criteria and absence of randomisation.

  17. A retrospective analysis of 25% human serum albumin supplementation in hypoalbuminemic dogs with septic peritonitis (United States)

    Horowitz, Farrah B.; Read, Robyn L.; Powell, Lisa L.


    This study describes the influence of 25% human serum albumin (HSA) supplementation on serum albumin level, total protein (TP), colloid osmotic pressure (COP), hospital stay, and survival in dogs with septic peritonitis. Records of 39 dogs with septic peritonitis were evaluated. In the HSA group, initial and post-transfusion TP, albumin, COP, and HSA dose were recorded. In the non-supplemented group, repeated values of TP, albumin, and COP were recorded over their hospitalization. Eighteen dogs survived (53.8% mortality). Repeat albumin values were higher in survivors (mean 23.9 g/L) and elevated repeat albumin values were associated with HSA supplementation. Repeat albumin and TP were higher in the HSA supplemented group (mean 24 g/L and 51.9 g/L, respectively) and their COP increased by 5.8 mmHg. Length of hospitalization was not affected. Twenty-five percent HSA increases albumin, TP, and COP in canine patients with septic peritonitis. Higher postoperative albumin levels are associated with survival. PMID:26028681

  18. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer in Brazil: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia MB Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty paraffin-embedded biopsies obtained from female cervical lesions were tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV types 6/11,16/18 and 31/33/35 DNA using non-isotopic in situ hybridization. Specimens were classified according to the Bethesda System in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, high grade SIL (HSIL and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. HPV prevalence ranged from 92.5% in LSIL to 68.5% in SCC. Benign types were prevalent in LSILs while oncogenic types infected predominantly HSILs and SCC. HPV infection showed to be age-dependent, but no significant relation to race has been detected. Patients were analyzed through a five-year period: 20.7% of the lesions spontaneously regressed while 48.9% persisted and 30.4% progressed to carcinoma. Patients submitted to treatment showed a 19.4% recurrence rate. High risk types were present in 78.6% (CrudeOR 13.8, P=0.0003 of the progressive lesions, and in 73.7% of the recurrent SILs (COR 19.3, P=0.0000001. Possible co-factors have also been evaluated: history of other sexually transmitted diseases showed to be positively related either to progression (Adjusted OR 13.0, P=0.0002 or to recurrence (AOR 17.2, P=0.0002 while oral contraceptive use and tobacco smoking were not significantly related to them (P>0.1. Association of two or more co-factors also proved to be related to both progression and recurrence, indicating that they may interact with HPV infection in order to increase the risk of developing malignant lesions.

  19. Human papillomavirus genotype attribution in invasive cervical cancer: a retrospective cross-sectional worldwide study. (United States)

    de Sanjose, Silvia; Quint, Wim Gv; Alemany, Laia; Geraets, Daan T; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Lloveras, Belen; Tous, Sara; Felix, Ana; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Shin, Hai-Rim; Vallejos, Carlos S; de Ruiz, Patricia Alonso; Lima, Marcus Aurelho; Guimera, Nuria; Clavero, Omar; Alejo, Maria; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio; Cheng-Yang, Chou; Tatti, Silvio Alejandro; Kasamatsu, Elena; Iljazovic, Ermina; Odida, Michael; Prado, Rodrigo; Seoud, Muhieddine; Grce, Magdalena; Usubutun, Alp; Jain, Asha; Suarez, Gustavo Adolfo Hernandez; Lombardi, Luis Estuardo; Banjo, Aekunbiola; Menéndez, Clara; Domingo, Efrén Javier; Velasco, Julio; Nessa, Ashrafun; Chichareon, Saibua C Bunnag; Qiao, You Lin; Lerma, Enrique; Garland, Suzanne M; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Ferrera, Annabelle; Hammouda, Doudja; Mariani, Luciano; Pelayo, Adela; Steiner, Ivo; Oliva, Esther; Meijer, Chris Jlm; Al-Jassar, Waleed Fahad; Cruz, Eugenia; Wright, Thomas C; Puras, Ana; Llave, Cecilia Ladines; Tzardi, Maria; Agorastos, Theodoros; Garcia-Barriola, Victoria; Clavel, Christine; Ordi, Jaume; Andújar, Miguel; Castellsagué, Xavier; Sánchez, Gloria I; Nowakowski, Andrzej Marcin; Bornstein, Jacob; Muñoz, Nubia; Bosch, F Xavier


    Knowledge about the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in invasive cervical cancer is crucial to guide the introduction of prophylactic vaccines. We aimed to provide novel and comprehensive data about the worldwide genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical cancer. Paraffin-embedded samples of histologically confirmed cases of invasive cervical cancer were collected from 38 countries in Europe, North America, central South America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Inclusion criteria were a pathological confirmation of a primary invasive cervical cancer of epithelial origin in the tissue sample selected for analysis of HPV DNA, and information about the year of diagnosis. HPV detection was done by use of PCR with SPF-10 broad-spectrum primers followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping with a reverse hybridisation line probe assay. Sequence analysis was done to characterise HPV-positive samples with unknown HPV types. Data analyses included algorithms of multiple infections to estimate type-specific relative contributions. 22,661 paraffin-embedded samples were obtained from 14,249 women. 10,575 cases of invasive cervical cancer were included in the study, and 8977 (85%) of these were positive for HPV DNA. The most common HPV types were 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58 with a combined worldwide relative contribution of 8196 of 8977 (91%, 95% CI 90-92). HPV types 16 and 18 were detected in 6357 of 8977 of cases (71%, 70-72) of invasive cervical cancer. HPV types 16, 18, and 45 were detected in 443 of 470 cases (94%, 92-96) of cervical adenocarcinomas. Unknown HPV types that were identified with sequence analysis were 26, 30, 61, 67, 69, 82, and 91 in 103 (1%) of 8977 cases of invasive cervical cancer. Women with invasive cervical cancers related to HPV types 16, 18, or 45 presented at a younger mean age than did those with other HPV types (50·0 years [49·6-50·4], 48·2 years [47·3-49·2], 46·8 years [46·6-48·1], and 55·5 years

  20. The Internal Morality of Contacting: Redeeming the Contractualist Endeavor in Business Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, J.; Heugens, P.P.M.A.R.; Kaptein, S.P.


    Integrative Social Contracts Theory (ISCT) is arguably the most promising theory of business ethics to date, but it is often criticized for its inability to produce substantive norms. Rather than abandoning the contractualist endeavor in business ethics altogether, we undertake to redeem it by

  1. Volumetric gain of the human pancreas after left partial pancreatic resection: A CT-scan based retrospective study. (United States)

    Phillip, Veit; Zahel, Tina; Danninger, Assiye; Erkan, Mert; Dobritz, Martin; Steiner, Jörg M; Kleeff, Jörg; Schmid, Roland M; Algül, Hana


    Regeneration of the pancreas has been well characterized in animal models. However, there are conflicting data on the regenerative capacity of the human pancreas. The aim of the present study was to assess the regenerative capacity of the human pancreas. In a retrospective study, data from patients undergoing left partial pancreatic resection at a single center were eligible for inclusion (n = 185). Volumetry was performed based on 5 mm CT-scans acquired through a 256-slice CT-scanner using a semi-automated software. Data from 24 patients (15 males/9 females) were included. Mean ± SD age was 68 ± 11 years (range, 40-85 years). Median time between surgery and the 1st postoperative CT was 9 days (range, 0-27 days; IQR, 7-13), 55 days (range, 21-141 days; IQR, 34-105) until the 2nd CT, and 191 days (range, 62-1902; IQR, 156-347) until the 3rd CT. The pancreatic volumes differed significantly between the first and the second postoperative CT scans (median volume 25.6 mL and 30.6 mL, respectively; p = 0.008) and had significantly increased further by the 3rd CT scan (median volume 37.9 mL; p = 0.001 for comparison with 1st CT scan and p = 0.003 for comparison with 2nd CT scan). The human pancreas shows a measurable and considerable potential of volumetric gain after partial resection. Multidetector-CT based semi-automated volume analysis is a feasible method for follow-up of the volume of the remaining pancreatic parenchyma after partial pancreatectomy. Effects on exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function have to be evaluated in a prospective manner. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An inter-laboratory retrospective analysis of immunotoxicological endpoints in non-human primates: T-cell-dependent antibody responses. (United States)

    Lebrec, Hervé; Cowan, Laine; Lagrou, Michelle; Krejsa, Cecile; Neradilek, Moni B; Polissar, Nayak L; Black, Lauren; Bussiere, Jeanine


    The Immunotoxicology Technical Committee of HESI sponsored a retrospective analysis of T-cell-dependent antibody responses in non-human primates (NHP). Antibody responses to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), tetanus toxoid (TT), and/or sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in 178 NHP (from 8 sponsors, 13 testing sites, 30 studies) were statistically analyzed. Rates of positive or negative anti-KLH, -TT, and -SRBC primary and secondary IgM and IgG responses were compared. The influence of gender, country of origin, and previous immunization with a different antigen on response rate and kinetics of anti-KLH and anti-TT responses were analyzed. In addition, the magnitude of the antibody responses and the impact of the above-mentioned factors were analyzed. In addition, based upon the inter-individual variability of the peak response values, power calculations were conducted. The analysis demonstrated that the rates of positive responses were similar between the two genders, were high for KLH, SRBC, and TT challenges by 21 days following immunization (87, 100, and 84%, respectively, for IgGs) and did not include statistically significant differences based on NHP country of origin. Mean peak secondary responses were greater than peak primary responses; the magnitude of the response to KLH was increased by incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). Gender had little effect on the magnitude and variability of these responses. KLH and TT were associated with similar inter-animal variability, whereas in some situations KLH responses were less variable than responses to SRBC. The data suggested that inter-animal variability with KLH was similar with or without IFA. Power analysis illustrated that animal group sizes of typical standard toxicology studies (generally ≤ 4/sex) are likely to detect only fairly large treatment effects. However, combining males and females, when appropriate, will improve the power: an N of 8 to 12 could detect ≤ 3.1-fold differences in anti-KLH IgG responses.

  3. Human papillomavirus as prognostic marker with rising prevalence in neck squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary: A retrospective multicentre study. (United States)

    Schroeder, Lea; Boscolo-Rizzo, Paolo; Dal Cin, Elisa; Romeo, Salvatore; Baboci, Lorena; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Hess, Jochen; Lucena-Porcel, Carlota; Byl, Anne; Becker, Nikolaus; Alemany, Laia; Castellsagué, Xavier; Quer, Miquel; León, Xavier; Wiesenfarth, Manuel; Pawlita, Michael; Holzinger, Dana


    Patients with neck squamous cell carcinomas of unknown primary tumour (NSCCUP) present with lymph node metastasis without evidence for a primary tumour. Most patients undergo an aggressive multimodal treatment, which induces severe, potentially unnecessary toxicity. Primary tumours of NSCCUP can be hidden in the oropharynx. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally involved in a subgroup of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) associated with early lymph node metastasis and good prognosis. Detection of markers for HPV transformation in NSCCUP could allow focussing on the oropharynx in primary tumour search and could be of value for choice and extent of treatment. In a retrospective multicentre study (Germany, Italy and Spain), we analysed metastatic lymph nodes from 180 NSCCUP patients for the presence of HPV DNA, HPV E6*I mRNA and cellular p16INK4a overexpression, a surrogate marker for HPV-induced transformation. HPV status, defined as positivity for viral mRNA with at least one additional marker, was correlated with clinical parameters and survival outcome. A substantial proportion (16%) of NSCCUP were HPV-driven, mainly by HPV16 (89%). HPV prevalence increased with year of diagnosis from 9% during 1998-2004 to 23% during 2005-2014 (p = 0.007). HPV-driven NSCCUP had significantly better overall and progression-free survival rates (p ≤ 0.008). Based on this survival benefit, it is contended that HPV RNA status should be included in NSCCUP diagnosis and in therapeutic decision-making. Deintensification of radiation in patients with HPV-driven NSCCUP, while concurrently concentrating on the oropharynx appears to be a promising therapeutic strategy, the efficacy of which should be assessed in prospective trials. To our knowledge, this is the largest study on HPV in NSCCUP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemotherapy and human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations 6 months after uterine evacuation of molar pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study (United States)

    Agarwal, Roshan; Teoh, Suliana; Short, Delia; Harvey, Richard; Savage, Philip M; Seckl, Michael J


    Summary Background Indications for chemotherapy in gestational trophoblastic disease include raised human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations 6 months after uterine evacuation of hydatidiform mole, even when values are falling. We aimed to establish whether chemotherapy is always necessary in these patients. Methods We retrospectively identified women registered between January, 1993, and May, 2008, at Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK, who had persistently high hCG concentrations 6 months after evacuation of hydatidiform mole. Rates of hCG normalisation, relapse, and death were assessed in patients continued under surveillance and those who received chemotherapy after 6 months. We postulated that a surveillance policy would be clinically acceptable if hCG values returned to normal in 75% of patients or more. Findings 76 (<1%) of 13 960 patients with hydatidiform moles had persistently high hCG concentrations of more than 5 IU/L 6 months after evacuation. 66 (87%) patients continued under surveillance and hCG values spontaneously returned to normal without chemotherapy in 65 (98%) of these patients. Values in one patient did not become normal because of chronic renal failure, but she remains healthy. Ten patients received chemotherapy, and hCG concentrations returned to normal in eight (80%) of these individuals (surveillance vs chemotherapy groups p=0·044) and remained slightly high (6–11 IU/L) in two without any associated clinical problems off treatment. We noted no significant differences between individuals in the surveillance and chemotherapy groups, apart from lower median hCG concentrations 6 months after evacuation in those under surveillance than in those given chemotherapy (13 IU/L, range 5–887, vs 157 IU/L, range 6–6438; p=0·004). Overall, there were no deaths in this series. Interpretation A surveillance policy seems to be clinically acceptable in patients with low and declining concentrations of hCG 6 months after evacuation of

  5. Intravenous Thrombolysis for Stroke and Presumed Stroke in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults: A Retrospective, Multicenter US Study. (United States)

    AbdelRazek, Mahmoud A; Gutierrez, Jose; Mampre, David; Cervantes-Arslanian, Anna; Ormseth, Cora; Haussen, Diogo; Thakur, Kiran T; Lyons, Jennifer L; Smith, Bryan R; O'Connor, Owen; Willey, Joshua Z; Mateen, Farrah J


    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been shown to increase both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke risks, but there are limited data on the safety and outcomes of intravenous thrombolysis with tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) for acute ischemic stroke in HIV-infected patients. A retrospective chart review of intravenous tPA-treated HIV patients who presented with acute stroke symptoms was performed in 7 large inner-city US academic centers (various search years between 2000 and 2017). We collected data on HIV, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, ischemic stroke risk factors, opportunistic infections, intravenous drug abuse, neuroimaging findings, and modified Rankin Scale score at last follow-up. We identified 33 HIV-infected patients treated with intravenous tPA (mean age, 51 years; 24 men), 10 of whom were stroke mimics. Sixteen of 33 (48%) patients had an HIV viral load less than the limit of detection while 10 of 33 (30%) had a CD4 count Stroke Scale score at presentation was 9, and mean time from symptom onset to tPA was 144 minutes (median, 159). The median modified Rankin Scale score for the 33-patient cohort was 1 and for the 23-patient actual stroke cohort was 2, measured at a median of 90 days poststroke symptom onset. Two patients had nonfatal hemorrhagic transformation (6%; 95% confidence interval, 1%-20%), both in the actual stroke group. Two patients had varicella zoster virus vasculitis of the central nervous system, 1 had meningovascular syphilis, and 7 other patients were actively using intravenous drugs (3 cocaine, 1 heroin, and 3 unspecified), none of whom had hemorrhagic transformation. Most HIV-infected patients treated with intravenous tPA for presumed and actual acute ischemic stroke had no complications, and we observed no fatalities. Stroke mimics were common, and thrombolysis seems safe in this group. We found no data to suggest an increased risk of intravenous tPA-related complications because of concomitant

  6. Your money or your self-esteem: threatened egotism promotes costly entrapment in losing endeavors. (United States)

    Zhang, Liqing; Baumeister, Roy F


    The present research explored egotism-maintaining favorable views of the self-as a motivation underlying entrapment in losing endeavors. Four studies suggested that threatened selfesteem would cause decision makers to invest and lose more money in a previously chosen course of action. Ego-threatened participants consistently lost more money than nonthreatened participants across diverse entrapping situations regardless of whether the outcome was ostensibly determined by luck (Experiments 1 and 4), ability (Experiment 2), or interpersonal competition (Experiment 3). Thus, pursuing favorable views of the self could be costly to decision makers' financial well-being and may produce self-defeating behaviors.

  7. Efficacy and safety of carfilzomib regimens in multiple myeloma patients relapsing after autologous stem cell transplant: ASPIRE and ENDEAVOR outcomes. (United States)

    Hari, P; Mateos, M-V; Abonour, R; Knop, S; Bensinger, W; Ludwig, H; Song, K; Hajek, R; Moreau, P; Siegel, D S; Feng, S; Obreja, M; Aggarwal, S K; Iskander, K; Goldschmidt, H


    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a standard treatment for eligible multiple myeloma (MM) patients, but many patients will relapse after ASCT and require subsequent therapy. The proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib is approved for relapsed or refractory MM (RRMM). In phase 3 trials, carfilzomib-based regimens (ASPIRE, carfilzomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone; ENDEAVOR, carfilzomib-dexamethasone) demonstrated superior progression-free survival (PFS) compared with standard therapies for RRMM (ASPIRE: lenalidomide-dexamethasone; ENDEAVOR, bortezomib-dexamethasone). This subgroup analysis of ASPIRE and ENDEAVOR evaluated outcomes according to prior ASCT status. In total, 446 patients in ASPIRE and 538 in ENDEAVOR had prior ASCT. Median PFS was longer for carfilzomib-based regimens vs non-carfilzomib-based regimens for patients with prior ASCT (ASPIRE: 26.3 vs 17.8 months (hazard ratio (HR)=0.68); ENDEAVOR: not estimable vs 10.2 months (HR=0.61)), those with one prior line of therapy that included ASCT (ASPIRE: 29.7 vs 17.8 months (HR=0.70); ENDEAVOR: not estimable vs 11.2 months (HR=0.46)), and those without prior ASCT (ASPIRE: 26.4 vs 16.6 months (HR=0.76); ENDEAVOR: 17.7 vs 8.5 months (HR=0.43)). Overall response rates also favored the carfilzomib-based regimens. No new safety signals were detected. This analysis suggests that carfilzomib-based treatment may lead to improvement in PFS and response rates regardless of prior transplant status. Further evaluation is warranted.

  8. New endeavors, risk taking, and personal growth in the recovery process: findings from the STARS study. (United States)

    Young, Andrew T; Green, Carla A; Estroff, Sue E


    This study examined consumers' perspectives on the role of personal growth-related risk taking in the recovery process and on clinicians' roles in patients' decisions to take on new activities and opportunities. Clinical approaches cited by patients as most helpful in making significant changes were also identified. A total of 177 members of a nonprofit health plan (93 women and 85 men), ranging in age from 16 to 84 years, participated in a mixed-methods exploratory study of recovery among individuals with serious mental illness (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, and affective psychosis). Participants completed four in-depth semistructured interviews over 24 months; interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded for content by study staff. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. The most helpful discussions about new endeavors occurred in the context of healthy, collaborative, mutually trusting clinician-patient relationships. Advice was accepted when clinicians listened well, knew patients' capabilities and interests, and pushed gently at a pace that was comfortable for patients. Knowledge gained by clinicians in the context of good relationships with patients provided a firm grounding for approaching the delicate balance of providing helpful levels of support and encouragement without pushing consumers so hard that it caused difficulties. Enduring, strong, collaborative relationships provide a healthy framework for discussions between patients and clinicians about taking on new activities, roles, or responsibilities and increase the likelihood that new activities and opportunities will be planned and carried out in ways that promote, rather than endanger, recovery.

  9. Medical Physics Residency Consortium: collaborative endeavors to meet the ABR 2014 certification requirements. (United States)

    Parker, Brent C; Duhon, John; Yang, Claus C; Wu, H Terry; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Gibbons, John P


    In 2009, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center (MBPCC) established a Radiation Oncology Physics Residency Program to provide opportunities for medical physics residency training to MS and PhD graduates of the CAMPEP-accredited Louisiana State University (LSU)-MBPCC Medical Physics Graduate Program. The LSU-MBPCC Program graduates approximately six students yearly, which equates to a need for up to twelve residency positions in a two-year program. To address this need for residency positions, MBPCC has expanded its Program by developing a Consortium consisting of partnerships with medical physics groups located at other nearby clinical institutions. The consortium model offers the residents exposure to a broader range of procedures, technology, and faculty than available at the individual institutions. The Consortium institutions have shown a great deal of support from their medical physics groups and administrations in developing these partnerships. Details of these partnerships are specified within affiliation agreements between MBPCC and each participating institution. All partner sites began resident training in 2011. The Consortium is a network of for-profit, nonprofit, academic, community, and private entities. We feel that these types of collaborative endeavors will be required nationally to reach the number of residency positions needed to meet the 2014 ABR certification requirements and to maintain graduate medical physics training programs.

  10. Experience with magnetic resonance imaging of human subjects with passive implants and tattoos at 7 T: a retrospective study. (United States)

    Noureddine, Yacine; Bitz, Andreas K; Ladd, Mark E; Thürling, Markus; Ladd, Susanne C; Schaefers, Gregor; Kraff, Oliver


    Over the last decade, the number of clinical MRI studies at 7 T has increased dramatically. Since only limited information about the safety of implants/tattoos is available at 7 T, many centers either conservatively exclude all subjects with implants/tattoos or have started to perform dedicated tests for selected implants. This work presents our experience in imaging volunteers with implants/tattoos at 7 T over the last seven and a half years. 1796 questionnaires were analyzed retrospectively to identify subjects with implants/tattoos imaged at 7 T. For a total of 230 subjects, the type of local transmit/receive RF coil used for examination, imaging sequences, acquisition time, and the type of implants/tattoos and their location with respect to the field of view were documented. These subjects had undergone examination after careful consideration by an internal safety panel consisting of three experts in MR safety and physics. None of the subjects reported sensations of heat or force before, during, or after the examination. None expressed any discomfort related to implants/tattoos. Artifacts were reported in 52% of subjects with dental implants; all artifacts were restricted to the mouth area and did not affect image quality in the brain parenchyma. Our initial experience at 7 T indicates that a strict rejection of subjects with tattoos and/or implants is not justified. Imaging can be conditionally performed in carefully selected subjects after collection of substantial safety information and evaluation of the detailed exposure scenario (RF coil/type and position of implant). Among the assessed subjects with tattoos, no side effects from the exposure to 7 T MRI were reported.

  11. A retrospective approach to assess human health risks associated with growing air pollution in urbanized area of Thar Desert, western Rajasthan, India. (United States)

    Rumana, Harcharan Singh; Sharma, Ramesh Chandra; Beniwal, Vikas; Sharma, Anil Kumar


    : Air pollution has been a matter of great concern globally because of the associated health risks to individuals. The situation is getting worse in developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and more importantly the rapidly growing population posing a threat to human life in the form of pulmonary, cardiovascular, carcinogenic or asthmatic diseases by accumulating toxic pollutants, harmful gases, metals, hydrocarbons etc. The present study was undertaken to assess the magnitude of ambient air pollutants and their human health risks like respiratory ailments, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer using a Retrospective Approach of Bart Ostra. The parameters PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 were monitored at all selected study sites monitored through a high volume sampler (APM 451 Envirotech, Envirotech Instruments Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India). Retrospective Approach was used for assessment of risk factors and disease burden of respiratory and cardiopulmonary health problems. Environmental burden of disease showed that the problem of health related to air pollution is a main concern particularly in the growing cities of India. High to critical level of air pollution including PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 was observed in all seasons at traffic intersections and commercial sites. The respiratory infections (25% incidence in population exposed to indoor smoke problems) and a prevalence of asthma/COPD (4.4%) in households exposed to high vehicular pollution along with signs of coronary artery/heart disease and/or hypertension and cancers (37.9-52.2%), were reported requiring preventive measures. The study reflects a great concern for the mankind with the need of having streamline ways to limit air pollution and emphasize upon efficiently determining the risk of illness upon exposure to air pollution.

  12. Human resource and funding constraints for essential surgery in district hospitals in Africa: a retrospective cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E Kruk


    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition that the provision of surgical services in low-income countries is inadequate to the need. While constrained health budgets and health worker shortages have been blamed for the low rates of surgery, there has been little empirical data on the providers of surgery and cost of surgical services in Africa. This study described the range of providers of surgical care and anesthesia and estimated the resources dedicated to surgery at district hospitals in three African countries.We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional survey of data from eight district hospitals in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda. There were no specialist surgeons or anesthetists in any of the hospitals. Most of the health workers were nurses (77.5%, followed by mid-level providers (MLPs not trained to provide surgical care (7.8%, and MLPs trained to perform surgical procedures (3.8%. There were one to six medical doctors per hospital (4.2% of clinical staff. Most major surgical procedures were performed by doctors (54.6%, however over one-third (35.9% were done by MLPs. Anesthesia was mainly provided by nurses (39.4%. Most of the hospital expenditure was related to staffing. Of the total operating costs, only 7% to 14% was allocated to surgical care, the majority of which was for obstetric surgery. These costs represent a per capita expenditure on surgery ranging from US$0.05 to US$0.14 between the eight hospitals.African countries have adopted different policies to ensure the provision of surgical care in their respective district hospitals. Overall, the surgical output per capita was very low, reflecting low staffing ratios and limited expenditures for surgery. We found that most surgical and anesthesia services in the three countries in the study were provided by generalist doctors, MLPs, and nurses. Although more information is needed to estimate unmet need for surgery, increasing the funds allocated to surgery, and, in the absence of trained

  13. Incidence of patient safety events and process-related human failures during intra-hospital transportation of patients: retrospective exploration from the institutional incident reporting system. (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Hui; Jerng, Jih-Shuin; Chen, Li-Chin; Li, Yu-Tsu; Huang, Hsiao-Fang; Wu, Chao-Ling; Chan, Jing-Yuan; Huang, Szu-Fen; Liang, Huey-Wen; Sun, Jui-Sheng


    Intra-hospital transportation (IHT) might compromise patient safety because of different care settings and higher demand on the human operation. Reports regarding the incidence of IHT-related patient safety events and human failures remain limited. To perform a retrospective analysis of IHT-related events, human failures and unsafe acts. A hospital-wide process for the IHT and database from the incident reporting system in a medical centre in Taiwan. All eligible IHT-related patient safety events between January 2010 to December 2015 were included. Incidence rate of IHT-related patient safety events, human failure modes, and types of unsafe acts. There were 206 patient safety events in 2 009 013 IHT sessions (102.5 per 1 000 000 sessions). Most events (n=148, 71.8%) did not involve patient harm, and process events (n=146, 70.9%) were most common. Events at the location of arrival (n=101, 49.0%) were most frequent; this location accounted for 61.0% and 44.2% of events with patient harm and those without harm, respectively (pprocess step was the preparation of the transportation team (n=91, 48.9%). Contributing unsafe acts included perceptual errors (n=14, 7.5%), decision errors (n=56, 30.1%), skill-based errors (n=48, 25.8%), and non-compliance (n=68, 36.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that human failure found in the arrival and hand-off sub-process (OR 4.84, pprocess at the location of arrival and prevent errors other than omissions. Long-term monitoring of IHT-related events is also warranted. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Life after National Science Foundation fellowships: The implications for a graduate student's professional endeavors (United States)

    Obarski, Kelly Josephine

    Each year, hundreds of graduate and undergraduate students, participate as Fellows in National Science Foundation GK-12 Grants throughout the U.S. These Fellowships create opportunities for university students to improve their communication skills, teaching proficiencies, and team-building skills, in addition to expanding their interest in educational endeavors in their respective communities while pursuing their college degrees. STEP (Science and Technology Enhancement Project) is one such project. University faculty, public school teachers, and community leaders collaborated together in order to bring scientists into middle and secondary classrooms to focus on increasing student interest and proficiency in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) skills. Seventeen Fellows, in the previous four years, designed, developed, and implemented innovative, hands-on lessons in seven local schools. The evaluation team collected a tremendous amount of research evidence focused on the effect of the program on the Fellows while they were participants in the study, but there has been very little data collected about the Fellows after leaving the program. This research study, consisting of two-hour interviews, qualitatively explores how the skills learned while participating in the STEP program affected the Fellows' career and educational choices once leaving the project. This data was analyzed along with historical attitude surveys and yearly tracking documents to determine the effect that participation in the program had on their choices post-STEP. An extensive literature review has been conducted focusing on other GK-12 programs throughout the country, K-16 collaboration, Preparing Future Faculty Programs, as well as on teaching and learning literature. These bodies of literature provide the theoretical basis in which the research is framed in order to assess the impact on Fellow educational and professional choices since leaving the STEP program. This

  15. The intersubjective endeavor of psychopathology research: methodological reflections on a second-person perspective approach (United States)

    Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa


    Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of “otherness.” We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first-, and second-person approaches). Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third-person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which—by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioral symptoms—takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients’ first-person experience. But how can we speak about a first-person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from “within,” if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second-person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second-person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it recognizes the fundamental circular and intersubjective construction of knowledge. PMID:25368589

  16. The definition of life: a brief history of an elusive scientific endeavor. (United States)

    Tirard, Stephane; Morange, Michel; Lazcano, Antonio


    In spite of the spectacular developments in our understanding of the molecular basis that underlies biological phenomena, we still lack a generally agreed-upon definition of life, but this is not for want of trying. Life is an empirical concept; and, as suggested by the many unsuccessful efforts to define it, this task is likely to remain, at best, a work in progress. Although phenomenological characterizations of life are feasible, a precise definition of life remains an elusive intellectual endeavor. This is not surprising: as Nietszche once wrote, there are concepts that can be defined, whereas others only have a history. The purpose of this essay is to discuss some of the manifold (and often unsatisfactory) definitions of life that have been attempted from different intellectual and scientific perspectives and reflect, at least in part, the key role that historical frameworks play. Although some efforts have been more fruitful, the lack of an all-embracing, generally agreed-upon definition of life sometimes gives the impression that what is meant by life's origin is defined in somewhat imprecise terms and that several entirely different questions are often confused. The many attempts made to reduce the nature of living systems to a single living compound imply that life can be so well defined that the exact point at which it started can be established with the sudden appearance of the first replicating molecule. On the other hand, if the emergence of life is seen as the stepwise (but not necessarily slow) evolutionary transition between the non-living and the living, then it may be meaningless to draw a strict line between them.

  17. Retrospective of the human rights situation in Croatia through legislation and judicial practice, with emphasis on minority rights

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    Lončar Semina


    Full Text Available Since the establishment of new states of former Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia led discriminatory legislative and judicial policies towards minorities, politically 'unsuitable' and families of mixed ethnic structure, with the aim of creating ethnically pure Croatian. For this purpose, brought a series of racist and discriminatory laws, some of which had a retroactive effect and apply, all to existing state: deportation of over 350,000 citizens, the confiscation of over 30,000 apartments, the suspension of payments of pensions over 33,000 users, mining and destruction of over 78,000 residential and farm buildings in private ownership, and other damages... caused solely due to ethnicity - legalized. In addition to the illegal seizure of property, are members of minority status and the laws reduced civil rights, and which further worsened their position in Croatia. The legislative policy is followed synchromesh and jurisprudence, so that damaged and disenfranchised people are not even legal way was able to obtain their material status and rights were before the war, as well as Croatian citizens, and had made in Croatia. Unfortunately, the institutions of the European Court of Human Rights, which many believed, proved a failure, because it is generally rejected all claims for refund compensation or restoration - not believing that the Croatian courts violate any law, or that the damage caused prior to November 1997th, ie, until the signing of the Convention, Croatia is not responsible. Since Croatian independence until today, discrimination against minorities (mostly by Serbian, although under pressure from the international community an improved law - in practice, remained present in almost all spheres of life. In addition to Serbian, has problems and the Albanian minority, which Croatia is denied issuance of work permits, and thus the right to stay, and deportation orders from the economic crisis, the structure of human rights extended to all

  18. Total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker to predict CD4 count in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children: a retrospective evaluation. (United States)

    Wang, Yuming; Li, Yuqian; Wang, Chongjian; Liang, Shuying; Guo, Jinling; Li, Zizhao; Zhang, Meixi; Li, Wenjie


    A retrospective study was conducted, and 576 human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with total lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 count were recruited from China. Spearman rank order correlation and receiver-operating characteristic were used. An overall positive correlation was noted between TLC and CD4 count (prehighly active antiretroviral therapy [pre-HAART], r = 0.789, 6 months of HAART, r = 0.642, 12 months of HAART, r = 0.691, P = 0.001). TLC ≤ 2600 cells/mm(3) predicted a CD4 count of ≤ 350 cells/mm(3) with 82.9% sensitivity, 79.6% specificity pre-HAART. Meanwhile, the optimum prediction for CD4 count of ≤ 350 cells/mm(3) was a TLC of ≤ 2400 cells/mm at 6 months (73.6% sensitivity and 74.1% specificity) and 12 months (81.7% sensitivity and 76.5% specificity) of HAART. TLC can be used as a surrogate marker for predicting CD4 count of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children before and during HAART in resource-limited countries.

  19. A retrospective evaluation of species-specific sensitivity for neurological signs in toxicological studies: Is the dog more sensitive than the non-human primate? (United States)

    Backes, Kathrin; Lorenz, Helga; Laplanche, Loic; Hudzik, Thomas J; Potschka, Heidrun; Hempel, Katja


    Selection of the appropriate non-rodent species in preclinical programs is crucial for good translatability and human safety. There is no data available in the literature which provides exact comparison of dog and non-human primate (NHP) sensitivity regarding neurological signs in toxicological studies. We performed a retrospective analysis of 174 toxicity studies with 15 neuroscience substances. Neurological signs in dogs and NHPs were evaluated in correlation to exposure data. Overall incidence of substance induced convulsions was similar in both species and no gender differences were observed. The reported liability of beagles to spontaneous convulsions was not confirmed in our studies. The symptom tremor showed the best inter-species translatability. The current toxicological study design does not include exposure assessment at the time-point of neurological signs, therefore, we propose to include additional toxicokinetic samples. Our analysis revealed factors including housing, handling, and behavior, which prevents direct species comparison. In addition only one non-rodent species is routinely tested in development programs, therefore data for both species is rare. We however, had sufficient data which enabled comparison for one compound. In the spirit of 3Rs further examples should be evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Retrospective Species Identification of Microsporidian Spores in Diarrheic Fecal Samples from Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS Patients by Multiplexed Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization▿ (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Johansson, Michael A.; Tamang, Leena; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Moura, Laci S.; DaSilva, Alexandre J.; Girouard, Autumn S.; Matos, Olga


    In order to assess the applicability of multiplexed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for the clinical setting, we conducted retrospective analysis of 110 formalin-stored diarrheic stool samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients with intestinal microsporidiosis collected between 1992 and 2003. The multiplexed FISH assay identified microsporidian spores in 94 of 110 (85.5%) samples: 49 (52.1%) were positive for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, 43 (45.8%) were positive for Encephalitozoon intestinalis, 2 (2.1%) were positive for Encephalitozoon hellem, and 9 samples (9.6%) contained both E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis spores. Quantitative spore counts per ml of stool yielded concentration values from 3.5 × 103 to 4.4 × 105 for E. bieneusi (mean, 8.8 × 104/ml), 2.3 × 102 to 7.8 × 104 (mean, 1.5 × 104/ml) for E. intestinalis, and 1.8 × 102 to 3.6 × 102 for E. hellem (mean, 2.7 × 102/ml). Identification of microsporidian spores by multiplex FISH assay was more sensitive than both Chromotrope-2R and CalcoFluor White M2R stains; 85.5% versus 72.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The study demonstrated that microsporidian coinfection in HIV/AIDS patients with intestinal microsporidiosis is not uncommon and that formalin-stored fecal samples older than 10 years may not be suitable for retrospective analysis by techniques targeting rRNA. Multiplexed FISH assay is a reliable, quantitative fluorescence microscopy method for the simultaneous identification of E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis, and E. hellem, as well as Encephalitozoon cuniculi, spores in fecal samples and is a useful tool for assessing spore shedding intensity in intestinal microsporidiosis. The method can be used for epidemiological investigations and applied in clinical settings. PMID:17287331

  1. Human trichinellosis in children from Timis County, Romania: epidemiological features from a retrospective study conducted between 1990 and 2006

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    Ioan Iacobiciu


    Full Text Available Trichinellosis, a parasitic zoonosis caused by the ingestion of inadequately cooked pork containing Trichinella larvae, has been a serious health problem in Timis, the largest of the Romanian counties. The authors conducted a survey on trichinellosis in children from Timis County, emphasising epidemiological aspects. Medical records from 106 children who were hospitalised at the Victor Babes Infectious Diseases Hospital in Timisoara from 1990 to 2006 were investigated. Children affected by trichinellosis were predominantly in the 10- to 14-year-old age group (34.9%. Most patients (59.43% were inhabitants of urban areas and 59.43% of cases were males. Winter was the season when the number of cases peaked (76.42%. The highest prevalence of disease (18.87% was recorded in 1994. For 38.68% of the patients, eosinophilia ranged between 10% and 20%. The length of hospitalisation ranged from 8 to 14 days in 50.94% of cases. In recent years, human trichinellosis has decreased in Timis County as a result of an improvement in the implementation of hygiene measures. The highest prevalence of the disease recorded in 1994 can be explained by an economic transition period when national pig farms began to close. Winter was the season with the highest prevalence because people eat a lot of pork during the traditional holidays.

  2. The LOCI-method: Collaboration Building in Complex Endeavors Based on Analysis of Interdependencies (United States)


    Interdependence Theory According to Kurt Lewin (1948), the essence of a group is the interdependence among its members. Interdependence...multidimensional framework for conceptualizing human services integration initiatives. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 69, 5-19. Lewin , K. (1948

  3. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a cohort of tuberculosis patients at Metema Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a 3 years retrospective study. (United States)

    Tarekegne, Daniel; Jemal, Muhabaw; Atanaw, Tadesse; Ebabu, Ashenafi; Endris, Mengistu; Moges, Feleke; Tessema, Belay; Deressa, Tekalign


    Ethiopia is one of the countries that are highly affected by dual epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB). HIV infection is a known risk factor for the development of active TB and it challenges in diagnosis and treatment of TB. Thus, it is essential to determine the epidemiology of HIV infection among TB patients to guide clinical actions and inform the policy makers. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of HIV infection among TB patients and to describe the associated risk factors for HIV seropositivity. A retrospective study was conducted on TB registries at Metema Hospital directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) clinic. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of HIV seropositivity among TB patients. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Of the total 2096 patients, 2005 (95.7%) were tested for HIV. The overall HIV-TB co-infection rate was 20.1% (404), 12.3% (246) in males and 7.9% (158) in females. The highest proportion of co-infection rate was observed among the patients in the age group of 25-34 years (32.4%) and smear negative pulmonary TB patients (59.7%). A declining trend of HIV-TB co-infection was observed during the study period, from 22.1% (185) in 2009/10 to 12.8% (52) in 2011/12 (X(2) = 17.07, P < 0.001). This study found that HIV-TB co-infection is still high in the Metema area; and occurs more frequently in males than females, and among patients in age group of 25-34 years. Thus, concerted efforts and interventions methods that target these at risk groups are recommended.

  4. Maternal human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in very early pregnancy and risk of hyperemesis gravidarum: A retrospective cohort study of 4372 pregnancies after in vitro fertilization. (United States)

    Dypvik, Johanne; Pereira, Andrea Lid; Tanbo, Tom Gunnar; Eskild, Anne


    We investigated the association of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) concentrations on a fixed day in very early pregnancy with development of hyperemesis gravidarum. This retrospective cohort study included 3107 singleton and 1265 twin pregnancies after in vitro fertilization treated at Department of Reproductive Medicine, Rikshospitalet, Oslo University Hospital, Norway in the period 1996-2013. Maternal serum hCG concentrations was measured on day 12 after embryo transfer. Information about development of hyperemesis gravidarum was obtained by individual linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We studied hCG concentrations in very early pregnancy according to development of hyperemesis gravidarum, in singleton and twin pregnancies separately. We estimated the odds ratios for hyperemesis gravidarum with 95% confidence intervals according to quartiles of hCG concentrations. In twin pregnancies as compared to singleton pregnancies, we found higher mean maternal hCG concentrations (219 IU/L versus 130 IU/L, phyperemesis gravidarum (2.7% versus 1.4%, p=0.002 chi-squared test). However, both in singleton and in twin pregnancies, we found no significant difference in mean hCG concentrations between women who developed hyperemesis gravidarum and women who did not (Singletons: 122 IU/L versus 130 IU/L, p=0.504. Twins: 234 IU/L versus 219 IU/L, p=0.417 Student's t-test). We found no significant differences in odds ratios for developing hyperemesis gravidarum according to quartiles of hCG concentrations. We found no association of maternal hCG concentrations on a fixed day in early pregnancy with development of hyperemesis gravidarum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Luteal Coasting and Individualization of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Dose after Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Triggering for Final Oocyte Maturation—A Retrospective Proof-of-Concept Study

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    Barbara Lawrenz


    Full Text Available Ovarian stimulation in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocol with the use of GnRH agonist for final oocyte maturation is the state-of-the-art treatment in patients with an expected or known high response to avoid or at least reduce significantly the risk for development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Due to a shortened LH surge after administration of GnRH agonist in most patients, the luteal phase will be characterized by luteolysis and luteal phase insufficiency. Maintaining a sufficient luteal phase is crucial for achievement of a pregnancy; however, the optimal approach is still under debate. Administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG within 72 h rescues the corpora lutea function; however, the so far often used 1,500 IU still bear the risk for development of OHSS. The recently introduced concept of “luteal coasting” individualizes the luteal phase support by monitoring the progesterone concentrations and administering a rescue dosage of hCG when progesterone concentrations drop significantly. This retrospective proof-of-concept study explored the correlation between hCG dosages ranging from 375 up to 1,500 IU and the progesterone levels in the early and mid-luteal phases as well as the likelihood of pregnancy, both early and ongoing. The chance of pregnancy is highest with progesterone level ≥13 ng/ml at 48 h postoocyte retrieval. Among the small sample size of 52 women studied, it appears that appropriate progesterone levels can be achieved with hCG dosages as low as 375 IU. This may well optimize the chance of pregnancy while reducing the risk of OHSS associated with higher doses of hCG supplementation in the luteal phase.

  6. Regional differences in the management and outcome of kidney transplantation in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A 3-year retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Cristelli, Marina P; Cofán, Federico; Tedesco-Silva, Helio; Trullàs, Joan Carles; Santos, Daniel Wagner C L; Manzardo, Christian; Agüero, Fernando; Moreno, Asunción; Oppenheimer, Federico; Diekmann, Fritz; Medina-Pestana, Jose O; Miro, Jose Maria


    In the developed world, kidney transplantation (KT) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is well established. Developing countries concentrate 90% of the people living with HIV, but their experience is underreported. Regional differences may affect outcomes. We compared the 3-year outcomes of patients with HIV infection receiving a KT in two different countries, in terms of incomes and development. This was an observational, retrospective, double-center study, including all HIV-infected patients >18 years old undergoing KT. Between 2005 and 2015, 54 KTs were performed (39 in a Brazilian center, and 15 in a Spanish center). Brazilians had less hepatitis C virus co-infection (5% vs 27%, P=.024). Median cold ischemia time was higher in Brazil (25 vs 18 hours, P=.001). Biopsy-proven acute rejection (AR) was higher in Brazil (33% vs 13%, P=.187), as were the number of AR episodes (22 vs 4, P=.063). Patient survival at 3 years was 91.3% in Brazil and 100% in Spain; P=.663. All three cases of death in Brazil were a result of bacterial infections within the first year post transplant. At 3 years, survival free from immunosuppressive changes was lower in Brazil (56% vs 90.9%, P=.036). Raltegravir-based treatment to avoid interaction with calcineurin inhibitor was more prevalent in Spain (80% vs 3%; P<.001). HIV infection remained under control in all patients, with undetectable viral load and no opportunistic infections. Important regional differences exist in the demographics and management of immunosuppression and antiretroviral therapy. These details may influence AR and infectious complications. Non-AIDS infections leading to early mortality in Brazil deserve special attention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. In vitro fertilisation with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone requires less IU usage compared with highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin: results from a European retrospective observational chart review

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    Blackmore Stuart


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported conflicting results for the comparative doses of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH and highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG-HP required per cycle of in vitro fertilisation (IVF; the aim of this study was to determine the average total usage of rFSH versus hMG-HP in a 'real-world' setting using routine clinical practice. Methods This retrospective chart review of databases from four European countries investigated gonadotrophin usage, oocyte and embryo yield, and pregnancy outcomes in IVF cycles (± intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection using rFSH or hMG-HP alone. Included patients met the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guideline criteria for IVF and received either rFSH or hMG-HP. Statistical tests were conducted at 5% significance using Chi-square or t-tests. Results Of 30,630 IVF cycles included in this review, 74% used rFSH and 26% used hMG-HP. A significantly lower drug usage per cycle for rFSH than hMG-HP (2072.53 +/- 76.73 IU vs. 2540.14 +/- 883.08 IU, 22.6% higher for hMG-HP; p Conclusions Based on these results, IVF treatment cycles with rFSH yield statistically more oocytes (and more mature oocytes, using significantly less IU per cycle, versus hMG-HP. The incidence of all OHSS and hospitalisations due to OHSS was significantly higher in the rFSH cycles compared to the hMG-HP cycles. However, the absolute incidence of hospitalisations due to OHSS was similar to that reported previously. These results suggest that the perceived required dosage with rFSH is currently over-estimated, and the higher unit cost of rFSH may be offset by a lower required dosage compared with hMG-HP.

  8. The gambler's fallacy in retrospect

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    William J. Matthews


    Full Text Available Oppenheimer and Monin (2009 recently found that subjectively rare events are taken to indicate a longer preceding sequence of unobserved trials than subjectively common events, an effect which they refer to as the retrospective gambler's fallacy. The current paper extends this idea to the situation where participants judge the likelihood of streak continuation. Participants were told about a streak produced by a random process (coin flips or human performance (basketball shots, and either predicted the next outcome or inferred the immediately preceding outcome. For the coin scenarios, participants tended to expect streak termination -- the gambler's fallacy --- and this effect was the same for predictions and retrospective inferences. In the basketball scenarios, no overall bias was found in either prospective or retrospective judgments. The results support Oppenheimer and Monin's suggestion that reconstruction of the past entails the same heuristics as prediction of the future; they also support the idea that the nature of the data-generating process is a key determinant of whether people fall into the gambler's fallacy. It is suggested that the term retrospective gambler's fallacy be used to describe situations where a streak is taken to indicate that the preceding unobserved outcome was of the opposite type, and that the phenomenon discovered by Oppenheimer and Monin be referred to as retrospective representativeness, or a retrospective belief in the law of small numbers.

  9. The cultural psychology endeavor to make culture central to psychology: Comment on Hall et al. (2016). (United States)

    Dvorakova, Antonie


    When Hall, Yip, and Zárate (2016) suggested that cultural psychology focused on reporting differences between groups, they described comparative research conducted in other fields, including cross-cultural psychology. Cultural psychology is a different discipline with methodological approaches reflecting its dissimilar goal, which is to highlight the cultural grounding of human psychological characteristics, and ultimately make culture central to psychology in general. When multicultural psychology considers, according to Hall et al., the mechanisms of culture's influence on behavior, it treats culture the same way as cross-cultural psychology does. In contrast, cultural psychology goes beyond treating culture as an external variable when it proposes that culture and psyche are mutually constitutive. True psychology of the human experience must encompass world populations through research of the ways in which (a) historically grounded sociocultural contexts enable the distinct meaning systems that people construct, and (b) these systems simultaneously guide the human formation of the environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A Grounded Theory Examination of Coaching and Mentoring: Human Agency Expressed in the One-with-One Development Endeavor (United States)

    Hollis, J. Michael


    In American context personal coaching and mentoring are used extensively in the fields of business, athletics and Christian discipleship. This one with one approach to personal improvement is applied in multiple contexts within education, business, athletics, discipleship, counseling, and parenting. This study implemented grounded theory…

  11. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from R/V ENDEAVOR using CTD casts from 14 September 1981 to 01 October 1981 (NODC Accession 8600220) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using CTD casts from the R/V ENDEAVOR. Data were collected from 14 September 1981 to 01 October 1981 by Woods...

  12. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from ENDEAVOR in the NW Atlantic from 1990-06-24 to 1990-07-07 (NODC Accession 9300107) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W). Data was collected from Ship ENDEAVOR cruise 214. The data...

  13. Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis: a retrospective comparison with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Mexican tertiary care centre, 2000-2015. (United States)

    Torres-Gonzalez, Pedro; Cervera-Hernandez, Miguel E; Martinez-Gamboa, Areli; Garcia-Garcia, Lourdes; Cruz-Hervert, Luis P; Bobadilla-Del Valle, Miriam; Ponce-de Leon, Alfredo; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose


    Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is believed to be frequent in developing countries. Transmission is usually through ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products, although airborne contagion is possible. Disease caused by M. tuberculosis or M. bovis is clinically indistinguishable from each other. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with M. bovis disease. Retrospective analysis of all culture-positive cases of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis from 2000 to 2015, in a Mexican tertiary-care centre. Sociodemographic, clinical, and radiographic data from medical records were compared. Disease site was classified as pulmonary, extrapulmonary, or pulmonary and extrapulmonary, based on cultures. We evaluated 533 cases, 372 (69.7 %) of which were caused by M. tuberculosis and 161 (30.2 %) by M. bovis. Characteristics associated with M. bovis disease were: younger age (aOR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.95-0.98), glucocorticoid use (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI 1.42-3.63), and extrapulmonary disease (aOR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.21-2.69). M. tuberculosis was associated with lower socioeconomic status (aOR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.28-0.97). When we analysed only pulmonary cases, younger age (aOR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.96-0.99), glucocorticoid use (aOR 2.41, 95 % CI 1.30-4.46), and smoking (aOR 1.94, CI 95 % 1.15-3.27) were associated with M. bovis. Both groups showed similar proportions of direct microscopy smear results (respiratory samples) and chest X-ray cavitations. Younger age, glucocorticoid use, and extrapulmonary disease were associated with M. bovis as the causative agent of tuberculosis in a group of patients from a tertiary care centre in a country where bovine tuberculosis is endemic. Further studies must be conducted in the general population to determine pathogen-specific associated factors and outcomes.

  14. Organ Doses Associated with Partial-Body Irradiation with 2.5% Bone Marrow Sparing of the Non-Human Primate: A Retrospective Study. (United States)

    Prado, C; MacVittie, T J; Bennett, A W; Kazi, A; Farese, A M; Prado, K


    A partial-body irradiation model with approximately 2.5% bone marrow sparing (PBI/BM2.5) was established to determine the radiation dose-response relationships for the prolonged and delayed multi-organ effects of acute radiation exposure. Historically, doses reported to the entire body were assumed to be equal to the prescribed dose at some defined calculation point, and the dose-response relationship for multi-organ injury has been defined relative to the prescribed dose being delivered at this point, e.g., to a point at mid-depth at the level of the xiphoid of the non-human primate (NHP). In this retrospective-dose study, the true distribution of dose within the major organs of the NHP was evaluated, and these doses were related to that at the traditional dose-prescription point. Male rhesus macaques were exposed using the PBI/BM2.5 protocol to a prescribed dose of 10 Gy using 6-MV linear accelerator photons at a rate of 0.80 Gy/min. Point and organ doses were calculated for each NHP from computed tomography (CT) scans using heterogeneous density data. The prescribed dose of 10.0 Gy to a point at midline tissue assuming homogeneous media resulted in 10.28 Gy delivered to the prescription point when calculated using the heterogeneous CT volume of the NHP. Respective mean organ doses to the volumes of nine organs, including the heart, lung, bowel and kidney, were computed. With modern treatment planning systems, utilizing a three-dimensional reconstruction of the NHP's CT images to account for the variations in body shape and size, and using density corrections for each of the tissue types, bone, water, muscle and air, accurate determination of the differences in dose to the NHP can be achieved. Dose and volume statistics can be ascertained for any body structure or organ that has been defined using contouring tools in the planning system. Analysis of the dose delivered to critical organs relative to the total-body target dose will permit a more definitive analysis

  15. Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Tachbele, Erdaw; Ameni, Gobena


    The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models. Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0%) were censored and 35 (10.0%) died. Twenty-two (62.9%) of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21%) at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72), a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51), and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86) or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27) functional status, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45), and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97). Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives.

  16. Planning: Complex Endeavors (United States)


    MOD, Italy), Fernando Freire (AM, Portugal), Graham Cookman (BAE Systems, UK), Graham Mathieson (DSTL, UK), Hakan Edstrom (Swedish Armed Forces...Houston (ACT, USA), Oren Set- ter (Israeli MOD, Israel), Paul Phister (AFRL/IFB, USA), Paulo Nunes (AM/CINAMIL, Portugal), Ralph Bruehlmann

  17. Cutaneous manifestations of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: a single-center, retrospective study. (United States)

    Marchetti, Michael A; Pulitzer, Melissa P; Myskowski, Patricia L; Dusza, Stephen W; Lunning, Matthew A; Horwitz, Steven M; Moskowitz, Alison J; Querfeld, Christiane


    Limited data exist regarding cutaneous involvement of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), particularly in the United States. We sought to characterize clinical and histopathologic features of ATLL in patients with skin involvement. We retrospectively identified patients with ATLL from a single institution given a diagnosis during a 15-year period (1998-2013). Patients were categorized by the Shimoyama classification and stratified into skin-first, skin-second, and skin-uninvolved courses. The study population included 17 skin-first, 8 skin-second, and 29 skin-uninvolved cases. Skin-first patients (6 acute, 1 lymphoma, 4 chronic, 6 smoldering) were overwhelmingly of Caribbean origin (94%). They had longer median symptom duration (11.9 vs 1.9 months, P < .001) and overall survival (26.7 vs 10.0 months, P < .001) compared with skin-second/skin-uninvolved patients. Cutaneous lesion morphology at diagnosis included nodulotumoral (35%), multipapular (24%), plaques (24%), patches (12%), and erythroderma (6%). After initial skin biopsy, 14 of 17 received a non-ATLL diagnosis, most commonly mycosis fungoides (47%). Notable histopathologic findings from 43 biopsy specimens included greater than or equal to 20:1 CD4:CD8 ratio (79%), angiocentrism (78%), CD25(+) (71%), large cell morphology (70%), CD30(+) (68%), epidermal infiltration of atypical lymphocytes (67%) forming large Pautrier-like microabscesses (55%), and folliculotropism (65%). This was a retrospective, single-center, tertiary referral center study with small sample size. Skin-first patients with ATLL in the United States are diagnostically challenging. Familiarity with clinicopathologic features may aid in diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing the Inconsistency between Doppler and Invasive Measurements of the Severity of Aortic Stenosis Using Aortic Valve Coefficient: A Retrospective Study on Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup K. Paul


    Full Text Available Background. It is not uncommon to observe inconsistencies in the diagnostic parameters derived from Doppler and catheterization measurements for assessing the severity of aortic stenosis (AS which can result in suboptimal clinical decisions. In this pilot study, we investigate the possibility of improving the concordance between Doppler and catheter assessment of AS severity using the functional diagnostic parameter called aortic valve coefficient (AVC, defined as the ratio of the transvalvular pressure drop to the proximal dynamic pressure. Method and Results. AVC was calculated using diagnostic parameters obtained from retrospective chart reviews. AVC values were calculated independently from cardiac catheterization (AVCcatheter and Doppler measurements (AVCdoppler. An improved significant correlation was observed between Doppler and catheter derived AVC (r=0.92, P<0.05 when compared to the correlation between Doppler and catheter measurements of mean pressure gradient (r=0.72, P<0.05 and aortic valve area (r=0.64, P<0.05. The correlation between Doppler and catheter derived AVC exhibited a marginal improvement over the correlation between Doppler and catheter derived aortic valve resistance (r=0.89, P<0.05. Conclusion. AVC is a refined clinical parameter that can improve the concordance between the noninvasive and invasive measures of the severity of aortic stenosis.

  19. Long-term clinical and economic analysis of the Endeavor drug-eluting stent versus the Driver bare-metal stent: 4-year results from the ENDEAVOR II trial (Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of the Medtronic AVE ABT-578 Eluting Driver Coronary Stent in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions). (United States)

    Eisenstein, Eric L; Wijns, William; Fajadet, Jean; Mauri, Laura; Edwards, Rex; Cowper, Patricia A; Kong, David F; Anstrom, Kevin J


    This study was designed to evaluate long-term clinical and economic outcomes for subjects receiving Endeavor drug-eluting versus Driver bare-metal stents (both Medtronic CardioVascular, Santa Rosa, California). Early studies found that the drug-eluting stent (DES) was a clinically and economically attractive alternative to the bare-metal stent; however, associations between DES and very late stent thrombosis suggest that longer follow-up is required. We used clinical, resource use and follow-up data from 1,197 subjects randomized to receive Endeavor (n = 598) versus Driver (n = 599) stents in ENDEAVOR II (Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of the Medtronic AVE ABT-578 Eluting Driver Coronary Stent in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions) study with Medicare cost weights and quality of life adjustments applied from secondary sources. We compared differences through 4-year follow-up (1,440 days). Patients in both treatment groups had similar baseline characteristics. The use of Endeavor versus Driver reduced 4-year target vessel revascularization rates per 100 subjects (10.4 vs. 21.5; difference: -11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -16.0 to -6.1; p AVE ABT-578 Eluting Driver Coronary Stent in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions [ENDEAVOR II]; NCT00614848).

  20. Serum Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β- hCG) Clearance Curves in Women with Successfully Expectantly Managed Tubal Ectopic Pregnancies: A Retrospective Cohort Study. (United States)

    Helmy, Samir; Mavrelos, Dimitrios; Sawyer, Elinor; Ben-Nagi, Jara; Koch, Marianne; Day, Andrea; Jurkovic, Davor


    To establish clearance curves for serum β -hCG in women with successfully expectantly managed tubal ectopic pregnancies. Retrospective cohort study. Non- viable tubal ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed on transvaginal ultrasound. If initial serum β hCG was less than 5000 IU/L and patients were asymptomatic, expectant management was offered. Patients underwent serial β hCG measurements until serum β hCG was less than 20 IU/l, or the urine pregnancy test was negative. Early Pregnancy and Gynaecology Assessment Unit, Kings College Hospital, London (December 1998 to July 2006). We included 161 women with diagnosed non-viable tubal ectopic pregnancy who underwent successful expectant management. Serum β hCG level. Mean initial serum β- hCG was 488 IU/L (41 - 4883) and median serum β hCG clearance time was 19 days (5 - 82). The average half-life of β hCG clearance was 82.5 hours (±SD 50.2) in patients with steadily declining serum β- hCG levels compared to 106.7 hours (±SD 72.0) in patients with primarily plateauing β-hCG levels in the declining phase. However, these differences were not significant (p>0.05). We identified a median follow-up of 19 days until serum β hCG clearance in women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and successful expectant management. Although non- significant, women with initially plateauing serum β hCG showed a longer follow-up time until clearance compared to women with steadily declining β hCG levels. This information may serve as a guideline enabling clinicians to predict the length of follow-up for women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and expectant management.

  1. Challenges for Virtual Humans in Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Huang, T; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    The vision of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) presumes a plethora of embedded services and devices that all endeavor to support humans in their daily activities as unobtrusively as possible. Hardware gets distributed throughout the environment, occupying even the fabric of our clothing. The environment

  2. Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Spalding, K; Bhardwaj, R D; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Frisen, J


    The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Extensive testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope {sup 14}C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after the test ban treaty in 1963. We show that the level of {sup 14}C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels, and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain, and show that whereas non-neuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

  3. Initial maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels in pregnancies achieved after assisted reproductive technology are higher after preimplantation genetic screening and after frozen embryo transfer: a retrospective cohort. (United States)

    Hobeika, Elie; Singh, Sonali; Malik, Shaveta; Knochenhauer, Eric S; Traub, Michael L


    Few published articles have compared initial hCG values across all different types of ART cycles, including cycles with fresh or frozen embryo transfer. No articles have compared initial hCG values in cycles utilizing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). The purpose of this study is to compare initial hCG values after fresh embryo transfer, frozen embryo transfer, and after PGS. This was a single-center retrospective cohort study at an academically affiliated private IVF center. All fresh and frozen embryo transfers between January 2013 and December 31, 2015 were included. We compared mean initial serum hCG values 14 days after oocyte retrieval for fresh cycles and 9 days after frozen embryo transfer. We examined cycles of single embryo transfer (SET) and double embryo transfer (DET). Two hundred elven IVF (fresh embryo transfer), 128 FET (frozen embryo transfer cycles, no PGS), and 111 PGS cycles (ovarian stimulation with embryo cryopreservation, PGS, and frozen transfer in a subsequent estrogen-primed cycle) with initial positive hCG values were analyzed. In patients achieving a positive hCG after SET, initial hCG values were higher after PGS compared to FET (182.4 versus 124.0 mIU/mL, p = 0.02) and IVF (182.4 versus 87.1 mIU/mL, p < 0.001) as well as FET compared to IVF (124.0 versus 87.1 mIU/mL, p < 0.01). After DET, initial hCG values were higher after PGS (222.8 mIU/mL) compared to FET (182.1 mIU/mL, p = 0.02) and IVF (131.1 mIU/mL, p = 0.001). Our study suggests that initial serum hCG values are higher after using PGS and higher after the transfer of a frozen embryo compared to a fresh embryo. This suggests that initial hCG values relate to the chromosomal status of embryos. Initial hCG values may help determine intervention and monitoring later in pregnancy.

  4. Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Swedish cattle; isolates from prevalence studies versus strains linked to human infections - A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Erik


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cases of human infection caused by verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC O157:H7 in Sweden have been connected with cattle farm visits. Between 1996 and 2002, 18 farms were classified as the source of human cases with isolation of EHEC (Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli after VTEC O157:H7 had been isolated from cattle on those farms. Results Characterization by phage typing and molecular methods of the strains isolated from these 18 farms, including PCR for virulence genes (vtx1, vtx2 and variants thereof, eaeA and EHEC-hlyA and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE, demonstrated a cluster of very similar strains from 16 farms. All were of phage type 4, carried the genes encoding the verotoxins VT2 and VT2c, intimin, EHEC-haemolysin and flagellin H7 as shown by PCR, and had identical or very similar PFGE patterns. When analysing strains in a prevalence study of VTEC O157:H7 from cattle at slaughter as well as from an on-farm prevalence study of dairy cattle, using the same typing methods, a rather wide variation was observed among the isolated VTEC O157:H7 strains. Conclusions In Sweden, a limited group of genetically similar and highly pathogenic VTEC O157:H7 strains seem to predominate in direct or indirect transmission from cattle to man.

  5. Retrospective landscape analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzbøger, Bo


    On the basis of maps from the 18th and 19th centuries, a retrospective analysis was carried out of documentary settlement and landscape data extending back to the Middle Ages with the intention of identifying and dating general structural and dynamic features of the cultural landscape in a selected...

  6. Peri-implant bone tissues around retrieved human implants after time periods longer than 5 years: a retrospective histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of 8 cases. (United States)

    Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Mangano, Carlo; Shibli, Jamil A; Vantaggiato, Giovanni; Frosecchi, Massimo; Di Chiara, Claudio; Perrotti, Vittoria


    Only rarely, it is possible to find in the literature histological reports of human retrieved implants, especially after several years of functional loading. These implants can help us in understanding the reactions of peri-implant bone. The aim of this study was to perform a histologic and histomorphometric analysis of the peri-implant tissues behavior and of the bone-titanium interface in titanium dental implants retrieved from patients after time periods longer than 5 years. The archives of the Implant Retrieval Center of the Dental School of the University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy were searched for human dental implants, retrieved after a loading period of more than 5 years. A total of 8 implants were found: 3 of these had been retrieved after 5 years, 1 after 6 years, one after 10 years, 1 after 14 years, 1 after 18 years, 1 after 22 years. Only the bone to implant contact in the three best threads was evaluated. Compact, mature, lamellar bone, with few and small marrow spaces, was present around the implants. Osteons with Haversian canals were present inside some threads, in close proximity to the interface, at both cortical and trabecular regions. Other osteons had a direction perpendicular to the direction of the long axis of the implants. Numerous reversal lines were present. At higher magnification, no gaps or fibrous, connective tissues were present at the interface. The BIC of the three best threads for all implants varied from 94 to 100 %.In conclusion, within the limitations of the present report histology showed that implants with different surfaces all presented the potential to maintain osseointegration over a long period, with a continuous remodeling at the interface, as indicated by the presence of reversal lines.

  7. Parturition lines in modern human wisdom tooth roots: do they exist, can they be characterized and are they useful for retrospective determination of age at first reproduction and/or inter-birth intervals? (United States)

    Dean, M Christopher; Elamin, Fadil


    Parturition lines have been described in the teeth of a number of animals, including primates, but never in modern humans. These accentuated lines in dentine are comprised of characteristic dark and light component zones. The aim of this study was to review the physiology underlying these lines and to ask if parturition lines exist in the third molar tooth roots of mothers known to have had one or more children during their teenage years. Brief retrospective oral medical obstetric histories were taken from four mothers and compared with histological estimates for the timing of accentuated markings visible in longitudinal ground sections of their wisdom teeth. Evidence of accentuated markings in M3 root dentine matched the age of the mother at the time their first child was born reasonably well. However, the dates calculated for inter-birth intervals did not match well. Parturition lines corresponding to childbirth during the teenage years can exist in human M3 roots, but may not always do so. Without a written medical history it would not be possible to say with confidence that an accentuated line in M3 root dentine was caused by stress, illness or was a parturition line.

  8. The coexpression and prognostic significance of c-MET, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in resected gastric cancer: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia YX


    Full Text Available Yong-Xu Jia,1,2,* Teng-Fei Li,3,* Dan-Dan Zhang,4 Zong-Min Fan,5 Hui-Jie Fan,1,2 Jie Yan,1,2 Li-Juan Chen,6 Hong Tang,6 Yan-Ru Qin,1,2 Xing-Ya Li1 1Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2Esophageal and Gastric Cancer Center of Henan Province, 3Department of Interventional Radiology, 4Department of Pathology, 5Henan Key Laboratory for Esophageal Cancer Research, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 6Department of Oncology, Tumor Hospital of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, Henan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Molecular-targeted therapy against tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs plays an important role in gastric cancer (GC treatment. Understanding the correlation between RTK coexpression could better guide clinical drug use. In the present study, the coexpression status of c-MET, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 in human GC and their clinical significance in clinical therapy were explored. Immunohistochemical (IHC staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization were performed in 143 cases of GC who had undergone gastrectomy without preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Their association with clinicopathological features and clinical prognosis was analyzed. The frequencies of c-MET, FGFR2, and HER2 overexpression were 47.6% (68/143, 34.3% (49/143, and 10.5% (15/143, respectively. In the RTK coexpression study, 30.1% of patients (43/143 were positive for only one RTK, 25.8% (37/143 were positive for two RTKs, 3.5% (5/143 had triple-positive status, and 40.6% (58/143 had triple-negative status. In survival analysis, the overexpression of c-MET, FGFR2, and HER2 were significantly associated with overall survival (OS (P=0.018, 0.004, and 0.049, respectively. In coexpression analysis, patients with triple-positive GC had the poorest OS (P=0

  9. The prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections in oral squamous cell carcinomas: a retrospective analysis of 88 patients and literature overview. (United States)

    Krüger, M; Pabst, A M; Walter, C; Sagheb, K; Günther, C; Blatt, S; Weise, K; Al-Nawas, B; Ziebart, T


    In addition to tobacco and alcohol consumption, the two main risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), recent studies have revealed infections with human papilloma virus (HPV) as an additional risk factor for OSCC development. In the field of head and neck malignancies, the prevalence of HPV infections in oropharyngeal cancer (OC) ranges in different studies up to 84%. While HPV infection is discussed as an independent risk factor in this region, its distinguished role in carcinogenesis of tumours localized to the oral cavity remains still uncertain. In this study, we analysed the HPV status in 88 consecutive patients with OSCCs localized anterior of the palatoglossal arch who were treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University Medical Center Mainz. The HPV status analysis was performed using DNA-PCR and immunostaining of p16 protein. The prevalence of HPV-positive OSCCs was about 6% (5 patients). In 3 patients the HPV subtypes 16/18 were found. No significant differences between the HPV positive and negative patients regarding age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption, localization and TNM level could be detected. Contrary to other studies focussing on cancers of the lingual and palatine tonsil, the prevalence of HPV infections was much lower in the oral cavity. Therefore HPV infection might play a less important role in oral carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus, Treponema pallidum, and co-infections among blood donors in Kyrgyzstan: a retrospective analysis (2013-2015). (United States)

    Karabaev, Bakyt B; Beisheeva, Nurgul J; Satybaldieva, Aiganysh B; Ismailova, Aikul D; Pessler, Frank; Akmatov, Manas K


    Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan has experienced a major surge in blood-borne infections, but data from adequately powered, up-to-date studies are lacking. We thus examined a) the seroprevalences of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), HIV-1 p24 antigen and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), human immunodeficiency viruses (anti-HIV-1/2, HIV-1 group O), and Treponema pallidum among blood donors in Kyrgyzstan and assess their distribution according to sex, age, and provinces of residence; b) trends in the respective seroprevalences; and c) co-infection rates among the pathogens studied. Serological screening was performed on 37 165 blood donors at the Republican Blood Centre in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, between January 2013 and December 2015. We applied poststratification weights to control for sampling bias and used logistic regression analyses to examine the association of seropositivity and co-infections with sex, age, provinces of residence, and year of blood donation. Twenty nine thousand and one hundred forty-five (78%) donors were males and 8 020 (22%) were females. The median age was 27 years (range: 18 - 64). The prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, HIV (p24 Ag and anti-HIV), and anti-T. pallidum were 3.6% (95%CI: 3.4 - 3.8%), 3.1% (3.0 - 3.3%), 0.78% (0.69 - 0.87%), and 3.3% (3.1 - 3.5%), respectively. Males were more likely to be seropositive for HBsAg than females (OR: 1.63; 95%CI: 1.40 - 1.90), but less likely to be seropositive for anti-HCV (0.85; 0.74 - 0.98) and HIV (0.65; 0.49 - 0.85). Prevalences were lower in the capital than in the other provinces. There was a decreasing trend in the seroprevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-T. pallidum from 2012 to 2015 (P-value for trend, P = 0.01, P Kyrgyzstan can be reclassified from high to lower-intermediate HBsAg endemicity, whereas the high HIV prevalence with a rising trend is an alarming finding that needs to be urgently addressed by public health authorities. The observed co-infections suggest

  11. Human leukocyte antigen-DR expression on flow cytometry and tumor-associated macrophages in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated by rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone therapy: retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Wataru; Nakamura, Naoya; Tomita, Naoto; Takeuchi, Kengo; Ishii, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Reina; Takasaki, Hirotaka; Motomura, Shigeki; Kobayashi, Shoichi; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Sakai, Rika


    Loss of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression may be related to a poor prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) may influence tumor progression. We retrospectively reviewed 36 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who received R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) therapy at Kanagawa Cancer Center in Japan from 2004 to 2010. HLA-DR expression by lymphoma cells was evaluated using flow cytometry, and TAMs in lymphoma tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry for CD68 as a marker of macrophages and CD163 as a marker of M2 TAMs. Three-year overall survival was, respectively, 100% versus 69.6% in the HLA-DR "bright" and "not bright" groups (p = 0.012). Patients from the HLA-DR "not bright" group with strong CD163 expression had a much worse prognosis than other patients. The HLA-DR status shown by flow cytometry can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with DLBCL receiving R-CHOP therapy and prognostic accuracy can be increased by also assessing TAMs.

  12. SU-F-T-114: A Novel Anatomically Predictive Extension Model of Computational Human Phantoms for Dose Reconstruction in Retrospective Epidemiological Studies of Second Cancer Risks in Radiotherapy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, G; Lee, C [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); Lee, C [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pelletier, C; Jung, J [East Carolina University Greenville, NC (United States)


    Purpose: Recent advances in cancer treatments have greatly increased the likelihood of post-treatment patient survival. Secondary malignancies, however, have become a growing concern. Epidemiological studies determining secondary effects in radiotherapy patients require assessment of organ-specific dose both inside and outside the treatment field. An essential input for Monte Carlo modeling of particle transport is radiological images showing full patient anatomy. However, in retrospective studies it is typical to only have partial anatomy from CT scans used during treatment planning. In this study, we developed a multi-step method to extend such limited patient anatomy to full body anatomy for estimating dose to normal tissues located outside the CT scan coverage. Methods: The first step identified a phantom from a library of body size-dependent computational human phantoms by matching the height and weight of patients. Second, a Python algorithm matched the patient CT coverage location in relation to the whole body phantom. Third, an algorithm cut the whole body phantom and scaled them to match the size of the patient. Then, merged the two anatomies into one whole body. We entitled this new approach, Anatomically Predictive Extension (APE). Results: The APE method was examined by comparing the original chest-abdomen-pelvis CT images of the five patients with the APE phantoms developed from only the chest part of the CAP images and whole body phantoms. We achieved average percent differences of tissue volumes of 25.7%, 34.2%, 16.5%, 26.8%, and 31.6% with an average of 27% across all patients. Conclusion: Our APE method extends the limited CT patient anatomy to whole body anatomy by using image processing and computational human phantoms. Our ongoing work includes evaluating the accuracy of these APE phantoms by comparing normal tissue doses in the APE phantoms and doses calculated for the original full CAP images under generic radiotherapy simulations. This

  13. CHLOROPHYLL A and PHAEOPIGMENTS profile data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR cruises EN321 and EN325 as part of the GB project from 1999-03-29 to 1999-06-28 (NODC Accession 0104396) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104396 includes profile and biological data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruises EN321 and EN325 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1999-03-29...

  14. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruise EN484 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-09-20 to 2010-10-01 (NODC Accession 0103959) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0103959 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruise EN484 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-09-20 to...

  15. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-17 to 2010-06-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084592) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the ENDEAVOR in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-17 to 2010-06-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon...

  16. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruise EN499 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-09-19 to 2011-09-29 (NODC Accession 0103976) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0103976 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruise EN499 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-09-19 to...

  17. Physical, meteorological and profile data from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV and R/V ENDEAVOR in the Northwest Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 1992-07-12 to 1996-06-11 (NODC Accession 9700037) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrophysical, hydrochemical, and other data were collected from the ALBATROSS 4 and ENDEAVOR from July 18, 1992 to June 11, 1996. Data were submitted by Dr. Thomas...

  18. Current meter and other data collected using current meter in the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from ENDEAVOR and other platforms from 16 September 1980 to 12 May 1983 (NODC Accession 8600198) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and other data were collected using current meter (PCM) casts from G. B. KELEZ, ENDEAVOR, and CAPE HATTERAS in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were...

  19. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruise EN501 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-10-26 to 2011-11-07 (NODC Accession 0103988) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0103988 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruise EN501 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-10-26 to...

  20. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruise EN502 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-02-08 to 2012-02-20 (NODC Accession 0104261) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104261 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruise EN502 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-02-08 to...

  1. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruise EN476 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-05-26 to 2010-06-04 (NODC Accession 0103940) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0103940 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruise EN476 in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-05-26 to...

  2. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the ENDEAVOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1991-03-28 to 1991-04-21 (NODC Accession 0113988) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113988 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ENDEAVOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1991-03-28 to...

  3. NRDA-processed CTD data from the ENDEAVOR in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 1, collected from 2010-06-19 to 2010-06-29, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0127970) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the R/V Endeavor to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the water column, and...

  4. Federal Public Health Service: In Retrospect and Prospects. (United States)

    Kolbe, Lloyd J


    In this article, I offer a retrospective case study about my early, short-term work within the U.S. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and then my later, longer-term work within the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where I endeavored for two decades largely to help our nation's schools improve health and associated education outcomes. First, for context, I briefly portray the nature of our related political and public health systems. I then frame this retrospective by illustrating how my serial employment within other public health system organizations led to, and then resulted from, my work within these two federal public health agencies. To represent the many talented individuals in each organization with whom I had the good fortune to work, I name only one in each organization. I then characterize how these individuals and organizations progressively shaped my work and career. I conclude by speculating about prospects for academic institutions to more purposefully prepare students and faculty to work within federal government public health agencies. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. Retrospective and Prospective Human Intravenous and Oral Pharmacokinetic Projection of Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV Inhibitors Using Simple Allometric Principles - Case Studies of ABT-279, ABT-341, Alogliptin, Carmegliptin, Sitagliptin and Vildagliptin. (United States)

    Gilibili, Ravindranath R; Bhamidipati, Ravi Kanth; Mullangi, Ramesh; Srinivas, Nuggehally R


    The purpose of this exercise was to explore the utility of allometric scaling approach for the prediction of intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of six dipeptidy peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors viz. ABT-279, ABT-341, alogliptin, carmegliptin, sitagliptin and vildagliptin. The availability of intravenous and oral pharmacokinetic data in animals enabled the allometry scaling of 6 DPP-IV inhibitors. The relationship between the main pharmacokinetic parameters [viz. volume of distribution (Vd) and clearance (CL)] and body weight was studied across three or four mammalian species, using double logarithmic plots to predict the human pharmacokinetic parameters of CL and Vd using simple allometry. A simply allometry relationship: Y = aWb was found to be adequate for the prediction of intravenous and oral human clearance/volume of distribution for DPP-IV inhibitors. The allometric equations for alogliptin, carmegliptin, sitagliptin, vildagliptin, ABT-279 and ABT-341 were 1.867W0.780, 1.170W0.756, 2.020W0.529, 1.959 W0.847, 0.672 W1.016, 1.077W 0.649, respectively, to predict intravenous clearance (CL) and the corresponding equations to predict intravenous volume of distribution (Vd) were: 3.313W0.987, 6.096W0.992, 7.140W0.805, 2.742W0.941, 1.299W0.695 and 5.370W0.803. With the exception of a few discordant values the exponent rule appeared to hold for CL (0.75) and Vd (1.0) for the predictions of various DPP-IV inhibitors. Regardless of the routes, the predicted values were within 2-3 fold of observed values and intravenous allometry was better than oral allometry. Simple allometry retrospectively predicted with reasonable accuracy the human reported values of gliptins and could be used as a prospective tool for this class of drugs.

  6. The retrospective gambler's fallacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Oppenheimer


    Full Text Available The gambler's fallacy (Tune, 1964 refers to the belief that a streak is more likely to end than chance would dictate. In three studies, participants exhibited a extit{retrospective gambler's fallacy} (RGF in which an event that seems rare appears to come from a longer sequence than an event that seems more common. Study 1 demonstrates this bias for streaks, while Study 2 does so with single rare events and shows that the appearance of rarity is more important than actual rarity. Study 3 extends these findings from abstract gambling domains into real world domains to demonstrate the generalizability of the effects. The RGF follows from the law of small numbers (Tversky and Kahneman, 1971 and has many applications, from perceptions of the social world to philosophical debates about the existence of multiple universes.

  7. Efficacy and toxicity of low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection: A four-center retrospective study. (United States)

    Kosaka, Makoto; Ushiki, Atsuhito; Ikuyama, Yuichi; Hirai, Kazuya; Matsuo, Akemi; Hachiya, Tsutomu; Hanaoka, Masayuki


    Background and objectives: The dose of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for the treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has not been verified. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of low-dose TMP-SMX regimen in such patients.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in four hospitals. We reviewed the medical records of patients with PCP but not HIV (non-HIV-PCP), who were treated with TMP-SMX between 2003 and 2016. The patients were divided into conventional-dose (TMP, 15-20 mg/kg/day) and low-dose (TMP, 20 mg/kg/day) treatment. Grouping was done according to correction dose, which was based on renal function.Results: Eighty-two patients had non-HIV-PCP. Those who received high-, conventional-, and low-dose treatments were 5, 36, and 41, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis for death associated with PCP showed no statistically significant difference in survival rate between the two groups. Ninety-day cause-specific mortality rates were 25.0% and 19.5% in the conventional-dose and low-dose groups (p = 0.76), respectively. Adverse events that were graded as ≥ 3 according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were 41.7% and 17.1% in the conventional-dose and low-dose groups (p = 0.02), respectively. Moreover, vomiting (p = 0.03) and decrease in platelet count (p = 0.03) occurred more frequently in the conventional-dose group.Conclusions: Treatment of non-HIV-PCP with low-dose or conventional-dose TMP-SMX produces comparable survival rates; however, the low-dose regimen is better tolerated and associated with fewer adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. The role of nesfatin-1 in the regulation of food intake and body weight: recent developments and future endeavors. (United States)

    Stengel, A; Mori, M; Taché, Y


    Nesfatin-1 was discovered in 2006 and introduced as a potential novel anorexigenic modulator of food intake and body weight. The past years have witnessed increasing evidence establishing nesfatin-1 as a potent physiological inhibitor of food intake and body weight and unravelled nesfatin-1's interaction with other brain transmitters to exert its food consumption inhibitory effect. As observed for other anorexigenic brain neuropeptides, nesfatin-1 is also likely to exert additional, if not pleiotropic, actions in the brain and periphery. Recent studies established the prominent expression of the nesfatin-1 precursor, nucleobindin2 (NUCB2), in the stomach and pancreas, where nesfatin-1 influences endocrine secretion. This review will highlight the current experimental state-of-knowledge on the effects of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 on food intake, body weight and glucose homeostasis. Potential implications in human obesity will be discussed in relation to the evidence of changes in circulating levels of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in disease states, the occurrence of genetic NUCB2 polymorphisms and--in contrast to several other hormones--the independence of leptin signalling known to be blunted under conditions of chronically increased body weight. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  9. Piloting Telepresence-Enabled Education and Outreach Programs from a UNOLS Ship - Live Interactive Broadcasts from the R/V Endeavor (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Coleman, D.; Donovan, S.; Sanders, R.; Gingras, A.; DeCiccio, A.; Bilbo, E.


    The University of Rhode Island's R/V Endeavor was recently equipped with a new satellite telecommunication system and a telepresence system to enable live ship-to-shore broadcasts and remote user participation through the Inner Space Center. The Rhode Island Endeavor Program, which provides state-funded ship time to support local oceanographic research and education, funded a 5-day cruise off the Rhode Island coast that involved a multidisciplinary team of scientists, engineers, students, educators and video producers. Using two remotely operated vehicle (ROV) systems, several dives were conducted to explore various shipwrecks including the German WWII submarine U-853. During the cruise, a team of URI ocean engineers supported ROV operations and performed engineering tests of a new manipulator. Colleagues from the United States Coast Guard Academy operated a small ROV to collect imagery and environmental data around the wreck sites. Additionally, a team of engineers and oceanographers from URI tested a new acoustic sound source and small acoustic receivers developed for a fish tracking experiment. The video producers worked closely with the participating scientists, students and two high school science teachers to communicate the oceanographic research during live educational broadcasts streamed into Rhode Island classrooms, to the public Internet, and directly to Rhode Island Public Television. This work contributed to increasing awareness of possible career pathways for the Rhode Island K-12 population, taught about active oceanographic research projects, and engaged the public in scientific adventures at sea. The interactive nature of the broadcasts included live responses to questions submitted online and live updates and feedback using social media tools. This project characterizes the power of telepresence and video broadcasting to engage diverse learners and exemplifies innovative ways to utilize social media and the Internet to draw a varied audience.

  10. Visual search: a retrospective. (United States)

    Eckstein, Miguel P


    Visual search, a vital task for humans and animals, has also become a common and important tool for studying many topics central to active vision and cognition ranging from spatial vision, attention, and oculomotor control to memory, decision making, and rewards. While visual search often seems effortless to humans, trying to recreate human visual search abilities in machines has represented an incredible challenge for computer scientists and engineers. What are the brain computations that ensure successful search? This review article draws on efforts from various subfields and discusses the mechanisms and strategies the brain uses to optimize visual search: the psychophysical evidence, their neural correlates, and if unknown, possible loci of the neural computations. Mechanisms and strategies include use of knowledge about the target, distractor, background statistical properties, location probabilities, contextual cues, scene context, rewards, target prevalence, and also the role of saliency, center-surround organization of search templates, and eye movement plans. I provide overviews of classic and contemporary theories of covert attention and eye movements during search explaining their differences and similarities. To allow the reader to anchor some of the laboratory findings to real-world tasks, the article includes interviews with three expert searchers: a radiologist, a fisherman, and a satellite image analyst.

  11. A Retrospective Survival Analysis of Anatomic and Prognostic Stage Group Based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th Edition Cancer Staging Manual in Luminal B Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-negative Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Li, Jiang-Hong; Ye, Jing-Ming; Duan, Xue-Ning; Cheng, Yuan-Jia; Xin, Ling; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Yin-Hua


    Current understanding of tumor biology suggests that breast cancer is a group of diseases with different intrinsic molecular subtypes. Anatomic staging system alone is insufficient to provide future outcome information. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) expert panel updated the 8th edition of the staging manual with prognostic stage groups by incorporating biomarkers into the anatomic stage groups. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the data from our center in China using the anatomic and prognostic staging system based on the AJCC 8th edition staging manual. We reviewed the data from January 2008 to December 2014 for cases with Luminal B Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer in our center. All cases were restaged using the AJCC 8th edition anatomic and prognostic staging system. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to compare the survival differences between different subgroups. SPSS software version 19.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) was used for the statistical analyses. This study consisted of 796 patients with Luminal B HER-negative breast cancer. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) of 769 Stage I-III patients was 89.7%, and the 5-year overall survival (OS) of all 796 patients was 91.7%. Both 5-year DFS and 5-year OS were significantly different in the different anatomic and prognostic stage groups. There were 372 cases (46.7%) assigned to a different group. The prognostic Stage II and III patients restaged from anatomic Stage III had significant differences in 5-year DFS (χ2 = 11.319, P= 0.001) and 5-year OS (χ2 = 5.225, P= 0.022). In addition, cases restaged as prognostic Stage I, II, or III from the anatomic Stage II group had statistically significant differences in 5-year DFS (χ2 = 6.510, P= 0.039) but no significant differences in 5-year OS (χ2 = 5.087, P= 0.079). However, the restaged prognostic Stage I and II cases from anatomic Stage I had no statistically significant

  12. Problematizing as a scientific endeavor (United States)

    Phillips, Anna McLean; Watkins, Jessica; Hammer, David


    The work of physics learners at all levels revolves around problems. Physics education research has inspired attention to the forms of these problems, whether conceptual or algorithmic, closed or open response, well or ill structured. Meanwhile, it has been the work of curriculum developers and instructors to develop these problems. Physics education research has supported these efforts with studies of students problem solving and the effects of different kinds of problems on learning. In this article we argue, first, that developing problems is central to the discipline of physics. It involves noticing a gap of understanding, identifying and articulating its precise nature, and motivating a community of its existence and significance. We refer to this activity as problematizing, and we show its importance by drawing from writings in physics and philosophy of science. Second, we argue that students, from elementary age to adults, can problematize as part of their engaging in scientific inquiry. We present four cases, drawing from episodes vetted by a panel of collaborating faculty in science departments as clear instances of students doing science. Although neither we nor the scientists had problematizing in mind when screening cases, we found it across the episodes. We close with implications for instruction, including the value of helping students recognize and manage the situation of being confused but not yet having a clear question, and implications for research, including the need to build problematizing into our models of learning.

  13. Expeditionary Economics: A Risky Endeavor (United States)


    Expeditionary Economics is one of the theories under development that may provide a viable solution by building economic capacity in struggling...risk mitigation for concerns such as basic vehicular ground guiding; however, there is little reference to much more complex operational risks that...wars. Some observers label the fighting as unfathomable chaos , and others regard it as a natural response to economics and other factors. Many

  14. Starting School: A Community Endeavor (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob


    Much of the current debate about children's transition to school focuses on children's readiness for school. Indeed, Boethel (2004, p. 17) describes transition as the "focal point of readiness." Typically, this focus extends to considering children's competencies--particularly their skills and abilities--at the time of starting school.…

  15. Problematizing as a scientific endeavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McLean Phillips


    Full Text Available The work of physics learners at all levels revolves around problems. Physics education research has inspired attention to the forms of these problems, whether conceptual or algorithmic, closed or open response, well or ill structured. Meanwhile, it has been the work of curriculum developers and instructors to develop these problems. Physics education research has supported these efforts with studies of students problem solving and the effects of different kinds of problems on learning. In this article we argue, first, that developing problems is central to the discipline of physics. It involves noticing a gap of understanding, identifying and articulating its precise nature, and motivating a community of its existence and significance. We refer to this activity as problematizing, and we show its importance by drawing from writings in physics and philosophy of science. Second, we argue that students, from elementary age to adults, can problematize as part of their engaging in scientific inquiry. We present four cases, drawing from episodes vetted by a panel of collaborating faculty in science departments as clear instances of students doing science. Although neither we nor the scientists had problematizing in mind when screening cases, we found it across the episodes. We close with implications for instruction, including the value of helping students recognize and manage the situation of being confused but not yet having a clear question, and implications for research, including the need to build problematizing into our models of learning.

  16. A Retrospective Survival Analysis of Anatomic and Prognostic Stage Group Based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th Edition Cancer Staging Manual in Luminal B Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-negative Breast Cancer


    Ling Xu; Jiang-Hong Li; Jing-Ming Ye; Xue-Ning Duan; Yuan-Jia Cheng; Ling Xin; Qian Liu; Bin Zhou,; Yin-Hua Liu


    Background: Current understanding of tumor biology suggests that breast cancer is a group of diseases with different intrinsic molecular subtypes. Anatomic staging system alone is insufficient to provide future outcome information. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) expert panel updated the 8th edition of the staging manual with prognostic stage groups by incorporating biomarkers into the anatomic stage groups. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the data from our center in ...

  17. Physical, nutrient, chlorophyll a and plankton abundance data collected from CTD and bottle casts aboard the R/Vs OCEANUS and ENDEAVOR in the Western Sargasso Sea and Northeast U.S. Shelf from 2004 to 2005 (NODC Accession 0053611) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical and biologic parameters were measured in the Western Sargasso Sea and Northeast U.S. shelf aboard the R/V Endeavor from 13 May to 31 May, 2004 and...

  18. Impact of study outcome on submission and acceptance metrics for peer reviewed medical journals: six year retrospective review of all completed GlaxoSmithKline human drug research studies. (United States)

    Evoniuk, Gary; Mansi, Bernadette; DeCastro, Barbara; Sykes, Jennie


    Objectives To determine whether the outcome of drug studies influenced submission and/or acceptance rates for publication in peer reviewed medical journals.Design A six year retrospective review of publication status by study outcome for all human drug research studies conducted by a single industry sponsor (GlaxoSmithKline) that completed from 1 January 2009 to 30 June 2014 and were therefore due for manuscript submission (per the sponsor's policy) to peer reviewed journals within 18 months of study completion-that is, 31 December 2015. In addition, manuscripts from studies completing after 30 June 2014 were included irrespective of outcome if they were submitted before 31 December 2015.Setting Studies conducted by a single industry sponsor (GlaxoSmithKline)Studies reviewed 1064 human drug research studies.Main outcome measures All studies were assigned a publication status at 26 February 2016 including (as applicable): study completion date, date of first primary manuscript submission, number of submissions, journal decision(s), and publication date. All studies were also classified with assessors blinded to publication status as "positive" (perceived favorable outcome for the drug under study), "negative" (perceived unfavorable outcome for the drug under study), mixed, or non-comparative based on the presence and outcome of the primary outcome measure(s) for each study. "Negative" studies included safety studies in which the primary outcome was achieved but was adverse for the drug under study. For the total cohort and each of the four study outcomes, measures included descriptive statistics for study phase, time from study completion to submission and publication, and number and outcome (accepted/rejected) of publication submissions.Results Of the 1064 studies (phase I-IV, interventional and non-interventional) included, 321 had study outcomes classified as positive, 155 as negative, 52 as mixed, and 536 as non-comparative. At the time of publication cut

  19. The contemporary management of prostate cancer in the United States: lessons from the cancer of the prostate strategic urologic research endeavor (CapSURE), a national disease registry. (United States)

    Cooperberg, Matthew R; Broering, Jeanette M; Litwin, Mark S; Lubeck, Deborah P; Mehta, Shilpa S; Henning, James M; Carroll, Peter R


    The epidemiology and treatment of prostate cancer have changed dramatically in the prostate specific antigen era. A large disease registry facilitates the longitudinal observation of trends in disease presentation, management and outcomes. The Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) is a national disease registry of more than 10000 men with prostate cancer accrued at 31 primarily community based sites across the United States. Demographic, clinical, quality of life and resource use variables are collected on each patient. We reviewed key findings from the data base in the last 8 years in the areas of disease management trends, and oncological and quality of life outcomes. Prostate cancer is increasingly diagnosed with low risk clinical characteristics. With time patients have become less likely to receive pretreatment imaging tests, less likely to pursue watchful waiting and more likely to receive brachytherapy or hormonal therapy. Relatively few patients treated with radical prostatectomy in the database are under graded or under staged before surgery, whereas the surgical margin rate is comparable to that in academic series. CaPSURE data confirm the usefulness of percent positive biopsies in risk assessment and they have further been used to validate multiple preoperative nomograms. CaPSURE results strongly affirm the necessity of patient reported quality of life assessment. Multiple studies have compared the quality of life impact of various treatment options, particularly in terms of urinary and sexual function, and bother. The presentation and management of prostate cancer have changed substantially in the last decade. CaPSURE will continue to track these trends as well as oncological and quality of life outcomes, and will continue to be an invaluable resource for the study of prostate cancer at the national level.

  20. The Chameleon project in retrospective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Heysters, P.M.; Molenkamp, Egbert


    In this paper we describe in retrospective the main results of a four year project, called Chameleon. As part of this project we developed a coarse-grained reconfigurable core for DSP algorithms in wireless devices denoted MONTIUM. After presenting the main achievements within this project we

  1. Retrospective (United States)

    Brooks, David A.

    Charting a course toward an uncertain future is always a risky business, especially among shoals of fiscal restraint or national tragedy, and the prudent navigator is well advised to remember where he's been as he looks ahead. The ocean and space sciences are poised for grand joint adventures, but shrinking budgets and the lingering Challenger numbness are restrictive lee shores that must be considered when laying plans. To sharpen the focus on future choices, it may be helpful to glance in the geophysical rearview mirror and remember some of the challenges and opportunities of a different era.A quarter century is a long time, but many images from 25 years ago can still be recalled in crisp detail, like photographs in a scrapbook. In 1961, results from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) filled the pages of the Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, and the U.S. program of space exploration finally was underway with conviction. The Indian Ocean Expedition, conceived during the IGY, ushered in a new era of international oceanography. The TIROS III satellite beamed to earth fuzzy pictures of tropical storms and revealed the intricate writhings of the Gulf Stream. Forecasters and fluid dynamicists suddenly saw new horizons, and geophysical turbulence became a major topic at the IUGG Symposium in Marseilles, France. Papers with prescient themes were presented at the AGU Ocean Section meeting: June Pattullo (then at Oregon State College, Corvallis) on heat storage in the Pacific; Ferris Webster (then at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.) on Gulf Stream meanders. Polar oceanography was well represented in AGU journals: Kenneth Hunkins (at what was then called the Lamont Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.) described the Alpha Rise, discovered from a drifting Arctic ice island, and Edward Thiel (then at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) and his co-workers discussed open ocean tides, gravimetrically measured from Antarctic ice shelves.

  2. Retrospect (United States)

    Weaver, Anthony


    A collection of essays on education printed in The New Era during the 1920-1930 era and written by: Beatrice Ensor, A. S. Neill, G. Bernard Shaw, Adolphe Ferriere, C. G. Jung, Martin Buber, Alfred Adler, Harold Rugg, Ovide Decroly, and Paul Langevin. (SE)

  3. Philosophy and logic as inescapable organon for human development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophy which is not possible without logic just as it is impossible to imagine life devoid of logic. Philosophy is a clearing house or a store house, a kind of museum of all field of human knowledge. It is equally an imperialist colonizing all fields of human endeavors. As a store keeper of knowledge, it is frugal in distributing ...

  4. Retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Dicentric chromosome aberrations technique scoring of aberrations in metaphases prepared from human lymphocytes is most commonly used. This is considered as a reliable technique because the sample is extracted from the individual human body itself. There are other techniques in biological dosimetry such as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using translocations, premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and micronucleus assay. However the minimum detectable doses (MDD) are relatively high and sample preparation time is also relatively longer. Therefore, there is limitation in use of these techniques for the purpose of triage in a short time in case of emergency situation relating large number of persons. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique is based on the signal from unpaired electrons such as free radicals in irradiated materials especially tooth enamel, however it has also limitation for the purpose of triage because of difficulty of sample taking and its high MDD. Recently as physical methods, thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique have been attracted due to its lower MDD and simplicity of sample preparation. Density of the trapped charges is generally proportional to the radiation dose absorbed and the intensity of emitting light is also proportional to the density of trapped charges, thus it can be applied to measure radiation dose retrospectively. In this presentation, TL and OSL techniques are going to introduced and discussed as physical methods for retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges especially in electronic component materials. As a tool for dose reconstruction for emergency situation, thermoluminescece and optically stimulated luminescence techniques which are based on trapped charges during exposure of material are introduced. These techniques have several advantages such as high sensitivity, fast evaluation and ease to sample collection over common biological dosimetry and EPR

  5. Insurance and quality of life in men with prostate cancer: data from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urological Research Endeavor. (United States)

    Sadetsky, Natalia; Lubeck, Deborah P; Pasta, David J; Latini, David M; DuChane, Janeen; Carroll, Peter R


    To evaluate the effect of medical insurance coverage on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes in men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer, as insurance status has been shown to be related to clinical presentation, and types of treatments received for localized prostate cancer, but the relationship of insurance and QoL has not been explored sufficiently. Data from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urological Research Endeavor (CaPSURE), a national longitudinal database registry of men with prostate cancer, were used for this study. Men who were newly diagnosed at entry to CaPSURE and completed one questionnaire before treatment, and one or more afterwards, were included. Insurance groups specific to age distribution of the study population were assessed, i.e. Medicare, preferred provider organizations (PPOs), health maintenance organizations (HMOs), fee for service (FFS), and the Veterans Administration (VA) for the younger group, and Medicare only, Medicare plus supplement (+S), and HMO/PPO for the older group. Associations between patients' clinical and sociodemographic characteristics and insurance status were evaluated by chi-square and analysis of variance. Relationships between insurance status and HRQoL outcomes over time were evaluated by multivariate mixed model. Of 2258 men who met the study criteria, 1259 were younger and 999 were older than 65 years. More than half of the younger patients belonged to an HMO or PPO (42.2% and 32.5%, respectively), with the remainder distributed between Medicare, FFS and VA. In the older group most men belonged to Medicare only and the Medicare +S groups (22.4% and 58.8%, respectively). There was greater variation in clinical risk categories at presentation by insurance groups in the younger group. In the multivariate analysis, insurance status was significantly associated with changes in most HRQoL outcomes over time in the younger group, while in the older patients the effect of insurance diminished. Men in

  6. Building the fastest bicycle in the world; a year with the Human Power Team Delft & Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, M.; Roks, G.


    “Third time lucky” is the saying, but for the third Human Power Team it almost turned out as a year for nothing. The team has been attempting to set the world record for the fastest bicycle powered only by human muscles for two years already. This endeavor to let a Dutchman be the fastest human on

  7. A Consideration of Human Resource Management Future


    Samad Nasiri; Sahar Valikhanfard Zanjani


    The prediction of future events, at best, is a risky endeavor. Researchers and theorists have different views about what will happen to human resource managers. Most research has been done on topics of technology, intellectual capital, and government regulation, workforce demographic changes, shrinking organizations, international management and globalization. It is evident that all the issues mentioned play a very important role in human resource management over the coming decades, and some ...

  8. From non school-based, co-payment to school-based, free Human Papillomavirus vaccination in Flanders (Belgium): a retrospective cohort study describing vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities. (United States)

    Lefevere, Eva; Theeten, Heidi; Hens, Niel; De Smet, Frank; Top, Geert; Van Damme, Pierre


    School-based, free HPV vaccination for girls in the first year of secondary school was introduced in Flanders (Belgium) in 2010. Before that, non school-based, co-payment vaccination for girls aged 12-18 was in place. We compared vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities in coverage - 3 important parameters contributing to the effectiveness of the vaccination programs - under both vaccination systems. We used retrospective administrative data from different sources. Our sample consisted of all female members of the National Alliance of Christian Mutualities born in 1995, 1996, 1998 or 1999 (N=66,664). For each vaccination system we described the cumulative proportion HPV vaccination initiation and completion over time. We used life table analysis to calculate age-specific rates of HPV vaccination initiation and completion. Analyses were done separately for higher income and low income groups. Under non school-based, co-payment vaccination the proportions HPV vaccination initiation and completion slowly rose over time. By age 17, the proportion HPV vaccination initiation/completion was 0.75 (95% CI 0.74-076)/0.66 (95% CI 0.65-0.67). The median age at vaccination initiation/completion was 14.4 years (95% CI 14.4-14.5)/15.4 years (95% CI 15.3-15.4). Socio-economic inequalities in coverage widened over time and with age. Under school-based, free vaccination rates of HPV vaccination initiation were substantially higher. By age 14,the proportion HPV vaccination initiation/completion was 0.90 (95% CI 0.90-0.90)/0.87 (95% CI 0.87-0.88). The median age at vaccination initiation/completion was 12.7 years (95% CI 12.7-12.7)/13.3 years (95% CI 13.3-13.3). Socio-economic inequalities in coverage and in age-specific coverage were substantially smaller. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A retrospective study on the hospital prevalence of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five-year retrospective study of human tuberculosis (TB) was conducted in selected towns in Kogi, Niger and Taraba States from 1990 to 1994 using hospital records. During this period, 6,506 were recorded in the three states, with 330 (5%) occurring in Kogi State and 363 (5.6%) and 5,813 (89.3%) in Niger and Taraba ...

  10. Measuring nightmare frequency: retrospective questionnaires versus prospective logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, J.; Spoormaker, V.I.; Peterse, G.; Van den Bout, J.


    Retrospective measurements underestimate nightmare frequency, but little is known about how retrospective duration and attention for nightmares may affect this process. This study evaluates the differences between two retrospective durations, a prospective log, and a retrospective estimate after

  11. On "bettering humanity" in science and engineering education. (United States)

    Stieb, James A


    Authors such as Krishnasamy Selvan argue that "all human endeavors including engineering and science" have a single primary objective: "bettering humanity." They favor discussing "the history of science and measurement uncertainty." This paper respectfully disagrees and argues that "human endeavors including engineering and science" should not pursue "bettering humanity" as their primary objective. Instead these efforts should first pursue individual betterment. One cannot better humanity without knowing what that means. However, there is no one unified theory of what is to the betterment of humanity. Simultaneously, there is no one field (neither science, nor engineering, nor philosophy) entitled to rule univocally. Perhaps if theorists tended their own gardens, the common weal would be tended thereby.

  12. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Türker


    Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management.Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed.Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications.Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.

  13. A retrospective of VAWT technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Sutherland, Herbert J. (HJS Consulting, Albuquerque, NM); Berg, Dale E.


    The study of Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) technology at Sandia National Laboratories started in the 1970's and concluded in the 1990's. These studies concentrated on the Darrieus configurations because of their high inherent efficiency, but other configurations (e.g., the Savonius turbine) were also examined. The Sandia VAWT program culminated with the design of the 34-m 'Test Bed' Darrieus VAWT. This turbine was designed and built to test various VAWT design concepts and to provide the necessary databases to validate analytical design codes and algorithms. Using the Test Bed as their starting point, FloWind Corp. developed a commercial VAWT product line with composite blades and an extended height-to-diameter ratio. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the design process and results of the Sandia 34-m VAWT Test Bed program and the FloWind prototype development program with an eye toward future offshore designs. This paper is our retrospective of the design, analysis, testing and commercial process. Special emphasis is given to those lessons learned that will aid in the development of an off-shore VAWT.

  14. A retrospective study of pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larigani B


    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a rare disease. A retrospective study of the signs and clinical course of this disorder was performed by evaluating medical records. Our fidings indicate that the prevalence of pheochromocytoma was equal in men and women, and most patients (56% were in their second and third decades of life. In 10% of the cases, the disease was bilateral, and in 13% it was outside the adrenal (totally para-aortic. The tumor was more common on the right side (8%, and 3.5% were familial. Almost all cases had a history of hypertension and hypertensive crises. Attack-like episodes of clinical symptoms and signs and hypertension were observed in 98%, headache in 71% and profuse perspiration in 68% of the cases. An abdominal mass was palapated in 13% of the cases, 26% had overt diabetes, 23% had ECG changes. Malignancy was observed in 4%, with metastases to the liver (n=2 lung (n=1 and spine (n=1. In the latter four cases, the metastic lesion was histologically proven to be pheochromocytoma. In three of the 28 female cases, the first hypertensive crisis occurred during pregnancy causing abortion in one case.

  15. Assessing Gale Crater as an Exploration Zone for the First Human Mission to Mars (United States)

    Calef, A. F. J., III; Archer, D.; Clark, B.; Day, M.; Goetz, W.; Lasue, J.; Martin-Torres, J.; Zorzano-Mier, M.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.


    Mars is the "horizon goal" for human space flight [1]. Towards that endeavor, one must consider several factors in regards to choosing a landing site suitable for a human-rated mission including: entry, descent, and landing (EDL) characteristics, scientific diversity, and possible insitu resources [2]. Selecting any one place is a careful balance of reducing risks and increasing scientific return for the mission.

  16. CHLOROPHYLL A and PHAEOPIGMENTS profile data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR cruises EN259, EN262 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-01-11 to 1995-06-16 (NODC Accession 0104395) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104395 includes profile and biological data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruises EN259, EN262, EN264, EN266 and EN267II in the North Atlantic...

  17. SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - LIFE STAGE and TAXONOMIC CODE tows - plankton tows data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises AL9506, AL9605 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-02-12 to 1999-05-21 (NODC Accession 0107469) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0107469 includes tows - plankton tows and biological data collected aboard NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises AL9506, AL9605,...

  18. SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - LIFE STAGE and TAXONOMIC CODE pump cast data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises AL9505, AL9506 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-01-12 to 1999-06-23 (NODC Accession 0107647) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0107647 includes pump cast and biological data collected aboard NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises AL9505, AL9506, AL9508,...

  19. BIOMASS, SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, TAXONOMIC CODE and species abundance tows - plankton tows data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises EN307, EN330 and others as part of the GB project from 1997-10-11 to 1999-12-09 (NODC Accession 0106090) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0106090 includes tows - plankton tows, biological and physical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises EN307, EN330, EN331,...

  20. SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - LIFE STAGE and TAXONOMIC CODE pump cast data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises AL9505, AL9506 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-01-12 to 1999-06-23 (NODC Accession 0107285) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0107285 includes pump cast and biological data collected aboard NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises AL9505, AL9506, AL9508,...

  1. SPECIES IDENTIFICATION, TAXONOMIC CODE and species abundance tows - plankton tows data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises AL9505, AL9506 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-02-11 to 1999-06-24 (NODC Accession 0105531) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0105531 includes tows - plankton tows and biological data collected aboard NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises AL9505, AL9506,...

  2. CONDUCTIVITY, WIND DIRECTION, SHORTWAVE IRRADIANCE, AIR TEMPERATURE and other underway - surface data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR cruises EN259, EN260 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-01-10 to 1995-07-14 (NODC Accession 0106342) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0106342 includes underway - surface, meteorological, chemical, physical and optical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruises EN259, EN260,...

  3. CONDUCTIVITY, WIND DIRECTION, SHORTWAVE IRRADIANCE, AIR TEMPERATURE and other underway - surface data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR cruises EN259, EN260 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-01-10 to 1995-07-14 (NODC Accession 0104428) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104428 includes underway - surface, meteorological, physical, chemical and optical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruises EN259, EN260,...

  4. CONDUCTIVITY, WIND DIRECTION, SHORTWAVE IRRADIANCE, AIR TEMPERATURE and other underway - surface data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR cruises EN259, EN260 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-01-10 to 1995-07-14 (NODC Accession 0105305) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0105305 includes underway - surface, meteorological, chemical, physical and optical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruises EN259, EN260,...

  5. CHLOROPHYLL A, SALINITY, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE, DISSOLVED OXYGEN and other undulating profile data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR cruises EN321 and EN325 as part of the GB project from 1999-03-30 to 1999-06-27 (NODC Accession 0106340) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0106340 includes profile, undulating profile, biological, chemical and physical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruises EN321 and EN325 in...

  6. INDIVIDUAL FISH EXAMINATION - LENGTH and TAXONOMIC CODE tows - plankton tows data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises AL9505, AL9506 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-02-11 to 1999-06-24 (NODC Accession 0105810) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0105810 includes tows - plankton tows and biological data collected aboard NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises AL9505, AL9506,...

  7. SALINITY, CONDUCTIVITY, TEMPERATURE, FLUORESCENCE and other profile data collected in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and North Atlantic Ocean on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and other platforms cruises AL9404, AL9505 and others as part of the GB project from 1994-06-01 to 1999-06-23 (NODC Accession 0104400) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104400 includes profile, discretely sampled, biological, chemical and physical data collected aboard NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR, OCEANUS and...

  8. SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - ORGANISM LENGTH, SPECIES IDENTIFICATION and TAXONOMIC CODE tows - plankton tows data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises AL9505, AL9506 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-02-11 to 1999-06-24 (NODC Accession 0105586) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0105586 includes tows - plankton tows and biological data collected aboard NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises AL9505, AL9506,...

  9. CONDUCTIVITY, WIND DIRECTION, SHORTWAVE IRRADIANCE, AIR TEMPERATURE and other underway - surface data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises EN319, EN320 and others as part of the GB project from 1999-02-11 to 1999-12-14 (NODC Accession 0104432) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104432 includes underway - surface, meteorological, physical, chemical and optical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises...

  10. CONDUCTIVITY, WIND DIRECTION, SHORTWAVE IRRADIANCE, AIR TEMPERATURE and other underway - surface data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises EN319, EN320 and others as part of the GB project from 1999-02-11 to 1999-12-14 (NODC Accession 0104427) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104427 includes underway - surface, meteorological, physical, chemical and optical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises...

  11. SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - LIFE STAGE and TAXONOMIC CODE tows - plankton tows data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises AL9506, AL9605 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-02-12 to 1999-05-21 (NODC Accession 0107117) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0107117 includes tows - plankton tows and biological data collected aboard NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises AL9506, AL9605,...

  12. SALINITY, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE, SIGMA-THETA, FLUORESCENCE and other profile data collected in the Gulf of Guinea, Mediterranean Sea - Western Basin and others on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and other platforms cruises AL9306, AL9403II and others as part of the GB project from 1993-05-22 to 1997-05-17 (NODC Accession 0107210) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0107210 includes profile, biological and physical data collected aboard NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR, OCEANUS and SEWARD JOHNSON during cruises...

  13. CONDUCTIVITY, WIND DIRECTION, SHORTWAVE IRRADIANCE, AIR TEMPERATURE and other underway - surface data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises EN319, EN320 and others as part of the GB project from 1999-02-11 to 1999-12-14 (NODC Accession 0105691) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0105691 includes underway - surface, meteorological, chemical, physical and optical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises...

  14. PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR) profile data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR cruises EN259, EN262 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-01-12 to 1995-06-04 (NODC Accession 0106520) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0106520 includes profile and physical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR during cruises EN259, EN262, EN264, EN266 and EN267I in the North Atlantic...

  15. SALINITY, CONDUCTIVITY, HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE and FLUORESCENCE profile data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises AL9505, AL9506 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-02-11 to 1996-06-11 (NODC Accession 0104387) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104387 includes profile, discretely sampled, biological, physical and chemical data collected aboard NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS...

  16. CONDUCTIVITY, WIND DIRECTION, SHORTWAVE IRRADIANCE, AIR TEMPERATURE and other underway - surface data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises EN292, EN296 and others as part of the GB project from 1997-01-07 to 1997-10-28 (NODC Accession 0104422) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104422 includes underway - surface, meteorological, physical, chemical and optical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises...

  17. CONDUCTIVITY, WIND DIRECTION, SHORTWAVE IRRADIANCE, AIR TEMPERATURE and other underway - surface data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises EN292, EN296 and others as part of the GB project from 1997-01-07 to 1997-10-28 (NODC Accession 0106409) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0106409 includes underway - surface, meteorological, chemical, physical and optical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises...

  18. CONDUCTIVITY, WIND DIRECTION, SHORTWAVE IRRADIANCE, AIR TEMPERATURE and other underway - surface data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises EN292, EN296 and others as part of the GB project from 1997-01-07 to 1997-10-28 (NODC Accession 0105668) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0105668 includes underway - surface, meteorological, chemical, physical and optical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises...

  19. CONDUCTIVITY, WIND DIRECTION, SHORTWAVE IRRADIANCE, AIR TEMPERATURE and other underway - surface data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises EN276, EN278 and others as part of the GB project from 1996-01-10 to 1996-12-20 (NODC Accession 0104421) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104421 includes underway - surface, meteorological, physical, chemical and optical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises...

  20. INDIVIDUAL FISH EXAMINATION - LENGTH and TAXONOMIC CODE tows - plankton tows data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises AL9505, AL9506 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-02-11 to 1999-06-23 (NODC Accession 0106200) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0106200 includes tows - plankton tows and biological data collected aboard NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises AL9505, AL9506,...

  1. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ENDEAVOR from the Atlantic Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / combination of USSR POLYGON project and US MODE (IDOE/POLYMODE) project, 1978-05-08 to 1978-05-25 (NCEI Accession 8000135) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ENDEAVOR in the Atlantic Ocean from May 8, 1978 to May 25, 1978. Data were...

  2. CONDUCTIVITY, WIND DIRECTION, SHORTWAVE IRRADIANCE, AIR TEMPERATURE and other underway - surface data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises EN276, EN278 and others as part of the GB project from 1996-01-10 to 1996-12-20 (NODC Accession 0105588) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0105588 includes underway - surface, meteorological, chemical, physical and optical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises...

  3. CHLOROPHYLL A profile data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises AL9505, AL9506 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-02-11 to 1996-06-12 (NODC Accession 0101503) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0101503 includes profile, discretely sampled and biological data collected aboard NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV, ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises AL9505,...

  4. CONDUCTIVITY, WIND DIRECTION, SHORTWAVE IRRADIANCE, AIR TEMPERATURE and other underway - surface data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises EN276, EN278 and others as part of the GB project from 1996-01-10 to 1996-12-20 (NODC Accession 0104430) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104430 includes underway - surface, meteorological, physical, chemical and optical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises...

  5. CONDUCTIVITY, OXYGEN - PERCENT SATURATION, TEMPERATURE, turbidity and other profile data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS cruises EN307, EN330 and others as part of the GB project from 1997-10-09 to 1999-12-12 (NODC Accession 0104391) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0104391 includes profile, biological, chemical and physical data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS during cruises EN307, EN330, EN331, OC332...

  6. ALOHA Packet Broadcasting - A Retrospect (United States)


    destination is available, its identification is stored in a Conation Tabu entry for the requesting user in the MEMHJNE, and the user’s address stored in a...very high compared to a typical conflict-free channel. s\\ t:J ■21- consisted only of human terminal users, it was decided that a simple error...the TOJ’s interfacing human users to a haxf duplex, line-oriented time- sharing | • system. At the time of the first TOJ design effort memory i

  7. Retrospective time perception in Korsakoff's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Nandrino, J.L.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Matton, C.; Bacquet, J.E.; Urso, L.; Antoine, P.


    The authors investigated retrospective timing in participants with Korsakoff's syndrome. Patients were assessed on four retrospective tasks on which they were instructed to read three-digit numbers aloud (15 seconds), fill connected squares (30 seconds), decide whether words were abstract or

  8. Technology readiness assessments: A retrospective (United States)

    Mankins, John C.


    The development of new system capabilities typically depends upon the prior success of advanced technology research and development efforts. These systems developments inevitably face the three major challenges of any project: performance, schedule and budget. Done well, advanced technology programs can substantially reduce the uncertainty in all three of these dimensions of project management. Done poorly, or not at all, and new system developments suffer from cost overruns, schedule delays and the steady erosion of initial performance objectives. It is often critical for senior management to be able to determine which of these two paths is more likely—and to respond accordingly. The challenge for system and technology managers is to be able to make clear, well-documented assessments of technology readiness and risks, and to do so at key points in the life cycle of the program. In the mid 1970s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) introduced the concept of "technology readiness levels" (TRLs) as a discipline-independent, programmatic figure of merit (FOM) to allow more effective assessment of, and communication regarding the maturity of new technologies. In 1995, the TRL scale was further strengthened by the articulation of the first definitions of each level, along with examples (J. Mankins, Technology readiness levels, A White Paper, NASA, Washington, DC, 1995. [1]). Since then, TRLs have been embraced by the U.S. Congress' General Accountability Office (GAO), adopted by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and are being considered for use by numerous other organizations. Overall, the TRLs have proved to be highly effective in communicating the status of new technologies among sometimes diverse organizations. This paper will review the concept of "technology readiness assessments", and provide a retrospective on the history of "TRLs" during the past 30 years. The paper will conclude with observations concerning prospective future

  9. Government Disaster Response and Narrative Retrospection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier


    This paper investigates the nexus between disaster response and voting behaviour through a comparative study of the electoral dynamics in the immediate aftermath of the 2004 Tsunami in Denmark and Sweden. The paper addresses three hypotheses of retrospection: (i) blind retrospection where voters...... primarily take the disaster impacts into account; (ii) mediated retrospection where voters primarily take the quality of the disaster response into account; and (iii) narrative retrospection where voters primarily take the dominant political narrative of the disaster into account. The results suggest...... that voters did not appear to immediately punish the Danish and Swedish governments for the Tsunami despite the severe impacts and the widespread public disapproval of the governments’ disaster responses. The concept of narrative retrospection shows how there was limited pressure to politicize the government...

  10. Guide and Position of the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics on Personalized Nutrition: Part 2 - Ethics, Challenges and Endeavors of Precision Nutrition. (United States)

    Kohlmeier, Martin; De Caterina, Raffaele; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Görman, Ulf; Allayee, Hooman; Prasad, Chandan; Kang, Jing X; Nicoletti, Carolina Ferreira; Martinez, J Alfredo


    Nutrigenetics considers the influence of individual genetic variation on differences in response to dietary components, nutrient requirements and predisposition to disease. Nutrigenomics involves the study of interactions between the genome and diet, including how nutrients affect the transcription and translation process plus subsequent proteomic and metabolomic changes, and also differences in response to dietary factors based on the individual genetic makeup. Personalized characteristics such as age, gender, physical activity, physiological state and social status, and special conditions such as pregnancy and risk of disease can inform dietary advice that more closely meets individual needs. Precision nutrition has a promising future in treating the individual according to their phenotype and genetic characteristics, aimed at both the treatment and prevention of disease. However, many aspects are still in progress and remain as challenges for the future of nutrition. The integration of the human genotype and microbiome needs to be better understood. Further advances in data interpretation tools are also necessary, so that information obtained through newer tests and technologies can be properly transferred to consumers. Indeed, precision nutrition will integrate genetic data with phenotypical, social, cultural and personal preferences and lifestyles matters to provide a more individual nutrition, but considering public health perspectives, where ethical, legal and policy aspects need to be defined and implemented. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Consequences of Human Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Hodgson


    Full Text Available Human behavior is founded on a complex interaction of influences that derive from sources both extraneous and intrinsic to the brain. It is the ways these various influences worked together in the past to fashion modern human cognition that can help elucidate the probable course of future human endeavor. A particular concern of this chapter is the way cognition has been shaped and continues to depend on prevailing environmental and ecological conditions. Whether the human predicament can be regarded simply as another response to such conditions similar to that of other organisms or something special will also be addressed. More specifically, it will be shown that, although the highly artificial niche in which most humans now live has had profound effects on ways of thinking, constraints deriving from a shared evolutionary heritage continue to have substantial effects on behavior. The way these exigencies interact will be explored in order to understand the implications for the future wellbeing of humanity.

  12. Group dynamics in a long-term blind endeavor on Earth: An analog for space missions (Lewis & Clark Expedition group dynamic analysis) (United States)

    Allner, M.; Rygalov, V.


    In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson set fourth a military expedition led by Captains M. Lewis and W. Clark (Lewis and Clark Expedition) on an exploration that would become an everlasting part of US national history and pride. Looking back at the events of this exploration, there are many similarities to the experiences future human space explorers will face as we look to colonize the Moon and travel to Mars and beyond (NASA Vision for Space Exploration, 2004): The Lewis and Clark Expedition lasted almost three years and involved a crew of 43 men traveling up the Missouri River to explore the unknown lands and a possible water route to the Pacific Ocean; The Expedition took place far away from customary comfortable environments known to European settlers in the early 18th century; The Expedition involved a remotely confined high-perceived risk environment with high levels of uncertainty providing stresses and every day challenges for the crew; Supplies brought on the mission were limited (mainly a mass/weight issue rather than cost), therefore the discovery and use of environmental resources (In-Situ Resource Utilization approach, including info-resources to mitigate uncertainty) was necessary for crew survival. The environments astronauts will encounter in space and on the Moon and Mars due to high risk and uncertainty will be in many aspects similar to what Lewis and Clark's crew experienced, as environments will be hostile and unforgiving if problems arise and aren't resolved quickly. The analysis provided in this research paper is relevant because the Lewis and Clark Expedition needed to move extensively and with minimal supplies. Polar remote settings, which were analyzed extensively, were different from this expedition due to the fact that these missions did not encompass extensive movement of crew facilities and supplies and were more like space missions orbiting the Earth. Using past space station results of performance on orbit in correlation with a

  13. The retrospective chart review: important methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassar Matt


    Full Text Available In this paper, we review and discuss ten common methodological mistakes found in retrospective chart reviews. The retrospective chart review is a widely applicable research methodology that can be used by healthcare disciplines as a means to direct subsequent prospective investigations. In many cases in this review, we have also provided suggestions or accessible resources that researchers can apply as a “best practices” guide when planning, conducting, or reviewing this investigative method.

  14. Retrospective analysis of endemic melasma patients


    Serkan Demirkan; Özgür Gündüz; Cemile Dayangan Sayan


    Melasma is an acquired diffuse hypermelanosis characterized by localized, symmetrical, irregular, light-to-dark brown maculae occurring in sun-exposed areas of skin. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine demographics of patients, analysis of etiologic factors, clinical features, efficacy and side effects of available topical treatments due to high incidence of melasma patients. In this study melasma patients in Birecik State Hospital were investigated retrospectively. Between J...

  15. Human Systems Engineering and Program Success - A Retrospective Content Analysis (United States)


    generic program. It is not intended to reflect the time dedicated to associated phase activity. LEGEND : = Decision Point CDD = Capability Development...Beverly G. Knapp. Also, Dr. Holly A. H. Handley and Jeffrey Thomas provided techniques, data, and advice. Former col- leagues Susan Archer, Chris Plott

  16. Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias: Retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.A. Sousa


    Full Text Available Aims: This study classifies cases of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDH in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Coimbra University Hospitals (HUC from 1990 to 2004. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 34 cases of TDH, studying anatomical location, place and time of diagnosis, complementary tests aiding diagnosis, herniated organs, associated traumatism, morbidity and mortality. Results: Twenty-eight male and six female patients with an average age of 40.5 years ± 20.5, average SAPS score 38.8. Average lenght of stay was 19.1 ± 13.6 days, all suffered from closed traumatism and were put on artificial ventilation. The left-side diaphragm was more frequently affected (94.1% then the right. Diagnosis in 19 cases was made up in the first six hours following the diagnosis of traumatism, in four cases within 12 hours and in the remaining cases between 48 hours and 16 years after traumatism. In 13 patients the diagnosis was established intra-operatively. The stomach was typically one of the herniated organs. The most frequently associated lesions at the thoracic level were pulmonary contusion, haemothorax and pneumothorax, and at the abdominal level, haemoperitoneum and splenic lesion. The rates for complications and mortality were 55.8% and 11.7% respectively. Conclusions: TDH mainly occurs on the left side through closed thoraco-abdominal trauma following road traffic accidents. This group of patients, on average younger than others admitted to ICU, presents a longer average hospitalisation period, but has lower rates of mortality and lower SAPS severity scores. The most commonly herniated organ was the stomach and the most frequently encountered lesions were cranial-encephalic, splenic and pleural traumatisms. Pre-operative diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries is difficult and a high index of clinical suspicion is needed after thoracoabdominal trauma. This diagnosis should always be considered a possibility in

  17. Thoracic surgical resident education: a costly endeavor. (United States)

    Calhoon, John H; Baisden, Clint; Holler, Ben; Hicks, George L; Bove, Ed L; Wright, Cameron D; Merrill, Walter H; Fullerton, Dave A


    We sought to define an accurate measure of thoracic surgical education costs. Program directors from six distinct and differently sized and geographically located thoracic surgical training programs used a common template to provide estimates of resident educational costs. These data were reviewed, clarifying questions or discrepancies when noted and using best estimates when exact data were unavailable. Subsequently, a composite of previously published cost-estimation products was used to capture accurate cost data. Data were then compiled and averaged to provide an accurate picture of all costs associated with thoracic surgical education. Before formal accounting was performed, the estimated average for all programs was approximately $250,000 per year per resident. However, when formal evaluations by the six programs were performed, the annual cost of resident education ranged from $330,000 to $667,000 per year per resident. The average cost of $483,000 per year was almost double the initial estimates. Variability was noted by region and size of program. Faculty teaching costs varied from $208,000 to $346,000 per year. Simulation costs ranged from $0 to $80,000 per year. Resident savings to program ranged from $0 to $135,000 per year and averaged $37,000 per year per resident. Thoracic surgical education costs are considerably higher than initial estimates from program directors and probably represent an unappreciated source of financial burden for cardiothoracic surgical educational programs. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Collaboration with Music: A Noteworthy Endeavor (United States)

    Cane, Susannah


    Hushed melodies have been known to lull infants to sleep; preschoolers can memorize the alphabet through song; marching bands arouse patriotism; and choirs inspire spiritual renewal. Music educators are well attuned to the power of music to alter mood, provide motivation, and link learning. Yet, music often has been viewed in educational settings…

  19. Endeavors in micro-imaging spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, M.M.


    The goal of this apparatus is to better enable characterization of tissue samples both on a microscopic scale and across the visible spectrum. The set-up consists of a phase-contrast inverted Nikon microscope, a single-grating imaging spectrometer, a CCD camera, and a computer potentially controlling all three of the previous devices, The computer uses an object-oriented program development environment called LabVIEW to run the three devices. This apparatus will hopefully enable better, less invasive surgical procedures, as well as permitting higher-resolution, more up-close observation of cellular dynamics.

  20. Cooperative endeavors: A case study of success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)


    Partnerships and cooperative agreements abound in the environmental arena today. This paper briefly highlights the collaborative approach used by the International Cooperative for Ozone Layer Protection (ICOLP). ICOLP has helped international members and non-members to eliminate most of the ozone-depleting solvents from manufacturing processes through the exchange of technical information in a non-proprietary manner. By using alternatives, companies and governments have realized savings in the multiple millions of dollars. Advantages of participating in cooperative environmental partnerships may include: (1) improved access and exchange of information, (2) cost minimization, (3) promotion and facilitation of business opportunities, (4) improved dialogue between groups, (5) coordinated approach to complex issues, and (6) technology development and transfer opportunities.

  1. A Schoolwide Endeavor: Our Exquisite Snake (United States)

    Hoffman, Anne Marie


    The author was originally inspired by "The Exquisite Snake" exhibit she saw at a local museum. Two hundred contemporary artists contributed to this exhibit, which was an adaptation of the old parlor game called "The Exquisite Corpse" that Surrealist artists used to play in the late 1920s and '30s. The author just loved this idea and decided to…

  2. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere


    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  3. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere


    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  4. Human Resource Management Strategies and Teacher's Efficiency within Schools: A Co-Relational Study (United States)

    Hashmi, Kiran


    The aim of the paper is to study Human Resource Management and Development (HRMD) strategies and their effect on teachers' efficiency within the Catholic Board of Education (CBE) schools of Pakistan whose teachers are graduates in educational leadership courses from a private teacher education institutes in Karachi. The study endeavored to build a…

  5. The Learning Organization Turns 15: A Retrospective (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Special Issue; to provide a practitioner's retrospective views of the learning organization concept; and to comment on the status of "The Learning Organization" journal. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves recounting a personal history of a practitioner's experiences…

  6. Retrospective /Backlog Cataloguing: The Experience At The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looked at retrospective cataloguing in the Library of the University of Cape Coast (UCC) from 1991 to 2004. It was discovered that over twelve thousand (12,000) volumes of books had not been processed or catalogued in this Library. This means that these materials did not have any traces in the public catalogue ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. A retrospective study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of Pulmonary TB amongst patients attending Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kano was conducted between January, 2006 and July,. 2008. Sputum samples were obtained from three thousand six hundred and seventy nine (3679) patients. Samples were ...

  8. Cancrum oris - a 35-year retrospective study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the factors predisposing to cancrum oris and its frequency, clinical features, treabnent and outcome. Cancrum oris is a gangrenous condition of the face usually occurring in poorly nourished children in a. Third-World setting. Design. Retrospective review of clinical data on children with cancrum oris ...

  9. A Retrospective Appraisal of Teacher Induction (United States)

    Nasser-Abu Alhija, Fadia M.; Fresko, Barbara


    Examination of an induction program for new teachers was undertaken from the viewpoint of induction graduates three years after participation. Their retrospective perspectives were investigated as to their satisfaction with assimilation in school in the induction year, their attitudes towards organizational aspects of the program, and the…

  10. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study (United States)

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon


    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  11. Mesiodens: a retrospective study of fifty teeth. (United States)

    Roychoudhury, A; Gupta, Y; Parkash, H


    A retrospective study of 30 cases of mesiodens is presented. male preponderance of 1.5:1. was 64% mesiodens were impacted and 36% erupted. Inverted impacted mesiodens was seen in 62.5% of the impacted mesiodens. 66.6% cases had 2 mesiodens per case. The harmful effects on the dentition were mostly crowding, rotation, diastema and impacted permanent incisor.

  12. Short Communication: Retrospective Conversion of Arabic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University of Jos Library, Nigeria had envisioned the computerisation of its functions and services since the 1980s, but it was not until 1992 that it had its first set of microcomputers. The retrospective conversion (RECON) of the library's collection is currently in progress, and the Integrated Technical Services (ITS) for

  13. Peripheral nerve lesions in Zimbabwe: a retrospective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    throughout Zimbabwe (population 12.3 million, area. 390,000km2). Tests of nerve function carried out in this laboratory ... neurophysiological evaluation, to have lesions of peripheral nerves were retrospectively reviewed .... the arm extending to the shoulder was painful. Nineteen patients complained of additional weakness ...

  14. Retrospective monitoring of drug utilisation in cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective study was carried out to established drug prescribing trends in the management of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the cardiovascular unit of the Department of Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria. 100 folders of patients with various CVDs were randomly ...

  15. Retrospective assessment of seasonal allergic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, H-J


    The history of the severity of seasonal allergic symptoms is often obtained post-seasonally as a retrospective assessment. Correct rating is essential when determining the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatment, indications for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), or inclusion into controlled...

  16. A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: We have herein reported our experience with the pattern of presentation of cases of acute organophosphorus (OP) poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods:This retrospective study evaluated the hospital records of patients with acute OP poisoning. In a pre-structured proforma, data ...

  17. Retrospective study of epidemiological, clinicopathological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Algeria, the CRC wing and become the first digestive cancer in both sexes, outperforming stomach cancer. To enrich the Algerian cancer registries, we analyzed the profiles of patients with these cancers in Jijel Willaya. This was a retrospective and descriptive analysis of epidemiological, clinicopathological and biological ...

  18. TIFRAC, India's First Computer–A Retrospective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. TIFRAC, India's First Computer - A Retrospective. P V S Rao. General Article Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 420-429. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  19. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan (United States)

    Gaowa; Wuritu; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Wu, Dongxing; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Chiya, Seizou; Fukunaga, Kazutoshi; Funato, Toyohiko; Shiojiri, Masaaki; Nakajima, Hideki; Hamauzu, Yoshiji; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ando, Shuji; Kishimoto, Toshio


    We retrospectively confirmed 2 cases of human Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Patient blood samples contained unique p44/msp2 for the pathogen, and antibodies bound to A. phagocytophilum antigens propagated in THP-1 rather than HL60 cells. Unless both cell lines are used for serodiagnosis of rickettsiosis-like infections, cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis could go undetected. PMID:23460988

  20. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging by Retrospective Gating : Mathematical Modelling and Reconstruction Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Zwaan, M.


    This paper is concerned with some mathematical aspects of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the beating human heart. In particular we investigate the so-called retrospective gating technique which is a non-triggered technique for data acquisition and reconstruction of (approximately) periodically

  1. Application of luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.


    Luminescence signals measured from minerals within bricks or ceramic samples can provide information about the absorbed radiation dose. This feature has for several years been used in dating archaeological and geological samples and recently luminescence techniques have been intensively used far...... retrospective assessment of accident doses received by the population after a nuclear accident. The development of new luminescence techniques after the Chernobyl accident has considerably improved the sensitivity and precision in the evaluation of accident doses. This paper reviews the development work......, especially on optically stimulated luminescence methods for retrospective assessment of accident doses carried out at Riso National Laboratory in collaboration with the University of Helsinki as part bf a joint European Union research project. We demonstrate that doses lower than 100 mGy can be measured from...

  2. Retrospective study of 145 supernumerary teeth


    Fernández Montenegro, Paula; Valmaseda Castellón, E.; Berini Aytés, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme


    Objective: The goal of the present retrospective study is to describe the distribution of the supernumerary teeth in a population of patients that have been attended at the Public Clinic of the Department of Oral Surgery. Background: Supernumerary teeth and multiple hyperdontia are usually associated with different syndromes, such as Gardner syndrome, or with facial fissures; however, they can appear in patients without any pathology. Their prevalence oscillates to 0.5-3.8% in patients wi...

  3. Retrospective study of 145 supernumerary teeth


    Fernández Montenegro, Paula; Valmaseda Castellón, Eduardo; Berini Aytés, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme


    Objective: The goal of the present retrospective study is to describe the distribution of the supernumerary teeth in a population of patients that have been attended at the Public Clinic of the Department of Oral Surgery. Background: Supernumerary teeth and multiple hyperdontia are usually associated with different syndromes, such as Gardner syndrome, or with facial fissures; however, they can appear in patients without any pathology. Their prevalence oscillates to 0.5-3.8% in patients with p...

  4. Retrospective analysis of stoma-related complications


    İsmet Özaydın; Ali Kemal Taşkın; Abdulkadir İskender


    Objective: One of the few factors, that affect life of peoplehave stoma negatively, are complications developing intissues where placed stomas or near stomas. We aimedto evaluate the stoma practices performed frequently inour clinic.Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011,the records of 96 patients who had stoma retrospectively.Factors indication for stoma, emergency procedure, preoperativestoma, type of stoma and complications sitingrecorded.Results: Ninety-six stoma patients were ex...

  5. Stereotactic radiosurgery for glioblastoma: retrospective analysis


    Walter Kevin A; Vates G Edward; Bakos Robert S; Pilcher Webster H; Smudzin Therese; Schell Michael C; Okunieff Paul; Biswas Tithi; Wensel Andrew; Korones David N; Milano Michael T


    Abstract Purpose This retrospective study was done to better understand the conditions for which stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for glioblastoma may be efficacious. Methods Between 2000 and 2007, 33 patients with a pathological diagnosis of glioblastoma received SRS with the Novalis® Shaped Beam Radiosurgery system. Eighteen patients (54%) underwent salvage SRS for recurrence while 15 (45%) patients received upfront SRS following standard fractionated RT for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Res...

  6. Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome - a retrospective cohort study


    Mukherjee, Devdeep; Sinha, Rajiv,; Akhtar, Md Shakil; Saha, Agni Sekhar


    AIM To ascertain the frequency of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) in a cohort of children with hypertensive emergency in a tertiary pediatric hospital. METHODS A retrospective review was undertaken among children with hypertensive emergency admitted in our tertiary children hospital between June 2014 and December 2015 with an aim to identify any children with HHS. Three children with HHS were identified during this period. RESULTS The 3 patients with HHS presented with hypertensive e...

  7. 77 FR 47572 - Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 19 CFR Chapter II Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules AGENCY: International Trade Commission... July 11, 2011, the Commission recently adopted its Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules... submitted in connection with the Commission's Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules...

  8. [Diabetic retinopathy complications--12-year retrospective study]. (United States)

    Ignat, Florica; Davidescu, Livia


    It is analyzed, on a retrospective study on 12 years, the incidence of diabetus melitus cases, hospitalized in the Ophthalmologic Clinic from Craiova with special mention to the frequency of the diabetic retinopathy, of it's complications and in an accordance to other general diseases, especially cardiovascular's, which contributes to the aggravation of the diabetic ocular in juries evolution. The study underlines the high incidence of the new founded cases with diabetus melitus in complicated diabetes retinopathy stage; the high frequency of ocular complications is explained, according to our statistic facts and through an insufficient treatment, sometimes incorrect and many other cases total neglected by the patients.

  9. A retrospective metagenomics approach to studying Blastocystis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lee O'Brien; Bonde, Ida; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn


    Blastocystis is a common single-celled intestinal parasitic genus, comprising several subtypes. Here, we screened data obtained by metagenomic analysis of faecal DNA for Blastocystis by searching for subtype-specific genes in coabundance gene groups, which are groups of genes that covary across......- and Prevotella-driven enterotypes. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between Blastocystis and communities of gut bacteria using a metagenomics approach. The study serves as an example of how it is possible to retrospectively investigate microbial eukaryotic communities in the gut using...... metagenomic datasets targeting the bacterial component of the intestinal microbiome and the interplay between these microbial communities....

  10. Retrospective analysis of the Spitak earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Tovmassian


    Full Text Available Based on the retrospective analysis of numerous data and studies of the Spitak earthquake the present work at- tempts to shed light on different aspects of that catastrophic seismic event which occurred in Northern Arme- nia on December 7, 1988. The authors follow a chronological order of presentation, namely: changes in geo- sphere, atmosphere, biosphere during the preparation of the Spitak earthquake, foreshocks, main shock, after- shocks, focal mechanisms, historical seismicity; seismotectonic position of the source, strong motion records, site effects; the macroseismic effect, collapse of buildings and structures; rescue activities; earthquake conse- quences; and the lessons of the Spitak earthquake.

  11. A retrospective examination of paleoparasitology and its establishment in the Journal of Parasitology. (United States)

    Faulkner, Charles T; Reinhard, Karl J


    Volume 95 (2009) of the Journal of Parasitology represented a significant benchmark in the history of paleoparasitology when it received on the cover formal recognition as a topical area for publication. This retrospective examination chronicles the emergence of paleoparasitology, from its origins as an adjunct contribution to the study of prehistoric human populations to its modern expression as a sub-disciplinary interest. The aim of paleoparasitology is to elucidate the temporal and spatial dimensions of parasitism from the fossil record of human and non-human host populations.

  12. Odontoma: a retrospective study of 73 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical findings and treatment results for impacted permanent teeth associated with odontomas. We retrospectively investigated 73 odontomas in 72 patients who visited Kyungpook National University Dental Hospital from April 2004 through November 2011. The study was performed using medical records, panoramic radiographs, and pathological reports. Data gathered included age, gender, location, chief complaints, effects on dentition, and treatment of odontoma and the impacted tooth associated with odontoma. Most compound odontomas (46.7%) were found in the second decade and complex odontomas were not related to age. Odontomas showed no gender predilection. Fifty-five cases (75.3%) of odontomas were detected on routine dental radiographs. Sixty percent of compound odontomas occurred in the canine area and 57.1% of complex odontomas in the molar areas. Impaction of permanent teeth (61.6%) was the most common complication on the adjacent teeth. Most odontomas (84.9%) were removed surgically and impacted permanent teeth were managed by surgical removal (53.2%), orthodontic treatment (25.5%), or surgical repositioning (6.4%). There was a statistically significant relation between age and preservation of the impacted permanent teeth associated with odontomas (p<0.01). Early detection and treatment of odontomas increase the possibility of preservation of the impacted tooth. Therefore, it would be suggested that periodic panoramic examination during the first and second decade of life might be beneficial for the early detection and better prognosis of odontomas.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Leeming


    Full Text Available Abstract: It is not always possible or practical to gather data over a long period of time, and researchers have used retrospective data from questionnaire and interview to gain insights into change over time. There has been little discussion within SLA as to the validity of this data, and it is seemingly accepted at face value. This paper examines both qualitative and quantitative retrospective accounts of changes in self-efficacy, by collecting quantitative questionnaire data over a one-year period, and then asking students to quantitatively recollect their feelings of self-efficacy over that time frame, followed by qualitative description. Results showed that students were able to accurately recollect quantitative data, although there was a noticeable degradation in accuracy with time. Interview data suggested that students were reluctant to admit lack of ability to recall events, and sometimes produced conflicting accounts of events.  This may in part be due to the dual role of teacher and researcher adopted in this study. The implications for researchers and also for teachers are considered.

  14. Fandom Biases Retrospective Judgments Not Perception. (United States)

    Huff, Markus; Papenmeier, Frank; Maurer, Annika E; Meitz, Tino G K; Garsoffky, Bärbel; Schwan, Stephan


    Attitudes and motivations have been shown to affect the processing of visual input, indicating that observers may see a given situation each literally in a different way. Yet, in real-life, processing information in an unbiased manner is considered to be of high adaptive value. Attitudinal and motivational effects were found for attention, characterization, categorization, and memory. On the other hand, for dynamic real-life events, visual processing has been found to be highly synchronous among viewers. Thus, while in a seminal study fandom as a particularly strong case of attitudes did bias judgments of a sports event, it left the question open whether attitudes do bias prior processing stages. Here, we investigated influences of fandom during the live TV broadcasting of the 2013 UEFA-Champions-League Final regarding attention, event segmentation, immediate and delayed cued recall, as well as affect, memory confidence, and retrospective judgments. Even though we replicated biased retrospective judgments, we found that eye-movements, event segmentation, and cued recall were largely similar across both groups of fans. Our findings demonstrate that, while highly involving sports events are interpreted in a fan dependent way, at initial stages they are processed in an unbiased manner.

  15. Retrospective Analysis of Endemic Melasma Patients. (United States)

    Demirkan, Serkan; Gündüz, Özgür; Sayan, Cemile Dayangan


    Melasma is an acquired diffuse hypermelanosis characterized by localized, symmetrical, irregular, light-to-dark brown maculae occurring in sun-exposed areas of skin. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine demographics of patients, analysis of etiologic factors, clinical features, efficacy and side effects of available topical treatments due to high incidence of melasma patients. In this study melasma patients in Birecik State Hospital were investigated retrospectively. Between January 2014 and October 2015, 1008 patients had diagnosis of melasma in 49,809 applications of 24,603 different patients who admitted to Dermatology Outpatient Clinics. Of the 1008 patients, 263 had completed 3-month treatment period. These patients did not receive treatment in June, July, August and September. All melasma patients were rural and dealing with agriculture. There was no significant difference between female and male patients in terms of age. Of the 253 female melasma patients, only 2 of them had not child and none of them were using hormone drug. Of the 263 patients with melasma, Fitzpatrick skin type was 3 in 79 (30%) patients, 4 in 184 (70%) patients. Şanliurfa city showed higher fertility rate, sun exposure, and skin type than Turkey as a whole. These predisposing factors may explain higher melasma occurrence in Şanliurfa. Patient information about preventive measures and treatment play important role in treatment of cosmetic condition. The most important measure seems to advise patients about sun-protection especially during pregnancy.

  16. Retrospective analysis of endemic melasma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Demirkan


    Full Text Available Melasma is an acquired diffuse hypermelanosis characterized by localized, symmetrical, irregular, light-to-dark brown maculae occurring in sun-exposed areas of skin. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine demographics of patients, analysis of etiologic factors, clinical features, efficacy and side effects of available topical treatments due to high incidence of melasma patients. In this study melasma patients in Birecik State Hospital were investigated retrospectively. Between January 2014 and October 2015, 1008 patients had diagnosis of melasma in 49,809 applications of 24,603 different patients who admitted to Dermatology Outpatient Clinics. Of the 1008 patients, 263 had completed 3-month treatment period. These patients did not receive treatment in June, July, August and September. All melasma patients were rural and dealing with agriculture. There was no significant difference between female and male patients in terms of age. Of the 253 female melasma patients, only 2 of them had not child and none of them were using hormone drug. Of the 263 patients with melasma, Fitzpatrick skin type was 3 in 79 (30% patients, 4 in 184 (70% patients. Şanlıurfa city showed higher fertility rate, sun exposure, and skin type than Turkey as a whole. These predisposing factors may explain higher melasma occurrence in Şanlıurfa. Patient information about preventive measures and treatment play important role in treatment of cosmetic condition. The most important measure seems to advise patients about sun-protection especially during pregnancy.

  17. The Human Anatomy Teacher-Scholar: Meeting the Expectations of Educational Outcomes Research, Course Content Innovation, and Textbook Innovation for Educational Scholarship (United States)

    Eckel, Christine Marie


    A human anatomy teacher-scholar is a scholar whose area of expertise includes content knowledge of the anatomical sciences (gross anatomy, histology, embryology, and/or neuroanatomy) and whose research interests and focus are centered in medical educational outcomes. The projects described in this dissertation represent endeavors I engaged in to…

  18. DSCOVR Science Data and Retrospective Access (United States)

    Rowland, W. F.; Codrescu, S.; Tilton, M.; Cartwright, J.; Redmon, R. J.; Loto'aniu, P. T. M.; Mccullough, H.; Denig, W. F.


    On July 27, 2016 the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) became the first operational satellite at the first Lagrange point (L1). This vantage, approximately one percent of the distance from the Earth to the Sun along the Earth-Sun line, means that DSCOVR data provide critical advanced warning of impending space weather events. As such, DSCOVR data are essential for forecasters, modelers, and the scientific community. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Centers for Environmental Information (NOAA/NCEI) archives the retrospective data and shares them with the public. We examine the data available, with a focus on some of the more interesting events that have occurred. We also discuss mechanisms created to facilitate search and access for those data, including a user-driven interface that allows one to dynamically generate plots and order relevant data of interest.

  19. Vietnam’s forest transition in retrospect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankersen, Jeppe; Grogan, Kenneth Joseph; Mertz, Ole


    One of the prerequisites of the REDD+ mechanism is to effectively predict business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios for change in forest cover. This would enable estimation of how much carbon emission a project could potentially prevent and thus how much carbon credit should be rewarded. However, different...... factors like forest degradation and the lack of linearity in forest cover transitions challenge the accuracy of such scenarios. Here we predict and validate such BAU scenarios retrospectively based on forest cover changes at village and district level in North Central Vietnam. With the government......’s efforts to increase the forest cover, land use policies led to gradual abandonment of shifting cultivation since the 1990s. We analyzed Landsat images from 1973, 1989, 1998, 2000, and 2011 and found that the policies in the areas studied did lead to increased forest cover after a long period of decline...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karimi


    Full Text Available - Pericardectomy was first accomplished hi Germany in 1913. It is obligatory when a pathologic condition in the pericardium increases pressure on the heart. The most common disease thai causes this process is constrictive pericarditis. Tuberculosis was formerly the most common cause of the latter. A retrospective review of pericardectomy for constrictive pericarditis was undertaken in Shariati hospital, Forty patients (21 male, and 1° female were operated on during a period of S years. Dyspnea, chest pain and fatigue were the most common symptoms. The etiology was not clear in 17 cases. Diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed in 10 patients. Chronic renal failure and diabetes mellnus were two important causes of comorbidity. After pericardectomy, 31 patients recovered without any complications, and 3 patients died. One patient developed heart failure, one patient pneumothorax and in / patients arrhythmias were encountered.

  1. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.


    Optically stimulated luminescence signals from natural quartz and feldspar are now used routinely in dating geological and archaeological materials. More recently they have also been employed in accident dosimetry, i.e. the retrospective assessment of doses received as a result of a nuclear...... accident. Since 1990 the exploration of this wide variety of applications has driven an intensive investigation and development programme at Riso, in measurement facilities and techniques. This paper reviews some of the outcomes of this programme, including (i) optimisation of stimulation and emission...... windows, and detection sensitivity, (ii) experience with various stimulation light sources, including filtered incandescent lamps (420-550 nm) and high intensity light emitting diodes (470 nm) and laser diodes (830-850 nm). We also discuss recently developed high-precision single-aliquot measurement...

  2. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences. (United States)

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda


    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports.

  3. Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome - a retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Devdeep; Sinha, Rajiv; Akhtar, Md Shakil; Saha, Agni Sekhar


    To ascertain the frequency of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) in a cohort of children with hypertensive emergency in a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective review was undertaken among children with hypertensive emergency admitted in our tertiary children hospital between June 2014 and December 2015 with an aim to identify any children with HHS. Three children with HHS were identified during this period. The 3 patients with HHS presented with hypertensive emergency. They were initially managed with Labetalol infusion and thereafter switched to oral anti-hypertensives (combination of Nifedipine sustained release, Hydralazine and Beta Blocker). All 3 were diagnosed to have unilateral renal artery stenosis. One child was lost to follow up, whereas the other 2 underwent renal angioplasty which was followed with normalization of blood pressure. Despite activation of renin angiotensin axis secondary to renal artery stenosis, these groups of children have significant hyponatremia. Renal re-vascularisation produces excellent results in most of them.

  4. E-Bike Injuries: Experience from an Urban Emergency Department—A Retrospective Study from Switzerland


    Sylvana Papoutsi; Luca Martinolli; Christian Tasso Braun; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K


    Background. Between 2005 and 2012, annual sales of E-bikes in Switzerland increased from 1,792 to 52,941. This continuous and rapid transition from human-powered bicycles to an electric bicycle technology may indicate the increasing demand for low-cost transportation technology in combination with a healthy lifestyle. Material and Methods. In the present study, from April 2012 to September 2013, we retrospectively analysed E-bike accidents treated in the Emergency Department of our hospital ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina UNGUR


    Full Text Available Any human activity implies the existence of certain dangers for life, health or property. The need to protect them has led to insurance. In this article we present the chronological evolution of the phenomenon of insurance from its origin in antiquity to the contemporary period. We also show the interdependence of development of human civilization and the diversification and development of insurance services in various historical eras.

  6. Retrospective dosimetry of nail by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance; Dosimetria retrospectiva de unha por Ressonancia Paramagnetica Eletronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannoni, Ricardo A., E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues Junior, Orlando, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The purpose of this study is to characterize samples of human nails, subjected to irradiation of high doses through Technical Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The goal is to establish a dose/response relationship in order to assess dose levels absorbed by individuals exposed in radiation accidents situations, retrospectively. Samples of human nails were irradiated with gamma radiation, and received a dose of 20 Gy. EPR measurements performed on samples before irradiation identified EPR signals associated with defects caused by the mechanical action of the sample collection. After irradiation other species of free radicals, associated with the action of gamma radiation, have been identified.

  7. In the right order of brush strokes: a sketch of a software philosophy retrospective. (United States)

    Pyshkin, Evgeny


    This paper follows a discourse on software recognized as a product of art and human creativity progressing probably for as long as software exists. A retrospective view on computer science and software philosophy development is introduced. In so doing we discover parallels between software and various branches of human creative manifestations. Aesthetic properties and mutual dependency of the form and matter of art works are examined in their application to software programs. While exploring some philosophical and even artistic reflection on software we consider extended comprehension of technical sciences of programming and software engineering within the realm of liberal arts.

  8. Biomolecular aspects of depression: A retrospective analysis. (United States)

    Peacock, Brandon N; Scheiderer, David J; Kellermann, Gottfried H


    The effects of psychological stress, oxidative stress, and chronic low grade inflammation on the neuro-immune connection have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. Thus, in the recent past, there has been a growing effort in determining the mechanism of this pathogenesis. While attempting to map out, this mechanism researchers and clinicians have searched for clinically relevant biomarkers for use in the diagnosis and for the assessment of those suffering from depression. In this study, we have performed a retrospective analysis of biomarkers with clinically relevant potentials, including peripheral catecholamines, chemokines, cytokines, and neurotransmitters. The retrospective analysis was performed on data collected over a six-year period of time (July 2009 to July 2015), gathered from patients (N=1399; Mage=42, SD=13; 71% female, 29% male) who submitted samples with complaints of feeling hopeless, worthless, isolated, alone, general sadness, overwhelmed, and/or a lack of interest in things they once enjoyed. The data collected consisted of quantitative values of urinary catecholamines and neurotransmitters (peripheral dopamine, epinephrine, histamine, kynurenic acid, norepinephrine, β-PEA, and serotonin), salivary hormones (peripheral cortisol and melatonin), and peripheral blood mononuclear cell secreted cytokines and chemokines (Interleukins 1β, 6, 8, 10, MCP-1, GCSF, and TNFα). Statistical and clinical significance was assessed by comparison with a control group (N=2395; Mage=42, SD=13; 70% female, 30% male), calculating the percent mean difference, p value, and effect size (Cohen's ɗ) for each parameter between groups. The findings of this study suggested that, in a model of general depression, there is a dysregulation in the enzymatic production and degradation of catecholamines, neurotransmitters, hormones, and immunological proteins. A cycle of interaction was found between all of these biomolecules, where an increase or decrease in one

  9. An Efficient Algorithm for Recognition of Human Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Daanial Khan


    Full Text Available Recognition of human actions is an emerging need. Various researchers have endeavored to provide a solution to this problem. Some of the current state-of-the-art solutions are either inaccurate or computationally intensive while others require human intervention. In this paper a sufficiently accurate while computationally inexpensive solution is provided for the same problem. Image moments which are translation, rotation, and scale invariant are computed for a frame. A dynamic neural network is used to identify the patterns within the stream of image moments and hence recognize actions. Experiments show that the proposed model performs better than other competitive models.

  10. Stereotactic radiosurgery for glioblastoma: retrospective analysis

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    Walter Kevin A


    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose This retrospective study was done to better understand the conditions for which stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS for glioblastoma may be efficacious. Methods Between 2000 and 2007, 33 patients with a pathological diagnosis of glioblastoma received SRS with the Novalis® Shaped Beam Radiosurgery system. Eighteen patients (54% underwent salvage SRS for recurrence while 15 (45% patients received upfront SRS following standard fractionated RT for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Results There were no RTOG grade >2 acute side effects. The median survival after SRS was 6.7 months (range 1.4 – 74.7. There was no significant difference in overall survival (from the time of initial diagnosis with respect to the timing of SRS (p = 0.2. There was significantly better progression free survival in patients treated with SRS as consolidation versus at the time of recurrence (p = 0.04. The majority of patients failed within or at the margin of the SRS treatment volume (21/26 evaluable for recurrence. Conclusion SRS is well tolerated in the treatment of glioblastoma. As there was no difference in survival whether SRS is delivered upfront or at recurrence, the treatment for each patient should be individualized. Future studies are needed to identify patients most likely to respond to SRS.

  11. Retrospective karyotype study in mentally retarded patients. (United States)

    Teixeira, Wellcy Gonçalves; Marques, Fabiana Kalina; Freire, Maíra Cristina Menezes


    To describe the chromosomal alterations in patients with mental retardation (MR) using G-banding karyotype analysis. A retrospective study of the results G-banding karyotype analysis of 369 patients investigated for MR was performed. Based on the structural rearrangements found, the authors searched all chromosomal regions related with breakpoints, and these were compared with the literature on MR and databases. 338 (91.6%) normal cases, and 31 (8.4%) with some type of chromosomal abnormality were identified. Among the altered cases, 21 patients (67.8%) were identified with structural chromosomal alterations, nine (29%) with numerical alterations, and one (3.2%) with numerical and structural alterations. Structural chromosomal abnormalities were observed more frequently in this study. G-banding karyotyping contributes to the investigation of the causes of MR, showing that this technique can be useful for initial screening of patients. However, higher resolution techniques such as array based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MPLA) can detect submicroscopic alterations commonly associated with MR.

  12. [SIDS--a retrospective study in Slovakia]. (United States)

    Jura, J; Hottmar, F


    This is an analysis of 102 cases of SIDS from retrospective studies in the Zilina and Senica districts. The incidence of SIDS in the Zilina district was 2.04/1000 (period 1969-1978) and 1.04/1000 (period 1980-1984). The incidence of SIDS in the Senica district was 0.82/1000 (period 1979-1990). According to preliminary results of the epidemiological study of SIDS in Slovakia (1991) the incidence is only 0.89/1000 which amounts, however, to 23.1% of the post-neonatal mortality. In the investigation nine indicators were evaluated: age at the time of death, morbidity before death, place of death, education of mother, position of infant at time of death, birth weight succession of child in family. The assembled results were compared with data in the literature. Because of similar results it is assumed that the following risk factors participate in the incidence of SIDS: age (2-4 months), time between midnight and 6 a.m., low socio-economic status of family, lower education of mother, incidence of SIDS in the family, short interval between childbirths, prone position during sleep, succession of child in family (third or subsequent), effect of smoking. The investigation did not confirm as risk factors a lower birth weight and inadequate postnatal adaptation. In the conclusions some possible ways of prevention are outlined.

  13. Acute burn during pregnancy: A retrospective study

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    Ezzatollah Rezaei


    Full Text Available Background & aim: The incidence of acute burn injuries in pregnant women is very low. Burn injuries during pregnancy are often associated with a high rate of fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity. In this study, we aimed to review the cases of acute burn during pregnancy and evaluate the outcome of these patients in Mashhad, Iran. Methods:This retrospective study was performed using the medical records of 48 pregnant women with thermal injuries over a 13-year period. Results: The results showed that 8 (16.7%, 27 (56.3%, and 13 (27.1% patients were in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Moreover, 14 mothers (29.2% died, 24 (50.0% were discharged without any fetal problems, eight (16.7% had fetal death, 13 (27.1% had abortion, two (4.2% had normal vaginal delivery, and one (2.1% underwent normal caesarean section. Conclusion: The rate ofmaternal survival in the first and second trimesters was higher than the third one. In the third trimester, pregnancy termination is indicated only after fetal maturation.

  14. A retrospective study of contact granuloma. (United States)

    Ylitalo, R; Lindestad, P A


    This study evaluates the clinical features of contact granuloma and compares the results of voice therapy in operated versus unoperated cases. Retrospective review of 123 patients with contact granuloma. Thirty-six patients had undergone one or more surgeries before phoniatric consultation. After their final operation, 33 patients had recurrence. The three patients who were cured by operation were not studied further. The course of disease in the 33 patients with recurrence was compared with that of 87 patients who did not have surgery. The hospital records were reviewed concerning age, sex, symptoms, side of granuloma, and outcome of treatment. The predominant symptoms were vocal fatigue, vocal discomfort, the need for excessive throat clearing, and hoarseness. The recurrence rate after operation was 92%. Twelve months after voice therapy, 35% of the operated group and 51% of the unoperated group were cured. The patients who had surgery had almost twice as many sessions of voice therapy as the unoperated group, and their mean recovery time was 17 months, compared with 8 months for the unoperated group. The recurrence rate after surgery was high. Surgery may prolong the recovery time. Subjective symptoms diminished during voice therapy, but we cannot confirm that it was beneficial for the healing process.

  15. Retrospective Evaluation of Alopecia Areata Patients

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    Müzeyyen Gönül


    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the clinical, demographic and laboratory features of alopecia areata (AA patients who attended our policlinic in the last year.Material and Methods: The study was performed retrospectively and age, gender, family history of patients, onset age, duration and localization area of AA, number of recurrences, associated findings and laboratory findings were obtained from records. Results: The study included 132 patients. Median duration of disease was 4 months. 15.9% of the patients had a family history, 20.5% had another autoimmune disorder, 18% had nail findings, 18.5% atopy history. 6.5% of patients had nuchal nevus flammeus. Multifocal involvement was significantly higher in males. Positive correlation was detected between duration and severity of disease. The duration of disease was statistically related with increased thyroid autoantibodies. Nuchal nevus flammeus was related with total/universal AA. Low levels of iron, ferritin and hemoglobin were detected in approximately 10% of the patients. Conclusion: Our study is one of the studies investigating the largest parameters in AA patients. Our results indicate that there is a male dominance in AA and multifocal involvement is common in men. While early onset of disease, association with atopy and autoimmune disorder does not affect prognosis, antithyroid antibody positivity and association with nevus flammeus might be indicators of poorer prognosis.

  16. Retrospective analysis of stoma-related complications

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    İsmet Özaydın


    Full Text Available Objective: One of the few factors, that affect life of peoplehave stoma negatively, are complications developing intissues where placed stomas or near stomas. We aimedto evaluate the stoma practices performed frequently inour clinic.Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011,the records of 96 patients who had stoma retrospectively.Factors indication for stoma, emergency procedure, preoperativestoma, type of stoma and complications sitingrecorded.Results: Ninety-six stoma patients were examined. Ofthem 66 (68% of them was male, 30 (32% of them wasfemale. The mean age was 58.8±12.6 years. The mostcommon colostomy patients were diagnosed obstructionof colon(66% and ileostomy patients were diagnosedanastomosis protective ((75%. The most common typeof stoma were as follows 54 loop colostomy, 16 end colostomy,10 tube gastrostomy and 7 loop ileostomy. Theoverall complication rate was 48%. Both elective andemergency stomas had similar complication rates. Themost common complication included peristomal skin irritation(63%, peristomal infection (25% and prolapse(5% The stoma with the highest complications rate wasloop colostomy (57%.Conclusion: In our opinion, mortality and morbidity ofstomas may be decreased with the meticulous surgicalprinciple, regular follow- up and patient education. J ClinExp Invest 2013; 4 (1: 63-66Key words: Stoma, colostomy, ileostomy, complication

  17. Retrospective Cohort Study of Hydrotherapy in Labor. (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Jennifer

    To describe the use of hydrotherapy for pain management in labor. This was a retrospective cohort study. Hospital labor and delivery unit in the Northwestern United States, 2006 through 2013. Women in a nurse-midwifery-managed practice who were eligible to use hydrotherapy during labor. Descriptive statistics were used to report the proportion of participants who initiated and discontinued hydrotherapy and duration of hydrotherapy use. Logistic regression was used to provide adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with hydrotherapy use. Of the 327 participants included, 268 (82%) initiated hydrotherapy. Of those, 80 (29.9%) were removed from the water because they met medical exclusion criteria, and 24 (9%) progressed to pharmacologic pain management. The mean duration of tub use was 156.3 minutes (standard deviation = 122.7). Induction of labor was associated with declining the offer of hydrotherapy, and nulliparity was associated with medical removal from hydrotherapy. In a hospital that promoted hydrotherapy for pain management in labor, most women who were eligible initiated hydrotherapy. Hospital staff can estimate demand for hydrotherapy by being aware that hydrotherapy use is associated with nulliparity. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding data requirements of retrospective studies. (United States)

    Shenvi, Edna C; Meeker, Daniella; Boxwala, Aziz A


    Usage of data from electronic health records (EHRs) in clinical research is increasing, but there is little empirical knowledge of the data needed to support multiple types of research these sources support. This study seeks to characterize the types and patterns of data usage from EHRs for clinical research. We analyzed the data requirements of over 100 retrospective studies by mapping the selection criteria and study variables to data elements of two standard data dictionaries, one from the healthcare domain and the other from the clinical research domain. We also contacted study authors to validate our results. The majority of variables mapped to one or to both of the two dictionaries. Studies used an average of 4.46 (range 1-12) data element types in the selection criteria and 6.44 (range 1-15) in the study variables. The most frequently used items (e.g., procedure, condition, medication) are often available in coded form in EHRs. Study criteria were frequently complex, with 49 of 104 studies involving relationships between data elements and 22 of the studies using aggregate operations for data variables. Author responses supported these findings. The high proportion of mapped data elements demonstrates the significant potential for clinical data warehousing to facilitate clinical research. Unmapped data elements illustrate the difficulty in developing a complete data dictionary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Retrospective review of snake bite victims. (United States)

    Nazim, Muhammad H; Gupta, Sanjay; Hashmi, Syed; Zuberi, Jamshed; Wilson, Alison; Roberts, Lawrence; Karimi, Kamran


    Venomous snakebites are a rare but dangerous and potentially deadly condition in the U.S.. Most bites in the U. S. result from envenomation with snakes of the family Viperidae, subfamily Crotalinae, which includes rattlesnakes and copperheads. Treatment includes a comprehensive work-up to look for possible hematologic, neurologic, renal, and cardiovascular abnormalities, local wound care, systemic antivenom administration, tetanus prophylaxis, antibiotics in the presence of infection and surgical treatment if needed, which may include debridement, fasciotomy and rarely amputation. All these patients should be observed for a minimum of 8 hours. Any evidence of envenomation mandates a minimum of 24 hours of in-hospital observation. A grading system to classify the severity of envenomation is described. The most commonly used antivenom in the U.S. is CroFab, which has a much lower incidence of acute or delayed allergic reactions compared to the older antivenoms. When allergic reactions do occur, they are usually of mild to moderate severity. With the improved risk-benefit ratio of CroFab, antivenom is indicated with any grade of envenomation. In this a retrospective study, we will review our experience with 25 snakebite victims admitted to the West Virginia University over a five years period.

  20. [Pediatric medulloblastoma: Retrospective series of 52 patients]. (United States)

    Vigneron, C; Antoni, D; Coca, A; Entz-Werlé, N; Lutz, P; Spiegel, A; Jannier, S; Niederst, C; Jarnet, D; Meyer, P; Kehrli, P; Noël, G


    Retrospective analysis of the results of 52 children irradiated for a medulloblastoma. Between 1974 and 2012, 52 children with an average age of 6 years and a half (11 months-17 years and a half) were treated with surgery then with radiotherapy at the Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Strasbourg (France). For 44 children, the treatment consisted of a chemotherapy. After a mean follow-up of 106.6 months (7-446 months), 13 relapses and 24 deaths were observed. Overall survival at 5 years and 10 years were 62% and 57%, respectively. Disease-free survival at 5 years and 10 years were 80% and 63%, respectively. Univariate analysis found the following adverse prognostic factors: the existence of a postoperative residue, the positivity of the cerebrospinal fluid, the metastatic status and medulloblastoma of high-risk. Positivity of the cerebrospinal fluid remains a negative factor in multivariate analysis. These results confirm the survival rate obtained by a conventional approach (surgery then irradiation). Insufficiency of results and rarity of medulloblastoma require the establishment of international protocols. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. A retrospective study on genito urinary Rhabdomyosarcoma. (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Siddiqui, T H; Amin, M R; Islam, K D; Hossain, M S


    A retrospective study was carried out on Genitourinary Rhabdomyosarcoma in the Department of Paediatric Surgery of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period January 1990 to December 1999. Total thirteen patients were treated during this period, age ranging from 1 month to 12 years. Eight patients were male and five were female (M: F = 1.6: 1). Diagnosis was made by history, thorough physical examination, digital rectal examination, ultrasonography, intravenous urography, CT scan and biopsy. All the patients were treated with chemoradiation theraphy as a first line of management and surgical excision was done for local residual tumours. Eight children (61.5%) were asymptomatic after completion of chemo-radiation therapy. Three (23.07%) patients discontinued the chemo-radiation schedule. Residual mass was present in one (7.7%) case for which partial cystectomy was done and the patient died in the 5th post operative day. Another patient (7.7%) who had pulmonary metastasis at the time of diagnosis, died during chemo-radiation therapy.

  2. Third Class Resolver: a retrospective analysis. (United States)

    D'Attilio, M; Festa, F; Filippakos, A; Comparelli, U; Tripodi, D


    To evaluate the use of Third Class Resolver (TCR), a new fixed and functional orthopaedic appliance for the treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion in adolescents and young adults. Study design: Retrospective analysis. Twenty subjects, 10 females and 10 males, affected by Class III malocclusion were treated with a new fixed orthopaedic appliance: the Third Class Resolver (TCR). The mean age was 7 years at the beginning of treatment and 9 years at the end of treatment. The mean treatment time was 6 months. Digital cephalometric superimpositions on lateral radiographs taken at the start and end of treatment were assessed. The cephalometric values were statistically analysed. Cephalometric analysis of changes during treatment shows a statistically significant increase of ANB angle (mean 1°) (P = 0.045); increase of Witts Index (mean 3.5 mm) (P = 0.003); decrease of Maxillo-Mandibular angle (MM) (mean -2.3°) (P = 0.047); increase of Upper incisor-Maxilla Plane angle (angle mean 10.5°) (P = 0.02); increase of the distance between Upper Incisor and A-Pg line (mean 2.4 mm) (P = 0.021); increase of the mandibular branch length (mean 4.8 mm) (P = 0.004). TCR can be used fully for treatment of Class III malocclusions.

  3. Brucellosis: a retrospective evaluation of 164 cases. (United States)

    Kazak, Esra; Akalın, Halis; Yılmaz, Emel; Heper, Yasemin; Mıstık, Reşit; Sınırtaş, Melda; Özakın, Cüneyt; Göral, Güher; Helvacı, Safiye


    Brucellosis is a public health problem that is prevalent in several developing countries. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of 164 cases of brucellosis in Bursa, Turkey, were retrospectively evaluated. The ages of the 164 patients ranged from 15-85 years. All of the patients underwent the Rose Bengal test and 163 (99.4%) patients tested positive. 122 (74.4%) patients were diagnosed with acute brucellosis, 31 (18.9%) with subacute brucellosis and 11 (6.7%) with chronic brucellosis. Focal involvement was found in 101 (61.6%) patients. Although patients with focal involvement had a higher white blood cell count (p = 0.002), those without focal involvement had higher aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase values, and lower platelet values (p = 0.005, 0.007 and 0.039, respectively). Spondylodiscitis was observed on imaging in 58 (66.7%) of the 87 patients who presented with back pain. Among the 118 patients who were examined within the first month of treatment, 79 (66.9%) responded to treatment. The relapse rate was 11.6% among all 164 patients. Brucellosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis among patients who present with fever, and joint or back pain. Focal involvement should be investigated in the presence of leucocytosis, and subacute or chronic forms of brucellosis. To identify cases of spondylodiscitis, radiography should be performed in patients who present with back pain.

  4. Mushroom poisoning: retrospective analysis of 294 cases

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    Sevki Hakan Eren


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to present special clinical and laboratory features of 294 cases of mushroom poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 294 patients admitted to the Pediatric and Adult Emergency, Internal Medicine and ICU Departments of Cumhuriyet University Hospital were investigated. RESULTS: Of 294 patients between the ages of 3 and 72 (28.97 ± 19.32, 173 were female, 121 were male and 90 were under the age of 16 years. One hundred seventy-three patients (58.8% had consumed the mushrooms in the early summer. The onset of mushroom toxicity symptoms was divided into early (within 6 h after ingestion and delayed (6 h to 20 d. Two hundred eighty-eight patients (97.9% and six (2.1% patients had early and delayed toxicity symptoms, respectively. The onset of symptoms was within two hours for 101 patients (34.3%. The most common first-noticed symptoms were in the gastrointestinal system. The patients were discharged within one to ten days. Three patients suffering from poisoning caused by wild mushrooms died from fulminant hepatic failure. CONCLUSION: Education of the public about the consumption of mushrooms and education of health personnel working in health centers regarding early treatment and transfer to hospitals with appropriate facilities are important for decreasing the mortality.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Penetrating abdominal injuries forms an important component of surgical emergencies. It remains one of the commonest reasons for preventable deaths in any trauma systems. 1 Abdominal injuries may be parietal or visceral or perforating through and through injury. Unnecessary exploration leads to increased morbidity. The goal in managing penetrating abdominal injuries is to identify and treat all the damages caused by the weapon and to reduce negative laparotomy and avoid missed injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study that was carried out in 53 patients in Government Kilpauk Medical College and Government Royapettah Hospital from May 2007 to July 2009 on penetrating injuries abdomen. RESULTS Among 53 patients, maximum number of cases were in the age group of 30-40 years. Assault injuries account for 87% of cases of penetrating abdominal injuries. Small bowel was the commonly injured organ in this study. Laparotomy was therapeutic in 94% of the cases (64% of the cases underwent laparotomy. CONCLUSION Careful and serial clinical examination and appropriate diagnostic investigations leads to successful treatment in these patients. Computed tomography is highly sensitive in predicting both peritoneal penetration and intra-abdominal visceral injuries.

  6. Stereotactic radiosurgery for glioblastoma: retrospective analysis. (United States)

    Biswas, Tithi; Okunieff, Paul; Schell, Michael C; Smudzin, Therese; Pilcher, Webster H; Bakos, Robert S; Vates, G Edward; Walter, Kevin A; Wensel, Andrew; Korones, David N; Milano, Michael T


    This retrospective study was done to better understand the conditions for which stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for glioblastoma may be efficacious. Between 2000 and 2007, 33 patients with a pathological diagnosis of glioblastoma received SRS with the Novalis Shaped Beam Radiosurgery system. Eighteen patients (54%) underwent salvage SRS for recurrence while 15 (45%) patients received upfront SRS following standard fractionated RT for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. There were no RTOG grade >2 acute side effects. The median survival after SRS was 6.7 months (range 1.4 - 74.7). There was no significant difference in overall survival (from the time of initial diagnosis) with respect to the timing of SRS (p = 0.2). There was significantly better progression free survival in patients treated with SRS as consolidation versus at the time of recurrence (p = 0.04). The majority of patients failed within or at the margin of the SRS treatment volume (21/26 evaluable for recurrence). SRS is well tolerated in the treatment of glioblastoma. As there was no difference in survival whether SRS is delivered upfront or at recurrence, the treatment for each patient should be individualized. Future studies are needed to identify patients most likely to respond to SRS.

  7. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric


    Astronaut back pain is frequently reported in the early phase of space flight as they adapt to microgravity. The epidemiology of space adaptation back pain (SABP) has not been well established. This presentation seeks to determine the exact incidence of SABP among astronauts, develop a case definition of SABP, delineate the nature and pattern of SABP, review available treatments and their effectiveness in relieving SABP; and identify any operational impact of SABP. A retrospective review of all available mission medical records of astronauts in the U.S. space program was performed. It was revealed that the incidence of SABP has been determined to be 53% among astronauts in the U.S. space program; most cases of SABP are mild, self-limited, or respond to available treatment; there are no currently accepted preventive measures for SABP; it is difficult to predict who will develop SABP; the precise mechanism and spinal structures responsible for SABP are uncertain; there was no documented evidence of direction operational mission impact related to SABP; and, that there was the potential for mission impact related to uncontrolled pain, sleep disturbance, or the adverse side effects pf anti-inflammatory medications

  8. [Chronic pancreatitis: Retrospective review of 121 cases]. (United States)

    Berger F, Zoltán; Mancilla A, Carla


    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a rare disease in Chile, without a clear explanation for this low prevalence. To analyze the characteristics of our patients with pancreatitis. Retrospective analysis of a database of patients with pancreatitis of a clinical hospital. Morphological proof of diagnosis (calcifications/calculi, alterations of ducts, local complication or histology) was obtained for every patient. History of acute pancreatitis was recorded and exocrine-endocrine function was assessed. We retrieved information of 121 patients with pancreatitis (86 males) in a period of 20 years. The number of cases increased markedly every five years. The calculated incidence and prevalence was 0.8/100,000/year and 6/100,000, respectively. Pancreatic calcifications were initially observed in 93 patients and became evident during the follow-up in another six patients. Severe pain or local complications occurred in 27 patients, requiring surgery in 10 or endoscopic treatment in 15. During the years of follow-up, 55 patients were free of symptoms. Exocrine and endocrine insufficiency was demonstrated and treated in 81 and 67 patients, respectively. Alcoholic etiology was evident in 40% of patients. In 29% no etiology was identified. Mapuche origin was exceptional. Late diagnosis of CP is common, since most of our patients presented with advanced stages. Even though CP is increasingly diagnosed in our hospitals, the number of cases is still far fewer when compared to other countries. Underdiagnosis alone cannot explain this difference and genetic factors might be of importance.

  9. A neural model of retrospective attention in visual working memory. (United States)

    Bays, Paul M; Taylor, Robert


    An informative cue that directs attention to one of several items in working memory improves subsequent recall of that item. Here we examine the mechanism of this retro-cue effect using a model of short-term memory based on neural population coding. Our model describes recalled feature values as the output of an optimal decoding of spikes generated by a tuned population of neurons. This neural model provides a better account of human recall data than an influential model that assumes errors can be described as a mixture of normally distributed noise and random guesses. The retro-cue benefit is revealed to be consistent with a higher firing rate of the population encoding the cued versus uncued items, with no difference in tuning specificity. Additionally, a retro-cued item is less likely to be swapped with another item in memory, an effect that can also be explained by greater activity of the underlying population. These results provide a parsimonious account of the effects of retrospective attention on recall and demonstrate a principled method for investigating neural representations with behavioral tasks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Squamous papillomas of the conjunctiva: A retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four cases had a history of chemical injury (alkaline based – hair relaxer in a single case, acid based – wet cell car battery fluid in two cases, and unknown chemical in a single case) preceding the lesion by at least 6 weeks. Fourteen cases had koilocytosis on histology suggestive of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) etiology.

  11. Radiographic analysis of ameloblastoma: a retrospective study. (United States)

    More, Chandramani; Tailor, Mansi; Patel, Hetul J; Asrani, Mukesh; Thakkar, Krushna; Adalja, Chhaya


    Ameloblastoma is benign odontogenic tumor, usually affecting the posterior region of mandible. It is seen in the third to fifth decades of life. Radiographically the lesion is variable in appearance and may be unilocular or multilocular, with well-defined cortical borders in the mandible and ill-defined margins in the maxilla. To analyze cases of ameloblastoma, with emphasis on the radiographic findings. We also review the current literature briefly and discuss the clinical and radiographic findings. The present hospital-based retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the clinical and radiographic records of ameloblastoma cases from 2009 to 2011, available in the archives of the department. The data of a total of 14 patients were analyzed. We observed that the patients affected with ameloblastoma were in the age-group of 19-68 years. The male: female ratio was 1.3:1. The mandible (78.57%) was more commonly affected than the maxilla (14.28%). Six patients (42.86%) had unilateral involvement and eight cases (57.14%) had bilateral involvement. The multilocular and unilocular types of ameloblastoma were noted in 12 (85.72%) and 2 cases (14.28%), respectively. The soap-bubble (50.00%), spider-web (21.43%), and honeycomb (14.28%) appearances were seen in the multilocular variety. Root resorption of variable degree was distinctly observed in 11 cases (78.57%). Radiographs are an important aid for the diagnosis of oral lesions of various types, especially those that involve bone. It is important for the practicing clinicians to know the salient features of ameloblastoma which are peculiar to the local population.

  12. Neurocysticercosis in Nepal: a retrospective clinical analysis

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    Rajeev Ojha


    Full Text Available Aim: The prevalence of epilepsy is higher in Nepal. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC among seizure patients admitted to our center. Methods: We retrospectively studied all the NCC patients admitted to Neurology Department, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 2012 to February 2014. Computer tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI head, clinical profile, lab investigations and exclusion of other causes were the basis of the NCC diagnosis. Chi-square and Student′s t-test were used for comparison of variables. Results: Out of 131 seizure patients admitted, 21 patients were diagnosed with NCC (mean age: 33.95 ± 16.41; male: 15 (71.4%, female: 6 (28.6%. Generalized tonic clonic seizure was the most common seizure type in NCC patients (18 patients; 85.7%, two of them had status epilepticus during presentation in Emergency Department. Three patients had focal seizure, one with epilepsia partialis continua. Neuroimaging showed multiple NCC lesions in 8 (38.1% and a single NCC lesion in 13 (61.9% patients. Seven of them (33.3% sought traditional healers before being presented to our center. Eight patients (38.1% were treated with antiepileptics in local health-post without neuroimaging studies done. Calcified stage of NCC was the most frequent CT/MRI findings (12 patients; 57.1%. Phenytoin was preferred both by physicians and patients due to its low cost. Conclusion: NCC is a common finding among seizure patients in Nepal. Poor economic status, illiteracy and underdeveloped rural society are the major challenges in prevention and treatment of NCC.

  13. Pyoderma Gangrenosum: Retrospective Evaluation of 20 Cases

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    Zehra Aşiran Serdar


    Full Text Available Background and Design: The objective of this study is to examine the clinical properties, comorbid systemic diseases and the treatment protocols of the patients diagnosed with pyoderma gangrenosum (PG. Material and Method: Between 2003 and 2009 years, 20 patients diagnosed with pyoderma gangrenosum were evaluated in this study. The clinical properties, comorbid systemic diseases and the treatment protocols were examined retrospectively.Results: In a six-year period, 20 patients with PG (11 female and 9 male, ranging in age from 19 to 75 (mean age 45±16.39 years were evaluated. Lesions had started as papule in 3 (16% patients, as bullous in 1 (5% patient, as erythematous plaque in 1 (5% patient and as pustule in 15 (74% patients. Whereas 14 (70% patients had single lesion, the other patients had multiple lesions. The lesions were located at lower extremities in 14 (70% patients most frequently, The most frequent comorbid disease in patients with pyoderma gangrenosum was inflammatory bowel diseases (colitis ulcerosa n: 4 and Crohn disease n: 2 total n: 6, 30%. The other comorbid diseases included vitiligo (n: 1, 5%, Behcet’s disease (n: 1, 5%, hidradenitis suppurativa (n: 1, 5%, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (n: 1, 5%, pangastritis (n: 1, 5%, acute renal failure (n: 1, 5%, systemic lupus erythematosus (n: 2, 10% and iatrogenic immunosuppression (n: 1, 5%. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was the most common treatment (n=16, 80%. The treatment response was 100% in all patients. Conclusion: In our study, inflammatory bowel diseases were the most frequent comorbid diseases with pyoderma gangrenosum. Most of cases were as single lesions located in the lower extremities and the best treatment response was achieved by the administration of systemic corticosteroids.

  14. Retrospective analysis of kidney transplanted patients

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    Tamer Sağıroğlu


    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation has become one of the best treatment methods for significantly improving the quality of life for patients suffering from kidney disease. This study aimed to provide a retrospective evaluation of kidney transplantation cases between the years 2004 and 2007.Initially, the following data was collected: number of annual cases, age, gender, hepatitis serology, hypertension, and cardiovascular illness, number of cadaver and living donors, kinship, and duration of hospital stay, post-operational complications, mortality and graft loss. 39% of the patients were female whilst 61% were male. 3.8% of the patients were positive for hepatitis serology. 28.8% of the patients were hypertensive. 61% of the patients received their kidneys from live donors. 60.6% of the live donors were the mothers of the patients and 18.2% were the fathers. The average length of hospital stay was 48 days. 21.4% of the patients were identified as having developed major complications including sepsis, heart failure, pulmonary emboli, respiratory insufficiency and rejection. 5.4% of the patients developing major complications ended with mortality and 1.8% with graft loss. Even though the total number of annual cases is constantly rising, we think that this figure is much lower that it should be considering the number of patients dependent on dialysis machines. Kidney transplantation is the most appropriate treatment in terms of cost-effectiveness and thus increasing the ratio of kidney transplantations would be beneficial to both the patient’s health and to the national economy.

  15. HRCT evaluation of microtia: A retrospective study

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    Aruna R Patil


    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine external, middle, and inner ear abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT of temporal bone in patients with microtia and to predict anatomic external and middle ear anomalies as well as the degree of functional hearing impairment based on clinical grades of microtia. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study conducted on Indian population. Fifty-two patients with microtia were evaluated for external, middle, and inner ear anomalies on HRCT of temporal bone. Clinical grading of microtia was done based on criteria proposed by Weerda et al. in 37 patients and degree of hearing loss was assessed using pure tone audiometry or brainstem-evoked response in 32 patients. Independent statistical correlations of clinical grades of micotia with both external and middle ear anomalies detected on HRCT and the degree of hearing loss were finally obtained. Results: The external, middle, and inner ear anomalies were present in 93.1%, 74.5%, and 2.7% patients, respectively. Combined cartilaginous and bony external auditory canal atresia (EAC was the most common anatomic abnormality in our group of microtia patients. Hypoplastic mesotympanum represented the commonest middle ear anomaly. The incidence of combined ossicular dysplasia and facial canal anomalies was lower as compared to other population groups; however, we recorded a greater incidence of cholesteatoma. Both these factors can have a substantial impact on outcome of patients planned for surgery. We found no significant association between grades of microtia and external or middle ear anomalies. Similarly, no significant association was found between lower grades of microtia (grade I and II and degree of hearing loss. However, association between grade III microtia and degree of hearing loss was significant. A significant association between congenital cholesteatoma and degree of pneumatization of atretic plate and mastoid process not previously studied

  16. Outcome in acromegaly: A retrospective analysis

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    Debmalya Sanyal


    Full Text Available Introduction: Many of the treatment modalities recommended for acromegaly are either too expensive or not available in large parts of India. There is a dearth of treatment and outcome data in Indian patients. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the treatment modalities used and the respective outcomes which include remission, recurrence, hypopituitarism, other complications, and mortality. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective data analysis of 15 acromegaly patients treated at a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. A remission criteria of nadir growth hormone level <1 μg/dl after Oral Glucose tolerance test (OGTT and normal age related IGF-1 levels was used. Results: All patients (100% had macroadenomas. Surgery could not be done in five (33%; three (19.8% refused, two (13.2% had comorbidities. Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS achieved remission in four out of ten (40%. Conventional radiotherapy (CRT failed in all five patients and caused hypopituitarisn in three (60%. Cabergoline (CAB either alone or following surgery achieved remission in one out of four (25% though symptomatic relief and tolerability were remarkable. One patient (7% had pituitary apoplexy with remission, two patients (14.3% died due to CVA. Conclusions: TSS remains the treatment of choice in acromegaly, though in macroadenomas the success is limited. A sizeable proportion of patients refuse or are unfit for surgery. As most of the recommended options are very costly or unavailable, alternative treatment options generally used are CRT or CAB which have limited efficacy. Incidence of hypopituitarism, following CRT is very high.

  17. Odontogenic Infections: A 1-year Retrospective Study. (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Benjamin; Weusmann, Jens; Azaripour, Adriano; Braun, Benedikt; Walter, Christian; Willershausen, Brita


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence, demographic patterns and management of odontogenic infections in patients undergoing treatment in an outpatient dental emergency service of a university hospital. In a retrospective study of the year 2012, all patients suffering from odontogenic infections were included. Demographic data, diagnosis and the conducted treatment were analyzed. Odontogenic infections were defined as pulpitis, apical and marginal periodontitis, abscesses and pericoronitis. A total of 2,058 out of 4,209 emergency patients suffered from odontogenic infections. The majority (45.0%) had an apical periodontitis, 20.8% abscesses, 17.3% a marginal periodontitis, 16.3% a pulpitis and 5.8% a pericoronitis. Mean age was 37.5 ± 17.0 years standard deviation (SD) (1.2-96.4). Most patients were 20 to 29 years (24.6%), followed by the age group of 30 to 39 year old patients (21.0%). Males were affected more frequently (55.5%) than females (45.5%). Most of the patients (64.5%) of the patients received a dental or surgical treatment. Antibiotics were prescribed in 31.7% of cases. Amoxicillin was the most common prescribed antibiotic (54.5%). Odontogenic infections represent one of the main reasons for consulting the emergency service. Due to the high number of cases and the severe complications, dentists have to be familiar with the surgical management of odontogenic infections as well as the appropriate use of antibiotics. Nearly half of all patients who sought, treatment in the emergency service had an odontogenic infectious disease. This should be considered for the organization and planning of the service.

  18. The use of graphics in the design of the human-telerobot interface (United States)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Smith, Randy L.


    The Man-Systems Telerobotics Laboratory (MSTL) of NASA's Johnson Space Center employs computer graphics tools in their design and evaluation of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) human/telerobot interface on the Shuttle and on the Space Station. It has been determined by the MSTL that the use of computer graphics can promote more expedient and less costly design endeavors. Several specific examples of computer graphics applied to the FTS user interface by the MSTL are described.

  19. Prospective and retrospective time perception are related to mental time travel: evidence from Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe


    Unlike prospective time perception paradigms, in which participants are aware that they have to estimate forthcoming time, little is known about retrospective time perception in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our paper addresses this shortcoming by comparing prospective and retrospective time estimation in younger adults, older adults, and AD patients. In four prospective tasks (lasting 30s, 60s, 90s, or 120s) participants were asked to read a series of numbers and to provide a verbal estimation of the reading time. In four other retrospective tasks, they were not informed about time judgment until they were asked to provide a verbal estimation of four elapsed time intervals (lasting 30s, 60s, 90s, or 120s). AD participants gave shorter verbal time estimations than older adults and younger participants did, suggesting that time is perceived to pass quickly in these patients. For all participants, the duration of the retrospective tasks was underestimated as compared to the prospective tasks and both estimations were shorter than the real time interval. Prospective time estimation was further correlated with mental time travel, as measured with the Remember/Know paradigm. Mental time travel was even higher correlated with retrospective time estimation. Our findings shed light on the relationship between time perception and the ability to mentally project oneself into time, two skills contributing to human memory functioning. Finally, time perception deficits, as observed in AD patients, can be interpreted in terms of dramatic changes occurring in frontal lobes and hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Retrospective evaluation of childhood alopecia areata cases

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    Munise Daye


    Full Text Available Background and design: Approximately 20% of alopecia areata (AA cases are children. There is limited information about childhood AA.We aimed to examine demographic features,treatments and diseases prognosis of child cases of AA that were followed in our clinic. Material and methods: Datas of 110 AA patients who are 16 and under 16 years old were examined retrospectively.The age,gender,disease onset age,duration of disease,types of AA and onset area,nail involvement, accompanying systemic and dermatological diseases,laboratory tests,treatments and the prognosis were evaluated in their follow-up time.Results: Female cases were 46,4%, male cases were 53,6%.The mean age was 10,35 years.The age of disease onset was 8,65 years.Primary onset areas of AA cases were scalp in 83,6%, eyebrows in 5,4%, body hair in 5,4%, eyelashes in 2,7%, eyebrows and eyelashes in 2,7%.Types of disease were AA in 73,4% cases,alopecia totalis in 19% cases, alopecia universalis in 5,4% cases,ophiaisis in 1,8% cases.Nail involvement was established in 36,3% cases. Nevus flammeus was established in 2,7% cases.Mean disease duration was 17,02 months.Accompaying dermatosis were vitiligo in 2,7% cases,atopic dermatitis in 6,3% cases. The accompaying systemic diseases were autoimmune thyroiditis in 1,8% cases and Down's Syndrome in 2,7% cases.Thyroid autoantibodies were high in 0,9% cases.We have treated 24,5% of cases with topical corticosteroid lotion, 30,9% of cases with anthralin, 0,9%of cases with 2% minoxidil lotion, 0,9% of cases with calcipotriol lotion, 1,8% of cases with topical calcineurin inhibitors, 10% of cases with intralesional corticosteroids.We have treated 15,4% of cases with systemic corticosteroids and PUVA therapy who were resistant to topical treatment.We have treated 14,5% of cases with different combinations of topical treatments.Remission was observed in 34,5% of cases.The mean remission duration was 12.2 months.Relapse was observed at a average of two


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Chinnappa


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Barring malnutrition and infection, cancer is the most common cause of death in children below the age of 14 years of age. Malignancies are coming into greater focus because of the preventive measures being taken for the former. In general, the features of malignancy in children differ greatly from neoplasm in adults. Tissues which are developing and growing are more likely to undergo neoplastic transformation. Hence, high incidence of embryonic cancers in children. Today, the diagnosis of cancer particularly in children is still regarded as in some circles as death sentences for the malignant disease is second only to trauma and infectious diseases as a killer in children above the age of one year. Hence, early diagnosis and confirmation by haematological and histopathological methods are crucial in early diagnosis and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence and morphological features of malignant neoplasm occurring in children. The present study is a retrospective study undertaken in the Department of Pathology, JJM Medical College, Davangere, over a period of three years, i.e., March 1994-February 1997. The material was obtained from paediatric patients aged from 0-14 years admitted to Chigateri General Hospital, Bapuji Child Health Institute attached to JJM Medical College, Davangere, and Hospitals and nursing homes in and around Davangere. RESULTS 1. This study presents an observation on the paediatric malignancies in relation to age, sex and incidence and in the clinical and morphological findings. 2. The malignant tumours in paediatric age group are less common and they form about 10.90% of malignant tumours occurring at all ages. 3. These tumours show a slight male preponderance compared to females in the ratio of 1.2:1. 4. 38.75% of the tumours were encountered in children below the age of 5 years. Most of the tumours (61.25% occurred between 6-14 years indicating a higher

  2. Conservatively treated acetabular fractures: A retrospective analysis

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    Narender Kumar Magu


    Full Text Available Background: There are a few studies reporting the long term outcome of conservatively treated acetabular fractures. The present study aims to evaluate the quality of reduction, and radiological and functional outcome in displaced acetabular fractures treated conservatively. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine patients (55 men and 14 women with 71 displaced acetabular fractures (mean age 38.6 years managed conservatively were retrospectively evaluated. There were 11 posterior wall, 5 posterior column, 6 anterior column, 13 transverse, 2 posterior column with posterior wall, 9 transverse with posterior wall, 6 T-shaped, 1 anterior column with posterior hemi-transverse, and 18 both-column fractures. The follow-up radiographs were graded according to the criteria developed by Matta J. Functional outcome was assessed using Harris hip score and Merle d′Aubigne and Postel score at final followup. Average follow-up was 4.34 years (range 2-11 years. Results: Patients with congruent reduction (n=45 had good or excellent functional outcome. Radiologic outcome in incongruent reduction (n=26 was good or excellent in 6 and fair or poor in 20 hips. The functional outcome in patients with incongruent reduction was good or excellent in 16 and satisfactory or poor in 10 hips. Good to excellent radiologic and functional outcome was achieved in all patients with posterior wall fractures including four having more than 50% of broken wall. Good to excellent functional outcome was observed in 88.8% of both-column fractures with secondary congruence despite medial subluxation. Conclusions: Nonoperative treatment of acetabular fractures can give good radiological and functional outcome in congruent reduction. Posterior wall fractures with a congruous joint without subluxation on computed tomography axial section, posterior column, anterior column, infratectal transverse or T-shaped, and both-column fractures may be managed conservatively. Small osteochondral fragments

  3. Retrospective environmental biomonitoring - Mussel Watch expanded (United States)

    Schöne, Bernd R.; Krause, Richard A.


    its chemical composition is controlled by the soft parts and that a robust interpretation of the shell record requires a detailed understanding of bivalve physiology, behavior and ecology. This review attempts to bring together the Mussel Watch and sclerochronology communities and lay the foundation of a new subdiscipline of the Mussel Watch: retrospective environmental biomonitoring. For this purpose, we provide an overview of seminal work from both fields and outline potential future research directions.

  4. Retrospective and prospective perspectives on zoonotic brucellosis (United States)

    Moreno, Edgardo


    Members of the genus Brucella are pathogenic bacteria exceedingly well adapted to their hosts. The bacterium is transmitted by direct contact within the same host species or accidentally to secondary hosts, such as humans. Human brucellosis is strongly linked to the management of domesticated animals and ingestion of their products. Since the domestication of ungulates and dogs in the Fertile Crescent and Asia in 12000 and 33000 ya, respectively, a steady supply of well adapted emergent Brucella pathogens causing zoonotic disease has been provided. Likewise, anthropogenic modification of wild life may have also impacted host susceptibility and Brucella selection. Domestication and human influence on wild life animals are not neutral phenomena. Consequently, Brucella organisms have followed their hosts’ fate and have been selected under conditions that favor high transmission rate. The “arm race” between Brucella and their preferred hosts has been driven by genetic adaptation of the bacterium confronted with the evolving immune defenses of the host. Management conditions, such as clustering, selection, culling, and vaccination of Brucella preferred hosts have profound influences in the outcome of brucellosis and in the selection of Brucella organisms. Countries that have controlled brucellosis systematically used reliable smooth live vaccines, consistent immunization protocols, adequate diagnostic tests, broad vaccination coverage and sustained removal of the infected animals. To ignore and misuse tools and strategies already available for the control of brucellosis may promote the emergence of new Brucella variants. The unrestricted use of low-efficacy vaccines may promote a “false sense of security” and works towards selection of Brucella with higher virulence and transmission potential. PMID:24860561

  5. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

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    Evelyne Picard-Meyer

    Full Text Available Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter. In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  6. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study. (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence


    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  7. Publication misconduct and plagiarism retractions: a systematic, retrospective study. (United States)

    Stretton, Serina; Bramich, Narelle J; Keys, Janelle R; Monk, Julie A; Ely, Julie A; Haley, Cassandra; Woolley, Mark J; Woolley, Karen L


    To investigate whether plagiarism is more prevalent in publications retracted from the medical literature when first authors are affiliated with lower-income countries versus higher-income countries. Secondary objectives included investigating other factors associated with plagiarism (e.g., national language of the first author's country affiliation, publication type, journal ranking). Systematic, controlled, retrospective, bibliometric study. Retracted publications dataset in MEDLINE (search filters: English, human, January 1966-February 2008). Retracted misconduct publications were classified according to the first author's country affiliation, country income level, and country national language, publication type, and ranking of the publishing journal. Standardised definitions and data collection tools were used; data were analysed (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence limits [CL], chi-squared tests) by an independent academic statistician. Of the 213 retracted misconduct publications, 41.8% (89/213) were retracted for plagiarism, 52.1% (111/213) for falsification/fabrication, 2.3% (5/213) for author disputes, 2.3% (5/213) for ethical issues, and 1.4% (3/213) for unknown reasons. The OR (95% CL) of plagiarism retractions (other misconduct retractions as reference) were higher (P 1 retraction) with publications retracted for plagiarism (11.5%, 9/78) than other types of misconduct (28.9%, 24/83). This is the first study to demonstrate that publications retracted for plagiarism are significantly associated with first authors affiliated with lower-income countries. These findings have implications for developing appropriate evidence-based strategies and allocation of resources to help mitigate plagiarism misconduct.

  8. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence


    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  9. Nonsexual Transmission of Anogenital Warts in Children: A Retrospective Analysis

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    Valerie Jones


    Full Text Available The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence of sexual abuse in patients who were referred to a pediatric gynecologist for evaluation based on the clinical findings of anogenital warts. A retrospective analysis was performed on 131 patients between the ages 6 month and 9 years referred to a pediatric gynecologist after the finding of anogenital warts by a clinical provider, parent or caregiver. A complete physical examination under colposcopy by a the same, trained pediatric gynecologist was completed, and a complete medical and family history including maternal and sibling history for evidence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV and anogenital warts. The legal system completed a full investigation to examine the sexual abuse allegations. In 131 patients with anogenital warts, a maternal history of warts, cervical dysplasia or both was present in 66 (50%. The remaining patients had either a negative maternal history for HPV clinical findings (54 patients or 41.2%, or maternal history was unknown (11 patients, or 8.3%. Of 131 patients, 81 (61% patients had a sibling. Of those with siblings 40 (49.4% had warts and 41 (50.6% did not. Forty-five (34% of the cases had a positive maternal history for warts, dysplasia or both but also had a sibling. In that cohort, 32 (71% of the siblings also had anogenital warts. Three of 131 patients were ruled suspicious for sexual abuse by the legal authorities but not confirmed. Of those three patients two were female and one was male. Two had no maternal history for HPV and both of these patients had a sibling without anogenital warts. Most cases of anogenital warts in children are likely to be the result of non-sexual transmission, namely prenatal mode. Thus, these patients should be handled differently by the legal system unless other reasons for suspicion exist. This study also showed the importance of maternal gynecologic history.

  10. Teaching exploration and practice of the human body structure course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng LI; Ming-feng CHEN; Wen-long DING


    In the 21 st century,the medical model has transformed from the biological model to the biopsycho-social medical model. The transformation of medical model raises higher requirements for the training of medical staff. Comprehensive promotion of the reform of medical education has become the consensus and trend,which breeds the integrated medical teaching that is based on modules and organ systems. As one of eight integrated modules,the human body structure course of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine introduces morphological structures of normal human organs according to function systems( such as locomotor system,digestive system,angiological system,and nervous system) of human organs and parts of human body. This course endeavors to integrate theories with practices,contents of disciplines of basic medicine,and basic medicine with clinical medicine. The human body structure course combines basic medicine with clinical medicine and is an important part of medical science.

  11. A retrospective evaluation of traumatic dental injury in children who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective evaluation of traumatic dental injury in children who applied to ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... Materials and Methods: Data of age, gender, causes of dental trauma, injured teeth, type of dental injuries, the application ...

  12. The appropriateness of preoperative blood testing: A retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    using previously published criteria. ... A retrospective evaluation and cost analysis ... 2 Perioperative Research Group, Department of Anaesthetics and Critical Care, School of Clinical Medicine, College .... Perioperative care should be a multi-.

  13. A simple lightning assimilation technique for improving retrospective WRF simulations. (United States)

    Convective rainfall is often a large source of error in retrospective modeling applications. In particular, positive rainfall biases commonly exist during summer months due to overactive convective parameterizations. In this study, lightning assimilation was applied in the Kain-F...

  14. How to kill gamete donation: retrospective legislation and donor anonymity. (United States)

    Pennings, Guido


    Victoria (Australia) is considering retrospective legislation on the abolition of gamete donor anonymity. Retrospective legislation evokes many negative emotions mainly because it is considered unfair. It also makes it impossible for citizens to organize their life with reasonable certainty of the consequences. Introduction of this law for donor anonymity is defended by the right of the child to know its genetic origins. Against this law, people appeal to the right to privacy and confidentiality of the donor. This paper analyses the arguments for and against a retrospective law on donor anonymity by looking at the conditions that should be respected when two principles (the donor's right to privacy and the child's right to genetic information) have to be balanced. It is concluded that the justification for introducing retrospective law is lacking: the conditions are not fulfilled. Moreover, retroactive laws in the context of gamete donation may jeopardize the whole practice by destroying the trust of candidate donors and recipients in the government.

  15. The Future Orientation of Past Memory: The Role of BA 10 in Prospective and Retrospective Retrieval Modes

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    Adam G. Underwood


    Full Text Available Klein made the provocative suggestion that the purpose of human episodic memory is to enable individuals to plan and prepare for the future. In other words, although episodic (retrospective memory is about the past, it is not actually for the past; it is for the future. Within this focus, a natural subject for investigation is prospective memory, or memory to do things in the future. An important theoretical construct in the fields of both retrospective memory and prospective memory is that of a retrieval mode, or a neurocognitive set or readiness to treat environmental stimuli as potential retrieval cues. This construct was originally introduced in a theory of episodic (retrospective memory and has more recently been invoked in a theory of how some prospective memory tasks are accomplished. To our knowledge, this construct has not been explicitly compared between the two literatures, and thus this is the purpose of the present article. Although we address the behavioral evidence for each construct, our primary goal is to assess the extent to which each retrieval mode appears to rely on a common neural region. Our review highlights the fact that a particular area of prefrontal cortex (BA 10 appears to play an important role in both retrospective and prospective retrieval modes. We suggest, based on this evidence and these ideas, that prospective memory research could profit from more active exploration of the relevance of theoretical constructs from the retrospective memory literature.



    Avcı, Şebnem; PALA, Ömer Osman


    Objectives: Physiotherapy students’ ability to obtain data from volunteers correctly and without missing was investigated retrospectively.Methods: Fourty one students who has been taking one of the researcher’s lectures wereasked to find Beck depression scale; to meet at least 3 people and obtain their demographicdata, their sport habits and to fill in the Beck depression scale. These student files from 33students were investigated retrospectively at the end of the semester.Results: Thirty th...

  17. Technology-enhanced human interaction in psychotherapy. (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Caperton, Derek D; Tanana, Michael; Atkins, David C


    Psychotherapy is on the verge of a technology-inspired revolution. The concurrent maturation of communication, signal processing, and machine learning technologies begs an earnest look at how these technologies may be used to improve the quality of psychotherapy. Here, we discuss 3 research domains where technology is likely to have a significant impact: (1) mechanism and process, (2) training and feedback, and (3) technology-mediated treatment modalities. For each domain, we describe current and forthcoming examples of how new technologies may change established applications. Moreover, for each domain we present research questions that touch on theoretical, systemic, and implementation issues. Ultimately, psychotherapy is a decidedly human endeavor, and thus the application of modern technology to therapy must capitalize on-and enhance-our human capacities as counselors, students, and supervisors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Using the LHC control system - 2016 retrospective and short term plans

    CERN Document Server

    Crockford, G


    The paper will discuss the LHC control system performance during 2016 operation. It aims to answer the following questions: In retrospect, which controls facilities, if any, were missing and what could be improved? How did we perform on follow-up of requests from Evian 2015? Human errors committed while interacting with the control system are discussed and suggestions made for possible mitigation measures. Looking forward to EYETS (the extended year end technical stop), the planned control system changes and their impact will be presented.

  19. Cognitive causal mechanisms in human agency: etic and emic considerations. (United States)

    Earley, P C; Randel, A


    The debate over the contribution of cognitive processes in understanding human endeavor rages on in psychology despite decades of conceptual and empirical scrutiny from researchers. Recently, the construct of self efficacy has stimulated a renewal of this debate. We discuss the significance of this cognitive construct from the perspective of cross-cultural behavior. We examine the empirical evidence from a number of cross-cultural studies, and we argue that the etic quality of this construct provides strong evidence for its significance in understanding universal aspects of behavior.

  20. Retrospective diagnosis of a famous historical figure: ontological, epistemic, and ethical considerations (United States)


    The aim of this essay is to elaborate philosophical and ethical underpinnings of posthumous diagnosis of famous historical figures based on literary and artistic products, or commonly called retrospective diagnosis. It discusses ontological and epistemic challenges raised in the humanities and social sciences, and attempts to systematically reply to their criticisms from the viewpoint of clinical medicine, philosophy of medicine, particularly the ontology of disease and the epistemology of diagnosis, and medical ethics. The ontological challenge focuses on the doubt about the persistence of a disease over historical time, whereas the epistemic challenge disputes the inaccessibility of scientific verification of a diagnosis in the past. I argue that the critics are in error in conflating the taxonomy of disease (nosology) and the act of diagnosing a patient. Medical diagnosis is fundamentally a hypothesis-construction and an explanatory device that can be generated under various degrees of uncertainty and limited amount of information. It is not an apodictic judgment (true or false) as the critics presuppose, but a probabilistic (Bayesian) judgment with varying degrees of plausibility under uncertainty. In order to avoid this confusion, I propose that retrospective diagnosis of a historical figure be syndromic without identifying underlying disease, unless there is justifiable reason for such specification. Moreover it should be evaluated not only from the viewpoint of medical science but also in a larger context of the scholarship of the humanities and social sciences by its overall plausibility and consistency. On the other hand, I will endorse their concerns regarding the ethics and professionalism of retrospective diagnosis, and call for the need for situating such a diagnosis in an interdisciplinary scope and the context of the scholarship of the historical figure. I will then enumerate several important caveats for interdisciplinary retrospective diagnosis

  1. A case for human systems neuroscience. (United States)

    Gardner, J L


    Can the human brain itself serve as a model for a systems neuroscience approach to understanding the human brain? After all, how the brain is able to create the richness and complexity of human behavior is still largely mysterious. What better choice to study that complexity than to study it in humans? However, measurements of brain activity typically need to be made non-invasively which puts severe constraints on what can be learned about the internal workings of the brain. Our approach has been to use a combination of psychophysics in which we can use human behavioral flexibility to make quantitative measurements of behavior and link those through computational models to measurements of cortical activity through magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, we have tested various computational hypotheses about what neural mechanisms could account for behavioral enhancement with spatial attention (Pestilli et al., 2011). Resting both on quantitative measurements and considerations of what is known through animal models, we concluded that weighting of sensory signals by the magnitude of their response is a neural mechanism for efficient selection of sensory signals and consequent improvements in behavioral performance with attention. While animal models have many technical advantages over studying the brain in humans, we believe that human systems neuroscience should endeavor to validate, replicate and extend basic knowledge learned from animal model systems and thus form a bridge to understanding how the brain creates the complex and rich cognitive capacities of humans. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Granularity of the mirror neuron system: A complex endeavor. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by A. D'Ausilio et al. (United States)

    Swinnen, S. P.; Alaerts, K.


    The review paper by D'Ausilio and coauthors [3] is very timely and addresses one of the long-standing issues with respect to the coding features of mirror neurons. Through the history of mirror neuron research, there has been some controversy with respect to the level of granularity of the mirror neuron system, as studied in animal and human systems. While some researchers have suggested that abstract (high level) features of movement are coded, others have claimed evidence for more muscle specific (low level) coding properties (for an example, see [1,2]). D'Ausilio et al. [3] take a strong position in their review, suggesting a convergence between basic mechanisms of movement control and the mirror neuron system. Their suggestion is inspired by Bernstein's influential work on the so-called degrees of freedom problem. Even though a goal can in principle be reached in an infinite number of ways, consistent and stereotypical patterns of kinematics and muscle activation are often observed [4]. This has led to the notion of movement synergies as the basic building blocks for movement control. Even though it is essentially possible to contract isolated muscles or even motor units, Bernstein suggested that control of complex movement relies on movement synergies or coordinative structures, referring to a group of muscles that behave as a functional unit. This reduces the computational demands of the central nervous system considerably by assigning more responsibility to the lower levels of the movement control system. Bernstein's approach has inspired the dynamical systems perspective that has focused on a better understanding of complex biological systems such as interlimb coordination in humans [8]. For example, the upper limbs behave as a coordinative structure whereby simultaneous activation of the homologous muscle groups constitutes the default or preferred coordination mode that has to be defied when alternative patterns of coordination need to be performed or

  3. Comparative primate neuroimaging: insights into human brain evolution. (United States)

    Rilling, James K


    Comparative neuroimaging can identify unique features of the human brain and teach us about human brain evolution. Comparisons with chimpanzees, our closest living primate relative, are critical in this endeavor. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to compare brain size development, brain structure proportions and brain aging. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to compare resting brain glucose metabolism. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been used to compare auditory and visual system pathways, as well as resting-state networks of connectivity. Finally, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been used to compare structural connectivity. Collectively, these methods have revealed human brain specializations with respect to development, cortical organization, connectivity, and aging. These findings inform our knowledge of the evolutionary changes responsible for the special features of the modern human mind.

  4. Scientific analogs and the development of human mission architectures for the Moon, deep space and Mars (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Abercromby, A.; Beaton, K.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Chappell, S.; Cockell, C. S.; Cohen, B. A.; Cohen, T.; Deans, M.; Deliz, I.; Downs, M.; Elphic, R. C.; Hamilton, J. C.; Heldmann, J.; Hillenius, S.; Hoffman, J.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Lees, D. S.; Marquez, J.; Miller, M.; Milovsoroff, C.; Payler, S.; Sehlke, A.; Squyres, S. W.


    Analogs are destinations on Earth that allow researchers to approximate operational and/or physical conditions on other planetary bodies and within deep space. Over the past decade, our team has been conducting geobiological field science studies under simulated deep space and Mars mission conditions. Each of these missions integrate scientific and operational research with the goal to identify concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities that will enable and enhance scientific return during human and human-robotic missions to the Moon, into deep space and on Mars. Working under these simulated mission conditions presents a number of unique challenges that are not encountered during typical scientific field expeditions. However, there are significant benefits to this working model from the perspective of the human space flight and scientific operations research community. Specifically, by applying human (and human-robotic) mission architectures to real field science endeavors, we create a unique operational litmus test for those ConOps and capabilities that have otherwise been vetted under circumstances that did not necessarily demand scientific data return meeting the rigors of peer-review standards. The presentation will give an overview of our team's recent analog research, with a focus on the scientific operations research. The intent is to encourage collaborative dialog with a broader set of analog research community members with an eye towards future scientific field endeavors that will have a significant impact on how we design human and human-robotic missions to the Moon, into deep space and to Mars.

  5. Bevacizumab Exacerbates Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathy: A Retrospective Cohort Study. (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ayumu; Maeda, Osamu; Mizutani, Takefumi; Nakano, Yasuyuki; Tsunoda, Nobuyuki; Kikumori, Toyone; Goto, Hidemi; Ando, Yuichi


    Bevacizumab (BEV), a humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody, enhances the antitumor effectiveness of paclitaxel (PTX)-based chemotherapy in many metastatic cancers. A recent study in mice showed that VEGF receptor inhibitors can interfere with the neuroprotective effects of endogenous VEGF, potentially triggering the exacerbation of PTX-induced neuropathy. In clinical trials, exacerbation of neuropathy in patients who received PTX combined with BEV (PTX+BEV) has generally been explained by increased exposure to PTX owing to the extended duration of chemotherapy. We investigated whether the concurrent use of BEV is associated with the exacerbation of PTX-induced neuropathy. Female patients with breast cancer who had received weekly PTX or PTX+BEV from September 2011 through May 2016 were studied retrospectively. PTX-induced neuropathy was evaluated at the same time points (at the 6th and 12th courses of chemotherapy) in both cohorts. A multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model was used to assess the independent effect of BEV on the time to the onset of neuropathy. A total of 107 patients (median age, 55 years; range, 32-83) were studied. Sixty-one patients received PTX as adjuvant chemotherapy, 23 received PTX for metastatic disease, and 23 received PTX+BEV for metastatic disease. Peripheral sensory neuropathy was worse in patients who received PTX+BEV than in those who received PTX alone: at the 6th course, Grade 0/1/2/3 = 4/13/4/0 vs. 25/42/6/0 (P = 0.095); at the 12th course, 2/3/11/3 vs. 7/30/23/2 (P = 0.016). At the 12th course, the incidence of Grade 2 or higher neuropathy was significantly higher in patients treated with PTX+BEV than in those treated with PTX alone (74% vs. 40%; P = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, BEV was significantly associated with an increased risk of neuropathy (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.21-4.44, P = 0.012). The concurrent use of BEV could worsen PTX-induced neuropathy in patients with breast cancer.

  6. Retrospective Analysis of Inflight Exercise Loading and Physiological Outcomes (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Buxton, R. E.; De Witt, J. K.; Guilliams, M. E.; Hanson, A. M.; Peters, B. T.; Pandorf, M. M. Scott; Sibonga, J. D.


    Astronauts perform exercise throughout their missions to counter the health declines that occur as a result of long-term exposure to weightlessness. Although all astronauts perform exercise during their missions, the specific prescriptions, and thus the mechanical loading, differs among individuals. For example, inflight ground reaction force data indicate that subject-specific differences exist in foot forces created when exercising on the second-generation treadmill (T2) [1]. The current exercise devices allow astronauts to complete prescriptions at higher intensities, resulting in greater benefits with increased efficiency. Although physiological outcomes have improved, the specific factors related to the increased benefits are unknown. In-flight exercise hardware collect data that allows for exploratory analyses to determine if specific performance factors relate to physiological outcomes. These analyses are vital for understanding which components of exercise are most critical for optimal human health and performance. The relationship between exercise performance variables and physiological changes during flight has yet to be fully investigated. Identifying the critical performance variables that relate to improved physiological outcomes is vital for creating current and future exercise prescriptions to optimize astronaut health. The specific aims of this project are: 1) To quantify the exercise-related mechanical loading experienced by crewmembers on T2 and ARED during their mission on ISS; 2) To explore relationships between exercise loading variables, bone, and muscle health changes during the mission; 3) To determine if specific mechanical loading variables are more critical than others in protecting physiology; 4) To develop methodology for operational use in monitoring accumulated training loads during crew exercise programs. This retrospective analysis, which is currently in progress, is being conducted using data from astronauts that have flown long

  7. Management of ASCUS findings in Papanicolaou smears. A retrospective study. (United States)

    Iavazzo, C; Boutas, I; Grigoriadis, C; Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N


    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) are a cervical cytologic finding category suggestive but not definitive of squamous intraepithelial lesions. ASCUS remains an incompletely described entity and accounts for even 5%-10% of reported Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. The management of women with such cytologic findings remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytology laboratory findings with regards to ASCUS diagnosis, using cervical Pap smears, and colposcopic biopsies, as well as their management. This is a retrospective study of patients with ASCUS Pap smears taken during the period January 2010 - December 2010 in the Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aretaieion Hospital. During the study period, 657 Pap smears were examined at the Aretaieion Hospital; moreover, seven patients, whose Pap smears were cytologically diagnosed with ASCUS, were referred from other clinics, providing a total of 42 cases with a descriptive diagnosis of ASCUS for review. Of the 42 cases, eight were not studied because they were either lost in follow-up or they did not have available data. The remaining 34/42 patients were evaluated by colposcopic examination and directed biopsies where necessary. The ratio of ASCUS to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 5/34, 1/34, and 0/34, respectively. In the 34 ASCUS cases evaluated by colposcopy, the age distribution varied from 22 to 54 years. Eight of 34 cases did not have a child, 7/34 were primigravida, 18/34 were secondi-gravida, and 1/34 had four children. Four out of 34 cases were postmenopausal, 3/34 referred no history of abnormal bleeding, 21/34 were smokers, 6/34 used oral contraceptives, 2/34 used intrauterine devices, 1/34 took replacement of hormones, 4/34 had prior abnormal Pap smears human papillomavirus (HPV), or 1/34 had previous cancer (breast cancer). Colposcopy was

  8. The 1985 Nevado del Ruiz volcano catastrophe: anatomy and retrospection (United States)

    Voight, Barry


    This paper seeks to analyze in an objective way the circumstances and events that contributed to the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz catastrophe, in order to provide useful guidelines for future emergencies. The paper is organized into two principal parts. In the first part, an Anatomy of the catastrophe is developed as a step-by-step chronicle of events and actions taken by individuals and organizations during the period November 1984 through November 1985. This chronicle provides the essential background for the crucial events of November 13. This year-long period is broken down further to emphasize important chapters: the gradual awareness of the awakening of the volcano; a long period of institutional skepticism reflecting an absence of credibility; the closure of the credibility gap with the September 11 phreatic eruption, followed by an intensive effort to gird for the worst; and a detailed account of the day of reckoning. The second part of the paper, Retrospection, examines the numerous complicated factors that influenced the catastrophic outcome, and attempts to cull a few "lessons from Armero" in order to avoid similar occurrences in the future. In a nutshell, the government on the whole acted responsibly but was not willing to bear the economic or political costs of early evacuation or a false alarm. Science accurately foresaw the hazards but was insufficiently precise to render reliable warning of the crucial event at the last possible minute. Catastrophe was therefore a calculated risk, and this combination - the limitations of prediction/detection, the refusal to bear a false alarm and the lack of will to act on the uncertain information available - provided its immediate and most obvious causes. But because the crucial event occurred just two days before the Armero emergency management plan was to be critically examined and improved, the numerous circumstances which delayed progress of emergency management over the previous year also may be said to have

  9. Agile kaizen managing continuous improvement far beyond retrospectives

    CERN Document Server

    Medinilla, Ángel


    Agile teams have been struggling with the concept of continuous improvement since the first Agile frameworks were developed, and still very little has been written about the practice of continuous improvement in Agile environments. Although team retrospectives have been prescribed and some practices have been introduced in order to implement and facilitate them, the truth is that most Agile teams are conducting dull retrospectives that end with a list of things that have been done wrong, just to repeat the same list two weeks later at the next meeting.Instead of listing hundreds of Japanese-la

  10. A Retrospective and a Look into the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Johnson


    Full Text Available Look at us! From a handful of people who gathered around one conference table at the National Foreign Language Center in 1990, we are now an organization that has yearly conferences. We have a journal. We are networked. We are developing an amazing number of resources. Our institutes have become more numerous and our influence is spreading. No longer do most people look at us oddly when we mention the less commonly taught languages. The word "exotic" has pretty much disappeared from the common conversation. We have gone from desperately looking for beginning materials in so many languages-whether they are in Arabic, Zulu, Indonesian, Chinese, or Hindi-to where we are clamoring for advanced teaching materials in many of them. We have been developing frameworks for learning and teaching. We are mining the advantages of technology. Undertaking such endeavors means to me that the field of less commonly taught languages is formidably addressing its needs, unlike the sounds of muted desperation that characterized so many of our early gatherings.

  11. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for NASA's Deep Space Human Exploration Missions 2016-2017 (United States)

    Knox, James C.


    NASA has embarked on an endeavor that will enable humans to explore deep space, with the ultimate goal of sending humans to Mars. This journey will require significant developments in a wide range of technical areas, as resupply is unavailable in the Mars transit phase and early return is not possible. Additionally, mass, power, volume, and other resources must be minimized for all subsystems to reduce propulsion needs. Among the critical areas identified for development are life support systems, which will require increases in reliability and reductions in resources. This paper discusses current and planned developments in the area of carbon dioxide removal to support crewed Mars-class missions.

  12. Household and workplace chemicals as retrospective luminescence dosemeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.


    In the development of techniques for the retrospective assessment of the close absorbed by communities living and working adjacent to the site of a nuclear accident, attention has concentrated on the use Of natural minerals such as quartz and feldspar as dosemeters. These minerals are widely foun...

  13. 77 FR 8114 - Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules (United States)


    ... recognize the importance of maintaining a consistent culture of retrospective review and analysis throughout... generally issues questionnaires seeking business and financial information from domestic and foreign firms... Office of Government Ethics. 3. National Security Information, 19 CFR part 201, Subpart F. The Commission...

  14. Postgraduate Dental Research in Nigeria: A Retrospective Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postgraduate Dental Research in Nigeria: A Retrospective Appraisal of the Scope and Suggestions for Future Progress. ... Limitations identified by the researchers included lack of funding, low oral health awareness among the populace, lack of appropriate technology and poor social infrastructure. It however appeared as if ...

  15. Retrospective study of dog bite cases reported to ECWA Veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of dog bite cases reported to ECWA Veterinary Clinic Bukuru was carried out in Plateau State, Nigeria to understand the pattern of occurrence in this region. A total of two hundred and forty seven (247) dog bite cases were reported between May, 2009 and June, 2010. The dogs profile showed that ...

  16. Imported malaria in pregnant women: A retrospective pooled analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia


    Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done using data from 1991 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. National malaria reference centres as well as

  17. Retrospective study of equine cases at the Veterinary Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of common diseases is important for effective disease control and management programme. This retrospective study was designed to identify the common equine diseases and clinical conditions observed at the Large Animal Clinics of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, using ...

  18. Foliar nutrient analysis of sugar maple decline: retrospective vector diagnosis (United States)

    Victor R. Timmer; Yuanxin Teng


    Accuracy of traditional foiiar analysis of nutrient disorders in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) is limited by lack of validation and confounding by nutrient interactions. Vector nutrient diagnosis is relatively free of these problems. The technique is demonstrated retrospectively on four case studies. Diagnostic interpretations consistently...

  19. A retrospective analysis of patients treated for superficial vein thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, I. M.; Haighton, M.; Büller, H. R.; Middeldorp, S.


    Introduction: The absolute risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) as well as extension and/or recurrence in superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) of the leg is considerable and underestimated. We retrospectively evaluated therapeutic management, thrombophilic risk factors and

  20. Retrospective review of clinical and pathological pattern of prostatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the relatively high prevalence of prostatic diseases, there is paucity of literature on in most developing countries, East Africa inclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to conduct a retrospective review of all prostatic biopsies submitted to private histopathology laboratory in Central, Tanzania in order to ...

  1. a seven months retrospective study on urinary tract infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    It is the most common infectious complication associated with serious risk in pregnancy and responsible for a high rate of morbidity ... Key words: Urinary Tract Infection, Uropathogen, Retrospective Study, Kano. INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract ... Other common pathogens include Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus ...

  2. Oral cancer in the UAE: a multicenter, retrospective study | Anis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of various malignant oral lesions in the UAE and correlate cases of squamous cell carcinomas with age, gender, site, grade, clinical presentations at the time of diagnosis, and the prevalence of neck metastasis. Materials and methods: A multicenter, retrospective study was conducted at ...

  3. Oral cancer: a retrospective study of 100 Danish cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Rindum, J; Pindborg, J J


    One hundred Danes with oral cancer who were collected consecutively from 1986 to 1991 were evaluated retrospectively. The study included subjective and objective observations in 56% men and in 44% women. M:F ratio was 1.2:1. Fifty percent of the patients were non-smokers. Nine percent were women...

  4. A Retrospective study of Brucellosis Seroprevalence in Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study covering 10 years (1995 – 2004) was conducted to investigate brucellosis seroprevalence and patterns in commercial and smallholder mixed dairy-beef cattle in Zimbabwe using surveillance data from the Central Veterinary Laboratory at Harare. Positive cases were analysed according to farming ...

  5. Sarcoidosis in Lagos Revisited. A Retrospective Analysis of 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sarcoidosis amongst Nigerians remains a condition with limited information in literature despite the high prevalence of Sarcoidosis amongst Afro- Americans. This study was conceived to describe the presentation of the cases seen in an urban tertiary centre in Nigeria. A three year retrospective study of Sarcoidosis was ...

  6. Acute pneumonia in adults: a retrospective clinical study on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was carried out between]anuary 1990 to December 1992. One hundred and sixty patients were admitted with acute pneumonia to Trinity Hospital, a mission hospital in the South of Malawi, and the response to penicillin was evaluated. 31 % of the patients did not respond to penicillin and needed a ...

  7. Rupture uterus-eight year retrospective analysis. of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rupture uterus-eight year retrospective analysis. of causes an :11anagement outcome in Adigrat. Hospital, Tigray egion, Ethiopia. Amanael Gessessewl, Menpiste M Melese2. D. Abstract. Background: Ruptured uterus is a common cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Further studies may help in the ...

  8. Nigerian Veterinary Journal :A retrospective study was conducted to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :A retrospective study was conducted to determine the number of mortalities in wild animal species kept at University of. Ibadan zoologicalgarden, Agodi zoological garden, Ibadan and wild animals kept in private homes in Ibadan, South-West. Nigeria between 2007 and 2012. Causes of death were determined during post.

  9. A retrospective review of trends and clinical characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Epidemiological studies indicate that methamphetamine (MA) abuse poses a major challenge to health in the Western Cape. The objectives of this study were to retrospectively assess the trends, clinical characteristics and treatment demand of MArelated admissions to a psychiatric ward in this region. Method: ...

  10. Retrospective study on bovine whole carcass and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited information exists in literature on the major reasons for whole carcass and organ condemnations in Ghana. A retrospective study spanning January 2002 to December 2013 was conducted at the Kumasi Abattoir to determine the pattern of bovine whole carcass, liver condemnation, and to estimate the direct financial ...

  11. Management of undescended testes: a retrospective study from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Undescended testis is one of the commonest congenital malformations seen in boys. The aim of this study is to evaluate the pattern of presentation, approach to diagnosis, treatment and follow up in Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital, a tertiary teaching hospital in Ethiopia. Methods: This is a retrospective cross ...

  12. Breast cancer metastasis to thyroid: a retrospective analysis | Zhou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancers metastasizing to thyroid gland are relatively uncommon in clinical practice. Objective: Retrospective analysis of data from breast cancer patients with thyroid metastasis (TM). Methods: The US suspected, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) confirmed TM in breast cancer patients, treated ...

  13. A retrospective analysis of thyroid disease in pregnancy at Chris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 5, 2017 ... Our findings add valuable epidemiological information to the paucity of data that has previously existed for thyroid disease in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. S Afr J Obstet Gynaecol 2017;23(3):85-88. DOI:10.7196/SAJOG.2017.v23i3.1211. A retrospective analysis of thyroid disease in pregnancy at Chris.

  14. Chikungunya virus infection - A retrospective study of 107 cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of 107 cases of serologically proven chikungunya (CHIK) virus infection was undertaken. All respondents had contracted the disease at least 3 years previously; 87,9% had fully recovered, 3,7% experienced only occasional stiffness or mild discomfort, 2,8% had persistent residual joint stiffness but no ...

  15. Techniques for Improved Retrospective Fine-scale Meteorology (United States)

    Pleim-Xiu Land-Surface model (PX LSM) was developed for retrospective meteorological simulations to drive chemical transport models. One of the key features of the PX LSM is the indirect soil moisture and temperature nudging. The idea is to provide a three hourly 2-m temperature ...

  16. A Retrospective Evaluation of the Class of Malocclusion amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the type of malocclusion amongst orthodontic patients in the UNTH. Methods: A retrospective evaluation of patients who attended the Orthodontic unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital from January 2008 to January 2010 was carried out to determine the type of ...

  17. "JTPE": A 30-Year Retrospective of Published Research (United States)

    Rhoades, Jesse L.; Woods, Amelia M.; Daum, David N.; Ellison, Douglas; Trendowski, Thomas N.


    This case study presents an examination of 30 years of "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education" ("JTPE") research. The purpose of this study was to provide a retrospective view of "JTPE" and its contribution to the field of physical education. In this effort the current study employed citation analysis, co-author…

  18. MITINET/retro: Retrospective Conversion on an Apple. (United States)

    Epstein, Hank


    A retrospective conversion tool permitting libraries with a microfiche reader and Apple microcomputer to convert bibliographic and holdings files to computer-readable tapes in MARC format is described. The basic process, library costs and MARC tape costs, use of system in Wisconsin, and user's view of the system are noted. (EJS)

  19. A Retrospective Study of Traumatic Tympanic Membrane Perforation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Traumatic tympanic membrane perforation has been on the increase in recent times due to increased violent conflicts in our society. It is for this reason that this hospital-based observational retrospective study was undertaken to look at the pattern of this occurrence and to create awareness of its consequences in our ...

  20. Tracheostomy in orofacial and neck lesions: A retrospective study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracheostomy in orofacial and neck lesions: A retrospective study of 240 consecutive cases. C Oji. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  1. A retrospective study evaluating the efficacy of identification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Title: A retrospective study evaluating the efficacy of identification and management of sepsis at a district-level hospital internal medicine department in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, in comparison with the guidelines stipulated in the 2012 Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Background. Currently there is little ...

  2. Retrospective: "Futki" and Some Other Elephants | Thomas | Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrospective: "Futki" and Some Other Elephants. HB Thomas. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  3. A retrospective transversal study of enlargement and college dropout


    Cabrera, Lidia; Bethencourt Benítez, José Tomás; Miriam GONZÁLEZ AFONSO; Pedro ÁLVAREZ PÉREZ


    At present leaving and prolonging studies constitutes a serious problem at the university level. This report pre-sents the results of a retrospective transversal study which purpose was to identify risk factors related with dropout. The methodology design used can be for help

  4. Early selection of Eucalyptus clones in retrospective nursery test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the framework of the eucalyptus breeding programme in the Congo, two retrospective tests were conducted using mature clones in the field and young cuttings under nursery conditions with two hybrids: 13 clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis* Eucalyptus grandis for the test TC 82-1B and 17 clones of Eucalyptus ...

  5. Clinical rehabilitation of the amputee : A retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, GM; Vos, LDW; Groothoff, JW; Eisma, WH

    The aim of this study was to determine the rehabilitation outcome of lower limb amputee patients after clinical rehabilitation. Altogether 183 amputee patients admitted for clinical rehabilitation in the years 1987-1991 were reviewed by retrospective analysis of medical record data. Three groups of

  6. A Retrospective of Four Decades of Community College Research (United States)

    Floyd, Deborah L.; Felsher, Rivka A.; Ramdin, Gianna


    In the 40th publication year of the "Community College Journal of Research and Practice" ("CCJRP"), the authors present a 39-year retrospective on research on the community college through the lens of the journal. It is not known exactly what the body of community college research wholly consists of. Without access to the…

  7. Retrospective low heart rate variability overview in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) describes the variations of both instantaneous heart rate and R-R intervals in an electrocardiogram. Low HRV is considered to be a non-invasive measurement of autonomic inactivity and propensity lethal arrhythmias. Methodology: This was a retrospective study of patients with ...

  8. Retrospective analysis of metastatic behaviour of breast cancer subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savci-Heijink, C. Dilara; Halfwerk, Hans; Hooijer, Gerrit K. J.; Horlings, Hugo M.; Wesseling, Jelle; van de Vijver, Marc J.


    Among breast cancer patients who develop distant metastases, there is marked variability in the clinical course, including metastasis pattern. Here, we present a retrospective study of breast cancer patients who all developed distant metastases focusing on the association between breast cancer

  9. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal (United States)

    Thapa, Ritesh


    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…

  10. Retrospective evaluation of necrotizing fasciitis in university college ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 12, 2011 ... under-reported in the dental literature. Aims: To report our experience with cases seen and treated .... Retrospective evaluation of necrotizing fasciitis extremities. Reports of CNF in the literature were mostly .... Surgical Memoirs of the war of rebellion. New York: Reverside. Press; 1871. p. 146-70. 3. Meleny ...

  11. Acute Pneumonia In Adults: A Retrospective Clinical Study On The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: A retrospective study was carried out between]anuary. 1990 to December 1992. One hundred and sixty patients were admitted with acute pneumonia to Trinity Hospital, a mission hospital in the South of Malawi, and the re- sponse to penicillin was evaluated. 31 % of the patients did not respond to penicillin and ...

  12. Transfusion transmitted infections – A retrospective analysis from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The emergence of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) especially HIV/AIDS has created a huge obstacle in ensuring blood safety. To assess the situation in Eritrea, we carried out a retrospective study of 29,501 blood donors for the prevalence of TTI's i.e. HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis. Methods: The study ...

  13. Human-Robot Teaming: Communication, Coordination, and Collaboration (United States)

    Fong, Terry


    In this talk, I will describe how NASA Ames has been studying how human-robot teams can increase the performance, reduce the cost, and increase the success of a variety of endeavors. The central premise of our work is that humans and robots should support one another in order to compensate for limitations of automation and manual control. This principle has broad applicability to a wide range of domains, environments, and situations. At the same time, however, effective human-robot teaming requires communication, coordination, and collaboration -- all of which present significant research challenges. I will discuss some of the ways that NASA Ames is addressing these challenges and present examples of our work involving planetary rovers, free-flying robots, and self-driving cars.

  14. Advancements in Violin-Related Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel


    Finesse is required while performing with many traditional musical instruments, as they are extremely responsive to human inputs. The violin is specifically examined here, as it excels at translating a performer’s gestures into sound in manners that evoke a wide range of affective qualities...... of human intelligence and emotion is at the core of the Musical Interface Technology Design Space, MITDS. This is a framework that endeavors to retain and enhance such traits of traditional instruments in the design of interactive live performance interfaces. Utilizing the MITDS, advanced Human......-Computer Interaction technologies for the violin are developed in order to allow musicians to explore new methods of creating music. Through this process, the aim is to provide musicians with control systems that let them transcend the interface itself, and focus on musically compelling performances....

  15. Information Competencies for Chemistry Undergraduates and Related Collaborative Endeavors (United States)

    Peters, Marion C.


    "Information Competencies for Chemistry Undergraduates: The Elements of Information Literacy", (2012-) now in its second edition and available as a Wikibook since 2012, resulted from collaboration by chemistry librarians participating in several professional organizations. Sections covering a) the library and scientific literature and b)…

  16. The ethnomusicological endeavors of Danica and Ljubica Janković

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakić Mirjana


    Full Text Available The pioneering efforts of Ljubica (1894-1974 and Danica (1898-1960 Janković consisted of their systematic research and collecting of traditional dance practice (folk dances, the methodological transcription, analysis and systematizing of dances, as well as the theoretical interpretations of numerous aspects of traditional dance. Their work resulted in the establishment of Serbian ethnochoreology in the first half of the twentieth century. As the extent of their activity in terms of transcribing musical material in the form of the accompaniment to folk dances has not yet been fully grasped by ethnomusicologists so far, the goal of this paper is to present the results and to stress the contributions of Danica and Ljubica Janković to the processes of the foundation and subsequent development of ethnomusicology in Serbia. These contributions are to be seen in eight public volumes of Folk Dances (1934-1964, whose methodological frame follows several important empirical and theoretical scientific approaches: firstly, analytical descriptive methodology of research, based on intense fieldwork (resulting in 800 transcribed dances and melodies from former Yugoslavia; secondly, excellent acquaintance with international trends in the field of ethno-musicology, as well as with concepts of research concerning Serbian folk culture; lastly, their inter-textual and interdisciplinary approach that essentially looks for correlates between dance, music and the context of performance. In this paper I shall elaborate in detail on the comments and significant interpretations of vocal and instrumental melodies that accompany folk dances made by the Janković sisters. These comments refer to stylistic and genre characteristics, melodic and metro-rhythmic attributes, the features of rural and urban melodies, the local characteristics of songs and instruments, changes in the diachronic flow, and to the characteristic relations of choreological and musical structural elements. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177024: Muzička i igračka tradicija multietničke i multikulturalne Srbije

  17. Computing Education in Korea--Current Issues and Endeavors (United States)

    Choi, Jeongwon; An, Sangjin; Lee, Youngjun


    Computer education has been provided for a long period of time in Korea. Starting as a vocational program, the content of computer education for students evolved to include content on computer literacy, Information Communication Technology (ICT) literacy, and brand-new computer science. While a new curriculum related to computer science was…

  18. Leptin and Reproduction: Past Milestones, Present Undertakings and Future Endeavors (United States)

    Chehab, Farid F.


    The association between leptin and reproduction originated with the leptin-mediated correction of sterility in ob/ob mice and initiation of reproductive function in normal female mice. The uncovering of a central leptin pathway regulating food intake prompted the dissection of neuroendocrine mechanisms involving leptin in the metabolic control of reproduction. The absence of leptin receptors on GnRH neurons incited a search for intermediary neurons situated between leptin responsive and GnRH neurons. This review addresses the most significant findings that have furthered our understanding of recent progress in this new field. The role of leptin in puberty was impacted by the discovery of neurons that co-express kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin and that could act as leptin intermediates. Furthermore, the identification of first-order leptin-responsive neurons in the premammilary ventral nucleus and other brain regions opens new avenues to explore their relationship to GnRH neurons. Central to these advances is the unveiling that AgRP/NPY neurons project onto GnRH and kisspeptin neurons, allowing a crosstalk between food intake and reproduction. Finally, whereas puberty is a state of leptin sensitivity, mid-gestation represents a state of leptin resistance aimed at building energy stores to sustain pregnancy and lactation. Mechanisms underlying leptin resistance in pregnancy have lagged, however the establishment of this natural state is significant. Reproduction and energy balance are tightly controlled and backed up by redundant mechanisms that are critical for the survival of our species. It will be the goal of the next decade to shed new light on these complex and essential pathways. PMID:25118207

  19. Indian scientific endeavors in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neloy Khare


    Full Text Available An ice free Arctic can effect tropical climate and is therefore a key variable to understand the climate change. In order to undertake studies in the Arctic region, on 1st July 2008, the Indian station ‘Himadri’ has been opened in Ny-Ålesund. With India, 15 stations from 10 countries are now established in Ny-Ålesund. This report highlights Indian initiatives in the Arctic region.

  20. Japanese endeavors to establish technological bases for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ozaki, Akira [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8605 (Japan); Sakamoto, Ryuichi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Sakamoto, Yoshiteru [Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Takenaga, Hidenobu [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tanaka, Teruya [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hisashi [Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Okano, Kunihiko [Keio University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-0061 (Japan); Tobita, Kenji [Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Kaneko, Osamu [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Ushigusa, Kenkichi [Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)


    Highlights: • The strategy for DEMO has been discussed by a joint effort in Japan. • DEMO should be aimed at steady power generation beyond several hundred MW. • DEMO should be aimed at availability extendable to commercialization. • DEMO should be aimed at tritium breeding to fulfill self-sufficiency of fuels. • Related actions are emerging to deliberate the Japanese fusion roadmap. - Abstract: The establishment of technology bases required for the development of a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO) has been discussed by a joint effort throughout the Japanese fusion community. The basic concept of DEMO premised for investigation has been identified and the structure of technological issues to ensure the feasibility of this DEMO concept has been examined. The Joint-Core Team, which was launched along with the request by the ministerial council, has compiled analyses in two reports to clarify technology which should be secured, maintained, and developed in Japan, to share the common targets among industry, government, and academia, and to activate actions under a framework for implementation throughout Japan. The reports have pointed out that DEMO should be aimed at steady power generation beyond several hundred thousand kilowatts, availability which must be extended to commercialization, and overall tritium breeding to fulfill self-sufficiency of fuels. The necessary technological activities, such as superconducting coils, blanket, divertor, and others, have been sorted out and arranged in the chart with the time line toward the decision on DEMO. Based upon these Joint-Core Team reports, related actions are emerging to deliberate the Japanese fusion roadmap.

  1. Defining the Field of Behavioral Medicine: A Collaborative Endeavor. (United States)

    Dekker, Joost; Stauder, Adrienne; Penedo, Frank J


    To respond to comments on our proposal for an update of the definition and scope of behavioral medicine. We identify common themes in the comments and provide a response. We discuss the relationship of behavioral medicine to other disciplines and fields, the scope of behavioral medicine, and issues related to the application of behavioral medicine. Based on the comments of our esteemed colleagues and our reflection on those comments, we now offer the following refined definition and scope of behavioral medicine. 'Behavioral medicine can be defined as the field characterized by the collaboration among multiple disciplines concerned with the development and integration of biomedical and behavioral knowledge relevant to health and disease, and the application of this knowledge to prevention, health promotion, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and care. The scope of behavioral medicine extends from bio-behavioral mechanisms (i.e. the interaction among biomedical, psychological, social, societal, cultural and environmental processes related to health and disease), to clinical diagnosis and intervention, and to public health'. We propose to use this refined definition and scope as the starting point for seeking further input from the ISBM member societies.

  2. Citizen and Professional Scientists as Partners in the Scientific Endeavor (United States)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Crimmins, M.; Denny, E. G.; Enquist, C.; Rosemartin, A.; Weltzin, J. F.


    Several models of involving citizen scientists in the scientific process have been described (Cooper et al. 2007, Bonney et al. 2009), ranging from contributing data to playing a role in nearly all aspects of the scientific process. An alternative form of engagement between scientists and non-scientists is one where non-scientists collect observations of natural phenomena independently, with or without a particular question in mind, and then make these data available to others for analysis and interpretation. Data sets of this sort have proven priceless in documenting environmental change in a variety of settings have the potential to greatly enhance information collected through formal citizen science programs and research efforts. However, rather than a handoff of data from collector to analyst, the relationship may function best as a partnership between data collector and data user. Independent data collectors can offer a wealth of ecosystem knowledge valuable in analysis and interpretation. Moreover, their unique and potentially rich data sets may provide keys to answering questions that could not be addressed through traditional short-term research studies or even longer-term organized efforts. Independent efforts, taking place outside of formal citizen science or research programs, are typically self-funded and therefore deserve proper respect and credit. Individuals collecting data may wish to share their data to see them be used to support research and decision making, but may wish to retain some level of ownership or control over them. This may include acknowledgement in publications, involvement in analysis or interpretation, or authorship on publications including the data. One of the long-term goals of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) is to host, archive, and make available phenology data sets collected outside of standard USA-NPN protocols. However, issues related to proper data attribution and involving data collectors in analysis and interpretation where it is desired need to be carefully considered. The purpose of this presentation will be to bring some of the potential issues of using these data to light, and to begin a discussion on suitable data sharing principles for large programs such as the USA National Phenology Network. Lessons learned have application to a wide range of citizen science and public participation projects.

  3. Mexico’s National Security Challenges and the Military Endeavor (United States)


    Constitucion Politica de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, art 89 fracc. X Camara de Diputados del H. Congreso de la Union (Mexico: D.F. Gobierno de la...Convert Action Quarterly, No. 59 (Winter 1996-1997): 43. 8 Contitucion Politica de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, art. 89 fracc. VI, 86. 9 Hernandez...a-la-ley-de- seguridad-nacional/, accessed (January 10, 2013). 16 Contitucion Politica de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, art. 89 fracc. VI, 86. 17

  4. ANAM Genogram: Historical Perspectives, Description, and Current Endeavors (United States)


    The purpose of the battery was to provide standardized assessment for use in operational military research in heat and cold -stress environments. 2.3...studies (Schlegel & Gilliland, 1990). CTS development was followed closely by specification of the NATO STRES battery, which was designed for aerospace and...near millisecond timing accuracy without additional hardware, the STRES battery enhanced the portability of DoD computerized test systems. Since

  5. Legitimation Endeavors: Impression Management Strategies Used by an Organization. (United States)

    Allen, Myria Watkins; Caillouet, Rachel H.


    Investigates the impression management strategies embedded in the external discourse of an organization in crisis. Shows ingratiation to be the primary strategy. Finds that intimidation was used with special interest groups and that denouncement strategies were embedded in messages to competitors, special interest groups, and suppliers. (SR)

  6. Romanian MRE Rocket Engines Program - An Early Endeavor (United States)

    Rugescu, R. E.


    (MRE) was initiated in the years '60 of the past century at the Chair of Aerospace Sciences "Elie Carafoli" from the "Politehnica" University in Bucharest (PUB). Consisting of theoretical and experimental investigations in the form of computational methods and technological solutions for small size MRE-s and the concept of the test stand for these engines, the program ended in the construction of the first Romanian liquid rocket motors. Hermann Oberth and Dorin Pavel, were known from 1923, no experimental practice was yet tempted, at the time level of 1960. It was the intention of the developers at PUB to cover this gap and initiate a feasible, low-cost, demonstrative program of designing and testing experimental models of MRE. The research program was oriented towards future development of small size space carrier vehicles for scientific applications only, as an independent program with no connection to other defense programs imagined by the authorities in Bucharest, at that time. Consequently the entire financial support was assured by "Politehnica" university. computerized methods in the thermochemistry of heterogeneous combustion, for both steady and unsteady flows with chemical reactions and two phase flows. The research was gradually extended to the production of a professional CAD program for steady-state heat transfer simulations and the loading capacity analyses of the double wall, cooled thrust chamber. The resulting computer codes were run on a 360-30 IMB machine, beginning in 1968. Some of the computational methods were first exposed at the 9th International Conference on Applied Mechanics, held in Bucharest between June 23-27, 1969. hot testing of a series of storable propellant, variable thrust, variable geometry, liquid rocket motors, with a maximal thrust of 200N. A remotely controlled, portable test bad, actuated either automatically or manually and consisting of a 6-modules construction was built for this motor series, with a simple 8 analog-channel and 5 digital-channel data measuring and recording system. The first hot test firing of the MRE-1B motor took place successfully on April 9th, 1969 in Bucharest, at the "Elie Carafoli" Chair of UPB. The research program continued with the development of a series of solid, double base propellant rocket and ram-rocket motors, with emphasize on the optimization of the gasdynamic contour of the engine, in order to increase the flight performances. Increments of up to 8% in specific thrust were measured on the test stand, with mass savings and no extra costs. The test firing of the first Romanian, air-breathing ram-rocket engine took place successfully in august 1987 at the Chemical Works in Fagaras, Romania. Astronautics", founded in Bucharest. The principles and history of the "MRE" research program are presented in the proposed paper.

  7. Analyzing and Understanding Lipids of Yeast: A Challenging Endeavor. (United States)

    Kohlwein, Sepp D


    Lipids are essential biomolecules with diverse biological functions, ranging from building blocks for all biological membranes to energy substrates, signaling molecules, and protein modifiers. Despite advances in lipid analytics by mass spectrometry, the extraction and quantitative analysis of the diverse classes of lipids are still an experimental challenge. Yeast is a model organism that provides several advantages for studying lipid metabolism, because most biosynthetic pathways are well described and a great deal of information is available on the regulatory mechanisms that control lipid homeostasis. In addition, the composition of yeast lipids is much less complex than that of mammalian lipids, making yeast an excellent reference system for studying lipid-associated cell functions. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Ethos, ethics, and endeavors: new horizons in family nursing. (United States)

    Burchard, Dorothee J H O'sullivan


    This article is an invitation to contemplation and dialogue about the purpose of family nursing. The shared ethos of family nursing is explored as a common ground for endeavours in practice and research. A comparison of ethical principles relating to research, family nursing practice, and Foucault's meta-ethical framework is offered. Such examination would suggest a remarkable congruence between family nursing values and Foucault's meta-ethical framework. The implications of such theoretical deliberations are outlined within the context of contemporary issues at a global level. Further support for the relevance of the implications at national level is presented by drawing on examples of challenges for nursing work with families in primary care in the United Kingdom. This article also raises new questions based on a number of suppositions such as family nursing being conceptualized as relational practice with an integrated approach, unifying ethos, and potential of a new paradigm of care.

  9. Applying Aerodynamics Inspired Organizational Dynamic Fit Model Disaster Relief Endeavors (United States)


    abstraction (Sauser, Boardman, & Verma, 2010; von Bertalanffy , 1969). Here the abstraction is much more about the design of airplanes and organizations...Building ambidextrous organizations: Forming your own "skunk works". Health Forum Journal, 42(2), 20. von Bertalanffy , L. (1969). General systems

  10. Team working in intensive care: current evidence and future endeavors. (United States)

    Richardson, Joanne; West, Michael A; Cuthbertson, Brian H


    It has recently been argued that the future of intensive care medicine will rely on high quality management and teamwork. Therefore, this review takes an organizational psychology perspective to examine the most recent research on the relationship between teamwork, care processes, and patient outcomes in intensive care. Interdisciplinary communication within a team is crucial for the development of negotiated shared treatment goals and short-team patient outcomes. Interventions for maximizing team communication have received substantial interest in recent literature. Intensive care coordination is not a linear process, and intensive care teams often fail to discuss how to implement goals, trigger and align activities, or reflect on their performance. Despite a move toward interdisciplinary team working, clinical decision-making is still problematic and continues to be perceived as a top-down and authoritative process. The topic of team leadership in intensive care is underexplored and requires further research. Based on findings from the most recent research evidence in medicine and management, four principles are identified for improving the effectiveness of team working in intensive care: engender professional efficacy, create stable teams and leaders, develop trust and participative safety, and enable frequent team reflexivity.

  11. Psoriatic arthritis: A retrospective study of 162 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlica Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of psoriatic arthritis in the patients with psoriasis and to analyze retrospectively the results of a 34-year multidisciplinary management of the patients with psoriatic arthritis. Methods. The study included 162 out of 183 treated patients with psoriatic arthritis, aged 48 ± 15 years. All the patients satisfied the current diagnostic criteria for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology. Results. Psoriatic arthritis developed in 183 (9.3% out of 1976 patients with psoriasis. Time interval for establishing the diagnosis was 4 years. A positive family history of the disease had 15.0% of the studied patients. Its onset was most often at 42 years of age in 70.4% of the cases, and 2 months to 59 years after the appearance of psoriasis. Psoriatic arthritis without psoriasis appeared in 1.8% of the patients. A severe form of arthritis had 64.2% of the patients, mainly the patients with scalp psoriasis (χ2=3.2; p<0.05. Nail changes had 35% of the patients. Distal interphalangeal joints were involved in 63.6%, axial skeleton in 36.4%, oligoarthritis in 45.0%, polyarthritis in 55.0%, and mutilating form in 6.8% of the patients. Elevated Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate was reveald in 61.7% of the patients. Immunoglobulin M (IgM rheumatoid factor was altered in 4.3% of the patients. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA typing in the 28 patients were: A2 32.0%, A3 18.0%, Al and A9 14.0%, A28 and A29 3.5%, B8 and B16 14.0%, B5 and B12 11.0%, B13,B15, B18, B27 and B35 7.0%. Radiologic changes were most often in hand and foot joints, less frequently in the knees and quite infrequently in hips and shoulders joints. Sacroiliitis was found in 46.4% of the patients. Psoriasis was treated with topical corticosteroids and salicylic ointments in all the patients, ultraviolet (PUVA therapy in 5.6% and retinoids in 4.3% of them. Artrithis was treated with nonsteroidal anti

  12. Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Female Victims of Trafficking Using Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Retrospective Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Robjant


    Full Text Available BackgroundHuman trafficking is a form of modern slavery that involves the forced movement of people internally within countries, or externally across borders. Victims who are trafficked for sexual exploitation are subject to repeated, multiple trauma, and high rates of mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD have been found. Narrative exposure therapy (NET is an evidence-based treatment for PTSD.MethodsIn this retrospective audit, we record the results of NET to treat 10 women who had been trafficked for sexual exploitation who were diagnosed with PTSD.ResultsAll 10 women completed the therapy and experienced a reduction in PTSD severity scores at posttreatment, with improvements that were maintained or further improved at 3-month follow-up. General distress was also significantly reduced following treatment.ConclusionAlthough limited by sample size and retrospective design, this audit demonstrates that NET is a feasible treatment for PTSD in this population and warrants further evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. Further adjunctive interventions may also be necessary to treat the additional psychological problems experienced by this population.

  13. Caffeine consumption and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: retrospective study. (United States)

    Lopes, P O; Alfaro, T M; Lopes, P; Cunha, R A; Cordeiro, C Robalo


    The modulation of adenosine receptors has been proposed as new therapeutic target for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but studies in humans were negative. Caffeine is widely consumed and acts by non-selective modulation of these receptors, allowing for a non-interventional evaluation of the purinergic effects on COPD. We evaluated the effects of chronic caffeine consumption on the risk for COPD exacerbations. Retrospective study including patients with COPD. The total number of exacerbations during a three-year period and the mean daily caffeine consumption in the last twenty years were evaluated. A univariate and multiple regression analysis were performed for evaluation of the significant predictors of exacerbations. A total of 90 patients were included. Most were males (82.2%) and had a mean forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) of 57.0±17.1% predicted. The mean daily caffeine consumption was 149.7±140.9mg. There was no correlation between the mean caffeine consumption and exacerbations (p>0.05). Our results suggest that caffeine has no significant effect on the frequency of COPD exacerbations. These conclusions are limited by the sample size and the retrospective nature of the study. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Aspergillus otitis in small animals--a retrospective study of 17 cases. (United States)

    Goodale, Elizabeth C; Outerbridge, Catherine A; White, Stephen D


    Aspergillus spp. are saprophytic opportunistic fungal organisms and are a common cause of otomycosis in humans. Although there have been case reports of Aspergillus otitis externa in dogs, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first retrospective case series describing Aspergillus otitis in dogs and cats. To characterize signalment, putative risk factors, treatments and outcomes of a case series of dogs and cats with Aspergillus otitis. Eight dogs and nine cats diagnosed with Aspergillus otitis. A retrospective review of medical records from 1989 to 2014 identified animals diagnosed with Aspergillus otitis based on culture. All dogs weighed greater than 23 kg. The most common putative risk factors identified in this study were concurrent diseases, therapy causing immunosuppression or a history of an otic foreign body. Aspergillus otitis was unilateral in all study dogs and most cats. Concurrent otitis media was confirmed in three dogs and one cat, and suspected in two additional cats. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common isolate overall and was the dominant isolate in cats. Aspergillus niger and A. terreus were more commonly isolated from dogs. Animals received various topical and systemic antifungal medications; however, otic lavage under anaesthesia and/or surgical intervention increased the likelihood of resolution of the fungal infection. Aspergillus otitis is uncommon, typically seen as unilateral otitis externa in cats and larger breed dogs with possible risk factors that include immunosuppression and otic foreign bodies; previous antibiotic usage was common. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of dental enamel for retrospective assessment of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukihara, E.G. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)], E-mail:; Mittani, J.; McKeever, S.W.S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Simon, S.L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-7238 (United States)


    This paper briefly reviews the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of dental enamel and discusses the potential and challenges of OSL for filling the technology gap in biodosimetry required for medical triage following a radiological/nuclear accident or terrorist event. The OSL technique uses light to stimulate a radiation-induced luminescence signal from materials previously exposed to ionizing radiation. This luminescence originates from radiation-induced defects in insulating crystals and is proportional to the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. In our research conducted to date, we focused on fundamental investigations of the OSL properties of dental enamel using extracted teeth and tabletop OSL readers. The objective was to obtain information to support the development of the necessary instrumentation for retrospective dosimetry using dental enamel in laboratory, or for in situ and non-invasive accident dosimetry using dental enamel in emergency triage. An OSL signal from human dental enamel was detected using blue, green, or IR stimulation. Blue/green stimulation associated with UV emission detection seems to be the most appropriate combination in the sense that there is no signal from un-irradiated samples and the shape of the OSL decay is clear. Improvements in the minimum detection level were achieved by incorporating an ellipsoidal mirror in the OSL system to maximize light collection. Other possibilities to improve the sensitivity and research steps necessary to establish the feasibility of the technique for retrospective assessment of radiation exposure are also discussed.

  16. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) of dental enamel for retrospective assessment of radiation exposure. (United States)

    Yukihara, E G; Mittani, J; McKeever, S W S; Simon, S L


    This paper briefly reviews the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of dental enamel and discusses the potential and challenges of OSL for filling the technology gap in biodosimetry required for medical triage following a radiological/nuclear accident or terrorist event. The OSL technique uses light to stimulate a radiation-induced luminescence signal from materials previously exposed to ionizing radiation. This luminescence originates from radiation-induced defects in insulating crystals and is proportional to the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. In our research conducted to date, we focused on fundamental investigations of the OSL properties of dental enamel using extracted teeth and tabletop OSL readers. The objective was to obtain information to support the development of the necessary instrumentation for retrospective dosimetry using dental enamel in laboratory, or for in situ and non-invasive accident dosimetry using dental enamel in emergency triage. An OSL signal from human dental enamel was detected using blue, green, or IR stimulation. Blue/green stimulation associated with UV emission detection seems to be the most appropriate combination in the sense that there is no signal from un-irradiated samples and the shape of the OSL decay is clear. Improvements in the minimum detection level were achieved by incorporating an ellipsoidal mirror in the OSL system to maximize light collection. Other possibilities to improve the sensitivity and research steps necessary to establish the feasibility of the technique for retrospective assessment of radiation exposure are also discussed.

  17. Cardiac safety of citalopram: prospective trials and retrospective analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Poul Lind; Overø, K F; Tanghøj, P


    in volunteers and patients and in retrospective evaluations of all electrocardiographic (ECG) data from all clinical trials conducted from 1978 through 1996 (a total of 40 studies). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in healthy volunteers (N = 23) to assess intraindividual......-controlled, fixed-dose trials in adult and elderly patients (N = 1,460) with major depression and/or dementia. Finally, more than 6,000 ECGs (N = 1,789 citalopram-treated patients) collected from all clinical trials conducted from 1978 through 1996 were reassessed in a standardized manner to identify any effects...... of citalopram on ECG parameters. Results of both prospective and retrospective analyses showed that the only effect of citalopram on ECG findings is a small reduction in heart rate (

  18. OSL studies of local bricks for retrospective dosimetric application (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S. Y.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.


    Luminescence properties of quartz extracted from bricks has been reported worldwide for its use in dose estimation in case of nuclear or radiological accident. Accordingly, in this study the feasibility of utilizing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) emission of quartz extracted from red bricks collected from three different locations in and around Mumbai, India for retrospective dosimetry was explored. Thermoluminescence and OSL characterization of the samples were carried out. The growth curve, thermal stability and equivalent dose plateau of the OSL signal suggested the signals to be well behaving. Subsequently, the dose recovery tests carried for different administered doses, using single aliquot regenerative protocol, demonstrated the feasibility of the OSL emissions of these samples for dose evaluation in retrospective dosimetry.

  19. OSL studies of local bricks for retrospective dosimetric application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.K.; Menon, S.N., E-mail:; Kadam, S.Y.; Koul, D.K.; Datta, D.


    Luminescence properties of quartz extracted from bricks has been reported worldwide for its use in dose estimation in case of nuclear or radiological accident. Accordingly, in this study the feasibility of utilizing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) emission of quartz extracted from red bricks collected from three different locations in and around Mumbai, India for retrospective dosimetry was explored. Thermoluminescence and OSL characterization of the samples were carried out. The growth curve, thermal stability and equivalent dose plateau of the OSL signal suggested the signals to be well behaving. Subsequently, the dose recovery tests carried for different administered doses, using single aliquot regenerative protocol, demonstrated the feasibility of the OSL emissions of these samples for dose evaluation in retrospective dosimetry.

  20. Retrospective dosimetry using EPR and TL techniques: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.H.


    Methods of retrospective dosimetry, including luminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), rely on measurement of accident dose absorbed by naturally occurring materials - ceramics in the case of both thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and organic materials and bio- minerals in the case of EPR. Each of these methods relies on measurement of radiation defects resulting from accidental exposure. Since defects also result from natural sources of radiation over the lifetime of a sample, analysis is usually restricted to materials for which the natural dose may be determined and subtracted from the measured cumulative dose. Luminescence dating techniques rely heavily on an accurate assessment of cumulative dose from natural radiation sources, and dating research has provided us with the bulk of our knowledge in this area. Virtually all of the work on natural dose determination can be directly applied to retrospective techniques. With EPR techniques the cumulative dose from diagnostic x- rays is also of importance.

  1. Feline Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinoma: A Review and Retrospective Study


    Cribb, Alastair E.


    Feline gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas are the most common nonhematopoietic gastrointestinal tumors in cats. They are highly malignant tumors causing intestinal obstruction due to the annular, stenosing nature to their growth. Current literature is largely based on surveys of pathology records. Therefore, a retrospective study was conducted to evaluate clinical course and prognosis with surgical excision of the tumor. In published reports feline gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma represented 20...

  2. Geographic thougth in Latin America: A retrospective and general balance


    Pedro Sergio Urquijo Torres; Gerardo Bocco Verdinelli


    In this paper we report results of a thorough contemporary historiographic revision of published geographic research and geography research departments and centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we...

  3. a retrospective radiologic evaluation of the ANYKLOS® implant system


    Niederquell, Cyril


    Background: There is limited information about two-part implants placed in subcrestal position. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the vertical ANKYLOS® implant position in relation to the modification of the crestal bone level. Methods: Records of 126 patients restored with 364 ANKYLOS® implants were reviewed and measured on periapical x-rays and orthopantomogramms using digital software. For each implant, radiographs from the surgical appointment were compared to those f...

  4. A historical retrospective and the essence of strategic financial planning


    Nestor, Olha


    The author has reviewed the historical retrospective of strategic financial planning, distinguished the concepts of “strategic financial planning”, “long-term financial planning” and “perspective financial planning” and determined that their use as synonyms is incorrect. The correctness of three-tier financial planning has been justified. The difference between financial planning, financial forecasting and budgeting has been explained. The problem of strategic financial plannin...



    Lakshimi Borgohain; Deepak Chaudhury; Mahibul Islam Mollah; Subhankar Paul


    BACKGROUND Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) among adolescent psychiatric patient is rarely used and studies in this regard are also rare, while its need is of great importance. Aim of this study was to study the prevalence of ECT in common psychiatric illnesses among adolescent age group, where it is indicated and outcome of ECT in those psychiatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS All data were collected retrospectively from the chart review for those adolescents aged betwee...

  6. The 1975-76 Drought - a contemporary and retrospective review


    Rodda, J.C.; Marsh, T.J.


    The 1975-76 drought is the most severe experienced in the UK during the period for which instrumented records are available. This report comprises a contemporary and comprehensive review of the drought and its wide range of impacts together with a retrospective analysis, undertaken in 2010. The latter, benefitting in particular from an additional 35 years of river flow data, confirms the outstanding nature of the 1975-76 drought.

  7. Assessment of alcohol intake: Retrospective measures versus a smartphone application. (United States)

    Poulton, Antoinette; Pan, Jason; Bruns, Loren Richard; Sinnott, Richard O; Hester, Robert


    Research investigating problem drinking often relies on retrospective measures to assess alcohol consumption behaviour. Limitations associated with such instruments can, however, distort actual consumption levels and patterns. We developed the smartphone application (app), CNLab-A, to assess alcohol intake behaviour in real-time. Healthy individuals (N=671, M age 23.12) completed demographic questions plus the Alcohol Use Questionnaire and a 21-day Timeline Followback before using CNLab-A for 21days. The app asked participants to record alcohol consumption details in real time. We compared data reported via retrospective measures with that captured using CNLab-A. On average, participants submitted data on 20.27days using CNLab-A. Compared to Timeline Followback, a significantly greater percentage of drinking days (24.79% vs. 26.44%) and significantly higher total intake (20.30 vs. 24.26 standard drinks) was recorded via the app. CNLab-A captured a substantially greater number of high intake occasions at all levels from 8 or more drinks than Timeline Followback. Additionally, relative to the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, a significantly faster rate of consumption was recorded via the app. CNLab-A provided more nuanced information regarding quantity and pattern of alcohol intake than the retrospective measures. In particular, it revealed higher levels of drinking than retrospective reporting. This will have implications for how particular at-risk alcohol consumption patterns are identified in future and might enable a more sophisticated exploration of the causes and consequences of drinking behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A retrospective study of sodium hypochlorite pulpotomies in primary molars


    Li, Tzu-Ying; Chuang, Li-Chuan; Aileen I Tsai


    Background/purpose: Formocresol has been a popular pulpotomy medicament for primary molars, however, its toxicity and potential carcinogenicity leaves room for other alternatives such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiographic success rate of 5% NaOCl pulpotomy in primary molars. Materials and methods: A retrospective research of patient records from January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012 was conducted to evaluate the clinical and ...

  9. Comparing Prospectively Recorded Posttraumatic Amnesia Duration With Retrospective Accounts. (United States)

    Roberts, Caroline M; Spitz, Gershon; Ponsford, Jennie L


    Limited research has been conducted comparing different methods for determining the duration of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA). This study compared prospectively recorded PTA duration (P-PTA) with retrospective reports of the return of continuous memory (R-PTA). Fifty-nine individuals admitted to a head injury rehabilitation unit with a traumatic brain injury who had their PTA duration recorded using the Westmead Post-Traumatic Amnesia Scale. Participants were between 6 months and 6 years postinjury at the time of study. P-PTA was determined on the basis of Westmead Post-Traumatic Amnesia Scale responses. R-PTA was ascertained using a semistructured telephone interview. Although the PTA measures were significantly positively correlated (r = 0.76), mean R-PTA was significantly longer than mean P-PTA. In 34 cases (57.6%), R-PTA was longer than P-PTA (13 participants moved to a higher injury severity band), and in 22 cases (37.3%), R-PTA was shorter than P-PTA (8 participants moved to a lower injury severity band). The difference between P-PTA and R-PTA was not significantly associated with age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, overall PTA duration, or the number of days postinjury of the retrospective interview. Prospective and retrospective estimates of PTA duration were not comparable within the present sample. Further research comparing the two methods is needed.

  10. Blind multirigid retrospective motion correction of MR images. (United States)

    Loktyushin, Alexander; Nickisch, Hannes; Pohmann, Rolf; Schölkopf, Bernhard


    Physiological nonrigid motion is inevitable when imaging, e.g., abdominal viscera, and can lead to serious deterioration of the image quality. Prospective techniques for motion correction can handle only special types of nonrigid motion, as they only allow global correction. Retrospective methods developed so far need guidance from navigator sequences or external sensors. We propose a fully retrospective nonrigid motion correction scheme that only needs raw data as an input. Our method is based on a forward model that describes the effects of nonrigid motion by partitioning the image into patches with locally rigid motion. Using this forward model, we construct an objective function that we can optimize with respect to both unknown motion parameters per patch and the underlying sharp image. We evaluate our method on both synthetic and real data in 2D and 3D. In vivo data was acquired using standard imaging sequences. The correction algorithm significantly improves the image quality. Our compute unified device architecture (CUDA)-enabled graphic processing unit implementation ensures feasible computation times. The presented technique is the first computationally feasible retrospective method that uses the raw data of standard imaging sequences, and allows to correct for nonrigid motion without guidance from external motion sensors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Facilitation and Coherence Between the Dynamic and Retrospective Perception of Segmentation in Computer-Generated Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya Bailes


    Full Text Available We examined the impact of listening context (sound duration and prior presentation on the human perception of segmentation in sequences of computer music. This research extends previous work by the authors (Bailes & Dean, 2005, which concluded that context-dependent effects such as the asymmetrical detection of an increase in timbre compared to a decrease of the same magnitude have a significant bearing on the cognition of sound structure. The current study replicated this effect, and demonstrated that listeners (N = 14 are coherent in their detection of segmentation between real-time and retrospective tasks. In addition, response lag was reduced from a first hearing to a second hearing, and following long (7 s rather than short (1 or 3 s segments. These findings point to the role of short-term memory in dynamic structural perception of computer music.

  12. Treatment of Amanita phalloides poisoning: I. Retrospective evaluation of plasmapheresis in 21 patients. (United States)

    Jander, S; Bischoff, J


    Amanita phalloides poisoning is the most common cause of lethal mushroom poisoning (lethality >20% in adults). A specific antidote against the amanitin toxins is not available. This retrospective study reports results in 21 patients (12 males, 9 females; ages 9-59 years) treated for amanita phalloides poisoning between 1984 and 1993. Plasmapheresis was carried out using a commercial plasma protein solution (Biseko, Biotest, Dreieich, Germany) in 17 patients, fresh plasma in 2 patients, and human albumin/Ringer's solution in 2 patients. Ancillary drugs, including penicillin and silibinin, also were used for detoxification, correction of blood-clotting deficiencies, and hepatic protection. One patient died of acute hepatic failure. The results, assessed using mortality (4.8% overall) and frequency of complications, indicate that plasmapheresis is a safe and effective treatment for amanita phalloides poisoning but that further investigations are needed, especially involving measurements of efficacy and the efficiency of toxin removal.

  13. [A retrospective study of animal poisoning reports to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre (1997 - 2006)]. (United States)

    Curti, R; Kupper, J; Kupferschmidt, H; Naegeli, H


    The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyse the etiology, frequency and outcome of toxicological cases recorded by the consultation service of the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre (STIC) hotline over a 10-year period, from 1997 to 2006. A detailed analysis of this database indicates that common human drugs not intended for use in animals, as well as pesticides and toxic plants represent the most prominent hazards involved in the reported cases of animal poisonings. The comparison with a previous survey from the years 1976 - 1985 revealed new toxic risks due to the accidental uptake of cannabis products, castor seeds or chocolate by dogs. In addition, there is a striking increase of serious poisonings with pyrethroids in cats. The follow-up reports delivered by veterinarians also reflect novel pharmacological and technological trends in the management of poisonings.

  14. Retrospective Serology Study of Respiratory Virus Infections in Captive Great Apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Buitendijk


    Full Text Available Great apes are extremely sensitive to infections with human respiratory viruses. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed sera from captive chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans. More than 1000 sera (403 chimpanzee, 77 gorilla, and 535 orang-utan sera were analyzed for antibodies to the human respiratory viruses RSV (respiratory syncytial virus, hMPV (human metapneumovirus, H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses, and influenza B virus. In all ape species high seroprevalences were found for RSV, hMPV, and influenza B virus. A high percentage of captive chimpanzees also showed evidence of influenza A H1N1 infections, and had low levels of H3N2 antibodies, while in sera from gorillas and orang-utans antibody levels to influenza A and B viruses were much lower or practically absent. Transmission of respiratory viruses was examined in longitudinal sera of young chimpanzees, and in chimpanzee sera taken during health checks. In young animals isolated cases of influenza infections were monitored, but evidence was found for single introductions followed by a rapid dissemination of RSV and hMPV within the group. Implementation of strict guidelines for handling and housing of nonhuman primates was shown to be an efficient method to reduce the introduction of respiratory infections in colonies of captive animals. RSV seroprevalence rates of chimpanzees remained high, probably due to circulating virus in the chimpanzee colony.

  15. Validity of Retrospective Reports of Eating Behavior from the Eating Disorder Examination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stone, Jay M


    .... The EDE relies on retrospective self-report to obtain eating behavior information. However, there is growing evidence that retrospective self-reports are prone to errors arising from autobiographical memory...

  16. On the Reliability of Retrospective Unemployment Information in European Household Panel Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyyrä, Tomi; Wilke, Ralf


    The retrospectively recalled calendar of activities in the European Community Household Panel is a prime resource for cross-country analysis of unemployment experience. We investigate the reliability of these data and find that 26 % of unemployed respondents misreported retrospectively...

  17. Use of electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel for retrospective dose assessment. Report of a co-ordinated research project

    CERN Document Server


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry is a physical method for the assessment of absorbed dose from ionising radiation. It is based on the measurement of stable radiation induced radicals in human calcified tissues (primarily in tooth enamel). EPR dosimetry with teeth is now firmly established in retrospective dosimetry. It is a powerful method for providing information on exposure to ionising radiation many years after the event, since the 'signal' is 'stored' in the tooth or the bone. This technique is of particular relevance to relatively low dose exposures or when the results of conventional dosimetry are not available (e.g. in accidental circumstances). The use of EPR dosimetry, as an essential tool for retrospective assessment of radiation exposure is an important part of radioepidemiological studies and also provides data to select appropriate countermeasures based on retrospective evaluation of individual doses. Despite well established regulations and protocols for maintaining radiation pro...

  18. And the Human Saves the Day or Maybe They Ruin It, The Importance of Humans in the Loop (United States)

    DeMott, Diana L.; Boyer, Roger L.


    Flying a mission in space requires a massive commitment of resources, and without the talent and commitment of the people involved in this effort we would never leave the atmosphere of Earth as safely as we have. When we use the phrase "humans in the loop", it could apply to almost any endeavor since everything starts with humans developing a concept, completing the design process, building or implementing a product and using the product to achieve a goal or purpose. Narrowing the focus to spaceflight, there are a variety of individuals involved throughout the preparations for flight and the flight itself. All of the humans involved add value and support for program success. The paper discusses the concepts of human involvement in technological programs, how a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) accounts for the human in the loop for potential missions using a technique called Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) and the tradeoffs between having a human in the loop or not. Human actions can increase or decrease the overall risk via initiating events or mitigating them, thus removing the human from the loop doesn't always lowers the risk.

  19. The humanities scholars in the «non-humanitarian» world (the status of social sciences and humanities in contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D G Podvoisky


    Full Text Available The axis of the publication is the endeavor involving the description of the situation pertaining to the status of social sciences and humanities in the contemporary Russian society. The author challenges the reader to the examination of the issue of the attitude to the bearers of «humanities scholarship» within the public consciousness of various epochs, the status of humanities scholars in the specific social and historical contexts enduring persistent transformations. The reasons for the opposition between the cultural pattern «pertaining specifically to the humanities» and the «instrumental and technocratic» one giving rise to (legitimizing contrasting modes of world outlook and social practice strategies are highlighted.

  20. Suicidal terrorist bombings in Israel--identification of human remains. (United States)

    Kahana, T; Freund, M; Hiss, J


    Positive identification of human remains is one of the most important tasks in mass disaster investigations. Religious and jurisdictional demands in Israel, require the identification process to be completed in the shortest possible time. In the 18 suicidal terrorist bombings that took place in Israel between the years 1993-1996, 127 victims and 19 perpetrators were killed, and their severely fragmented bodies were identified within 24 h. The efficient completion of the identification endeavor was enabled by the implementation of a variety of techniques and the close collaboration in the investigation between the different emergency and forensic agencies. This paper presents the mass disaster identification policy and techniques currently used in Israel. The importance of an interdisciplinary approach for the identification of extremely fragmented human remains from mass disasters and the creation of a central data bank of fingerprints and genetic markers is emphasized.

  1. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lois, Erasmia (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission); Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID)


    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  2. Poverty Is Not a Human Characteristic: A Retrospective Study of Comprehending and Educating Impoverished Children (United States)

    Holmlund, Kerstin


    This article describes and compares the differences between a feature-oriented understanding and a relational understanding of a child's behavior and the different ways of educating children which these two empirical and theoretical perspectives offer. The feature-oriented perspective focuses on the nature and character of impoverished children as…

  3. Retrospective detection of exposure to organophosphates: analysis in blood of human beings and rhesus monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polhuijs, M.; Langenberg, J.P.; Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Benschop, H.P.; Jong, L.P.A. de


    The terrorist attacks with nerve agents in Japan as well as the ongoing debate on a possible relationship between the so-called Gulf War Syndrome and accidental exposure to traces of nerve agents have made clear that improved methods for detection of exposure to organophosphates are needed. Low

  4. Aerodynamic Patterns in Patients With Voice Disorders: A Retrospective Study. (United States)

    Gilman, Marina; Petty, Brian; Maira, Carissa; Pethan, Madeleine; Wang, Lijia; Hapner, Edie R; Johns, Michael M


    A recently published retrospective chart review of aerodynamic profiles of women with primary muscle tension dysphonia by Gillespie et al (2013) identified various relationships between mean airflow rate (MFR) and estimated subglottal pressure (est-Psub). The current retrospective study expanded the diagnostic categories to include all voice disorders referred for voice therapy. Three research questions were proposed: (1) Are there differences in the MFR and the est-Psub compared with the normal control group? (2) Within the disordered population, are there different variations in the pairing of MFR and est-Psub? (3) If these variations exist, are they diagnosis specific? A retrospective chart review of patients seen for acoustic and aerodynamic voice assessment at the Emory Voice Center between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014, were examined for aerodynamic measures of est-Psub and MFR; of these, 192 met the inclusion criteria. Simple t test, two-step cluster analysis, and analysis of variance, as well as Tukey multiple comparisons, were performed using R and SPSS. Mean est-Psub was significantly greater in the group with voice disorder than in the control group (P value < 0.001). However, no statistical significance was found when comparing the MFR with the control group (P value <0.59). Nine possible pairings of MFR and est-Psub were found. Sufficient evidence was not found to detect significant differences in these pairings across diagnostic groups. With regard to the rate and interrelationships of MFR and est-Psub, the findings of this study are similar to those of Gillespie et al, that is, MFR and est-Psub are not determinate of diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Technique for the Retrospective and Predictive Analysis of Cognitive Errors for the Oil and Gas Industry (TRACEr-OGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Theophilus


    Full Text Available Human error remains a major cause of several accidents in the oil and gas (O&G industry. While human error has been analysed in several industries and has been at the centre of many debates and commentaries, a detailed, systematic and comprehensive analysis of human error in the O&G industry has not yet been conducted. Hence, this report aims to use the Technique for Retrospective and Predictive Analysis of Cognitive Errors (TRACEr to analyse historical accidents in the O&G industry. The study has reviewed 163 major and/or fatal O&G industry accidents that occurred between 2000 and 2014. The results obtained have shown that the predominant context for errors was internal communication, mostly influenced by factors of perception. Major accident events were crane accidents and falling objects, relating to the most dominant accident type: ‘Struck by’. The main actors in these events were drillers and operators. Generally, TRACEr proved very useful in identifying major task errors. However, the taxonomy was less useful in identifying both equipment errors and errors due to failures in safety critical control barriers and recovery measures. Therefore, a modified version of the tool named Technique for the Retrospective and Predictive Analysis of Cognitive Errors for the Oil and Gas Industry (TRACEr-OGI was proposed and used. This modified analytical tool was consequently found to be more effective for accident analysis in the O&G industry.

  6. EAS Tycho Brahe prize lecture 2011. Hipparcos: a retrospective (United States)

    Perryman, Michael


    The Hipparcos satellite was launched in 1989. It was the first, and remains to date the only, attempt at performing large-scale astrometric measurements from space. Hipparcos marked a fundamentally new approach to the field of astrometry, revolutionising our knowledge of the positions, distances, and space motions of the stars in the solar neighbourhood. In this retrospective, I look back at the processes which led to the mission's acceptance, provide a short summary of the underlying measurement principles and the experiment's scientific achievements, and a conclude with a brief summary of its principal legacy—the Gaia mission.

  7. Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye


    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has produced several years of data, on the way to a. completing the 1979-present modern satellite era. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of those years currently available, including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40, JPA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).

  8. [Retrospective evaluation of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children]. (United States)

    San Vicente, B; Bardají, C; Rigol, S; Obiols, P; Melo, M; Bella, R


    Carcinoids of the appendix are rare in children. Usually diagnosed incidentally on histologic investigation following appendectomy for acute apendicitis. To investigate the significance of the diagnosis of appendiceal carcinoid tumors in children, we conducted a retrospective study in our institution. Between 1990 and 2007 a total of 1158 appendectomy were done. In four patients the diagnosis was appendiceal carcinoid. We studied treatment, follow-up and prognosis of this patients. Indicacion for appendectomy was acute pain in lower right quadrant. The median tumor diameter was lower than 1 cm and the appropriate treatment was appendectomy. The prognosis was excellent in all the patients.

  9. Retrospective indexing (RI) - A computer-aided indexing technique (United States)

    Buchan, Ronald L.


    An account is given of a method for data base-updating designated 'computer-aided indexing' (CAI) which has been very efficiently implemented at NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Facility by means of retrospective indexing. Novel terms added to the NASA Thesaurus will therefore proceed directly into both the NASA-RECON aerospace information system and its portion of the ESA-Information Retrieval Service, giving users full access to material thus indexed. If a given term appears in the title of a record, it is given special weight. An illustrative graphic representation of the CAI search strategy is presented.

  10. A retirement and a reservation: a retrospective autobiography. (United States)

    Lee, Sok K


    A retirement is a rite of passage that requires careful planning, because it forces a retiree to make a shift in the paradigm in life. For 37 years, I was a healing professional, a breadwinner, and a working spouse. I am now a jobless loner, an inactive pensioner, and a homebound spouse. In this retrospective autobiography, I suggest a few points to help my younger colleagues to better their upcoming retirement: professional, financial, social, and familial. To overcome Erikson's identity crisis, I volunteered to be a wounded healer at Warm Springs Indian Reservation. My volunteer medical service at Warm Springs Indian Reservation was a good antidote to creatively overcome my postretirement blues.

  11. A retrospective study on salmonella infection in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Skov, M. N.; Chriél, Mariann


    -year period from 1992 to 1993 in Denmark. The AM database contains information collected by the ante-mortem veterinarians, from the slaughterhouses, and from the salmonella examinations carried out at the National Veterinary Laboratory. The epidemiological unit was the individual broiler flock......A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica infection in Danish broiler production. The study was based on information in the antemortem database (AM database) where data were available for all broiler Becks slaughtered over the 2...

  12. Accuracy of retrospective reports of infections during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsgaard, Peter; Schiffman, Jason; Mednick, Sarnoff


    schizophrenia. The methodology employed by Crow and Done may account for their null findings. Crow and colleagues assessed influenza by asking mothers at the time of birth to recall influenza infections experienced during pregnancy. Such retrospective recall may bias reporting. We assessed influenza symptoms...... during pregnancy in a group of 136 mothers at the twenty-fifth week of pregnancy, and again one or two days after birth. We compared accounts of influenza at the twenty-fifth week to recollection of influenza after birth. Results suggest that mothers tend to under-report infections when recalling...

  13. A Retrospective Study on the Surgical Affections of Young Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Parrah


    Full Text Available Surgical affections of 29 young calves were retrospectively reviewed. The affections were broadly classified into congenital malformation and acquired ones. Congenital malformations recorded atresia ani (6, atresia ani et recti (4, meningocele (1, pervious urachus (3, congenital preputial orifice stenosis (1, growth at umbilicus (2, knuckling (4, papilloma of tail (1, Imperforate urinary meatus (3, Ocular dermoid (1. Acquired abnormalities included mandibular fracture (3. Surgical treatment for such conditions was carried out after the differential diagnosis. The development of these congenital malformations, their effect on the animal life and the different surgical interventions were discussed.

  14. The complicated duodenal diverticulum: retrospective analysis of 11 cases. (United States)

    de Perrot, Thomas; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Christoph D; Platon, Alexandra


    A series of rare complicated duodenal diverticula were reported with emphasis on causes for misdiagnosis. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of complicated duodenal diverticulum were retrospectively obtained. Computed tomographic (CT) reports and findings were reviewed. Complications consisted of diverticulitis (n=2), perforation (n=7), or obstructive cholangitis (n=2). CT imaging demonstrated a duodenal diverticular structure with findings due to the kind of complications. At the time of CT interpretation, a complicated duodenal diverticulum was suspected in 5 out of 11 patients. Awareness of the duodenal diverticulum and complications may improve the diagnostic value of CT in this setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Retrospective analysis of 36 ameloblastoma cases in Laos. (United States)

    Vongsa, Souksavanh; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Thepsouvanh, Daovone; Sidaphone, Bounnhong; Ngonephady, Sengphouvanh; Sitthiphanh, Aloungnadeth; Komiyama, Kazuo


    We conducted a retrospective study of 36 cases of ameloblastoma from the files of Mittaphap Hospital in Vientiane Capital, Laos. Clinical findings showed an average patient age of 31.0 ± 3.8 years, with a slight male preponderance. Radiographically, all of the lesions showed multicystic radiotranslucency. Twenty-four patients underwent tumor resection and 12 underwent tumor enucleation. Of those patients, four underwent additional surgery because of tumor recurrence. This is the first report in the English literature of ameloblastoma cases from Laos.

  16. Defects and diffusion in semiconductors XIII an annual retrospective

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, D J


    This thirteenth volume in the series covering the latest results in the field includes abstracts of papers which have appeared since the publication of Annual Retrospective XII (Volumes 303-304). As well as the over 300 semiconductor-related abstracts, the issue includes the original papers: ""Effect of KCl Addition upon the Photocatalytic Activity of Zinc Sulphide"" (D.Vaya, A.Jain, S.Lodha, V.K.Sharma, S.C.Ameta), ""Localized Vibrational Mode in Manganese-Doped Zinc Sulphide and Cadmium Sulphide Nanoparticles"" (M.Ragam, N.Sankar, K.Ramachandran), ""The Effect of a Light Impurity on the Elec

  17. Defects and diffusion, theory and simulation an annual retrospective I

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David J


    This first volume, in a new series covering entirely general results in the fields of defects and diffusion, includes abstracts of papers which appeared between the beginning of 2008 and the end of October 2009 (journal availability permitting).This new series replaces the 'general' section which was previously part of each issue of the Metals, Ceramics and Semiconductor retrospective series. As well as 356 abstracts, the volume includes original papers on all of the usual material groups: ""Predicting Diffusion Coefficients from First Principles via Eyring's Reaction Rate Theory"" (Mantina, C

  18. Psychiatric issues in retrospective challenges of testamentary capacity. (United States)

    Shulman, Kenneth I; Cohen, Carole A; Hull, Ian


    Challenges to Wills on the basis of lack of testamentary capacity are likely to increase due to a combination of economic factors, high prevalence of mental disorders in old age and the complexity of many modern families. Geriatric psychiatrists and other experts will be asked to provide expert assessment of the testamentary capacity of individuals whose Wills are being challenged retrospectively. The traditional criteria described in the Banks vs Goodfellow case have been held as the standard for testamentary capacity. However, these criteria may not be comprehensive enough for the coming generation of expert assessors. The literature and selected international case law relevant to testamentary capacity were reviewed. Particular focus is placed on the conceptual and empirical approaches to the assessment of complex capacities that may inform the development of specific legal standards. In addition, 25 consecutive medico-legal reports on retrospective testamentary capacity were analyzed according to co-morbid medical and psychiatric disorders as well as psychosocial and behavioural variables. Illustrative case vignettes are included. The typical profile for retrospective challenges to testamentary capacity included a radical change from a previous Will (72%), where undue influence was alleged (56%), in a testator with no biological children (52%), who executed the Will less than a year prior to death (48%). Co-morbid conditions were dementia (40%), alcohol abuse (28%) and other neurological/psychiatric conditions (28%). While Banks vs Goodfellow continues to provide a sound basis for assessing testamentary (task-specific) capacity, the complexity and subtlety of the issues reflected in these cases highlight the need to go beyond the traditional criteria and assess situation-specific factors. Expert assessors need to determine whether the testator appreciated the consequences of executing or changing a Will, especially when there has been a radical change in the

  19. More Human than Human. (United States)

    Lawrence, David


    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  20. Isotretinoin maintenance therapy for glioblastoma: a retrospective review. (United States)

    Chen, Sheree E; Choi, Shauna S; Rogers, Jane E; Lei, Xiudong; De Groot, John F


    The current standard treatment of glioblastoma includes maximal safe surgical resection, radiation, and temozolomide. Although isotretinoin has been used for maintenance therapy to delay tumor recurrence, this approach has not been proven to be effective. The objectives of the study are to compare the overall survival, progression-free survival and tolerability of isotretinoin maintenance therapy in patients who received isotretinoin maintenance therapy to patients who did not receive this treatment. This study is a retrospective review of adult patients with glioblastoma treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2004 to 2009. Patients who underwent surgical resection, radiation with concurrent temozolomide, and adjuvant treatment with temozolomide were included in the control group, and compared to similarly treated patients who received isotretinoin maintenance following adjuvant temozolomide. Eighteen patients who received isotretinoin maintenance therapy and 70 control patients were included in the analysis. Progression-free survival was 25.3 months with maintenance therapy versus 8.3 months for those not receiving maintenance (p = 0.04). There was no difference in the 2-year or 3-year overall survival estimates (p = 0.11). The common toxicities of isotretinoin included dermatologic-, metabolic-, and psychiatric-related adverse effects. Isotretinoin maintenance therapy was associated with increased progression-free survival, but did not increase the overall survival in this retrospective review. The potential benefit of maintenance therapy should be weighed against toxicities and negative impact on quality of life in this patient population.

  1. The validity of retrospectively reported conflict interactions in couples. (United States)

    Backer-Fulghum, Lindsey M; Sanford, Keith


    This study investigated the extent to which researchers and clinicians can obtain valid retrospective self-reports of couples' conflict interactions outside a laboratory setting. A distinction was made between relationship attribute variance, regarding a shared perspective of both partners, and informant-specific variance, regarding the unique vantage point of each partner. By examining convergent and divergent associations for each type of variance, this study clarified the risk that responses might be influenced by informant-specific biases related to levels of relationship satisfaction. This study also investigated potential moderators of validity. Participants included both members of 269 married and cohabiting couples (538 individuals) who completed online questionnaires. Results were analyzed using a correlated trait-correlated method minus one model. The total true variance included large components of both shared relationship attribute variance and informant-specific variance. Although the shared component was moderately correlated with relationship satisfaction, the informant-specific component was mostly distinct from satisfaction, suggesting minimal bias. Convergent correlations between partners were strong and mostly unrelated to potential moderating variables, albeit slightly smaller than reported in studies conducted in laboratory settings. The results generally support the validity for retrospective self-reports of conflict interactions, especially when reports are obtained from both members of a couple. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The Arnon-Buchanan cycle: a retrospective, 1966-2016. (United States)

    Buchanan, Bob B; Sirevåg, Reidun; Fuchs, Georg; Ivanovsky, Ruslan N; Igarashi, Yasuo; Ishii, Masaharu; Tabita, F Robert; Berg, Ivan A


    For the first decade following its description in 1954, the Calvin-Benson cycle was considered the sole pathway of autotrophic CO2 assimilation. In the early 1960s, experiments with fermentative bacteria uncovered reactions that challenged this concept. Ferredoxin was found to donate electrons directly for the reductive fixation of CO2 into alpha-keto acids via reactions considered irreversible. Thus, pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate could be synthesized from CO2, reduced ferredoxin and acetyl-CoA or succinyl-CoA, respectively. This work opened the door to the discovery that reduced ferredoxin could drive the Krebs citric acid cycle in reverse, converting the pathway from its historical role in carbohydrate breakdown to one fixing CO2. Originally uncovered in photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria, the Arnon-Buchanan cycle has since been divorced from light and shown to function in a variety of anaerobic chemoautotrophs. In this retrospective, colleagues who worked on the cycle at its inception in 1966 and those presently working in the field trace its development from a controversial reception to its present-day inclusion in textbooks. This pathway is now well established in major groups of chemoautotrophic bacteria, instead of the Calvin-Benson cycle, and is increasingly referred to as the Arnon-Buchanan cycle. In this retrospective, separate sections have been written by the authors indicated. Bob Buchanan wrote the abstract and the concluding comments.

  3. A retrospective evaluation of non-small cell lung carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İnal


    Full Text Available Objectives: Lung cancer is the most common amongcancer-related deaths in worldwide. Non-small cell lungcancer represents between 80% and 85% of all lung cancercases. Epidemiologic and demographic characteristicsof lung cancer may differ between the sexes in thesame community and between communities. This studypurposes to determine demographic, epidemiological andclinical characteristics of clinic follow-up study of lungcancer patients as retrospectively.Materials and methods: Total 741 patients with nonsmallcell lung cancer who histopathologically diagnosed,treated and followed-up in Dicle University Faculty ofMedicine, Department of Medical Oncology, between2000 and 2012, were retrospectively evaluatedResults: 662 of patients (89.3% were males and 79(10.7% females. Male/female ratio was 8.4. The medianpatient age was 60.0 (28-93 years. The histopathologicaltypes were as follows; 34.8% squamous cell carcinoma,29.1% adenocarcinoma, 2% large cell carcinomaand 34.1% unspecified non-small cell lung carcinoma.Smoking rate in men was found as %92.2, and 10.1%in female patients. Stage of patients was 11.4% in localstage, 35.6% was in locally advanced and 53% was inmetastatic stage.Conclusions: Ratio of squamous cell carcinoma and advancedstage in our study were higher than previous dataof studies from Turkey. However, the other clinical andpathological findings were compatible with our country’sand world data.Key words: Non-Small cell lung carcinoma, histologictype, epidemiology

  4. Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery Under Regional Anesthesia: A Retrospective Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Uzman


    Full Text Available Aim: Laparoscopic abdominal surgical procedures are usually performed under general anesthesia. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate laparoscopic surgical operations performed with regional anesthesia. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 171 laparoscopic surgery patients including laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC, laparoscopic appendectomy (LA and laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP inguinal hernia repair under regional anesthesia from May 2014 to July 2016. Demographic data, type of anesthesia and surgery, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA physical status score, length of procedure, co-existing disease, peroperative and postoperative side effects, postoperative surgical-site pain, and patient satisfaction were recorded. Results: Peroperative side effects were abdominal pain/discomfort (18.7%, shoulder pain (13.5%, anxiety (7.6% and hypotension (3.5%. Postoperative side effects were shoulder pain (8.7%, urinary retention (7%, headache (6.4%, nausea and vomiting (2.3%. In the first six hours after the surgery, no patients had surgical site pain requiring analgesic treatment. Patient satisfaction was sufficient in 97.7% of patients. Conclusion: Regional anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia technique in LC, LA and laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair due to good postoperative pain control, minimal side effects, high patients satisfaction rates and absence of intubation-related complications.

  5. Retrospective analyses versus RCTs: comparing like with like?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron R


    Full Text Available Ralf Baron,1 Lieven Nils Kennes,2 Christian Elling31Division of Neurological Pain Research and Therapy, Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel Campus, Kiel, 2Department of Economics and Business Administration, University of Applied Sciences Stralsund, Stralsund, 3Grünenthal GmbH, Medical Affairs Europe and North America, Aachen, GermanyIn their recent retrospective analysis assessing oxycodone/naloxone (OXN vs. tapentadol (TAP treatment for chronic low-back pain with a neuropathic component, Ueberall and Mueller-Schwefe1 compare their results to the findings of an earlier phase 3b/4 study.2 In our opinion, a proper comparison to the prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label study by Baron and colleagues is scientifically not appropriate. Although Ueberall and Mueller-Schwefe use the terms “prospective,” “randomly,” and “blinded” and refer to the PROBE design (prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint,3 their database study is retrospective, nonrandomized, and nonblinded with the treatment choice left to the discretion of the physicians. In this context, the use of the term “intention-to-treat (ITT population” is inappropriate because ITT is unambiguously defined as including all randomized subjects and thus inseparable from true randomization (ICH E9.4View original paper by Ueberall and Mueller-Schwefe.

  6. Pemphigus Vulgaris and Infections: A Retrospective Study on 155 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Esmaili


    Full Text Available Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended.

  7. Pediatric melanomas often mimic benign skin lesions: A retrospective study. (United States)

    Mitkov, Mario; Chrest, Marie; Diehl, Nancy N; Heckman, Michael G; Tollefson, Megha; Jambusaria-Pahlajani, Anokhi


    Childhood melanoma can be misdiagnosed because of its rarity and atypical presentation. We sought to correlate the clinical appearance of pediatric melanomas with Breslow depth and clinical behavior, and to identify diagnostic errors made by dermatologists and nondermatologist physicians. This was a retrospective review of Mayo Clinic records of children and young adults 21 years of age or younger with a diagnosis of primary cutaneous melanoma between January 2000 and January 2015. Pediatric melanomas that mimicked benign skin lesions were more often deeper (>1 mm; odds ratio 5.48; P = .002) and had a higher T stage (odds ratio [T2, T3, or T4] 6.28; P = .001) than melanomas with a clinically malignant appearance. Of pediatric melanomas, 66% originally diagnosed as benign melanocytic lesions exhibited changes in size, shape, and color. Sample size and retrospective design are limitations. Benign-appearing pediatric skin lesions with a history of evolution, bleeding, or ulceration should raise suspicion for melanoma. Melanomas demonstrating these features are associated with a higher Breslow depth and T stage. Although biopsy of all lesions that exhibit change in children is not practical, safe, or desired, close monitoring is recommended. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study. (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Chao; Hung, Chich-Hsiu; Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Hsu, Yu-Yun; Ya-Ling Tzeng


    To investigate the risk factors for developing GDM among Taiwanese pregnant women. A retrospective cohort and case-control study. At a medical centre in Southern Taiwan. The hospitalised pregnant women who were diagnosed with either GDM or normal glucose tolerance (NGT) between 1997 and 2011. The glucose tolerance test results were interpreted according to criteria established by the National Diabetes Data Group for GDM. Participants were divided into either a GDM group (case group) or a normal glucose tolerance (NGT) group (control group) in order to determine the risk factors for GDM. With a retrospective chart review, data regarding demographics, a family history of diabetes, history of gestation, and physiological index for pre- and postpregnancy periods were collected. χ(2) tests and independent t tests were used to examine the correlations between demographic characteristics and GDM. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with GDM. The results of the comparison between the GDM group (n=106) and the NGT group (n=406) showed that the risk factors for GDM were maternal age, education, a family history of diabetes, and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). Older age, lower levels of education, a family history of diabetes, and higher prepregnancy BMI were significant risk factors for GDM. In addition to performing risk factor assessment, health care providers should proactively promote the importance of GDM screening to pregnant women at their first antenatal visit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pityrosporum folliculitis: A retrospective review of 110 cases. (United States)

    Prindaville, Brea; Belazarian, Leah; Levin, Nikki A; Wiss, Karen


    Pityrosporum folliculitis is an under-recognized eruption of the face and upper portion of the trunk that may be confused with, or occur simultaneously with, acne vulgaris. We sought to characterize risk factors for Pityrosporum folliculitis, its clinical presentation, and its response to treatment. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients age 0 to 21 years seen at our facility from 2010 to 2015 with Pityrosporum folliculitis confirmed by a potassium hydroxide preparation. Of 110 qualifying patients, more than 75% had acne that had recently been treated with antibiotics, and when recorded, 65% reported pruritus. Clinical examination demonstrated numerous 1- to 2-mm monomorphic papules and pustules that were typically on the forehead extending into the hairline and on the upper portion of the back. The most common treatment was ketoconazole shampoo, which led to improvement or resolution in most cases. Some patients required oral azole antifungals. This study was retrospective and relied on providers describing and interpreting the clinical findings and potassium hydroxide preparations. No standard grading system was used. Unlike classic acne vulgaris, Pityrosporum folliculitis was more common after antibiotic use. It presented as fine monomorphic, pruritic papules and pustules along the hairline and on the upper portion of the back, and it improved with topical or oral azole antifungal therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. We should monitor human fercundity, but how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh


    Human fecundity may be declining, and we may need ways to monitor it. The most simple monitoring is based on measuring waiting time to pregnancy retrospectively among pregnant women. Unfortunately, this design does not provide an estimate of fecundity, because infertile couples are excluded. We...

  11. Human brain evolution: harnessing the genomics (r)evolution to link genes, cognition, and behavior. (United States)

    Konopka, Genevieve; Geschwind, Daniel H


    The evolution of the human brain has resulted in numerous specialized features including higher cognitive processes such as language. Knowledge of whole-genome sequence and structural variation via high-throughput sequencing technology provides an unprecedented opportunity to view human evolution at high resolution. However, phenotype discovery is a critical component of these endeavors and the use of nontraditional model organisms will also be critical for piecing together a complete picture. Ultimately, the union of developmental studies of the brain with studies of unique phenotypes in a myriad of species will result in a more thorough model of the groundwork the human brain was built upon. Furthermore, these integrative approaches should provide important insights into human diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Pathophysiological Adaptations to the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian C. Demontis


    Full Text Available Space is an extreme environment for the human body, where during long-term missions microgravity and high radiation levels represent major threats to crew health. Intriguingly, space flight (SF imposes on the body of highly selected, well-trained, and healthy individuals (astronauts and cosmonauts pathophysiological adaptive changes akin to an accelerated aging process and to some diseases. Such effects, becoming manifest over a time span of weeks (i.e., cardiovascular deconditioning to months (i.e., loss of bone density and muscle atrophy of exposure to weightlessness, can be reduced through proper countermeasures during SF and in due time are mostly reversible after landing. Based on these considerations, it is increasingly accepted that SF might provide a mechanistic insight into certain pathophysiological processes, a concept of interest to pre-nosological medicine. In this article, we will review the main stress factors encountered in space and their impact on the human body and will also discuss the possible lessons learned with space exploration in reference to human health on Earth. In fact, this is a productive, cross-fertilized, endeavor in which studies performed on Earth yield countermeasures for protection of space crew health, and space research is translated into health measures for Earth-bound population.

  13. Interoperable atlases of the human brain. (United States)

    Amunts, K; Hawrylycz, M J; Van Essen, D C; Van Horn, J D; Harel, N; Poline, J-B; De Martino, F; Bjaalie, J G; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Dehaene, S; Valdes-Sosa, P; Thirion, B; Zilles, K; Hill, S L; Abrams, M B; Tass, P A; Vanduffel, W; Evans, A C; Eickhoff, S B


    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of human brain mapping approaches at various spatial and temporal scales. Together, these have provided a large fundus of information on many different aspects of the human brain including micro- and macrostructural segregation, regional specialization of function, connectivity, and temporal dynamics. Atlases are central in order to integrate such diverse information in a topographically meaningful way. It is noteworthy, that the brain mapping field has been developed along several major lines such as structure vs. function, postmortem vs. in vivo, individual features of the brain vs. population-based aspects, or slow vs. fast dynamics. In order to understand human brain organization, however, it seems inevitable that these different lines are integrated and combined into a multimodal human brain model. To this aim, we held a workshop to determine the constraints of a multi-modal human brain model that are needed to enable (i) an integration of different spatial and temporal scales and data modalities into a common reference system, and (ii) efficient data exchange and analysis. As detailed in this report, to arrive at fully interoperable atlases of the human brain will still require much work at the frontiers of data acquisition, analysis, and representation. Among them, the latter may provide the most challenging task, in particular when it comes to representing features of vastly different scales of space, time and abstraction. The potential benefits of such endeavor, however, clearly outweigh the problems, as only such kind of multi-modal human brain atlas may provide a starting point from which the complex relationships between structure, function, and connectivity may be explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mortality of workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrin: a retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    de Jong, G; Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J


    To investigate the occurrence of long term health effects in humans exposed to aldrin and dieldrin, with an update of an earlier retrospective cohort mortality study. A group of 570 workers employed between 1 January 1954 and 1 January 1970 either in a production or formulation plant were followed up for mortality until 1 January 1993. There were extensive industrial hygiene data available and biological monitoring data of aldrin and dieldrin for most of the workers. From these data individual estimates were made of the total intake of dieldrin. A total number of 2539.37 person-years at risk was added to the original study. 118 deaths were observed compared with 156 expected. No increase in mortality from liver cancer was found. However, there was an excess in mortality from rectal cancer. This excess was inversely related to the dose gradient. An analysis by job title did not show any excess cancer in any particular job. The study does not support a carcinogenic effect of dieldrin and aldrin in humans.

  15. Paradigmas do desenvolvimento cognitivo: uma breve retrospectiva Paradigms of cognitive development: a brief retrospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely de Melo Santana


    Full Text Available A cognição humana tem sido foco de diversas investigações no campo da psicologia do desenvolvimento, buscando-se construir um referencial teórico-empírico para orientar estudos e intervenções nesta direção. O debate tem se situado em torno de grandes paradigmas - piagetiano, neopiagetiano, processamento informacional, contextual e biológico-maturacional/neurociência cognitiva, sendo considerados, por vezes, enquanto referencial absoluto de verdade, e percebidos como excludentes entre si. O objetivo deste trabalho consiste em realizar uma breve retrospectiva dessas vertentes teóricas, buscando identificar pontos de interlocução entre elas, na tentativa de apreendê-las enquanto um corpo de conhecimentos que se complementam e integram vários olhares sobre a mente humana.The human cognition has been focused by diverse inquiries in the field of the development psychology, searching to construct a theoretician-empiricist referential to guide studies and interventions in this direction. The debate has been situated around great paradigms - Piagetian, Neopiagetian, informational and contextual processing and cognitive biological-maturational/neuroscience, being considered, sometimes, as an absolute referential of truth, and perceived as excludents among them. The objective of this work consists in carrying through a brief retrospect of these theoretical sources, searching to identify interlocution points between them, in the attempt to apprehend them while a body of knowledge that can complement and integrate some views about human mind.


    Hahn, Alicia; Sturgeon, Ginger; Rossi, Joseph


    Although the administration of blood and blood products can be lifesaving, transfusions in exotic species are less common because of the lack of knowledge of a species' blood groups, the availability of species-specific donors, and possible adverse effects. Recently, blood groups were elucidated in great apes; however, few reports have been published regarding actual transfusion situations in these species. This information is critical because poorly executed transfusions can compromise already weakened patients or result in the death of the recipient. In 2014, a retrospective survey of U.S. zoos housing great apes received 45 of 67 responses; from which, 12 transfusion cases in great apes were identified, including Sumatran orangutans ( Pongo pygmaeus sumatraensis, n = 4), chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes , n = 1), and western lowland gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla, n = 7). These animals, ranging from birth to 31 yr, received intravenous transfusions of whole blood, packed red blood cells, or human albumin. Overall, animals that received transfusions for anemia because of chronic illness or blood loss survived, but those individuals with concurrent life-threatening issues did not survive. No adverse reactions related to the transfusion occurred, except in two orangutans given human albumin.

  17. Retrospective Study on Fatal Melioidosis in Captive Zoo Animals in Thailand. (United States)

    Kasantikul, T; Sommanustweechai, A; Polsrila, K; Kongkham, W; Chaisongkram, C; Sanannu, S; Kongmakee, P; Narongwanichgarn, W; Bush, M; Sermswan, R W; Banlunara, W


    Melioidosis is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei and is an important zoonotic infectious disease causing high mortality from fulminant septicaemia in humans and a wide variety of animal species. The incidence of fatal melioidosis in zoo animals has been significant in many Thai zoos. A total number of 32 cases were evaluated throughout the Thai zoo animal populations. The highest prevalence of disease has been reported from the north-eastern region followed by the zoos in the southern part of the country, approximately 47% and 38%, respectively, while the other zoos reported sporadic infections. Herbivores and non-human primates were the most commonly affected animals with incidences of 59% and 28%, respectively. This appears to be a seasonal correlation with the highest incidence of melioidosis in zoo animals reported in the rainy season (44%) or subdivided monthly in June (19%) followed by September and November (16% and 12%, respectively). The route of infection and the incubation period still remain unclear. This retrospective study examined the clinical presentation in various zoo species, pathological findings and epidemiological data as well as conducting an in depth literature review. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effect of therapeutic hypothermia on gas exchange and respiratory mechanics: a retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V; Festic, Emir; Freeman, William D; Lee, Augustine S


    Targeted temperature management (TTM) may improve respiratory mechanics and lung inflammation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) based on animal and limited human studies. We aimed to assess the pulmonary effects of TTM in patients with respiratory failure following cardiac arrest. Retrospective review of consecutive cardiac arrest cases occurring out of hospital or within 24 hours of hospital admission (2002-2012). Those receiving TTM (n=44) were compared with those who did not (n=42), but required mechanical ventilation (MV) for at least 4 days following the arrest. There were no between-group differences in age, gender, body mass index, APACHE II, or fluid balance during the study period. The TTM group had lower ejection fraction, Glasgow Coma Score, and more frequent use of paralytics. Matched data analyses (change at day 4 compared with baseline of the individual subject) showed favorable, but not statistically significant trends in respiratory mechanics endpoints (airway pressure, compliance, tidal volume, and PaO2/FiO2) in the TTM group. The PaCO2 decreased significantly more in the TTM group, as compared with controls (-12 vs. -5 mmHg, p=0.02). For clinical outcomes, the TTM group consistently, although not significantly, did better in survival (59% vs. 43%) and hospital length of stay (12 vs. 15 days). The MV duration and Cerebral Performance Category score on discharge were significantly lower in the TTM group (7.3 vs. 10.7 days, p=0.04 and 3.2 vs. 4, p=0.01). This small retrospective cohort suggests that the effect of TTM ranges from equivalent to favorable, compared with controls, for the specific respiratory and clinical outcomes in patients with respiratory failure following cardiac arrest.

  19. Retrospective evaluation of the impact of functional immunotoxicity testing on pesticide hazard identification and risk assessment. (United States)

    Gehen, Sean C; Blacker, Ann M; Boverhof, Darrell R; Hanley, Thomas R; Hastings, Charles E; Ladics, Gregory S; Lu, Haitian; O'Neal, Fredrick O


    Conduct of a T-cell-dependent antibody response (TDAR) assay in rodents according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Test Guideline OPPTS 870.7800 is now required for chemical pesticide active ingredients registered in the United States. To assess potential regulatory impact, a retrospective analysis was developed using TDAR tests conducted on 78 pesticide chemicals from 46 separate chemical classes. The objective of the retrospective analysis was to examine the frequency of positive responses and determine the potential for the TDAR to yield lower endpoints than those utilized to calculate reference doses (RfDs). A reduction in the TDAR response was observed at only the high-dose level in five studies, while it was unaltered in the remaining studies. Importantly, for all 78 pesticide chemicals, the TDAR no-observed-adverse-effect levels (TDAR NOAELs) were greater than the NOAELS currently in use as risk assessment endpoints. The TDAR NOAELs were higher than the current EPA-selected endpoints for the chronic RfD, short-term, intermediate and long-term exposure scenarios by 3-27,000, 3-1,688, 3-1,688 and 4.9-1,688 times, respectively. Based on this analysis, conduct of the TDAR assay had minimal impact on hazard identification and did not impact human health risk assessments for the pesticides included in this evaluation. These data strongly support employment of alternative approaches including initial weight-of-evidence analysis for immunotoxic potential prior to conducting functional immunotoxicity testing for pesticide active ingredients.

  20. Reconstruction of organ dose for external radiotherapy patients in retrospective epidemiologic studies (United States)

    Lee, Choonik; Jung, Jae Won; Pelletier, Christopher; Pyakuryal, Anil; Lamart, Stephanie; Kim, Jong Oh; Lee, Choonsik


    Organ dose estimation for retrospective epidemiological studies of late effects in radiotherapy patients involves two challenges: radiological images to represent patient anatomy are not usually available for patient cohorts who were treated years ago, and efficient dose reconstruction methods for large-scale patient cohorts are not well established. In the current study, we developed methods to reconstruct organ doses for radiotherapy patients by using a series of computational human phantoms coupled with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and a radiotherapy-dedicated Monte Carlo transport code, and performed illustrative dose calculations. First, we developed methods to convert the anatomy and organ contours of the pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantom series to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-image and DICOM-structure files, respectively. The resulting DICOM files were imported to a commercial TPS for simulating radiotherapy and dose calculation for in-field organs. The conversion process was validated by comparing electron densities relative to water and organ volumes between the hybrid phantoms and the DICOM files imported in TPS, which showed agreements within 0.1 and 2%, respectively. Second, we developed a procedure to transfer DICOM-RT files generated from the TPS directly to a Monte Carlo transport code, x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) for more accurate dose calculations. Third, to illustrate the performance of the established methods, we simulated a whole brain treatment for the 10 year-old male phantom and a prostate treatment for the adult male phantom. Radiation doses to selected organs were calculated using the TPS and XVMC, and compared to each other. Organ average doses from the two methods matched within 7%, whereas maximum and minimum point doses differed up to 45%. The dosimetry methods and procedures established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support

  1. Early feeding of fortified breast milk and in-hospital-growth in very premature infants: a retrospective cohort analysis. (United States)

    Maas, Christoph; Wiechers, Cornelia; Bernhard, Wolfgang; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R


    Fortified human milk may not meet all nutritional needs of very preterm infants. Early transition from complementary parenteral nutrition to full enteral feeds might further impair in-hospital growth. We aimed to investigate the impact of the cumulative intake of fortified human milk on early postnatal growth in a cohort of very low birth weight infants after early transition to full enteral feeds. Retrospective single-centre observational study. Data are presented as median (interquartile range). N  =  206 very preterm infants were analysed (gestational age at birth 27.6 (25.6-29.6) weeks, birth weight 915 (668-1170) g). Full enteral feeds were established at postnatal day 8 (6-10) and adequate postnatal growth was achieved (difference in standard deviation score for weight from birth to discharge -0.105(-0.603 - -0.323)). Standard deviation score for weight from birth to day 28 decreased more in infants with a cumulative human milk intake > 75% of all enteral feeds (-0.64(-1.08 - -0.34)) compared to those with < 25% human milk intake (-0.41(-0.7 - -0.17); p  =  0.017). At discharge, a trend towards poorer weight gain with higher proportions of human milk intake persisted. In contrast, we observed no significant difference for head circumference growth. Our current standardized fortification of human milk may not adequately support early postnatal growth.

  2. Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela-Juan, C., E-mail: [Radiation Oncology Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026, Spain and Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Karlsson, M. [Division of Radiological Sciences, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE 581 85 (Sweden); Lundell, M. [Department of Medical Physics and Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm SE 171 76 (Sweden); Ballester, F. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Tedgren, Å. Carlsson [Division of Radiological Sciences, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE 581 85, Sweden and Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm SE 171 16 (Sweden)


    Purpose: During the first part of the 20th century, {sup 226}Ra was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two {sup 226}Ra sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose–effect studies. Methods: An 8 mg {sup 226}Ra tube and a 10 mg {sup 226}Ra needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: GEANT4 and MCNP5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a {sup 226}Ra point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with GEANT4. Results: TG-43 parameters [including g{sub L}(r), F(r, θ), Λ, and s{sub K}] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that

  3. And the Humans Save the Day or Maybe They Ruin It: The Importance of Humans in the Loop (United States)

    DeMott, Diana; Boyer, Roger; Bigler, Mark


    Flying a mission in space requires a massive commitment of resources, and without the talent and commitment of the people involved in this effort we would never leave the atmosphere of Earth. When we use the phrase "humans in the loop", it could apply to almost any endeavor since everything starts with humans developing a concept, completing the design process, building or implementing a product and using the product to achieve a goal or purpose. Narrowing the focus to spaceflights, there are a variety of individuals involved throughout the preparations for flight and the flight itself. All of the humans involved add value and support for program success. The purpose of this paper focuses on how a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) accounts for the human in the loop for potential missions using a technique called Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). Human actions can increase or decrease the overall risk via initiating events or mitigating them, thus removing the human from the loop doesn't always lower the risk.

  4. Geographic thougth in Latin America: A retrospective and general balance

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    Pedro Sergio Urquijo Torres


    Full Text Available In this paper we report results of a thorough contemporary historiographic revision of published geographic research and geography research departments and centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG Geography. First we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements that we think characterize the current situation of LAG.

  5. Characterization of tinnitus in different age groups: A retrospective review

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    Jamil Al-Swiahb


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize tinnitus in affected patients. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records from 470 consecutive patients who visited a tertiary care hospital for evaluation of chronic subjective tinnitus between January 2009 and June 2010 was performed. Patients were divided into three subgroups based on age. Clinical, audiological, and psychological characteristics of each subgroup were analyzed. Results: Of the 470 patients evaluated, 85 were less than 40, 217 between 40 and 60, and 168 above 60 years of age. Most patients were men and complained of unilateral, acute high-pitched tinnitus. Most patients above the age of 40 years complained of loud and annoying tinnitus and had worse stress and severity scores. Conclusions: Chronic tinnitus in older adults is subjectively louder, more annoying, and more distressing than that found in younger patients. We recommend considering age in the patient management plan.

  6. [Retrospective analysis of 39 child cases of paragonimiasis]. (United States)

    Guo, Mei; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Jian-yu


    Clinical data of 39 children with paragonimiasis treated in Chongqing Three Gorges Central Hospital during 2008-2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The cases aged from 3 to 10 years old, with 25 cases of polyserositis (64.1%), 14 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis (35.9%). Among the cases of polyserositis, all showed dyspnea,tachypnea and diminished respiration (100%). Other symptoms or signs included purulent pleurisy, orthopnea, restricted activity, distant heart sounds, purulent pericarditis, abdominal distension, and hepatomegaly. In the 14 cases of cerebral paragonimiasis, 10 cases (71.4%) complained headache, 8 cases (57.1%) with vomiting, and other symptoms such as seizures, limb rigidity associated with conscious disturbance. Eight patients were treated with surgery and praziquantel, while others with praziquantel alone. After treatment 25 cases (64.1%) were cured, 13 cases (33.3%) improved, and 1 case (2.6%) showed no change.

  7. A retrospective analysis of children with anisometropic amblyopia in Nepal. (United States)

    Sapkota, Kishor


    Anisometropia is one of the main causes of amblyopia. This study was conducted to investigate the association between the depth of amblyopia and the magnitude of anisometropia. A retrospective record review was conducted at the Nepal Eye Hospital between July 2006 and June 2011. Those children included in this study were aged ≤13 years and diagnosed with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia, no strabismus and ocular pathology. Associations between the depth of amblyopia and the age and/or gender of the subjects, the laterality of the amblyopic eyes, the type and magnitude of refractive error of amblyopic eyes, and the magnitude of anisometropia were statistically analyzed. Out of the 189 children with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia (mean age 9.1 ± 2.8 years), 59% were boys. Amblyopia was more commonly found in left eye (p reefer them to the hospital for timely management of anisometropic amblyopia if present.

  8. Retrospective analysis of 1502 patients with facial fractures. (United States)

    Iida, S; Kogo, M; Sugiura, T; Mima, T; Matsuya, T


    A total of 1502 patients with facial fractures treated between 1981 and 1996 were retrospectively analysed. The male: female ratio was 2.8:1 and the largest subgroup of patients was between 10 and 29 years of age. The most common cause of injury was traffic accidents (52%) involving motorcycles, bicycles or automobiles. Other common causes included, in descending order, falls (16.6%), assaults (15.5%) and sports (9.7%). Isolated mandibular fractures were most common (56.9%), followed by isolated midface fractures (25.9%). The percentage of fractures involving both the midface and mandible was 6.7, and that of isolated alveolar fractures was 10.5.

  9. Developments and retrospectives in Lie theory algebraic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Penkov, Ivan; Wolf, Joseph


    This volume reviews and updates a prominent series of workshops in representation/Lie theory, and reflects the widespread influence of those  workshops in such areas as harmonic analysis, representation theory, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, and mathematical physics.  Many of the contributors have had leading roles in both the classical and modern developments of Lie theory and its applications. This Work, entitled Developments and Retrospectives in Lie Theory, and comprising 26 articles, is organized in two volumes: Algebraic Methods and Geometric and Analytic Methods. This is the Algebraic Methods volume. The Lie Theory Workshop series, founded by Joe Wolf and Ivan Penkov and joined shortly thereafter by Geoff Mason, has been running for over two decades. Travel to the workshops has usually been supported by the NSF, and local universities have provided hospitality. The workshop talks have been seminal in describing new perspectives in the field covering broad areas of current research.  Mos...

  10. [Transduodenoscopic cholangiopancreatography. A retrospective analysis of 400 cases]. (United States)

    Güitrón Cantú, J A; Adalid Martínez, R; Silva, V A; Gómez-Mejía, A; Juárez, F


    This study represents a retrospective evaluation of 400 ERCP procedures which were done during a lapse from january 1982 to december 1989. It carries out purpose to demonstrate its diagnostic usefulness. Duodenal papilla was suitable cannulated with success in 94.8% with a failure in 5.2%. Specific visualization of desired duct was obtained in 90.5%. Main indication of the method was to elucidate differential diagnosis of jaundice. When biliary duct was cannulated and opacified with success, most important finding was lithiasic disease (37.9%). Pancreatic duct was cannulated, but 69.6% corresponded to normal opacification, in pancreatic pathology, malignant disease was in first scale detected (11.3%). Index of complications was 3.8% of total studies. Minor complications were predominant. Overall mortality was 0.5%. In fact, clinical diagnosis corroborated in 306 cases, sensibility was 99%, specificity 89%, diagnostic exactness 96% with positive predictive value of 96% and negative of 98%.

  11. [A retrospective analysis of 97 drunk driving cases]. (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang-Wei; Chu, Yun; Zong, Xiong-Xin; Wang, Zi-Wei; Chu, Jian-Xin


    Based on a retrospective analysis of the drunk driving cases, to explore the drunk drivers' personnel composition, occurrence time and psychology. As a result of punishment of the drunk driving by criminal law for one year from May 1st, 2011 to April 30th, 2012, 91 drunk driving cases were statistically analyzed the easy-happening time of drunk driving, the drunk drivers' age, gender, occupational characteristics, domicile and psychological factors. In 97 drunk driving cases, 26-40 years old, non-local domiciled and non-professional male drivers were prone to drunk driving at night from 22:00 to 5:00. The behavior of drunk driving is relevant to time, age, genders and occupation. The psychological characteristics of most drivers are fluky, making-life-easy, competitive and peacockish.

  12. Developments and retrospectives in Lie theory geometric and analytic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Penkov, Ivan; Wolf, Joseph


    This volume reviews and updates a prominent series of workshops in representation/Lie theory, and reflects the widespread influence of those  workshops in such areas as harmonic analysis, representation theory, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, and mathematical physics.  Many of the contributors have had leading roles in both the classical and modern developments of Lie theory and its applications. This Work, entitled Developments and Retrospectives in Lie Theory, and comprising 26 articles, is organized in two volumes: Algebraic Methods and Geometric and Analytic Methods. This is the Geometric and Analytic Methods volume. The Lie Theory Workshop series, founded by Joe Wolf and Ivan Penkov and joined shortly thereafter by Geoff Mason, has been running for over two decades. Travel to the workshops has usually been supported by the NSF, and local universities have provided hospitality. The workshop talks have been seminal in describing new perspectives in the field covering broad areas of current re...

  13. Retrospective investigation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome in 146 exotic animals. (United States)

    Onuma, Mamoru; Kondo, Hirotaka; Ono, Sadaharu; Murakami, Akiyoshi; Harada, Tomoko; Sano, Tadashi


    The outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) were retrospectively evaluated in 146 exotic animals including 20 pet birds, 47 rabbits, 34 hamsters, 18 ferrets, 7 turtles and 20 other small mammals in cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) at presentation or during hospitalization at an animal clinic. The rates of return of spontaneous circulation, survival after CPR and discharge were 9.3, 2.3 and 1.2%, respectively. The mean success rate of CPR in animals included in this study was lower than those previously reported in dogs and cats. This might have been because of the challenges in effective chest compression, airway management and monitoring as well as establishment of intravenous catheterization route in exotic animals.

  14. Retrospective analysis of cattle poisoning in Argentina (2000-2013

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    Juan A. García

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A retrospective analysis (2000 to 2013 of cattle poisoning caused by toxic plants and other compounds was carried out in the Pampas region of Argentina by the Animal Health Group of INTA-EEA, Balcarce. During this period, 1263 reports of diseases of different etiologies (infectious, parasitic, toxic, metabolic and miscellaneous were recorded in cattle, by collecting anamnestic, clinical and pathological information. A toxic etiology was diagnosed in 21.1% of these reports. Iatrogenic poisoning caused by ionophores was the most frequently recorded etiology. Consumption of toxic plants (Wedelia glauca, Solanum glaucophyllum, among others, mycotoxins (Claviceps purpurea, Claviceps paspali, Epichloë coenophiala, among others, and plants producing cyanide and nitrates/nitrites were also commonly diagnosed. The high frequency of toxic episodes and the difficulties in their diagnosis by practitioners in our livestock production systems emphasizes the importance of this report.

  15. A retrospective study: osteoporosis and hormone replacement therapy

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    H. June Kuczynski


    Full Text Available The purpose of this stud y was to determine i f women who undergo hormone replacement therapy postmenopausally, will demonstrate less osteoporosis than women who do not undergo H R T. The osteoporosis subjects were 195 women who volunteered to participate in an NIHsponsored double-blind clinical trial entitled Safely and Efficacy of Fluoride Therapy in Osteoporosis. A convenience sample of 78 controls was obtained by inviting women seeking regular medical attention to join an epidemiological investigation of osteoporosis. The data were analyzed using Chisquare and Student’s t-ratio. The study concludes that future retrospective and prospective analyses appreciate the com plexity of the problem in terms of individual risk for osteoporosis.

  16. Retrospective Analysis of Mosh-Pit-Related Injuries. (United States)

    Milsten, Andrew M; Tennyson, Joseph; Weisberg, Stacy


    Moshing is a violent form of dancing found world-wide at rock concerts, festivals, and electronic dance music events. It involves crowd surfing, shoving, and moving in a circular rotation. Moshing is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to report epidemiologic information on patient presentation rate (PPR), transport to hospital rate (TTHR), and injury patterns from patients who participated in mosh-pits. Materials and Methods Subjects were patrons from mosh-pits seeking medical care at a single venue. The events reviewed were two national concert tours which visited this venue during their tour. The eight distinct events studied occurred between 2011 and 2014. Data were collected retrospectively from prehospital patient care reports (PCRs). A single Emergency Medical Service (EMS) provided medical care at this venue. The following information was gathered from each PCR: type of injury, location of injury, treatment received, alcohol or drug use, Advanced Life Support/ALS interventions required, age and gender, disposition, minor or parent issues, as well as type of activity engaged in when injured. Attendance for the eight events ranged from 5,100 to 16,000. Total patient presentations ranged from 50 to 206 per event. Patient presentations per ten thousand (PPTT) ranged from 56 to 130. The TTHR per 10,000 ranged from seven to 20. The mean PPTT was 99 (95% CI, 77-122) and the median was 98. The mean TTHR was 16 (95% CI, 12-29) and the median TTHR was 17. Patients presenting from mosh-pits were more frequently male (57.6%; PTennyson J , Weisberg S , Retrospective analysis of mosh-pit-related injuries. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):636-641.

  17. Opioid errors in inpatient palliative care services: a retrospective review. (United States)

    Heneka, Nicole; Shaw, Tim; Rowett, Debra; Lapkin, Samuel; Phillips, Jane L


    Opioids are a high-risk medicine frequently used to manage palliative patients' cancer-related pain and other symptoms. Despite the high volume of opioid use in inpatient palliative care services, and the potential for patient harm, few studies have focused on opioid errors in this population. To (i) identify the number of opioid errors reported by inpatient palliative care services, (ii) identify reported opioid error characteristics and (iii) determine the impact of opioid errors on palliative patient outcomes. A 24-month retrospective review of opioid errors reported in three inpatient palliative care services in one Australian state. Of the 55 opioid errors identified, 84% reached the patient. Most errors involved morphine (35%) or hydromorphone (29%). Opioid administration errors accounted for 76% of reported opioid errors, largely due to omitted dose (33%) or wrong dose (24%) errors. Patients were more likely to receive a lower dose of opioid than ordered as a direct result of an opioid error (57%), with errors adversely impacting pain and/or symptom management in 42% of patients. Half (53%) of the affected patients required additional treatment and/or care as a direct consequence of the opioid error. This retrospective review has provided valuable insights into the patterns and impact of opioid errors in inpatient palliative care services. Iatrogenic harm related to opioid underdosing errors contributed to palliative patients' unrelieved pain. Better understanding the factors that contribute to opioid errors and the role of safety culture in the palliative care service context warrants further investigation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Odontogenic tumors: a retrospective clinicopathological study from two Italian centers. (United States)

    Rubini, C; Mascitti, M; Santarelli, A; Tempesta, A; Limongelli, L; Favia, G; Maiorano, E


    The aim of this retrospective study was to perform an epidemiological analysis of all odontogenic tumors treated in the University Hospitals "Ospedali Riuniti" in Ancona and "Policlinico" in Bari, from 1990 to 2015. A retrospective survey of 277 patients treated for odontogenic tumors from 1990 to 2015 was performed. Data were retrieved from the archives of the above quoted Sections of Pathology. The lesions were classified according to 2005 WHO histological classification, and the following variables were analyzed: age, sex, histopathological diagnosis, site distribution, tumor size, and relapses. Peripheral odontogenic tumors were analyzed considering these lesions separately from their central counterparts. In a total of 344 surgical specimens, there were 277 primary tumors and 67 recurrences. As regards primary lesions, there were 185 odontogenic keratocysts (keratocystic odontogenic tumors) (66.8%), 49 ameloblastomas (17.7%), and 40 other benign odontogenic tumors (14.4%). As to malignant tumors, only 3 ameloblastic carcinomas were found (1.1%). The mean age was 46.7 years, with a M:F ratio of 1.8:1. The mandible was the most common site of localization, with 211 cases (76.2%). Also, 21 cases of peripheral odontogenic tumors were found, ameloblastomas being the most common (8 cases, 38.1%). There is a wide variety of cysts, some of which are subject to variations according to sex, localization, and age. Odontogenic tumors are rare neoplasms and appear to show variations according to sex, localization, and age, and may be useful to the clinicians who need to make clinical judgments before biopsy about the most probable diagnosis.

  19. Hepatitis E in Israel: A nation-wide retrospective study. (United States)

    Erez-Granat, Ortal; Lachish, Tamar; Daudi, Nili; Shouval, Daniel; Schwartz, Eli


    To investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and clinical course of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Israel, an industrialized country. A retrospective analysis of acute HEV cases diagnosed in Israel from 1993 to 2013. Acute HEV was defined by ALT/AST elevation and a positive HEV PCR test or positive anti-HEV-IgM serology. HEV RNA was tested by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Antibodies to HEV were tested retrospectively using an ELISA assay. HEV-RNA was sequenced using RT-PCR of ORF1 and ORF2 regions to diagnose genotype of the virus. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected by reviewing the clinical files and through a telephone interview according to a structured questionnaire. Acute HEV was diagnosed in 68 patients. Among the 59 patients who gave an informed consent and were interviewed, 41% of infections were autochthonous (acquired in Israel), 44% travel-related and 15% imported by foreign workers. Autochthonous patients were mainly females (62.5%), more than half of them pregnant, 26% recalled consuming food or water in areas with poor sanitation, 44% ate non-kosher meat. Fulminant hepatitis developed in 3 patients (5%), all of them were females, two of them with post-partum infection, all acquired the disease in Israel (autochthonous). Israeli travelers with imported infection were predominantly males (73%), acquired the disease in the Indian subcontinent (81%), with 100% reporting having consumed fresh vegetables and drinks with ice cubes abroad. Six patients' sera were tested for genotype and revealed HEV genotype 1 (all cases acquired in the Indian subcontinent). This is the first report which highlights the existence of hepatitis E as an autochthonous infection in Israel. Imported HEV originates mostly from the Indian subcontinent.

  20. Anaesthesia for awake craniotomy: A retrospective study of 54 cases

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    Navdeep Sokhal


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The anaesthetic challenge of awake craniotomy is to maintain adequate sedation, analgesia, respiratory and haemodynamic stability in an awake patient who should be able to co-operate during intraoperative neurological assessment. The current literature, sharing the experience on awake craniotomy, in Indian context, is minimal. Hence, we carried out a retrospective study with the aim to review and analyse the anaesthetic management and perioperative complications in patients undergoing awake craniotomy, at our centre. Methods: Medical records of 54 patients who underwent awake craniotomy for intracranial lesions over a period of 10 years were reviewed, retrospectively. Data regarding anaesthetic management, intraoperative complications and post-operative course were recorded. Results: Propofol (81.5% and dexmedetomidine (18.5% were the main agents used for providing conscious sedation to facilitate awake craniotomy. Hypertension (16.7% was the most commonly encountered complication during intraoperative period, followed by seizures (9.3%, desaturation (7.4%, tight brain (7.4%, and shivering (5.6%. The procedure had to be converted to general anaesthesia in one of patients owing to refractory brain bulge. The incidence of respiratory and haemodynamic complications were comparable in the both groups (P > 0.05. There was less incidence of intraoperative seizures in patients who received propofol (P = 0.03. In post-operative period, 20% of patients developed new motor deficit. Mean intensive care unit stay was 2.8 ± 1.9 day (1-14 days and mean hospital stay was 7.0 ± 5.0 day (3-30 days. Conclusions: ′Conscious sedation′ was the technique of choice for awake craniotomy, at our institute. Fentanyl, propofol, and dexmedetomidine were the main agents used for this purpose. Patients receiving propofol had less incidence of intraoperative seizure. Appropriate selection of patients, understanding the procedure of surgery, and

  1. Hysteroscopic sterilization: 10-year retrospective analysis of worldwide pregnancy reports. (United States)

    Munro, M G; Nichols, J E; Levy, B; Vleugels, M P H; Veersema, S


    To identify factors that might contribute to pregnancies reported after hysteroscopic sterilization worldwide. Retrospective review of commercial data compiled from the MAUDE database, medical literature, and manufacturer reports received during commercial distribution of hysteroscopic sterilization micro-inserts from 2001 through 2010 (Canadian Taskforce classification III descriptive study). From 2001 through 2010, 497 305 hysteroscopic sterilization kits were distributed worldwide, and 748 pregnancies were reported, i.e., 0.15% of the estimated user population based on the number of distributed kits. The data were sufficient to enable analysis of 508 pregnancies for potential contributing factors and showed most to be associated with patient or physician noncompliance (n = 264) or misinterpreted confirmation tests (n = 212). Conceptions deemed to have occurred within 2 weeks of the procedure and therefore too early for detection were identified in 32 cases. Although there are limitations to the dataset and the study design is retrospective, it represents the largest body of cumulative hysteroscopic sterilization data available to date. Of the 748 pregnancies reported, it is apparent that some might have been prevented with greater patient and clinician attention to interim contraceptive use and counseling and with more rigorous evaluation and informed interpretation of the procedure confirmation tests. Although the estimated pregnancy rate based on such a dataset is likely an underestimation, it does suggest that the evaluable field performance of hysteroscopic sterilization micro-inserts is consistent with the labeled age-adjusted effectiveness of 99.74% at 5 years. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Retrospective Analysis of Lophodermium seditiosum Epidemics in Estonia

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    Full Text Available The needle trace method (NTM, created and developed by the Finnish forest pathologists prof. T. Kurkela, dr. R. Jalkanen and T. Aalto during the last decade of the XX century, has been already used by several researchers of different countries for retrospective analysis of needle diseases (Hypodermella sulcigena, by R. Jalkanen et al. in Finland or herbivorous insect pests of Scots pine (Diprion pini, by T. Kurkela et al. in Finland; Bupalus piniaria, by H. Armour et al. in Scotland, but as well of pests of Sitka spruce (Gilpinia hercyniae, by D.T. Williams et al. in England. Scots pine in forest nurseries and young plantations of Estonia is often but irregularly suffering from the epidemics of the needle cast fungus Lophodermium seditiosum. Current environmental regulations exclude from the regulatory (control measures all the others except of well-argued prophylactic systems, built up on reliable prognoses. The last is inconceivable without the availability of a reliable, as well, and long-lasting retrospective time-series of L. seditiosum epidemics, which, as it is known from the last half of the XX century, are occupying large forest areas, usually not least than a half of (the small Estonia. An appropriate time-series would be useful, as well, for the more basic understanding of the accelerated mortality processes during the stand formation in early pole-age Scots pine plantations. Methodological principles of the use of NTM in an appropriate investigation together with the preliminary results of our research work, looking back for more than a century, are introduced and discussed in this investigation.

  3. Luminescence characterization of dental ceramics for individual retrospective dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correcher, V.; Gomesdarocha, R. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia G, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Rivera M, T., E-mail: [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    Full text: Ceramic materials in general and dental crowns in particular exhibit thermoluminescence (Tl) properties and are of interest in the field of individual retrospective dosimetry. This property could be potentially employed to provide a means of determining cumulative exposure to external gamma radiation arising from accidents or large-scale incidents (radiological terrorism) involving population groups where conventional monitoring has not been established. The thermal stability and dose effect of the UV-blue Tl emission of a well characterized Spanish samples (by means of cathodoluminescence and electron-probe microanalysis) are here reported. It displays (i) an excellent linearity in the range of 0.12 - 9.6 Gy, (II) good stability of the Tl signal of 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 Gy irradiated samples after 6 months of storage showing an initial rapid decay (ca. 30%) maintaining the stability from 30 days onwards. It means that the electron population decreases asymptotically by the X - axis and the involved electrons are located in deeper traps at room temperature. (III) The reusability performed on the dental ceramic, involving successive cycles of irradiation (1.2 Gy) followed by readout (up to 500 degrees C), exhibited a negligible variation in the Tl response, when measured six times. (IV) The tests of thermal stability at different temperatures (in the range of 100-240 degrees C) confirms a continuum in the trap distribution with progressive changes in the glow curve shape, intensity and temperature position of the maximum peak. Therefore, these preliminary results suggest that dental ceramics could be used as suitable dosimeters in retrospective conditions. (Author)

  4. Retrospectively gated cardiac cine imaging with temporal and spatial acceleration. (United States)

    Madore, Bruno; Hoge, W Scott; Chao, Tzu-Cheng; Zientara, Gary P; Chu, Renxin


    Parallel imaging methods are routinely used to accelerate the image acquisition process in cardiac cine imaging. The addition of a temporal acceleration method, whereby k-space is sampled differently for different time frames, has been shown in prior work to improve image quality as compared to parallel imaging by itself. However, such temporal acceleration strategies prove difficult to combine with retrospectively gated cine imaging. The only currently published method to feature such combination, by Hansen et al. [Magn Reson Med 55 (2006) 85-91] tends to be associated with prohibitively long reconstruction times. The goal of the present work was to develop a retrospectively gated cardiac cine method that features both parallel imaging and temporal acceleration, capable of achieving significant acceleration factors on commonly available hardware and associated with reconstruction times short enough for practical use in a clinical context. Seven cardiac patients and a healthy volunteer were recruited and imaged, with acceleration factors of 3.5 or 4.5, using an eight-channel product cardiac array on a 1.5-T system. The prescribed FOV value proved slightly too small in three patients, and one of the patients had a bigemini condition. Despite these additional challenges, good-quality results were obtained for all slices and all patients, with a reconstruction time of 0.98±0.07 s per frame, or about 20 s for a 20-frame slice, using a single processor on a single PC. As compared to using parallel imaging by itself, the addition of a temporal acceleration strategy provided much resistance to artifacts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of HIV Status on Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients Registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia: A Six Year Retrospective Study


    Gebreslassie Gebremariam; Getachew Asmamaw; Muktar Hussen; Hailemariam, Mengistu Z.; Demissie Asegu; Ayalew Astatkie; Amsalu, Anteneh G.


    Background Despite implementation of different strategies, the burden and mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV status on treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A six-year retrospective data (from September 2008 to August 2014) of tuberculosis patients (n = 1649) registered at the directly observed...

  6. Immediately loaded blade implants. a histological and histomorphometrical evaluation after a long loading period. a retrospective 20 years analysis (1989-2009)


    Giovanna Iezzi; Antonio Scarano; Vittoria Perrotti; Domenico Tripodi; Adriano Piattelli


    Aim: Although the presence of mineralized tissues at the interface with blade implants has been reported, the view that blade implants cannot integrate still persists. Blades are the immediately loaded implants with the longest clinical history, so their histological evaluation may give results applicable to root-form implants. The aim of the present retrospective study was a histological evaluation of the peri-implant tissues in immediately loaded human blade implants retrieved after a long ...

  7. Prospective and retrospective review of gynecologic cytopathology: findings from the College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytopathology Quality Consensus Conference working group 2. (United States)

    Brainard, Jennifer A; Birdsong, George G; Elsheikh, Tarik M; Hartley, David A; Naik, Kalyani; Neal, Margaret H; Souers, Rhona J; Henry, Michael R


    Two quality metrics for gynecologic cytology are the subject of this review: "prospective rescreening" and "retrospective rescreening." To offer consensus best practice approaches based on the College of American Pathologists' laboratory-based survey funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The College of American Pathologists submitted a paper-based survey to 1245 laboratories. After review of initial results, follow-up Web-based survey results, and a literature review, consensus best practice statements were presented at a national consensus conference. These statements were discussed and voted upon by conference participants. Results.-A total of 541 laboratories responded to survey questions about prospective and retrospective rescreening. Most laboratories (>85%) prospectively rescreen more than 10% of Pap tests interpreted as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. Most (72%) report inclusion of less than 20% high-risk cases. Most laboratories use multiple measures to define "high risk." Most laboratories (96.2%) retrospectively rescreen Pap tests from the preceding 5 years only. In most laboratories (71.4%) only Pap test results with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse prompt retrospective review. The number of Pap tests from high-risk patients should be maximized in prospective and retrospective rescreening. Unsatisfactory Pap tests should also be included. All readily identifiable high-risk human papillomavirus-positive cases with an interpretation of negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy should be prospectively rescreened. Cervical biopsy results with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (CIN 2+) should trigger retrospective rescreening. Regular feedback should be provided to cytotechnologists and cytopathologists. Upgraded diagnoses from negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy to atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, should be

  8. A retrospective cross-sectional quantitative molecular approach in biological samples from patients with syphilis. (United States)

    Pinto, Miguel; Antelo, Minia; Ferreira, Rita; Azevedo, Jacinta; Santo, Irene; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo


    Syphilis is the sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, a pathogen highly adapted to the human host. As a multistage disease, syphilis presents distinct clinical manifestations that pose different implications for diagnosis. Nevertheless, the inherent factors leading to diverse disease progressions are still unknown. We aimed to assess the association between treponemal loads and dissimilar disease outcomes, to better understand syphilis. We retrospectively analyzed 309 DNA samples distinct anatomic sites associated with particular syphilis manifestations. All samples had previously tested positive by a PCR-based diagnostic kit. An absolute quantitative real-time PCR procedure was used to precisely quantify the number of treponemal and human cells to determine T. pallidum loads in each sample. In general, lesion exudates presented the highest T. pallidum loads in contrast with blood-derived samples. Within the latter, a higher dispersion of T. pallidum quantities was observed for secondary syphilis. T. pallidum was detected in substantial amounts in 37 samples of seronegative individuals and in 13 cases considered as syphilis-treated. No association was found between treponemal loads and serological results or HIV status. This study suggests a scenario where syphilis may be characterized by: i) heterogeneous and high treponemal loads in primary syphilis, regardless of the anatomic site, reflecting dissimilar duration of chancres development and resolution; ii) high dispersion of bacterial concentrations in secondary syphilis, potentially suggesting replication capability of T. pallidum while in the bloodstream; and iii) bacterial evasiveness, either to the host immune system or antibiotic treatment, while remaining hidden in privileged niches. This work highlights the importance of using molecular approaches to study uncultivable human pathogens, such as T. pallidum, in the infection process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. The Human Genome Project: big science transforms biology and medicine. (United States)

    Hood, Leroy; Rowen, Lee


    The Human Genome Project has transformed biology through its integrated big science approach to deciphering a reference human genome sequence along with the complete sequences of key model organisms. The project exemplifies the power, necessity and success of large, integrated, cross-disciplinary efforts - so-called 'big science' - directed towards complex major objectives. In this article, we discuss the ways in which this ambitious endeavor led to the development of novel technologies and analytical tools, and how it brought the expertise of engineers, computer scientists and mathematicians together with biologists. It established an open approach to data sharing and open-source software, thereby making the data resulting from the project accessible to all. The genome sequences of microbes, plants and animals have revolutionized many fields of science, including microbiology, virology, infectious disease and plant biology. Moreover, deeper knowledge of human sequence variation has begun to alter the practice of medicine. The Human Genome Project has inspired subsequent large-scale data acquisition initiatives such as the International HapMap Project, 1000 Genomes, and The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as the recently announced Human Brain Project and the emerging Human Proteome Project.

  10. Intravitreal ganciclovir in the management of non-AIDS-related human cytomegalovirus retinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langner-Wegscheider, Beate J.; ten Dam-van Loon, Ninette; Mura, Marco; Faridpooya, Koorosh; de Smet, Marc D.


    To report and evaluate intravitreal ganciclovir injections in non-AIDS patients with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis. Retrospective chart review. Two SLE patients and one patient post chemotherapy for a non Hodgkin's lymphoma presented with myelosuppression and persistent cytomegalovirus

  11. Ultrastructure of human mature oocytes after vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Khalili


    Full Text Available Since the introduction of human assisted reproduction, oocyte cryopreservation has been regarded as an attractive option to capitalize the reproductive potential of surplus oocytes and preserve female fertility. However, for two decades the endeavor to store oocytes has been limited by the not yet optimized methodologies, with the consequence of poor clinical outcome or of uncertain reproducibility. Vitrification has been developed as the promising technology of cryopreservation even if slow freezing remains a suitable choice. Nevertheless, the insufficiency of clinical and correlated multidisciplinary data is still stirring controversy on the impact of this technique on oocyte integrity. Morphological studies may actually provide a great insight in this debate. Phase contrast microscopy and other light microscopy techniques, including cytochemistry, provided substantial morphofunctional data on cryopreserved oocyte, but are unable to unraveling fine structural changes. The ultrastructural damage is one of the most adverse events associated with cryopreservation, as an effect of cryo-protectant toxicity, ice crystal formation and osmotic stress. Surprisingly, transmission electron microscopy has attracted only limited attention in the field of cryopreservation. In this review, the subcellular structure of human mature oocytes following vitrification is discussed at the light of most relevant ultrastructural studies.

  12. Prognostic Factors of Primary Intraosseous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (PIOSCC): A Retrospective Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenguang, Xu; Hao, Shen; Xiaofeng, Qi; Zhiyong, Wang; Yufeng, Wang; Qingang, Hu; Wei, Han


    ...). Patients diagnosed with PIOSCC, attending the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, Nanjing stomatological hospital between 2005 and 2015, were identified and retrospectively reviewed...

  13. 76 FR 32133 - FAR Council's Plan for Retrospective Review Under Executive Order 13563-Preliminary Plan (United States)


    ... public participation, improving integration and innovation, increasing flexibility, and increasing... public. Section 6 of E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of retrospective analysis of rules and requires...

  14. 76 FR 17572 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 (United States)


    ... and requirements designed to promote public participation, improve integration and innovation... of Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of retrospective analysis of rules and requires...

  15. Association of Torsion With Testicular Cancer: A Retrospective Study. (United States)

    Uguz, Sami; Yilmaz, Sercan; Guragac, Ali; Topuz, Bahadır; Aydur, Emin


    Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that usually requires surgical exploration. However, testicular malignancy has been anecdotally reported with the association of torsion in surgical specimens, and the published data remain scant on the association of torsion with testicular tumors. By retrospective medical record review, we identified 32 patients who had been diagnosed with testicular torsion, 20 of whom had undergone orchiectomy. Of these 20 patients, 2 were diagnosed with a malignancy. Our study, the largest case series to date, has shown an association between testicular torsion and testicular cancer of 6.4%. Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that usually requires surgical exploration. However, testicular malignancy has been anecdotally reported in association with torsion in surgical specimens. However, the published data remain scant on the association between torsion and the presence of testicular tumors. The present retrospective study explored the association between torsion and testicular cancer in patients with testicular torsion undergoing orchiectomy during scrotal exploration. A medical record review was performed of patients who had had a diagnosis of testicular torsion from January 2003 to February 2015. The clinicopathologic characteristics of the patients were recorded. A total of 32 patients were identified. Their mean age was 21.1 years (range, 7-39 years). All the patients had unilateral testicular torsion, which affected the left side in 17 and the right side in 15. Manual detorsion was successful in 6 patients, and 26 patients underwent emergency surgery with testicular detorsion (6 fixation surgery and 20 orchiectomy). The type of incision was scrotal in 6, inguinal in 10, and unspecified in 4. Pathologic examination of the orchiectomy specimens showed malignancy in 2 cases (seminoma and malign mixed germ cell tumor). To the best of our knowledge, the present single-center case series is the largest case series to date of

  16. Odontoid fractures: A retrospective analysis of 53 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Arjun


    Full Text Available Background: The management of odontoid fracture has evolved but controversy persists as to the best method for Type II odontoid fractures with or without atlantoaxial (AA instability. The anterior odontoid screw fixation can be associated with significant morbidity while delayed odontoid screw fixation has shown to be associated with reasonable good fusion rates. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the outcome of a trial of conservative management in type II odontoid fractures without atlantoaxial instability (Group A followed by delayed odontoid screw fixation in cases in which fusion was not achieved by conservative treatment. The outcome of type II odontoid fracture with AA subluxation (Group B was also analysed where closed reduction on traction could be achieved and in those atlantoaxial subluxations that were irreducible an intraoperative reduction was done. Materials and Methods: A retrospective evaluation of 53 cases of odontoid fractures treated over a 9-year period is being reported. All odontoid fractures without AA instability (n=29 were initially managed conservatively. Three patients who did not achieve union with conservative management were treated with delayed anterior screw fixation. Twenty-four cases of odontoid fractures were associated with AA instability; 17 of them could be reduced with skeletal traction and were managed with posterior fusion and fixation. Of the seven cases that were irreducible, the initial three cases were treated by odontoid excision followed by posterior fusion and fixation; however, in the later four cases, intra operative reduction was achieved by a manipulation procedure, and posterior fusion and fixation was performed. Results: Twenty-six of 29 cases of odontoid fracture without AA instability achieved fracture union with conservative management whereas the remaining three patients achieved union following delayed anterior odontoid screw fixation. 17 out of 24 odontoid fracture with


    Seeley, Kathryn E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Muth, Dillon; Mankowski, Joseph L; Kelly, Kathleen M


    The giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) is a popular exhibit species in public display aquaria, but information on health and disease is limited. This retrospective review evaluates time in collection and describes antemortem clinical signs and pathology of giant Pacific octopuses in an aquarium setting. Between March 2004 and December 2013, there were 19 mortalities: eight males, 10 females, and one individual whose sex was not recorded. Average time spent in collection for all octopuses was 375 ± 173 days (males 351 ± 148 days, females 410 ± 196 days). Ten (52.6%) of the octopuses were sexually mature at the time of death, six (31.6%) were not sexually mature, and reproductive status could not be determined in three octopuses (15.8%). Minimal changes were noted on gross necropsy but branchitis was histologically evident in 14 octopuses, often in conjunction with amoeboid or flagellate parasites. Senescence, parasitism, and husbandry were all important contributors to mortality and should be considered when caring for captive octopuses.

  18. Anaesthesia for foetoscopic Laser ablation- a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Kumbhar


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Twin pregnancy with monochorionic placenta may be associated with arteriovenous vascular anastomosis of the placental vessels resulting in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS and twin reversed arterial perfusion syndrome (TRAP. Foetoscopic LASER ablation (FLA is the treatment of choice in reducing foetal mortality related to this. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of 41 FLA procedures for TTTS and TRAP were analysed for anaesthetic management. Thirty-four patients received subarachnoid block, three combined spinal-epidural block, three general anaesthesia and one local anaesthesia with sedation. Nitroglycerine 5 mg patch was used for tocolysis 1 h before the procedure and continued for 24-48 h postoperatively. Results: Bupivacaine was used in 34 patients, and ropivacaine in three patients. Mean dose of bupivacaine 0.5% was 2.43 ± 0.32 ml and ropivacaine 0.75% was 2.85 ± 0.19 ml. The mean duration of surgery was 117.07 ± 28 min. Mild hypotension occurred in all patients under spinal anaesthesia and was treated with vasopressors. The foetal outcome among all 41 patients were 13 delivered live twins, 15 had a single live baby with intrauterine death of other twin baby. In 12 patients, both babies were intrauterine death. One patient was lost for follow-up. Conclusion: Foetoscopic procedures can be done under central neuraxial block, however occasionally general anaesthesia may be required.

  19. Stereotactic radiosurgery in intraocular malignant melanoma--retrospective study. (United States)

    Furdova, Alena; Sramka, Miron; Chorvath, Martin; Kralik, Gabriel; Krasnik, Vladimir; Krcova, Ivana; Waczulikova, Iveta


    One day session linear accelerator based stereotactic radiosurgery of intraocular malignant melanoma is a method of "conservative" attitude to treat posterior uveal melanoma. Retrospective clinic-based study of patients with posterior uveal melanoma in stage T2/T3 who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery at linear accelerator in period 2001-2011. Immobilization of the affected eye was achieved by mechanical fixation to the stereotactic Leibinger frame. The stereotactic treatment planning after fusion of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging was optimized according to the critical structures (lenses, optic nerves, chiasm). In group of 96 patients with posterior uveal melanoma treated with one day session stereotactic radiosurgery, patient age ranged from 25 to 80 years with a median of 54 years. Median tumor volume at baseline was 0.6 cm(3) (with range from 0.2 to 1.0 cm(3)). Median maximal dose applied was 49.0 Gy (range from 37.0 to 52.0 Gy). Secondary enucleation was necessary in 11 patients (11.5%) due to complications like irradiation neuropathy and secondary glaucoma. Tumor local control was successful in 95% of patients in 3 years interval after stereotactic radiosurgery and in 85% of patients in 5 years interval after stereotactic radiosurgery. One step LINAC based stereotactic radiosurgery with a single dose 35.0 Gy is one of treatment options to treat T2 or T3 stage posterior uveal melanoma.

  20. Chloral hydrate sedation in radiology: retrospective audit of reduced dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, Jennifer [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland); Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Heaslip, Ingrid; Ryan, Stephanie [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)


    Chloral hydrate (CH) is safe and effective for sedation of suitable children. The purpose of this study was to assess whether adequate sedation is achieved with reduced CH doses. We retrospectively recorded outpatient CH sedations over 1 year. We defined standard doses of CH as 50 mg/kg (infants) and 75 mg/kg (children >1 year). A reduced dose was defined as at least 20% lower than the standard dose. In total, 653 children received CH sedation (age, 1 month-3 years 10 months), 42% were given a reduced initial dose. Augmentation dose was required in 10.9% of all children, and in a higher proportion of children >1 year (15.7%) compared to infants (5.7%; P < 0.001). Sedation was successful in 96.7%, and more frequently successful in infants (98.3%) than children >1 year (95.3%; P = 0.03). A reduced initial dose had no negative effect on outcome (P = 0.19) or time to sedation. No significant complications were seen. We advocate sedation with reduced CH doses (40 mg/kg for infants; 60 mg/kg for children >1 year of age) for outpatient imaging procedures when the child is judged to be quiet or sleepy on arrival. (orig.)

  1. [Brucella orchitis: A retrospective study of 69 cases]. (United States)

    Wang, Wen-qing; Guo, Zheng-yin


    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of Brucella orchitis, so as to provide reliable evidence for the prevention and treatment of the disease. We conducted retrospective statistical analyses on the medical records of 48 outpatients and 21 inpatients with Brucella orchitis. Brucella orchitis was diagnosed in 6.67% of the male patients with brucellosis (69/1 034). The disease exhibited typical epidemiological features, with a higher incidence rate among those in frequent contact with sheep and elderly people, in the period from April to July, and in the areas with sheep husbandry. All the Brucella orchitis patients had such local symptoms as testicular pain and swelling, more frequently involving both testes, and other most common symptoms included fever, chills, sweating, and painful joints. Based on IIEF-5, 45 of the patients suffered from severe erectile dysfunction, with their reproductive function temporarily affected in the course of the disease. Misdiagnosis easily occurred in the early stage of the disease. Therapeutic options mainly included doxycycline hydrochloride and rifampicin, administered orally or intravenously, which could effect a cure, though relapse might occur in some cases. Bru- cella orchitis has distinct epidemiological characteristics, with clinical manifestations of testicular pain and swelling. Though a transient disease, it affects the reproductive function of the patient before cured. It can be treated by combined oral and intravenous medication, with painkillers or ice bags for testicular pain and swelling.

  2. [Adipocytic tumors of the salivary glands: A retrospective study]. (United States)

    Touil, D; Hasni, W; Mziou, Z; Zaghbani, A; Nouma, B; Khochteli, H


    Adipocytic tumors are the most common soft tissue mesenchymal tumors. Their occurrence in salivary glands is rare. We studied the epidemiology, the diagnostic and the therapeutic features of the salivary adipocytic tumors followed in our department. A retrospective study was conducted in our department between January 1997 and December 2011. Nine cases of adipocytic tumors of the salivary glands were found. Data were collected from medical records and processed by Excel. Mean age was 44 with a clear predominance of males (sex ratio: 3.5). In 8 cases the tumors were benign (7 lipomas and 1 lipofibroma). The only malignant tumor was a metastatic myxoid liposarcoma. Parotid was the main location (8 cases/9). Ultrasonography and MRI were prescribed. The treatment was tumor and parotid gland removal with conservation of the facial nerve excepted in the malignant case. One transient facial palsy, two earlobe dysesthesia and one retromandibular depression were observed. No recurrence was noted. Our study confirmed the epidemiological profile of these adipocytic salivary gland tumors, which are rarely observed, but mainly in the parotid gland. They are often benign and lipoma is the main histological type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Retrospective study regarding objectives and results of upper limb transplant. (United States)

    Luculescu, P; Bodog, F; Crăiniceanu, Z; Popa, F; Bratu, T; Lascărs, I


    Upper limb amputation causes a severe permanent disability. Upper limb transplantation is subject to treatment to prevent rejection and influenced by organizational, socioeconomic, psychological, ethical factors. Analysis of the results creates the potential for continuing this work in specific conditions in our country. We retrospectively analyzed data from the literature. Upon completion of documentation (May 2011) there were 74 transplants in 53 patients worldwide. We have studied the available information on the surgical interventions and their results. Upper limb allograft has a complex structure comprising tissue with variable antigenicity. Surgery is performed by a large multidisciplinary team, whose increased experience leads to a shorter length of the operation. The postoperative follow-up and rehabilitation program are standardized, and patients' compliance is essential. The greatest advances have occurred in immunosuppression protocols. The upper limb transplantation was performed in 20 centers of 12 countries so far. The specification of the indications and contraindications, the proper selection of patients, the increasing experience and new immunosuppression protocols provide a higher success rate and quality of functional outcome. By applying these conceptual acquisitions we will be able to create conditions for the integration of our country in this globally convergent scientific effort.

  4. [Leber-Coats' disease: A retrospective study of 10 patients]. (United States)

    Boucher, S; Rodier Bonifas, C; Mathis, T; Janin-Manificat, H; Fleury, J; Burillon, C


    Retrospective study analyzing clinical characteristics and treatment of children affected by Leber-Coats' disease. Children with Leber-Coats' disease seen in Edouard-Herriot Hospital, Lyon, between January 2004 and September 2013 were included. The following clinical characteristics were reported: sex, age at diagnosis, presenting symptom, Shields' stage, treatment used, and visual outcomes. Ten children were included in our study. Mean age at diagnosis was 5.5 years. The disease was unilateral in 9/10 cases. The presenting symptom was loss of vision in 7/10 cases, strabismus in 3/10 cases, and microphthalmos in 1 case. The diagnosis was made fortuitously during a follow-up of familial congenital cataract in 2 patients. No cases of leukocoria were seen. Shields' stages were distributed as follows: stage 1, 2A and 2B: 1 case each, stage 3A1: 7 cases, stage>3A1: no cases. Laser photocoagulation was used up to stage 2B, combined with cryotherapy in stage 3A. Stage 1 and 2A were associated with relatively good final visual acuity. Significant macular lipid exudate (stage>2A) was associated with a worse prognosis. These epidemiological data help us to better characterize these patients' prognosis. Early diagnosis seems to improve visual outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple sclerosis in Belgian children: A multicentre retrospective study. (United States)

    Verhelst, Helene; De Waele, Liesbeth; Deconinck, Nicolas; Ceulemans, Berten; Willekens, Barbara; Van Coster, Rudy


    Although the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the paediatric population remains challenging, paediatric-onset MS is increasingly recognized worldwide. We report on the clinical and biochemical features of a Belgian multicentre cohort of paediatric MS patients in a national retrospective descriptive study. Twenty one paediatric MS patients from four Belgian University Hospitals were included. In nine patients, onset of MS was before the age of ten years which makes the study cohort of special interest. We report a higher incidence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like first MS attacks and an overall higher proportion of polysymptomatic episodes than in adult and most paediatric cohorts reported in the literature. The clinical presentation in our cohort was rather severe with high median EDSS-score during the first clinical manifestation and barely more than half of our study patients showing full recovery after their first clinical manifestation. Also, a significant proportion of children in our cohort has severe disease progression despite disease modifying therapy and 9.5% of patients showed transition to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis during adolescence. An early and correct diagnosis of paediatric MS is essential to start early adequate treatment. As illustrated by our study cohort, current treatment options in childhood are unsatisfactory. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Validity of diagnostic studies in thyroid pathology. Retrospective study]. (United States)

    Abate, S; Ferulano, G P; Dilillo, S; Danzi, M; Picilli, M; Califano, L


    In view of the growing number of examinations proposed and employed for the diagnosis of diseases of the thyroid, a retrospective evaluation was made of their validity in a series of 2500 patients (1500 operated). Attention was paid to scintiscanning, oncotropic indicators, echography, needle biopsy, thyrolymphography and thyroid hormones as aids to determining the nature of thyroid lesions and the planning of their treatment. Scintiscanning and needle biopsy proved of primary importance in determination of the nature of a lesion. Echography supplied additional, though not necessarily indispensable information. Oncotropic indicators and thyrolymphography do not appear to be useful. They do not provide data enabling a diagnostic problem to be solved, but can only help to increase any doubts that may exist. Determination of thyroid hormones is clearly indicated when planning the management of hot lesions (single, multiple or disseminated nodes), in cold lesions where thyroiditis is suspected, and in all cases where the clinical evidence suggests hypothyroidism. In euthyroid subjects requiring surgery with no objective signs of hypofunction, preoperative determinations appear to be unnecessary, where as post-operative values are of assistance in assessing the functional efficiency of the residual thyroid tissue. The conclusion to be drawn, therefore, is that diagnostic examinations should be employed in a more selective and discriminating manner.

  7. HIV/AIDS: a personal retrospective on a prototypical pandemic. (United States)

    Bryan, Charles S


    The HIV/AIDS pandemic richly illustrates the historian Charles Rosenberg's construct of epidemics as four-act plays: progressive revelation, the management of randomness, the negotiation of a public response, and subsidence and retrospection. In developed countries, we are now in Act Four. Among the numerous areas of HIV/AIDS that invite reflection, I've focused on its implications for medicine as a profession as opposed to a job or trade. The availability of effective technology determines the relative importance of competence (doing the right thing well; basic professionalism) and "compassion" (service that clearly transcends self-interest; higher professionalism). Those of us who became "AIDS doctors" during the pandemic's early years were privileged to live through what amounted to a truncated history of medicine. It was quite a ride. But most of all, I remember patients, both individually and collectively, from those early years. My proudest achievement is that none of my private patients died in a hospital. My most-cherished memento is a paperback book bequeathed to me by the widow of "Jake"-the early AIDS victim who never told his wife how he got those scars on his forearms. She'd inscribed it: "Dear Dr. Bryan, Thank you for letting me die gracefully." She and many others gave me lessons in courage and in what it means to be a doctor.

  8. Feline exocrine pancreatic carcinoma: a retrospective study of 34 cases. (United States)

    Linderman, M J; Brodsky, E M; de Lorimier, L-P; Clifford, C A; Post, G S


    Thirty-four cases were reviewed in this retrospective study for information on clinical presentation, prognostic indicators, survival time and response to various therapies. The most common presenting clinical signs were weight loss, decreased appetite, vomiting, palpable abdominal mass and diarrhoea. Metastatic disease was confirmed in 11 cats. The overall median survival was 97 days. The median survival times for patients who received chemotherapy or had their masses surgically removed was 165 days. Those patients who had an abdominal effusion present at the time of diagnosis survived a median of 30 days. Cats that received non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy had a median survival of 26 days. This study confirms that exocrine pancreatic carcinoma in cats is an aggressive tumour with a high metastatic rate and poor prognosis, although three patients survived over 1 year. Fifteen percent of the patients were diabetic, which raises the question as to what the link between diabetes and pancreatic cancer in people and cats may be. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laloo Demitrost


    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is a growing problem in our country and we have observed that many patients are associated with thyroid dysfunction later in their life. However, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in these patients has not been investigated. Aims and Objectives: To find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in type 2 DM in Manipur, India. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, data of 202 Type 2 DM patients who attended the diabetic clinic of the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal from January 2011 to July 2012, and whose thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level was investigated were included. The inclusion criteria are known cases of type 2 DM. Exclusion criteria are patients with previous history of hypothyroidism and those on drugs affecting the thyroid profile. Results: Out the 202 type 2 DM patients for the study of which 61 are males and 141 are females, 139 (68.8% are euthyroid, 33 (16.3% have subclinical hypothyroidism (10 males and 23 females, 23 (11.4% have hypothyroidism (6 males and 17 females, 4 (2% have subclinical hyperthyroidism and 3 (1.5% are hyperthyroidism cases. Maximum cases were of hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical seen in the age group of 45-64 years. Patients with BMI > 25 were at increased risk of having hypothyroidism (P < 0.016. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypothyroidism is quite high in type 2 DM patients above 45 years and more so if their BMI is over 25.

  10. Retrospective of concentrated and dried dairy products development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Carić


    Full Text Available In this study the retrospective of the concentrating and drying technology in dairy industry has been reviewed. Concentrating and drying have first been mentioned in the description of Marco Polo’s wanderings in 13th century. However, development of industrial application of these procedures, based on the inventions of Nicholas Appert, G. Borden and J. Meyenberg, started during 19th century. The real expansion of the concentrated and dried milk industry was in 20th century. The start-up was with roller-drying, while simultaneously, the spray-drying, based on Percy's patent, has also been developed. This remarkable invention enabled the production of many different dry products of high quality, not only dairy, but combined food products, infant formulas and pharmaceuticals. Afterwards, the main improvements in concentrating and drying have followed: the instantization has been introduced in spray drying (1955, membrane methods of concentrating and fractionating have been developed for industrial application (in the 1970’s, and three-stage drying procedure has been introduced in the 1980’s.

  11. A retrospective approach to testing the DNA barcoding method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Chapple

    Full Text Available A decade ago, DNA barcoding was proposed as a standardised method for identifying existing species and speeding the discovery of new species. Yet, despite its numerous successes across a range of taxa, its frequent failures have brought into question its accuracy as a short-cut taxonomic method. We use a retrospective approach, applying the method to the classification of New Zealand skinks as it stood in 1977 (primarily based upon morphological characters, and compare it to the current taxonomy reached using both morphological and molecular approaches. For the 1977 dataset, DNA barcoding had moderate-high success in identifying specimens (78-98%, and correctly flagging specimens that have since been confirmed as distinct taxa (77-100%. But most matching methods failed to detect the species complexes that were present in 1977. For the current dataset, there was moderate-high success in identifying specimens (53-99%. For both datasets, the capacity to discover new species was dependent on the methodological approach used. Species delimitation in New Zealand skinks was hindered by the absence of either a local or global barcoding gap, a result of recent speciation events and hybridisation. Whilst DNA barcoding is potentially useful for specimen identification and species discovery in New Zealand skinks, its error rate could hinder the progress of documenting biodiversity in this group. We suggest that integrated taxonomic approaches are more effective at discovering and describing biodiversity.

  12. Relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health: A retrospective study. (United States)

    Boke, Fatma; Gazioglu, Cagri; Akkaya, Sevil; Akkaya, Murat


    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health. A total of 251 patients among whom 177 were girls and 74 were boys, recruited from the records pool of the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Gazi, were included in the study. Patients' treatments have been completed by postgraduate students during the period between 2006 and 2012. Patients' folders were analyzed according to their age, treatment time, and the type of orthodontic treatment. Intra-oral photographs were analyzed, and the presence or absence of visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession were recorded, and incisor inclinations analyzed on lateral cephalometric films, before and after orthodontic treatment. No statistically significant difference was found in patients treated with functional appliances before and after treatment. In patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances, visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession showed significant increases after treatment, gingival biotype did not show any significant difference. Positive correlation was found between lower incisor position and gingival recession in patients treated with fixed appliance and extraction. And also cuspids were the teeth with the highest prevalence of gingival recession. Considering the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health, cooperation among patients, orthodontists, and periodontists is important.

  13. A Retrospective Approach to Testing the DNA Barcoding Method (United States)

    Chapple, David G.; Ritchie, Peter A.


    A decade ago, DNA barcoding was proposed as a standardised method for identifying existing species and speeding the discovery of new species. Yet, despite its numerous successes across a range of taxa, its frequent failures have brought into question its accuracy as a short-cut taxonomic method. We use a retrospective approach, applying the method to the classification of New Zealand skinks as it stood in 1977 (primarily based upon morphological characters), and compare it to the current taxonomy reached using both morphological and molecular approaches. For the 1977 dataset, DNA barcoding had moderate-high success in identifying specimens (78-98%), and correctly flagging specimens that have since been confirmed as distinct taxa (77-100%). But most matching methods failed to detect the species complexes that were present in 1977. For the current dataset, there was moderate-high success in identifying specimens (53-99%). For both datasets, the capacity to discover new species was dependent on the methodological approach used. Species delimitation in New Zealand skinks was hindered by the absence of either a local or global barcoding gap, a result of recent speciation events and hybridisation. Whilst DNA barcoding is potentially useful for specimen identification and species discovery in New Zealand skinks, its error rate could hinder the progress of documenting biodiversity in this group. We suggest that integrated taxonomic approaches are more effective at discovering and describing biodiversity. PMID:24244283

  14. Oral cobalamin supplementation in cats with hypocobalaminaemia: a retrospective study. (United States)

    Toresson, Linda; Steiner, Joerg M; Olmedal, Gunilla; Larsen, MajBritt; Suchodolski, Jan S; Spillmann, Thomas


    Objectives The objective of the study was to evaluate whether oral cobalamin supplementation can restore normocobal-aminaemia in cats with hypocobalaminaemia and clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. Methods This was a retrospective study based on a computerised database search for client-owned cats treated at Evidensia Specialist Animal Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden, during the period December 2013 to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were cats with clinical signs of chronic enteropathy, an initial serum cobalamin concentration ⩽250 pmol/l (reference interval 214-738 pmol/l) and oral treatment with cobalamin tablets. Results Twenty-five cats met the inclusion criteria. The cats were treated with 0.25 mg cyanocobalamin tablets once daily. Serum cobalamin concentration was rechecked 27-94 days after continuous oral cobalamin supplementation. All cats had serum cobalamin concentrations above the reference interval after oral cobalamin supplementation. Median (range) serum cobalamin concentration was 128 pmol/l (111-250 pmol/l) prior to treatment and 2701 pmol/l (738-16,359 pmol/l) after supplementation. This difference was statistically significant ( P cats with hypocobalaminaemia. Thus, oral cobalamin supplementation is a promising alternative to parenteral administration. Prospective comparative studies in cats being treated with parenteral vs oral cobalamin supplementation in a larger number of patients are warranted before oral supplementation can be recommended for routine use.

  15. [Fetal bradycardia: a retrospective study in 9 Spanish centers]. (United States)

    Perin, F; Rodríguez Vázquez del Rey, M M; Deiros Bronte, L; Ferrer Menduiña, Q; Rueda Nuñez, F; Zabala Arguelles, J I; García de la Calzada, D; Teodoro Marin, S; Centeno Malfaz, F; Galindo Izquierdo, A


    The aim of this study is to review the current management and outcomes of fetal bradycardia in 9 Spanish centers. Retrospective multicenter study: analysis of all fetuses with bradycardia diagnosed between January 2008 and September 2010. Underlying mechanisms of fetal bradyarrhythmias were studied with echocardiography. A total of 37 cases were registered: 3 sinus bradycardia, 15 blocked atrial bigeminy, and 19 high grade atrioventricular blocks. Sinus bradycardia: 3 cases (100%) were associated with serious diseases. Blocked atrial bigeminy had an excellent outcome, except for one case with post-natal tachyarrhythmia. Of the atrioventricular blocks, 16% were related to congenital heart defects with isomerism, 63% related to the presence of maternal SSA/Ro antibodies, and 21% had unclear etiology. Overall mortality was 20% (37%, if terminations of pregnancy are taken into account). Risk factors for mortality were congenital heart disease, hydrops and/or ventricular dysfunction. Management strategies differed among centers. Steroids were administrated in 73% of immune-mediated atrioventricular blocks, including the only immune-mediated IInd grade block. More than half (58%) of atrioventricular blocks had a pacemaker implanted in a follow-up of 18 months. Sustained fetal bradycardia requires a comprehensive study in all cases, including those with sinus bradycardia. Blocked atrial bigeminy has a good prognosis, but tachyarrhythmias may develop. Heart block has significant mortality and morbidity rates, and its management is still highly controversial. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Clyde W. Tombaugh, Discoverer of Pluto: A Personal Retrospective (United States)

    Levy, David H.


    This talk offers a retrospective of the life, times, and ideas of Clyde W. Tombaugh. One of the premier observers of the twentieth century, Tombaugh began observing as a teenager and was hired by the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, in 1928, to resume and conduct the searh for “Planet X”, the world postulated by Percival Lowell, founder of the observatory. Tombaugh discovered this object on February 18, 1930, and it was subsequently named Pluto a few months later. Tombaugh’s life following the discovery was busy, full, and sometimes difficult. He continued his search for about fifteen years, discovering five open clusters, one globular cluster, a new cataclysmic variable star, and likely the first known supercluster of galaxies. He also discovered a comet, but that find was not confirmed for 81 years until it was rediscovered by the Tenagra Observatories just a few months ago and named Comet Tombaugh-Tenagra. Tombaugh was as well known for his delightful sense of humor and fun as he was for his abilities as an observer. However it would be difficult to present such a talk without some mention of the concern and depression he endured at the end of his life about the changing status of his signature discovery. Ultimately, this presentation will try to offer a personal perspective of the man and the scientist I knew for the decades since I first heard him speak in 1963 until his death in 1997.

  17. A retrospective study on periodontal disease progression in private practice. (United States)

    Nibali, Luigi; Sun, Chuanming; Akcalı, Aliye; Meng, Xsuan; Tu, Yu-Kang; Donos, Nikos


    Only a handful of studies have assessed tooth loss risk in chronic periodontitis patients following active therapy and factors associated with it. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess tooth loss in a cohort of chronic periodontitis patients undergoing maintenance care in a UK private practice setting. One hundred chronic periodontitis patients treated with active periodontal therapy were followed up in supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) for at least 5 years. Tooth loss rates and the effect of patient and tooth factors on tooth loss were assessed. Existing patient-based prognosis systems and a novel tooth-based prognosis system were tested for their association with tooth loss. Excluding third molars, 34 teeth were extracted during SPT, with an overall average tooth loss of 0.06 teeth/patient/year (0.02 for periodontal reasons). Multivariable analysis showed that age, patient prognosis based on the Periodontal Risk Assessment system, tooth prognosis, furcation involvement and previous endodontic therapy were significantly associated with tooth loss during SPT. Good overall stability and a small tooth loss rate were observed in this cohort of chronic periodontitis cases under SPT in private practice. Patient-based and tooth-based prognosis systems may be used to estimate the risk of tooth loss. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. School-related injuries: a retrospective 5-year evaluation. (United States)

    Kraus, R; Horas, U; Szalay, G; Alt, V; Kaiser, M; Schnettler, R


    Children and adolescents spend up to 50% of their time at school. The purpose of this study was to assess injury patterns of school accidents (along with their treatment) in the trauma center of a German university hospital, and to compare these data to those in the literature. All school accidents treated in a level 1 pediatric trauma center over a five-year period were statistically analyzed in a retrospective manner by chart review. There were 1,399 school accidents that were treated in our department. Average age of the injured person was 11.8 years, with a boy:girl ratio of 3:2. Almost 40% of the injuries occurred during school sports. The most frequently injured region was the upper extremity, including the hand (36.8%). Distortion and contusion was the most frequent diagnosis among all injuries. Sixteen percent of the cases had to be treated surgically and/or under general anesthesia, and 16% of the patients had to be admitted to the hospital. It can be concluded that special attention must be paid during school sporting activities and breaks because they account for most of the accidents. Traffic education may reduce severe injuries. Specific knowledge of the growing long bones of the upper extremity and the hand is important for the diagnosis and treatment of school accidents.

  19. The Retrospective Analysis of Neonatal Sepsis Cases and Causes

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    Ferhan Karademir


    Full Text Available AIM: In this study we aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of newborns with proven sepsis, the causative agents and antibiotic resistance in our NICU. METHOD: The charts of babies with sepsis during the years 2008–2009 in our NICU were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: 238 hospitalized patients had 21 septic attacks. Rate of early onset septicemia was 28.5%, rate of late onset septicemia was 71.5%. 57.1% of babies with sepsis were preterm (<37 weeks. Preterm babies weighing <1500 g was %75 of all preterm babies with sepsis. The frequency of culture positive sepsis was 57.1%, 50% of these cultures were taken from blood, 41.6% from urine, 8.3% from skin swab samples. The isolated micro-organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci (46,1%, E.coli (17,6%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (17,6%, C. Albicans (9,8% and Klebsiella oxytoca (9,8%. CONCLUSION: We think that we must consider the bacterial spectrum and their antibiotic resistance due to increase the success of the therapy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 329-332

  20. [A retrospective review of children hospitalised with urinary tract calculi]. (United States)

    Simonsgaard, Maria; Larsen, Maiken Kudahl


    The incidence of urinary stones in Danish children is unknown. An estimate from The National Diagnosis Registry in Denmark is approximately 1:13,500. The purpose was to estimate the incidence of urinary stones and their composition in children in relation to sex, age and family history. A retrospective review of all children presented at Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, or Roskilde Hospital from October 1999 through October 2005 with urinary tract calculi. 42 patients with an average age of 7.9 years. The sex ratio was 1.7 boys to 1 girl. 7 were of an ethnic origin other than Danish. 12, all boys, had inborn urogenital tract malformation. Two had secondary malformation and one had inborn error of metabolism. The incidence of urogenital infection was higher in children with malformation. In 26 patients, stone analysis and composition were available. 54% of the stones had a calcium component. One third of the children had a family history of urolithiasis. Urinary tract stone is a rather difficult pediatric diagnosis. The most frequent symptom is abdominal pain. Ultrasound established the diagnosis in 50% of cases. All concrements were diagnosed with excretory urogram or computerized tomography. 30% of the children had a family history of urolithiasis. This confirms the importance of metabolic screening and stone analysis in children.