WorldWideScience

Sample records for human-induced greenhouse effect

  1. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  2. The greenhouse effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1992-01-01

    a convincing basis for decision making in order to counter climatic change will become evere more acute. Even though most governments may agree that something should be done, many disagree over the extent, the pace, and the acceptable costs of action. Is it, for example, sufficient to follow the recommendation...... of the 1988 conference in Toronto on "The Changing Atmosphere" and reduce global CO2 emissions by 20% until year 2005, or is it vital for the future of the World to reduce emissions at a much quicker pace? And how do we compare reductions of different greenhouse gases by different amounts, implemented over...

  3. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  4. The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

    The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

  5. The Greenhouse and Anti-Greenhouse Effects on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, C. P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen, with a few percent CH4, 0.1% H2 and an uncertain level of Ar (less than 10%). The surface pressure is 1.5 atms and the surface temperature is 95 K, decreasing to 71 at the tropopause before rising to stratospheric temperatures of 180 K. In pressure and composition Titan's atmosphere is the closest twin to Earth's. The surface of Titan remains unknown, hidden by the thick smog layer, but it may be an ocean of liquid methane and ethane. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect which is much stronger than the Earth's - 92% of the surface warming is due to greenhouse radiation. However an organic smog layer in the upper atmosphere produces an anti-greenhouse effect that cuts the greenhouse warming in half - removing 35% of the incoming solar radiation. Models suggest that during its formation Titan's atmosphere was heated to high temperatures due to accretional energy. This was followed by a cold Triton-like period which gradually warmed to the present conditions. The coupled greenhouse and haze anti-greenhouse may be relevant to recent suggestions for haze shielding of a CH4 - NH3 early atmosphere on Earth or Mars. When the NASA/ESA mission to the Saturn System, Cassini, launches in a few years it will carry a probe that will be sent to the surface of Titan and show us this world that is strange and yet in many ways similar to our own.

  6. Observational determination of the greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback is consistent with that predicted by climate models. This study demonstrates an effective method for directly monitoring, from space, future changes in the greenhouse effect.

  7. Titan's greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1992-01-01

    Thermal mechanisms active in Titan's atmosphere are discussed in a brief review of data obtained during the Voyager I flyby in 1980. Particular attention is given to the greenhouse effect (GHE) produced by atmospheric H2, N2, and CH4; this GHE is stronger than that on earth, with CH4 and H2 playing roles similar to those of H2O and CO2 on earth. Also active on Titan is an antigreenhouse effect, in which dark-brown and orange organic aerosols block incoming solar light while allowing IR radiation from the Titan surface to escape. The combination of GHE and anti-GHE leads to a surface temperature about 12 C higher than it would be if Titan had no atmosphere.

  8. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-09-12

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown.

  9. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth’s surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown.

  10. The greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1991-01-01

    The parallels between the atmospheric thermal structure of the Saturnian satellite Titan and the hypothesized terrestrial greenhouse effect can serve as bases for the evaluation of competing greenhouse theories. Attention is presently drawn to the similarity between the roles of H2 and CH4 on Titan and CO2 and H2O on earth. Titan also has an antigreenhouse effect due to a high-altitude haze layer which absorbs at solar wavelengths, while remaining transparent in the thermal IR; if this haze layer were removed, the antigreenhouse effect would be greatly reduced, exacerbating the greenhouse effect and raising surface temperature by over 20 K.

  11. The Greenhouse Effect in a Vial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Richard; Sneider, Cary

    1989-01-01

    Presents an example of a greenhouse-effect experiment from the Climate Protection Institute. Analyzes the amount of carbon dioxide in ambient air, human exhalation, automobile exhaust, and nearly pure carbon dioxide by titrating with ammonia and bromthymol blue. (MVL)

  12. (AJST) EFFECTS OF GROUND INSULATION AND GREENHOUSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NORBERT OPIYO AKECH

    of plastic digester to produce biogas under natural and greenhouse microenvironment. The specific ... and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Biogas ... the effect of ground insulation on biogas production. ..... Methane Generation from Human, Animal.

  13. A new opinion of the greenhouse effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery P. Oktyabrskiy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the correspondence between the actually occurring physical and chemical processes and the concept of the greenhouse effect. The absorption of the solar radiation by the gases existing in the Earth's atmosphere has been examined. It was demonstrated that, despite the absorption of radiation from the Earth's surface in the middle and long-wave infrared (IR regions, there is a strong absorption of the overtones and combined frequencies of water vapor in the solar radiation (visible and near IR regions, i.e., the transmittance bandwidth of ‘the glass greenhouse’. Thus, the Earth atmosphere does not really function as a greenhouse, and the terms ‘greenhouse effect’ and ‘greenhouse gases’ lost their original meaning and have remained symbolical.

  14. A Note on Fourier and the Greenhouse Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Postma, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Joseph Fourier's discovery of the greenhouse effect is discussed and is compared to the modern conception of the greenhouse effect. It is confirmed that what Fourier discovered is analogous to the modern concept of the greenhouse effect. However, the modern concept of the greenhouse effect is found to be based on a paradoxical analogy to Fourier's greenhouse work and so either Fourier's greenhouse work, the modern conception of the greenhouse effect, or the modern definition of heat is incorrect. The solution to this problem is not feigned to be given here.

  15. The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, C.; Haberle, R. M.; McKay, C. P.; Titov, D. V.

    This chapter reviews the theory of the greenhouse effect and climate feedback. It also compares the theory with observations, using examples taken from all four known terrestrial worlds with substantial atmospheres: Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan. The greenhouse effect traps infrared radiation in the atmosphere, thereby increasing surface temperature. It is one of many factors that affect a world's climate. (Others include solar luminosity and the atmospheric scattering and absorption of solar radiation.) A change in these factors — defined as climate forcing — may change the climate in a way that brings other processes — defined as feedbacks — into play. For example, when Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, warming the surface, the water vapor content of the atmosphere increases. This is a positive feedback on global warming because water vapor is itself a potent greenhouse gas. Many positive and negative feedback processes are significant in determining Earth's climate, and probably the climates of our terrestrial neighbors.

  16. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  17. Greenhouse effect due to chlorofluorocarbons - Climatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infrared bands of chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. This enhancement may lead to an appreciable increase in the global surface temperature if the atmospheric concentrations of these compounds reach values of the order of 2 parts per billion.

  18. Greenhouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PurposeThe greenhouse at ERDC’s Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) is used for germination and root-growth studies to support basic and field...

  19. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  20. Greenhouse effect simulator - An educational application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alan Freitas; Viveiros, Bruno Martins; da Silva, Claudio Elias

    2016-12-01

    Using the program "Modellus", we intend to create a simple simulation to show the impacts that the Greenhouse Effect might have, in a didactic and friendly way, in order to expose this notions to high and middle school students. In order to do so, we created a program that will simulate a sweep, through the Troposphere, and create two lines in a graphic, one showing the temperatures behavior, in normal conditions, and the other showing how the temperature behaves in the presence of excess of Greenhouse gases. The main purpose of the project is to use the model in schools and try to make kids more conscious of their roles in our so society, showing them the consequences of the tendency of our acts, stimulating them to be more proactives to change the future.

  1. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Pelosi, Mauro; Nurmi, Jari

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS-) based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip...... on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors introduced in the distance estimation using path-loss-based methods has been carried out. Moreover, the exploitation...... of human-induced perturbations for enhancing the final positioning accuracy through cooperative schemes has been assessed. It has been proved that the effect of cooperation is very limited if human factors are not taken into account when performing experimental activities....

  2. Effective Teacher Practice on the Plausibility of Human-Induced Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F.; Sinatra, G. M.; Lombardi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change education programs in the United States seek to promote a deeper understanding of the science of climate change, behavior change and stewardship, and support informed decision making by individuals, organizations, and institutions--all of which are summarized under the term 'climate literacy.' The ultimate goal of climate literacy is to enable actors to address climate change, both in terms of stabilizing and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, but also an increased capacity to prepare for the consequences and opportunities of climate change. However, the long-term nature of climate change and the required societal response involve the changing students' ideas about controversial scientific issues which presents unique challenges for educators (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010; Sinatra & Mason, 2008). This session will explore how the United States educational efforts focus on three distinct, but related, areas: the science of climate change, the human-climate interaction, and using climate education to promote informed decision making. Each of these approaches are represented in the Atlas of Science Literacy (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2007) and in the conceptual framework for science education developed at the National Research Council (NRC) in 2012. Instruction to develop these fundamental thinking skills (e.g., critical evaluation and plausibility reappraisal) has been called for by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Achieve, 2013), an innovative and research based way to address climate change education within the decentralized U.S. education system. However, the promise of the NGSS is that students will have more time to build mastery on the subjects, but the form of that instructional practice has been show to be critical. Research has show that effective instructional activities that promote evaluation of evidence improve students' understanding and acceptance toward the scientifically accepted model of human-induced

  3. Greenhouse effect and its impact on Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suliman, M. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    Changes that may occur in Africa as a result of global warming are outlined. They include changes to agriculture, water resources, and in sea level and as a result of CO{sub 2} fertilization. The global problem is outlined, and solutions are considered such as the use of non-carbon fuels and increasing carbon sinks. The economic implications for third world countries, of global warming are discussed, together with policy responses. Agro-forestry is suggested as a way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The problem of food insecurity is mentioned and the Sudan is taken as an example. The report ends with recommendations to limit the greenhouse effect and reduce the impact it could have on Africa. 17 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. The greenhouse effect; L'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Simulations used by the climatologists forecast an increase of the world average temperature of 2 degrees between 1990 and 2100, resulting from the greenhouse effect gases. This paper gives examples of consequences of this climatic warming and presents the international agreements to fight against the greenhouse effect gases decided at Rio, Kyoto and, Buenos Aires. (A.L.B.)

  5. Ideas of Elementary Students about Reducing the "Greenhouse Effect."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Claire; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents the results of a questionnaire given to 563 elementary students to study their ideas of actions that would reduce the greenhouse effect. Most of the children (87%) appreciated that planting trees would help reduce global warming. During interviews it was discovered that children were confused between the greenhouse effect and ozone layer…

  6. The greenhouse effect; L'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development, this paper presents the greenhouse effect and its impact on the climatic change, the world interest from Rio to Buenos Aires, the human activities producing the carbon dioxide and responsible of the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide emission decrease possibilities and shows the necessity of the electric power producers contribution. (A.L.B.)

  7. Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX). Selected data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lola M.; Warnock, Archibald, III

    1992-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains selected data sets compiled by the participants of the Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX) workshop on atmospheric temperature. The data sets include surface, upper air, and/or satellite-derived measurements of temperature, solar irradiance, clouds, greenhouse gases, fluxes, albedo, aerosols, ozone, and water vapor, along with Southern Oscillation Indices and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation statistics.

  8. Climate - Greenhouse effect - Energy; Klima - drivhuseffekt - energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2001-07-01

    This book explains what is understood by climate systems and the concept of greenhouse effect. It also gives a survey of the world's energy consumption, energy reserves and renewable energy sources. Today, 75 - 80 per cent of the world's energy consumption involves fossil fuel. These are the sources that cause the CO{sub 2} emissions. What are the possibilities of reducing the emissions? The world's population is increasing, and to provide food and a worthy life for everybody we have to use more energy. Where do we get this energy from without causing great climate changes and environmental changes? Should gas power plants be built in Norway? Should Swedish nuclear power plants be shut down, or is it advisable to concentrate on nuclear power, worldwide, this century, to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions until the renewable energy sources have been developed and can take over once the petroleum sources have been depleted? The book also discusses the global magnetic field, which protects against particle radiation from space and which gives rise to the aurora borealis. The book is aimed at students taking environmental courses in universities and colleges, but is also of interest for anybody concerned about climate questions, energy sources and living standard.

  9. Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

    1988-01-01

    Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

  10. Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

    1988-01-01

    Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

  11. Elementary Pre-Service Teacher Perceptions of the Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    1999-01-01

    Expands on earlier work to examine pre-service teachers' views on environmental issues, especially global warming and the related term "greenhouse effect." Suggests that pre-service elementary teachers hold many misconceptions about environmental issues. (DDR)

  12. Greenhouse effect and climate; Effet de serre et climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitou, J

    2008-04-15

    In the framework of the climatic change, the author aims to explain the phenomena of greenhouse effect. He details the historical aspects of the scientific knowledge in the domain, the gases produced, some characteristic of the greenhouse effect, the other actors which contribute to the climate, the climate simulation, the different factors of climate change since 1750 and the signs of the global heating. (A.L.B.)

  13. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-12-30

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  14. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeki Matsunaga

    2015-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence o...

  15. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric interaction. We studied the interactions in the atmosphere between the greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion from the point of view of past and future emissions of the anthropogenic com...

  16. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric interaction. We studied the interactions in the atmosphere between the greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion from the point of view of past and future emissions of the anthropogenic com...

  17. Accounting for carbon cycle feedbacks in a comparison of the global warming effects of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, Nathan P [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3V6 (Canada); Matthews, H Damon, E-mail: nathan.gillett@ec.gc.ca [Department of Geography, Planning and Environment, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve West, H 1255-26, Montreal, QC, H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    Greenhouse gases other than CO{sub 2} make a significant contribution to human-induced climate change, and multi-gas mitigation strategies are cheaper to implement than those which limit CO{sub 2} emissions alone. Most practical multi-gas mitigation strategies require metrics to relate the climate warming effects of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. Global warming potential (GWP), defined as the ratio of time-integrated radiative forcing of a particular gas to that of CO{sub 2} following a unit mass emission, is the metric used in the Kyoto Protocol, and we define mean global temperature change potential (MGTP) as an equivalent metric of the temperature response. Here we show that carbon-climate feedbacks inflate the GWPs and MGTPs of methane and nitrous oxide by {approx} 20% in coupled carbon-climate model simulations of the response to a pulse of 50 x 1990 emissions, due to a warming-induced release of CO{sub 2} from the land biosphere and ocean. The magnitude of this effect is expected to be dependent on the model, but it is not captured at all by the analytical models usually used to calculate metrics such as GWP. We argue that the omission of carbon cycle dynamics has led to a low bias of uncertain but potentially substantial magnitude in metrics of the global warming effect of other greenhouse gases, and we suggest that the carbon-climate feedback should be considered when greenhouse gas metrics are calculated and applied.

  18. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Matsunaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  19. The collapse of the Maya: Effects of natural and human-induced drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, Robert J [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL

    2010-02-01

    The collapse of the Maya civilization during the ninth century A.D. is a major conundrum in the history of mankind. This civilization reached a spectacular peak but then almost completely collapsed in the space of a few decades. While numerous explanations have been put forth to explain this collapse, in recent years, drought has gained favor. This is because water resources were a key for the Maya, especially to ensure their survival during the lengthy dry season that occurs where they lived. Natural drought is a known, recurring feature of this region, as evidenced by observational data, reconstructions of past times, and global climate model output. Results from simulations with a regional climate model demonstrate that deforestation by the Maya also likely induced warmer, drier, drought-like conditions. It is therefore hypothesized that the drought conditions devastating the Maya resulted from a combination of natural variability and human activities. Neither the natural drought or the human-induced effects alone were sufficient to cause the collapse, but the combination created a situation the Maya could not recover from. These results may have sobering implications for the present and future state of climate and water resources in Mesoamerica as ongoing massive deforestation is again occurring.

  20. 温室效应和温室气体监测%Greenhouse effect and greenhouse gases monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩香玉; 卢照方

    2011-01-01

    近年来,大气中温室气体含量的增加及其产生的温室效应,对气候和生态系统造成了一系列影响,因而对大气中温室气体含量的监测显得更为迫切.%Recently the increasing content of greenhouse gases in atmosphere and the greenhouse effect have created a series of influences on the climate and ecosystem, so it is urgent to minitor the content of greenhouse gases in atomosphere. This paper gives a general review of monitoring technologies for greenhouse gases.

  1. New Evidence of an Enhanced Greenhouse Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Benestad, Rasmus E

    2011-01-01

    The state of earth's climate is constrained by well-known physical principles such as energy balance and the conservation of energy. Increased greenhouse gas concentrations affect the atmospheric optical depth, and physical consistency implies that changes in the energy transfer in terms of infra-red light must be compensated by other means of energy flow. Here, a simple heuristic and comprehensive model is used to interpret new aspects of real-world data. It is shown that trends in tropospheric overturning activity and the estimated altitude where earth's bulk heat loss should place are two independent indicators of climate change. There has been increased vertical overturning in the middle and upper parts of the troposphere since 1995 on a global scale. Greater overturning compensates for reduced radiative energy transfer associated with increased optical depth. An increased optical depth is also expected to raise the altitude from where planetary bulk heat loss takes place according to the heuristic model,...

  2. A mental picture of the greenhouse effect. A pedagogic explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benestad, Rasmus E.

    2017-05-01

    The popular picture of the greenhouse effect emphasises the radiation transfer but fails to explain the observed climate change. An old conceptual model for the greenhouse effect is revisited and presented as a useful resource in climate change communication. It is validated against state-of-the-art data, and nontraditional diagnostics show a physically consistent picture. The earth's climate is constrained by well-known and elementary physical principles, such as energy balance, flow, and conservation. Greenhouse gases affect the atmospheric optical depth for infrared radiation, and increased opacity implies higher altitude from which earth's equivalent bulk heat loss takes place. Such an increase is seen in the reanalyses, and the outgoing long-wave radiation has become more diffuse over time, consistent with an increased influence of greenhouse gases on the vertical energy flow from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. The reanalyses further imply increases in the overturning in the troposphere, consistent with a constant and continuous vertical energy flow. The increased overturning can explain a slowdown in the global warming, and the association between these aspects can be interpreted as an entanglement between the greenhouse effect and the hydrological cycle, where reduced energy transfer associated with increased opacity is compensated by tropospheric overturning activity.

  3. A mental picture of the greenhouse effect - A pedagogic explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benestad, Rasmus E.

    2016-01-01

    The popular picture of the greenhouse effect emphasises the radiation transfer but fails to explain the observed climate change. An old conceptual model for the greenhouse effect is revisited and presented as a useful resource in climate change communication. It is validated against state-of-the-art data, and nontraditional diagnostics show a physically consistent picture. The earth's climate is constrained by well-known and elementary physical principles, such as energy balance, flow, and conservation. Greenhouse gases affect the atmospheric optical depth for infrared radiation, and increased opacity implies higher altitude from which earth's equivalent bulk heat loss takes place. Such an increase is seen in the reanalyses, and the outgoing long-wave radiation has become more diffuse over time, consistent with an increased influence of greenhouse gases on the vertical energy flow from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. The reanalyses further imply increases in the overturning in the troposphere, consistent with a constant and continuous vertical energy flow. The increased overturning can explain a slowdown in the global warming, and the association between these aspects can be interpreted as an entanglement between the greenhouse effect and the hydrological cycle, where reduced energy transfer associated with increased opacity is compensated by tropospheric overturning activity.

  4. Knowledge about the 'Greenhouse Effect': Have College Students Improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Helen; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The ideas of Year I undergraduate biology students about the consequences, causes, and cures of the 'greenhouse effect' was determined using a closed-form questionnaire, and results were compared with a parallel study undertaken nearly 10 years ago. Many of the students in the present survey were unaware of the potential effect of global warming…

  5. Knowledge about the 'Greenhouse Effect': Have College Students Improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Helen; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The ideas of Year I undergraduate biology students about the consequences, causes, and cures of the 'greenhouse effect' was determined using a closed-form questionnaire, and results were compared with a parallel study undertaken nearly 10 years ago. Many of the students in the present survey were unaware of the potential effect of global warming…

  6. Exploring the Greenhouse Effect through Physics-Oriented Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Kerry P.; Laws, Priscilla W.

    2003-01-01

    We are developing a new activity-based unit on global warming and the environment as part of the "Explorations in Physics Curriculum." We describe the current status of this unit, which focuses on helping students understand the greenhouse effect and its relationship to global warming. We outline several problems encountered in testing the unit…

  7. Seventh Grade Students' Mental Models of the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Choi, Soyoung; Niyogi, Dev; Charusombat, Umarporn

    2011-01-01

    This constructivist study investigates 225 student drawings and explanations from three different schools in the midwest in the US, to identify seventh grade students' mental models of the greenhouse effect. Five distinct mental models were derived from an inductive analysis of the content of the students' drawings and explanations: Model 1, a…

  8. The Physics behind a Simple Demonstration of the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Gavin A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, and popular, demonstration of the greenhouse effect involves a higher temperature being observed in a container with an elevated concentration of CO[subscript 2] inside than in a container with just air enclosed, when subject to direct light. The CO[subscript 2] absorbs outgoing thermal radiation and causes the air inside the container…

  9. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...

  10. INFLUENCE OF AGRICULTURAL POLLUTANTS ON THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The general heating of our planet has become a proved fact today, and its consequences are observed in more climatic disturbances which affect almost the whole Earth. At the base of this climatic process there is the excessive development of the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is a natural physical phenomenon which has gradually developed with the geophysical and biological evolution of the Earth, and its consequence is the thermical constancy of +150C as medium global temperature. The main physical factories which contribute at the realization of greenhouse effect are CO2, watery vapors, NOx and CH4. Naturally, the greenhouse gases have the perfectly global self-regulation cycles. This capacity of self-regulation seems to be troubled by the huge amounts of polluted gaseous thrown in the air by different and usual human activities. In this sense, the agriculture has an important role and the main pollution sources are the rice plantations, inorganic fertilizations and animal farms.

  11. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  12. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert;

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  13. Hydrological controls on the tropospheric ozone greenhouse gas effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kuai, Le; Bowman, Kevin W.; Worden, Helen M.; Herman, Robert L.; Susan S. Kulawik

    2017-01-01

    The influence of the hydrological cycle in the greenhouse gas (GHG) effect of tropospheric ozone (O3) is quantified in terms of the O3longwave radiative effect (LWRE), which is defined as the net reduction of top-of-atmosphere flux due to total tropospheric O3absorption. The O3LWRE derived from the infrared spectral measurements by Aura’s Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) show that the spatiotemporal variation of LWRE is relevant to relative humidity, surface temperature, and troposphe...

  14. Revisiting the scattering greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kitzmann, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide ice clouds are thought to play an important role for cold terrestrial planets with thick CO2 dominated atmospheres. Various previous studies showed that a scattering greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide ice clouds could result in a massive warming of the planetary surface. However, all of these studies only employed simplified two-stream radiative transfer schemes to describe the anisotropic scattering. Using accurate radiative transfer models with a general discrete ordinate method, this study revisits this important effect and shows that the positive climatic impact of carbon dioxide clouds was strongly overestimated in the past. The revised scattering greenhouse effect can have important implications for the early Mars, but also for planets like the early Earth or the position of the outer boundary of the habitable zone.

  15. The Runaway Greenhouse Effect on Earth and other Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbette, Maura; Pilewskie, Peter; McKay, Christopher; Young, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Water vapor is an efficient absorber of outgoing longwave infrared radiation on Earth and is the primary greenhouse gas. Since evaporation increases with increasing sea surface temperature, and the increase in water vapor further increases greenhouse warming, there is a positive feedback. The runaway greenhouse effect occurs if this feedback continues unchecked until all the water has left the surface and enters the atmosphere. For Mars and the Earth the runaway greenhouse was halted when water vapor became saturated with respect to ice or liquid water respectively. However, Venus is considered to be an example of a planet where the runaway greenhouse effect did occur, and it has been speculated that if the solar luminosity were to increase above a certain limit, it would also occur on the Earth. Satellite data acquired during the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) under clear sky conditions shows that as the sea surface temperature (SST) increases, the rate of outgoing infrared radiation at the top of the atmosphere also increases, as expected. Over the pacific warm pool where the SST exceeds 300 K the outgoing radiation emitted to space actually decreases with increasing SST, leading to a potentially unstable system. This behavior is a signature of the runaway greenhouse effect on Earth. However, the SST never exceeds 303K, thus the system has a natural cap which stops the runaway. According to Stefan-Boltzmann's law the amount of heat energy radiated by the Earth's surface is proportional to (T(sup 4)). However, if the planet has a substantial atmosphere, it can absorb all infrared radiation from the lower surface before the radiation penetrates into outer space. Thus, an instrument in space looking at the planet does not detect radiation from the surface. The radiation it sees comes from some level higher up. For the earth#s atmosphere the effective temperature (T(sub e)) has a value of 255 K corresponding to the middle troposphere, above most of the

  16. Children's Models of Understanding of Two Major Global Environmental Issues (Ozone Layer and Greenhouse Effect).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Aims to quantify the models that 13- and 14 year-old students hold about the causes of the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion. Assesses the prevalence of those ideas that link the two phenomena. Twice as many students think that holes in the ozone layer cause the greenhouse effect than think the greenhouse effect causes ozone depletion.…

  17. Children's Models of Understanding of Two Major Global Environmental Issues (Ozone Layer and Greenhouse Effect).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Aims to quantify the models that 13- and 14 year-old students hold about the causes of the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion. Assesses the prevalence of those ideas that link the two phenomena. Twice as many students think that holes in the ozone layer cause the greenhouse effect than think the greenhouse effect causes ozone depletion.…

  18. HFCs contribution to the greenhouse effect. Present and projected estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libre, J.M.; Elf-Atochem, S.A. [Central Research & Development, Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reviews data that can be used to calculate hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) contribution to the greenhouse effect and compare it to other trace gas contributions. Projections are made for 2010 and 2100 on the basis of available emission scenarios. Industrial judgement on the likelihood of those scenarios is also developed. Calculations can be made in two different ways: from Global Warming Potential weighted emissions of species or by direct calculation of radiative forcing based on measured and projected atmospheric concentrations of compounds. Results show that HFCs corresponding to commercial uses have a negligible contribution to the greenhouse effect in comparison with other trace gases. The projected contributions are also very small even if very high emission scenarios are maintained for decades. In 2010 this contribution remains below 1%. Longer term emissions projections are difficult. However, based on the IPCC scenario IS92a, in spite of huge emissions projected for the year 2100, the HFC contribution remains below 3%. Actually many factors indicate that the real UFC contribution to the greenhouse effect will be even smaller than presented here. Low emissive systems and small charges will likely improve sharply in the future and have drastically improved in the recent past. HFC technology implementation is likely to grow in the future, reach a maximum before the middle of the next century; the market will stabilise driven by recycling, closing of systems and competitive technologies. This hypothesis is supported by previous analysis of the demand for HTCs type applications which can be represented by {open_quotes}S{close_quotes} type curves and by recent analysis indicating that the level of substitution of old products by HFCs is growing slowly. On the basis of those data and best industrial judgement, the contribution of HFCs to the greenhouse effect is highly likely to remain below 1% during the next century. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Physics of greenhouse effect and convection in warm oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, A. K.; Ramanathan, V.

    1994-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) in roughly 50% of the tropical Pacific Ocean is warm enough (SST greater than 300 K) to permit deep convection. This paper examines the effects of deep convection on the climatological mean vertical distributions of water vapor and its greenhouse effect over such warm oceans. The study, which uses a combination of satellite radiation budget observations, atmospheric soundings deployed from ships, and radiation model calculations, also examines the link between SST, vertical distribution of water vapor, and its greenhouse effect in the tropical oceans. Since the focus of the study is on the radiative effects of water vapor, the radiation model calculations do not include the effects of clouds. The data are grouped into nonconvective and convective categories using SST as an index for convective activity. On average, convective regions are more humid, trap significantly more longwave radiation, and emit more radiation to the sea surface. The greenhouse effect in regions of convection operates as per classical ideas, that is, as the SST increases, the atmosphere traps the excess longwave energy emitted by the surface and reradiates it locally back to the ocean surface. The important departure from the classical picture is that the net (up minus down) fluxes at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere decrease with an increase in SST; that is, the surface and the surface-troposphere column lose the ability to radiate the excess energy to space. The cause of this super greenhouse effect at the surface is the rapid increase in the lower-troposphere humidity with SST; that of the column is due to a combination of increase in humidity in the entire column and increase in the lapse rate within the lower troposphere. The increase in the vertical distribution of humidity far exceeds that which can be attributed to the temperature dependence of saturation vapor pressure; that is, the tropospheric relative humidity is larger in convective

  20. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

  1. Greenhouse effect dependence on atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse substances and the nature of climate stability on Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Gorshkov

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the exponential positive feedback between sea surface temperature and saturated water vapour concentration, dependence of the planetary greenhouse effect on atmospheric water content is critical for stability of a climate with extensive liquid hydrosphere.

    In this paper on the basis of the law of energy conservation we develop a simple physically transparent approach to description of radiative transfer in an atmosphere containing greenhouse substances. It is shown that the analytical solution of the equation thus derived coincides with the exact solution of the well-known radiative transfer equation to the accuracy of 20% for all values of atmospheric optical depth. The derived equation makes it possible to easily take into account the non-radiative thermal fluxes (convection and latent heat and obtain an analytical dependence of the greenhouse effect on atmospheric concentrations of a set of greenhouse substances with arbitrary absorption intervals.

    The established dependence is used to analyse stability of the modern climate of Earth. It is shown that the modern value of global mean surface temperature, which corresponds to the liquid state of the terrestrial hydrosphere, is physically unstable. The observed stability of modern climate over geological timescales is therefore likely to be due to dynamic singularities in the physical temperature-dependent behaviour of the greenhouse effect. We hypothesise that such singularities may appear due to controlling functioning of the natural global biota and discuss major arguments in support of this conclusion.

  2. Effects of oxidative and thermal stresses on stress granule formation in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palangi, Freshteh; Samuel, Samson M; Thompson, I Richard; Triggle, Chris R; Emara, Mohamed M

    2017-01-01

    Stress Granules (SGs) are dynamic ribonucleoprotein aggregates, which have been observed in cells subjected to environmental stresses, such as oxidative stress and heat shock (HS). Although pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are highly sensitive to oxidative stress, the role of SGs in regulating PSC self-renewal and differentiation has not been fully elucidated. Here we found that sodium arsenite (SA) and HS, but not hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), induce SG formation in human induced (hi) PSCs. Particularly, we found that these granules contain the well-known SG proteins (G3BP, TIAR, eIF4E, eIF4A, eIF3B, eIF4G, and PABP), were found in juxtaposition to processing bodies (PBs), and were disassembled after the removal of the stress. Moreover, we showed that SA and HS, but not H2O2, promote eIF2α phosphorylation in hiPSCs forming SGs. Analysis of pluripotent protein expression showed that HS significantly reduced all tested markers (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, L1TD1, and LIN28A), while SA selectively reduced the expression levels of NANOG and L1TD1. Finally, in addition to LIN28A and L1TD1, we identified DPPA5 (pluripotent protein marker) as a novel component of SGs. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the molecular cues of hiPSCs responses to environmental insults.

  3. The combined effects of cover design parameters on tomato production of a passive greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanthoor, B.H.E.; Stanghellini, C.; Henten, van E.; Gazquez, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need of a multiple design parameter approach to greenhouse design. To illustrate this need, we determined the combined effects of cover design parameters on tomato production of a passive greenhouse, that is a greenhouse with only natural ventilation

  4. Effects of cellular origin on differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shijun; Zhao, Ming-Tao; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Shao, Ning-Yi; Lee, Won Hee; Chen, Haodong; Snyder, Michael P; Wu, Joseph C

    2016-06-02

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be derived from various types of somatic cells by transient overexpression of 4 Yamanaka factors (OCT4, SOX2, C-MYC, and KLF4). Patient-specific iPSC derivatives (e.g., neuronal, cardiac, hepatic, muscular, and endothelial cells [ECs]) hold great promise in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the cellular origin can affect the differentiation, in vivo behavior, and single-cell gene expression signatures of human iPSC-derived ECs. We derived human iPSCs from 3 types of somatic cells of the same individuals: fibroblasts (FB-iPSCs), ECs (EC-iPSCs), and cardiac progenitor cells (CPC-iPSCs). We then differentiated them into ECs by sequential administration of Activin, BMP4, bFGF, and VEGF. EC-iPSCs at early passage (10 < P < 20) showed higher EC differentiation propensity and gene expression of EC-specific markers (PECAM1 and NOS3) than FB-iPSCs and CPC-iPSCs. In vivo transplanted EC-iPSC-ECs were recovered with a higher percentage of CD31(+) population and expressed higher EC-specific gene expression markers (PECAM1, KDR, and ICAM) as revealed by microfluidic single-cell quantitative PCR (qPCR). In vitro EC-iPSC-ECs maintained a higher CD31(+) population than FB-iPSC-ECs and CPC-iPSC-ECs with long-term culturing and passaging. These results indicate that cellular origin may influence lineage differentiation propensity of human iPSCs; hence, the somatic memory carried by early passage iPSCs should be carefully considered before clinical translation.

  5. Effects of cellular origin on differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cell–derived endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Tao; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Lee, Won Hee; Snyder, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be derived from various types of somatic cells by transient overexpression of 4 Yamanaka factors (OCT4, SOX2, C-MYC, and KLF4). Patient-specific iPSC derivatives (e.g., neuronal, cardiac, hepatic, muscular, and endothelial cells [ECs]) hold great promise in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the cellular origin can affect the differentiation, in vivo behavior, and single-cell gene expression signatures of human iPSC–derived ECs. We derived human iPSCs from 3 types of somatic cells of the same individuals: fibroblasts (FB-iPSCs), ECs (EC-iPSCs), and cardiac progenitor cells (CPC-iPSCs). We then differentiated them into ECs by sequential administration of Activin, BMP4, bFGF, and VEGF. EC-iPSCs at early passage (10 < P < 20) showed higher EC differentiation propensity and gene expression of EC-specific markers (PECAM1 and NOS3) than FB-iPSCs and CPC-iPSCs. In vivo transplanted EC-iPSC–ECs were recovered with a higher percentage of CD31+ population and expressed higher EC-specific gene expression markers (PECAM1, KDR, and ICAM) as revealed by microfluidic single-cell quantitative PCR (qPCR). In vitro EC-iPSC–ECs maintained a higher CD31+ population than FB-iPSC–ECs and CPC-iPSC–ECs with long-term culturing and passaging. These results indicate that cellular origin may influence lineage differentiation propensity of human iPSCs; hence, the somatic memory carried by early passage iPSCs should be carefully considered before clinical translation. PMID:27398408

  6. Developing a methodology of bioindication of human-induced effects using seagrass morphological variation in Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambo-Rappe, Rohani

    2014-09-15

    Seagrass is particularly susceptible to environmental degradation. The objective of the study is to develop an effective bioindicator to assess human-induced effects using morphological variation and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of seagrass. Samples were collected from eight islands situated at different distance from mainland with different human population density and therefore expected to experience different level of anthropogenic pressure. Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, nitrate, and phosphate were measured. Metals were also measured in tissues of seagrass. Metal concentrations in sediment, water, and seagrass did not exceed the quality standards required for marine life. Heterogeneity of FA was found among sites suggesting that there are some factors changing developmental instability of seagrass which is not associated to particular toxicants. This baseline study indicates that the water condition is still natural and shows no signs of metal contamination, therefore it does not cause a detectable stress on morphological variation and FA of seagrass.

  7. Effect of noble gases on an atmospheric greenhouse /Titan/.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cess, R.; Owen, T.

    1973-01-01

    Several models for the atmosphere of Titan have been investigated, taking into account various combinations of neon and argon. The investigation shows that the addition of large amounts of Ne and/or Ar will substantially reduce the hydrogen abundance required for a given greenhouse effect. The fact that a large amount of neon should be present if the atmosphere is a relic of the solar nebula is an especially attractive feature of the models, because it is hard to justify appropriate abundances of other enhancing agents.

  8. A space parasol as a countermeasure against the greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested that the deployment of a 'space parasol' at the L1 Langrangian point of the earth-sun system would serve to intercept some desired fraction of the solar radiant energy, thereby lessening the impact of the greenhouse effect. The parasol satellites are described and possible orbit configurations are discussed. Orbital possibilities include Low Earth Orbit, Geosynchronous orbit, and L1 which appears to be the best option. Structural strength, control, and use of extraterrestrial material in the construction of the parasol are discussed.

  9. Effect of noble gases on an atmospheric greenhouse /Titan/.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cess, R.; Owen, T.

    1973-01-01

    Several models for the atmosphere of Titan have been investigated, taking into account various combinations of neon and argon. The investigation shows that the addition of large amounts of Ne and/or Ar will substantially reduce the hydrogen abundance required for a given greenhouse effect. The fact that a large amount of neon should be present if the atmosphere is a relic of the solar nebula is an especially attractive feature of the models, because it is hard to justify appropriate abundances of other enhancing agents.

  10. PRUNING SYSTEM EFFECT ON GREENHOUSE GRAFTED TOMATO YIELD AND QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Isabel; Teixeira, Joana; Brito, L Miguel; Ferreira, Maria Elvira; Moura, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects on tomato yield and quality of three pruning systems (2, 3 and 4 stems) of grafted plants (cv. Vinicio and Multifort) used to prevent the incidence of soil diseases. It was also investigated if the two stems from nodes of the cotyledon leaves improved crop performance compared to the two stems from the first true leaves nodes. The experiment was conducted in the spring/summer season, under greenhouse conditions at NW Portugal, with a randomized block d...

  11. The Effect of Taxation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga KOTNIK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of governmental environmental taxes on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using a panel data set of 19 EU countries for the time period 1995-2010. We estimate both direct and indirect effects of governmental environmental taxes on GHG emissions in industrial processes. The indirect effect in particular operates through the effect of environmental expenditure for reduction of GHG emissions in industry. To take into account the dynamic nature and to properly address the potential endogeneity, adequate econometric methods are applied. We have shown that the direct effect of environmental taxes on GHG emissions is negative, while the indirect effect through environmental expenditures is also negative and even more statistically significant. Consequently, some policy implications may be derived from the results.

  12. The Effect of Taxation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga KOTNIK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of governmental environmental taxes on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using a panel data set of 19 EU countries for the time period 1995-2010. We estimate both direct and indirect effects of governmental environmental taxes on GHG emissions in industrial processes. The indirect effect in particular operates through the effect of environmental expenditure for reduction of GHG emissions in industry. To take into account the dynamic nature and to properly address the potential endogeneity, adequate econometric methods are applied. We have shown that the direct effect of environmental taxes on GHG emissions is negative, while the indirect effect through environmental expenditures is also negative and even more statistically significant. Consequently, some policy implications may be derived from the results.

  13. Knowledge about the 'Greenhouse Effect': have college students improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Helen; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2001-02-01

    The prevalence of the ideas of Year I undergraduate biology students about the consequences, causes and cures of the 'greenhouse effect' was determined using a closed-form questionnaire, and the results compared with a parallel study undertaken nearly 10 years ago. Many of the students in the present study were unaware of the potential effect of global warming on the distribution of crop pests, or that ground level ozone acts as a 'greenhouse gas'. Prevalent misconceptions were that global warming is caused by increased penetration of solar radiation, that it is connected with holes in the ozone layer, that it would result in increased skin cancer, and that use of unleaded petrol would reduce it. There appeared to be a general conflation of thinking about global warming and ozone layer depletion. Despite an increased certainty about the existence and effects of global warming among experts, the results are broadly similar to, and certainly no better than, those obtained with an equivalent group of students in a previous study, suggesting that despite media publicity and inclusion of the issue of global warming in the formal curriculum, insecure knowledge and misconceptions persist.

  14. The greenhouse effect in a gray planetary atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, R.

    1966-01-01

    Hopf analytical solution for values of ratio of gray absorption coefficients for insolating and escaping radiation /greenhouse parameter/ assumed constant at all depths, presenting temperature distribution graphs

  15. Human-induced Arctic moistening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis

    2008-04-25

    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  16. Emission of carbon. A most important component for greenhouse effect in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milaev, V.B.; Kopp, I.Z.; Yasenski, A.N. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atmospheric Air Protection, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Greenhouse effect is most often defined as the probabilities of atmospheric air quasiequilibrium temperature increase as a result of air pollution due to emission of anthropogenic gaseous substances which are usually called `greenhouse gases`. Among greenhouse gases are primarily considered several gaseous substances which contain carbon atoms: carbon oxide, carbon dioxide and methane (CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), and chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons (freons) spectra of which are transparent to solar radiation, but absorb and reradiate longwave radiation causing disturbance of quasistationary thermal regieme of the atmosphere. Qualitative estimates of the income and relative roles of different substances in occurrence of greenhouse effect differ considerable. At the modern state of knowledge the problem of greenhouse effect and greenhouse gases is considered in several aspects. The most widespread and investigated is climatic or meteorological aspect, it is discussed in a number of international works. Rather pressing is thermal physics aspect of the problem of estimating greenhouse effect, which consists in correct construction of a calculation model and usage of the most representative experimental data, since analytical methods require many assumptions, introduction of which may lead to results which differ very much. Bearing these uncertainties in mind the UNEP/WMO/ICSU conference has included into the number of the most urgent tasks in the study of greenhouse effect, the problem of determining the priority of factors which cause greenhouse effect, which in its turn predetermines the necessity to substantiate the methods of selection and criterion of comparative evaluation of such factors. (author)

  17. Solar energy: the physics of the greenhouse effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M

    1975-07-01

    For practical reasons, it is likely that low-temperature solar collectors have a more immediate future than high-temperature or photovoltaic generation of electricity. This paper discusses the physics of bare and covered flat-plate collectors. The greenhouse effect is the result of reducing convection to the point that radiation trapping becomes important. Nevertheless, at collector temperatures within 20-30 degrees C of ambient, convection from the collector surface is so important that a special absorber with low ir emissivity may be no more efficient than a good, black absorber. At higher temperatures, selective absorbers are desirable. In the low temperature range, collection efficiency can be kept well over 80%, but falls rapidly with increasing collector temperature. This suggests that solar power may see early application in conjunction with heat pumps for heating and air conditioning.

  18. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  19. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  20. The detection of climate change due to the enhanced greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Robert A.; Unninayar, Sushel

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is accepted as an undisputed fact from both theoretical and observational considerations. In Earth's atmosphere, the primary greenhouse gas is water vapor. The specific concern today is that increasing concentrations of anthropogenically introduced greenhouse gases will, sooner or later, irreversibly alter the climate of Earth. Detecting climate change has been complicated by uncertainties in historical observations and measurements. Thus, the primary concern for the GEDEX project is how can climate change and enhanced greenhouse effects be unambiguously detected and quantified. Specifically examined are the areas of: Earth surface temperature; the free atmosphere (850 millibars and above); space-based measurements; measurement uncertainties; and modeling the observed temperature record.

  1. Using Interactive Technology to Support Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Keisha; Linn, Marcia C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we examine middle school students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming. We designed and refined a technology-enhanced curriculum module called "Global Warming: Virtual Earth". In the module activities, students conduct virtual experiments with a visualization of the greenhouse effect. They analyze data and draw…

  2. "Home Made" Model to Study the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, P.; Mascheretti, P.; DeAmbrosis, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a simplified two-parameter model of the greenhouse effect on the Earth is developed, starting from the well known two-layer model. It allows both the analysis of the temperatures of the inner planets, by focusing on the role of the greenhouse effect, and a comparison between the temperatures the planets should have in the absence of…

  3. Using Interactive Technology to Support Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Keisha; Linn, Marcia C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we examine middle school students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming. We designed and refined a technology-enhanced curriculum module called "Global Warming: Virtual Earth". In the module activities, students conduct virtual experiments with a visualization of the greenhouse effect. They analyze data and draw…

  4. "Home Made" Model to Study the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, P.; Mascheretti, P.; DeAmbrosis, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a simplified two-parameter model of the greenhouse effect on the Earth is developed, starting from the well known two-layer model. It allows both the analysis of the temperatures of the inner planets, by focusing on the role of the greenhouse effect, and a comparison between the temperatures the planets should have in the absence of…

  5. A new index to assess chemicals increasing the greenhouse effect based on their toxicity to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Tian, Dayong; Gao, Ya; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingyun

    2015-11-01

    CO2, as the typical greenhouse gas causing the greenhouse effect, is a major global environmental problem and has attracted increasing attention from governments. Using algae to eliminate CO2, which has been proposed as an effective way to reduce the greenhouse effect in the past decades, can be disturbed by a growing number of artificial chemicals. Thus, seven types of chemicals and Selenastrum capricornutum (algae) were examined in this study, and the good consistency between the toxicity of artificial chemicals to algae and the disturbance of carbon fixation by the chemicals was revealed. This consistency showed that the disturbance of an increasing number of artificial chemicals to the carbon fixation of algae might be a "malware" worsening the global greenhouse effect. Therefore, this study proposes an original, promising index to assess the risk of deepening the greenhouse effect by artificial chemicals before they are produced and marketed.

  6. Effects of natural and human-induced hypoxia on coastal benthos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Levin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal hypoxia (defined here as <1.42 ml L−1; 62.5 μM; 2 mg L−1, approx. 30% oxygen saturation develops seasonally in many estuaries, fjords, and along open coasts as a result of natural upwelling or from anthropogenic eutrophication induced by riverine nutrient inputs. Permanent hypoxia occurs naturally in some isolated seas and marine basins as well as in open slope oxygen minimum zones. Responses of benthos to hypoxia depend on the duration, predictability, and intensity of oxygen depletion and on whether H2S is formed. Under suboxic conditions, large mats of filamentous sulfide oxidizing bacteria cover the seabed and consume sulfide. They are hypothesized to provide a detoxified microhabitat for eukaryotic benthic communities. Calcareous foraminiferans and nematodes are particularly tolerant of low oxygen concentrations and may attain high densities and dominance, often in association with microbial mats. When oxygen is sufficient to support metazoans, small, soft-bodied invertebrates (typically annelids, often with short generation times and elaborate branchial structures, predominate. Large taxa are more sensitive than small taxa to hypoxia. Crustaceans and echinoderms are typically more sensitive to hypoxia, with lower oxygen thresholds, than annelids, sipunculans, molluscs and cnidarians. Mobile fish and shellfish will migrate away from low-oxygen areas. Within a species, early life stages may be more subject to oxygen stress than older life stages.

    Hypoxia alters both the structure and function of benthic communities, but effects may differ with regional hypoxia history. Human-caused hypoxia is generally linked to eutrophication, and occurs adjacent to watersheds with large populations or agricultural activities. Many occurrences are seasonal, within estuaries, fjords or enclosed seas of the North Atlantic and the NW Pacific Oceans. Benthic faunal responses, elicited at oxygen levels below

  7. Effects of natural and human-induced hypoxia on coastal benthos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Levin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal hypoxia (<1.42 ml L−1; 62.5 μM; 2 mg L−1, approx. 30% oxygen saturation occurs seasonally in many estuaries, fjords, and along open coasts subject to upwelling or excessive riverine nutrient input, and permanently in some isolated seas and marine basins. Underlying causes of hypoxia include enhanced nutrient input from natural causes (upwelling or anthropogenic origin (eutrophication and reduction of mixing by limited circulation or enhanced stratification; combined these lead to higher surface water production, microbial respiration and eventual oxygen depletion. Advective inputs of low-oxygen waters may initiate or expand hypoxic conditions. Responses of estuarine, enclosed sea, and open shelf benthos to hypoxia depend on the duration, predictability, and intensity of oxygen depletion and on whether H2S is formed. Under suboxic conditions, large mats of filamentous sulfide oxidizing bacteria cover the seabed and consume sulfide, thereby providing a detoxified microhabitat for eukaryotic benthic communities. Calcareous foraminiferans and nematodes are particularly tolerant of low oxygen concentrations and may attain high densities and dominance, often in association with microbial mats. When oxygen is sufficient to support metazoans, small, soft-bodied invertebrates (typically annelids, often with short generation times and elaborate branchial structures, predominate. Large taxa are more sensitive than small taxa to hypoxia. Crustaceans and echinoderms are typically more sensitive to hypoxia, with lower oxygen thresholds, than annelids, sipunculans, molluscs and cnidarians. Mobile fish and shellfish will migrate away from low-oxygen areas. Within a species, early life stages may be more subject to oxygen stress than older life stages.

    Hypoxia alters both the structure and function of benthic communities, but effects may differ with regional hypoxia history. Human-caused hypoxia is generally

  8. Demonstration of the greenhouse effect for elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanovic, Jelena

    2014-05-01

    The school where I work is part of the "Step by step towards the sustainable development school" project. Project activities are partly directed towards the popularization of science. As a physics teacher, I have had the opportunity to engage in designing interactive workshops, aiming to introduce younger students to simple experiments which illustrate different natural phenomena, and also in organization, preparation and implementation of school and city science festival (in 2012 and 2013). Numerous displays, workshops and experiments served to introduce a large number of visitors to different topics in the area of science and technology. One of the subjects of forthcoming science festival, planned for May of 2014, is the climate change. To that effect, eight grade students will hold a demonstration and explanation of the greenhouse effect. Although the terms greenhouse effect and global warming are widely used in media, most of the elementary school students in Serbia have poor understanding of the underlying scientific concepts. The experiment with analysis and discussion will first be implemented in one eight-grade class (14 years of age). After that, a group of students from this class will present their newly-acquired knowledge to their peers and younger students at the science fair. Activity objectives: • Explain how atmosphere affects the surface temperature of Earth • Conduct an experiment to demonstrate the greenhouse effect • Analyze the consequences of climate changes Experiment description: Take two empty, transparent containers and add a layer of garden soil. Use cardboard or similar material to make housings for the thermometers. Hang them in the containers, so that they don't touch the soil. Cover one container with a glass panel, and leave the other one open. Place identical incandescent light bulbs at the same distance above each container. Turn the light bulbs on. The students should mark the thermometer readings every 2 minutes, for 20

  9. The Impact of Upper Tropospheric Humidity from Microwave Limb Sounder on the Midlatitude Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.

  10. Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

  11. Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

  12. Hydrological controls on the tropospheric ozone greenhouse gas effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Kuai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the hydrological cycle in the greenhouse gas (GHG effect of tropospheric ozone (O3 is quantified in terms of the O3longwave radiative effect (LWRE, which is defined as the net reduction of top-of-atmosphere flux due to total tropospheric O3absorption. The O3LWRE derived from the infrared spectral measurements by Aura’s Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES show that the spatiotemporal variation of LWRE is relevant to relative humidity, surface temperature, and tropospheric O3column. The zonally averaged subtropical LWRE is ~0.2 W m-2higher than the zonally averaged tropical LWRE, generally due to lower water vapor concentrations and less cloud coverage at the downward branch of the Hadley cell in the subtropics. The largest values of O3LWRE over the Middle East (>1 W/m2 are further due to large thermal contrasts and tropospheric ozone enhancements from atmospheric circulation and pollution. Conversely, the low O3LWRE over the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (on average 0.4 W m-2 is due to strong water vapor absorption and cloudiness, both of which reduce the tropospheric O3absorption in the longwave radiation. These results show that changes in the hydrological cycle due to climate change could affect the magnitude and distribution of ozone radiative forcing.

  13. Separate effects of flooding and anaerobiosis on soil greenhouse gas emissions and redox sensitive biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin McNicol; Whendee L. Silver

    2014-01-01

    Soils are large sources of atmospheric greenhouse gases, and both the magnitude and composition of soil gas emissions are strongly controlled by redox conditions. Though the effect of redox dynamics on greenhouse gas emissions has been well studied in flooded soils, less research has focused on redox dynamics without total soil inundation. For the latter, all that is...

  14. The effect of agricultural trade liberalisation on land-use related greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Stehfest, E.; Woltjer, G.B.; Eickhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation and concomitant changes in agricultural areas and livestock production on greenhouse gas emissions using the coupled LEITAP–IMAGE modelling system. The results indicate that liberalisation leads to an increase in total greenhouse g

  15. Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas tax and CO2 tax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, A.C.; Moll, H.C.; Drissen, E.; Wilting, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    Current economic instruments aimed at mitigating climate change focus on CO2 emissions, but the Kyoto Protocol refers to six greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6). Inclusion of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in economic instruments can increase the cost-effectiveness of achieving the Kyoto

  16. The social representations of the greenhouse effect; Les representations sociales de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boy, D.

    2000-07-01

    This document presents the results analysis to the inquiry realized during may and june 2000 on the greenhouse effect perception by the public. The following questions have been asked and analyzed: what is the greenhouse effect, who is responsible of the greenhouse effect, what will be the consequences of the greenhouse effect, how to meet with this effect, information and perception. (A.L.B.)

  17. 'Home made' model to study the greenhouse effect and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onorato, P; Mascheretti, P; DeAmbrosis, A, E-mail: pasquale.onorato@unipv.it, E-mail: anna.deambrosisvigna@unipv.it [Department of Physics ' A. Volta' , University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    In this paper a simplified two-parameter model of the greenhouse effect on the Earth is developed, starting from the well known two-layer model. It allows both the analysis of the temperatures of the inner planets, by focusing on the role of the greenhouse effect, and a comparison between the temperatures the planets should have in the absence of greenhouse effect and their actual ones. It may also be used to predict the average temperature of the Earth surface in the future, depending on the variations of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to human activities. This model can promote an elementary understanding of global warming since it allows a simple formalization of the energy balance for the Earth in the stationary condition, in the presence of greenhouse gases. For these reasons it can be introduced in courses for undergraduate physics students and for teacher preparation.

  18. Greenhouse effect from the point of view of radiative transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barcza, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Radiative power balance of a planet in the solar system is delineated. The terrestrial powers are transformed to average global flux in an effective atmospheric column (EAC) approximation, its components are delineated. The estimated and measured secular changes of the average global flux are compared to the fluxes derived from the Stefan-Boltzmann law using the observed global annual temperatures in the decades between 1880 and 2010. The conclusion of this procedure is that the radiative contribution of the greenhouse gas ${\\rm CO}_2$ is some $21\\pm 7$~\\% to the observed global warming from the end of the XIXth century excluding the feedback mechanisms playing determining role in the climate system. Stationary radiative flux transfer is treated in an air column as a function of the column density of the absorbent. Upper and lower limit of radiative forcing is given by assuming true absorption and coherent scatter of the monochromatic radiation. An integral formula is given for the outgoing long wave radiatio...

  19. The climatic warming up (the greenhouse effect); Le rechauffement climatique (l'effet de serre)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jancovici, J.M.; Jouzel, J. [CEA Saclay, Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lorius, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, 38 - Grenoble (France)] [and others

    2000-05-01

    Facing the environmental and biological impacts of the climatic warming up, scientists and economists organized a debate on the subject. After a theoretical presentation of the greenhouse effect and the greenhouse gases, the climatic changes are discussed and simulation of the effects are presented. The today effects and tomorrow impacts on the agriculture and the public health are also presented. A synthesis is proposed to discuss the contribution of the energy policy and of the technological progress in measures of greenhouse effect control. (A.L.B.)

  20. Ca2+-currents in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes - effects of two different culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umur Uzun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM provide a unique opportunity to study human heart physiology and pharmacology and repair injured hearts. The suitability of hiPSC-CM critically depends on how closely they share physiological properties of human adult cardiomyocytes (CM. Here we investigated whether a 3D engineered heart tissue (EHT culture format favors maturation and addressed the L-type Ca2+-current (ICa,L as a readout. The results were compared with hiPSC-CM cultured in conventional monolayer (ML and to our previous data from human adult atrial and ventricular CM obtained when identical patch-clamp protocols were used. HiPSC-CM were 2-3 fold smaller than adult CM, independently of culture format (capacitance ML 45±1 pF (n=289, EHT 45±1 pF (n=460, atrial CM 87±3 pF (n=196, ventricular CM 126±8 pF (n=50. Only 88% of ML cells showed ICa, but all EHT. Basal ICa density was 10±1 pA/pF (n=207 for ML and 12±1 pA/pF (n=361 for EHT and was larger than in adult CM (7±1 pA/pF (p<0.05, n=196 for atrial CM and 6±1 pA/pF (p<0.05, n=47 for ventricular CM. However, ML and EHT showed robust T-type Ca2+-currents (ICa,T. While (--Bay K 8644, that activates ICa,L directly, increased ICa,L to the same extent in ML and EHT, β1- and β2-adrenoceptor effects were marginal in ML, but of same size as (--Bay K 8644 in EHT. The opposite was true for serotonin receptors. Sensitivity to β1 and β2-adrenoceptor stimulation was the same in EHT as in adult CM (-logEC50: 5.9 and 6.1 for norepinephrine (NE and epinephrine (Epi, respectively, but very low concentrations of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS were sufficient to suppress effects (-logEC50: 5.3 and 5.3 respectively for NE and Epi. Taken together, hiPSC-CM express ICa,L at the same density as human adult CM, but, in contrast, possess robust ICa,T. Increased effects of catecholamines in EHT suggest more efficient maturation.

  1. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric i

  2. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric

  3. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect (2nd Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume is a second edition of the book “Soil Carbon Sequestration and The Greenhouse Effect”. The first edition was published in 2001 as SSSA Special Publ. #57. The present edition is an update of the concepts, processes, properties, practices and the supporting data. All chapters are new co...

  4. Calculation of NIR effect on greenhouse climate in various conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Hemming, S.

    2012-01-01

    In Northern regions of Europe glass is mainly used as greenhouse covering material whereas in Southern regions plastic films are commonly used. The develop-ment of covering material optical properties focuses on high light transmission, reduction of heating energy losses (higher latitudes) and reduc

  5. The role of forestry development in China in alleviating greenhouse effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hong

    1996-12-31

    Forestry development in China has gained great achievements and made great progress in realizing sustainable forest management and alleviating global climate change. The main measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development include afforestation to increase the forested area, fuel wood forest development, management improvement, wise utilization, international cooperation, investment increase, forest related scientific research, strengthening the forest law enforcement system. Climate change as well as how to alleviate the greenhouse effects is a hot topic at present. This paper describes the achievements of China`s forestry development and its role to alleviate the greenhouse effects, and puts forward the measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development.

  6. Models of Students' Thinking Concerning the Greenhouse Effect and Teaching Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulaidis, Vasilis; Christidou, Vasilia

    1999-01-01

    Primary school students (n=40) ages 11 and 12 years were interviewed concerning their conceptions of the greenhouse effect. Analysis of the data led to the formation of seven distinct models of thinking regarding this phenomenon. (Author/CCM)

  7. What Light through Yonder Window Breaks?--The Greenhouse Effect Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    1992-01-01

    Presents three experiments exploring aspects of the greenhouse effect. Topics and discussion includes radiation in energy transfer, emissivity and absorptivity, the irrelevance of reflectivity, a digression on insulators and convection, climate change, and radiative energy balance. (MCO)

  8. [Effects of sunken depth of energy-saving solar greenhouse on the diurnal variation and spatial distribution of environmental factors in the greenhouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-ming; Zi, Xi-zhen; Yu, Xian-chang

    2011-08-01

    Taking the energy-saving solar greenhouses with the same infrastructure but different sunken depths (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m) in Tai' an of Shandong Province as test objects, this paper analyzed the intercepted amount of direct solar radiation energy, and studied the diurnal variation and spatial distribution patterns of environmental factors in the greenhouses on winter solstice (December 20-24, 2009) and summer solstice (June 19-23, 2010). With the increase of sunken depth, the shadow areas in the greenhouses caused by sunken profiles increased gradually, the direct solar radiation energy into the interior of the greenhouses shifted from south to north, and the ratio of ground radiation to back wall radiation decreased gradually. Within the range of 0-1.0 m sunken depth, the air temperature and soil temperature in the greenhouses increased significantly with increasing sunken depth; but when the sunken depth was 1.5 m, the warming effect declined significantly, and the deviation of the lowest soil temperature increased. The deeper the sunken depth, the lower the light intensity and the higher the relative humidity in the greenhouses were. In considering of both lighting and heat preservation, the appropriate sunken depth of energy-saving sunlight greenhouses with a span of 10 m in Tai' an region should be less than 1.0 m.

  9. Lay perceptions of the greenhouse effect; Les representations profanes de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretti-Watel, P. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), UMR 379, Epidemiologie et Sciences Sociales Appliquees a l' Innovation Medicale / ORS PACA, 13 - Marseille (France); Hammer, B. [Electricite de France (EDF-GRETS), 92 - Clamart (France)

    2006-10-15

    Using the data from the French Environment Barometer EDF-RD 2004 (national representative sample of French citizens aged over 15) and surveys by ADEME between 2000 and 2005, the paper investigates lay perceptions of the causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect, which may be considered as archetypical of contemporary environmental risks. Beyond lay lack of knowledge, the greenhouse effect gives rise to coherent and meaningful cognitions, including causal explanations, shaped by the pre-existing cognitive framework. This cognitive work, based on analogic rather than scientific thought, strings together the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, air pollution and even nuclear power. The cognitive process is also fed by the individuals' general conceptions of Nature and of the rights and duties of humankind towards Nature. People are not greatly worried about the unseen and controversial consequences of the greenhouse effect: such worry could be one of those 'elite fears' mentioned by Beck. Finally, while the efficiency of public policies to counter the greenhouse effect requires extensive societal involvement, low confidence towards both political and scientific authorities may prevent the population from becoming aware of the environmental stakes tied to the greenhouse effect. (authors)

  10. Biological methanogenesis and the CO2 greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    It is well established that plants tend to increase net photosynthesis under increased carbon dioxide. It is also well established that a large fraction of atmospheric methane is produced by microbial metabolism of organic sediments in paddies and freshwater wetlands, where a major source of organic debris is local plant growth. As CO2 increases, it may lead to increased methane production and a resulting enhancement of the expected greenhouse warming. A rough estimate of the present rate of this biologically mediated feedback on the climate system indicates that it might account for as much as 30 percent of the observed methane increase and speed up the greenhouse forcing by as much as 15 percent.

  11. Effectiveness of horizontal air flow fans supporting natural ventilation in a Mediterranean multi-span greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro López

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural ventilation is the most important method of climate control in Mediterranean greenhouses. In this study, the microclimate and air flow inside a Mediterranean greenhouse were evaluated by means of sonic anemometry. Experiments were carried out in conditions of moderate wind (≈ 4.0 m s-1, and at low wind speed (≈ 1.8 m s-1 the natural ventilation of the greenhouse was supplemented by two horizontal air flow fans. The greenhouse is equipped with a single roof vent opening to the windward side and two side vents, the windward one being blocked by another greenhouse close to it, while the leeward one is free of obstacles. When no fans are used, air enters through the roof vent and exits through both side vents, thus flowing contrary to the thermal effect which causes hot air to rise and impairing the natural ventilation of the greenhouse. Using fans inside the greenhouse helps the air to circulate and mix, giving rise to a more homogeneous inside temperature and increasing the average value of normalized air velocity by 365 %. These fans also increase the average values of kinetic turbulence energy inside the greenhouse by 550 % compared to conditions of natural ventilation. As the fans are placed 4 m away from the side vents, their effect on the entrance of outside air is insufficient and they do not help to reduce the inside temperature on hot days with little wind. It is therefore recommended to place the fans closer to the side vents to allow an additional increase of the air exchange rate of greenhouses.

  12. Simple model of photo acoustic system for greenhouse effect

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Ogawa, Naohisa

    2010-01-01

    The simple theoretical basis for photo acoustic (PA) system for studying infrared absorption properties of greenhouse gases is constructed. The amplitude of sound observed in PA depends on the modulation frequency of light pulse. Its dependence can be explained by our simple model. According to this model, sound signal has higher harmonics. The theory and experiment are compared in third and fifth harmonics by spectrum analysis. The theory has the analogy with electric circuits. This analogy helps students for understanding the PA system.

  13. The isolating effect of greenhouses on arthropod pests: a case-study on Clepsis spectrana (Lepidoptera: Torticidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, van den J.

    1983-01-01

    Chapter 1: the environmental conditions in greenhouses differ in many respects from those in the open field. Both the climate and the crops are different. A free exchange between the fauna of the greenhouses and the open air is hampered by the glass walls and roofs. The isolating effect of greenhous

  14. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  15. Effects of UV-absorbing plastic films on greenhouse whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutwiwa, Urbanus N; Borgemeister, Christian; von Elsner, Burkhard; Tantau, Hans-Juergen

    2005-08-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing plastic films on the orientation and distribution behavior of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). In field experiments, small tunnels were constructed and covered with either an UV-transmitting (Thermilux) or UV-absorbing (K-Rose) plastic film. Results show that significantly more whiteflies were recorded in the tunnels with high compared with those with low UV intensities. Moreover, whitefly penetration and dispersion were less inside the UV-deficient tunnels. These results suggest that the type of plastic film used for greenhouse covers may have a significant influence on both the initial immigration and distribution of T. vaporariorum into greenhouses. The possibilities of using UV-absorbing plastic films for whitefly integrated pest management in greenhouses are discussed.

  16. Greenhouse effect of trace gases, 1970-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacis, A.; Hansen, J.; Lee, P.; Lebedeff, S.; Mitchell, T.

    1981-01-01

    Increased abundances were measured for several trace atmospheric gases in the decade 1970-1980. The equilibrium greenhouse warming for the measured increments of CH4, chlorofluorocarbons and N2O is between 50% and 100% of the equilibrium warming for the measured increase of atmospheric CO2 during the same 10 years. The combined warming of CO2 and trace gases should exceed natural global temperature variability in the 1980's and cause the global mean temperature to rise above the maximum of the late 1930's.

  17. Greenhouse effect of trace gases, 1970-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacis, A.; Hansen, J.; Lee, P.; Lebedeff, S.; Mitchell, T.

    1981-01-01

    Increased abundances were measured for several trace atmospheric gases in the decade 1970-1980. The equilibrium greenhouse warming for the measured increments of CH4, chlorofluorocarbons and N2O is between 50% and 100% of the equilibrium warming for the measured increase of atmospheric CO2 during the same 10 years. The combined warming of CO2 and trace gases should exceed natural global temperature variability in the 1980's and cause the global mean temperature to rise above the maximum of the late 1930's.

  18. The Effects of Concept Cartoons on Eliminating Students’ Misconceptions: Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Cerrah Ozsevgeç

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the effects of concept cartoons on eliminating students’ misconceptions about the global warming and greenhouse effect. The sample of the study is consisted of 17 students from the 7 grade of Rize Çay Primary School. Simple experimental study design was used in the study. Test and semi-structured interview were used to collect the data. The results of the study showed that the students had misconceptions about global warming and greenhouse effect. The teaching process comprising concept cartoons treated most of these misconceptions. Students indicated that the teaching process was enjoyable and it eased the students’ remembering of the given knowledge. Based on the results, it was suggested that the teachers should be informed about the usage of concept cartoon in the classroom and combination of different teaching methods which is supported by concept cartoon may be more useful for different science subjects.

  19. [Effects of fertilizer application on greenhouse vegetable yield: a case study of Shouguang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Li, Yan; Jiang, Li-Hua; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Gao, Xin-Hao; Lin, Hai-Tao; Zheng, Fu-Li; Shi, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Data collected from 51 representative greenhouses of Shouguang through questionnaire survey were analyzed to investigate the effect of chemical fertilizers on vegetable yield, relationship between application of organic manure and yield, and influence factors and evolution rule of fertilizer application rate. The results showed that averages of 3338 kg N x hm(-2), 1710 kg P2O5 x hm(-2) 3446 kg K2O x hm(-2) were applied to greenhouse vegetables annually in Shouguang, 6-14 times as that in the local wheat-maize rotation system. The application rates of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers accounted for about 35%, 49% and 42% of the total input. Increasing application of chemical fertilizers had no significant effect on vegetable yields, while organic manure input significantly increased the vegetable yields. With the increase of greenhouse cultivating time, no significant changes in the input of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers were observed in greenhouse vegetable production while organic manure input decreased significantly. Differences in vegetable species, planting pattern and cultivating time of greenhouses was one of the reasons for large variations in nutrient application rate. In recent more than ten years, organic manure nutrient input increased significantly, chemical N and P fertilizer input presented a downward trend, chemical K fertilizer input increased significantly, and the N/P/K ratio became more and more reasonable in greenhouse vegetable production in Shouguang.

  20. Warming effects on greenhouse gas fluxes in peatlands are modulated by vegetation composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nicholas J; Oakley, Simon; Quirk, Helen; Henrys, Peter A; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the effects of warming on greenhouse gas feedbacks to climate change represents a major global challenge. Most research has focused on direct effects of warming, without considering how concurrent changes in plant communities may alter such effects. Here, we combined vegetation manipulations with warming to investigate their interactive effects on greenhouse gas emissions from peatland. We found that although warming consistently increased respiration, the effect on net ecosystem CO2 exchange depended on vegetation composition. The greatest increase in CO2 sink strength after warming was when shrubs were present, and the greatest decrease when graminoids were present. CH4 was more strongly controlled by vegetation composition than by warming, with largest emissions from graminoid communities. Our results show that plant community composition is a significant modulator of greenhouse gas emissions and their response to warming, and suggest that vegetation change could alter peatland carbon sink strength under future climate change.

  1. Assessment of US, Indian and Chinese Middle School Students' Outlook on the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, D.; Ganesh, N.; Singh, D.; Liu, X.; Shepardson, D. P.; Roychoudhury, A.; Hirsch, A.; Halversen, C.

    2012-12-01

    When you think of the greenhouse effect and climate change what images and concepts come to mind? Answers to these questions are important to educators and policy makers as they wrestle with the issue of educating and conveying these concepts in class rooms and to the general public. The greenhouse effect (GHE) sustains life on the earth through regulating the temperatures on the planet. Well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide absorb outgoing (long wave) radiation from the Earth's surface while allowing passage without absorption of the incoming solar (shortwave) radiation. Increasing the GHG concentration in the atmosphere increases the absorption of long wavelength radiation thereby increasing global temperatures that result in changes in the atmospheric states consistently over multiple decades.The concept of the greenhouse effect is critical to the discussions underway pertaining to climate change and the controls on greenhouse emissions being proposed in different forums. This study sought to (1) investigate students' conceptions about the greenhouse effect, global warming and climate change; (2) determine if there are differences between perceptions for students in US, India and China (Asia)- where there are known differences in the political and scientific approaches; and (3) determine if there any differences, contextual or otherwise, in the way the greenhouse effect is taught in these countries. This study was conducted in select schools in the Midwest US, India and China that volunteered to work with this project. -For US, data from 51 secondary students from three different schools were analyzed, for India the number was 71 from 3 schools, while for China the number is over 100 (and being analyzed) from different classes within a school. Study Hypotheses: 1.Middle school students have a good scientific understanding of greenhouse gases. 2.The U.S and Asian students have the same outlook. Teachers

  2. Effects of Different Rootstocks on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Greenhouse Cucumber in Early Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; ZHANG Tianwei; ZHAO Jiayu; JIANG Xinmei

    2009-01-01

    Different pumpkin rootstocks were used to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth and fruit quality of greenhouse cucumber in early spring. The results showed that the grafted cucumber could significantly improve the production, and different rootstock had a certain effect on the survival rate and fruit quality. Jinhuanghou and Fengyijiajiewang as rootstock had the highest survival rate, which were 79.0% and 70.7%, respectively. As rootstocks of greenhouse cucumber, Jinhuanghou, Lvzhoujuxing,Fengyi, Huofenghuang, and Dawei No.17 were better than others according to taste, and Heizinangua, Jinhuanghou, Fengyi,Huofenghuang, and Dawei No. 17 were better according to output.

  3. Effect of solid and aqueous extract of vermicompost on growth characteristics of tomato and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Peimani Foroushani; N. Poorjavad; M. Haghigh; J. Khajehali

    2016-01-01

    Considering the increase of using vermicompost fertilizers in greenhouse cultivation, effect of vermicompost application on growth characteristics of tomato and one of its major pests [greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hem:Aleyrodidae)] was investigated. The experiment consisted of five treatments: control (without vermicompost), 30% and 60% solid vermicompost fertilizer, and 40% and 20% aqueous extracts of vermicompost. Effect of vermicompost on greenhouse whitefly was tested f...

  4. Assessment of the impact of the greenhouse gas emission and sink scenarios in Finland on radiative forcing and greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, I.; Sinisalo, J.; Pipatti, R. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this work is to study greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their greenhouse impact as a function of time. The greenhouse impact is expressed in terms of global average radiative forcing, which measures the perturbation in the Earth`s radiation budget. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes of the greenhouse gases and the radiation absorption properties of the gases. It takes into account the relatively slow changes in the concentrations due to natural removal and transformation processes and also allows a comparison of the impact of various greenhouse gases and their possible control options as a function of time. In addition to the applications mentioned above, the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission histories of Nordic countries have been estimated, and the radiative forcing caused by them has been calculated with REFUGE. The dynamic impact of aerosol emissions both from the global point of view and in the context of different energy sources (coal, oil and natural gas) have also been studied. In some instances the caused radiative forcing has been examined on a per capita basis. The radiative forcing calculations contain considerable uncertainty due to inaccurately known factors at several stages of the calculation (emission estimation, concentration calculation and radiative forcing calculation). The total uncertainty of the results is typically on the order of +- 40 %, when absolute values are used. If the results are used in a relative way, e.g. to compare the impacts of different scenarios, the final uncertainty is considerably less (typically + 10 %), due to correlations in almost all stages of the calculation process

  5. Are Yellow Sticky Traps an Effective Method for Control of Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in the Greenhouse or Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaobin; Bei, Yawei; Zhang, Jinming

    2012-01-01

    Yellow sticky traps are a common method for monitoring many pests, but it has not been shown whether they could be used as a control method. In this study the impact of yellow sticky traps on the population dynamics of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was determined in the greenhouse and field. In the greenhouse, yellow sticky traps significantly suppressed the population increase of adult and immature whiteflies. The whitefly densities in the greenhouse with traps were significantly lower than the greenhouse without traps. In the field, traps did not have a significant impact on the population dynamics of adult and immature whiteflies. The densities in fields with traps were very similar to fields without traps. These results suggest that yellow sticky traps can be used as an effective method for the control of whiteflies in the greenhouse, but not in the field. This information will prove useful for the effective management of whiteflies in greenhouses. PMID:23445077

  6. The Effect of Vegetation Coverage and Greenhouse Area on the Performance of an Earth-to-Air Heat Exchanger in Cooling Mode of Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi Mogharreb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The underground temperature at a depth of about three to four meters is almost constant during the year. As a result in summer the underground is cooler than the ambient temperature. This potential is considered for greenhouse cooling by using an Earth-to-Air Heat Exchanger (EAHE. In this research the effects of two parameters were investigated: a the area of greenhouse in three levels of 9, 18, 27 m2 and b the percent of vegetation coverage inside the greenhouse in three levels of 0%, 50%, 100% on the performance of EAHE. The experimental design was factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design. The parameters of greenhouse’s inside temperature, thermal energy exchange and coefficient of performance (COP were considered in cooling mode. As one of the remarkable results it was observed that the closed loop utilization of the system was infeasible in cooling mode. This was mainly due to the occurrence of vapor distillation inside the underground pipes and hence the blockages of the air flow. Also the effect of area and the percent of vegetation coverage were significant on the performance of EAHE. The highest average temperature difference between the temperature of testimonial greenhouse and the temperature of greenhouse was observed in treatment of 100% vegetation coverage and 9 m2 floor area which was measured as 9.6°C. The least average temperature difference in the treatment without vegetation coverage and 27 m2 floor area was measured as 5.2 °C. Considering thermal energy exchange in cooling greenhouse with open loop, the best treatment determined for EAHE in this research was the one with 9 m2 floor area and 100% of vegetation coverage.

  7. The Measurement of Technical Efficiency and Effective Factors in Cucumber Greenhouse (Case Study: Eastern Azarbayjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Abdollahi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate technical efficiency of cucumber greenhouses in Eastern Azarbayjan. In economic literature, it means the ratio of maximum output to the inputs. The objective of this research was to determinate the effective factors influencing it's inefficiency. The method of determination of deterministic and stochastic technical efficiency is corrected ordinary least squares (COLS and maximum likelihood (ML respectively. The average of technical efficiency in province’s cucumber greenhouse is approximately about 57 and 93 percent for deterministic and stochastic frontier method respectively. Production types had positive influence on technical inefficiency whereas experience of manager have negative influence on technical inefficiency.

  8. Effect of electrical conductivity, fruit pruning, and truss position on quality in greenhouse tomato fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanasca, S.; Martino, A.; Heuvelink, E.; Stanghellini, C.

    2007-01-01

    The combined effects of electrical conductivity (an EC of 2.5 dS m-1 or 8 dS m-1 in the root zone) and fruit pruning (three or six fruit per truss) on tomato fruit quality were studied in a greenhouse experiment, planted in January 2005. Taste-related attributes [dry matter content (DM), total solub

  9. Spaceship Nigeria: A Topic Study for Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect and Ozone Layer Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Peter; Akpan, Ben B.

    1997-01-01

    Explains the concept of a topic study, how it meets the needs of teachers seeking to integrate their teaching, and how it is especially well suited for environmental education. Outlines curriculum for a topic study on the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion. (DDR)

  10. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

  11. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment - Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding climate change. In our study, we interviewed 35 secondary school students on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and analysed the conceptions of climate scientists as drawn from textbooks and research reports. We analysed all data by metaphor analysis and qualitative content analysis to gain insight into students' and scientists' resources for understanding. In our analysis, we found that students and scientists refer to the same schemata to understand the greenhouse effect. We categorised their conceptions into three different principles the conceptions are based on: warming by more input, warming by less output, and warming by a new equilibrium. By interrelating students' and scientists' conceptions, we identified the students' learning demand: First, our students were afforded with experiences regarding the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and CO2. Second, our students reflected about the experience-based schemata they use as source domains for metaphorical understanding of the greenhouse effect. By uncovering the-mostly unconscious-deployed schemata, we gave students access to their source domains. We implemented these teaching guidelines in interventions and evaluated them in teaching experiments to develop evidence-based and theory-guided learning activities on the greenhouse effect.

  12. Effects of CO2 concentration on photosynthesis, transpiration and production of greenhouse fruit vegetable crops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of the C0 2 concentration of the greenhouse air (C) in the range 200 to 1100 μmol mol -1was investigated in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.), sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) and eggplant ( Solanum melongena L.), grown in gree

  13. Greenhouse Effect: Temperature of a Metal Sphere Surrounded by a Glass Shell and Heated by Sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc H.; Matzner, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the greenhouse effect on a model satellite consisting of a tungsten sphere surrounded by a thin spherical, concentric glass shell, with a small gap between the sphere and the shell. The system sits in vacuum and is heated by sunlight incident along the "z"-axis. This development is a generalization of the simple treatment of the…

  14. Spaceship Nigeria: A Topic Study for Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect and Ozone Layer Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Peter; Akpan, Ben B.

    1997-01-01

    Explains the concept of a topic study, how it meets the needs of teachers seeking to integrate their teaching, and how it is especially well suited for environmental education. Outlines curriculum for a topic study on the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion. (DDR)

  15. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

  16. The clear-sky greenhouse effect sensitivity to a sea surface temperature change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvel, J. PH.; Breon, F. M.

    1991-01-01

    The clear-sky greenhouse effect response to a sea surface temperature (SST or Ts) change is studied using outgoing clear-sky longwave radiation measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Considering geographical distributions for July 1987, the relation between the SST, the greenhouse effect (defined as the outgoing infrared flux trapped by atmospheric gases), and the precipitable water vapor content (W), estimated by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager, is analyzed first. A fairly linear relation between W and the normalized greenhouse effect g, is found. On the contrary, the SST dependence of both W and g exhibits nonlinearities with, especially, a large increase for SST above 25 C. This enhanced sensitivity of g and W can be interpreted in part by a corresponding large increase of atmospheric water vapor content related to the transition from subtropical dry regions to equatorial moist regions. Using two years of data (1985 and 1986), the normalized greenhouse effect sensitivity to the sea surface temperature is computed from the interannual variation of monthly mean values.

  17. The Effect of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on Drought Impacts in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we present a methodology for analyzing the economic benefits in the U.S. of changes in drought frequency and severity due to global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. We construct reduced-form models of the effect of drought on agriculture and reservoir recreation i...

  18. Greenhouse Effect in the Classroom: A Project- and Laboratory-Based Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueddecke, Susann B.; Pinter, Nicholas; McManus, Scott A.

    2001-01-01

    Tests a multifaceted curriculum for use in introductory earth science classes from the secondary school to the introductory undergraduate level. Simulates the greenhouse effect with two fish tanks, heat lamps, and thermometers. Uses a hands-on science approach to develop a deeper understanding of the climate system among students. (Contains 28…

  19. Factor Analysis of Drawings: Application to College Student Models of the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.; Ording, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by over 200 entering university freshmen. Initial content analysis allowed deconstruction of drawings into salient features, with grouping of these features via factor analysis. A resulting 4-factor solution explains 62% of the data variance,…

  20. Discussing the Greenhouse Effect: Children's Collaborative Discourse Reasoning and Conceptual Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lucia; Santi, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Investigates fifth-grade students' conceptual changes toward the greenhouse effect and global warming due to sociocognitive interaction developed in small and large group discussion in an authentic classroom context during an environmental education unit. Classroom discussions led the children to integrate new scientific knowledge into their…

  1. The Anthropogenic "Greenhouse Effect": Greek Prospective Primary Teachers' Ideas about Causes, Consequences and Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomidis, Simos; Papanastasiou, Dimitris; Melas, Dimitris; Avgoloupis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the ideas of Greek prospective primary teachers about the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, particularly about its causes, consequences and cures. For this purpose, a survey was conducted: 265 prospective teachers completed a closed-form questionnaire. The results showed serious misconceptions in all areas (causes, consequences…

  2. Australian Students' Appreciation of the Greenhouse Effect and the Ozone Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Examines students' explanations of the greenhouse effect and the hole in the ozone layer, using a life-world and scientific dichotomy. Illuminates ideas often expressed in classrooms and sheds light on the progression in students' developing powers of explanation. Contains 17 references. (DDR)

  3. Quantifying the effects of nitrogen on fruit growth and yield of cucumber crop in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, J.; Liu, S.; Zhang, W.; Xu, R.; Luo, W.; Yin, X.; Han, L.; Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen supply can improve crop growth and yield. An over-use of nitrogen fertilizer in greenhouse crop productions, however, causes many environmental problems. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of nitrogen on fruit growth and yield so as to facilitate the optimization of nitrogen

  4. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  5. IMAGE: An Integrated Model for the Assessment of the Greenhouse Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotmans J; Boois H de; Swart RJ

    1989-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt beschreven hoe het RIVM-simulatiemodel IMAGE (an Integrated Model for the Assessment of the Greenhouse Effect) is opgebouwd. Het model beoogt een geintegreerd overzicht te geven van de broeikasproblematiek alsmede inzicht te verschaffen in de wezenlijke drijfveren van het

  6. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  7. Modelling the effect of supplementary lighting on production and light utilisation efficiency of greenhouse crops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de J.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of supplementary lighting (SL) on dry matter production of greenhouse crops is predictable with ALSIM, a new crop growth model based on SUCROS87. The light utilization efficiency (LUE), defined as daily dry matter production divided by the daily photosynthetic photon flux is a parameter f

  8. Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect Using Theory-Based Learning Materials that Promote Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfried, Sibylle; Aeschbacher, Urs; Rottermann, Benno

    2012-01-01

    Students' everyday ideas of the greenhouse effect are difficult to change. Environmental education faces the challenge of developing instructional settings that foster students' conceptual understanding concept of the greenhouse effect in order to understand global warming. To facilitate students' conceptual development with regard to the…

  9. Swedish contribution to the greenhouse effect and required reductions to meet the 550 ppmv target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, Lina; Nilsson, Kristina [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). School of Engineering

    2002-11-01

    According to the Swedish Parliament, the Swedish international climate strategy should focus on a stabilisation of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. An equilibrium concentration lower than 550 ppmv CO{sub 2}-equivalents should be achieved by the end of this century. As an interim target, the yearly emissions should not exceed 4.5 tonnes CO{sub 2}-equivalents per capita by 2050. In this study an inventory of Swedish emissions from 1834 until 2000, for the six greenhouse gases regulated by the Kyoto Protocol, is carried out. Future emission scenarios for carbon dioxide during the time period 2000-2050 are also defined. This data is used for estimating the contribution to the greenhouse effect both today and in the future. Further it is investigated if the 2050-target is sufficient for not exceeding an atmospheric concentration of 550 ppmv. The required reduction for 2100 to reach an equilibrium concentration below this level is also estimated. The Swedish contribution to the greenhouse effect today is about 30 % larger than it should be according to the fairness factor used in this study. The Swedish emission target set for 2050 is sufficient for not exceeding 550 ppmv by that year. However, to reach a stabilisation of the concentration below this level the emissions have to be reduced to 1.0-1.5 tonnes CO{sub 2}-equivalents per capita by 2100.

  10. Priority Processing of Effective Packing Elements on Increasing Greenhouse Products Exports in Viewpoint of Russian Reporters (Case Study of Greenhouse Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Fahim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed Priority processing of effective packing elements on increasing greenhouse products exports in viewpoint of Russian reporters. Statistics society of the research includes 44 people. Provided questionnaire was distributed among them which 30 questionnaire were returned. This is a questionnaire research in which questionnaire comprises two sections. To process the priority of packing elements from greenhouse products average index was used. To answer the main question of research, “Weather packing elements of goods influences increasing greenhouse products exports to Russia in viewpoint of Russian reports?” We examined five equations which are explained in the form of five hypotheses. In this research we try to determine that in view point of Russia reporter which elements of packing greenhouse cucumber has a meaningful relation to increasing exports and in other words, between which element and increasing exports to Russia there is no special relation. After doing some studies, interviews and distributing questionnaires, results showed that elements of package color, package weight and facility of opening the package influence increasing exports and in other side, two elements of package quality and package compatibility with environment don’t influence increasing exports.

  11. Taxation of multiple greenhouse gases and the effects on income distribution : A case study of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Moll, Henri C.; Drissen, Eric; Wilting, Harry C.

    2008-01-01

    Current economic instruments aimed at climate change mitigation focus on CO2 emissions only, but the Kyoto Protocol refers to other greenhouse gases (GHG) as well as CO2. These are CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Taxation of multiple greenhouse gases improves the cost-effectiveness of climate change

  12. Taxation of multiple greenhouse gases and the effects on income distribution : A case study of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Moll, Henri C.; Drissen, Eric; Wilting, Harry C.

    2008-01-01

    Current economic instruments aimed at climate change mitigation focus on CO2 emissions only, but the Kyoto Protocol refers to other greenhouse gases (GHG) as well as CO2. These are CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Taxation of multiple greenhouse gases improves the cost-effectiveness of climate change m

  13. Development and testing of an assessment to measure spatial thinking about enhanced greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaza, Heather Jean

    Americans, in general, do not behave in environmentally sustainable ways. We drive cars and fly in planes that emit planet-warming carbon. We purchase food in nearly indestructible packaging that is not recycled or repurposed. We do not consider the environmental impact of the "stuff" stuffed into our grocery and department stores, most of which is made of materials that had to be dug out of the ground, leaving rivers and skies full of pollution in its place. Citizens have a responsibility to understand complex global and local environmental problems. A person's ability to think about the way that an environmental problem they are tasked with understanding changes over time and space can better prepare them to make sustainable decisions in the face of this complexity. Spatial thinking serves the learner's ability to understand the impact of environmental actions and should be given a consistent place in environmental education. Teaching practices and pedagogies that focus on spatial thinking are necessary to learners' success. In order to know if these strategies are successful, educators need an assessment tool that targets the spatial thinking skills necessary to understanding environmental problems. This dissertation project used a models and modeling theoretical framework to develop and test an assessment of students' spatial thinking abilities related to the environmental problem of enhanced greenhouse effect. This assessment was developed from a review of existing spatial thinking literature, research on existing assessments of spatial thinking abilities, and existing assessment of enhanced greenhouse effect. In addition, I interviewed and surveyed experts in science, math, and environmental education to elicit their perspectives on the spatial thinking skills necessary for learners to understand enhanced greenhouse effect. All of this information was synthesized into 14 Central Concepts of spatial thinking for enhanced greenhouse effect. The assessment was

  14. Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.

    1994-01-01

    Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect carbon dioxide has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains.Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled carbon dioxide scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify.

  15. REVISITING THE SCATTERING GREENHOUSE EFFECT OF CO{sub 2} ICE CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitzmann, D., E-mail: daniel.kitzmann@csh.unibe.ch [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-02-01

    Carbon dioxide ice clouds are thought to play an important role for cold terrestrial planets with thick CO{sub 2} dominated atmospheres. Various previous studies showed that a scattering greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide ice clouds could result in a massive warming of the planetary surface. However, all of these studies only employed simplified two-stream radiative transfer schemes to describe the anisotropic scattering. Using accurate radiative transfer models with a general discrete ordinate method, this study revisits this important effect and shows that the positive climatic impact of carbon dioxide clouds was strongly overestimated in the past. The revised scattering greenhouse effect can have important implications for the early Mars, but also for planets like the early Earth or the position of the outer boundary of the habitable zone.

  16. The effects of light-emitting diode lighting on greenhouse plant growth and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Olle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present the light emitting diode (LED technology for greenhouse plant lighting and to give an overview about LED light effects on photosynthetic indices, growth, yield and nutritional value in green vegetables and tomato, cucumber, sweet pepper transplants. The sole LED lighting, applied in closed growth chambers, as well as combinations of LED wavelengths with conventional light sources, fluorescent and high pressure sodium lamp light, and natural illumination in greenhouses are overviewed. Red and blue light are basal in the lighting spectra for green vegetables and tomato, cucumber, and pepper transplants; far red light, important for photomorphogenetic processes in plants also results in growth promotion. However, theoretically unprofitable spectral parts as green or yellow also have significant physiological effects on investigated plants. Presented results disclose the variability of light spectral effects on different plant species and different physiological indices.

  17. Effects of 17β-estradiol on emissions of greenhouse gases in simulative natural water body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Aidong; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Chenxiao; Zong, Fengjiao; Yu, Zhongbo

    2015-05-01

    Environmental estrogens are widely spread across the world and are increasingly thought of as serious contaminators. The present study looks at the influence of different concentrations of 17β-estradiol on greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O) in simulated systems to explore the relationship between environmental estrogen-pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in natural water bodies. The present study finds that 17β-estradiol pollution in simulated systems has significant promoting effects on the emissions of CH4 and CO2 , although no significant effects on N2 O emissions. The present study indicates that 17β-estradiol has different effects on the different elements cycles; the mechanism of microbial ecology is under review.

  18. Climate-chemical interactions and greenhouse effects of trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang-Yu; Fan, Xiao-Biao

    1994-01-01

    A completely coupled one-dimensional radiative-convective (RC) and photochemical-diffusion (PC) model has been developed recently and used to study the climate-chemical interactions. The importance of radiative-chemical interactions within the troposphere and stratosphere has been examined in some detail. We find that increases of radiatively and/or chemically active trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O have both the direct effects and the indirect effects on climate change by changing the atmospheric O3 profile through their interaction with chemical processes in the atmosphere. It is also found that the climatic effect of ozone depends strongly on its vertical distribution throughout the troposphere and stratosphere, as well on its column amount in the atmosphere.

  19. Soil greenhouse gas emissions reduce the contribution of mangrove plants to the atmospheric cooling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangcheng; Chen, Bin; Yu, Dan; Tam, Nora F. Y.; Ye, Yong; Chen, Shunyang

    2016-12-01

    Mangrove soils have been recognized as sources of greenhouse gases, but the atmospheric fluxes are poorly characterized, and their adverse warming effect has rarely been considered with respect to the potential contribution of mangrove wetlands to climate change mitigation. The current study balanced the warming effect of soil greenhouse gas emissions with the plant carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration rate derived from the plants’ net primary production in a productive mangrove wetland in South China to assess the role of mangrove wetlands in reducing the atmospheric warming effect. Soil characteristics were also studied in the summer to examine their relationships with gas fluxes. The soil to atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and CO2 ranged from -1.6 to 50.0 μg m-2 h-1, from -1.4 to 5360.1 μg m-2 h-1 and from -31 to 512 mg m-2 h-1, respectively, which indicated that the mangrove soils act as sources of greenhouse gases in this area. The gas fluxes were higher in summer than in the cold seasons and were variable across mangrove sites. Gas fluxes in summer were positively correlated with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and ammonia contents. The mangrove plants sequestered a considerable amount of atmospheric CO2 at rates varying from 3652 to 7420 g CO2 m-2 yr-1. The ecosystem acted as a source of CH4 and N2O gases but was a more intense CO2 sink. However, the warming effect of soil gas emissions accounted for 9.3-32.7% of the plant CO2 sequestration rate, partially reducing the benefit of mangrove plants, and the two trace gases comprised 9.7-33.2% of the total warming effect. We therefore propose that an assessment of the reduction of atmospheric warming effects by a mangrove ecosystem should consider both soil greenhouse gas emissions and plant CO2 sequestration.

  20. Studying the physical basis of global warming: thermal effects of the interaction between radiation and matter and greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo [Department of Physics ' A Volta' , University of Pavia, Via A Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: ugo.besson@unipv.it, E-mail: anna.deambrosisvigna@unipv.it

    2010-03-15

    We present a teaching module dealing with the thermal effects of interaction between radiation and matter, the infrared emission of bodies and the greenhouse effect devoted to university level and teacher education. The module stresses the dependence of the optical properties of materials (transparency, absorptivity and emissivity) on radiation frequency, as a result of interaction between matter and radiation. Multiple experiences are suggested to favour a progressive construction of knowledge on the physical aspects necessary to understand the greenhouse effect and global warming. Some results obtained with university students are briefly reported.

  1. Bystander Effect Fuels Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Stem Cells to Quickly Attenuate Early Stage Neurological Deficits After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Auston; Huang, Lei; Gonzalez, Rodolfo; Kim, Hye-Sun; Hamblin, Milton H; Lee, Jean-Pyo

    2015-07-01

    : Present therapies for stroke rest with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), the sole licensed antithrombotic on the market; however, tPA's effectiveness is limited in that the drug not only must be administered less than 3-5 hours after stroke but often exacerbates blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage and increases hemorrhagic incidence. A potentially promising therapy for stroke is transplantation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells (hiPSC-NSCs). To date, the effects of iPSCs on injuries that take place during early stage ischemic stroke have not been well studied. Consequently, we engrafted iPSC-NSCs into the ipsilesional hippocampus, a natural niche of NSCs, at 24 hours after stroke (prior to secondary BBB opening and when inflammatory signature is abundant). At 48 hours after stroke (24 hours after transplant), hiPSC-NSCs had migrated to the stroke lesion and quickly improved neurological function. Transplanted mice showed reduced expression of proinflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α), microglial activation, and adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) and attenuated BBB damage. We are the first to report that engrafted hiPSC-NSCs rapidly improved neurological function (less than 24 hours after transplant). Rapid hiPSC-NSC therapeutic activity is mainly due to a bystander effect that elicits reduced inflammation and BBB damage. Clinically, cerebral vessel occlusion is rarely permanent because of spontaneous or thrombolytic therapy-mediated reperfusion. These results have clinical implications indicating a much extended therapeutic window for transplantation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells (hiPSC-NSCs; 24 hours after stroke as opposed to the 5-hour window with tissue plasminogen activator [tPA]). In addition, there is potential for a synergistic

  2. Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlich, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that authors trace back to the traditional works of Fourier 1824, Tyndall 1861 and Arrhenius 1896 and is still supported in global climatology essentially describes a fictitious mechanism in which a planetary atmosphere acts as a heat pump driven by an environment that is radiatively interacting with but radiatively equilibrated to the atmospheric system. According to the second law of thermodynamics such a planetary machine can never exist. Nevertheless, in almost all texts of global climatology and in a widespread secondary literature it is taken for granted that such mechanism is real and stands on a firm scientific foundation. In this paper the popular conjecture is analyzed and the underlying physical principles are clarified. By showing that (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, (b) there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, ...

  3. Repellent effects of pongam oil on settlement and oviposition of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum on chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROMAN PAVELA; GERHARD HERDA

    2007-01-01

    The repellent activities, including host deterrence and anti-oviposion, of pongam oil against the adults of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood in greenhouses were tested. Chrysanthemum plants treated with different concentrations (0.5%-2.0%) of water-suspended pongam oil showed relatively longlasting host deterrent and anti-oviposition effects on the adults of greenhouse whitefly. Although the repellent effect declined in time and concentration, strong effects on the reduction of oviposition were found, which lasts, dependent on concentration at least 12 days after application.

  4. Semi-empirical characterization of a greenhouse-effect cascades solar distiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelif, C.; Touati, B. [Station d' Experimentation des Equipements Solaries en Milieu Saharien, Adrar (Algeria)

    2000-02-01

    The analysis in steady state of the different modelizations made on solar flat-plate functioning in low and average temperatures (especially the bridges of surface water) has allowed us to develop a simple linear model. By a swift experimental way, this model is able to approximate the thermal and optical performances of a greenhouse-effect solar distiller. This model has equally served for the verification of the time constant of the system in the same functioning and environment conditions. (author)

  5. Studying the Physical Basis of Global Warming: Thermal Effects of the Interaction between Radiation and Matter and Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We present a teaching module dealing with the thermal effects of interaction between radiation and matter, the infrared emission of bodies and the greenhouse effect devoted to university level and teacher education. The module stresses the dependence of the optical properties of materials (transparency, absorptivity and emissivity) on radiation…

  6. Studying the Physical Basis of Global Warming: Thermal Effects of the Interaction between Radiation and Matter and Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We present a teaching module dealing with the thermal effects of interaction between radiation and matter, the infrared emission of bodies and the greenhouse effect devoted to university level and teacher education. The module stresses the dependence of the optical properties of materials (transparency, absorptivity and emissivity) on radiation…

  7. Climate and greenhouse effect gas: glaciated archives data. Climat et gaz a effet de serre: les donnees des archives glaciaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorius, C. (Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, 38 - Saint-Martin-d' Heres (FR))

    1991-01-01

    Ice caps in Antarctica or Greenland have recorded the anthropogenic effect on atmospheric composition and especially on greenhouse effect gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. 2000 meter depth drilling samples allowed to study the climates for 150 000 years ago; hot and cold climates are ruled by periodic movement of the Earth around the sun and by more or less elevated concentration of greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere. Prospects for to morrow climates and anthropogenic contribution are then possible.

  8. Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using short-lived greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Samset, Bjørn H.; Shine, Keith P.

    2014-12-01

    A large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. We show, for the first time, that it may be possible to counteract these climate effects through deliberate emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases, dampening the abrupt impact of an eruption. We estimate an emission pathway countering a hypothetical eruption 3 times the size of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. We use a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counteremissions. We then raise practical, financial, and ethical questions related to such a strategy. Unlike the more commonly discussed geoengineering to mitigate warming from long-lived greenhouse gases, designed emissions to counter temporary cooling would not have the disadvantage of needing to be sustained over long periods. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.

  9. The effect of floating vegetation on denitrification and greenhouse gas production in wetland mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, A. E.; Harrison, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    compared to inflow water, and calculated denitrification was statistically higher in the floating vegetation treatments compared to the other treatments. Greenhouse gas production, measured in CO2 equivalents for N2O and CH4, was highly variable and not statistically different between the treatments. Denitrification in the tarp covered mesocosms was similar to the no-cover treatment, indicating that biotic effects in the floating vegetation treatment may be important in lowering water column oxygen levels and increasing denitrification. Understanding how floating vegetation affects total nitrogen loss, denitrification, and greenhouse gas production can be used to weigh ecological costs and benefits of different vegetation types, especially in constructed and managed wetlands.

  10. [Effects of understory removal on soil greenhouse gas emissions in Carya cathayensis stands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Chen, Xue-shuang; Wu, Jia-sen; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Li, Yong-fu

    2015-03-01

    CO2, N2O and CH4 are important greenhouse gases, and soils in forest ecosystems are their important sources. Carya cathayensis is a unique tree species with seeds used for high-grade dry fruit and oil production. Understory vegetation management plays an important role in soil greenhouse gases emission of Carya cathayensis stands. A one-year in situ experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal on soil CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions in C. cathayensis plantation by closed static chamber technique and gas chromatography method. Soil CO2 flux had a similar seasonal trend in the understory removal and preservation treatments, which was high in summer and autumn, and low in winter and spring. N2O emission occurred mainly in summer, while CH4 emission showed no seasonal trend. Understory removal significantly decreased soil CO, emission, increased N2O emission and CH4 uptake, but had no significant effect on soil water soluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon. The global warming potential of soil greenhouse gases emitted in the understory removal. treatment was 15.12 t CO2-e . hm-2 a-1, which was significantly lower than that in understory preservation treatment (17.04 t CO2-e . hm-2 . a-1).

  11. Falsification of the Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within the Frame of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlich, Gerhard; Tscheuschner, Ralf D.

    The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors trace back to the traditional works of Fourier (1824), Tyndall (1861), and Arrhenius (1896), and which is still supported in global climatology, essentially describes a fictitious mechanism, in which a planetary atmosphere acts as a heat pump driven by an environment that is radiatively interacting with but radiatively equilibrated to the atmospheric system. According to the second law of thermodynamics, such a planetary machine can never exist. Nevertheless, in almost all texts of global climatology and in a widespread secondary literature, it is taken for granted that such a mechanism is real and stands on a firm scientific foundation. In this paper, the popular conjecture is analyzed and the underlying physical principles are clarified. By showing that (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, (b) there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, (c) the frequently mentioned difference of 33° is a meaningless number calculated wrongly, (d) the formulas of cavity radiation are used inappropriately, (e) the assumption of a radiative balance is unphysical, (f) thermal conductivity and friction must not be set to zero, the atmospheric greenhouse conjecture is falsified.

  12. Can human-induced land degradation be distinguished from the effects of rainfall variability? A case study in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available lands. Both positive and negative residual trends can, however, result from natural ecological processes, e.g. the carryover effects of rainfall in previous years. Thus, the RESTREND method can only identify potential problem areas at a regional scale...

  13. The help of Advanced Satellite Interferometry in assessing the effect of human-induced surface deformation in naturally subsiding areas. Methodological approach and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Andrea; Giannico, Chiara; Del Conte, Sara; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    Underground water extraction, natural gas storage either in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or in aquifers, and excavations for civil works (e.g. underground passageways, car parks, etc.) in flat areas are responsible for surface deformation that can damage pre-existing structures and modify drainage pathways. Deformation patterns associated to different underground show in many cases typical patterns. Their recognition can help in disentangling different processes when occurring in areas already affected by natural subsidence, such as coastal areas and inner sedimentary plains. Moreover, assessing the extent of human-induced deformation can help in identifying causes, modelling phenomena, predicting their evolution and adopting proper remedial measures. Advanced Satellite Interferometry provides a synoptic view of surface displacements over large areas and long time-spans and has become a standard in several Italian regions where underground fluid injection and withdrawal is going on. The integration of interferometric measurements with ground (leveling, GPS) and underground (borehole extensometers, piezometers, micro-seismic) monitoring networks can provide an exhaustive framework of the effect induced at surface level by underground human activities at local and regional scale. Documented case studies demonstrating the effectiveness of the above approach will be presented.

  14. Greenhouse Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敬业

    2005-01-01

    2004年12月26日印度洋发生海啸,席卷沿岸12个国家,无数生灵死伤,尸体遍地,疫情潜伏,人们不禁要问:“地球怎么了?人类为什么会遭受如此浩劫?”也许地球正以它特有的方式“证明”着自己的存在。

  15. Benthic N2 fixation in coral reefs and the potential effects of human-induced environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardini, Ulisse; Bednarz, Vanessa N; Foster, Rachel A; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tropical coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse ecosystems, despite being surrounded by ocean waters where nutrients are in short supply. Benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is a significant internal source of “new” nitrogen (N) in reef ecosystems, but related information appears to be sparse. Here, we review the current state (and gaps) of knowledge on N2 fixation associated with coral reef organisms and their ecosystems. By summarizing the existing literature, we show that benthic N2 fixation is an omnipresent process in tropical reef environments. Highest N2 fixation rates are detected in reef-associated cyanobacterial mats and sea grass meadows, clearly showing the significance of these functional groups, if present, to the input of new N in reef ecosystems. Nonetheless, key benthic organisms such as hard corals also importantly contribute to benthic N2 fixation in the reef. Given the usually high coral coverage of healthy reef systems, these results indicate that benthic symbiotic associations may be more important than previously thought. In fact, mutualisms between carbon (C) and N2 fixers have likely evolved that may enable reef communities to mitigate N limitation. We then explore the potential effects of the increasing human interferences on the process of benthic reef N2 fixation via changes in diazotrophic populations, enzymatic activities, or availability of benthic substrates favorable to these microorganisms. Current knowledge indicates positive effects of ocean acidification, warming, and deoxygenation and negative effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on the amount of N fixed in coral reefs. Eutrophication may either boost or suppress N2 fixation, depending on the nutrient becoming limiting. As N2 fixation appears to play a fundamental role in nutrient-limited reef ecosystems, these assumptions need to be expanded and confirmed by future research efforts addressing the knowledge gaps identified in this review. PMID:24967086

  16. Benthic N2 fixation in coral reefs and the potential effects of human-induced environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardini, Ulisse; Bednarz, Vanessa N; Foster, Rachel A; Wild, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Tropical coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse ecosystems, despite being surrounded by ocean waters where nutrients are in short supply. Benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is a significant internal source of "new" nitrogen (N) in reef ecosystems, but related information appears to be sparse. Here, we review the current state (and gaps) of knowledge on N2 fixation associated with coral reef organisms and their ecosystems. By summarizing the existing literature, we show that benthic N2 fixation is an omnipresent process in tropical reef environments. Highest N2 fixation rates are detected in reef-associated cyanobacterial mats and sea grass meadows, clearly showing the significance of these functional groups, if present, to the input of new N in reef ecosystems. Nonetheless, key benthic organisms such as hard corals also importantly contribute to benthic N2 fixation in the reef. Given the usually high coral coverage of healthy reef systems, these results indicate that benthic symbiotic associations may be more important than previously thought. In fact, mutualisms between carbon (C) and N2 fixers have likely evolved that may enable reef communities to mitigate N limitation. We then explore the potential effects of the increasing human interferences on the process of benthic reef N2 fixation via changes in diazotrophic populations, enzymatic activities, or availability of benthic substrates favorable to these microorganisms. Current knowledge indicates positive effects of ocean acidification, warming, and deoxygenation and negative effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on the amount of N fixed in coral reefs. Eutrophication may either boost or suppress N2 fixation, depending on the nutrient becoming limiting. As N2 fixation appears to play a fundamental role in nutrient-limited reef ecosystems, these assumptions need to be expanded and confirmed by future research efforts addressing the knowledge gaps identified in this review.

  17. Effects of human-induced environmental changes on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of wetlands in Lake Tana Watershed, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezie, Ayenew; Anteneh, Wassie; Dejen, Eshete; Mereta, Seid Tiku

    2017-04-01

    Wetlands of Lake Tana Watershed provide various ecological and socioeconomic functions. However, they are losing their vigor at alarming rate due to unwise management. Hence, there is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources so as to identify the major drivers of its degradation and to provide information for management decisions. In this context, we aimed to assess the effects of human activities on macroinvertebrate assemblages of wetlands in Lake Tana Watershed. Biotic and abiotic data were collected from 46 sampling sites located in eight wetlands. A total of 2568 macroinvertebrates belonging to 46 families were recorded. Macroinvertebrate metrics such as Biological Monitoring Working Party score, Shannon diversity index, Ephemeroptera and odonata family richness, and total family richness portrayed a clear pattern of decreasing with increasing in human disturbances, whereas Family biotic index score, which is an indicator of organic pollution, increased with increasing in human disturbances. The regression analysis also revealed that livestock grazing, leather tanning, and eucalyptus plantation were important predictors of macroinvertebrate metrics (p wetlands such as farming, leather tanning, solid waste dumping, and effluent discharges were contributed to the degradation of water quality and decreasing in the macroinvertebrate richness and diversity. These alterations could also reduce the availability of wetland products (sedges, craft materials, etc.) and the related ecosystem services. This in turn has an adverse effect on food security and poverty alleviation with considerable impact on communities who heavily depend on wetland products for their livelihood. Therefore, it is essential to formulate wetland policy for achieving wise use goals and necessary legal and institutional backup for sustainable wetland management in Ethiopia.

  18. The effect of low ancient greenhouse climate temperature gradients on the ocean's overturning circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Sijp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether the reduced meridional temperature gradients of past greenhouse climates might have reduced oceanic overturning, leading to a more quiescent subsurface ocean. A substantial reduction of the pole to equator temperature difference is achieved in a coupled climate model via an altered radiative balance in the atmosphere. Contrary to expectations, we find that the meridional overturning circulation and deep ocean kinetic energy remain relatively unaffected. Reducing the wind strength also has remarkably little effect on the overturning. Instead, overturning strength depends on deep ocean density gradients, which remain relatively unaffected by the surface changes, despite an overall decrease in ocean density. Ocean poleward heat transport is significantly reduced only in the Northern Hemisphere, as now the circulation operates across a reduced temperature gradient, suggesting the overturning circulation dominates heat transport in greenhouse climates. These results indicate that climate models of the greenhouse climate during the Cretaceous and early Paleogene may yield a reasonable overturning circulation, despite failing to fully reproduce the extremely reduced temperature gradients of those time periods.

  19. [Preliminary assessment of the potential of biochar technology in mitigating the greenhouse effect in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Xiang; Zheng, Hao; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-06-01

    The production of biochar by pyrolysis and its application to soil can sequester the CO2 which was absorbed by plants from atmosphere into soil, in addition it can also bring multiple benefits for agriculture production. On the basis of the available potential survey of the biomass residues from agriculture and forestry section, life cycle assessment was employed to quantify the potential of biochar technology in mitigation of greenhouse gases in our country. The results showed: In China, the amount of available biomass resource was 6.04 x 10(8) t every year and its net greenhouse effect potential was 5.32 x 10(8) t CO(2e) (CO(2e): CO2 equivalent), which was equivalent to 0.88 t CO(2e) for every ton biomass. The greatest of contributor to the total potential was plant carbon sequestration in soil as the form of biochar which accounts for 73.94%, followed by production of renewable energy and its percentage was 23.85%. In summary, production of biochar from agriculture and forestry biomass residues had a significant potential for our country to struggle with the pressure of greenhouse gas emission.

  20. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the acidity and salinity of greenhouse soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiangpei; Shi, Jiachun; Zeng, Lingzao; Xu, Jianming; Wu, Laosheng

    2015-02-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of conventional nitrogen fertilization on soil acidity and salinity. Three N rates (urea; N0, 0 kg N ha(-1); N1, 600 kg N ha(-1); and N2, 1,200 kg N ha(-1)) were applied in five soils with different greenhouse cultivation years to evaluate soil acidification and salinization rate induced by nitrogen fertilizer in lettuce production. Both soil acidity and salinity increased significantly as N input increased after one season, with pH decrease ranging from 0.45 to 1.06 units and electrolytic conductivity increase from 0.24 to 0.68 mS cm(-1). An estimated 0.92 mol H(+) was produced for 1 mol (NO2 (-) + NO3 (-))-N accumulation in soil. The proton loading from nitrification was 14.3-27.3 and 12.1-58.2 kmol H(+) ha(-1) in the center of Shandong Province under N1 and N2 rate, respectively. However, the proton loading from the uptake of excess bases by lettuces was only 0.3-4.5 % of that from nitrification. Moreover, the release of protons induced the direct release of base cations and accelerated soil salinization. The increase of soil acidity and salinity was attributed to the nitrification of excess N fertilizer. Compared to the proton loading by lettuce, nitrification contributed more to soil acidification in greenhouse soils.

  1. Organic Amendment Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Long-Term Stockpiled Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvomuya, F.; Laskosky, J.

    2014-12-01

    In oil sands projects in Alberta, Canada, salvaged soils are often placed in large stockpiles where they are stored for the duration of the project, typically 20-30 years. Alberta regulations require that topsoil and subsoil are salvaged in two distinct operations - a process known as two-lifting. Reclamation using long-term stockpiled soils often gives poor results, characterized by lower soil organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations compared with equivalent natural, undisturbed soils. It is thought that the change from an aerobic to an anaerobic environment during soil stockpiling and back again to aerobic during placement are largely responsible for the low carbon and nitrogen due to microbial activity transforming C and N in the soil into CO2, CH4 and N2O and releasing them to the atmosphere. Evidence from recent studies indicates that biochar improves soil physical, chemical and biological properties, and hence could mitigate C and N losses due to greenhouse gas emissions from the soil indirectly. We postulate that documented improvements in soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in soils treated with amendments such as biochar may help mitigate C and N losses due to greenhouse gas emissions from the soil indirectly. This laboratory incubation experiment tested the effects of differential rates (0, 10, 20, and 40 g biochar carbon equivalents kg-1 dry soil) of biochar, peat, and humalite on greenhouse gas emissions from a 25-year old two-lift stockpiled soil. The soils were fertilized according to standard practice, placed in 120-mL plastic containers, and incubated at 25°C for 45 days. Gas samples were taken at 1- to 7-day intervals and analyzed for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Data on treatment differences in emissions will be presented. Results from this experiment will provide an insight into the potential for organic amendments to mitigate greenhouse gas emission during reclamation using degraded soils.

  2. The effect of phosphogypsum on greenhouse gas emissions during cattle manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Larney, Francis J; Chang, Chi; Travis, Greg R; Nichol, Connie K; Bremer, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, reduces N losses when added to composting livestock manure, but its impact on greenhouse gas emissions is unclear. The objective of this research was to assess the effects of PG addition on greenhouse gas emissions during cattle feedlot manure composting. Sand was used as a filler material for comparison. The seven treatments were PG10, PG20, PG30, S10, S20, and S30, representing the rate of PG or sand addition at 10, 20, or 30% of manure dry weight and a check treatment (no PG or sand) with three replications. The manure treatments were composted in open windrows and turned five times during a 134-d period. Addition of PG significantly increased electrical conductivity (EC) and decreased pH in the final compost. Total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and mineral nitrogen contents in the final composted product were not affected by the addition of PG or sand. From 40 to 54% of initial TC was lost during composting, mostly as CO(2), with CH(4) accounting for <14%. The addition of PG significantly reduced CH(4) emissions, which decreased exponentially with the compost total sulfur (TS) content. The emission of N(2)O accounted for <0.2% of initial TN in the manure, increasing as compost pH decreased from alkaline to near neutral. Based on the total greenhouse gas budget, PG addition reduced greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2)-C equivalent) during composting of livestock manure by at least 58%, primarily due to reduced CH(4) emission.

  3. The effects of electrospun substrate-mediated cell colony morphology on the self-renewal of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Maricela; Wong, Lauren Y; Echeverria, Cristina; Ico, Gerardo; Low, Karen; Fujimoto, Taylor; Johnson, Jed K; Nam, Jin

    2015-05-01

    The development of xeno-free, chemically defined stem cell culture systems has been a primary focus in the field of regenerative medicine to enhance the clinical application of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). In this regard, various electrospun substrates with diverse physiochemical properties were synthesized utilizing various polymer precursors and surface treatments. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) cultured on these substrates were characterized by their gene and protein expression to determine the effects of the substrate physiochemical properties on the cells' self-renewal, i.e., proliferation and the maintenance of pluripotency. The results showed that surface chemistry significantly affected cell colony formation via governing the colony edge propagation. More importantly, when surface chemistry of the substrates was uniformly controlled by collagen conjugation, the stiffness of substrate was inversely related to the sphericity, a degree of three dimensionality in colony morphology. The differences in sphericity subsequently affected spontaneous differentiation of IPSCs during a long-term culture, implicating that the colony morphology is a deciding factor in the lineage commitment of PSCs. Overall, we show that the capability of controlling IPSC colony morphology by electrospun substrates provides a means to modulate IPSC self-renewal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the effect of human-induced land degradation on ecosystem function in the former homelands of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, K. J.; Prince, S. D.

    2004-12-01

    The communal homelands in north-eastern South Africa, created during the apartheid-era, are widely regarded as severely degraded as a result of human utilization. The impacts of degradation on net primary production (NPP) were studied using a time-series (1985 to 2003) of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) NDVI and modeled NPP data for degraded rangelands identified by the National Land Cover (using Landsat TM imagery) and non-degraded rangelands within the same land capability units (LCUs). The NPP of degraded areas was significantly lower than in non-degraded parts of most of the LCUs and the difference between degraded and non-degraded areas did not diminish in years with high rainfall, although NPP in degraded areas in wet years exceeded that of non-degraded areas in drier years. Thus degraded areas had the same resilience as non-degraded areas. The Rain-Use Efficiency (RUE) of degraded areas (NPP per unit rainfall) was also consistently lower than non-degraded areas. The persistence of the effect on the NPP indicated that the degradation is stable at the time scale of 18 years. These results indicate that, while there has not been a catastrophic reduction in ecosystem function within the former homelands, degradation results in a stable state with reduced productivity and RUE. The results highlight the importance of multi-temporal analyses of ecosystem function to understanding land degradation and illustrate how long time-series of terrestrial data might be used in a national land degradation monitoring system.

  5. Industry and greenhouse effect control. A synthesis document of the working group '' industry-greenhouse effect'' of the inter-ministerial mission on the greenhouse effect. Climate change in France in the 21 century?; Industrie et prevention de l'effet de serre. Une note synthese du groupe de travail ''industrie - effet de serre'' de la mission interministerielle sur l'effet de serre. Changement de climat en France au 21. siecle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessemoulin, P. [Meteo France, Dir. de la Climatologie, 75 - Paris (France); Martin, Y.

    2000-04-01

    This document presents two synthesis on the environmental policy concerning the greenhouse effect and the climatic changes. The first one presents the results of the five working groups, constituted by the inter-ministerial Mission on the greenhouse effect. These following groups are supposed to help the Mission to define the french position concerning the international negotiations: energy production and greenhouse effect, industry and greenhouse effect, transportation system and greenhouse effect, residential and tertiary sectors and greenhouse effect, agriculture wastes and greenhouse effect. The second one deals with the potential impacts of the climatic change in France. (A.L.B.)

  6. Assessment the Effects of Temperature and Humidity Control in Greenhouse Cucumber Productions in Jiroft and Kahnooj Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Momeni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and humidity are two important parameters affecting the quality and quantity of greenhouse products so two double greenhouses were manufactured in 3.5, 40 and 11 m in height, length and width respectively in agricultural research center of jiroft and kahnooj to study these effects. Both of greenhouses are similar in materials, final height, gutter height, covering and field operation but in one of them one heating system, two ventilation fans and one wooden pad were assembled and temperature and humidity besides yield were registered in both of them. The results showed that temperature changing trend inside and outside of the unheated greenhouse were in same phase and this isn't suitable in cold night so the greenhouse with heating system had more yield and picking cucumber fruit numbers than another. Therefore it is necessary to be heated by artificial systems. Because of rapid relative humidity changing in outside of greenhouse in the end of the season, the efficiency of fan and pads cooling system is so low then using of evaporating cooling systems such as fans and pad wasn't proposed and recommend to optimize the temperature by ventilation and shading the greenhouse and in hot days production will be cut.

  7. Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Lacis, A. A.; Mo, T.; Hansen, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents of the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral range from 7 to 14 microns. Despite their small amounts, these gases can have a significant effect on the thermal structure of the atmosphere by transmitting most of the thermal radiation from the earth's surface to the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, this greenhouse effect is computed for a number of trace gases. The nature and climatic implications of possible changes in the concentrations of N2O, CH4, NH3, and HNO3 are discussed.

  8. Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Lacis, A. A.; Mo, T.; Hansen, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents of the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral range from 7 to 14 microns. Despite their small amounts, these gases can have a significant effect on the thermal structure of the atmosphere by transmitting most of the thermal radiation from the earth's surface to the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, this greenhouse effect is computed for a number of trace gases. The nature and climatic implications of possible changes in the concentrations of N2O, CH4, NH3, and HNO3 are discussed.

  9. Global Change Could Amplify Fire Effects on Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niboyet, Audrey; Brown, Jamie R.; Dijkstra, Paul; Blankinship, Joseph C.; Leadley, Paul W.; Le Roux, Xavier; Barthes, Laure; Barnard, Romain L.; Field, Christopher B.; Hungate, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the combined impacts of global environmental changes and ecological disturbances on ecosystem functioning, even though such combined impacts might play critical roles in shaping ecosystem processes that can in turn feed back to climate change, such as soil emissions of greenhouse gases. Methodology/Principal Findings We took advantage of an accidental, low-severity wildfire that burned part of a long-term global change experiment to investigate the interactive effects of a fire disturbance and increases in CO2 concentration, precipitation and nitrogen supply on soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in a grassland ecosystem. We examined the responses of soil N2O emissions, as well as the responses of the two main microbial processes contributing to soil N2O production – nitrification and denitrification – and of their main drivers. We show that the fire disturbance greatly increased soil N2O emissions over a three-year period, and that elevated CO2 and enhanced nitrogen supply amplified fire effects on soil N2O emissions: emissions increased by a factor of two with fire alone and by a factor of six under the combined influence of fire, elevated CO2 and nitrogen. We also provide evidence that this response was caused by increased microbial denitrification, resulting from increased soil moisture and soil carbon and nitrogen availability in the burned and fertilized plots. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the combined effects of fire and global environmental changes can exceed their effects in isolation, thereby creating unexpected feedbacks to soil greenhouse gas emissions. These findings highlight the need to further explore the impacts of ecological disturbances on ecosystem functioning in the context of global change if we wish to be able to model future soil greenhouse gas emissions with greater confidence. PMID:21687708

  10. Global change could amplify fire effects on soil greenhouse gas emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Niboyet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the combined impacts of global environmental changes and ecological disturbances on ecosystem functioning, even though such combined impacts might play critical roles in shaping ecosystem processes that can in turn feed back to climate change, such as soil emissions of greenhouse gases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We took advantage of an accidental, low-severity wildfire that burned part of a long-term global change experiment to investigate the interactive effects of a fire disturbance and increases in CO(2 concentration, precipitation and nitrogen supply on soil nitrous oxide (N(2O emissions in a grassland ecosystem. We examined the responses of soil N(2O emissions, as well as the responses of the two main microbial processes contributing to soil N(2O production--nitrification and denitrification--and of their main drivers. We show that the fire disturbance greatly increased soil N(2O emissions over a three-year period, and that elevated CO(2 and enhanced nitrogen supply amplified fire effects on soil N(2O emissions: emissions increased by a factor of two with fire alone and by a factor of six under the combined influence of fire, elevated CO(2 and nitrogen. We also provide evidence that this response was caused by increased microbial denitrification, resulting from increased soil moisture and soil carbon and nitrogen availability in the burned and fertilized plots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the combined effects of fire and global environmental changes can exceed their effects in isolation, thereby creating unexpected feedbacks to soil greenhouse gas emissions. These findings highlight the need to further explore the impacts of ecological disturbances on ecosystem functioning in the context of global change if we wish to be able to model future soil greenhouse gas emissions with greater confidence.

  11. The effect on climate change impacts for building products when including the timing of greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D Bergman

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) trap infrared radiation emitting from the Earth’s surface to generate the “greenhouse effect” thus keeping the planet warm. Many natural activities including rotting vegetation emit GHGs such as carbon dioxide to produce this natural affect. However, in the last 200 years or so, human activity has increased the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs...

  12. Potential health effects of greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, C; Bryant, E A; Calvert, G D; Marthick, J; Condon-Paoloni, D

    1991-04-15

    To identify potential health effects of the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion in Australia. Data were derived from a number of sources: (i) published articles accessed from relevant databases in the disciplines of health, public health and climatology over the past 20 years; (ii) published conference proceedings, review monographs and government reports covering the topic; (iii) a survey of experts in public health and climatology/geography (150 individuals were surveyed in the first phase with a 63% response rate); and (iv) a consensus conference in which 22 invited experts reviewed the results of the literature review and survey and a second conference in which 18 senior members of the health bureaucracy and public health profession considered the implications of the findings. Over 200 published articles or monographs were reviewed. Criteria for selection were whether the papers contributed information to the objectives of the review. Because of the nature of the problem under investigation, predictions based on reasonable scientific assumptions were the major content of the review rather than conclusions based on scientific research. The major predicted health effects of long-term climatic change in Australia are skin and eye damage from increased ultraviolet radiation exposure, increased incidence of some respiratory diseases, vector-borne and water-borne diseases, and the social and physical effects of natural hazards and social and economic restructuring. The most vulnerable groups include the aged, the very young, the chronically ill, those living in poorly designed neighbourhoods and those working in outdoor occupations or heavy industry. The potential effects on health of long-term climatic change cover the broad spectrum of public health concerns. Detailed predictions of likely problems in specific geographic areas are not yet possible, but progressive development of such predictive capability is a high priority. Doctors will have an

  13. Effects of cover properties, ventilation rate and crop leaf area on tropical greenhouse climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impron, I.; Hemming, S.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental results and validation of a simple greenhouse climate model are analysed according to data sets from six prototype greenhouses with three different plastics (reference N0, and two levels of near-infrared reflecting pigments N1 and N2); two ratios of ventilation openings to greenhouse

  14. Effects of cover properties, ventilation rate and crop leaf area on tropical greenhouse climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impron, I.; Hemming, S.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental results and validation of a simple greenhouse climate model are analysed according to data sets from six prototype greenhouses with three different plastics (reference N0, and two levels of near-infrared reflecting pigments N1 and N2); two ratios of ventilation openings to greenhouse co

  15. Conceptual approaches to innovative energy saving technologies and reducing greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buyadgie, Dmytro; Sechenyh, Vitaliy; Buyadgie, Olexiy; Nichenko, Sergii; Vasil' ev, Igor

    2010-09-15

    The study attempts a comprehensive overview of the effects of human activities and proposes technical solutions for compensation of human anthropogenic intervention. Attention is focused on energy consumption optimization and reduction of harmful emissions at current stage of civilization development. Natural sources of energy and their associated greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions are considered in the paper along with the existed approaches to energy utilization, its merits and demerits. The role of heat-utilizing thermotransformers in reduction of thermal release and GHG emissions is specified. The examples of energy efficient technologies, based on application of jet devices, are presented in the study.

  16. Evidence for an earlier greenhouse cooling effect in the stratosphere before the 1980s over the Northern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Zerefos

    2014-01-01

    processes are reducing the statistical significance of these trends. Model results are in line with re-analysis and the observations, indicating a persistent cooling in the lower stratosphere during summer before and after the 1980s by −0.33 °C decade−1; a feature that is also seen throughout the year. However, the lower stratosphere modelled trends are generally lower than re-analysis and the observations. The contrasting effects of ozone depletion at polar latitudes in winter/spring and the anticipated strengthening of the Brewer Dobson circulation from man-made global warming at polar latitudes are discussed. Our results provide additional evidence for an early greenhouse cooling signal in the lower stratosphere before the 1980s, which it appears well in advance relative to the tropospheric greenhouse warming signal. Hence it may be postulated that the stratosphere could have provided an early warning of man-made climate change. The suitability for early warning signals in the stratosphere relative to the troposphere is supported by the fact that the stratosphere is less sensitive to changes due to cloudiness, humidity and man-made aerosols. Our analysis also indicates that the relative contribution of the lower stratosphere vs. the upper troposphere low frequency variability is important for understanding the added value of the long term tropopause variability related to human induced global warming.

  17. Danshen-Enhanced Cardioprotective Effect of Cardioplegia on Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in a Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Liu, Yiwei; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Yangming; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Hao

    2017-05-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is unavoidable during cardioplegic arrest and open-heart surgery. Danshen is one of the most popular traditional herbal medicines in China, which has entered the Food and Drug Administration-approved phase III clinical trial. This study was aimed to develop a human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) model to mimic I/R injury and evaluate the cardioprotective effect of regular cardioplegic solution with Danshen. hiPSC-CMs were cultured with the crystalloid cardioplegic solution (Thomas group) and Thomas solution with 2 or 10 µg/mL Danshen (Thomas plus Danshen groups). The cells under normoxic culture condition served as baseline group. Then, the cells were placed in a modular incubator chamber. After 45 min hypoxia and 3 h reoxygenation, hiPSC-CMs subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation resulted in a sharp increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in Thomas group versus baseline group. Compared with the Thomas group, ROS accumulation was significant suppressed in Thomas plus Danshen groups, which might result from elevating the content of glutathione and enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The enhanced L-type Ca(2+) current in hiPSC-CMs after I/R injury was also significantly decreased by Danshen, and meanwhile intracellular Ca(2+) level was reduced and calcium overload was suppressed. Thomas plus Danshen groups also presented less irregular transients and lower apoptosis rates. As a result, Danshen could improve antioxidant and calcium handling in cardiomyocytes during I/R and lead to reduced arrhythmia events and apoptosis rates. hiPSC-CMs model offered a platform for the future translational study of the cardioplegia. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of Bioinsecticides in Control of Greenhouse Whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood on Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of commercial products of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana(Naturalis; 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%, azadirachtin (NeemAzal T/S; 1% and 2% and oxymatrin(KingBo; 0.1% and 0.2% in the control of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorumWestwood on tomato were tested in plastic covered greenhouse. The effects of the bioinsecticides,applied twice at five-day interval, were compared to effects of abamectin (AbastateEW; 0.075% and thiamethoxam (Actara 25-WG; 0.05%. Tested bioinsecticides reducedthe number of larvae by 82-97% (Naturalis, 90-99% (NeemAzal T/S and 90-96% (KingBo,with the efficacy of >96% according to Henderson-Tilton, in the assessment 16 days aftertreatment. In the same assessment, achieved percentages in adults reduction and efficacyamounted 24-89% and 67-95% (Naturalis, 85-93% and 93-97% (NeemAzal T/S, 86-96%and 94-98% (KingBo. Percentages of abundance reduction and efficacy after treatment withAbastate EW were 31% and 88% (larvae and 64% and 84% (adults, while after treatmentwith Actara 25-WG they amounted 96% and 99% (larvae and 83% and 92% (adults. The resultsobtained show that NeemAzal T/S, Naturalis and KingBo can be an efficient alternativeto current insecticides in control of T. vaporariorum populations.

  19. Effects of Different Regulatory Methods on Improvement of Greenhouse Saline Soils, Tomato Quality, and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Maomao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify effective regulatory methods scheduling with the compromise between the soil desalination and the improvement of tomato quality and yield, a 3-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare the effect of straw mulching and soil structure conditioner and water-retaining agent on greenhouse saline soils, tomato quality, and yield. A higher salt removing rate of 80.72% in plough layer with straw mulching was obtained based on the observation of salt mass fraction in 0~20 cm soil layer before and after the experiment. Salts were also found to move gradually to the deeper soil layer with time. Straw mulching enhanced the content of soil organic matter significantly and was conductive to reserve soil available N, P, and K, while available P and K in soils of plough layer with soil structure conditioner decreased obviously; thus a greater usage of P fertilizer and K fertilizer was needed when applying soil structure conditioner. Considering the evaluation indexes including tomato quality, yield, and desalination effects of different regulatory methods, straw mulching was recommended as the main regulatory method to improve greenhouse saline soils in south China. Soil structure conditioner was the suboptimal method, which could be applied in concert with straw mulching.

  20. Surplus thermal energy model of greenhouses and coefficient analysis for effective utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available If a greenhouse in the temperate and subtropical regions is maintained in a closed condition, the indoor temperature commonly exceeds that required for optimal plant growth, even in the cold season. This study considered this excess energy as surplus thermal energy (STE, which can be recovered, stored and used when heating is necessary. To use the STE economically and effectively, the amount of STE must be estimated before designing a utilization system. Therefore, this study proposed an STE model using energy balance equations for the three steps of the STE generation process. The coefficients in the model were determined by the results of previous research and experiments using the test greenhouse. The proposed STE model produced monthly errors of 17.9%, 10.4% and 7.4% for December, January and February, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the coefficients on the model accuracy were revealed by the estimation error assessment and linear regression analysis through fixing dynamic coefficients. A sensitivity analysis of the model coefficients indicated that the coefficients have to be determined carefully. This study also provides effective ways to increase the amount of STE.

  1. Surplus thermal energy model of greenhouses and coefficient analysis for effective utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.H.; Son, J.E.; Lee, S.D.; Cho, S.I.; Ashtiani-Araghi, A.; Rhee, J.Y.

    2016-11-01

    If a greenhouse in the temperate and subtropical regions is maintained in a closed condition, the indoor temperature commonly exceeds that required for optimal plant growth, even in the cold season. This study considered this excess energy as surplus thermal energy (STE), which can be recovered, stored and used when heating is necessary. To use the STE economically and effectively, the amount of STE must be estimated before designing a utilization system. Therefore, this study proposed an STE model using energy balance equations for the three steps of the STE generation process. The coefficients in the model were determined by the results of previous research and experiments using the test greenhouse. The proposed STE model produced monthly errors of 17.9%, 10.4% and 7.4% for December, January and February, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the coefficients on the model accuracy were revealed by the estimation error assessment and linear regression analysis through fixing dynamic coefficients. A sensitivity analysis of the model coefficients indicated that the coefficients have to be determined carefully. This study also provides effective ways to increase the amount of STE. (Author)

  2. Greener greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paksoy, Halime; Turgut, Bekir; Beyhan, Beyza; Dasgan, H. Yildiz; Evliya, Hunay; Abak, Kazim; Bozdag, Saziye

    2010-09-15

    Agricultural greenhouses are solution to the increased demand for higher production yields, facilitating off season cultivation and allowing the growth of certain varieties in areas where it was not possible earlier. Heating and/or cooling system, required to maintain the inside micro-climate in greenhouses mostly rely on fossil fuels and/or electricity. This paper aims to discuss the 'greener' solutions for heating and cooling systems of greenhouses based on different thermal energy storage concepts. Results from a greenhouse Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) application in Turkey producing tomatoes with zero fossil fuels and up to 40% higher yield are presented.

  3. Effect of experimental summer drought on greenhouse gas fluxes from soil under corn and sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, M.; Manderscheid, R.; Well, R.; Weigel, H.-J.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    For most of Central Europe climate change is supposed to lead to higher frequencies of extreme weather events with hotter and drier summers. These changing climate conditions will affect vegetation and the water cycle. Water content is one of the most important parameters controlling production rates and fluxes of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from soil. Drought periods directly affect water content in soil and thereby turnover rates of nitrogen and carbon; however, type and mass of plant coverage can modify the degree of desiccation. We conducted measurements of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2) and nitrogen dynamics (nitrate and ammonium) on an experimental field site on loamy sand soil in Northern Germany. The site was installed to study the effect of summer drought on biomass production of sorghum compared to corn. During summer, plants on 'wet' plots were irrigated whereas on 'dry' plots rain was excluded by transparent rain shelters to obtain less than 40% of plant available soil water content. Measurements were performed weekly over 1 1 2 years, including two periods of experimental drought. Soil water content and nitrogen dynamics were measured from soil samples and fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 were measured between plant rows using static chambers. First results of greenhouse gas fluxes show increased uptake of methane in soil of 'dry' compared to 'wet' plots. No clear impact on N2O emission could be identified until now, although N dynamics differed. Although corn growth was reduced to a greater extent than was sorghum growth under drought conditions, biomass production of corn was higher under both water regimes. Desiccation was higher and started earlier at 'dry corn' than at 'dry sorghum' plots in summer 2011, leading to lower CO2 emission and higher CH4 uptake in the drier soil.

  4. The effect of different methods of seed bed preparation on greenhouse cucumber yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Momeni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different methods of seed bed preparation on yield of greenhouse cucumber, a two-year long experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with four replications in Jiroft from 2004. Different methods of seed bed preparation were as follows: 1 ridge with 20 cm height and 50 cm width and 2 plant rows with 40 cm distance, 2 furrow with 20 cm depth and 50 cm width and 2 plant rows inside, with 40 cm distance, and 3 planting on flat area with 40 cm distance. The results showed that the effect of planting bed on yield of greenhouse cucumber was significant. Furrow and flat area increased yield significantly, compared to the ridge treatment. Analysis of yield components such as plant height, number of pickling fruits, number of leaves, photosynthetic area and number of flowers showed that they are all correlated with fruit yield. The number of pickling fruits was significantly more in furrow and flat area than in ridge treatment. The height of cucumber plants on flat bed was significantly higher than that of the other treatments. The number of leaves and photosynthetic area of plants on flat bed were significantly greater than those in the other treatments. The least dead plants due to fungi disease were observed in ridge treatment. In view of yield and its components under the condition of this experiment, it can be concluded that flat area and furrow treatments are better than ridge treatment.

  5. Comparison of the observed and calculated clear sky greenhouse effect - Implications for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    The clear sky greenhouse effect is defined in terms of the outgoing longwave clear sky flux at the top of the atmosphere. Recently, interest in the magnitude of the clear sky greenhouse effect has increased due to the archiving of the clear sky flux quantity through the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The present study investigates to what degree of accuracy this flux can be analyzed by using independent atmospheric and surface data in conjunction with a detailed longwave radiation model. The conclusion from this comparison is that for most regions over oceans the analyzed fluxes agree to within the accuracy of the ERBE-retrieved fluxes (+/- 5 W/sq m). However, in regions where deep convective activity occurs, the ERBE fluxes are significantly higher (10-15 W/sq m) than the calculated fluxes. This bias can arise from either cloud contamination problems or variability in water vapor amount. It is argued that the use of analyzed fluxes may provide a more consistent clear sky flux data set for general circulation modeling validation. Climate implications from the analyzed fluxes are explored. Finally, results for obtaining longwave surface fluxes over the oceans are presented.

  6. Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, energy impact, and greenhouse effect gases release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibelin, Eric

    2003-07-01

    Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil energy utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) release. Thermal energy has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous energy recovery, incineration can produce more energy than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the energy final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best way to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission. (author)

  7. A Greenhouse Assay on the Effect of Applied Urea Amount on the Rhizospheric Soil Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shuanghua; Yi, Yanli

    2015-12-01

    The rhizospheric bacteria play key role in plant nutrition and growth promotion. The effects of increased nitrogen inputs on plant rhizospheric soils also have impacted on whole soil microbial communities. In this study, we analyzed the effects of applied nitrogen (urea) on rhizospheric bacterial composition and diversity in a greenhouse assay using the high-throughput sequencing technique. To explore the environmental factors driving the abundance, diversity and composition of soil bacterial communities, the relationship between soil variables and the bacterial communities were also analyzed using the mantel test as well as the redundancy analysis. The results revealed significant bacterial diversity changes at different amounts of applied urea, especially between the control treatment and the N fertilized treatments. Mantel tests showed that the bacterial communities were significantly correlated with the soil nitrate nitrogen, available nitrogen, soil pH, ammonium nitrogen and total organic carbon. The present study deepened the understanding about the rhizospheric soil microbial communities under different amounts of applied urea in greenhouse conditions, and our work revealed the environmental factors affecting the abundance, diversity and composition of rhizospheric bacterial communities.

  8. Investigation into the emission of greenhouse effect gases; Onshitsu koka gas no haishutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the situation of greenhouse effect gas emissions of advanced countries based on the reports from them. The advanced countries which concluded the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (OECD member countries, the former U.S.S.R., and East European countries) are to be reported to the office concerned with work for the framework the situation of their greenhouse effect gas emissions according to the obligation of the framework. In and after April 1997, they made the second report. The paper summarized changes in emission amount, the future trend, and the policies/measures mainly taken of nine countries which have already presented the second report (the U.S., the U.K., Germany, Holland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and New Zealand) and one country (Russia) which has made only the first report. Moreover, the literature was collected and summed up concerning the mechanism and coefficients of the emission of nitrous oxide and methane. The collected literature was classified into all fields/plural number of fields, energy relation, industrial process relation, relation with the use of organic solvent and other products, agricultural relation, relation with changes in land use and forests, and waste relation. 4 figs., 228 tabs.

  9. Mist greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, van P.A.; Voogt, J.O.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a greenhouse system with a climate regulation which is controlled through measuring the stomatal aperture of the plants present in the greenhouse. The regulation mainly consists of controlling a misting installation and optionally of adjusting other, conventional

  10. High salinity effect on bioremediation of pretreated pesticide lixiviates from greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, María M; González, Óscar; Bacardit, Jordi; Malfeito, Jorge; Sans, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Hydroponics culture greenhouses usually work in closed and semi-closed irrigation systems for nutrients and water-saving purposes. Photo-Fenton reaction has been revealed as an efficient way to depollute that kind of recycled effluents containing pesticides, even for high salinity concentrations. However, the inefficacy of organic matter chemical depletion imposes the use of a subsequent treatment. This work proposes the suitability of an integration of advanced oxidation process with a subsequent bioreactor to treat greenhouse lixiviates effluents at high or extremely high conductivity (salts concentration: up to 42 g L⁻¹). As a first step in this study, the performance of a series of sequencing batch reactors was monitored in order to check the biocompatibility of photo-Fenton pretreated effluents depending on their salinity content. In the second step, those same pretreated effluents were loaded to a biofiltration column filled with expanded clay. Finally, bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing was carried out to analyse microbial diversity of the biomass developed in the column. Results stated that the chemical-biological coupled system is effective for the treatment of water effluents containing pesticides. The integrated system is able to deplete more than 80% of the organic load, even under extremely high salinity.

  11. Effects of plant size, temperature, and light intensity on flowering of Phalaenopsis hybrids in Mediterranean greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean greenhouses for cultivation of Phalaenopsis orchids reproduce the warm, humid, and shaded environment of tropical underbrush. Heating represents the highest production cost, due to the high thermal requirements and the long unproductive phase of juvenility, in which plants attain the critical size for flowering. Our researches aimed to investigate the effect of plant size, temperature, and light intensity, during the phase of flower induction, on flowering of modern genotypes selected for Mediterranean greenhouses. Three experiments were carried out to compare (i) plant size: reduced size versus size considered optimal for flowering (hybrids "Sogo Yukidian," "Chain Xen Diamond," and "Pinlong"); (ii) temperature: moderate reduction of temperature versus standard thermal regime (hybrid "Premium"); (iii) light intensity: supplemental lighting versus reference light intensity (hybrid "Premium"). The premature exposure of plants to the inductive treatment delayed the beginning of flowering and reduced the flower stem quality, in all the tested hybrids. In "Premium," the lower temperature did not affect flowering earliness and commercial quality of flower stems compared to the standard regime, whereas it promoted stem branching. In the same hybrid, supplemental lighting anticipated flowering and promoted the emission of the second stem and the stem branching, compared to the reference light regime.

  12. EFFECT OF SOIL SOLARIZATION ON THERMAL REGIME OF PLASTIC GREENHOUSE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Temperature modification in soil of plastic greenhouse caused by solarization was measured during the summer in the Subtropical Central Region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a 10m x 25m greenhouse covered with low density transparent polyethylene (PE. Four 6m x 4m plots were mulched with 100µm thickness PE sheets, from December 12, 1992 to March 7, 1993. Four other plots (same size without the cover were used as control (bare soil. Results indicated that solarization incrased the maximum soil temperature. The average was 11.9, 10.8, 9.8, and 8.6°C over uncovered control soil at 2, 5, 10, and 20cm depth, respectively. The soil temperature reached values of up to 54.4°C at 2cm and 50.2°C at 5cm depth. Temperatures exceeding 45°C and 50°C in solarized soil have also occurred in several days. "Edge effect" in mulched plots was also detected.

  13. Effect of phlogopite size on potassium supply to plant under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Mousavi Dastenaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Micaceous minerals, including phlogopite, are frequently used as the growth medium with different commercial names for greenhouse plants. The objective of this investigation was to understand the effect of phlogopite size on the release and supply of potassium (K under greenhouse conditions. A pot experiment was carried out with a completely randomized design using factorial arrangement and 3 replications. Treatments consisted of 4 particle sizes of phlogopite and a control, as well as 2 types of nutrient solution (with/without K. Alfalfa was the test plant which was grown on a mixture of sand and phlogopite for a period of 6 months. During the growing period, shoot was harvested 4 times and the root was collected at the end of the experiment and their K concentration was measured. Under the K-free nutrient solution, the K concentration and total uptake was highest in pots containing the smallest phlogopite size. As the size of mineral decreases, the conditions for mineral weathering seem to become more favorable and therefore, mica releases its K more quickly. Therefore, if the long term K supply is important, coarse-sized phlogopite should be used. In contrast, fine-grained phlogopite is suitable when K is to be supplied very quickly.

  14. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION LEVELS ON YIELD OF LETTUCE GROWN IN AN UNHEATED GREENHOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Kirnak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an unheated greenhouse in order to determine effects of different irrigation levels on lettuce yield (cv. Hazar grown from December to February in Şanlıurfa, Turkey. Different irrigation water amounts based on Class-A-Pan evaporation were applied to the plants by drip irrigation system at four irrigation levels (Kp1= 1.0, Kp2=0.75, Kp3=0.50, Kp4=0.25 in one week irrigation interval. Applied irrigation water and evapotranspiration of Kp1 treatment were 118 and 125 mm, respectively. The highest average lettuce yield of 7.8 ton da-1 was obtained from the full-irrigation treatment (Kp1. Significant differences were not observed between Kp1 and Kp2 treatments in terms of lettuce yield. Maximum irrigation water use efficiency and total water use efficiency were obtained from Kp4 treatment respectively with 0.117 and 0.074 ton da-1 mm-1. Yield response factor (ky was found to be 0.88. The research results showed that a 7 day irrigation interval with Kp2 treatment could be used for irrigating lettuce under the unheated greenhouse conditions without any significant yield loss but increased water use efficiencies.

  15. Effects of Integrating and Non-Integrating Reprogramming Methods on Copy Number Variation and Genomic Stability of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjin Kang

    Full Text Available Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are derived from differentiated somatic cells using defined factors and provide a renewable source of autologous cells for cell therapy. Many reprogramming methods have been employed to generate human iPSCs, including the use of integrating vectors and non-integrating vectors. Maintenance of the genomic integrity of iPSCs is highly desirable if the cells are to be used in clinical applications. Here, using the Affymetrix Cytoscan HD array, we investigated the genomic aberration profiles of 19 human cell lines: 5 embryonic stem cell (ESC lines, 6 iPSC lines derived using integrating vectors ("integrating iPSC lines", 6 iPSC lines derived using non-integrating vectors ("non-integrating iPSC lines", and the 2 parental cell lines from which the iPSCs were derived. The genome-wide copy number variation (CNV, loss of heterozygosity (LOH and mosaicism patterns of integrating and non-integrating iPSC lines were investigated. The maximum sizes of CNVs in the genomes of the integrating iPSC lines were 20 times higher than those of the non-integrating iPSC lines. Moreover, the total number of CNVs was much higher in integrating iPSC lines than in other cell lines. The average numbers of novel CNVs with a low degree of overlap with the DGV and of likely pathogenic CNVs with a high degree of overlap with the ISCA (International Symposium on Computer Architecture database were highest in integrating iPSC lines. Different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP calls revealed that, using the parental cell genotype as a reference, integrating iPSC lines displayed more single nucleotide variations and mosaicism than did non-integrating iPSC lines. This study describes the genome stability of human iPSCs generated using either a DNA-integrating or non-integrating reprogramming method, of the corresponding somatic cells, and of hESCs. Our results highlight the importance of using a high-resolution method to monitor genomic

  16. Effects of Integrating and Non-Integrating Reprogramming Methods on Copy Number Variation and Genomic Stability of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiangjin; Yu, Qian; Huang, Yuling; Song, Bing; Chen, Yaoyong; Gao, Xingcheng; He, Wenyin; Sun, Xiaofang; Fan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are derived from differentiated somatic cells using defined factors and provide a renewable source of autologous cells for cell therapy. Many reprogramming methods have been employed to generate human iPSCs, including the use of integrating vectors and non-integrating vectors. Maintenance of the genomic integrity of iPSCs is highly desirable if the cells are to be used in clinical applications. Here, using the Affymetrix Cytoscan HD array, we investigated the genomic aberration profiles of 19 human cell lines: 5 embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines, 6 iPSC lines derived using integrating vectors ("integrating iPSC lines"), 6 iPSC lines derived using non-integrating vectors ("non-integrating iPSC lines"), and the 2 parental cell lines from which the iPSCs were derived. The genome-wide copy number variation (CNV), loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and mosaicism patterns of integrating and non-integrating iPSC lines were investigated. The maximum sizes of CNVs in the genomes of the integrating iPSC lines were 20 times higher than those of the non-integrating iPSC lines. Moreover, the total number of CNVs was much higher in integrating iPSC lines than in other cell lines. The average numbers of novel CNVs with a low degree of overlap with the DGV and of likely pathogenic CNVs with a high degree of overlap with the ISCA (International Symposium on Computer Architecture) database were highest in integrating iPSC lines. Different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) calls revealed that, using the parental cell genotype as a reference, integrating iPSC lines displayed more single nucleotide variations and mosaicism than did non-integrating iPSC lines. This study describes the genome stability of human iPSCs generated using either a DNA-integrating or non-integrating reprogramming method, of the corresponding somatic cells, and of hESCs. Our results highlight the importance of using a high-resolution method to monitor genomic aberrations

  17. Spectral effects of light-emitting diodes on photosynthetic characteristics and secondary metabolism in greenhouse plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis

    2014-01-01

    , photo-synthetic performance, and secondary metabolism of different plants. As model plants we used rose (Rosa hybrida), chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium), campanula (Campanula portenschlagiana), orchid (Phalaenopsis), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). In our first experiment, by growing roses...... fluorescence measurements. In all three experiments, we also addressed the effects of supplementary blue and red LED lighting on phytochemicals. With increasing amount of blue light, roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas increased their phenolic amount; Phalaenopsis cultivars increased their pigment content......; lettuce plants increased both their phenolic and pigment content. The effects were not observed in the same way in all plants, highlighting the fact that plant responses to blue and red LED lighting are species and/or cultivar dependent. LED-based systems are a promising alternative choice for greenhouse...

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from solid waste in Beijing: The rising trend and the mitigation effects by management improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Disposal of solid waste poses great challenges to city managements. Changes in solid waste composition and disposal methods, along with urbanisation, can certainly affect greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. In this study, we analysed the changes in the generation, composition and management of municipal solid waste in Beijing. The changes of greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste management were thereafter calculated. The impacts of municipal solid waste management improvements on greenhouse gas emissions and the mitigation effects of treatment techniques of greenhouse gas were also analysed. Municipal solid waste generation in Beijing has increased, and food waste has constituted the most substantial component of municipal solid waste over the past decade. Since the first half of 1950s, greenhouse gas emission has increased from 6 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)to approximately 200 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in the early 1990s and 2145 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in 2013. Landfill gas flaring, landfill gas utilisation and energy recovery in incineration are three techniques of the after-emission treatments in municipal solid waste management. The scenario analysis showed that three techniques might reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 22.7%, 4.5% and 9.8%, respectively. In the future, if waste disposal can achieve a ratio of 4:3:3 by landfill, composting and incineration with the proposed after-emission treatments, as stipulated by the Beijing Municipal Waste Management Act, greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste will decrease by 41%.

  19. The Greenhouse Effect and the Destruction of the Ozone Shield: Implications for Rhetoric and Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Martin Reid

    Rhetoric, in the Aristotelian sense of "the available means of persuasion," is a crucial, often determining component of the process of making public policy generally, and environmental policy specifically. Environmental crises which have been addressed by the governmental, industrial, and social policy -making establishments have tended to be treated in a manner similar to that in which social, political, economic, military, and other problems have been commonly treated, utilizing a traditional rhetoric, including long-proven persuasive language and arguments. Such problems as air pollution and water pollution have been, to some degree, successfully addressed in this manner. A new and fundamentally different cluster of environmental problems has recently been recognized by elements of the policy making establishment as a legitimate candidate for consideration and policy formation. These environmental problems differ from the more familiar type in a variety of ways, each of which, to a greater or lesser degree, make problematic for those activists concerned with these crises the production of an effective crisis-oriented rhetoric. This study addresses two such closely related phenomena, the Greenhouse Effect and ozone depletion, and identifies those characteristics which contribute to their rhetorical complexity. Using traditional techniques of rhetorical examination, primarily neo-Aristotelian analysis, this study demonstrates the inadequacy of current crisis-oriented rhetoric, and identifies the causes of this rhetorical ineffectiveness. The study concludes that the mediation of such crises as the Greenhouse Effect and ozone depletion cannot be significantly facilitated by traditional environmental-oriented rhetoric, and may in fact be hindered by the use of rhetoric associated with fundamentally different (i.e., easier to solve) environmental problems.

  20. The greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.

    1987-01-01

    The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs and ozone. They are greenhouse gases as they absorb radiation from the Earth and thus impede its emission back to space. CO{sub 2} is responsible for about half the enhanced greenhouse effect. A global warming of only a few degrees would have a profound effect on climate. Increased levels of CO{sub 2} promote plant growth, but may not benefit agriculture overall. Sea levels may rise. It is difficult to predict the effects of global warming in society. It would be possible to reduce the scale of the greenhouse effect by energy conservation, using alternative energy sources, and possibly by capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power stations and disposing of it on the ocean floor. 13 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A New Perspective of the Physical Processes Associated with the Clear-Sky Greenhouse Effect over High Latitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuohao CAO; Ronald E.STEWART; M.K.YAU

    2004-01-01

    The physical processes associated with the clear-sky greenhouse effect in the presence of water vapor are examined by including surface emissivity in the greenhouse effect formulation, and by introducing a new way to partition physical processes of the greenhouse effect. In this new framework, it is found that the clear-sky greenhouse effect is governed by three physical processes associated with (1) the temperature contrast between the surface and the atmosphere, (2) the interaction between the surface emissivity and the temperature contrast, and (3) the surface emissivity. The importance of the three physical processes is assessed by computing their vertical and spectral variations for the subarctic winter and summer standard atmosphere using the radiation model MODTRAN3 (Moderate Resolution Transmittance code Version 3). The results show that the process associated with the temperature contrast between the surface and the atmosphere dominates over the other two processes in magnitude. The magnitude of this process has substantial variations in the spectral region of 1250 to 1880 cm-1 and in the far infrared region. Due to the low-level temperature inversion over the subarctic winter, there exists a negative contribution to the greenhouse trapping. The seasonal variations are, however, dominated by the processes associated with the interaction between the surface emissivity and the temperature contrast as well as the surface emissivity itself. The magnitudes of these two physical processes contributing to the greenhouse trapping over the subarctic winter are about 7 to 10 times of those over the subarctic summer, whereas the magnitude of the processes associated with the temperature contrast in the subarctic summer is only about 2 times of that in the subarctic winter.

  2. Biogas in organic agriculture-effects on productivity, energy self-sufficiency and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Olesen, Jørgen E; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure and crops provides the possibility of a combined production of renewable energy and organic fertilizer on organic farms and has been suggested as an option to improve sustainability of organic agriculture. In the present study, the consequences of implementation...... of anaerobic digestion and biogas production were analyzed on a 1000 ha model farm with combined dairy and cash crop production, representing organic agriculture in Denmark. The effects on crop rotation, nitrogen flows and losses, yield, energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were evaluated for four......, reduced number of livestock and import of biomass from cuttings made in ungrazed meadows. These four scenarios were compared with the current situation in organic agriculture in Denmark and to a situation where slurry from conventional agriculture is no longer imported. Implementation of anaerobic...

  3. A Cloud Greenhouse Effect on Mars: Significant Climate Change in the Recent Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Kahre, Melinda A.; Schaeffer, James R.; Montmessin, Frank; Phillips, R J.

    2012-01-01

    The large variations in Mars orbit parameters are known to be significant drivers of climate change on the Red planet. The recent discovery of buried CO2 ice at the South Pole adds another dimension to climate change studies. In this paper we present results from the Ames GCM that show within the past million years it is possible that clouds from a greatly intensified Martian hydrological cycle may have produced a greenhouse effect strong enough to raise global mean surface temperatures by several tens of degrees Kelvin. It is made possible by the ability of the Martian atmosphere to transport water to high altitudes where cold clouds form, reduce the outgoing longwave radiation, and drive up surface temperatures to maintain global energy balance.

  4. Ammonia photolysis and the greenhouse effect in the primordial atmosphere of the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, W. R.; Atreya, S. K.

    1979-01-01

    Photochemical calculations indicate that in the prebiotic atmosphere of earth ammonia would have been irreversibly converted to N2 in less than 40 years if the ammonia surface mixing ratio were no more than 0.0001. However, if a continuous outgassing of ammonia were maintained, radiative-equilibrium calculations indicate that a surface mixing ratio of ammonia of 0.0001 or greater would provide a sufficient greenhouse effect to keep the surface temperature above freezing. With a 0.0001 mixing ratio of ammonia, 60% to 70% of the present-day solar luminosity would be adequate to maintain surface temperatures above freezing. A lower limit to the time constant for accumulation of an amount of nitrogen equivalent to the present day value is 10 my if the outgassing were such as to provide a continuous surface mixing ratio of ammonia of at least 0.00001.

  5. Greenhouse effect and ice ages: historical perspective; Effet de serre et glaciations, une perspective historique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, E. [College de France, Chaire d' Evolution du Climat et de l' Ocean, 75 - Paris (France); CEREGE (UMR 6635), 13 - Aix en Provence (France)

    2004-06-01

    This article provides a brief historical perspective on the first scientific research on the greenhouse effect and glaciations. While these two aspects of our climate can be investigated separately, naturalists, physicists and chemists during the 19. century were interested jointly in both issues, as well as the possible relationship between them. The contributions of famous pioneers are mentioned, ranging from scholars with encyclopedic knowledge such as Horace-Benedict de Saussure, to modern scientists like Svante Arrhenius, who was first to predict global warming as a consequence of using fossil fuels. Despite fragmentary observations, these pioneers had prophetic insights. Indeed, the main fundamental concepts used nowadays have been developed during the 19. century. However, we must wait until the second half of the 20. century to see a true revolution of investigative techniques in the Earth Sciences, enabling full access to previously unknown components of the climate system, such as deep oceans and the interior of the polar ice caps. (author)

  6. Improved Estimates of Clear Sky Longwave Flux and Application to the Tropical Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W. D.

    1997-01-01

    The first objective of this investigation is to eliminate the clear-sky offset introduced by the scene-identification procedures developed for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Estimates of this systematic bias range from 10 to as high as 30 W/sq m. The initial version of the ScaRaB data is being processed with the original ERBE algorithm. Since the ERBE procedure for scene identification is based upon zonal flux averages, clear scenes with longwave emission well below the zonal mean value are mistakenly classified as cloudy. The erroneous classification is more frequent in regions with deep convection and enhanced mid- and upper-tropospheric humidity. We will develop scene identification parameters with zonal and/or time dependence to reduce or eliminate the bias in the clear- sky data. The modified scene identification procedure could be used for the ScaRaB-specific version of the Earth-radiation products. The second objective is to investigate changes in the clear-sky Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) associated with decadal variations in the tropical and subtropical climate. There is considerable evidence for a shift in the climate state starting in approximately 1977. The shift is accompanied by higher SSTs in the equatorial Pacific, increased tropical convection, and higher values of atmospheric humidity. Other evidence indicates that the humidity in the tropical troposphere has been steadily increasing over the last 30 years. It is not known whether the atmospheric greenhouse effect has increased during this period in response to these changes in SST and precipitable water. We will investigate the decadal-scale fluctuations in the greenhouse effect using Nimbus-7, ERBE, and ScaRaB measurements spaning 1979 to the present. The data from the different satellites will be intercalibrated by comparison with model calculations based upon ship radiosonde observations. The fluxes calculated from the radiation model will also be used for validation of the

  7. The effects of carbon tax on the Oregon economy and state greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. L.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Renfro, J.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Of the numerous mechanisms to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions on statewide, regional or national scales in the United States, a tax on carbon is perhaps one of the simplest. By taxing emissions directly, the costs of carbon emissions are incorporated into decision-making processes of market actors including consumers, energy suppliers and policy makers. A carbon tax also internalizes the social costs of climate impacts. In structuring carbon tax revenues to reduce corporate and personal income taxes, the negative incentives created by distortionary income taxes can be reduced or offset entirely. In 2008, the first carbon tax in North America across economic sectors was implemented in British Columbia through such a revenue-neutral program. In this work, we investigate the economic and environmental effects of a carbon tax in the state of Oregon with the goal of informing the state legislature, stakeholders and the public. The study investigates 70 different economic sectors in the Oregon economy and six geographical regions of the state. The economic model is built upon the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM) to provide price changes in fuel with data from: the Energy Information Agency National Energy Modeling System (EIA-NEMS) Pacific Region Module which provides Oregon-specific energy forecasts; and fuel price increases imposed at different carbon fees based on fuel-specific carbon content and current and projected regional-specific electricity fuel mixes. CTAM output is incorporated into the Regional Economic Model (REMI) which is used to dynamically forecast economic impacts by region and industry sector including: economic output, employment, wages, fiscal effects and equity. Based on changes in economic output and fuel demand, we further project changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from economic activity and calculate revenue generated through a carbon fee. Here, we present results of this modeling effort under different scenarios of carbon fee and

  8. Cover materials excluding near infrared radiation: effect on greenhouse climate and plant processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Stanghellini, C.; Hemming, S.; Dai, J.

    2008-01-01

    Only about half of the energy that enters a greenhouse as sun radiation is in the wavelength range that is useful for photosynthesis (PAR, Photosynthetically Active Radiation). Nearly all the remaining energy fraction is in the Near InfraRed range (NIR) and warms the greenhouse and crop and does con

  9. Use of supplementary lighting top screens and effects on greenhouse climate and return on investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, A. van 't; Henten, E.J. van; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Bongaerts, E.

    2008-01-01

    Discomfort caused by light pollution from greenhouses that apply supplementary lighting is an issue in Dutch society nowadays. At this moment Dutch legislation requires an opaque screen that reduces light transmission of the greenhouse wall by 95%. In 2008 also the light transmission of the

  10. Moisture effects on greenhouse gases generation in nitrifying gas-phase compost biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Guilherme D N; Day, George B; Gates, Richard S; Taraba, Joseph L; Coyne, Mark S

    2012-06-01

    Gas-phase compost biofilters are extensively used in concentrated animal feeding operations to remove odors and, in some cases, ammonia from air sources. The expected biochemical pathway for these predominantly aerobic systems is nitrification. However, non-uniform media with low oxygen levels can shift biofilter microbial pathways to denitrification, a source of greenhouse gases. Several factors contribute to the formation of anoxic/anaerobic zones: media aging, media and particle structure, air velocity distribution, compaction, biofilm thickness, and moisture content (MC) distribution. The present work studies the effects of media moisture conditions on ammonia (NH(3)) removal and greenhouse gas generation (nitrous oxide, N(2)O and methane, CH(4)) for gas-phase compost biofilters subject to a 100-day controlled drying process. Continuous recordings were made for the three gases and water vapor (2.21-h sampling cycle, each cycle consisted of three gas species, and water vapor, for a total of 10,050 data points). Media moisture conditions were classified into three corresponding media drying rate (DR) stages: Constant DR (wetter media), falling DR, and stable-dry system. The first-half of the constant DR period (0-750 h; MC=65-52%, w.b.) facilitated high NH(3) removal rates, but higher N(2)O generation and no CH(4) generation. At the drier stages of the constant DR (750-950 h; MC=52-48%, w.b.) NH(3) removal remained high but N(2)O net generation decreased to near zero. In the falling DR stage (1200-1480 h; MC=44-13%) N(2)O generation decreased, CH(4) increased, and NH(3) was no longer removed. No ammonia removal or greenhouse gas generation was observed in the stable-dry system (1500-2500 h; MC=13%). These results indicate that media should remain toward the drier region of the constant DR (in close proximity to the falling DR stage; MC=50%, approx.), to maintain high levels of NH(3) removal, reduced levels of N(2)O generation, and nullify levels of CH(4

  11. An integrated end-to-end modeling framework for testing ecosystem-wide effects of human-induced pressures in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Christensen, Asbjørn

    to the high-resolution coupled physical-biological model HBM-ERGOM and the fisheries bio-economic FishRent model. We investigate ecosystem-wide responses to changes in human-induced pressures by simulating several eutrophication scenarios that are relevant to existing Baltic Sea management plans (e.g. EU BSAP......, EU CFP). We further present the structure and calibration of the Baltic ATLANTIS model and the operational linkage to the other models. Using the results of eutrophication scenarios, and focusing on the relative changes in fish and fishery production, we discuss the robustness of the model linking...

  12. An Integrated End-to-End Modeling Framework for Testing Ecosystem-Wide Effects of Human-Induced Pressures in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; Maar, Marie; Nielsen, Rasmus

    to the high-resolution coupled physical-biological model HBM-ERGOM and the fisheries bio-economic FishRent model. We investigate ecosystem-wide responses to changes in human-induced pressures by simulating several eutrophication scenarios that are relevant to existing Baltic Sea management plans (e.g. EU BSAP......, EU CFP). We further present the structure and calibration of the Baltic ATLANTIS model and the operational linkage to the other models. Using the results of eutrophication scenarios, and focusing on the relative changes in fish and fishery production, we discuss the robustness of the model linking...

  13. Research Advances of Effects of Land Use Pattern on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Grassland Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng; Leixing; Chen; Kelong; Wang; Shiping

    2014-01-01

    The grassland is the largest terrestrial ecosystem in China,and greenhouse gas fluxes such as CO2,CH4 and N2O play an important role in the global climate change. The differences in grazing,cultivation and management measures will affect greenhouse gas emissions in grassland ecosystem. Studies suggest that reclamation will lead to increased CO2 fluxes,and fertilization will lead to increased N2 O fluxes; no grazing in summer can reduce greenhouse gas emissions,but impacts of grazing and management measures on greenhouse gas fluxes have not yet reached the same conclusion. The different results may be related to local natural conditions,management measures and research methods. Future research should be focused on unity and standardization in these areas,making the results scientific and comparable,and finally providing the basis for emission reduction of greenhouse gases in grassland ecosystem.

  14. Greenhouse effect: an issue for the refrigeration and air conditioning sector; Effet de serre: quelle problematique pour le froid et le conditionnement de l`air?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billiard, F. [Institut International du Froid, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The principles of greenhouse effect and the greenhouse gas main direct and indirect emission sources due to refrigeration and air conditioning systems are first reviewed. Evolution scenarios from 1992 to 2020 and 2100 for the emissions of CFC, HCFC and HFC are presented and related to the Kyoto protocol project limitations; technical improvements in refrigerating and air conditioning systems (lower refrigerant utilization, fluid confinement, alternative technologies, natural refrigerant utilization, etc.) could lead to substantial diminutions of these greenhouse gases

  15. Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect: January 1986-January 1992. Quick Bibliography Series: QB 92-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Jayne T.

    This bibliography contains 442 journal article, book, and audiovisual citations on global warming and the greenhouse effect entered into the National Agricultural Library's AGRICOLA database between January 1979 and March 1992. The bibliography contains an author and subject index as well as information on obtaining documents. (LZ)

  16. The greenhouse effect: will we change the climate?; L'effet de serre: allons-nous changer le climat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Treut, H

    2004-07-01

    This book presents the great climate factors, the changes resulting from the greenhouse effect and the corresponding human factors part, the atmosphere chemical composition and the biological and geo-political risks bound to the climatic changes. (A.L.B.)

  17. Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, the Societal Consequences of Reducing CO2 Emissions and the Problem of Ozone Layer Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Bjorn; Wallin, Anita

    2000-01-01

    Contributes to the growing body of knowledge about students' conceptions and views of environmental and natural resource issues. Questions 9th and 12th grade Swedish students' understandings of the greenhouse effect, reduction of CO2 emissions, and the depletion of the ozone layer. Observes five models of the greenhouse effect that appear among…

  18. Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, the Societal Consequences of Reducing CO2 Emissions and the Problem of Ozone Layer Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Bjorn; Wallin, Anita

    2000-01-01

    Contributes to the growing body of knowledge about students' conceptions and views of environmental and natural resource issues. Questions 9th and 12th grade Swedish students' understandings of the greenhouse effect, reduction of CO2 emissions, and the depletion of the ozone layer. Observes five models of the greenhouse effect that appear among…

  19. The size and range effect: lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager-Wick Ellingsen, Linda; Singh, Bhawna; Hammer Strømman, Anders

    2016-05-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effect of increasing battery size and driving range to the environmental impact of electric vehicles (EVs). To this end, we compile cradle-to-grave inventories for EVs in four size segments to determine their climate change potential. A second objective is to compare the lifecycle emissions of EVs to those of conventional vehicles. For this purpose, we collect lifecycle emissions for conventional vehicles reported by automobile manufacturers. The lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions are calculated per vehicle and over a total driving range of 180 000 km using the average European electricity mix. Process-based attributional LCA and the ReCiPe characterisation method are used to estimate the climate change potential from the hierarchical perspective. The differently sized EVs are compared to one another to find the effect of increasing the size and range of EVs. We also point out the sources of differences in lifecycle emissions between conventional- and electric vehicles. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis assesses the change in lifecycle emissions when electricity with various energy sources power the EVs. The sensitivity analysis also examines how the use phase electricity sources influences the size and range effect.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the agricultural sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakam, Innocent; Balana, Bedru Babulo; Matthews, Robin

    2012-12-15

    Market-based policy instruments to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generally considered more appropriate than command and control tools. However, the omission of transaction costs from policy evaluations and decision-making processes may result in inefficiency in public resource allocation and sub-optimal policy choices and outcomes. This paper aims to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of market-based GHG mitigation policy instruments in the agricultural sector by incorporating transaction costs. Assuming that farmers' responses to mitigation policies are economically rationale, an individual-based model is developed to study the relative performances of an emission tax, a nitrogen fertilizer tax, and a carbon trading scheme using farm data from the Scottish farm account survey (FAS) and emissions and transaction cost data from literature metadata survey. Model simulations show that none of the three schemes could be considered the most cost effective in all circumstances. The cost effectiveness depends both on the tax rate and the amount of free permits allocated to farmers. However, the emissions trading scheme appears to outperform both other policies in realistic scenarios.

  1. Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterman, J.; Angell, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Shubert, S.; Starr, David OC.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.

    2002-01-01

    In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average I(sub na) for February 1990 was 10.6 m/s, but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m/s. A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into central Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions at 700 mb are observed in association with the occurrence of enhanced warm, moist advection from the ocean in February 1990 producing clouds and precipitation. Total precipitable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios, this reduction in heat loss to space, can be translated into a virtual radiative heating of 2.6 W/square m above the February 1990 surface/atmosphere system, which contributes to a warming of the surface on the order of 2.6 K. Accepting this estimate as quantitatively meaningful, we evaluate the direct effect, the rise in the surface temperature in Europe as a result of maritime-air inflow, as 7.2 K (9.8 K-2.6 K). Thus, fractional reinforcement by the greenhouse effect is 2.6/7.2, or 36%, a substantial positive feedback.

  2. Effect of Biochar on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Cycling in Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Harter, Johannes; Kaldamukova, Radina; Ruser, Reiner; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    The extensive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in agriculture is a major source of anthropogenic N2O emissions contributing 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Soil biochar amendment has been suggested as a means to reduce both CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. The reduction of N2O emissions by biochar has been demonstrated repeatedly in field and laboratory experiments. However, the mechanisms of the reduction remain unclear. Further it is not known how biochar field-weathering affects GHG emissions and how agro-chemicals, such as the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), that is often simultaneously applied together with commercial N-fertilizers, impact nitrogen transformation and N2O emissions from biochar amended soils. In order investigate the duration of the biochar effect on soil N2O emissions and its susceptibility to DMPP application we performed a microcosm and field study with a high-temperature (400 ° C) beech wood derived biochar (60 t ha-1 and 5 % (w/w) biochar in the field and microcosms, respectively). While the field site contained the biochar already for three years, soil and biochar were freshly mixed for the laboratory microcosm experiments. In both studies we quantified GHG emissions and soil nitrogen speciation (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium). While the field study was carried out over the whole vegetation period of the sunflower Helianthus annuus L., soil microcosm experiments were performed for up to 9 days at 28° C. In both experiments a N-fertilizer containing DMPP was applied either before planting of the sunflowers or at the beginning of soil microcosms incubation. Laboratory microcosm experiments were performed at 60% water filled pore space reflecting average field conditions. Our results show that biochar effectively reduced soil N2O emissions by up to 60 % in the field and in the soil microcosm experiments. No significant differences in N2O emission mitigation potential between field-aged and fresh

  3. Effect of land use on greenhouse gas emission in tropical ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Tropical ecosystems play an important role for the regional and global climate system through the exchange of greenhouse gases and provide important ecosystems services such as carbon sequestration, produce, and biodiversity. Human activities have, however, resulted in intensive transformation of tropical ecosystems impacting the cycling of nutrients, water and carbon underlying the greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, best-bet agricultural practices can reduce greenhouse gas emission, those directly emitted from the agricultural fields, but also indirectly through less demand on new land and hence forest conservation. Here, I will provide some insights into the main factors affecting the exchange of greenhouse gases from the plot to continental scale through some specific case studies. Experimental data, stable isotopes and modeling results will be presented.

  4. Effect of solid and aqueous extract of vermicompost on growth characteristics of tomato and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peimani Foroushani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increase of using vermicompost fertilizers in greenhouse cultivation, effect of vermicompost application on growth characteristics of tomato and one of its major pests [greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hem:Aleyrodidae] was investigated. The experiment consisted of five treatments: control (without vermicompost, 30% and 60% solid vermicompost fertilizer, and 40% and 20% aqueous extracts of vermicompost. Effect of vermicompost on greenhouse whitefly was tested for two different cases of with-choice and no-choice. Results showed that significant increase in shoot dry weight and root dry weight of tomato in vermicompost treatments. The highest increase (18 and 12 fold, respectively was observed in plants treated with 60% solid vermicompost. The highest amount of nitrogen (0.43 mg/kg, potassium (14.56 mg/kg and phenol (1130.46 ppm was recorded in60% solid vermicompost treatment. Also, application of vermicompost reduced the percentage of infested leaves to whitefly, such that the lowest amounts were 6.67% and 8.97% in 60% and 30% solid vermicompost treatments, respectively, and 10.53% in 40% aqueous extract of vermicompost. The mortality of the second instar nymph of greenhouse whitefly-the stage that insects become fixed to the leaves by their sucking mouthparts- was increased (about 10% by application of  vermicompost.

  5. The carbon balance and greenhouse effects of the Finnish forest sector at present, in the past and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this study the greenhouse impact of the total Finnish forest sector was considered, which means that the estimated emissions and sink effects from exported forest products were also included. The forest biomass is and seems to be in the next decades the most important factor in the carbon balance of the total forest sector. The development alternatives of forest industries and waste management practices has still a remarkable influence on the greenhouse impact of the Finnish forest sector. The waste management practices in the future has an important influence on the emissions but the exact net greenhouse impact of the landfills is still uncertain. However, the methane emissions from existing landfills can be reduced essentially by gas recovery. Increased incineration and energy recovery of wood waste (and replacing fossil fuel use by it) is also a future alternative for reducing the greenhouse effects in the forest sector. The sequestration of carbon by increasing the storages of long-lived wood products in use meets difficulties in practice because of all the material losses in wood using chain and the natural removal of old wood products. An important advantage of mechanical wood processing and the succeeding refinement chain is still their relative low use of energy

  6. Evaluation of effective factors on optimal management greenhouses summery in Khuzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rahmany

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It pays attention to cultivation greenhouse, and provides produce artificial condition and the variants environment have especially important for neutralizing in progressing extent agriculture processes. It is necessary for progressing we need suitable planning until we can move forward to producing program and we are needed to know about variants and limitation which obstacle the develop of this plantation . It is based on this research, general object for recognizing important variants than the useful management of the summer greenhouses in Khuzestan province do it. This research is a kind of usage and it conducted by measurement method in Khuzestan province. We use for gathering information from questionnaire achieve and interview method. In the research of the statistical social. There are 95 unite of the summery greenhouse of province. In order to, experts use of panel method for determining validity. They divided 30 the kind of the questionnaire and then gathering them, they calculate score 11.5 of kourenbakh (α coefficient by SPSS software. This coefficient calculates for 2 parts, sustainable agriculture and skillful knowledge are %71 and %82 respectively. The results of research showed that age, courses studies and experience of owner`s greenhouse can make important differences in optimum management level. And also There are statistical significant relationship between the skillful knowledge of the owner`s greenhouse and their perception to sustainable agriculture with useful management. Additionally, education level couldn't affect on optimum management in summery greenhouses.

  7. Greenhouse effect gases (GEI) by energy consumption; Gases efecto invernadero (GEI) por consumo de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ledo C, Ramon; Bazan N, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the calculation methodology of greenhouse effect gases (GEI) emissions that are produced by the power sector in Mexico, as well as to discuss its possible impact in the subject of climatic change and the possible mitigating actions to lower the amount of emissions that can be taken and, therefore, the possible climate changes. In Mexico GEI inventories have been made since 1991, year in which the National Inventory of Gases with Greenhouse Effect was obtained for year 1988. The GEI include carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (NO) and volatile organic carbides that are not methane (NMVOC) and are secondary products and harmful that are obtained from the processes that turn fuels into energy (combustion). The main sources of GEI are: fixed sources (industries, residences, commerce, public services and energy transformation, such as power generation); movable sources (that include all type of transport that uses fuel). The fuels that, by their volume and efficiency, generate more emissions of GEI are crude oil, natural gas and solid biomass (firewood-cane bagasse). Any effort to reduce these emissions is very important and remarkable if it affects the consumption of these fuels. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar la metodologia de calculo de las emisiones de los gases con efecto invernadero (GEI) que son producidos por el sector energetico en Mexico, asi como discutir su posible impacto en las cuestiones de cambio climatico y las posibles acciones de mitigacion que se pueden realizar para abatir la cantidad de emisiones y, por ende, los posibles cambios de clima. En Mexico se han realizado inventarios de GEI desde 1991, ano en que se obtuvo el Inventario Nacional de Gases con Efecto Invernadero para el ano de 1988. Los GEI comprenden al dioxido de carbono (CO2), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx), metano (CH4), oxido nitroso (N2O) y

  8. Management effects on greenhouse gas emissions from a fen covered with riverine silt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, Melanie; Gatersleben, Peter; Tiemeyer, Bärbel

    2017-04-01

    Drainage is necessary to use peatlands for conventional agriculture, but this practice causes high emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The effect of hydrological conditions and management on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from "true" peat soils is relatively well examined, but there is little data on GHG emissions from organic soils covered with mineral soil. Such a cover may either be man-made to improve the trafficability of the fields or natural, e.g. due to the deposition of riverine silt. Such mineral covers are widespread in North-Western Germany and other regions with intensively used peatlands. Here, we aim to evaluate the effect of management, water table depth and properties of the mineral cover on the emissions of CO2, N2O and methane (CH4). As the majority of peatlands in North-Western Germany, the study area is used as grassland. The area is artificially drained and intensively used (4 to 5 cuts per year, annual nitrogen fertilisation of 112 to 157 kg/ha). The fen peat with a thickness of 0.6 to 1.50 m is covered by riverine silt deposited by the river Weser. Six measurement sites have been chosen to represent typical agricultural management, soil properties and hydrological conditions of one hydrological management unit. The sites differ in the soil organic carbon (SOC) content of the riverine silt (4 - 15 % SOC), the occurrence of a ploughed horizon as well as water and agricultural management. We use static closed chambers to measure CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes. CO2 measurement campaigns using transparent and opaque chambers and a portable IRGA take place every third or fourth week depending on season. CH4 and N2O samples are taken every second week and, in addition, on the first, third and seventh day after fertilizer application. Samples are analyzed by gas chromatography. First results show negligible CH4 fluxes due to low groundwater levels. Total N2O emissions reflected mainly the different fertilizer

  9. Global warming: Experimental study about the effect of accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molto, Carlos; Mas, Miquel

    2010-05-01

    The project presented here was developed by fifteen year old students of the Institut Sabadell (Sabadell Secondary School. Spain). The objective of this project was to raise the students awareness' about the problem of climate change, mainly caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is also intended that students use the scientific method as an effective system of troubleshooting and that they use the ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) to elicit data and process information. To develop this project, four lessons of sixty minutes each were needed. The first lesson sets out the role of the atmosphere as an Earth's temperature regulator, highlighting the importance of keeping the levels of carbon dioxide, methane and water steam in balance. The second lesson is focused on the experimental activity that students will develop in the following lesson. In lesson two, students will present and justify their hypothesis about the experiment. Some theoretical concepts, necessary to carry out the experiment, will also be explained. The third lesson involves the core of the project, that is the experiment in the laboratory. The experiment consists on performing the atmosphere heating on a little scale. Four different atmospheres are created inside four plastic boxes heated by an infrared lamp. Students work in groups (one group for each atmosphere) and have to monitor the evolution of temperature by means of a temperature sensor (Multilog software). The first group has to observe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels increase, mainly caused by the widespread practice of burning fossil fuels by growing human populations. The task of this group is to measure simultaneously the temperature of an empty box (without CO2) and the temperature of a box with high carbon dioxide concentration. The carbon dioxide concentration is the result of the chemical reaction when sodium carbonate mixes with hydrochloric acid. The

  10. Carbon dioxide emissions from Deccan volcanism and a K/T boundary greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ken; Rampino, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse warming caused by increased emissions of carbon dioxide from the Deccan Traps volcanism has been suggested as the cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions on land and in the sea. Total eruptive and noneruptive CO2 output by the Deccan eruptions (from 6 to 20 x 10 to the 16th moles) over a period of several hundred thousand years is estimated based on best estimates of the CO2 weight fraction of the original basalts and basaltic melts, the fraction of CO2 degassed, and the volume of the Deccan Traps eruptions. Results of a model designed to estimate the effects of increased CO2 on climate and ocean chemistry suggest that increases in atmospheric pCO2 due to Deccan Traps CO2 emissions would have been less than 75 ppm, leading to a predicted global warming of less than 1 C over several hundred thousand years. It is concluded that the direct climate effects of CO2 emissions from the Deccan eruptions would have been too weak to be an important factor in the end-Cretaceous mass extinctions.

  11. Effect of some Trichoderma spp. isolates on promoting growth of cucumber seedlings under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taghinasab Darzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed to investigate the effect of some Trichoderma spp. isolates as growth promoters of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Inoculai of 19 Thrichoderma spp. isolates were prepared from disinfected wheat grain. The upper half of the soil in pots (containing field soil and sand was mixed with these inoculai at 3% ratio and the pots were irrigated with tap water for 28 days. After four weeks, the seedlings were sampled for growth comparison on stem length, root length and total fresh weight. The results showed that some isolates improved significantly the cucumber seedlings’ growth and others had inhibitory effect. Application of Trichoderma spp. 17 and T. longibraciatum increased stem length more than 74% as compared to control. Also, these isolates increased significantly P<0.05 the total fresh weight about 40% and 25%, respectively, as compared to control. Furthermore, Trichoderma sp. 19 decreased significantly the stem length, root length and total fresh weight as compared to control. These results show the ability of Persian Trichoderma spp. isolates in promoting cucumber growth and its potential for other plants.

  12. Effect of irrigation with treated municipal wastewater on yield of Nitraria schoberi under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Shahriari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water crisis is an important issue in arid and semi-arid regions like Iran. Due to drought events, the situation has become more acute in recent years. Therefore, where good quality water is not available, the use of unconventional water has increased considerably. One of these resources is municipal wastewater that can also provide some of the nutrients needed for plant nutrition. Therefore, in this research, the combined effects of treated municipal wastewater and soil texture on growth and yield of Nitraria schoberi under greenhouse conditions, was investigated. The experiment was a factorial completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments included: two types of irrigation water (wastewater and water, two soil textures (clay and sandy and two irrigation frequencies (5 and 15 days. Analysis of the wastewater showed that concentrations of the elements were in the standard limits. The results also showed that the use of wastewater has positive effect on stem length and dry and fresh weight of the plants. Therefore, due to the problem of water supply to plant species in the arid regions, this method can have a significant role in the stability of plants, reducing costs of irrigation and fertilizers, and biological restoration.

  13. The Vulnerability of Earth Systems to Human-Induced Global Change and Strategies for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Since the IGY, there has been growing evidence that climate is changing in response to human activities. The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognizing that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world. The question is not whether climate will change, but rather how much (magnitude), how fast (the rate of change) and where (regional patterns). It is also clear that climate change and other human-induced modifications to the environment will, in many parts of the world, adversely affect socio-economic sectors, including water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human settlements, ecological systems (particularly forests and coral reefs), and human health (particularly diseases spread by insects), with developing countries being the most vulnerable. Environmental degradation of all types (i.e., climate change, loss of biodiversity, land degradation, air and water quality) all undermine the challenge of poverty alleviation and sustainable economic growth. One of the major challenges facing humankind is to provide an equitable standard of living for this and future generations: adequate food, water and energy, safe shelter and a healthy environment (e.g., clean air and water). Unfortunately, human-induced climate change, as well as other global environmental issues such as land degradation, loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion, threatens our ability to meet these basic human needs. The good news is, however, that the majority of experts believe that significant reductions in net

  14. Effect of near-infrared-radiation reflective screen materials on ventilation requirement, crop transpiration and water use efficiency of a greenhouse rose crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.; Jianfeng, D.; Kempkes, F.L.K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Near Infrared (NIR)-reflective screen material on ventilation requirement, crop transpiration and water use efficiency of a greenhouse rose crop was investigated in an experiment whereby identical climate was ensured in greenhouse compartments installed with either NIR-reflective or

  15. The isolating effect of greenhouses on arthropod pests [and its significance for integrated pest management] : a case-study on Clepsis spectrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, van den J.

    1983-01-01

    Chapter 1: the environmental conditions in greenhouses differ in many respects from those in the open field. Both the climate and the crops are different. A free exchange between the fauna of the greenhouses and the open air is hampered by the glass walls and roofs. The isolating effect of

  16. The social representations of the greenhouse effect. Progress report (third inquiry); Les representations sociales de l'effet de serre. Rapport d'etude (3. vague d'enquete)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This document presents the results analysis to the inquiry realized during july 2002 on the greenhouse effect perception by the public. This inquiry follows the inquiries realized in spring 2000 and winter 2001. The following questions have been asked and analyzed: what is the greenhouse effect, who is responsible of the greenhouse effect, what will be the consequences of the greenhouse effect, how to meet with this effect, information and perception. (A.L.B.)

  17. Eutrophication effects on greenhouse gas fluxes from shallow-lake mesocosms override those of climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Thomas A; Audet, Joachim; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Lauridsen, Torben L; Søndergaard, Martin; Landkildehus, Frank; Larsen, Søren E; Jeppesen, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Fresh waters make a disproportionately large contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with shallow lakes being particular hot spots. Given their global prevalence, how GHG fluxes from shallow lakes are altered by climate change may have profound implications for the global carbon cycle. Empirical evidence for the temperature dependence of the processes controlling GHG production in natural systems is largely based on the correlation between seasonal temperature variation and seasonal change in GHG fluxes. However, ecosystem-level GHG fluxes could be influenced by factors, which while varying seasonally with temperature are actually either indirectly related (e.g. primary producer biomass) or largely unrelated to temperature, for instance nutrient loading. Here, we present results from the longest running shallow-lake mesocosm experiment which demonstrate that nutrient concentrations override temperature as a control of both the total and individual GHG flux. Furthermore, testing for temperature treatment effects at low and high nutrient levels separately showed only one, rather weak, positive effect of temperature (CH4 flux at high nutrients). In contrast, at low nutrients, the CO2 efflux was lower in the elevated temperature treatments, with no significant effect on CH4 or N2 O fluxes. Further analysis identified possible indirect effects of temperature treatment. For example, at low nutrient levels, increased macrophyte abundance was associated with significantly reduced fluxes of both CH4 and CO2 for both total annual flux and monthly observation data. As macrophyte abundance was positively related to temperature treatment, this suggests the possibility of indirect temperature effects, via macrophyte abundance, on CH4 and CO2 flux. These findings indicate that fluxes of GHGs from shallow lakes may be controlled more by factors indirectly related to temperature, in this case nutrient concentration and the abundance of primary producers. Thus, at ecosystem

  18. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  19. Quantification of the effects on greenhouse gas emissions of policies and measures. Methodologies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, D.; Falconer, A. [AEA Technology, Didcot (United Kingdom); Buttazoni, M.; Greenleaf, J. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Eichhammer, W. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung ISI, Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2009-12-15

    The primary aim of the report is to describe the methodologies that have been developed during the project to evaluate, ex-post, the impact of selected EU Climate Change Policies and Measures (PAMS) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The secondary aim of the document is to provide guidance to Member State (MS) representatives on ex-post evaluation, and to provide references and tools that facilitate the implementation of a consistent approach across the EU27 countries. The focus of the guidance is on approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of the policies and measures. Evaluating the efficiency of policies is another important component of policy evaluation, but is only considered to a limited extent within these guidelines. Section 2 discusses the broad methodological issues associated with expost evaluation, illustrating the main approaches available and their strengths and weaknesses. Section 3 describes the methodological framework proposed for the evaluation of EU Climate Change Policies, providing explanation of key decisions informing the approach and the actual guidelines for the policy evaluation of individual directives. Section 4 includes policy evaluation guidelines for a large number of different EU climate change policies. Section 5 includes concluding remarks on the role the guidelines could play in EU and MS climate change policy and on their possible future evolution. The Appendices comprise (1) a working Paper on methodological issues related to the calculation of emission factors; (2) case study applications of a Tier 3 methodology.

  20. [Effects of fertilization on the P accumulation and leaching in vegetable greenhouse soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-jie; Zhao, Mu-qiu; Lu, Cai-yan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin

    2015-02-01

    A packed soil column experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different fertilization practices on phosphorus (P) accumulation and leaching potential in a vegetable greenhouse soil with different fertility levels. The results showed that the leaching loss of total P in the leachates elevated with the increment of leaching time while the accumulative leaching loss of total P was relatively low, indicating P was mainly accumulated in the soil instead of in the leachate. At the end of the leaching experiment, soil fertility and fertilization treatment affected the content of total phosphorus and Olsen-P significantly. Compared with the low-level-fertility soil, the contents of total P and Olsen-P increased by 14.3% and 12.2% in the medium-level-fertility soil, 33.3% and 37.7% in the high-level-fertility soil. Total P in the combined application of poultry manure and chemical fertilizer (M+NPK) was elevated by 5.7% and 4.3%, compared with the NPK and M treatment. Compared with NPK treatment, Olsen-P in M and M + NPK treatments augmented by 13.0% and 3.1%, respectively. Soil total P and Olsen-P mainly accumulated in the 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, and much less in the 20-40 cm soil layer.

  1. Runaway greenhouse effect on exomoons due to irradiation from hot, young giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler space telescope has detected transits of objects as small as the Earth's Moon, and moons as small as 0.2 Earth masses can be detected in the Kepler data by transit timing and transit duration variations of their host planets. Such massive moons around giant planets in the stellar habitable zone (HZ) could serve as habitats for extraterrestrial life. We here assess the danger of exomoons to be in a runaway greenhouse (RG) state due to extensive heating from the planet. We apply pre-computed evolution tracks for giant planets to calculate the incident planetary radiation on the moon as a function of time. The total energy budget of stellar flux, illumination from the planet, and tidal heating in the satellite is compared to the critical flux for the moon to experience an RG effect. Irradiation from a 13-Jupiter-mass planet onto an Earth-sized moon at a distance of ten Jupiter radii can drive an RG state on the moon for about 200 Myr. If stellar illumination equivalent to that received by Earth from t...

  2. Effect of the greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O, SO2) on Martian paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawko, S. E.; Kuhn, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    There is general agreement that certain surface features on Mars are indicative of the presence of liquid water at various times in the geologic past. In particular, the valley networks are difficult to explain by a mechanism other than the flow of liquid water. It has been suggested in several studies that a thick CO2 atmosphere on Mars early in its history could have provided a greenhouse warming that would have allowed the flow of water either on the surface or just below the surface. However, this effect was examined with a detailed radiation model, and it was found that if reduced solar luminosity early in the history of the solar system is taken into account, even three bars of CO2 will not provide sufficient greeenhouse warming. The addition of water vapor and sulflur dioxide (both plausible gases that may have been emitted by Martian volcanoes) to the atmosphere also fail to warm the surface above 273 K for reduced solar luminosity conditions. The increase in temperature may be large enough, however, for the formation of these features by brines.

  3. Effect of the greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O, SO2) on Martian paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawko, S. E.; Kuhn, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    There is general agreement that certain surface features on Mars are indicative of the presence of liquid water at various times in the geologic past. In particular, the valley networks are difficult to explain by a mechanism other than the flow of liquid water. It has been suggested in several studies that a thick CO2 atmosphere on Mars early in its history could have provided a greenhouse warming that would have allowed the flow of water either on the surface or just below the surface. However, this effect was examined with a detailed radiation model, and it was found that if reduced solar luminosity early in the history of the solar system is taken into account, even three bars of CO2 will not provide sufficient greeenhouse warming. The addition of water vapor and sulflur dioxide (both plausible gases that may have been emitted by Martian volcanoes) to the atmosphere also fail to warm the surface above 273 K for reduced solar luminosity conditions. The increase in temperature may be large enough, however, for the formation of these features by brines.

  4. Changes in Arctic vegetation amplify high-latitude warming through the greenhouse effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Abigail L; Fung, Inez Y; Levis, Samuel; Bonan, Gordon B; Doney, Scott C

    2010-01-26

    Arctic climate is projected to change dramatically in the next 100 years and increases in temperature will likely lead to changes in the distribution and makeup of the Arctic biosphere. A largely deciduous ecosystem has been suggested as a possible landscape for future Arctic vegetation and is seen in paleo-records of warm times in the past. Here we use a global climate model with an interactive terrestrial biosphere to investigate the effects of adding deciduous trees on bare ground at high northern latitudes. We find that the top-of-atmosphere radiative imbalance from enhanced transpiration (associated with the expanded forest cover) is up to 1.5 times larger than the forcing due to albedo change from the forest. Furthermore, the greenhouse warming by additional water vapor melts sea-ice and triggers a positive feedback through changes in ocean albedo and evaporation. Land surface albedo change is considered to be the dominant mechanism by which trees directly modify climate at high-latitudes, but our findings suggest an additional mechanism through transpiration of water vapor and feedbacks from the ocean and sea-ice.

  5. [Effects of nutrition medium on cucumber growth and soil microenvironment in greenhouse under continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Cheng; Li, Tian-Lai; Cao, Xia; Meng, Si-Da; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Yang, Li-Juan

    2014-05-01

    An experiment of continuous cropping of cucumber in nutrition medium (composted with straw, rural soil and puffed chicken manure) or soil was conducted in greenhouse in order to study the effects of medium type on the cucumber growth and soil microenvironment, respectively. The results showed that the two treatments both displayed different levels of obstacles resulted from continuous cropping. In the same cropping season, the nutrient content, soil invertase and urease activities and B/F (bacteria/fungi) ratio in the nutrition medium were obviously higher but fungi quantity was lower than in the soil medium, suggesting the use of nutrition medium changed the bacterial population structure as to improve the cucumber growth and yield. Under continuous cropping, correlation analysis showed that the bacterial quantity was significantly positively related with plant height and root dry mass, and markedly significantly positive correlation exited between the aboveground dry mass and yield of cucumber. The urease activity was also significantly positively related with the cucumber yield. Compared with the soil medium, the nutrition medium could greatly improve soil microenvironment and alleviate the continuous cropping obstacle.

  6. Effect of Rotation Crops on Heterodera glycines Population Density in a Greenhouse Screening Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, S.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Wyse, D.L.; Johnson, G.A.; Porter, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Crop rotation is a common means of reducing pathogen populations in soil. Several rotation crops have been shown to reduce soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) populations, but a comprehensive study of the optimal crops is needed. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of growth and decomposition of 46 crops on population density of H. glycines. Crops were sown in soil infested with H. glycines. Plants were maintained until 75 days after planting, when the soil was mixed, a sample of the soil removed to determine egg density, and shoots and roots chopped and mixed into the soil. After 56 days, soil samples were again taken for egg counts, and a susceptible soybean (‘Sturdy’) was planted in the soil as a bioassay to determine egg viability. Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), forage pea (Pisum sativum), lab-lab bean (Lablab purpureus), Illinois bundleflower (Desman-thus illinoensis), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) generally resulted in smaller egg population density in soil or number of cysts formed on soybean in the bioassay than the fallow control. Sunn hemp most consistently showed the lowest numbers of eggs and cysts. As a group, legumes resulted in lower egg population densities than monocots, Brassica species, and other dicots. PMID:19259545

  7. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2010-01-01

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plants were treated with herbicides (cloransulam, dicamba, glyphosate, imazapyr, primsulfuron, sulfometuron, or tribenuron) at simulated drift levels [effective concentrations producing a 25% potato tuber fresh weight (EC25) of 0.00038, 0.0016, and 0.0021 x f.a.r. of 1,124, 52, and 9 g active ingredient hectare(-1) (g a.i. HA(-1)), respectively. Primisulfuron, dicamba, and cloransulam also significantly reduced tuber fresh weight, but with higher EC25 values of 0.011, 0.07, and 0.010 to 0.2 x f.a.r. of 40, 558, and 18 g a.i. HA(-1), respectively. Glyphosate had little effect on tuber fresh weight, with a significant reduction in only one experiment. Sulfometuron reduced tuber fresh weight at an EC25 value lower than the EC25 values for shoot dry weight or plant height. For other herbicides, the reduction in tuber fresh weight occurred within the range of EC25 values for other responses. Although additional experiments are required to develop further a phytotoxicity test, these results indicated that tuber production in young potato plants (harvested approximately 42 DAE) may be an effective assay for below-ground asexual reproductive responses to herbicides, especially acetolactate synthase inhibitors.

  8. TESTING SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMON PESTICIDES ON A. SWIRSKII UNDER GREENHOUSE CIRCUMSTANCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, J; Vissers, M; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    If a grower uses predatory mites, and should use chemical compounds, he needs to be very careful in his choice of products. The selected products have to be efficient against the target pest and at the same time compatible with the present beneficial's. Useful tools for such product selection under greenhouse circumstances are side effects lists. These lists are freely available on the websites of producing companies of biological control agents. But not all products (e.g. newly developed ones) have been tested for side effects. Moreover the information already available in these tables is not based on field tests. For this reason, we have developed a protocol for quick screening of side effects of chemical plant protection products under field conditions. For these experiments we have chosen the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii as test organism, because this is an often used phytoseiid mite, which is very sensitive to pesticides. Hibiscus rosa sinensis is the standard reference plant in our side effects trials because the chosen predatory mite has shown very good control of pests on this plant species. The experimental design consists of eight test objects in 4 replications. Test object 1 is a positive reference (water spray) and test object 2 a negative reference (deltamethrin spray, a product with long residual activity against beneficial organisms). The plot size is 0,68 m2 and each plot contains 32 Hibiscus plants. The greenhouse temperature is set at 20±2°C. The test strategy has the following sequence: introduction of an overdose of Amblyseius swirskii mites 14 days before spraying the pesticides > precount of predatory mites 4 days before application (4DBA) > spray application (A) for the 6 test products and for the 2 references > counting's after application (1, 2, 4, 8 en 12 weeks after application = 1 till 12WAA). The counting's of the number of predatory mites are performed on 20 Hibiscus leaves/plot under a binocular. Because of the absence of any

  9. Long-Term Effect of Organic and Mineral Fertilization on Soil Physical Properties Under Greenhouse and Outdoor Management Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. F. HERENCIA; P. A. GARC(I)A-GALAV(I)S; C. MAQUEDA

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the use of organic amendments as an alternative to conventional fertilization,a 10-year experiment on a loam soil was conducted under a crop rotation system in both greenhouse and outdoor plots applied with chemical fertilizers (NPK) and vegetal compost (organic fertilizer) in the Guadalquivir River Valley,Spain.The effect of these two different fertilization regimes on the soil physical properties was evaluated.Soil organic carbon (OC),soil bulk density (BD),soil water retention (WR),available water content (AWC),aggregate stability (AS),and soil physical quality (Dexter's index,S) were determined.The use of organic fertilizer increased OC and resulted in a significant increase in AS and a decrease in BD compared to the mineral fertilizer application in both greenhouse and outdoor plots.The outdoor plots showed the lowest BD values whereas the greenhouse plots showed the highest AS values.In the last years of the 10-year experiment the S parameter was significantly higher in organic fertilizer plots,especially for greenhouse plots.At the end of the study period,there were no significant differences in WR at field capacity (FC) between treatments in both systems; the AWC was also similar in the greenhouse plots but higher in the mineral outdoor plots.In mineral fertilizer treatments,a small improvement in the physical properties was also observed due to the utilization of less aggressive tillage compared with the previous intensive cropping system.Physical soil properties were correlated with soil OC.The sustainable management techniques such as the use of organic amendments and low or no tillage improved soil physical properties,despite the differences in management that logically significantly affected the results.

  10. Effects of physical agitation on yield of greenhouse-grown soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Agronomic and horticultural crop species experience reductions in growth and harvestable yield after exposure to physical agitation (also known as mechanical stress), as by wind or rain. A greenhouse study was conducted to test the influence of mechanical stress on soybean yield and to determine if exposure to mechanical stress during discrete growth periods has differential effects on seed yield. A modified rotatory shaker was used to apply seismic (i.e., shaking) stress. Brief, periodic episodes of seismic stress reduced stem length, total seed dry weight, and seed number of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Lodging resistance was greater for plants stressed during vegetative growth or throughout vegetative and reproductive growth than during reproductive growth only. Seed dry weight yield was reduced regardless of the timing or duration of stress application, but was lowest when applied during reproductive development. Seismic stress applied during reproductive growth stages R1 to R2 (Days 3 to 4) was as detrimental to seed dry weight accumulation as was stress applied during growth stages R1 to R6 (Days 39 to 42). Seed dry weight per plant was highly correlated with seed number per plant, and seed number was correlated with the seed number of two- and three-seeded pods. Dry weight per 100 seeds was unaffected by seismic-stress treatment. Growth and yield reductions resulting from treatments applied only during the vegetative stage imply that long-term mechanical effects were induced, from which the plants did not fully recover. It is unclear which yield-controlling physiological processes were affected by mechanical stress. Both transient and long-term effects on yield-controlling processes remain to be elucidated.

  11. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of greenhouse gas emission abatement. The case of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtilae, A.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1999-11-01

    In Finland greenhouse gas emissions are expected to increase during the next decades due to economic growth, particularly in the energy intensive industrial sectors. The role of these industries is very central in the national economy. The emission control according to the Kyoto Protocol will therefore be quite difficult and costly. The study analyses the cost-effectiveness of different technical options for reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in Finland. The analysis is performed with the help of a comprehensive energy system model for Finland, which has been extended to cover all major sources of methane and nitrous oxide emissions in the energy sector, industry, waste management and agriculture. The focus being on technical options, no consideration is given to possible policy measures, emission trading or joint implementation in the study. Under the boundary conditions given for the development of the Finnish energy economy, cost-effective technical measures in the energy system include increases in the use of wood biomass, natural gas and wind energy, increases in the contribution of CHP to the power supply, and intensified energy conservation in all end-use sectors. Additional cost-effective measures are landfill gas recovery, utilisation of the combustible fraction of waste and catalytic conversion of N{sub 2}O in nitric acid production. With baseline assumptions, the direct annual costs of emission abatement are calculated to be about 2000 MFIM (330 M{epsilon}) in 2010. The marginal costs are estimated to be about 230 FIM (40 {epsilon}) per tonne of CO{sub 2}-equivalent in 2010. The cost curie derived from the analysis could be used in further analyses concerning emissions trading. (orig.) 109 refs. SIHTI Research Programme

  12. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: a greenhouse experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A; Dendooven, L

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO(2) from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N(2)O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-), but the concentration of NO(3)(-) was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant effect on nitrification in soil.

  13. Heterogeneous filament network formation by myosin light chain isoforms effects on contractile energy output of single cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeomi Mizutani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CMs are expected to play an important role in heart therapies, in which hiPSC-CMs should generate sufficient contractile force to pump blood. However, recent studies have shown that the contractility of myocardial mimics composed of hiPSC-CMs is lower than that of adult human myocardium. To examine the mechanism by which contractile force output of hiPSC-CMs is weakened, we measured the contractile force of single hiPSC-CMs and observed the fibrous distribution of myosin II regulatory light chain (MRLC of cardiac (contributes to beating and non-cardiac (does not contribute to beating isoforms. Single hiPSC-CMs were cultured on an extracellular matrix gel, and the contractile force and strain energy exerted on the gel were measured. Strain energy was not uniform between cells and ranged from 0.2 to 5.8 pJ. The combination of contractile force measurement and immunofluorescent microscopy for MRLC isoforms showed that cells with higher strain energy expressed the weakened non-cardiac myosin II fibers compared to those of cells with lower strain energy. Observation of cardiac and non-cardiac MRLC showed that the MRLC isoforms formed heterogeneous filament networks. These results suggest that strain energy output from single hiPSC-CMs depends both cardiac and non-cardiac myosin fibers, which prevent deformation of the cell body.

  14. EFFECT OF SOIL SOLARIZATION ON THERMAL REGIME OF PLASTIC GREENHOUSE SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Nereu Augusto Streck; Flavio Miguel Schneider; Galileo Adeli Buriol

    1994-01-01

    SUMMARY Temperature modification in soil of plastic greenhouse caused by solarization was measured during the summer in the Subtropical Central Region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a 10m x 25m greenhouse covered with low density transparent polyethylene (PE). Four 6m x 4m plots were mulched with 100µm thickness PE sheets, from December 12, 1992 to March 7, 1993. Four other plots (same size) without the cover were used as control (bare soil). Results...

  15. CO2 Allowance Allocation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the Effect on Electricity Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Kahn, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is an effort by nine Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states to develop a regional, mandatory, market-based cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electricity sector. The initiative is expected to lead to an increase in the price of electricity in the RGGI region and beyond. The implications of these changes for the value of electricity-generating assets and the market value of the firms that own them depends on the init...

  16. No effect of cropping system on the greenhouse gas N2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette S.; Chirinda, Ngoni

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming is comparable to conventional in terms of field emissions of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Our study points to the need for increased yields in organic farming as measure to reduced emissions per unit of produce.......Organic farming is comparable to conventional in terms of field emissions of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Our study points to the need for increased yields in organic farming as measure to reduced emissions per unit of produce....

  17. [Effect of Biochar on Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Semi-arid Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-liang; Wang, Dan-dan; Zheng, Ji-yong; Zhao, Shi-wei; Zhang, Xing-chang

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of biochar addition on the emission of greenhouse gases from farmland soil in semi-arid region. Through an in-situ experiments, the influence of sawdust biochar(J) and locust tree skin biochar (H) at three doses (1%, 3%, and 5% of quality percentage) on C2, CH4 and N2O emissions were studied within the six months in the south of Ningxiaprovince. The results indicated that soil CO2 emission flux was slightly increased with the addition doses for both biochars, and the averaged CO2 emission flux for sawdust and locust tree skin biochar was enhanced by 1. 89% and 3. 34% compared to the control, but the difference between treatments was not statistically significant. The soil CH4 emission was decreased with the increasing of biochar doses, by 1. 17%, 2. 55%, 4. 32% for J1, J3, J5 and 2. 35%, 5. 83%, 7. 32% for H1, H3, H5, respectively. However, the difference was statistically significant only for J5, H3 and H5 treatments (P effect on soil N2O emission. Our study indicated that the biochar has no significant influence on soil CO2 and N2O emissions within six months in semi-arid region and can significantly influence soil CH4 emissions (P < 0. 05). As for biochar type, the locust tree skin biochar is significantly better than the sawdust biochar in terms of restraining CH4 emission(P = 0. 048).

  18. Effects of exogenous abscisic acid on yield, antioxidant capacities, and phytochemical contents of greenhouse grown lettuces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhao, Xin; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gu, Liwei

    2010-05-26

    Antioxidants and phytochemicals in vegetables are known to provide health benefits. Strategies that enhance these properties are expected to increase the nutritional values of vegetables. The objective of this research is to assess the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) on yield, antioxidant capacities, and phytochemical content of lettuces grown in a greenhouse. Red loose leaf lettuce (cv. Galactic) and green loose leaf lettuce (cv. Simpson Elite) were cultivated using a randomized complete block design. Three concentrations of ABA in water [0 (control), 150, 300 ppm] were sprayed on the 30th and 39th days after sowing, and lettuces were harvested on the 46th day. Exogenous ABA significantly decreased yield of green and red lettuces. Total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents in red lettuce treated with ABA were significantly higher than in controls, whereas no significant differences were observed in green lettuce. ABA significantly induced the accumulation of chlorophyll b and total carotenoids in lettuces. The phenolic compounds identified and quantified in red and green lettuces included caffeoyltartaric acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, dicaffeoyltartaric acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin 3-(6''-malonyl)-glucoside. Additionally, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-(3''-malonoyl)-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6''-malonoyl)-glucoside in red lettuces were quantified. No significant effects of ABA on these individual phytochemicals were observed in green lettuces, whereas ABA significantly elevated the content of individual phytochemicals in red lettuces except for 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Differences among red lettuces with or without exogenous ABA were visualized on the score plots of principal component analyses. Loading plot indicated that multiple phenolic compounds contributed to the observed differences in red lettuces.

  19. The social representations of the greenhouse effect (6. wave of questions); Les representations sociales de l'effet de serre (6. vague d'enquete)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Six waves of questions concerning the public opinion of the greenhouse effect, were realized by the ISL in May 2000, March 2001, July 2002, June 2003 and May 2004. This sixth wave was realized between June 14 and 25 2005. The report presents the questions asked and analyzes the answers. The concerned domains are the greenhouse effect, the causes, the consequences, the greenhouse effect remediation (technical and political choices), the climatic change, the confidence on the actors and the institutions. (A.L.B.)

  20. Greenhouse effect: what are doing the Unites States; Effet de serre: ce que font les Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiret, M.

    2004-06-01

    Although they refuse to sign the kyoto protocol, the United States count on the new technologies and the industrialists participation to fight against the greenhouse effect. The author presents the local projects and initiatives (nine states of the north-east decided coordinated actions to fight the CO{sub 2} emissions) facing the increasing non commitment of the federal government. (A.L.B.)

  1. Effects of plant tissue factors of the acceptance of four greenhouse vegetable host plants by the greenhouse whitefly: an electrical penetration graph (EPG) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, H.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Xu, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    A combination of biological control and host-plant resistance is needed to control greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). The high level of susceptibility of several host plants to whitefly, based on their performance on these plants, is well documented. These studies only

  2. Fight against the greenhouse effect. From the local to the international action; Lutte contre l'effet de serre. De l'action locale a l'action internationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousel, M

    2002-07-01

    In the fight against the greenhouse gases emissions, the local government are directly concerned. This sheet aims to explain the greenhouse effect, the kyoto protocol, the french national policy and to orientate the local actions. (A.L.B.)

  3. Effects of Continuous Tomato Monoculture on Soil Microbial Properties and Enzyme Activities in a Solar Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdan Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil-related obstacles resulting from continuous monoculture have limited the sustainable development of the tomato industry in China. An experiment on tomatoes with seven continuous monoculture treatments (the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, and 13th crops, respectively was conducted in a solar greenhouse, to investigate the influence of monoculture on soil quality. Most soil quality indicators first increased and then decreased with increasing continuous monoculture crops, and significant differences among crops were observed. Indicators at the 13th crop were significantly lower than those at the other crops in terms of average well color development (AWCD, substrate richness (S, the Shannon diversity index (H, and the McIntosh index (U of the soil microbial community (SMC, soil urease (UR, and neutral phosphatase (N-PHO activities, and available nitrogen (AN and potassium (AK. However, fungal abundance (FUN at the 13th crop was significantly higher than that at the other crops. As principal component analysis (PCA revealed, SMC functional diversity at the 1st, 11th, and 13th crops were similar, and were obviously distinguished from those at the other crops. Moreover, the tomato yield was significantly and positively correlated with soil-available potassium and SMC functional diversity indexes. Our findings indicated that short-term continuous monoculture, e.g., for fewer than seven or nine crops, was beneficial for soil quality improvement. However, continuous monoculture for greater than 11 crops had adverse effects on soil enzyme activities, soil microbial abundances, soil chemical properties, soil SMC functional diversity, and the tomato yield, particularly at the 13th crop.

  4. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases emissions in soil under sewage sludge residual effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Machado Pitombo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The large volume of sewage sludge (SS generated with high carbon (C and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neutralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L. was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer, 1SS (recommended rate and 2SS (double rate. Carbon stocks (0-40 cm were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha–1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha–1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.

  5. The effect of agency budgets on minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from road rehabilitation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Darren; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2015-11-01

    Transportation agencies are being urged to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One possible solution within their scope is to alter their pavement management system to include environmental impacts. Managing pavement assets is important because poor road conditions lead to increased fuel consumption of vehicles. Rehabilitation activities improve pavement condition, but require materials and construction equipment, which produce GHG emissions as well. The agency’s role is to decide when to rehabilitate the road segments in the network. In previous work, we sought to minimize total societal costs (user and agency costs combined) subject to an emissions constraint for a road network, and demonstrated that there exists a range of potentially optimal solutions (a Pareto frontier) with tradeoffs between costs and GHG emissions. However, we did not account for the case where the available financial budget to the agency is binding. This letter considers an agency whose main goal is to reduce its carbon footprint while operating under a constrained financial budget. A Lagrangian dual solution methodology is applied, which selects the optimal timing and optimal action from a set of alternatives for each segment. This formulation quantifies GHG emission savings per additional dollar of agency budget spent, which can be used in a cap-and-trade system or to make budget decisions. We discuss the importance of communication between agencies and their legislature that sets the financial budgets to implement sustainable policies. We show that for a case study of Californian roads, it is optimal to apply frequent, thin overlays as opposed to the less frequent, thick overlays recommended in the literature if the objective is to minimize GHG emissions. A promising new technology, warm-mix asphalt, will have a negligible effect on reducing GHG emissions for road resurfacing under constrained budgets.

  6. [Effects of antiseptic on the analysis of greenhouse gases concentrations in lake water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qi-Tao; Hu, Zheng-Hu; James, Deng; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Shou-Dong; Li, Xu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into antiseptic effects on the concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O in lake water, antisepetic (CuSO4 and HgCl2) were added into water sample, and concentrations of greenhouse gases were measured by the gas chromatography based on water equilibrium method. Experiments were conducted as following: the control group without antisepetic (CK), the treatment group with 1 mL CuSO4 solution (T1), the treatment group with 5 mL CuSO4 solution (T2), and the treatment group with 0.5 mL HgCl2 solution (T3). All groups were divided into two batches: immediately analysis (I), and after 2 days analysis (II). Results showed that CuSO4 and HgCl2 significantly increased CO2 concentration, the mean CO2 concentration (Mco2) of CK (I) and CK (II) were (11.5 +/- 1.47) micromol x L(-1) and (14.38 +/- 1.59) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T1 (I) and T1 (II) were (376 +/- 70) micromol x L(-1) and (448 +/- 246.83) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T2 (I) and T2 (II) were (885 +/- 51.53) micromol x L(-1) and (988.83 +/- 101.96) micromol x L(-1), respectively; the Mco2 of T3 (I) and T3 (II) were (287.19 +/- 30.01) micromol x L(-1) and (331.33 +/- 22.06) micromol x L(-1), respectively. The results also showed that there was no difference in CH4 and N2O concentrations among treatments. Water samples should be analyzed as soon as possible after pretreatment. Our findings suggest that adding antiseptic may lead an increase in CO2 concentration.

  7. Health effects of adopting low greenhouse gas emission diets in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, James; Green, Rosemary; Dangour, Alan D; Haines, Andy; Chalabi, Zaid; Spadaro, Joseph; Markandya, Anil; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-04-30

    Dietary changes which improve health are also likely to be beneficial for the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). However, previous analyses have not accounted for the potential acceptability of low GHG diets to the general public. This study attempted to quantify the health effects associated with adopting low GHG emission diets in the UK. Epidemiological modelling study. UK. UK population. Adoption of diets optimised to achieve the WHO nutritional recommendations and reduce GHG emissions while remaining as close as possible to existing dietary patterns. Changes in years of life lost due to coronary heart disease, stroke, several cancers and type II diabetes, quantified using life tables. If the average UK dietary intake were optimised to comply with the WHO recommendations, we estimate an incidental reduction of 17% in GHG emissions. Such a dietary pattern would be broadly similar to the current UK average. Our model suggests that it would save almost 7 million years of life lost prematurely in the UK over the next 30 years and increase average life expectancy by over 8 months. Diets that result in additional GHG emission reductions could achieve further net health benefits. For emission reductions greater than 40%, improvements in some health outcomes may decrease and acceptability will diminish. There are large potential benefits to health from adopting diets with lower associated GHG emissions in the UK. Most of these benefits can be achieved without drastic changes to existing dietary patterns. However, to reduce emissions by more than 40%, major dietary changes that limit both acceptability and the benefits to health are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Effects of transient Phragmites australis removal on brackish marsh greenhouse gas fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rose M.; Moseman-Valtierra, Serena

    2017-06-01

    Phragmites australis is a common invasive reed of North American coastal marshes, and efforts to control or eradicate it often are included in coastal marsh restoration efforts. While much research has tested impacts of P. australis removal on plant and faunal communities, less is known about biogeochemical responses to P. australis removal. Since coastal marshes are valued for their robust carbon sequestration, understanding the effect of P. australis removal on marsh carbon cycling dynamics is important. Temporary P. australis aboveground biomass clearing conducted as part of a restoration effort provided an opportunity to evaluate changes in fluxes of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) during P. australis removal and recovery. In Experiment 1 (2014 growing season), GHG fluxes were compared between a P. australis stand cleared mechanically and recovered within months of initial removal and an uncleared stand in the same marsh system. CO2 uptake increased dramatically in the cleared stand as P. australis regrew, but CH4 emissions remained unchanged, demonstrating that P. australis did not directly contribute to CH4 emission. In Experiment 2 (2015 manipulations), to test mechanisms of P. australis' impact on GHG fluxes, fluxes (light and dark) were compared between unimpacted P. australis plots, cut P. australis plots with litter, and cleared P. australis plots without litter. P. australis cutting (independent of litter removal) resulted in increased CO2 and CH4 emissions. Recovery of P. australis directly drove the rapid recovery of CO2 uptake, and did not increase (and possibly attenuated) CH4 emissions. Results of this study suggest that at this site, P. australis removal, in the absence of native vegetation recovery, may exacerbate GHG emission of coastal marshes in the short term, and that longer-term impacts warrant investigation.

  9. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  10. PROTOTYPE TOOL FOR EVALUATING THE COST AND EFFECTIVENESS OF GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper introduces the structure of a tool, being developed by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development, that will be able to analyze the benefits of new technologies and strategies for controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. When completed, the tool will be able ...

  11. The Effect of New Developed Fluorescent Greenhouse Films on the Growth of Fragaria x ananassa 'Elsanta'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Os, van E.A.; Hemming, J.; Dieleman, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to optimise light quality and quantity for plant growth, new photoselective greenhouse covering materials were developed containing different fluorescent pigments (Blue, Red1, Red2, Red3) in different concentrations. Excitation of all fluorescent pigments took place around 365 nm. Blue pigm

  12. The effect of food consumption and production trends on energy, greenhouse gas emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkett, D.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this report we assess the trends in food consumption and food-related environmental impacts (in terms of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use) for three regions: Western Europe, the USA and China. The environmental impacts were determined by two methods: a product level analysis, in

  13. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from reed canary grass in paludiculture: effect of groundwater level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Audet, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Combination of rewetting and wetland crop cultivation (paludiculture) is pursued as a wider carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation option in drained peatland. However, information on the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) balance for paludiculture is lacking. We investigated the GHG balance...

  14. The effect of food consumption and production trends on energy, greenhouse gas emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkett, D.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this report we assess the trends in food consumption and food-related environmental impacts (in terms of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use) for three regions: Western Europe, the USA and China. The environmental impacts were determined by two methods: a product level analysis, in

  15. Clouds in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. IV. On the scattering greenhouse effect of CO2 ice particles: Numerical radiative transfer studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kitzmann, D; Rauer, H

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their wavelengths dependent absorption and scattering properties, clouds have a strong impact on the climate of planetary atmospheres. Especially, the potential greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds in the atmospheres of terrestrial extrasolar planets is of particular interest because it might influence the position and thus the extension of the outer boundary of the classic habitable zone around main sequence stars. We study the radiative effects of CO2 ice particles obtained by different numerical treatments to solve the radiative transfer equation. The comparison between the results of a high-order discrete ordinate method and simpler two-stream approaches reveals large deviations in terms of a potential scattering efficiency of the greenhouse effect. The two-stream methods overestimate the transmitted and reflected radiation, thereby yielding a higher scattering greenhouse effect. For the particular case of a cool M-type dwarf the CO2 ice particles show no strong effective scattering greenhouse eff...

  16. Assessment of the greenhouse effect impact of technologies used for energy recovery from municipal waste: a case for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, A; Barton, J R; Karagiannidis, A

    2009-07-01

    Waste management activities contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions approximately by 4%. In particular the disposal of waste in landfills generates methane that has high global warming potential. Effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is important and could provide environmental benefits and sustainable development, as well as reduce adverse impacts on public health. The European and UK waste policy force sustainable waste management and especially diversion from landfill, through reduction, reuse, recycling and composting, and recovery of value from waste. Energy from waste is a waste management option that could provide diversion from landfill and at the same time save a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, since it recovers energy from waste which usually replaces an equivalent amount of energy generated from fossil fuels. Energy from waste is a wide definition and includes technologies such as incineration of waste with energy recovery, or combustion of waste-derived fuels for energy production or advanced thermal treatment of waste with technologies such as gasification and pyrolysis, with energy recovery. The present study assessed the greenhouse gas emission impacts of three technologies that could be used for the treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in order to recover energy from it. These technologies are Mass Burn Incineration with energy recovery, Mechanical Biological Treatment via bio-drying and Mechanical Heat Treatment, which is a relatively new and uninvestigated method, compared to the other two. Mechanical Biological Treatment and Mechanical Heat Treatment can turn Municipal Solid Waste into Solid Recovered Fuel that could be combusted for energy production or replace other fuels in various industrial processes. The analysis showed that performance of these two technologies depends strongly on the final use of the produced fuel and they could produce GHG emissions savings only when there is end market for the fuel. On the

  17. Efficiency of energy recovery from municipal solid waste and the resultant effect on the greenhouse gas balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Oliver

    2009-11-01

    Global warming is a focus of political interest and life-cycle assessment of waste management systems reveals that energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a key issue. This paper demonstrates how the greenhouse gas effects of waste treatment processes can be described in a simplified manner by considering energy efficiency indicators. For evaluation to be consistent, it is necessary to use reasonable system boundaries and to take the generation of electricity and the use of heat into account. The new European R1 efficiency criterion will lead to the development and implementation of optimized processes/systems with increased energy efficiency which, in turn, will exert an influence on the greenhouse gas effects of waste management in Europe. Promising technologies are: the increase of steam parameters, reduction of in-plant energy consumption, and the combined use of heat and power. Plants in Brescia and Amsterdam are current examples of good performance with highly efficient electricity generation. Other examples of particularly high heat recovery rates are the energy-from-waste (EfW) plants in Malmö and Gothenburg. To achieve the full potential of greenhouse gas reduction in waste management, it is necessary to avoid landfilling combustible wastes, for example, by means of landfill taxes and by putting incentives in place for increasing the efficiency of EfW systems.

  18. [Treatment effect of biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system on greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong-Jun; Zhang, Rui; Xiang, Kun; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Unorganized discharge of greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater has brought several negative influences on the ecological environment in the rural area of Yangtze River Delta. Biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system is a potential ecological method for greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater treatment. In order to explore the feasibility of this system and evaluate the contribution of vegetable uptake of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater, three types of vegetables, including Ipomoea aquatica, lettuce and celery were selected in this study. Results showed the combined system had a high capacity in simultaneous removal of organic matter, N and P. The removal efficiencies of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP from the wastewater reached up to 93.2%-95.6%, 97.2%-99.6%, 73.9%-93.1% and 74.9%-90.0%, respectively. System with I. aquatica had the highest efficiencies in N and P removal, followed by lettuce and celery. However, plant uptake was not the primary pathway for TN arid TP removal in the combined system. The vegetable uptake of N and P accounted for only 9.1%-25.0% of TN and TP removal from the wastewater while the effect of microorganisms would be dominant for N and P removal. In addition, the highest amounts of N and P uptake in I. aquatica were closely related with the biomass of plant. Results from the study indicated that the biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system was an effective approach to treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater in China.

  19. Influence of Sea Surface Temperature, Tropospheric Humidity and Lapse Rate on the Annual Cycle of the Clear-Sky Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Liu, W.

    2000-01-01

    The implication of this work will provide modeling study a surrogate of annual cycle of the greenhouse effect. For example, the model should be able to simulate the annual cycle before it can be used for global change study.

  20. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: A greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez-Bautista, Joaquin [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, Fabian [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Department of Electromechanics, Renewable Energy Engineering, UTTulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez-Valdez, Fernando [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); C.I.B.A.-I.P.N., Tepetitla de Lardizabal, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Montes-Molina, Joaquin A.; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez (Mexico); Dendooven, L., E-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO{sub 2} from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N{sub 2}O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117 days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 2}{sup -}, but the concentration of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant

  1. Knowledge about the Greenhouse Effect and the Effects of the Ozone Layer among Norwegian Pupils Finishing Compulsory Education in 1989, 1993, and 2005--What Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse effect and the effects of the ozone layer have been in the media and public focus for more than two decades. During the same period, Norwegian compulsory schools have had four national curricula. The two last-mentioned prescribe explicitly the two topics. Media and public discourse might have been sources of information causing…

  2. Carbon exchange in Western Siberian watershed mires and implication for the greenhouse effect. A spatial temporal modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borren, W.

    2007-01-19

    wetter climatic conditions the mire growth could continue much longer, whereas under dryer conditions an earlier termination will occur. Mire drainage leads to aerobic decay of peat and thus to CO2 emission instead of uptake. In a modeling study in a mire catchment containing both drained and undrained parts, the effect of drainage was quantified. The results show that the water table drawdown not only affected the drained mire part, but also influenced the undrained part over a zone of 1-1.5 km. In this zone peat growth and carbon accumulation were decreased. The contribution of a mire system to the greenhouse effect is depending on the exchange of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4. CH4 is a much stronger greenhouse gas than CO2, but has a much shorter atmospheric lifetime. With a stocks-and-flows approach the radiative forcing of both gases could be calculated. This approach has been applied in two cases: (1) the northward shift of bioclimatic zones in Western Siberia under 21st century warming and (2) the carbon exchange in a Western Siberian mire resulting from the 3-D dynamic model. The results show that Western Siberian mires form a sink of greenhouse gases at present and have therefore a negative contribution to the greenhouse effect. Under 21st century warming or drainage conditions the mires will turn into a source of greenhouse gases, thus enhancing the greenhouse effect. However, in the case of warming the increase in CH4 emission will be overruled by the increase in CO2 uptake on the long term, thus leading to a negative contribution again.

  3. The effect of lactation length on greenhouse gas emissions from the national dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, E; Coffey, M P; Pollott, G E

    2012-11-01

    Many governments have signed up to greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) reduction programmes under their national climate change obligations. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of extended lactations in dairy herds could result in reduced GHGE. Dairy GHGE were modelled on a national basis and the model was used to compare emissions from lactations of three different lengths (305, 370 and 440 days), and a current 'base' scenario on the basis of maintaining current milk production levels. In addition to comparing GHGE from the average 'National Herd' under these scenarios, results were used to investigate how accounting for lactations of different lengths might alter the estimation of emissions calculated from the National Inventory methodology currently recommended by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Data for the three lactation length scenarios were derived from nationally recorded dairy performance information and used in the GHGE model. Long lactations required fewer milking cows and replacements to maintain current milk yield levels than short ones, but GHGEs were found to rise from 1214 t of CO2 equivalent (CE)/farm per year for lactations of 305 days to 1371 t CE/farm per year for 440-day lactations. This apparent anomaly can be explained by the less efficient milk production (kg milk produced per kg cow weight) found in later lactation, a more pronounced effect in longer lactations. The sensitivity of the model to changes in replacement rate, persistency and level of milk yield was investigated. Changes in the replacement rate from 25% to 20% and in persistency by −10% to +20% resulted in very small changes in GHGE. Differences in GHGE due to the level of milk yield were much more dramatic with animals in the top 10% for yield, producing about 25% less GHGE/year than the average animal. National Inventory results were investigated using a more realistic spread of lactation lengths than recommended for such calculations using emissions

  4. Food, land and greenhouse gases The effect of changes in UK food consumption on land requirements and greenhouse gas emissions. Report for the Committee on Climate Change.

    OpenAIRE

    Audsley, Eric; Angus, Andrew; Chatterton, Julia C.; Graves, Anil R.; Morris, Joe; Murphy-Bokern,Donal; Pearn, Kerry R.; Daniel L Sandars; Williams, Adrian G.

    2010-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY •1. Key findingsThis study examines the land use and greenhouse gas implications of UK food consumption change away from carbon intensive products. It shows that the UK agricultural land base can support increased consumption of plant-based products arising from the reduced consumption of livestock products. A 50% reduction in livestock product consumption reduces the area of arable and grassland required to supply UK food, both in the UK and overseas. It a...

  5. Food, land and greenhouse gases The effect of changes in UK food consumption on land requirements and greenhouse gas emissions. Report for the Committee on Climate Change.

    OpenAIRE

    Audsley, Eric; Angus, Andrew; Chatterton, Julia C.; Graves, Anil R.; Morris, Joe; Murphy-Bokern,Donal; Pearn, Kerry R.; Sandars, Daniel L.; Williams, Adrian G.

    2010-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY •1. Key findingsThis study examines the land use and greenhouse gas implications of UK food consumption change away from carbon intensive products. It shows that the UK agricultural land base can support increased consumption of plant-based products arising from the reduced consumption of livestock products. A 50% reduction in livestock product consumption reduces the area of arable and grassland required to supply UK food, both in the UK and overseas. It a...

  6. Management of gas releases with greenhouse effect: which economical tools?; Maitriser les emissions de gaz a effet de serre: quels instruments economiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepeltier, Serge [Senat, Paris (France)

    2000-06-09

    The climatic change represents the most severe danger to the durable world development, public health and future prosperity. This document concerning the gas releases with greenhouse effect is a report of the Senate Planning delegation regarding the economic and fiscal tools envisaging abatement of releases of gases with greenhouse effect. These issues are presented in four chapters titled as follows: 1. Since the scientific evidencing, requirement of managing the releases of gas with greenhouse effect has been unanimously recognized at the summits of Rio (1992) and Kyoto (1997); 2. The economic theory suggests instruments for reducing the gas releases with greenhouse effect at a minimum cost; 3. Challenges and ways of international cooperation in the field of climatic change; 4. Joining the political will with the pragmatic use of the economic instruments at national scale. The document contains a synthesis of proposals directed towards the following goals: international negotiations relating to climatic change; creating the community framework of managing the gas releases resulting in greenhouse effect; establishing national measures for managing the gas releases leading to greenhouse effect; actions to be undertaken by the territorial collectivities.

  7. LEDs for greenhouse lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Light Emitting Diodes (LED's) are a promising technology for greenhouse lighting with their efficiency to activate plant photosynthesis potentially higher in red LEDs than in HPS lamps. Due to their particular light colour, LEDs can initiate special effects in plants or steer plant processes and

  8. Smarter greenhouse climate control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Houter, G.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse operators strive to be as economic as possible with energy. However, investing in fancy energy-saving equipment is often not cost-effective for smaller operations and in climate zones with mild winters. It is possible, though, for many growers to save energy without buying special equipme

  9. Has Human Society Passed a Tipping Point for Effective Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions?

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent publications have indicated that a 2 C increase of global average temperature, once thought acceptable, may involve serious risks (Greg, 2004). A global mean tempurature increase of 4 C would be hotter than any time in the last 30 million years, and this increase could be realized as early as 2060-2070 (Leahy, 2009). The prospects of plans for major, immediate reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions at the climate onference at Copenhagen in December 2009 do not seem likely....

  10. Effects of agrochemicals, ultra violet stabilisers and solar radiation on the radiometric properties of greenhouse films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Vox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agrochemicals, based on iron, sulphur and chlorine, generate by products that lead to a degradation of greenhouse films together with a decrease in their mechanical and physical properties. The degradation due to agrochemicals depends on their active principles, method and frequency of application, and greenhouse ventilation. The aim of the research was to evaluate how agrochemical contamination and solar radiation influence the radiometric properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer greenhouse films by means of laboratory and field tests. The films, manufactured on purpose with the addition of different light stabiliser systems, were exposed to natural outdoor weathering at the experimental farm of the University of Bari (Italy; 41° 05’ N in the period from 2006 to 2008. Each film was tested for two low tunnels: one low tunnel was sprayed from inside with the agrochemicals containing iron, chlorine and sulphur while the other one was not sprayed and served as control. Radiometric laboratory tests were carried out on the new films and on samples taken at the end of the trials. The experimental tests showed that both the natural weathering together with the agrochemicals did not modify significantly the radiometric properties of the films in the solar and in the photosynthetically active radiation wavelength range. Within six months of experimental field tests the variations in these radiometric characteristics were at most 10%. Significant variations, up to 70% of the initial value, were recorded for the stabilised films in the long-wave infrared radiation wavelength range.

  11. The Effect of Crop Rotation on Soil Nematode Community Composition in a Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingwen LU; Wei SHENG; Qian YU; Zijing CHEN; Qiang XU; Qian WANG; Linlin DONG

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to identify changes in a nematode community in response to crop rotation and to determine the appropriate catch crop for a green-house. [Method] The experiment was carried out in a typical 6-year-old greenhouse, in which cucumber crops were cultivated twice each year (in spring and autumn), and catch crops were planted in summer. The total number of nematodes was counted and nematode community indices were calculated after col ecting soil sam-ples in different stages. [Result] Total nematode abundance was decreased in the soils of catch crop in contrast with former crops (cucumber crops). The abundance of the nematode community was reduced in the treatment of crop rotation compared to the soils of catch crop. ln addition, the number of nematode taxa was significant-ly reduced by the treatment of crown daisy compared to the treatments of fol owing crops. Crop rotation regulated the functional composition of the nematode community by increasing the omnivores-predators functional group and decreasing the relative abundance of root herbivores. [Conclusion] These results indicate that crop rotation affects the nematode community in abundance, diversity and functional composition of the nematode community and crown daisy can be served as the most appropri-ate catch crop in the greenhouse.

  12. Effect of reed canary grass cultivation on greenhouse gas emission from peat soil at controlled rewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of bioenergy crops in rewetted peatland (paludiculture is considered as a possible land use option to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. However, bioenergy crops like reed canary grass (RCG can have a complex influence on GHG fluxes. Here we determined the effect of RCG cultivation on GHG emission from peatland rewetted to various extents. Mesocosms were manipulated to three different ground water levels (GWL, i.e., 0, −10 and −20 cm below the soil surface in a controlled semi-field facility. Emissions of CO2 (ecosystem respiration, ER, CH4 and N2O from mesocosms with RCG and bare soil were measured at weekly to fortnightly intervals with static chamber techniques for a period of one year. Cultivation of RCG increased both ER and CH4 emissions, but decreased the N2O emissions. The presence of RCG gave rise to 69, 75 and 85% of total ER at −20, −10 and 0 cm GWL, respectively However, this difference was due to decreased soil respiration at the rising GWL as the plant-derived CO2 flux was similar at all three GWL. For methane, 70–95% of the total emission was due to presence of RCG, with the highest contribution at −20 cm GWL. In contrast, cultivation of RCG decreased N2O emission by 33–86% with the major reductions at −10 and −20 cm GWL. In terms of global warming potential, the increase in CH4 emissions due to RCG cultivation was more than off-set by the decrease in N2O emissions at −10 and −20 cm GWL; at 0 cm GWL the CH4 emissions was offset only by 23%. CO2 emissions from ER obviously were the dominant RCG-derived GHG flux, but above-ground biomass yields, and preliminary measurements of gross photosynthetic production, show that ER could be more than balanced due to the uptake of CO2 by RCG. Our results support that RCG cultivation could be a good land use option in terms of mitigating GHG emission from rewetted peatlands, potentially turning these ecosystems into a sink of atmospheric CO2.

  13. The effect of type and ratio of vermicompost on selected growth indices and nutrients content of tomato at greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    M.H. Rasouli-Sadaghiani; Moradi, N.; R. Hamzenejhad

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of type and ratio of vermicompost on tomato growth, with five different types of vermicompost (platanus leaves, maple leaves, pruning apple trees and grape, waste of herbal extracts and azolla residues) and four ratios of vermicompost to peat and perlite (2:1 v/v) as 0, 1:3, 2:3 and 3:3, at greenhouse conditions. Results showed that type of vermicompost had a significant effect (P≤ 0.05) on plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, ...

  14. Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on health-promoting compounds and organoleptic properties of tomato fruits grown in greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Liu, Lihong; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yongsong; Wang, Qiaomei

    2014-06-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment on the main health-promoting compounds and organoleptic characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits grown in greenhouse. The contents of health-promoting compounds, including lycopene, β-carotene, and ascorbic acid, as well as the flavour, indicated by sugars, titrable acidity, and sugar/acid ratio, were markedly increased in CO2 enrichment fruits. Furthermore, CO2 enrichment significantly enhanced other organoleptic characteristics, including colour, firmness, aroma, and sensory attributes in tomato fruits. The results indicated that CO2 enrichment has potential in promoting the nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics of tomatoes.

  15. Inter-ministerial mission on the greenhouse effect; Mission interministerielle sur l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleuret, J.L. [Conseil Regional de Rhone-Alpes, 69 - Charbonnieres-les-Bains (France); Nycollin, E. [Conseil General de la Haute-Savoie, 74 - Annecy (France); Sommeria, G. [Meteo France - Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The 29 and 30 june 2000, a conference on the climatic changes and the effects on the mountain environment, joined together many political, sociological and scientific personalities. Everyone revealed its anxiety towards the environmental and economical impacts for the Alps of the greenhouse gases. The speeches are presented in this document. They expose the ecological hazard and directly bound the economical and sociological danger. They constitute a base reflection on the subject and show that all the levels have to be integrated in the future actions: the political and regional level but also the individual level by the mentality change. (A.L.B.)

  16. Effect of dietary protein concentration on ammonia and greenhouse gas emitting potential of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Dell, C J; Feyereisen, G W; Kaye, J; Beegle, D

    2012-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia (NH(3)) and greenhouse gas (GHG; nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) emissions from fresh dairy cow manure incubated in a controlled environment (experiment 1) and from manure-amended soil (experiment 2). Manure was prepared from feces and urine collected from lactating Holstein cows fed diets with 16.7% (DM basis; HCP) or 14.8% CP (LCP). High-CP manure had higher N content and proportion of NH(3)- and urea-N in total manure N than LCP manure (DM basis: 4.4 vs. 2.8% and 51.4 vs. 30.5%, respectively). In experiment 1, NH(3) emitting potential (EP) was greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (9.20 vs. 4.88 mg/m(2) per min, respectively). The 122-h cumulative NH(3) emission tended to be decreased 47% (P=0.09) using LCP compared with HCP manure. The EP and cumulative emissions of GHG were not different between HCP and LCP manure. In experiment 2, urine and feces from cows fed LCP or HCP diets were mixed and immediately applied to lysimeters (61×61×61 cm; Hagerstown silt loam; fine, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalf) at 277 kg of N/ha application rate. The average NH(3) EP (1.53 vs. 1.03 mg/m(2) per min, respectively) and the area under the EP curve were greater for lysimeters amended with HCP than with LCP manure. The largest difference in the NH(3) EP occurred approximately 24 h after manure application (approximately 3.5 times greater for HCP than LCP manure). The 100-h cumulative NH(3) emission was 98% greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (7,415 vs. 3,745 mg/m(2), respectively). The EP of methane was increased and that of carbon dioxide tended to be increased by LCP compared with HCP manure. The cumulative methane emission was not different between treatments, whereas the cumulative carbon dioxide emission was increased with manure from the LCP diet. Nitrous oxide emissions were low in this experiment and did not differ between treatments. In the

  17. Greenhouse effect, energy conservation; Effet de serre, economie d`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This symposium is composed of 12 communications grouped in three sessions which titles and themes are: influence of the greenhouse gas emission reduction policy on refrigerating and air conditioning engineering; characteristics and performances of refrigerants and working fluids, circuit architectures, two-phase fluids, single-tube systems and district cooling systems; principles and characteristics of thermo-pumps for heating, refrigerating and air conditioning applications, more especially in residential and small commercial buildings (air condensation thermo-pumps, ammonia thermo-pumps, ground source thermo-pumps), quality assurance

  18. Effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and prokaryotic communities in rice paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Min-Young; Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Jong-Sik; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Gun-Yeob; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2014-08-01

    The effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and soil prokaryotic communities were investigated in an experimental rice field. The water layer was kept at 1-2 cm in the water-saving (WS) irrigation treatment and at 6 cm in the continuous flooding (CF) irrigation treatment. WS irrigation decreased CH(4) emissions by 78 % and increased N(2)O emissions by 533 %, resulting in 78 % reduction of global warming potential compared to the CF irrigation. WS irrigation did not affect the abundance or phylogenetic distribution of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the abundance of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNAs. The transcript abundance of CH(4) emission-related genes generally followed CH(4) emission patterns, but the difference in abundance between mcrA transcripts and amoA/pmoA transcripts best described the differences in CH(4) emissions between the two irrigation practices. WS irrigation increased the relative abundance of 16S rRNAs and functional gene transcripts associated with Anaeromyxobacter and Methylocystis spp., suggesting that their activities might be important in emissions of the greenhouse gases. The N(2)O emission patterns were not reflected in the abundance of N(2)O emission-related genes and transcripts. We showed that the alternative irrigation practice was effective for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields and that it did not affect the overall size and structure of the soil prokaryotic community but did affect the activity of some groups.

  19. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization of Boreal Forest Land on Greenhouse Gas Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, L.; Sathre, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Forest growth on mineral soils in boreal regions is often limited by a low availability of nitrogen (N), and fertilization has shown particular promise in increasing yields in productive boreal forests. In this study we analyze the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing forest biomass production through N fertilization and using the increased production for bioenergy and biomaterials in place of non-renewable fuels and materials. We begin with a stand-level analysis of the radiative forcing implications of forest fertilization and biomass substitution, with explicit consideration of the temporal patterns of GHG emissions to and removals from the atmosphere. We model and compare the production and use of biomass from a hectare of fertilized and non-fertilized forest land in northern Sweden. We calculate the annual net emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 for each system, over a 225-year period with 1-year time steps. We calculate the annual atmospheric concentration decay of each of these emissions, and calculate the resulting annual changes in instantaneous and cumulative radiative forcing. We find that forest fertilization can significantly increase biomass production, which increases the potential for material and energy substitution. The average carbon stock in tree biomass, forest soils and wood products all increase when fertilization is used. The additional GHG emissions due to fertilizer production and application are small compared to increases in carbon stock and substitution benefits. By the end of the 225-year simulation period, the cumulative radiative forcing reduction of the fertilized stand is over twice that of the non-fertilized stand. We then consider a steady-state landscape-level scenario where 10% of Swedish forest land is fertilized. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net GHG benefits

  20. 温室效应对温室气体浓度变化的敏感性分析%Sensitivity Analysis of Greenhouse Effect With the Concentration Changes of Greenhouse Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金鹏; 崔国民; 黄晓璜; 华泽钊

    2012-01-01

    工业革命以来人类活动排放到大气中的主要温室气体有C02、CH4、N20等,其在大气中的含量增加引起吸收地表辐射能量的增加,改变了地表一大气辐射平衡,造成了地表温度升高。本文研究了温室气体含量增加同其吸收地表辐射能量的关系;比较了不同温室气体含量引起的吸收地表辐射能量变化的差异,提出了温室效应对不同温室气体浓度变化的敏感性的概念。通过对敏感性的分析,得出了不同温室气体含量的变化对温室效应影响的强弱关系。%Since the industrial revolution, the main greenhouse gases which human activities released into the atmosphere of are C02, CH4, N20, etc. It makes globe warming that the increasing abso- rption of terrestrial radiation caused by the changes of GHGs concentration changed the radiation balance between the surface and atmosphere. In this paper, we discussed the relationship between the increasing amounts of the GHGs in atmosphere and their Greenhouse effects. At the same time, we compared the variation of different GHG's Greenhouse effect and calculate every GHG's sensitivity to its concentration changes. Through the analysis of its sensitivity, combined with the annual growth rate of GHGs emissions, this paper made appropriate predictions on Greenhouse effect trends to different GHGs in the future.

  1. Effect of forest drainage on the carbon balance and greenhouse impact of Finnish peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Minkkinen, K.; Laiho, R. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is to produce an estimate of the change in the biomass and peat carbon stores arising from the drainage of peatlands for forestry, and of the change of greenhouse impact of these ecosystems. The study shows that the subsidence of mire surfaces due to drainage has been relatively small, on average about 20 cm. The observed increase in bulk density after drainage is caused by the physical compression of peat and the post-drainage input of organic material in the form of litter production from the above and below ground parts of the tree layer. Oxidative decay of organic matter may have further increased the compaction of peat, especially in fertile sites. When the changes in peat and vegetation carbon stores are summed up, it seems that, within the site types studied, the total impact of drainage to the ecosystem carbon store is close to zero on the nutrient rich sites and clearly positive on the poorer types. Water level drawdown in peatlands after drainage for forestry appears to decrease the greenhouse impact at least for a few hundred years. The estimated changes in all three emission components (CH{sub 4} emissions, CO{sub 2} sink from peatland and CO{sub 2} sequestered in trees) reduce the radiative forcing by approximately similar amounts

  2. The Effect of Different Types of Diet on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstadinos Abeliotis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diet modifications are explored for the mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions worldwide. The current paper aims at estimating the carbon footprint of the diet of the Greek consumers in 2011. Based on food items consumption data, equivalent CO2 emission factors, the total carbon footprint associated with the per capita Greek diet patterns is calculated. Data for this task are retrieved from readily available resources of existent literature. The per capita carbon footprint resulting from the consumption of food items in Greece in 2011 for the reference scenario is calculated to be 1,827.4 kg CO2/y. In addition, alternative diet scenarios are proposed, their carbon footprint is calculated and suggestions are made for possible sustainable dietary changes. The results indicate that transition to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet constitutes a very drastic change towards mitigating greenhouse gases. However its acceptance by the public is very questionable. Thus, the second alternative scenario, which anticipates the substitution of beef by mainly pork and chicken, becomes more relevant. These results could serve as a yardstick for policy interventions aiming at reducing GHG emissions via diet modifications in Greece.

  3. Effect of organic matter strength on anammox for modified greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chongjun; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Lei, Chenxiao; Zhang, Tian C; Wu, Weixiang

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-N removal from modified greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater with different chemical oxygen demand (COD) strengths (194.0-577.8 mg L(-1)) at relatively fixed C/N ratios (≈ 2) was investigated using a lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) anammox reactor. During the entire experiment, the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was about 85% or higher, while the average COD removal efficiency was around 56.5 ± 7.9%. Based on the nitrogen and carbon balance, the nitrogen removal contribution was 79.6 ± 4.2% for anammox, 12.7 ± 3.0% for denitrification+denitritation and 7.7 ± 4.9% for other mechanisms. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses revealed that Planctomycete, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi bacteria were coexisted in the reactor. Anammox was always dominant when the reactor was fed with different COD concentrations, which indicated the stability of the anammox process with the coexistence of the denitrification process in treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater.

  4. Effects of inoculum potential on screening for resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in greenhouse trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Robak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors, including growth medium, inoculum density, and inoculum storage affected the reaction of resistant and susceptible Brassicas to Plasmodiophora brassicae in the greenhouse. A high level of disease was achieved using Peat-litte mix R and a commercial greenhouse mix. There was litte difference in disease incidence when spore suspensions were pipeted into planting holes or when seedlings were dipped into spore suspensions. Seedlings transplanted from sand or Petri dishes gave higher levels of disease than direct seeding. Two-year frozen storage of clubs reduced the inoculum potential to a level unable to define resistance. Inoculum levels of 103-7 spores per ml from fresh clubs, or 105-7 spores per ml from clubs frozen for 2 or 4 years, produced 90% club incidence of susceptible cauliflower and Chinese cabbage, A concentration of only 106-8 spores per ml from fresh clubs was required for maximum disease expression in a cauliflower line partially resistant to clubroot.

  5. Effects of nitrogen loading on greenhouse gas emissions in salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Kroeger, K. D.; Morkeski, K.; Mora, J.; Chen, X.; Carey, J.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes play an important role in global and regional carbon and nitrogen cycling. We tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic nitrogen loading alters greenhouse gas (GHG, including CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions and carbon sequestration in salt marshes. We measured GHG emissions biweekly for two growing seasons across a nitrogen-loading gradient of four Spartina salt marshes in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts. In addition, we conducted nitrogen addition experiments in a pristine marsh by adding low and high nitrate to triplicate plots bi-weekly during the summer. The GHG flux measurements were made in situ with a state-of-the-art mobile gas measurement system using the cavity ring down technology that consists of a CO2/CH4 analyzer (Picarro) and an N2O/CO analyzer (Los Gatos). We observed strong seasonal variations in greenhouse gas emissions. The differences in gas emissions across the nitrogen gradient were not significant, but strong pulse emissions of N2O were observed after nitrogen was artificially added to the marsh. Our results will facilitate model development to simulate GHG emissions in coastal wetlands and support methodology development to assess carbon credits in preserving and restoring coastal wetlands.

  6. Effects of biochar addition on greenhouse gas emissions and microbial responses in a short-term laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gayoung; Kang, Hojeong

    2012-01-01

    Biochar application to soil has drawn much attention as a strategy to sequester atmospheric carbon in soil ecosystems. The applicability of this strategy as a climate change mitigation option is limited by our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed changes in greenhouse gas emissions from soils, microbial responses, and soil fertility changes. We conducted an 8-wk laboratory incubation using soils from PASTURE (silt loam) and RICE PADDY (silt loam) sites with and without two types of biochar (biochar from swine manure [CHAR-M] and from barley stover [CHAR-B]). Responses to addition of the different biochars varied with the soil source. Addition of CHAR-B did not change CO and CH evolution from the PASTURE or the RICE PADDY soils, but there was a decrease in NO emissions from the PASTURE soil. The effects of CHAR-M addition on greenhouse gas emissions were different for the soils. The most substantial change was an increase in NO emissions from the RICE PADDY soil. This result was attributed to a combination of abundant denitrifiers in this soil and increased net nitrogen mineralization. Soil phosphatase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in the CHAR-B-treated soils was enhanced compared with the controls for both soils. Fungal biomass was higher in the CHAR-B-treated RICE PADDY soil. From our results, we suggest CHAR-B to be an appropriate amendment for the PASTURE and RICE PADDY soils because it provides increased nitrogen availability and microbial activity with no net increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Application of CHAR-M to RICE PADDY soils could result in excess nitrogen availability, which may increase NO emissions and possible NO leaching problems. Thus, this study confirms that the ability of environmentally sound biochar additions to sequester carbon in soils depends on the characteristics of the receiving soil as well as the nature of the biochar.

  7. [Effects of nitrogen application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in Eucalyptus plantations with different soil organic carbon content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Da; Zhang, Kai; Su, Dan; Lu, Fei; Wan, Wu-Xing; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Zheng, Hua

    2014-10-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilization or nitrogen deposition on soil greenhouse gases fluxes has been well studied, while little has been piloted about the effects of nitrogen application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes and its discrepancy with different soil organic carbon content. In our study, we conducted field control experiment in a young Eucalyptus plantation in Southeast China. We compared the effects of 4 levels of nitrogen fertilization (Control: 0 kg · hm(-2); Low N: 84.2 kg · hm(-2); Medium N: 166.8 kg · hm(-2); High N: 333.7 kg · hm(-2)) on soil GHGs fluxes from 2 sites (LC and HC) with significantly different soil organic carbon (SOC) content (P Fertilization had significant priming effect on CO2 and N2O emission fluxes. One month after fertilization, both CO2 and N2O had the flux peak and decreased gradually, and the difference among the treatments disappeared at the end of the growing season. However, fertilization had no significant effect on CH4 oxidation between the 2 sites. (2) Fertilization and SOC were two crucial factors that had significant effects on CO2 and N2O emission. Fertilization had a significant positive effect on CO2 and N2O emission fluxes (P 0.05). The CO2 and N2O emission fluxes were significantly higher in HC than those in LC (P Fertilization and SOC had great interactive effect on CO2 and N2O emission (P fertilization on soil GHGs fluxes were not only in connection with the intensify of nitrogen, but also closely tied to the SOC content. When we assess the effects of nitrogen on soil GHGs fluxes, the difference induced by SOC should not be ignored.

  8. The effect of feeder location on pollen collection by bumble bees in a tomato greenhouse in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Levente L; Plowright, C M S; Plowright, R C

    2012-02-01

    The foraging behavior of bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) was examined as a function of feeder location containing sugar solution in a commercial tomato greenhouse in Manotick, Ontario, Canada. The feeders were located within the nest-box (fed-close) or placed 1.5 m away (fed-far) and the placement of the two types of colonies was counterbalanced over time. No effect of feeder location was found in colony activity levels or in pollen load size. A foraging trade-off between sugar solution and pollen collection, however, was found: the proportion of foraging trips in which pollen was brought back was significantly reduced for fed-far colonies, which contrasts with our laboratory study in which the opposite effect was found. We interpret our findings as possibly reflecting a limitation in pollen supply in the greenhouse: an already possibly strained ability to find and bring back pollen to the colony was accentuated by increasing the task demands of collecting sugar solution.

  9. Production efficiencies of U.S. electric generation plants: Effects of data aggregation and greenhouse gas and renewable energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynes, Melissa Kate

    greenhouse gas emitting electric generation plants. However, renewable energy policies do not have an effect on productivity growth. Renewable energy inputs are found to be as efficient if not more efficient than traditional energy sources.

  10. Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beetz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of emission factors for many peatlands is difficult, and reliable data on the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O between soil and atmosphere of these areas is particularly scarce. Reasons for this are the multitude of soil and land use combinations that control greenhouse gas exchange and the high effort associated with data acquisition.

    We investigated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (July 2007–June 2009 in an Atlantic raised bog in Northwest Germany. We set up three sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4–5 cuts per year; extensive grassland (no fertilizer or manure, maximal 1 cutting per year; near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence.

    We obtained seasonal and annual estimates of greenhouse gas exchange based on closed chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, CO2 NEE determinations were carried out 3–4 weekly. To get annual sums the CH4 and N2O fluxes were interpolated linearly while NEE was modelled. The intensive grassland site emitted 548 ± 169 g CO2-C m−2 in the first and 817 ± 140 g CO2-C m−2 in the second year. The extensive grassland site showed a slight uptake in the first year (−148 ± 143 g CO2-C m−2, and a small emission of 88 ± 146 g CO2-C m−2 in the second year. In contrast to these agriculturally used sites, the near-natural site took up CO2-C in both years (−8 ± 68 g CO2-C m−2 and −127 ± 53 g CO2-C m−2. Under consideration of N2O and CH4 exchange, the total average greenhouse warming potential (GWP for 2008 amounts to 441

  11. Effects of washing, peeling, storage, and fermentation on residue contents of carbaryl and mancozeb in cucumbers grown in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi Saravi, S S; Shokrzadeh, M

    2016-06-01

    Cucumbers grown in two different greenhouses were exposed to mancozeb and carbaryl at different times. The effects of 10-day preharvest period, water and detergent washing, peeling, predetermined storage period at 4°C (refrigeration), and fermentation on the reduction of residue levels in the plant tissues were investigated. Mancozeb and carbaryl residues in cucumbers were determined by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Results showed that residue levels in samples, which were collected after 10 days following the pesticide application, were significantly lower than the samples collected after 2 h subsequent to the pesticide application. The culinary applications were effective in reducing the residue levels of the pesticides in cucumbers. As a result, non-fermentative pickling in sodium chloride and acetic acid was the most effective way to reduce the mancozeb and carbaryl residues of the cucumbers.

  12. Effects of Local Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategies on Air Pollutant Emissions and on Health in Kuopio, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Asikainen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of greenhouse gas (GHG abatement strategies often ends up as the responsibility of municipal action rather than national policies. Impacts of local GHG reduction measures were investigated in the EU FP7 funded project Urban Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China and Europe (URGENCHE. Kuopio in Finland was one of the case study cities. The assessed reduction measures were (1 increased use of biomass in local heat and power cogeneration plant, (2 energy efficiency improvements of residences, (3 increased biofuel use in traffic, and (4 increased small scale combustion of wood for residential heating. Impact assessment compared the 2010 baseline with a 2020 BAU (business as usual scenario and a 2020 CO2 interventions scenario. Changes in emissions were assessed for CO2, particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10, NOx, and SO2, and respective impacts were assessed for PM2.5 ambient concentrations and health effects. The assessed measures would reduce the local CO2 emissions in the Kuopio urban area by over 50% and local emissions of PM2.5 would clearly decrease. However, the annual average ambient PM2.5 concentration would decrease by just 4%. Thus, only marginal population level health benefits would be achieved with these assumed local CO2 abatement actions.

  13. Effect of different levels of nitrogen on rhizosphere bacterial community structure in intensive monoculture of greenhouse lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Gang; Shen, Min-Chong; Hou, Jin-Feng; Li, Ling; Wu, Jun-Xia; Dong, Yuan-Hua

    2016-04-28

    Pyrosequencing-based analyses revealed significant effects among low (N50), medium (N80), and high (N100) fertilization on community composition involving a long-term monoculture of lettuce in a greenhouse in both summer and winter. The non-fertilized control (CK) treatment was characterized by a higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi; however, the average abundance of Firmicutes typically increased in summer, and the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased in winter in the N-fertilized treatments. Principle component analysis showed that the distribution of the microbial community was separated by a N gradient with N80 and N100 in the same group in the summer samples, while CK and N50 were in the same group in the winter samples, with the other N-level treatments existing independently. Redundancy analysis revealed that available N, NO3(-)-N, and NH4(+)-N, were the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of the bacterial community. Correlation analysis showed that nitrogen affected the shifts of microbial communities by strongly driving the shifts of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in summer samples, and Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria in winter samples. The study demonstrates a novel example of rhizosphere bacterial diversity and the main factors influencing rizosphere microbial community in continuous vegetable cropping within an intensive greenhouse ecosystem.

  14. Optimal use of biofuels to reduce the contribution to the greenhouse effect; Optimal anvaendning av biobraensle foer minskning av vaexthuseffekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasblad, A.; Franck, P.Aa.; Berntsson, T. [Chalmers Industriteknik, Goeteborg (Sweden). CIT Energiteknisk Analys

    1995-12-31

    This report analyses whether the use of biofuels in district heating systems is a cost effective measure to decrease the emissions of greenhouse gases in Sweden or not. We have taken the year 2005 as an average for the next 15 to 20 years and used prognosis from NUTEK to estimate the national electricity production system together with fuel and electricity prices. Three sizes of district heating systems have been considered with annual heat loads of 2, 60 and 300 GWh. We have identified the optimal mix of production techniques that produces heat to the lowest total cost for a given allowed level of greenhouse gas emissions. Conclusions about the individual technologies can be drawn by studying the change in the cost optimal production mix when the allowed level of emission changes. To get substantially lower carbon dioxide emissions, CHP-plants based on biofuels must be introduced. In Sweden, however, the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electricity production are low (even in the year 2005) and the prognosis for the electricity price does not make it profitable to introduce CHP-plants on economical grounds. This means that the cost for decreasing emission substantially below 50 kg/MWh with CHP-plants normally is expensive since the decrease in emissions is low and the increase in cost is high. 17 refs, 34 figs, 21 tabs

  15. Effect of different levels of nitrogen on rhizosphere bacterial community structure in intensive monoculture of greenhouse lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Gang; Shen, Min-Chong; Hou, Jin-Feng; Li, Ling; Wu, Jun-Xia; Dong, Yuan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Pyrosequencing-based analyses revealed significant effects among low (N50), medium (N80), and high (N100) fertilization on community composition involving a long-term monoculture of lettuce in a greenhouse in both summer and winter. The non-fertilized control (CK) treatment was characterized by a higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi; however, the average abundance of Firmicutes typically increased in summer, and the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased in winter in the N-fertilized treatments. Principle component analysis showed that the distribution of the microbial community was separated by a N gradient with N80 and N100 in the same group in the summer samples, while CK and N50 were in the same group in the winter samples, with the other N-level treatments existing independently. Redundancy analysis revealed that available N, NO3−-N, and NH4+-N, were the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of the bacterial community. Correlation analysis showed that nitrogen affected the shifts of microbial communities by strongly driving the shifts of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in summer samples, and Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria in winter samples. The study demonstrates a novel example of rhizosphere bacterial diversity and the main factors influencing rizosphere microbial community in continuous vegetable cropping within an intensive greenhouse ecosystem. PMID:27121918

  16. Effects of industrial and agricultural waste amendment on soil greenhouse gas production in a paddy field in Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiqi; Neogi, Suvadip; Lai, Derrick Y. F.; Zeng, Congsheng; Wang, Chun; Zeng, Dongping

    2017-09-01

    Controlling the production and subsequent emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from paddy fields is crucial to minimize the climatic impacts arising from crop production. The application of chemical or biological amendments is one possible way to limit the production of GHGs in paddy soils. Yet, few existing studies have examined the impacts of applying fertilizers originated from industrial and agricultural wastes on soil GHG production and its governing factors in subtropical paddy fields. In this study, we examined the effects of various agricultural and industrial amendments, including biochar, steel slag, shell slag, gypsum slag, and slag-derived silicate and calcium fertilizers, on the production potential of GHGs in an early paddy field in southeast China. The mean CO2 production rates from soils amended with steel slag as well as silicate and calcium fertilizers were significantly higher than those of the controls by 13.4% and 18.6%, respectively (P 0.05). Overall, the soil production rate of CO2 was positively correlated with that of CH4 (P greenhouse gas production and mitigate climate change impacts of rice cultivation, largely attributable to the reduction in methanogenesis.

  17. Effect of different levels of nitrogen on rhizosphere bacterial community structure in intensive monoculture of greenhouse lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Gang; Shen, Min-Chong; Hou, Jin-Feng; Li, Ling; Wu, Jun-Xia; Dong, Yuan-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Pyrosequencing-based analyses revealed significant effects among low (N50), medium (N80), and high (N100) fertilization on community composition involving a long-term monoculture of lettuce in a greenhouse in both summer and winter. The non-fertilized control (CK) treatment was characterized by a higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi; however, the average abundance of Firmicutes typically increased in summer, and the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased in winter in the N-fertilized treatments. Principle component analysis showed that the distribution of the microbial community was separated by a N gradient with N80 and N100 in the same group in the summer samples, while CK and N50 were in the same group in the winter samples, with the other N-level treatments existing independently. Redundancy analysis revealed that available N, NO3--N, and NH4+-N, were the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of the bacterial community. Correlation analysis showed that nitrogen affected the shifts of microbial communities by strongly driving the shifts of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in summer samples, and Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria in winter samples. The study demonstrates a novel example of rhizosphere bacterial diversity and the main factors influencing rizosphere microbial community in continuous vegetable cropping within an intensive greenhouse ecosystem.

  18. Gardening with Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  19. 人为干扰对西南喀斯特小流域生态恢复的影响%Effects of Human-Induced Disturbance on the Ecological Restoration in Karst Small Watershed of Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红玉; 杨勇; 李勇

    2014-01-01

    Ecological restoration is an important ecological security for Karst ecological fragile region to develop social economy.Agricultural production activities,rocky desertification control and land utilization way were the main human-induced disturbance factors,which affected ecosystem degradation and restoration in Karst small water-shed.Based on the previous research on the ecological development and ecological management,made the compo-nents of ecosystem and the process of the restoration as the starting point,this paper analyzed the effects of human-induced disturbance on the vegetation,soil,litter,soil biological structure,function and diversity.Ecological man-agement should pay more attention to constantly maintain and rich ecosystem elements,and strengthen the study of the ecological process and the “integrity”recovery of degraded ecosystem,and then restart and promote ecological restoration in Karst small watershed.%对退化生态系统的恢复,是喀斯特生态脆弱区域社会经济发展的重要保障。农业生产活动、石漠化治理、土地利用方式等,共同构成了影响喀斯特小流域生态系统退化和恢复的人为干扰因素。在前人对喀斯特石漠化小流域生态治理相关研究的基础上,以生态系统组成要素和生态恢复动态过程为出发点,分析并探讨人为干扰对于植被、土壤、凋落物、土壤生物结构、功能和多样性的扰动。提出生态治理和生态建设应注意对生态系统要素的维持和丰富,并加强对生态系统整体恢复和生态过程的研究,从而更好地促进喀斯特石漠化小流域生态系统的恢复。

  20. The effects of urban solid waste on yield quality and heavy metal pollution under greenhouse tomato cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Işıl DEMİRTAŞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The amount of municipal solid waste is increasing due to increasing world population. This study was carried out to evaluate the possibilities of using urban solid waste in agriculture without harming the environment. The effects of solid waste compost and their dosages on yield, quality and heavy metal contents of tomato plant were investigated. The experiment under greenhouse conditions was conducted in randomized complete block design with six treatments (0-2-4-6-8-10 t da-1 and four replications for two years. In order to determine effects of applications fruit and soil samples were taken and analyzed. The results of analysis showed that urban solid waste depending on dosages increased the yield, the pH and EC of fruit juice, amount of water soluble solids, titretable acidity and lycopene amount compared to control. Fruit and soil heavy metal content were within the acceptable range limits.

  1. On the meaning of feedback parameter, transient climate response, and the greenhouse effect: Basic considerations and the discussion of uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Kramm, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the meaning of feedback parameter, greenhouse effect and transient climate response usually related to the globally averaged energy balance model of Schneider and Mass. After scrutinizing this model and the corresponding planetary radiation balance we state that (a) the this globally averaged energy balance model is flawed by unsuitable physical considerations, (b) the planetary radiation balance for an Earth in the absence of an atmosphere is fraught by the inappropriate assumption of a uniform surface temperature, the so-called radiative equilibrium temperature of about 255 K, and (c) the effect of the radiative anthropogenic forcing, considered as a perturbation to the natural system, is much smaller than the uncertainty involved in the solution of the model of Schneider and Mass. This uncertainty is mainly related to the empirical constants suggested by various authors and used for predicting the emission of infrared radiation by the Earth's skin. Furthermore, after inserting the ...

  2. Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, S.; Liebersbach, H.; Glatzel, S.; Jurasinski, G.; Buczko, U.; Höper, H.

    2013-02-01

    Wetlands can either be net sinks or net sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), depending on the mean annual water level and other factors like average annual temperature, vegetation development, and land use. Whereas drained and agriculturally used peatlands tend to be carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) sources but methane (CH4) sinks, restored (i.e. rewetted) peatlands rather incorporate CO2, tend to be N2O neutral and release CH4. One of the aims of peatland restoration is to decrease their global warming potential (GWP) by reducing GHG emissions. We estimated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (1 July 2007-30 June 2009) in an Atlantic raised bog in northwest Germany. We set up three study sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (deeply drained, mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4-5 cuts per year); extensive grassland (rewetted, no fertilizer or manure, up to 1 cutting per year); near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence). Daily and annual greenhouse gas exchange was estimated based on closed-chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) measurements were carried out every 3-4 weeks. Annual sums of CH4 and N2O fluxes were estimated by linear interpolation while NEE was modelled. Regarding GWP, the intensive grassland site emitted 564 ± 255 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 850 ± 238 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 in the first (2007/2008) and the second (2008/2009) measuring year, respectively. The GWP of the extensive grassland amounted to -129 ± 231 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 94 ± 200 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1, while it added up to 45 ± 117 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and -101 ± 93 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 in 2007/08 and 2008/09 for the near-natural site. In contrast, in calendar year 2008 GWP aggregated to 441 ± 201 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1, 14 ± 162 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1

  3. Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beetz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands can either be net sinks or net sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs, depending on the mean annual water level and other factors like average annual temperature, vegetation development, and land use. Whereas drained and agriculturally used peatlands tend to be carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O sources but methane (CH4 sinks, restored (i.e. rewetted peatlands rather incorporate CO2, tend to be N2O neutral and release CH4. One of the aims of peatland restoration is to decrease their global warming potential (GWP by reducing GHG emissions.

    We estimated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (1 July 2007–30 June 2009 in an Atlantic raised bog in northwest Germany. We set up three study sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (deeply drained, mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4–5 cuts per year; extensive grassland (rewetted, no fertilizer or manure, up to 1 cutting per year; near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence. Daily and annual greenhouse gas exchange was estimated based on closed-chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE measurements were carried out every 3–4 weeks. Annual sums of CH4 and N2O fluxes were estimated by linear interpolation while NEE was modelled.

    Regarding GWP, the intensive grassland site emitted 564 ± 255 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr−1 and 850 ± 238 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr−1 in the first (2007/2008 and the second (2008/2009 measuring year, respectively. The GWP of the extensive grassland amounted to −129 ± 231 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr−1 and 94 ± 200 g CO2–C equivalents m−2 yr

  4. Can a Human-Induced Climate Disaster be Avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are one of the greatest threats to our future prosperity. World emissions are currently around 50 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide-equivalent per annum and are growing rapidly. Atmospheric concentrations of GHG emissions in the atmosphere have increased, to over 400ppm of CO2e today, even after taking the offsetting radiative effects of aerosols into account, and are increasing at a rate of around 2.5ppm per year. The world's current lack of "adequate" commitments to reduce emissions are consistent with at least a 3oC rise (50-50 chance) in temperature: a temperature not seen on the planet for around 3 million years, with serious risks of 5oC rise: a temperature not seen on the planet for around 30 million years. So what are the implications of a 3-5oC rise in temperature, with associated changes in, rising sea levels, retreating mountain glaciers, melting of the Greenland ice cap, shrinking Arctic Sea ice, especially in summer, increasing frequency of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, and intensification of cyclonic events, such as hurricanes in the Atlantic. Even a 2oC increase in mean surface temperatures will adversely affect freshwater, food and fiber, natural ecosystems, coastal systems and low-lying areas, human health and social systems, especially in developing countries. The impacts of 3-5oC will be extensive, predominantly negative, undermine development and poverty alleviation goals and cut across most sectors. To address human-induced climate change requires a transition to a low carbon economy, which will require rapid technological evolution in the efficiency of energy use, environmentally sound low-carbon renewable energy sources and carbon capture and storage. The longer we wait to transition to a low carbon economy the more we are locked into a high carbon energy system with consequent environmental damage to ecological and socio-economic systems. Unfortunately the political will

  5. Greenhouse Warming Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    2016-01-01

    The changing greenhouse effect caused by natural and anthropogenic causes is explained and efforts to model the behavior of the near-surface constituents of the Earth's land, ocean and atmosphere are discussed. Emissions of various substances and other aspects of human activity influence the gree......The changing greenhouse effect caused by natural and anthropogenic causes is explained and efforts to model the behavior of the near-surface constituents of the Earth's land, ocean and atmosphere are discussed. Emissions of various substances and other aspects of human activity influence...... the greenhouse warming, and the impacts of the warming may again impact the wellbeing of human societies. Thus physical modeling of the near-surface ocean-soil-atmosphere system cannot be carried out without an idea of the development of human activities, which is done by scenario analysis. The interactive...... nature of the natural and the human system calls for an extremely complex analysis, in order to predict the outcome of various proposed changes in human behavior. This includes halting activities that most influence the climate and finding workable alternatives to these activities, or adapting to climate...

  6. 设施花卉高效栽培技术探讨及效益分析%The Effective Cultivation Technology and Effectiveness Analysis of Greenhouse Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗拥兵

    2015-01-01

    通过设施花卉栽培项目试验,筛选了适于市场销售的优良花卉品种,并对其经济效益进行了分析。%Through the greenhouse flower cultivation trial, this study screened excellent varieties of flowers that were suitable for the market, and analyzed their economic effectiveness.

  7. Health Effects of Greenhouses and Pesticide Application on Farmworkers%温室环境及农药使用对作业人员健康的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 杨惠芳

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouses play a positive role in supplying more vegetables in winter and increasing fanners' income. But the special microenvironment of greenhouses, especially high temperature and high humidity, could make fanners suffering from higher pesticide exposure than those working in open-air and increase health risks to greenhouse farmworkers. The growing researches on greenhouse microenvironment in China mainly focus on improving agricultural production efficiency and economic benefits, but studies on the related health effects are limited. With rapid economic development in China, the occupational health security of greenhouse farmworkers draws more attention. This article summarized domestic and international studies on health effects of pesticide application in greenhouse, in terms of greenhouse microenvironment, pesticide exposure of greenhouse farmworkers, and its health effects, in order to provide recommendations for improving occupational safety and health of greenhouse farmworkers in China.%温室生产,在改善冬季蔬菜供应,增加农民收入等方面有着积极的作用,但由于其特殊的微环境,导致温室作业人员的健康风险增高,温室中的高温、高湿等特殊微环境,使得温室中的作业人员农药暴露更高于露天环境,是造成温室作业人员健康损害的最重要因素之一.我国大陆对温室微环境的研究虽也越来越多,但主要集中在提高农业劳动生产率与经济效益方面,对劳动者的健康影响研究仍有限.随着经济的快速发展,温室作业人员职业卫生安全也越来越引起人们的重视.因此,本研究在总结目前国内外温室农药使用对温室作业人员健康影响的基础上,从温室微环境的特点、温室作业人员农药使用与暴露情况,以及温室中农药使用对作业人员健康影响等三方面进行综述探讨,以期为我国温室作业人员健康的防护研究提供相关的参考信息.

  8. GREENHOUSE BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Haley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We believe that the cultural landscape is largely formed by the dominant cultures of a place. “It is formed by a sometimes conflicted, sometimes consensual discourse or narrative from an array of stories, observations and intentions, first spoken by people of these dominant cultures and thereafter enacted on the ground. To our view, such a story has certain fluidity about it, and may change directions for any number of reasons. This work, Greenhouse Britain, is designed literally to express what the risingof waters would mean to the landscape of the island. It takes the 3 positions of defense, withdrawal and then defense, withdrawal to the high grounds. We suggest that the existing plans for greenhouse emissions control will be insufficient to keep temperature rise at 2° or less. In fact, we believe that the tipping point is past. In this context, the rising ocean becomes a form determinant. By “form determinant”, we mean, the rising ocean will determine many of the new forms that culture, industry and many other elements of civilization will have to take. There is another piece of this picture that we wish to give Voice to. That is up until this present rising of the world oceans, the creators of Western civilization have held and enacted the belief that all limitations in the physical world, particularly in the ecological world are there to be used and overcome. We think that the rising ocean is an opportunity for transformation, but it is exactly the reverse of a new frontier to overcome from civilization’s perspective. Now, from the ocean’s perspective, its boundary is perhaps a continuing, evolving transforming new frontier. Therefore, assuming a rapid rise of waters, even for a modest 5 meters in 100 years, there are apparently no models of precedence, no information, design, nor planning on the table, with the exception of ocean defenses and typical development models, albeit more energy efficient ones. It is the intention of

  9. Global review of human-induced earthquakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Foulger, Gillian R.; Wilson, Miles; Gluyas, Jon; Julian, Bruce R.; Davies, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Human-induced Earthquake Database, HiQuake, is a comprehensive record of earthquake sequences postulated to be induced by anthropogenic activity. It contains over 700 cases spanning the period 1868–2016. Activities that have been proposed to induce earthquakes include the impoundment of water reservoirs, erecting tall buildings, coastal engineering, quarrying, extraction of groundwater, coal, minerals, gas, oil and geothermal fluids, excavation of tunnels, and adding material to the subsu...

  10. Exploiting the igloo principle and greenhouse effect to regulate humidity and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Karthick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic epidermal necrolysis can be fatal and nursing care with careful monitoring of temperature and humidity can improve survival rate. We adapted the greenhouse and igloo principle using a common hood to monitor the temperature and humidity. Methods: A small heater with a regulator was placed in a mini hood and temperature was recorded inside the uncovered hood and hood covered with green cloth and aluminium foil separately. The regular hood was placed over a volunteer and the temperature was measured inside the open hood and hood covered with green cloth and aluminium foil separately. The relative humidity was also monitored using Zeal mercury dry - wet bulb hygrometer. Results: Temperature increase was most marked in the foil-covered hood followed by cloth-covered hood, both with the heater and the volunteer. Similarly, in the volunteer study, the humidity was best maintained inside the aluminium foil-covered hood. Conclusion: We recommend the use of regular hood with suitable cover to monitor the humidity and temperature of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis.

  11. National greenhouse-gas accounting for effective climate policy on international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kander, Astrid; Jiborn, Magnus; Moran, Daniel D.; Wiedmann, Thomas O.

    2015-05-01

    National greenhouse-gas accounting should reflect how countries’ policies and behaviours affect global emissions. Actions that contribute to reduced global emissions should be credited, and actions that increase them should be penalized. This is essential if accounting is to serve as accurate guidance for climate policy. Yet this principle is not satisfied by the two most common accounting methods. Production-based accounting used under the Kyoto Protocol does not account for carbon leakage--the phenomenon of countries reducing their domestic emissions by shifting carbon-intensive production abroad. Consumption-based accounting (also called carbon footprinting) does not credit countries for cleaning up their export industries, and it also punishes some types of trade that could contribute to more carbon efficient production worldwide. We propose an improvement to consumption-based carbon accounting that takes technology differences in export sectors into account and thereby tends to more correctly reflect how national policy changes affect total global emissions. We also present empirical results showing how this new measure redraws the global emissions map.

  12. Electric urban delivery trucks: energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Thomas, Valerie M; Brown, Marilyn A

    2013-07-16

    We compare electric and diesel urban delivery trucks in terms of life-cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total cost of ownership (TCO). The relative benefits of electric trucks depend heavily on vehicle efficiency associated with drive cycle, diesel fuel price, travel demand, electric drive battery replacement and price, electricity generation and transmission efficiency, electric truck recharging infrastructure, and purchase price. For a drive cycle with frequent stops and low average speed such as the New York City Cycle (NYCC), electric trucks emit 42-61% less GHGs and consume 32-54% less energy than diesel trucks, depending upon vehicle efficiency cases. Over an array of possible conditions, the median TCO of electric trucks is 22% less than that of diesel trucks on the NYCC. For a drive cycle with less frequent stops and high average speed such as the City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), electric trucks emit 19-43% less GHGs and consume 5-34% less energy, but cost 1% more than diesel counterparts. Considering current and projected U.S. regional electricity generation mixes, for the baseline case, the energy use and GHG emissions ratios of electric to diesel trucks range from 48 to 82% and 25 to 89%, respectively.

  13. Prospective Turkish Elementary Science Teachers' Knowledge Level about the Greenhouse Effect and Their Views on Environmental Education in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisoglu, Mustafa; Gürbüz, Hasan; Erkol, Mehmet; Akar, Muhammed Said; Akilli, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental factor of environmental education is teachers who are well-informed about environmental issues. This research aimed to determine prospective Turkish elementary science teachers' knowledge level about causes, consequences and reducing of the greenhouse effect and to investigate the effect of gender, information source and…

  14. Quantifying the effect of interactions between disease control, nitrogen supply and land use change on the greenhouse gas emissions associated with wheat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, P M; Kindred, D R; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2010-01-01

    A method for calculating the effect of disease control on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with wheat production, reported previously, was developed further to account for effects of disease control on the amount of fertilizer nitrogen (N) which should be applied and on changes in land use...

  15. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Carriquiry, Miguel; Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Martin, Pamela A.; Mulik, Kranti

    2012-06-01

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally.

  16. The conversion of grassland to acacia forest as an effective option for net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoi, Stefânia Guedes; Neufeld, Ângela Denise Hubert; Ibarr, Mariana Alves; Ferreto, Décio Oscar Cardoso; Bayer, Cimélio; Lorentz, Leandro Homrich; Vieira, Frederico Costa Beber

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of forestation with leguminous Acacia mearnsii De Wild in native grasslands on the soil greenhouse (GHG) fluxes and their main driving factors. The experiment was conducted in the Brazilian Pampa over the period of one year in a six-year-old Acacia plantation, evaluating four treatments: Acacia (AM), Acacia with litter periodically removed (A-l), Acacia after harvest (AH) and native grassland (NG) (reference treatment). Air samples were obtained by the static chamber method, and gas concentrations were evaluated by gas chromatography. Soil and climate factors were monitored. The accumulated fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were statistically similar between the soils in the AM and NG treatments, which tended to oxidize CH4 (-1445 and -1752 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively) and had low emission of N2O (242 and 316 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1)), most likely influenced by the low water-filled pore space and the low content of mineral N in the soil. However, the soil in the AH treatment presented higher emissions of both gases, totaling 1889 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1) and 1250 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1). Afforestation neither significantly affected the total organic C stocks nor their lability, keeping the C management index for the forested area similar to that in the NG treatment. The conversion from grassland to Acacia forest represents an effective option for mitigating the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which is basically determined by C accumulation in biomass and wood products.

  17. Development of greenhouse grown onion transplants and effect of plant density and fertilizer rate on marketable yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse grown onion (Allium cepa L.) transplants may have potential for use in production systems, but how they respond to cultural practices needs clarification. Seedlings of ‘Candy' and ‘Texas Grano 1015Y' were raised in a greenhouse. ‘Candy' seedlings were heavier than ‘Texas Grano 1015Y' se...

  18. Modelling the effect of the position of cooling elements on the vertical profile of transpiration in a greenhouse tomato crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.; Dieleman, J.A.; Driever, S.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Semi-closed greenhouse management may increase greenhouse productivity. However, it relies on the application of mechanical cooling. Cooling can be applied from above or below the canopy. The positioning of the cooling affects the vertical climate profile in the canopy. In order to determine how thi

  19. A perspective on cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas reduction solutions in water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Thomas P.; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-01-01

    Water distribution systems (WDSs) face great challenges as aging infrastructures require significant investments in rehabilitation, replacement, and expansion. Reducing environmental impacts as WDSs develop is essential for utility managers and policy makers. This study quantifies the existing greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of common WDS elements using life-cycle assessment (LCA) while identifying the greatest opportunities for emission reduction. This study addresses oversights of the related literature, which fails to capture several WDS elements and to provide detailed life-cycle inventories. The life-cycle inventory results for a US case study utility reveal that 81% of GHGs are from pumping energy, where a large portion of these emissions are a result of distribution leaks, which account for 270 billion l of water losses daily in the United States. Pipe replacement scheduling is analyzed from an environmental perspective where, through incorporating leak impacts, a tool reveals that optimal replacement is no more than 20 years, which is in contrast to the US average of 200 years. Carbon abatement costs (CACs) are calculated for different leak reduction scenarios for the case utility that range from -130 to 35 t-1 CO2(eq). Including life-cycle modeling in evaluating pipe materials identified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cement-lined ductile iron (DICL) as the Pareto efficient options, however; utilizing PVC presents human health risks. The model developed for the case utility is applied to California and Texas to determine the CACs of reducing leaks to 5% of distributed water. For California, annual GHG savings from reducing leaks alone (3.4 million tons of CO2(eq)) are found to exceed California Air Resources Board’s estimate for energy efficiency improvements in the state’s water infrastructure.

  20. Effect of naphtha diluent on greenhouse gases and reduced sulfur compounds emissions from oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Kathleen F; Poon, Ho Yin; Hashisho, Zaher; Ulrich, Ania C

    2017-11-15

    The long-term storage of oil sands tailings has resulted in the evolution of greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) as a result of residual organics biodegradation. Recent studies have identified black, sulfidic zones below the tailings-water interface, which may be producing toxic sulfur-containing gases. An anaerobic mesocosm study was conducted over an 11-week period to characterize the evolution of CH4, CO2 and reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) (including H2S) in tailings as it relates to naphtha-containing diluent concentrations (0.2, 0.8, and 1.5% w/v) and microbial activity. Our results showed that RSCs were produced first at 0.12μmol°RSCs/mL MFT (1.5% w/v diluent treatment). RSCs contribution (from highest to lowest) was H2S and 2-methylthiophene>2.5-dimethylthiophene>3-methylthiophene>thiofuran>butyl mercaptan>carbonyl sulfide, where H2S and 2-methylthiophene contributed 81% of the gas produced. CH4 and CO2 production occurred after week 5 at 40.7μmolCH4/mL MFT and 5.9μmolCO2/mL MFT (1.5% w/v diluent treatment). The amount of H2S and CH4 generated is correlated to the amount of diluent present and to microbial activity as shown by corresponding increases in sulfate-reducers' Dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB) gene and methanogens' methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) gene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of residue management practices effects on corn productivity, soil quality, and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Jose German

    The removal of crop residues left after harvest is being considered as a potential feedstock source for bioethanol production which can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel use and net greenhouse gas (GHG). The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine how tillage, N fertilization rates, residue removal, and their interactions affect crop productivity, (ii) SOC and soil physical properties, and (iii) GHG emissions, and (iv) calculated a soil C budget to determine how much crop residue can be sustainably be removed in Central and Southwest Iowa. After three years of residue removal under different management practices, the findings of this study suggest that a portion of the corn residue that is left on the soil surface after harvest can be removed, with no negative impacts in the short term continuous corn yield in sites at Central and Southwest Iowa. However, significant decreases in SOC sequestration rates, microbial biomass-C, bulk density, soil penetration resistance, wet aggregate stability, and infiltration rates were observed, but varied with soil type and management practices. Additionally, soil surface CO2 and N2O emissions were responsive to management practices; primarily by altering soil temperature, soil water content, soil mineral N, and crop growth. Results from soil C budget show that in 2010 when corn growth was not water stressed (lack of moisture), approximately 35 and 30% of the residue could be sustainably removed in the Central and Southwest sites, respectively. In 2011, drier soil conditions resulted in approximately 2 and 49% of the residue could be sustainably removed in the Central and Southwest sites, respectively.

  2. Non-additive effects of litter diversity on greenhouse gas emissions from alpine steppe soil in Northern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youchao; Sun, Jian; Xie, Fangting; Yan, Yan; Wang, Xiaodan; Cheng, Genwei; Lu, Xuyang

    2015-12-04

    While litter decomposition is a fundamental ecological process, previous studies have mainly focused on the decay of single species. In this study, we conducted a litter-mixing experiment to investigate litter diversity effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an alpine steppe soil in Northern Tibet. Significant non-additive effects of litter diversity on GHG dynamics can be detected; these non-additive effects were the result of species composition rather than species richness. Synergistic effects were frequent for CO2 and N2O emissions, as they were found to occur in 70.5% and 47.1% of total cases, respectively; antagonistic effects on CH4 uptake predominated in 60.3% of the cases examined. The degree of synergism and antagonism may be significantly impacted by litter chemical traits, such as lignin and N, lignin:N ratio, and total phenols during decomposition (P < 0.05). In addition, the relationship between chemical traits and litter-mixing effects changed over incubation time. Our study provides an opportunity to gain insight into the relationship between litter diversity and soil ecological processes. The results indicate that higher plant diversity may generally enhance CO2 and N2O emissions while inhibiting CH4 uptake; meanwhile, the direction and strength of non-additive effects appear to be related to litter chemical traits.

  3. Evaluation of the greenhouse effect. Climate changes: from models to negotiations; Le point sur l`effet de serre. Changement de climat: des modeles aux negociations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cointe, R. [Ministere de l`Environnement, 75 - Paris (France). Mission interministerielle de l`effet de serre

    1997-01-01

    This paper takes stock of scientific works and negotiations in progress about climatic changes linked with greenhouse effect. The scientists opinion about the noxiousness of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, tropospheric O{sub 3}, CFC and their substitutes) inducing climate warming (0,5 deg. C as an average during the 20. Century) is reported. The forecasting about the evolution and organisation of the international effort (United Nations Climate Convention, Berlin`s Commission), and the French contribution on this topic is analyzed. (N.K.).

  4. Effects of CO[sub 2] concentration on photosynthesis, transpiration and production of greenhouse fruit vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nederhoff, E.M.

    1994-10-25

    The effect of the CO[sub 2] concentration of the greenhouse air (C) in the range 200 to 1100 [mu]mol mol[sup -1] was investigated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), grown in greenhouses. The effect of C on canopy net photosynthetic CO[sub 2] assimilation rate (or photosynthesis, P) was expressed by a set of regression equations, relating P to PAR, C and LAI. A rule of thumb ('CO[sub 2]-rule') was derived, approximating the relative increase of P caused by additional CO[sub 2] at a certain C. This CO[sub 2]-rule is: X = (1000/C)[sup 2] * 1.5 (X in % per 100 [mu]mol[sup -1], and C in [mu]mol mol[sup -1]). Two models for canopy photosynthesis were examined by comparing them with the experimental photosynthesis data. No 'midday depression' in P was observed. The effects of C on leaf conductance (g) and on rate of crop transpiration (E) were investigated. An increase of 100 I[mu]mol mol[sup -1] ' in C reduced g by about 3-4% in sweet pepper, tomato and cucumber and by about 11% in eggplant. The effect of C on E was analyzed by combining the regression equation for g with the Penman-Monteith equation for E. C had only a relatively small effect on E, owing to thermal and hydrological feedback effects. The decoupling of g and E was quantified. No time-dependent variation or 'midday depression' in E was observed, and no significant effect of C on average leaf temperature was established. In five experiments, the effect of C on growth and production and on specific features were analyzed; fruit production (dry weight) was most affected by C in sweet pepper; fresh weight fruit production per unit CO[sub 2] was highest in cucumber; fruit quality was not influenced by C. High C promoted the 'short leaves syndrome' in tomato and 'leaf tip chlorosis' in eggplant, probably related to calcium and boron translocation

  5. Comparative study of rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses and examination of the effects of salt accumulation under different cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Mi-Seon; Son, Jin-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2017-03-01

    This study compared rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses under a paddy-upland (rice-pepper) rotational system (PURS) and a monoculture repeated cropping system (RCS) and examined adverse effects of high salinity on soil properties. The following soil properties were analyzed: electrical conductivity (EC), pH, concentration of four cations (Na, Ca, Mg, and K), total nitrogen, and organic matter content. Rhizobacterial communities were analyzed using culture-based and culture-independent (pyrosequencing) methods. In addition, all culturable bacteria isolated from each soil sample were tested for traits related to plant growth promotion. The EC of rhizospheric soils was 5.32-5.54 dS/m for the RCS and 2.05-2.19 dS/m for the PURS. The culture-based method indicated that the bacterial communities and bacterial characteristics were significantly more diverse in the PURS soil than in the RCS soil. The pyrosequencing data also indicated that the richness and diversity of bacterial communities were greater in the PURS soil. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in soil samples under both cropping systems. However, Firmicutes and Gemmatimonadetes were more prevalent in the RCS soil, while the PURS soil contained a greater number of Chloroflexi. Spearman's correlation coefficients showed that soil EC was significantly positively correlated with the abundance of Firmicutes and Gemmatimonadetes and negatively correlated with the abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Deltaproteobacteria. This is the first study on the rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses under two different cropping systems using both culture- and pyrosequencing-based methods.

  6. No Effect Level of Co-Composted Biochar on Plant Growth and Soil Properties in a Greenhouse Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Schulz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is claimed that the addition of biochar to soil improves C sequestration, soil fertility and plant growth, especially when combined with organic fertilizers such as compost. However, little is known about agricultural effects of small amounts of composted biochar. This greenhouse study was carried out to examine effects of co-composted biochar on oat (Avena sativa L. yield in both sandy and loamy soil. The aim of this study was to test whether biochar effects can be observed at very low biochar concentrations. To test a variety of application amounts below 3 Mg biochar ha−1, we co-composted five different biochar concentrations (0, 3, 5, 10 kg Mg−1 compost. The biochar-containing compost was applied at five application rates (10, 50, 100, 150, 250 Mg ha−1 20 cm−1. Effects of compost addition on plant growth, Total Organic Carbon, Ntot, pH and soluble nutrients outweighed the effects of the minimal biochar amounts in the composted substrates so that a no effect level of biochar of at least 3 Mg ha−1 could be estimated.

  7. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  8. Effect of Various Management Methods of Apical Flower Bud on Cut Flower Quality in Three Cultivars of Greenhouse Roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mansour matloobi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In greenhouse roses, canopy management has been highly noted and emphasized during the past decades. It was recognized that improving canopy shape by implementing some techniques such as stem bending and flower bud removing can highly affect the marketable quality of cut roses. For most growers, the best method of flower bud treatment has not yet been described and determined physiologically. This experiment was designed to answer some questions related to this problem. Materials and Methods: A plastic commercial cut rose greenhouse was selected to carry out the trial. Three greenhouse rose cultivars, namely Eros, Cherry Brandy and Dancing Queen, were selected as the first factor, and three methods of flower bud treatment along with bending types were chosen as the second factor. Cuttings were taken from mother plants and rooted under mist conditions. The first shoot emerging from the cutting was treated at pea bud stage by one of the following methods: shoot bending at stem base with intact bud, immediate shoot bending at stem base after removing flower bud and shoot bending at stem base two weeks after flower bud removal. Some marketable stem properties including stem length, diameter and weight, and characteristics related to bud growth potential were measured, and then the data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that cultivars differ in their marketable features. Cherry Brandy produced longer cut flowers with higher stem diameter compared to the two other cultivars. This cultivar was also good in stem weight trait; however its difference from Eros was not significant. Dancing Queen did not perform well in producing high quality stems on the whole. Regarding number of days until bud release and growth, Cherry Brandy’s buds spent fewest days until growing. In many studies, the effect of cultivar on rose shoot growth quality has been documented and explained. For instance

  9. Effects of active forest fire on terrestrial ecosystem production and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannigrahi, Srikanta; Rahmat, Shahid; Bhatt, Sandeep; Rana, Virendra

    2017-04-01

    Uttarakhand) due to the subtle water stress condition with lesser soil moisture content into the ground. Among the 13 districts, the maximum net emissions of carbon and nitrogen compounds have been observed in 7 districts (accounting for high biomass and forest cover loss by the 2016 forest fire), whereas, the rest of the 6 districts acts as the sequester of greenhouse compounds. This new approach having the potentiality of quantifying the losses of ecosystem productivity due to forest fires and could be used in broader aspects if more accurate field based observation can be obtained in the near future.

  10. Concept Formation in Environmental Education: 14-Year Olds' Work on the Intensified Greenhouse Effect and the Depletion of the Ozone Layer. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlind, Karolina

    2005-01-01

    A case study is presented describing the work of three pupils in the upper level of compulsory school. The pupils were learning about the intensified greenhouse effect and the depletion of the ozone layer. In their work, the need for certain domain-specific knowledge becomes apparent; for example, understanding such concepts as photosynthesis,…

  11. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  12. The effect of application method on the temporal and spatial distribution of neonicotinoid insecticides in greenhouse zinnia and impact on aphid populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse trials were designed to evaluate the effect the application technique would have on temporal and spatial movement of neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam through plant tissue. Mature Zinnia elegans plants were treated by either a soil drench of neonicotinoid insectici...

  13. Evaluation of the Knowledge and Misconceptions of Science Teacher Candidates in Turkey Regarding the Greenhouse Effect through the Use of Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Zeynep; Çelikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify, through the use drawings, the knowledge and misconceptions of science teacher candidates regarding the greenhouse effect, and to thereby categorize their level of knowledge on this subject. The study was conducted with a group of 327 science teacher candidates. In this study, science teacher candidates were…

  14. The Impact of Secondary School Students' Preconceptions on the Evolution of Their Mental Models of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfried, Sibylle; Tempelmann, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a video-based learning process study that investigates the kinds of mental models of the atmospheric greenhouse effect 13-year-old learners have and how these mental models change with a learning environment, which is optimised in regard to instructional psychology. The objective of this explorative study was to observe and…

  15. Conceptions of Knowledge in Research on Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: Methodological Positions and Their Consequences for Representations of Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Anders; Makitalo, Asa; Saljo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Much of the research on students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming reports poor results. Students are claimed to hold misconceptions and naive beliefs, and the impact of teaching on their conceptions is also low. In the present study, these results are called into question, and it is argued that they may to a large extent…

  16. The Impact of Secondary School Students' Preconceptions on the Evolution of Their Mental Models of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfried, Sibylle; Tempelmann, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a video-based learning process study that investigates the kinds of mental models of the atmospheric greenhouse effect 13-year-old learners have and how these mental models change with a learning environment, which is optimised in regard to instructional psychology. The objective of this explorative study was to observe and…

  17. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  18. The effect of type and ratio of vermicompost on selected growth indices and nutrients content of tomato at greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Rasouli-Sadaghiani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of type and ratio of vermicompost on tomato growth, with five different types of vermicompost (platanus leaves, maple leaves, pruning apple trees and grape, waste of herbal extracts and azolla residues and four ratios of vermicompost to peat and perlite (2:1 v/v as 0, 1:3, 2:3 and 3:3, at greenhouse conditions. Results showed that type of vermicompost had a significant effect (P≤ 0.05 on plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, number of internodes and stem diameter. The interaction between type and ratio of vermicompost had significant effect on root and shoot dry weight, stem diameter, nitrogen (N percent, and potassium (K percent. The highest effect on shoot dry weight, stem diameter and the N percentage was observed in the ratio of 2:3 vermicompost of azolla residues. The amount of K in the ratio of 2:3 vermicompost of maple leaves increased 66.18% as compared to the control treatment. Also, different ratios of vermicompost increased percentage of phosphorus and concentration of iron and zinc, as compared to peat+ perlite treatment. Generally, different types and ratios of vermicompost compared to peat+ perlite medium had a positive effect on growth indices and mineral concentration in the tomato plant.

  19. What is the greenhouse effect?: its consequences on the future climate; Qu'est-ce que l'effet de serre?: ses consequences sur l'avenir du climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, M.

    2003-07-01

    In this book the greenhouse effect is explained and detailed from the knowledge of scientists. It presents also what could be, at short-dated and middle-dated, the climatic changes and their consequences if the greenhouse effect resulting from the human activities is not quickly stabilized. (A.L.B.)

  20. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  1. The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

  2. Effects of a raised water table on greenhouse gas emissions and celery yield from agricultural peat under climate warming conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysek, Magdalena; Zona, Donatella; Leake, Jonathan; Banwart, Steven

    2017-04-01

    . Rising temperatures should accelerate the rate of organic matter mineralisation, which will lead to higher emissions of greenhouse gases as well as enhanced plant growth due to better availability of nutrients. The effects of higher temperatures on crop growth and greenhouse gas emission have not been properly investigated in the context of agriculturally-utilised peatlands. This study was conducted on peat cores excavated from a field in the Fens and focused on the following objectives: 1. To examine effects of climate change-induced temperature rises on celery productivity and peat CO2 and CH4 emissions. 2. To find the field water table level that reduces peat emissions of CO2 and CH4 while maintaining celery productivity. The research found higher CO2 emissions from the elevated (+5°C) temperature treatment and lower CO2 emissions from the higher (-30cm) water table level, however, noted no effect on CH4 emissions of any of the treatments. The higher water table decreased aboveground celery biomass. There was no effect of increased temperature on aboveground celery yield.

  3. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer sources and tillage practices on greenhouse gas emissions in paddy fields of central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. S.; Chen, J.; Liu, T. Q.; Cao, C. G.; Li, C. F.

    2016-11-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer sources and tillage practices on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission have been well elucidated separately. However, it is still remained unclear regarding the combined effects of N fertilization and tillage practices on the global warming potential (GWP) and net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB) in paddy fields. In this paper, a 2-year field experiment was performed to investigate the effects of N fertilizer sources (N0, no N; IF, 100% N from chemical fertilizer; SRIF, 50% N from slow-release fertilizer and 50% N from chemical fertilizer; OF, 100% N from organic fertilizer; OFIF, 50% N from organic fertilizer and 50% N from chemical fertilizer) and tillage practices (CT, conventional intensive tillage; NT, no-tillage) on the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), GWP, greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and NEEB in paddy fields of central China. Compared with N0 treatment, IF, SRIF, OF and OFIF treatments greatly enhanced the cumulative seasonal CH4 emissions (by 54.7%, 41.7%, 51.1% and 66.0%, respectively) and N2O emissions (by 164.5%, 93.4%, 130.2% and 251.3%, respectively). NT treatment significantly decreased the GWP and GHGI compared with CT treatment. On the other hand, NT treatment significantly decreased CH4 emissions by 8.5-13.7%, but did not affect N2O emissions relative to CT treatment. Application of N fertilizers significantly increased GWP and GHGI. It was worth noting that the combined treatment of OFIF and NT resulted in the second-highest GWP and GHGI and the largest NEEB among all treatments. Therefore, our results suggest that OFIF combined with NT is an eco-friendly strategy to optimize the economic and environmental benefits of paddy fields in central China. Although the treatment of SRIF plus NT showed the lowest GWP and GHGI and the highest grain yield among all treatments, it led to the lowest NEEB due to its highest fertilizer cost. These results indicate that the government should provide

  4. Automobile park and greenhouse effect. Acting upon the automobile park to reduce the greenhouse effect; Parc automobile et effet de serre. Agir sur le parc automobile pour reduire l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauret, L. [INESTENE, 75 - Paris (France); Crozet, Y. [Lyon-1 Univ. Louis Lumiere, LET, 69 (France); Darbera, R. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees (ENPC-LATTS), 75 - Paris (France); Faudry, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Golovtchenko, N.; Zelem, M.C. [Toulouse-2 Univ., CERTOP, 31 (France); Mirabel, F. [Universite de Montpellier, CREDEN, 34 - Montpellier (France); Nicolas, J.P. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Evironnement et le Developpement (CIRED), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-03-01

    This study is the result of the works carried out by eight research teams (LET, LATTS, IEPE-CNRS, CERTOP, CREDEN, ENTPE, CIRED and INESTENE). These teams belong to the same coordinated research program named Ecodev and which aims at studying the institutional, economical, fiscal, regulatory etc. conditions of selective diffusion policies of technical advances for the benefit of durable development. This study analyzes the impact of automobile development on the consumption of fossil fuels and its consequences on the local and global environment. It deals with the conditions of renewal of the automobile park for a better mastery of its impact on the greenhouse effect (purchase criteria, conditions of use and public policies to be developed): 1 - the evolution of the automobile park: development factors (economic and socio-demographic factors, pollution and public opinion), the aging of the park (causes, role of public policies), development of diesel vehicles, increase of vehicles power (impact on fuel consumptions and pollutant emissions, purchase criteria and lifestyles, fiscality regulation and evolution of vehicles characteristics); 2 - instruments of action: action on the demand (fiscality, regulation, financial incentives for an anticipated withdrawal), action on the offer (average consumption standards, voluntary agreement with makers, labelling etc..), the role of mediators, public information and education. (J.S.)

  5. The effect of greenhouse gas concentrations and ice sheets on the glacial AMOC in a coupled climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockmann, Marlene; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Marotzke, Jochem

    2016-09-01

    Simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) are used to study the sensitivity of the AMOC and the deep-ocean water masses during the Last Glacial Maximum to different sets of forcings. Analysing the individual contributions of the glacial forcings reveals that the ice sheets cause an increase in the overturning strength and a deepening of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) cell, while the low greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations cause a decrease in overturning strength and a shoaling of the NADW cell. The effect of the orbital configuration is negligible. The effects of the ice sheets and the GHG reduction balance each other in the deep ocean so that no shoaling of the NADW cell is simulated in the full glacial state. Experiments in which different GHG concentrations with linearly decreasing radiative forcing are applied to a setup with glacial ice sheets and orbital configuration show that GHG concentrations below the glacial level are necessary to cause a shoaling of the NADW cell with respect to the pre-industrial state in MPI-ESM. For a pCO2 of 149 ppm, the simulated overturning state and the deep-ocean water masses are in best agreement with the glacial state inferred from proxy data. Sensitivity studies confirm that brine release and shelf convection in the Southern Ocean are key processes for the shoaling of the NADW cell. Shoaling occurs only when Southern Ocean shelf water contributes significantly to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water.

  6. Effects of Tabriz petrochemicals’ biological sludge on heavy metals concentration in soil and spring barley in greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Oustan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing sewage sludge as a source of cheap fertilizer and rich in nutrients is common in some parts of Iran. But, too much application causes accumulation of heavy metals in soil, which results in soil pollution and transfer of this pollution to food chain and endangers human and animal health. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of biological sludge of Tabriz petrochemicals complex on some heavy metals concentration in spring barley grown in a calcareous soil after 6 months of incubation. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions with 5 levels of 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ton/ha sewage sludge, in three replications, based on complete randomized blocks design. Soil analysis showed that application of biological sludge significantly increased DTPA extractable Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and Cd (except 25 ton/ha treatment compared to the control. The results of plant analysis showed an increase of Fe, Zn and Mn in shoots and Zn and Mn in roots, compared to the control. But elevation of root Fe content was not significant. The amount of Cu and Cd in shoots and roots was below the detection limit of the instrument. Overall, it was concluded that although the application of biological sludge increased the content of heavy metals in soil, but its effect on concentration of toxic elements, such as Cd, in plants was not significant.

  7. Effect of Zinc and Manganese Nutrition on Fruit Yield and Nutrient Concentrations in Greenhouse Tomato in Hydroponic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tavassoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research was performed in a completely randomized block design with four replications to investigate zinc (Zn and manganese (Mn nutrition effects on greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. HAMRA in a perlite-containing media. Experimental treatments were: (1 control (Mn and Zn-free nutrient solution, (2 application of Mn in a concentration equal to the full Hoagland’s nutrient solution (4.06 mg/l, (3 application of Zn in a concentration equal to the full Hoagland’s nutrient solution (4.42 mg/l, (4 application of Mn and Zn in concentrations equal to the 50% Hoagland’s nutrient solution (2.03 mg/l Mn + 2.21 mg/l Zn, and (5 application of Mn and Zn in concentrations equal to the full Hoagland’s nutrient solution (4.06 mg/l Mn + 4.42 mg/l Zn. Results showed that the highest fresh-fruit yield, fruit and leaf dry matter and content of Mn and Zn in fruit were obtained from single or combined application of Mn and Zn in concentrations equal to the full Hoagland’s nutrient solution. In addition, Zn and Mn nutrition significantly affected the fruit concentrations of crude protein, nitrogen and phosphorus, while the effect of these treatments on fruit size of tomato was not significant.

  8. [Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Feng

    2010-03-01

    Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions.

  9. Effect of Elevated CO2 in Different Fertilizer Conditions on Physiological Traits in Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis at Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nutrients supply are generally expected to enhance photosynthesis and growth of crops as a result considerably increase yields. The present study aims to investigate effects of elevated CO2 and different fertilizer conditions on physiological traits in Lemon balm. A factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications and nine treatments at the greenhouse in 2010. The experiment factors were included three CO2 concentrations (380, 700 and 1050 ppm and three kinds of conditions fertilizer (no fertilizer, manure fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer. The results indicated that increasing of CO2 from 380 to 1050 ppm led to improve in leaf area, plant height, relative growth ratio, total dry matter and final yield of individual plant. The highest and the lowest amount of measured traits related to with and without nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. Impact of elevated CO2 in conjunction with nitrogen and manure fertilizers increased. These effects were more on total dry matter and final yield than other growth indices. Therefore, it can be concluded that, whereas increase of temperature caused by rising CO2 is not considered or there is not any limitation for resources, CO2 enrichment will be improved lemon balm production.

  10. [Effects of no-tillage and fertilization on paddy soil CH4 and N2O emissions and their greenhouse effect in central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Guang-zhao; Li, Cheng-fang; Cao, Cou-gui; Zhan, Ming; Tong, Le-ga; Mei, Shao-hua; Zhai, Zhong-bing; Fan, Duan-yang

    2009-09-01

    By using static chamber-gas chromatographic techniques, the CH4 and N2O emissions from the paddy soil in southeast Hubei were measured. Four treatments were installed, i.e., no-tillage plus no-fertilization (NT0), conventional tillage plus no-fertilization (CT0), no-tillage plus fertilization (NTC), and conventional tillage plus fertilization (CTC). In all treatments, the CH4 emission had a seasonal variation of increasing first and decreasing then, while the N2O emission had no significant seasonal variation. Fertilization increased the CH4 and N2O emissions significantly. NT0 increased the CH4 emission and decreased the N2O emission significantly, compared with CT0; NTC only decreased the CH4 emission and increased the N2O emission slightly, compared with CTC. The analysis on the integrated greenhouse effect of CH4 and N2O showed that NT0 increased the effect by 25.9%, compared with CT0, while NTC decreased the effect by 10.1%, compared with CTC. Therefore, a reasonable arrangement of fertilization and no-tillage could reduce the integrated greenhouse effect of CH4 and N2O from paddy field.

  11. Effect of the height of the greenhouse on the plant - climate relationship as a development parameter in mint (Mentha Spicata crops in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Bustamante Valencia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the height of the greenhouse on climatic conditions generated on a mint crop (Mentha spicata. The tests were conducted in the town of Carmen de Viboral, 40 minutes away from the city of Medellin (6º 05’ 09” N and 75º 20’ 19” W, 2150 m.a.s.l.. Three greenhouses with the same dimensions were used, changing only the gutter height in 2 m, 2,5 m and 3 m respectively. Temperature and relative humidity measurements were taken every 30 minutes for 3 years, time during which crop production was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed to determine climatic variations caused by the difference in height between the greenhouses, and to determine differences in production levels. The results indicate that, under the study conditions, the greenhouse height directly affects the weather conditions and the mint crop yields.

  12. Metropolitan New York in the greenhouse: Air quality and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, L.I.; Lipfert, F.

    1996-01-01

    A variety of potential effects on human health resulting from climate change have been identified in several assessments. According to an international panel{sup 1} they include direct effects of extreme temperatures on cardiovascular deaths, secondary effects due to vector-borne diseases or crop yields, and tertiary effects such as those that might arise from conflicts over freshwater supplies. To this fist we add the secondary effects of increased air pollution, which may result either directly from climate change or indirectly from increased air conditioning loads and the corresponding pollutant emissions from electric utilities. Higher ozone concentrations have been linked to increased ambient temperatures by both theory and observations of monitoring data. A similar association with particulate matter has been limited to observations, thus far. The pollution-heat linkage has been recognized before` but health effects have not been evaluated in terms of predictions of the joint effects of both agents. This paper has been prepared in two sections. First, we discuss the ozone situation with special reference to the Northeast Corridor and New York. In the second section, we present estimates of the health effects of climate change on New York and discuss some mitigation options.

  13. The Use of Ratiometric Fluorescence Measurements of the Voltage Sensitive Dye Di-4-ANEPPS to Examine Action Potential Characteristics and Drug Effects on Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortigon-Vinagre, M. P.; Zamora, V.; Burton, F. L.; Green, J.; Gintant, G. A.; Smith, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) and higher throughput platforms have emerged as potential tools to advance cardiac drug safety screening. This study evaluated the use of high bandwidth photometry applied to voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes (VSDs) to assess drug-induced changes in action potential characteristics of spontaneously active hiPSC-CM. Human iPSC-CM from 2 commercial sources (Cor.4U and iCell Cardiomyocytes) were stained with the VSD di-4-ANEPPS and placed in a specialized photometry system that simultaneously monitors 2 wavebands of emitted fluorescence, allowing ratiometric measurement of membrane voltage. Signals were acquired at 10 kHz and analyzed using custom software. Action potential duration (APD) values were normally distributed in cardiomyocytes (CMC) from both sources though the mean and variance differed significantly (APD90: 229 ± 15 ms vs 427 ± 49 ms [mean ± SD, P < 0.01]; average spontaneous cycle length: 0.99 ± 0.02 s vs 1.47 ± 0.35 s [mean ± SD, P < 0.01], Cor.4U vs iCell CMC, respectively). The 10–90% rise time of the AP (Trise) was ∼6 ms and was normally distributed when expressed as 1/Trise2 in both cell preparations. Both cell types showed a rate dependence analogous to that of adult human cardiac cells. Furthermore, nifedipine, ranolazine, and E4031 had similar effects on cardiomyocyte electrophysiology in both cell types. However, ranolazine and E4031 induced early after depolarization-like events and high intrinsic firing rates at lower concentrations in iCell CMC. These data show that VSDs provide a minimally invasive, quantitative, and accurate method to assess hiPSC-CM electrophysiology and detect subtle drug-induced effects for drug safety screening while highlighting a need to standardize experimental protocols across preparations. PMID:27621282

  14. Climate Change Impacts and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Effects on U.S. Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues ...

  15. Climate Change Impacts and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Effects on U.S. Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues ...

  16. Theoretical Investigation of Mono- and Di-Chloro-Substitient Effects on the Insulation and Greenhouse Properties of Octafluorocyclobutane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Octafluorocyclobutane, c-C4F8, and its derivatives are regarded as promising replacements of insulation gaseous SF6, which are currently widely used in electric equipment but suffer greatly from its greenhouse effect. Based on the recent finding that the dielectric and thermodynamics properties of insulating gases are greatly dependent on the molecule’s microscopic electronic and vibrational parameters, in this work, we use density functional theory (DFT to study the molecular structures, electron affinities, and IR-active vibrational frequencies as well as thermodynamic properties for c-C4F8 and a series of mono-, di-substituted c-C4F8 compounds. It is shown that DFT calculation of perfluoro-compounds is sensitive to the chosen functional. Although all chloro-substituted c-C4F8 molecules are found to have much larger electron affinities, only part of them have less IR intensity in the atmospheric IR window than c-C4F8. Such a study provides useful guideline for the pre-screening search for new insulation gases via electronic structure calculations.

  17. [Effects of soil covering on solar greenhouse pepper water use efficiency and soil nitrate N and available phosphorus contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mao-juan; Liang, Yin-li; Chen, Jia-rui; Xiong, Ya-mei; Wei, Ze-xiu

    2007-06-01

    A greenhouse study on the effects of soil covering on pepper (Capsicum anmuum L.) water use efficiency and soil nitrate and available phosphorus contents showed that straw mulch + plastic film mulch could get the highest pepper yield water use efficiency (33.04 kg . m(-3)) and economic water use efficiency (50.22 yuan . m(-3)), followed by plastic film mulch, with the two parameters being 18.81 kg . m(-3) and 28.57 yuan . m(-3), respectively. Significant differences of nitrate N content in 0-20 cm soil layer were observed among different treatments. The control had the highest nitrate N content (50.33 mg . kg(-1)), followed by straw mulch (31.98 mg . kg(-1)) and straw + plastic film mulch (31.96 mg . kg(-1)), and plastic film mulch and applying water preserving agent. Compared with the control, soil covering could increase the nitrate N use efficiency of pepper, and decrease the accumulation of nitrate N in plough layer. In 0-20 cm soil layer, treatment plastic film mulch had the lowest available phosphorus content (0.72 mg . kg(-3)), and the second (0. 92 mg . kg(-1)) was the treatment straw + plastic film mulch. Treatments straw + plastic film mulch and plastic film mulch could increase pepper fruit yield and fertilizer use efficiency, and decrease fertilizer loss.

  18. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Dunphy, R. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  20. The cost effectiveness of a policy to store carbon in Australian agricultural soils to abate greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert E.; Davidson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Data for cropping and pastoral enterprises in south eastern Australia were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the feasibility of abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through storing soil carbon (C) as soil organic matter under the Australian government's Carbon Farming Initiative. We used the C credit value for 2013-14 of 24.15 per tonne of CO2- equivalent (CO2-e) and a C storage rate of 0.5 tonne C/hectare/year for conversion of cropland to pasture. Given that a change of enterprise is driven primarily by farmer returns, we found that none of the changes were feasible at current prices, with the exception of wheat to cattle or sheep in an irrigated system, and dryland cotton to cattle or sheep. Given that our model scenario assumed the most favourable economic factors, it is unlikely that increased soil C storage through a change from cropping to pasture can make a significant contribution to abating Australia's CO2 emissions. However, of greater concern to society is the methane emissions from grazing cattle or sheep, which would negate any gain in soil C under pasture, except for a switch from dryland cropping to sheep.

  1. [Effects of low temperature and weak light on the functions of photosystem in Prunus armeniaca L. leaves in solar greenhouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan; Zhang, Li-tao; Wang, Jia-Xi; Wang, Shao-Min; Gao, Hua-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (PhiPSII), photochemical quenching (qp), and maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in light (Fv'/Fm') of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) leaves in solar greenhouse were measured, and the effects of low temperature (7 degrees C) and weak light (200 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) PFD) on the photoinhibition of PS I and PS II were investigated. The results showed that the optimal temperature for the photosynthesis of apricot leaves was around 25 degrees C, and the photosynthetic capacity was reduced greatly by the low temperature and weak light, inducing a markedly increased excitation press (1-qp) and in turn, resulting in photoinhibition. The functions of both PS I and PS II were damaged by the low temperature and weak light. Comparing with those only subjected to low temperature, the leaves subjected to both low temperature and weak light had a decreased activity of PS I, with a decrement of 28.26% within 2 h, but their maximal photochemical effeciency of PS II (Fv/Fm) had little change in the same period, suggesting that under low temperature and weak light, PS I was more suffered from photoinhibition than PS II.

  2. Effects of ethanol on vehicle energy efficiency and implications on ethanol life-cycle greenhouse gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Inderwildi, Oliver R; King, David A; Boies, Adam M

    2013-06-01

    Bioethanol is the world's largest-produced alternative to petroleum-derived transportation fuels due to its compatibility within existing spark-ignition engines and its relatively mature production technology. Despite its success, questions remain over the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of fuel ethanol use with many studies showing significant impacts of differences in land use, feedstock, and refinery operation. While most efforts to quantify life-cycle GHG impacts have focused on the production stage, a few recent studies have acknowledged the effect of ethanol on engine performance and incorporated these effects into the fuel life cycle. These studies have broadly asserted that vehicle efficiency increases with ethanol use to justify reducing the GHG impact of ethanol. These results seem to conflict with the general notion that ethanol decreases the fuel efficiency (or increases the fuel consumption) of vehicles due to the lower volumetric energy content of ethanol when compared to gasoline. Here we argue that due to the increased emphasis on alternative fuels with drastically differing energy densities, vehicle efficiency should be evaluated based on energy rather than volume. When done so, we show that efficiency of existing vehicles can be affected by ethanol content, but these impacts can serve to have both positive and negative effects and are highly uncertain (ranging from -15% to +24%). As a result, uncertainties in the net GHG effect of ethanol, particularly when used in a low-level blend with gasoline, are considerably larger than previously estimated (standard deviations increase by >10% and >200% when used in high and low blends, respectively). Technical options exist to improve vehicle efficiency through smarter use of ethanol though changes to the vehicle fleets and fuel infrastructure would be required. Future biofuel policies should promote synergies between the vehicle and fuel industries in order to maximize the society-wise benefits or

  3. Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.schmidt@boku.ac.at [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Leduc, Sylvain [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Dotzauer, Erik [Maelardalen University, P.O. Box 883, SE-72123 Vaesteras (Sweden); Schmid, Erwin [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: > Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and fossil fuel consumption. > Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. > Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. > CO{sub 2} tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. > Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

  4. Effects of Soil Depth and Season Variation on Community Structure of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Greenhouse Soils Planted with Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Run-Jin; LI Yan; DIAO Zhi-Kai; LI Min; LIN Xian-Gui

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community structure in various soil depths and growing seasons of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) grown in commercial greenhouses in Daxing of Beijing and Weifang and Laiyang of Shandong,China were investigated using both morphological identification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.The sampled soils had been used for continuous greenhouse production of watermelon for 0,5,10,15,or 20 years.Glomus claroideum was the dominant species in the greenhouse soils planted for 5,10,and 15 years in Laiyang,while Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum were dominant in the nearby open farmland soil.Sorenson's similarity index of AMF community composition ranged from 0.67 to 0.84 in the soils planted for 5 years,and from 0.29 to 0.33 for 20 years among the three locations.Spore abundance,species richness,and the Shannon index were highest near the soil surface (0-10 cm) and decreased with soil depth,and higher in June and October than in August and December.Canonical correspondence analysis showed that available P and the number of years that soil had been used for greenhouse production were the main factors contributing to the variance of AMF community composition.It was concluded that the community structure of AMF was mainly influenced by soil available P and planting time of watermelon as well as by soil depth and seasonal variation in the commercial greenhouse.

  5. Effect of the Evaporative Cooling on the Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Stress in a Greenhouse under Arid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abdel-Ghany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal sensation and heat stress were evaluated in a plastic greenhouse, with and without evaporative cooling, under arid climatic conditions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Suitable thermal comfort and heat stress scales were selected for the evaluation. Experiments were conducted in hot sunny days to measure the required parameters (i.e., the dry and wet bulb temperatures, globe temperature, natural wet bulb temperature, and solar radiation flux in the greenhouse. The results showed that in the uncooled greenhouse, workers are exposed to strong heat stress and would feel very hot most of the day time; they are safe from heat stress risk and would feel comfortable during night. An efficient evaporative cooling is necessary during the day to reduce heat stress and to improve the comfort conditions and is not necessary at night. In the cooled greenhouse, workers can do any activity: except at around noon they should follow a proposed working schedule, in which the different types of work were scheduled along the daytimes based on the heat stress value. To avoid heat stress and to provide comfort conditions in the greenhouses, the optimum ranges of relative humidity and air temperature are 48–55% and 24–28°C, respectively.

  6. Organic versus conventional fertilization effects on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) growth in a greenhouse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an essential oil producing crop used in culinary and fragrance applications. The objective of this controlled environment study was to evaluate the effects of organic and conventional fertilization, (applied at two nitrogen rates, 150 and 250 kg N/ha), on plant g...

  7. Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes for Forests and Grasslands of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human activities have substantially elevated the atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) onto terrestrial ecosystems of North America. Some of this N can stimulate carbon (C) storage in terrestrial ecosystems, but the fertilization effect of added N can be diminished by e...

  8. Climate Change Impacts and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Effects on US Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will have potentially significant effects on freshwater quality due to increases in river and lake temperatures, changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff, and more frequent and severe extreme events. These physical impacts will in turn have economic...

  9. Seasonal variation of heat consumption in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.F.; Amsen, M.G.; Strøm, J.S.

    The concept of dynamic variation is introduced as a method to visualize the dynamic fluctuations of heat consumption and thermal climate in greenhouses. The feasibility of the concept is illustrated by describing effects of different greenhouse designs. Engineering data on design heat consumption...

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available South African greenhouse gas emissions contributed about 1.2% to the global increase in the greenhouse effect in 1988. South Africa generated trace gases with a radiation absorption potential over a 20-year period equivalent to 534 million tons...

  11. Effect of Alum Additions to Poultry Litter on In-House Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Branly; Moore, Philip A; Li, Hong; Miles, Dana; Trabue, Steven; Burns, Robert; Buser, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Alum [Al(SO4) ·14HO] addition to poultry litter has been shown to reduce ammonia (NH) concentrations in poultry houses; however, its effects on greenhouse gas (GHG; NO, CH, and CO) emissions is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of alum additions on (i) in-house NH and GHG concentrations, (ii) NH and GHG emissions, and (iii) litter chemical properties. Two identical broiler houses located in northwest Arkansas were used for this study: one house was a control and the other was treated with alum between each flock of birds. Ventilation rates were coupled with in-house NH and GHG measurements to determine emission rates. Overall, alum additions significantly reduced the daily average in-house NH concentration by 42% (8.9 vs. 15.4 μL L), and the overall NH emission rate was reduced by 47% (7.2 vs. 13.4 kg d house). The average cumulative NH emission for the three flocks was 330 kg house flock for the alum-treated house and 617 kg house flock for the control. Concentrations and emissions of nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH) from the alum-treated house were not significantly different than the untreated house. However, carbon dioxide (CO) emissions were significantly higher from the untreated house than the alum-treated house. Alum also significantly increased litter N content and reduced the C/N ratio. These results indicate that the addition of alum to poultry litter is not only an effective management practice for reducing in-house NH concentrations and emissions but also significantly reduces CO emissions from poultry facilities.

  12. The earth's radiation budget and its relation to atmospheric hydrology. I - Observations of the clear sky greenhouse effect. II - Observations of cloud effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Greenwald, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The clear-sky components of the earth's radiation budget (ERB), the relationship of these components to the sea surface temperature (SST), and microwave-derived water-vapor amount are analyzed in an observational study along with the relationship between the cloudy-sky components of ERB and space/time coincident observations of SST, microwave-derived cloud liquid water, and cloud cover. The purpose of the study is to use these observations for establishing an understanding of the couplings between radiation and the atmosphere that are important to understanding climate feedback. A strategy for studying the greenhouse effect of earth by analyzing the emitted clear-sky longwave flux over the ocean is proposed. It is concluded that the largest observed influence of clouds on ERB is more consistent with macrophysical properties of clouds as opposed to microphysical properties. The analysis for clouds and the greenhouse effect of clouds is compared quantitatively with the clear sky results. Land-ocean differences and tropical-midlatitude differences are shown and explained in terms of the cloud macrostructure.

  13. INSECTICIDES FOR CONTROL OF GREENHOUSE WHITEFLY (TRIALEURODES VAPORARIORUM WESTW. IN GROWING OF TOMATO IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinelina Yankova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A screening of plant protection products for their effectiveness against the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westw. was made in growing of tomatoes in greenhouses. The experiments were conducted during the period 2009-2014 in unheated greenhouses in the „Maritsa” Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv. It was found that the products Confidor Energy OD 0,08%, Actara 25 WG 0,03%, Mospilan 20 SP 0,02% and Eforia 45 CS 125 ml/da have very good effectiveness against adults and larvae of the greenhouse whitefly. Phytopesticide Piros 0,08% has good effectiveness against adults and satisfactory against the greenhouse whitefly larvae. This product could be used as an alternative to control this pest in integrated and organic production of tomatoes in greenhouses.

  14. On the relationship between the greenhouse effect, atmospheric photochemistry, and species distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, L. B.; Boughner, R. E.; Natarajan, M.

    1983-01-01

    The coupling that exists between infrared opacity changes and tropospheric (and to a lesser extent stratospheric) chemistry is explored in considerable detail, and the effects arising from various perturbations are examined. The studies are carried out with a fully coupled one-dimensional radiative-convective-photochemical model (RCP) that extends from the surface to 53.5 km and has the capability of calculating surface temperature changes due to both chemical and radiative perturbations. The model encompasses contemporary atmospheric chemistry and photochemistry involving the O(x), HO(x), NO(x), and Cl(x) species.

  15. Ozone pollution effects on the land carbon sink in the future greenhouse world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, N.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone pollution has huge impacts on the carbon balance in the United States, Europe and China. While terrestrial ecosystems provide an important sink for surface ozone through stomatal uptake, this process damages photosynthesis, reduces plant growth and biomass accumulation, and affects stomatal control over plant transpiration of water vapor. Effective mitigation of climate change by stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations requires improved understanding of ozone effects on the land carbon sink. Future effects of ozone pollution on the land carbon sink are largely unknown. We apply multiple observational datasets in combination with the Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (YIBs) model to quantify ozone vegetation damage in the present climatic state and for a broad range of possible futures. YIBs includes a mechanistic ozone damage model that affects both photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance for low or high ozone plant sensitivity. YIBs is embedded in the NASA GISS ModelE2 global chemistry-climate model to allow a uniquely informed integration of plant physiology, atmospheric chemistry, and climate. The YIBs model has been extensively evaluated using land carbon flux measurements from 145 flux tower sites and multiple satellite products. Chronic ozone exposure in the present day reduces GPP by 11-23%, NPP by 8-16%, stomatal conductance by 8-17% and leaf area index by 2-5% in the summer time eastern United States. Similar response magnitudes are found in Europe but almost doubled damage effects occur in hotspots in eastern China. We investigate future ozone vegetation damage within the context of multiple global change drivers (physical climate change, carbon dioxide fertilization, human energy and agricultural emissions, human land use) at 2050 following the IPCC RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios. In the RCP8.5 world at 2050, growing season average GPP and NPP are reduced by 20-40% in China and 5-20% in the United States due to the global rise

  16. Experiment effect of application to new assembly type solar double effect greenhouse%组装式太阳能双效温室应用效果试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱仲华; 宋明军; 王吉庆; 张学斌; 刘华; 孟铁男; 宋远佞

    2014-01-01

    为解决目前日光温室普遍存在的设备简陋、环境调控与抗寒防病能力差、土地利用率与劳动生产效率低的问题,建造了组装式太阳能双效温室并进行试验。该文分别选择内保温和外保温太阳能双效温室(温室内配置太阳能集热器、蓄热水池和热泵机组在内的太阳能热泵系统)测试其保温降湿性能和增产效果,主要测试指标为空气最低温度、日平均温度、光照度、空气相对湿度,种植作物的单株产量、单位面积产量。测试结果表明:内保温组装式太阳能双效温室室内最低气温都在9℃以上,与对照温室相比,1月份试验温室室内平均气温提高3.4℃,1月份室内平均最低气温提高4.0℃;外保温太阳能双效温室1月份室内平均最低气温为12.5℃,空气相对湿度控制在80%以下,比对照温室室内温度提高3.8℃,蔬菜增产19%~55%。组装式太阳能双效温室改善了温室的环境条件,提升了日光温室抗寒防病和增产增收的能力,该温室的研究与应用为中国北方同类地区提供借鉴与参考。%In order to solve the common problems in existing solar greenhouses such as simple equipment, poor environmental regulation and cold prevention ability, as well as low land utilization rate and labor productivity, a new type of greenhouse, the assembly type solar double effect greenhouse was built and researched. There are two kinds of structures for the assembly type of the solar double effect greenhouse: internal insulation greenhouse and external insulation greenhouse. Internal insulation warehouse has two layer frames with single layer film covering each layer frame, in addition, one layer of heat preservation quilt is placed between the two layer frames to insulate and preserve heat energy during the night. The external insulation greenhouse has a structure of transparent Polycarbonate sandwich plate as its back half roof and back

  17. Greenhouse studies of thiamethoxam effects on pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, Héctor; Herle, Carolyn; Hervet, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has recently emerged as an important pest of field peas in the Canadian prairies. Systemic seed-coated insecticides may provide a tool for the integrated pest management of this pest. Therefore, several controlled assays were performed in order to determine effects of a recently registered neonicotinoid, (thiamethoxam) on S. lineatus damage to foliage, weevil mortality, fertility, egg viability, larval mortality, and root nodule damage. Foliage damage was reduced by thiamethoxam relative to untreated controls during the seedling stage (2(nd)-5(th) nodes), but weevil adult mortality was only 15-30%. Fertility was reduced substantially through an extra seven-day delay in the preoviposition period and reduced egg-laying rate during the first 20 days of the study (92% lower than controls). Overall egg viability was lower in females fed foliage grown from thiamethoxamtreated seeds. Larval survivorship and nodule damage were also lower, but only when eggs were added to treated plants at the 2(nd) node stage. When eggs were added late, at the 5th node stage, thiamethoxam had no effect on larval survivorship or nodule damage. The results of this study led to the conclusion that seed treatments such as thiamethoxam have potential to be used as tools that will aid in the integrated pest management of S. lineatus, especially in combination with other methods such as biocontrol and trap crops.

  18. Effect of N and K Fertilizers on Yield and Quality of Greenhouse Vegetable Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-Hui; JIANG Li-Hua; LI Xiao-Lin; R. H(A)RDTER; ZHANG Wen-Jun; ZHANG Yu-Lan; ZHENG Dong-Feng

    2008-01-01

    The application of large amounts of fertilizers, a conventional practice in northern China for the production of vegetable crops, generally leads to substantial accumulation of soil nutrients within a relatively short period of time. A fixed field experiment was designed to study the effects of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) fertilizers applicd to optimize the yield and quality of typical vegetable crops. Application of N and K fertilizers significantly increased the yields of kidney bean.The largest yields were obtained in the first and second years after application of 1 500 kg N and 300 kg K2O ha-1. In the third year, however, there was a general decline in yields. Maximum yields occurred whcn intermediate rates of N and K (750 kg N and 300 kg K2O ha-1) were applied. However, no significant differences were observed in the concentrations of vitamin C (VC) in kidney bean among different years and various rates of fertilizer treatments. Yields of tomato grown in rotation after kidney bean showed significant responses to the application of N and K in the first year. In the second year,the yields of tomato were much lower. This suggested that the application of N fertilizer did not have any effect upon tomato yield, whereas application of K fertilizer did increase the yield. Application of K fertilizer was often associated with increased sugar concentrations.

  19. The role of the greenhouse effect in the climate of the earth. Le role de l'effet de serre dans le climat de la Terre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G. (Observatoire Cantonal, Neuchatel (Switzerland))

    1991-01-01

    We propose to study the factors which determine the average climate at the surface of the Earth. Among these the greenhouse effect plays only a secondary role. However, it is well known that biological development is very sensitive to small variations in the average global temperature, and small differences in the parameters which determine the greenhouse effect may therefore have important climatic consequences. The population explosion, together with the pressures stemming from its demands for an ever higher standard of living, are beginning to affect the factors responsible for natural climatic equilibrium. How will the system of planet Earth respond To be able to address this question it is first necessary to understand the laws which govern the average climate. That is the purpose of this article. (orig.).

  20. 15 years after Chernobyl. Nuclear plus greenhouse effect?; 15 ans apres Tchernobyl. Nucleaire plus effet de serre?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M. [Wise-Paris, 75 (France); Rosen, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2001-04-15

    Today, the argument in favour of nuclear energy is not an economical one nor linked to energy resources but is at the level of climatic change. Nuclear energy is seen as the only energy source without carbon dioxide emissions. A more detailed analysis of greenhouse gases on the life cycle shows that nuclear energy gives as greenhouse gases as big hydroelectric power plants or wind power plants, these emissions are more important than for biogas installations with cogeneration. The strategy of energy efficiency is certainly more competitive than the new reactors in other terms it is more efficiency to reduce the consumption than to increase the nuclear production. (N.C.)

  1. Effects of host plants on insecticide susceptibility and carboxylesterase activity in Bemisia tabaci biotype B and greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pei; Cui, Jian-Zhou; Yang, Xiu-Qing; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2007-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), have become serious pests of cotton and vegetable crops in China since the early 1990s. In recent years, however, B. tabaci have broken out more frequently and widely than have T. vaporariorum. The B. tabaci biotype B has also developed higher resistance to several insecticides. Here, the effects of four different host plants on the insecticide susceptibility of B. tabaci biotype B and T. vaporariorum have been compared. The LC(50) values of imidacloprid, abamectin, deltamethrin and omethoate in T. vaporariorum reared on cucumber were significantly higher than those in B. tabaci (the LC(50) values in T. vaporariorum were respectively 3.13, 2.63, 2.78 and 6.67 times higher than those in B. tabaci). On the other hand, the B. tabaci population reared on cotton was more tolerant to all four insecticides tested than the T. vaporariorum population from the same host, especially to abamectin (up to 8.4-fold). The effects of the four host plants on the activity of carboxylesterase (CarE) in B. tabaci biotype B and T. vaporariorum were also compared. The results showed that, although the CarE activity of B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum varied depending on the host plants, the B. tabaci population possessed significantly higher CarE activity than the T. vaporariorum population reared on the same host plant. This was especially so on cucumber and cotton, where the CarE activities of the B. tabaci population were over 1.6 times higher than those of T. varporariorum. The frequency profiles for this activity in B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum populations reared on same host plant were apparently different.

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Irrigation and Fertilization by Drip Fertigation on Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiukang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water shortage in China, particularly in Northwest China, is very serious. There is, therefore, great potential for improving the water use efficiency (WUE in agriculture, particularly in areas where the need for water is greatest. A two-season (2012 and 2013 study evaluated the effects of irrigation and fertilizer rate on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., cv. “Jinpeng 10” growth, yield, and WUE. The fertilizer treatment significantly influenced plant height and stem diameter at 23 and 20 days after transplanting in 2012 and 2013, respectively. As individual factors, irrigation and fertilizer significantly affected the leaf expansion rate, but irrigation × fertilizer had no statistically significant effect on the leaf growth rate at 23 days after transplanting in 2012. Dry biomass accumulation was significantly influenced by fertilizer in both years, but there was no significant difference in irrigation treatment in 2012. Our study showed that an increased irrigation level increased the fruit yield of tomatoes and decreased the WUE. The fruit yield and WUE increased with the increased fertilizer rate. WUE was more sensitive to irrigation than to fertilization. An irrigation amount of 151 to 208 mm and a fertilizer amount of 454 to 461 kg·ha−1 (nitrogen fertilizer, 213.5–217 kg·ha−1; phosphate fertilizer, 106.7–108 kg·ha−1; and potassium fertilizer, 133.4–135.6 kg·ha−1 were recommended for the drip fertigation of tomatoes in greenhouse.

  3. THE POTENTIAL OF RECLAIMED LANDS TO SEQUESTER CARBON AND MITIGATE THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Song Jin

    2006-05-01

    Reclaimed mine lands have the potential to sequester carbon. The use of amendments to increase fertility and overall soil quality is encouraging. Waste amendments such as sewage sludge and clarifier sludge, as well as commercial compost were tested to determine their effects on carbon sequestration and humic acid formation in reclaimed mine lands. Sewage sludge and clarifier sludge have the potential to work as reclaimed mine lands amendments. C:N ratios need to be understood to determine probability of nutrient leaching and water contamination. Microbial activity on the humic acid fraction of sludge is directed toward the readily degradable constituents containing single chain functional groups. This finding indicate that amendments with lower molecular constituents such as aliphatic compounds are more amenable to microbial degradation, therefore serves as better nutrient sources to enhance the formation of vegetation in mine lands and leads to more efficient carbon sequestration.

  4. Greenhouse gas policy influences climate via direct effects of land-use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Torn, Margaret S.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.; Chini, Louise M.; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter; Hurtt, George; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-06-01

    Proposed climate mitigation measures do not account for direct biophysical climate impacts of land-use change (LUC), nor do the stabilization targets modeled for the 5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). To examine the significance of such effects on global and regional patterns of climate change, a baseline and alternative scenario of future anthropogenic activity are simulated within the Integrated Earth System Model, which couples the Global Change Assessment Model, Global Land-use Model, and Community Earth System Model. The alternative scenario has high biofuel utilization and approximately 50% less global forest cover compared to the baseline, standard RCP4.5 scenario. Both scenarios stabilize radiative forcing from atmospheric constituents at 4.5 W/m2 by 2100. Thus, differences between their climate predictions quantify the biophysical effects of LUC. Offline radiative transfer and land model simulations are also utilized to identify forcing and feedback mechanisms driving the coupled response. Boreal deforestation is found to strongly influence climate due to increased albedo coupled with a regional-scale water vapor feedback. Globally, the alternative scenario yields a 21st century warming trend that is 0.5 °C cooler than baseline, driven by a 1 W/m2 mean decrease in radiative forcing that is distributed unevenly around the globe. Some regions are cooler in the alternative scenario than in 2005. These results demonstrate that neither climate change nor actual radiative forcing are uniquely related to atmospheric forcing targets such as those found in the RCP’s, but rather depend on particulars of the socioeconomic pathways followed to meet each target.

  5. Impacts of greenhouse and local gases mitigation options on air pollution in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: Valuation of human health effects

    OpenAIRE

    Conte Grand, Mariana; Gaioli, Fabián; Perone, Elizabeth; Sörensson, Anna; Svensson, Tomas; Tarela, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess through the "avoided health cost method" what would be the economic benefits of undertaking greenhouse (and local) gases mitigation policies in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. To do so, we have developed six steps: Mitigation Scenarios (which policies to undertake), Emissions Inventory according to those, an Ambient Air Pollution Model to calculate the physical impacts, Health Effects Estimation to assess the health consequences of reducing air poll...

  6. An Analysis of the Effectiveness and Impact of Mandatory Company Greenhouse Gas Emission Reporting Under The Companies Act 2006 (Strategic Report and Directors’ Report) Regulations 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza, Celina

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this research is to examine the effectiveness and impact of the UK’s mandatory reporting of company greenhouse gas emissions, otherwise known as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions, in accordance to The Companies Act 2006 (Strategic Report and Directors’ Report) Regulations 2013, especially regarding the regulations’ influence on quality of a company’s CO2e emission reporting, setting of CO2e emission reduction targets, and the comparability to other companies...

  7. Elements for a policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction; Elements pour une politique de reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    In the framework of the ''Grenelle de l'environnement'' on the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, the authors aim to offer propositions and recommendations for the future energy policy. They explain the possible confusions. They discuss the economic efficiency of propositions of CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, the actions propositions in the different sectors and the axis of research and development. (A.L.B.)

  8. Effects of land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties of wetland catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Wetland restoration has been suggested as policy goal with multiple environmental benefits including enhancement of atmospheric carbon sequestration. However, there are concerns that increased methane (CH4) emissions associated with restoration may outweigh potential benefits. A comprehensive, 4-year study of 119 wetland catchments was conducted in the Prairie Pothole Region of the north-central U.S. to assess the effects of land use on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil properties.

  9. Electric Vehicle Charging and the California Power Sector: Evaluating the Effect of Location and Time on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohnen, Julia Meagher

    This thesis explores the implications of the increased adoption of plug-in electric vehicles in California through its effect on the operation of the state's electric grid. The well-to-wheels emissions associated with driving an electric vehicle depend on the resource mix of the electricity grid used to charge the battery. We present a new least-cost dispatch model, EDGE-NET, for the California electricity grid consisting of interconnected sub-regions that encompass the six largest state utilities that can be used to evaluate the impact of growing electric vehicle demand on existing power grid infrastructure system and energy resources. This model considers spatiality and temporal dynamics of energy demand and supply when determining the regional impacts of additional charging profiles on the current electricity network. Model simulation runs for one year show generation and transmission congestion to be reasonable similar to historical data. Model simulation results show that average emissions and system costs associated with electricity generation vary significantly by time of day, season, and location. Marginal cost and emissions also exhibit seasonal and diurnal differences, but show less spatial variation. Sensitivity of demand analysis shows that the relative changes to average emissions and system costs respond asymmetrically to increases and decreases in electricity demand. These results depend on grid mix at the time and the marginal power plant type. In minimizing total system cost, the model will choose to dispatch the lowest-cost resource to meet additional vehicle demand, regardless of location, as long as transmission capacity is available. Location of electric vehicle charging has a small effect on the marginal greenhouse gas emissions associated with additional generation, due to electricity losses in the transmission grid. We use a geographically explicit, charging assessment model for California to develop and compare the effects of two charging

  10. Cooperation and competition in the world oil market with respect to the greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, J.E. [Carl von Ossietzky Univ., Oldenburg, Inst. fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    This paper investigates how competition and cooperation among oil exporting countries, particularly among OPEC members, affects extraction policies and hence oil supply price. In the economic literature analyzing the global warming problem, the behaviour of fossil fuel suppliers is taken as given, assuming competitive or non-cooperative producers. For given supply behaviour demand reducing strategies backed by some form of energy or carbon tax will extract economic rents for the benefit of tax imposing countries. Since one of the most important carbon emitting fossil fuels is oil, the behaviour of oil exporting countries reacting strategically rather than passively when confronted by the threat of a carbon tax, must be considered. Cooperation among oligopolistic oil exporting countries allows to lead in a Stackelberg game. The solution of this simple optimal control problem allows to minimize the rent extracting effects of a taxation on oil. This requires oil exporting countries to reach a collusive agreement and abide by it. Collusion under the threat of an energy or carbon tax will be more stable than without. (orig.)

  11. GREENHOUSE GASES AND MEANS OF PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Stojanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse effect can be defined as the consequence of increased heating of the Earth's surface, as well as the lower atmosphere by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other trace amounts gases. It is well-known that human industrial activities have released large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, about 900 billion tons of carbon dioxide, and it is estimated that up to 450 billion are still in the atmosphere. In comparison to greenhouse gases water vapor is one of the greatest contributors to the greenhouse effect on Earth. Many projects, as does the PURGE project, have tendences to build on the already conducted research and to quantify the positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing of the population with greenhouse gas reduction strategies that are curently being implemented and should be increasingly applied in various sectors and urban areas, having offices in Europe, China and India.

  12. Effect of plant resistance and BioAct WG (Purpureocillium lilacinum strain 251) on Meloidogyne incognita in a tomato-cucumber rotation in a greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Ariadna; Sorribas, Francisco J

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of combining resistant tomato with BioAct WG (Purpureocillium lilacinum strain 251, Pl251) against Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in a tomato-cucumber rotation in a greenhouse over 2 years. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of the fungus, the percentage of fungal egg and juvenile parasitism, cardinal temperatures and the effect of water potential on mycelial growth and the soil receptivity to Pl251 were determined in vitro. Plant resistance was the only factor that suppressed nematode and crop yield losses. Percentage of egg parasitism in plots treated with BioAct WG was less than 2.6%. However, under in vitro conditions, Pl251 showed protease, lipase and chitinase activities and parasitised 94.5% of eggs, but no juveniles. Cardinal temperatures were 14.2, 24-26 and 35.4 °C. The maximum Pl251 mycelial growth was at -0.25 MPa and 25 °C. Soil temperatures and water potential in the greenhouse were in the range of the fungus. However, soil receptivity was lower in greenhouse soil, irrespective of sterilisation, than in sterilised sand. Plant resistance was the only factor able to suppress nematode densities, disease severity and yield losses, and to protect the following cucumber crop. Environmental factors involved in soil receptivity could have negatively affected fungus effectiveness. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of cattle urine addition on the surface emissions and subsurface concentrations of greenhouse gases from a UK lowland peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Alex; Robinson, Steve; Chadwick, David; Cardenas, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Grazing systems represent a substantial percentage of the global anthropogenic flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) as a result of nitrogen addition to the soil. Cattle urine has been shown to stimulate N2O production due to the dual effect of a large pool of readily available N and C and increased soil water content. Studies indicate that even short-term grazing can cause a significant increase in N2O emissions, particularly when combined with compaction and seasonal water-table rise. Peat soils have different physical and chemical characteristics to mineral soils including higher organic carbon content, higher porosity and greater variation in hydraulic properties due to swell and shrink. Peat soils have been shown to have increased N2O emissions with respect to mineral soils as a result of a combination of these factors, particularly when amended with fertilisers or livestock excreta. Many lowland peatland environments in the UK are under seasonal grazing management and cattle are increasingly being introduced to manage fen vegetation in lowland peatland. In this study, we simulated small urination events on a conservation area of UK peat grassland that is intensively grazed for a short period of time during autumn seasonal water-table rise. We measured subsurface and surface emissions of N2O, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) alongside soil physical and chemical changes to determine the key mechanisms of greenhouse gas production and transport. CO2emission peaked at 5200 mg CO2 m-2 d-1 directly after application from a background value of 905 mg CO2 m-2 d-1. CH4 flux decreased to -2000 μg CH4 m-2 d-1two days after application (control plots -580 μg CH4 m-2 d-1); however, net CH4 flux was positive from urine treated plots and negative from control plots. N2O emission peaked at 37 mg N2O m-2 d-1 12 days after application (1.08 mg N2O m-2 d-1 in control plots). Subsurface CH4 and N2O concentrations were higher in the urine treated plots than the controls. There was

  14. Effects of aeration method and aeration rate on greenhouse gas emissions during composting of pig feces in pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Guoxue; Tang, Qiong; Ma, Xuguang; Wang, Gang; Schuchardt, Frank

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover ways to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce energy consumption during the composting process. We assessed the effects of different aeration rates (0, 0.18, 0.36, and 0.54 L/(kg dry matter (dm)·min)) and methods (continuous and intermittent) on GHG emissions. Pig feces and corn stalks were mixed at a ratio of 7:1. The composting process lasted for 10 weeks, and the compost was turned approximately every 2 weeks. Results showed that both aeration rate and method significantly affected GHG emissions. Higher aeration rates increased NH3 and N2O losses, but reduced CH4 emissions. The exception is that the CH4 emission of the passive aeration treatment was lower than that of the low aeration rate treatment. Without forced aeration, the CH4 diffusion rates in the center of the piles were very low and part of the CH4 was oxidized in the surface layer. Intermittent aeration reduced NH3 and CH4 losses, but significantly increased N2O production during the maturing periods. Intermittent aeration increased the nitrification/denitrification alternation and thus enhanced the N2O production. Forced aeration treatments had higher GHG emission rates than the passive aeration treatment. Forced aeration accelerated the maturing process, but could not improve the quality of the end product. Compared with continuous aeration, intermittent aeration could increase the O2 supply efficiency and reduced the total GHG emission by 17.8%, and this reduction increased to 47.4% when composting was ended after 36 days.

  15. Comparison greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global warming potential (GWP) effect of energy use in different wheat agroecosystems in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Mahdavi Damghani, Abdolmajid; Khoramivafa, Mahmud

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine energy requirement and global warming potential (GWP) in low and high input wheat production systems in western of Iran. For this purpose, data were collected from 120 wheat farms applying questionnaires via face-to-face interviews. Results showed that total energy input and output were 60,000 and 180,000 MJ ha(-1) in high input systems and 14,000 and 56,000 MJ ha(-1) in low input wheat production systems, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in high input systems recorded for electricity power, N fertilizer, and diesel fuel with 36, 18, and 13 %, respectively, while the highest share of input energy in low input systems observed for N fertilizer, diesel fuel, and seed with 32, 31, and 27 %. Energy use efficiency in high input systems (3.03) was lower than of low input systems (3.94). Total CO2, N2O, and CH4 emissions in high input systems were 1981.25, 31.18, and 1.87 kg ha(-1), respectively. These amounts were 699.88, 0.02, and 0.96 kg ha(-1) in low input systems. In high input wheat production systems, total GWP was 11686.63 kg CO2eq ha(-1) wheat. This amount was 725.89 kg CO2eq ha(-1) in low input systems. The results show that 1 ha of high input system will produce greenhouse effect 17 times of low input systems. So, high input production systems need to have an efficient and sustainable management for reducing environmental crises such as change climate.

  16. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Ortega-Martínez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill is the world's second most important vegetable. In Mexico, the crop gains economic and social relevance by the generation of foreign exchange and jobs, the production systems of this vegetable have been diversified in order to increase performance, incorporating innovative technologies such as plastic covers, drop irrigation and hydroponics. One of the main factors determining the success of the crop is the substrate, being the medium in which roots were developed which have great influence on the growth and development. In thisstudy, we evaluated during the crop season 2008-2009, the effect of substrate: pine sawdust, compost of sheep manure, agricultural land and red volcanic rock, on growth and yield of tomato. The experimental design used was randomized complete block with four repetitions and ten treatments were evaluated results from a combination of substrates in a volume of 1:1, each experimental unit consisted of four plants, the studied variables were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA using the statistical package Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. The genotype used was Sun 7705. Significant differences between substrates, composting with sawdust mixing affected to a greater response for the variables height 4.61 m, 2.1 cm thick of stem, the fruits of greater weight 107.8 g, yield per plant and 4 kg and 25 kg/m-2. However, the number of flowers and clusters was higher in the sawdust substrate, so the composting with sawdust mixture may be a viable option for greenhouse tomato production.

  17. Densified biomass can cost-effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and address energy security in thermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas O; McNeal, Frederick M; Spatari, Sabrina; G Abler, David; Adler, Paul R

    2012-01-17

    Regional supplies of biomass are currently being evaluated as feedstocks in energy applications to meet renewable portfolio (RPS) and low carbon fuel standards. We investigate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and associated abatement costs resulting from using densified switchgrass for thermal and electrical energy. In contrast to the large and positive abatement costs for using biomass in electricity generation ($149/Mg CO(2)e) due to the low cost of coal and high feedstock and power plant operation costs, abatement costs for replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications are large and negative (-$52 to -$92/Mg CO(2)e), resulting in cost savings. Replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications results in least cost reductions compared to replacing coal in electricity generation, an alternative that has gained attention due to RPS legislation and the centralized production model most often considered in U.S. policy. Our estimates indicate a more than doubling of liquid fuel displacement when switchgrass is substituted for fuel oil as opposed to gasoline, suggesting that, in certain U.S. locations, such as the northeast, densified biomass would help to significantly decarbonize energy supply with regionally sourced feedstock, while also reducing imported oil. On the basis of supply projections from the recently released Billion Ton Report, there will be enough sustainably harvested biomass available in the northeast by 2022 to offset the entirety of heating oil demand in the same region. This will save NE consumers between $2.3 and $3.9 billion annually. Diverting the same resource to electricity generation would cost the region $7.7 billion per year. While there is great need for finding low carbon substitutes for coal power and liquid transportation fuels in the U.S., we argue that in certain regions it makes cost- (and GHG mitigation-) effective sense to phase out liquid heating fuels with locally produced biomass first.

  18. Effect of Organic Amendment Application Rate on Greenhouse Gas Emissions at an Organic Farm in Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewole, M.; King, J. Y.; Cleveland, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Though greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) from mineral fertilizer application in agriculture have been well studied, the effect of organic amendment (OA) application rate on GHGEs is not yet understood. Application of multiple OAs can improve different properties that control soil fertility, including nutrient availability, aggregate stability, and water-holding capacity. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) flux at an organic farm in Goleta, CA in order to understand how OA application rate affects GHGEs and crop yield from agricultural soils. Based on management practices in the region, we asked farm managers to establish high compost (HC) and low compost (LC) treatments during the growing season of an annual crop (18.2, 9.13 Mg ha-1, respectively), and we measured GHGEs in beds and furrows using static chambers. Organic fertilizer (672 kg ha-1) was applied equally to HC and LC beds six weeks after compost application. Overall, emissions of N2O and CO2 were higher in HC than LC, but yield-scaled emissions were higher in LC. Importantly, treatment differences in both N2O and CO2 emissions were not apparent until after mid-season fertilizer application. Net CH4 uptake was higher in HC than LC in the furrows, but there was no difference in the beds. Our data suggest that high compost application rates likely increased SOM mineralization, soil water content, and nitrification and denitrification rates in HC relative to LC, which led to higher N2O emissions during the growing season. Fertilization primed SOM decomposition and increased soil respiration, which led to increased CO2 emissions. Our results suggest that improved management of application rate and timing during use of multiple OAs could reduce GHGEs while maintaining high crop yield. Understanding the mechanisms by which OA application rates alter the balance between GHGEs and yield is an important step toward reducing agriculture's contribution to climate change through

  19. Tree specie effects on soil microbial community composition and greenhouse gases emissions in a Mediterranean ecotone forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria Jose; Ortiz, Carlos; Kitzler, Barbara; Curiel, Jorge; Rubio, Agustin

    2016-04-01

    Over recent decades in the Iberian Peninsula, altitudinal shifts from Pinus sylvestris L. to Quercus pyrenaica Willd species has been observed as a consequence of Global Change, meaning changes in temperature, precipitation, land use and forestry. The forest conversion from pine to oak can alter the litter quality and quantity provided to the soil and thereby the soil microbial community composition and functioning. Since soil microbiota plays an important role in organic matter decomposition, and this in turn is key in biogeochemical cycles and forest ecosystems productivity, the rate in which forests produce and consume greenhouse gases can be also affected by changes in forest composition. In other words, changes in litter decomposition will ultimately affect downstream carbon and nitrogen dynamics although this impact is uncertain. In order to predict changes in carbon and nitrogen stocks in Global Change scenarios, it is necessary to deepen the impact of vegetation changes on soil microbial communities, litter decomposition dynamics (priming effect) and the underlying interactions between these factors. To test this, we conducted a full-factorial transplant microcosms experiment mixing both fresh soils and litter from Pyrenean oak, Scots pine and mixed stands collected inside their transitional area in Central Spain. The microcosms consisted in soil cylinders inside Kilner jars used as chambers inside an incubator. In this experiment, we investigated how and to what extent the addition of litter with different quality (needles, oak leaves and mixed needles-leaves) to soil inoculums with contrasting soil microbiota impact on (i) soil CO2, NO, N2O and CH4 efflux rates, (ii) total organic carbon and nitrogen and (iii) dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen. Furthermore, we assessed if these responses were controlled by changes in the microbial community structure using the PLFA analyses prior and after the incubation period of 54 days.

  20. The effect of catena position on greenhouse gas emissions from Dambo located termite (odontotermes transvaalensis) mounds from Central Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the most important greenhouse gases. The global warming potentials (GWP) of nitrous oxide (N2O) is 310 more, than that of carbon dioxide (CO2) during a 100 year time scale on molecule for molecule basis. Natural sources of N2O include wetlands. Sub-Saharan Africa is occ...

  1. Biochar and manure effects on net nitrogen mineralization and greenhouse gas emissions from calcareous soil under corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few multiyear field studies have examined the impacts of a one-time biochar application on net N mineralization and greenhouse gas emissions in an irrigated, calcareous soil; yet such applications are hypothesized as a means of sequestering atmospheric CO2 and improving soil quality. We fall-applie...

  2. Extra light and save energy in ideal winter-light greenhouse : effect of condensation still being researched

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    A consortium of companies, together with Wageningen UR, is developing a greenhouse that will maximise the amount of light entering between October and March. The goal is to achieve 10% extra yield during these months. The gain in light should come from a combination of various adjustments and improv

  3. Neural network analysis on the effect of heat fluxes on greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, solar radiation, and heat fluxes) that potentially affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from swine waste lagoon. GHG concentrations (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide) were monitored using a photoacous...

  4. Effet de serre : les lacunes du savoir et de la perceptionGreenhouse effect: gaps of knowledge and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorius, Claude

    2003-06-01

    The anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases should result in a marked warming of the Planet. Although quantitatively uncertain, this message is well apprehended by the society. Development of more investigations upon future climate and sources of energy should help to limit the extensiveness of this risk. To cite this article: C. Lorius, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  5. [Effects of increased planting density with reduced nitrogen fertilizer application on rice yield, N use efficiency and greenhouse gas emission in Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-cheng; Zhang, Zhen-ping; Zhang, Jun; Deng, Ai-xing; Zhang, Wei-jian

    2016-02-01

    The traditional rice growing practice has to change to save resource and protect environment, and it' s necessary to develop new technology in rice cultivation. Therefore, a two-year field experiment of Japonica rice (Liaoxing 1) was conducted in Northeast China in 2012 and 2013 to investigate the integrated effects of dense planting with less basal nitrogen (N) and unchanged top-dressing N (IR) on rice yield, N use efficiency (NUE) and greenhouse gas emissions. Compared with traditional practice (CK), we increased the rice seedling density by 33.3% and reduced the basal N rate by 20%. The results showed that the average N agronomy efficiency and partial factor productivity were improved by 49.6% (Pefficiency. Generally, proper dense planting with less basal N applicatior could be a good approach for the trade-off between rice yield, NUE and greenhouse gas emission.

  6. The mortality and repellency effect of a formulation of spearmint essential oil on the cotton-melon aphid under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, application of essential oils derived from aromatic plants has been considered as low-risk insecticides. These compounds have repellency, insecticidal and growth-reducing effects on immature stages of a variety of insects. Since it is not possible to use pure essential oils in agricultural fields and greenhouses, development of commercial formulations essential-oils is necessary. In this study, the insecticidal activity and repellency effect of essential oil from spearmint (Mentha spicata and its formulation was tested against the melon aphid (Aphis gossypii, which is one of the key pests of greenhouse crops. The LC50 values of fumigation bioassay of the essential oil against the first instar nymph, third instar nymph and adult of A. gossypii were 2.70, 3.41 and 5.24 µl/L, respectively. For contact toxicity bioassay, based on preliminary tests, a formulation of essential oil from spearmint was used in four concentrations (8000, 12500, 16000 and 25000 mg/L. Results revealed that spearmint essential-oil formulation caused 88.7% adult mortality when applied at a concentration of 25000 mg/L. The repellency index was calculated when aphids were exposed for 24 h to LC20 concentration. This index was -10%. These results showed that formulation of spearmint essential oil could be used as a commercial substitute for chemical insecticides to control A. gossypii under greenhouse conditions.

  7. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research. © 2010 SETAC.

  8. Greenhouse Effect Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2002-01-01

    Before there were humans, the world changed only slowly. The climate warmed and cooled, new plants and animals developed and became extinct(绝灭的) in their turn, and sea level rose and fell over periods of thousands, if not millions of years. But during the last two thousand years great changes have taken place.

  9. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulkerson, W.

    1991-01-10

    The Dahlem Conference on controlling CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere focused on research needs broadly defined. The RD D needs discussed tended to be social-institutional rather than technically oriented perhaps because of the propensity of most attendees, but many important ideas emerged, including those related to questions on technology adoption by both developed, emerging, or transition economics. The European attendees appeared to be strongly devoted to reducing emissions, and doing it soon using efficiency improvement and ultimately renewables. The importance of efficiency improvement was universally accepted, but the extent to which it can be relied upon is a major uncertainty for everyone except the most zealous. There was no detailed discussion of what could be done to encourage the more rapid adoption of renewables. Most attendees seemed to have discounted nuclear, but, at any rate, the problems of reviving nuclear worldwide were not discussed in detail.

  10. The greenhouse effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1992-01-01

    This presentation is an attempt to build a bridge from science to political decision making. In the worldwide process of preparing and following up the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), which will be held in Brazil in June 1992, it is likely that the urge to find a...

  11. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  12. Structural analysis and functional characteristics of greenhouses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... This study was carried out to determine the structural analysis and functional characteristics of the greenhouses ..... Duncan test results for mean separation of calculated stretch ratios, ... and Organic Fertilizers and Possible Effects in the Greenhouses of ... Structural analysis of greenhouses: A case study in.

  13. Compared Biochar and Compost effects on plant growth and soil factors as reported for three consequent greenhouse trial setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, H. S.; Glaser, B. G.

    2012-04-01

    Since ten years there is a major increase in research concerning biochar applications to soils trying to mimic effects known from Terra Preta do Indio (Glaser 2002). We conducted a preliminary study in which we analyzed the synergistic effects of biochar in combination with conventional and with organic fertilizers, whereas our latter experiments use biochar which was blended with fresh organic material and underwent the whole composting procedure leading to the first known composted biochars. Our first pot experiment (with two consequent growth periods without additional fertilization) helped to distinguish the effects from conventional and organic fertilizers in combination with biochar, where biochar revealed abilities for stabilizing carbon content (Total Organic and Black Carbon) and reducing nitrification. Plant weights were highest with pure compost, but biochar combined with compost (50:50) showed a sustained progression comparing second growth period's results. Those outcomes let us focus on biochar-compost-mixes. Our second greenhouse experiment concentrated on the question of the minimal biochar content to enhance plant growth and soil properties and was performed on a very poor sandy and on a richer loamy soil with rising concentrations between 0% and 1% biochar per compost. We could not find significant differences between the pure compost and the biochar amended pots. For our third experiment we tried to elevate the biochar share as high as possible and tested treatments with up to 200 Mg ha-1(eq.) in steps with up to 50% biochar content, again in poor sandy and richer loamy soil pots. The measured seed weight of applied Avena sativa L. plants showed very different results on sandy soil compared to the loamy soil. Whereas compost on loam showed a seed weight 2 times higher than on pure loam control and seed weights 1.6 times higher compared to compost with highest biochar amounts, on sand the pure compost was even slightly less productive than pure

  14. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  15. Assessing The Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Physio-Morphological Traits of Bitter Olive (Melia azedarach Linn. Under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Yousefvand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Climate change has great impact on global production of several major plants. Negative effects of increasing carbon dioxide concentration in the world, on the one hand, and positive effects of the gas on plants, on the other hand, are the most important reasons for investigating the gas effects on different plants. Many studies have been conducted to examine the effects of elevated CO2on plants during the past several decades. Carbon dioxide enrichment in greenhouses can be used as a mechanism for reducing production time, improving quality and increasing plant vigor. The world is facing an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the coming years. The physiological responses of plant are affected by CO2concentration,among which changes in nitrogen, chlorophyll content, proline and soluble sugar have been observed in many studies. The significant changes in the levels of these characteristics are likely to cause marked effects on the entire metabolism of plant. Since the proteins of the Calvin cycle and thylakoid represent the majority of leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll content is the central part of the energy manifestation and can directly determine photosynthetic response and primary production. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of elevated concentration ofCO2 on some morphological and physiological traits of Melia azedarachunder greenhouse conditions. . Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in a CO2 – controlled glasshouse in a completely randomized design with three replications in Yazd University. The glasshouse consisted of three separate chambers with threeCO2levels of control (450 ppm, 750ppm, and 1100ppm.The concentration of CO2within each chamber was monitored constantly three times a week. After two months, morphological characteristics such as diameter of the collar, height of stem, number of leaves, wet weight of shoots, root wet weight, wet matter biomass, dry weight of shoots, root

  16. Mars Greenhouses: Concepts and Challenges. Proceedings from a 1999 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Ray M. (Editor); Martin-Brennan, Cindy (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Topic covered include :Plants on Mars: On the Next Mission and in the Long Term Future; Bubbles in the Rocks: Natural and Artificial Caves and Cavities as Like Support Structures; Challenges for Bioregenerative Life Support on Mars; Cost Effectiveness Issues; Low Pressure Systems for Plant Growth; Plant Responses to Rarified Atmospheres; Can CO2 be Used as a Pressurizing Gas for Mars Greenhouses?; Inflatable Habitats Technology Development; Development of an Inflatable Greenhouse for a Modular Crop Production System; Mars Inflatable Greenhouse Workshop; Design Needs for Mars Deployable Greenhouse; Preliminary Estimates of the Possibilities for Developing a Deployable Greenhouse for a Planetary Surface Mars; Low Pressure Greenhouse Concepts for Mars; Mars Greenhouse Study: Natural vs. Artificial Lighting; and Wire Culture for an Inflatable Mars Greenhouse and Other Future Inflatable Space Growth Chambers.

  17. Effects of soil and foliar applications of iron and zinc on flowering and essential oil of chamomile at greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef NASIRI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of soil and foliar applications of iron (Fe and zinc (Zn on flowering, flower yield and essential oil production of German chamomile a pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. The experiment was arranged as completely randomized design with 12 treatments and three replications. Treatments were as follow: T1: control – without Fe or Zn fertilizers, T2: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T3: 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T4: 30 mg FeSO4.7H2O + 22 mg ZnSO4.7H2O kg-1 dry soil, T5: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (3.5 g L-1, T6: foliar spraying of FeSO4.7H2O (7.0 g L-1, T7: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (2.5 g L-1, T8: foliar spraying of ZnSO4.7H2O (5.0 g L-1, T9: T5+T7, T10: T5+T8, T11: T6+T7, T12: T6+T8. The foliar spraying was done two times during the growing period. The results revealed that the flower number, flower yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield were significantly increased by soil and foliar applications of Fe + Zn, compared with the control (untreated. The highest flower number (477 plant-1, flower yield (11.6 g pot-1, essential oil content (0.88 % and essential oil yield (119 mg pot-1 were recorded for the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4 by 58, 68, 21.4 and 105 % increment compared to the control, respectively. Foliar application of Fe + Zn (T12 was placed at the next rank; however this treatment had no significant difference with the soil application of Fe + Zn (T4. Other treatments did not show significant differences with the control. Generally, the results showed that soil or foliar application of Fe + Zn can be effective on increase or improve of quantity and quality of chamomile yield. Moreover, use of foliar application as a low cost method especially in areas with alkaline or calcareous soils can be recommended.

  18. Effect of cover crops on greenhouse gas emissions in an irrigated field under integrated soil fertility management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia, Guillermo; Abalos, Diego; García-Marco, Sonia; Quemada, Miguel; Alonso-Ayuso, María; Cárdenas, Laura M.; Dixon, Elizabeth R.; Vallejo, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Agronomical and environmental benefits are associated with replacing winter fallow by cover crops (CCs). Yet, the effect of this practice on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions remains poorly understood. In this context, a field experiment was carried out under Mediterranean conditions to evaluate the effect of replacing the traditional winter fallow (F) by vetch (Vicia sativa L.; V) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; B) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the intercrop and the maize (Zea mays L.) cropping period. The maize was fertilized following integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) criteria. Maize nitrogen (N) uptake, soil mineral N concentrations, soil temperature and moisture, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and GHG fluxes were measured during the experiment. Our management (adjusted N synthetic rates due to ISFM) and pedo-climatic conditions resulted in low cumulative N2O emissions (0.57 to 0.75 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1), yield-scaled N2O emissions (3-6 g N2O-N kg aboveground N uptake-1) and N surplus (31 to 56 kg N ha-1) for all treatments. Although CCs increased N2O emissions during the intercrop period compared to F (1.6 and 2.6 times in B and V, respectively), the ISFM resulted in similar cumulative emissions for the CCs and F at the end of the maize cropping period. The higher C : N ratio of the B residue led to a greater proportion of N2O losses from the synthetic fertilizer in these plots when compared to V. No significant differences were observed in CH4 and CO2 fluxes at the end of the experiment. This study shows that the use of both legume and nonlegume CCs combined with ISFM could provide, in addition to the advantages reported in previous studies, an opportunity to maximize agronomic efficiency (lowering synthetic N requirements for the subsequent cash crop) without increasing cumulative or yield-scaled N2O losses.

  19. Quantification of the greenhouse effect gases at the territorial scale. Final report; Quantification des emissions de gaz a effet de serre a l'echelle territoriale. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnin, G.; Lacassagne, S

    2003-07-01

    An efficient action against the greenhouse effect needs the implication of the local collectivities. To implement appropriate energy policies, deciders need information and tools to quantify the greenhouse gases and evaluate the obtained results of their greenhouse gases reduction policies. This study is a feasibility study of the tools realization, adapted to the french context. It was done in three steps: analysis of the existing tools, application to the french context and elaboration of the requirements of appropriate tools. This report presents the study methodology, the information analysis and the conclusions. (A.L.B.)

  20. A methodology for model-based greenhouse design: Part 1, a greenhouse climate model for a broad range of designs and climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanthoor, B.H.E.; Stanghellini, C.; Henten, van E.J.; Visser, de P.H.B.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of developing a model-based method to design greenhouses for a broad range of climatic and economic conditions, a greenhouse climate model has been developed and validated. This model describes the effects of the outdoor climate and greenhouse design on the indoor greenhouse climate. Fo

  1. Greenhouse Effect and Global Weather Warming%温室效应和全球气候变暖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张应莹

    2007-01-01

    冬季来得迟了,夏季来得早了。冬天有时虽冷,但有时已成为“暖冬”;夏季越来越热,高温天气很多。这是为什么呢?说是地球受到了“温室效应(Greenhouse Effect)”的影响。

  2. Effect of Salinity on Growth and Physiological Parameters of Four Olive (OleaeuropaeaL. Cultivars underGreenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Olyaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is a common abiotic stress that seriously affects crop production around the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions.The deleterious effects of salinity on plant growth are associated with low osmotic potential of soil solution (water stress, nutritional imbalance, specific ion effect (salt stress, or a combination of these factors. Olive is one of the most important fruit crops in Iran and the world. Despite olive has been classified as moderately salt tolerant plant, poor quality of irrigation water in association with salt build-up soils has reduced the yields, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. The tolerance of the olive to salt is to a great extent depends on the cultivar. Selecting salinity-resistant cultivars is one of the most important strategies used for mitigating salinity effects on olive. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the salt tolerance of four olive cultivars under greenhouse condition. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, one-year-old rooted cuttings of Iranian olive cultivars (‘Dakal’, ‘Shiraz’, ‘Zard’ and non-Iranian cultivar ‘Amigdal’ were grown in the research greenhouse of Agricultural College, Isfahan University of Technology of Iran. Plants were grown in plastic pots. The pots were 180 mm in diameter and 20 mm in depth with volume of 7 L. The minimum and maximum temperatures during the experiment period were 19 and 35˚C, respectively. After sticking the cuttings, the pots with uniform plants were subjected to the treatment with 0 (control, 100, 150 or 200 mMNaCl. The electrical conductivities of these solutions were 0.003, 10.52, 15.43 and 19.55 dS m-1, respectively. To avoid osmotic shock, the NaCl concentration was gradually increased. The layout was a 4×4 factorial experiment based oncompletely randomized design, with four replications. The experimental measurements were carried out three months after beginning the salt treatments

  3. Anthropogenic effects on greenhouse gas (CH4 and N2O) emissions in the Guadalete River Estuary (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, M; Sierra, A; Ortega, T; Forja, J M

    2015-01-15

    Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Dissolved concentrations of CH4 and N2O have been measured seasonally during 2013 in the Guadalete River Estuary, which flows into the Cadiz Bay (southwestern Spanish coast). It has been intensely contaminated since 1970. Currently it receives wastewater effluents from cities and direct discharges from nearby agriculture crop. Eight sampling stations have been established along 18 km of the estuary. CH4 and N2O were measured using a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Additional parameters such as organic matter, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and chlorophyll were determinate as well, in order to understand the relationship between physicochemical and biological processes. Gas concentrations increased from the River mouth toward the inner part, closer to the wastewater treatment plant discharge. Values varied widely within 21.8 and 3483.4 nM for CH4 and between 9.7 and 147.6 nM for N2O. Greenhouse gas seasonal variations were large influenced by the precipitation regime, masking the temperature influence. The Guadatete Estuary acted as a greenhouse gas source along the year, with mean fluxes of 495.7 μmol m(-2)d(-1) and 92.8 μmol m(-2)d(-1) for CH4 and N2O, respectively.

  4. Effects of Application of Biogas Slurry on the Form and Mobility of Soil Phosphorus in Vegetable Greenhouse Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Min-feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A packed soil column experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biogas slurry on phosphorus(P form and mobility in a vegetable greenhouse soil with different P fertility levels. The results showed that application of biogas slurry all significantly reduced leachate volume and total phosphorus leaching in the experimental soil with different fertility levels. Compared with control treatments, the application of biogas slurry decreased total phosphorus content in leachate by 722.3 μg·column-1 through reducing leachate volume. Total inorganic phosphorus(TIP decreased by 507.2 μg·column-1 and 1 319 μg·column-1 in the moderate-P-fertility and high-P-fertility soil, respectively. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus(DIP was decreased by 158.1 μg·column-1 and 474.3 μg·column-1 in the low-P-fertility and moderate-P-fertility soil, respectively. In low-P-fertility soil, biogas slurry application significantly increased soil total P, Olsen-P and organic P in 0~7 cm soil depth by a proportion of 34.8%, 37.7% and 148%, respectively. It also reduced soil pH by 0.39 units. In 7~14 cm soil depth, biogas slurry application significantly increased soil total P, Olsen-P and organic P by a proportion of 18.5%, 29.3% and 32.9%, respectively. SoipH was also decreased by 0.28 units. In moderate-P-fertility soil, application of biogas slurry had no significantly influence on soil total P, but increased soil Olsen-P by 20.1% in 0~7 cm soil depth compared with control treatment. In 7~14 cm soil depth, application of biogas slurry reduced soil pH by 0.33 units. In high-P-fertility soil, application of biogas slurry had no significantly influence on soil total P, Olsen-P and organic P in 0~7 cm soil depth compared with control treatment. In 7~14 cm soil depth, application of biogas slurry reduced soil pH by 0.34 units. In conclusion, application of biogas slurry significantly increased different forms of phosphorus contents in low-P-fertility soil, however

  5. Co-effect of increased humidity and meteorological conditions on greenhouse gas fluxes in a young hybrid aspen forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Raili; Mander, Ülo; Kupper, Priit; Soosaar, Kaido; Maddison, Martin; Sõber, Jaak; Lõhmus, Krista

    2014-05-01

    Due to the climate change, higher precipitation and an increase in air humidity is expected in northern Europe in the near future (IPCC 2007). There are some studies about irrigation, elevated CO2 and O3 etc., but still we have too little knowledge about the humidity effect on the deciduous forest ecosystem. In 2006 a free-air humidity manipulation (FAHM) facility was established in Estonia and in 2008 we started to artificially increase the air humidity in young hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) forest trials on an Endogleyic Planosol of former arable land. Air humidity was raised on average about 7% compared to ambient condition (Tullus et al., 2012). We measured the carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from the FAHM system using closed static chamber and gas-chromatograph techniques from July 2009 to November 2012 during snow free periods. Flux measurements were done once a month in three humidification (h) plots and in three control (c) plots. We monitored soil temperature, soil water potential (SWP), precipitation and relative humidity. The vegetation period was rainy in 2009, droughty in 2010 and 2011 (according to SWP the drought was severe in 2011) and cold in 2012. Soil respiration was the lowest in 2011 both in c and h plots; however it was significantly higher in h. Most of the time the soil was a sink for methane, but less CH4 was oxidized in the soil of h plots. Emission of N2O did not have good correlation with air humidity, although one could observe a clear tendency of bigger N2O fluxes when soil was continuously water-saturated. Expectedly, soil respiration had strong positive correlations with soil temperature and CH4 emission demonstrated strong positive correlation with SWP. Hence, interaction of humidification and precipitation affected greenhouse gas fluxes. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2007. Tullus A, Kupper P, Sellin A, Parts L, Sõber J

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from penguin guanos and ornithogenic soils in coastal Antarctica: Effects of freezing-thawing cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Renbin; Liu, Yashu; Ma, Erdeng; Sun, Jianjun; Xu, Hua; Sun, Liguang

    In coastal Antarctica, freezing and thawing influence many physical, chemical and biological processes for ice-free tundra ecosystems, including the production of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this study, penguin guanos and ornithogenic soil cores were collected from four penguin colonies and one seal colony in coastal Antarctica, and experimentally subjected to three freezing-thawing cycles (FTCs) under ambient air and under N 2. We investigated the effects of FTCs on the emissions of three GHGs including nitrous oxide (N 2O), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and methane (CH 4). The GHG emission rates were extremely low in frozen penguin guanos or ornithogenic soils. However, there was a fast increase in the emission rates of three GHGs following thawing. During FTCs, cumulative N 2O emissions from ornithogenic soils were greatly higher than those from penguin guanos under ambient air or under N 2. The highest N 2O cumulative emission of 138.24 μg N 2O-N kg -1 was observed from seal colony soils. Cumulative CO 2 and CH 4 emissions from penguin guanos were one to three orders of magnitude higher than those from ornithogenic soils. The highest cumulative CO 2 (433.0 mgCO 2-C kg -1) and CH 4 (2.9 mgCH 4-C kg -1) emissions occurred in emperor penguin guanos. Penguin guano was a stronger emitter for CH 4 and CO 2 while ornithogenic soil was a stronger emitter for N 2O during FTCs. CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes had a correlation with total organic carbon (TOC) and soil/guano moisture (M c) in penguin guanos and ornithogenic soils. The specific CO 2-C production rate (CO 2-C/TOC) indicated that the bioavailability of TOC was markedly larger in penguin guanos than in ornithogenic soils during FTCs. This study showed that FTC-released organic C and N from sea animal excreta may play a significant role in FTC-related GHG emissions, which may account for a large proportion of annual fluxes from tundra ecosystems in coastal Antarctica.

  7. Effect of salinity on some growth indices and total protein content of alfalfa genotypes inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti strains under greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fazaeli; H. Besharati

    2012-01-01

    This greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of salinity and bacterial inoculation on some growth indices and total protein content of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using a factorial completely randomized design with three replications. The effect of three salinity levels (0, 6 and 12 dS/m) induced by a mixture of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 salts on growth indices and protein content of three alfalfa genotypes (Hamadani, Gharahyonjeh and Gharghalogh) at three levels of inoculatio...

  8. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  9. Solar greenhouses in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polich, M.

    1981-12-01

    After a discussion of solar greenhouse phenomena and the potential for heat collection and food production, design recommendations are provided for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces and for attached food producing solar greenhouses. Also, design of a single solar structure to maximize heat collection and food production is considered. A method of predicting the performance for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces is given in which the solar savings fraction is calculated. (LEW)

  10. Economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansuategi, Alberto [Environment Department, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Escapa, Marta [Foundations of Economic Analysis Department, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-01-01

    Recent empirical research has examined the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income, concluding that in some cases an inverted U-shaped relationship, which has been called an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), exists between these variables. Unfortunately, this inverted U-shaped relationship does not hold for greenhouse gas emissions. One explanation of the absence of EKC-like behavior in greenhouse gas emissions is that greenhouse gases are special pollutants that create global, not local, disutility. But the international nature of global warming is not the only reason that prevents de-linking greenhouse gas emissions from economic growth. The intergenerational nature of the negative impact of greenhouse gas emissions may have also been an important factor preventing the implementation of greenhouse gas abatement measures in the past. In this paper we explore the effect that the presence of intergenerational spillovers has on the emissions-income relationship. We use a numerically calibrated overlapping generations model of climate-economy interactions. We conclude that: (1) the intertemporal responsibility of the regulatory agency, (2) the institutional capacity to make intergenerational transfers and (3) the presence of intergenerationally lagged impact of emissions constitute important determinants of the relationship between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Effects of N and P fertilisation on greenhouse gas (GHG) production in floodplain fen peat: A microcosm fertilisation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Kieran; Heppell, Catherine; Belyea, Lisa; Baird, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological cycles are being significantly perturbed by anthropic activities altering atmospheric mole fractions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and increasing global temperatures. With the intensification of the hydrological cycle, lowland areas, such as floodplain fens, may be inundated more frequently. Rivers in agricultural catchments have the potential to pollute floodplain fens with significant amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P); however, the effects of short-term (51 mg L-1 NO3-N) and P (1.4 mg L-1 PO43--P) additions may alter GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) production in floodplain fens of contrasting nutrient status under anaerobic conditions. A five-level (control, glucose (G), N+G, P+G, and N+P+G), fully-factorial microcosm experiment was designed and undertaken in Spring 2013 with peat from two floodplain fens under conservation management with similar vegetation (from Norfolk, United Kingdom). One site receives a higher nutrient load than the other and has a historical legacy of higher N and P contents within the peat. Results from the experiment showed no significant difference in CO2 production between the control and fertilised treatments from 0 to 96 hours, but a significant difference between treatments (ANCOVA, between factors: treatment and site; covariate: time; F4,419 = 11.844, p < 0.001) and site (F1,149 = 5.721, p = 0.017) from 96 hours to in the end of the experiment due to fermentation. N2O production only occurred in samples fertilised with N (N+G and N+P+G) due to denitrification. Rates of N2O production were significantly greater in samples from the lower-nutrient site in comparison to the nutrient-rich site (t12= 6.539, p < 0.001 and t12= 7.273, p < 0.001 for N+G and N+P+G fertilised samples, respectively). Fertilisation with N and P had different effects on CH4 production. Samples fertilised with P+G had the highest CH4 production (ANCOVA, between factors: treatment and site; covariate: time; F4,120= 15.026, p < 0

  12. Effects of ploughing on land-atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases in a managed temperate grassland in central Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Drewer, Julia; Anderson, Margaret; Scholtes, Bob; Rees, Bob; Skiba, Ute

    2015-04-01

    Grasslands are important ecosystems covering > 20% and > 30% of EU and Scotland's land area respectively. Management practices such as grazing, fertilisation and ploughing can have significant short- and long-term effects on greenhouse gas exchange. Here we report on two separate ploughing events two years apart in adjacent grasslands under common management. The Easter Bush grassland, located 10 km south of Edinburgh (55° 52'N, 3° 2'W), comprises two fields separated by a fence and is used for grazing by sheep and cattle. The vegetation is predominantly Lolium perenne (> 90%) growing on poorly drained clay loam. The fields receive several applications of mineral fertiliser a year in spring and summer. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been monitored continuously by eddy-covariance (EC) since 2002 which has demonstrated that the site is a consistent yet variable sink of atmospheric CO2. The EC system comprises a LI-COR 7000 closed-path analyser and a Gill Instruments Windmaster Pro ultrasonic anemometer mounted atop a 2.5 m mast located along the fence line separating the fields. In addition, fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4)and CO2were measured with static chambers installed along transects in each field. Gas samples collected from the chambers were analysed by gas chromatography and fluxes calculated for each 60-minute sampling period. The ploughing events in 2012 and 2014 exhibited multiple similarities in terms of NEE. The light response (i.e. relationship between CO2 flux, and photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) of the NF and SF during the month preceding each ploughing event was of comparable magnitude in both years. Following ploughing, CO2 uptake ceased in the ploughed field for approximately one month and full recovery of the photosynthetic potential was observed after ca. 2 months. During the month following the 2014 ploughing event, the ploughed NF released on average 333 ± 17 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1. In contrast, the

  13. Effect of metal stress on the thermal infrared emission of soybeans: A greenhouse experiment - Possible utility in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, R.; Schwaller, M. R.; Foy, C. D.; Weidner, J. R.; Schnetzler, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    Manganese-sensitive forest and manganese-tolerant lee soybean cultivars were subjected to differential manganese stress in loring soil in a greenhouse experiment. Leaf temperature measurements were made using thermistors for forest and lee. Manganese-stressed plants had higher leaf temperatures than control plants in both forest and lee. Results of this experiment have potential applications in metal stress detection using remote sensing thermal infrared data over large areas of vegetation. This technique can be useful in reconnaissance mineral exploration in densely-vegetated regions where conventional ground-based methods are of little help.

  14. 大气温室效应的一维辐射传热分析%One Dimensional Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis of Atmosphere Greenhouse Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彬; 帅永; 谈和平

    2011-01-01

    大气中温室气体对地面长波热辐射的吸收和再发射导致了温室效应.计算了大气不同高度200~50000 cm-1(0.2~50 μm)光谱吸收系数,采用一维大气介质模型和射线踪迹-节点分析法(RTNAM)的多层模型对大气中二氧化碳及水蒸气不同浓度情况下的大气温度进行了计算.结果表明标准大气CO2浓度增加1倍,对流层的温度上升0.453°C,若水蒸气浓度降低,CO2的温室效应更加明显.%Greenhouse gases absorb the thermal radiation from earth surface and reemit part of energy back. This progress leads to the greenhouse effects. Absorption coefficients at different latitude were calculated form 200 cm-1 to 50000 cm- 1(0.2~50μm). Using a one-dimensional radiative heat transfer model for atmosphere combined with multilayered model by Ray-Tracing/Nodal-Analyzing Method (RTNAM), atmospheric temperature fields were calculated under different CO2 and/or H2O concentration conditions. The results show that temperature in troposphere rise 0.453℃ if doubling of CO2Concentration, and if the concentration of H2O is lower, greenhouse effects of CO2 become more obvious.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from rice, peanut and millet farms in peninsular India: Effects of water and nitrogen management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritee, K.; Tiwari, R.; Nair, D.; Loecke, T. D.; Adhya, T. K.; Rudek, J.; Ahuja, R.; Hamburg, S.

    2013-12-01

    At Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), we recognize that any intervention to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should meet the interests of small scale farmers and low-carbon farming (LCF) is an integral component of our work on international climate. As a part of our Emissions Measurement and Methodology Development (EMD) Project, a joint undertaking with Indian NGO partners of the Fair Climate Network (FCN), five GHG measurement laboratories were set up across three states in peninsular (south) India. These labs represent different agro-ecological zones within the dryland agriculture belt in South India for which no reliable datasets on GHG emission have been available. Our approach for collecting gas samples was based on the Gracenet protocol. Sampling for nitrous oxide and methane emissions were made on approximately 50% of the total number of days in a growing season and once a week during fallow periods. In order to capture the peak emissions of nitrous oxide, samples were collected for 3-4 consecutive days after critical events like tillage, weeding, fertilization, and rainfall/irrigation. The research team collected field data at the time of sampling (temperature of the soil, water and air; and water levels). We also recorded parameters (e.g. water, fertilizer, labor and energy use; and yields) which were necessary for calculating farm profitability. Our data from 2012-2013 suggest that, for peninsular India, low-carbon rice cultivation techniques offer very large emission reduction potential (2-5 metric tons CO2e per acre per year), with smaller reductions from peanut and millet (0.15-0.5 metric ton CO2e per acre per season). The Tier 1 IPCC emissions factors 1) grossly underestimate both the amount of nitrous oxide emission from conventional rice cultivation practices, and the extent to which it can be reduced through better fertilizer management and 2) overestimate the methane emission reduction possible due to water management for rice paddies by a

  16. Effects of Light and Temperature on Uptake and Distribution of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium of Cucumber in Solar Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Xiao-bo; ZHANG Fu-man; WANG Liu

    2002-01-01

    The influence of light and temperature conditions inside solar greenhouse of winter-spring and autumn-winter crop in northern China on uptake and distribution of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of cucumber was studied. The results showed that plant root development and uptake and distribution of N, P and K benefited more from inside light and temperature changes in winter-spring crop. Root volume and root activity increased more rapidly in winter-spring than in autumn-winter. Uptake of total N, P2O5 and K2O increased with plant development in winter-spring, and declined in autumn-winter crop. Distribution of total N,P2O5 and K2O at different part of cucumber at fruit bearing stage was significantly influenced by inside light and temperature of solar greenhouse. Total N, P2O5 and K2O were mainly distributed to leaves and stems at early stage, and increasingly to fruits after fruit bearing.

  17. Contribution of forests and forestry in Finland to mitigate greenhouse effect. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland. 28-30 Sep 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karjalainen,T.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Ministry of the Environment is coordinating matters related to the unitéd Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change. National reporting of greenhouse gas inventories for land-use change and forestry category utilises forest inventory results with appropriate studies on biomass allocation and wood properties as well as national wood consumption statistics allowing to use country-specific values instead of overall default values provided in the Intergovernemental Panel on Climatic Change guidelines. Several studies assessing carbon pools and fluxes, as well as impacts of forest management on carbon stocks and fluxes have been carried out in several research organisations. Further studies, especially experimental work, on the impacts of different forest management practices on forest carbon stocks and fluxes are needed. This paper provides also some views of the possible Finnish contribution to COST E21 action as well as expectations from the action.

  18. Fungicide resistance of Botrytis cinerea in tomato greenhouses in the Canary Islands and effectiveness of non-chemical treatments against gray mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Acosta, A; Rodríguez, C

    2014-09-01

    Tomato greenhouses in the Canary Islands, Spain, were surveyed to estimate frequencies of resistance to benzimidazoles, dicarboximides, anilinopyrimidines and N-phenylcarbamates in Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to carbendazim, iprodione, pyrimethanil and diethofencarb was found in 74.2, 86.4, 28.8 and 31.8% of isolates, respectively. Benzimidazole- and anilinopyrimide-resistant isolates were highly resistant, showing EC50 values above 500 µg/ml carbendazim and a mean EC50 value of 28.42 µg/ml pyrimethanil, respectively. By contrast, a low level of resistance was observed among dicarboximide-resistant isolates (mean EC50 value of 1.81 µg/ml iprodione). Phenotypes with double resistance to carbendazim and iprodione, and triple resistance to carbendazim, iprodione and pyrimethanil were the most common, occurring in 36.4 and 28.8% of isolates. The surveyed greenhouses had never been treated with fenhexamid and Signum™ (pre-packed mixture of boscalid and pyraclostrobin), and baseline sensitivities of B. cinerea isolates to these fungicides were determined. The EC50 values were within the range of 0.009-0.795 µg/ml fenhexamid and of 0.014-0.48 µg/ml Signum. In addition, available formulations based on elicitors of plant defense response and biocontrol agents were evaluated against B. cinerea in tomato plants under semi-controlled greenhouse conditions, the yeast Candida sake CPA-1 being able to reduce gray mold significantly when it was applied on petiole wounds and the plants were inoculated 24 h later. Likewise, C. sake was effective against B. cinerea in harvested tomato fruits, yeast-treated tomatoes showed a 70.66 and 30.31% reduction in the diameters of decay lesions compared with controls after 10 days of storage at 20 and 9 °C, respectively.

  19. Spartina alterniflora Salt Marsh Elevation Change and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Response to Climate Change: Effects of Altered Hydrology and Increased Atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, M. W.; Jones, S. F.; Stagg, C. L.; Krauss, K. W.

    2016-12-01

    Global climate change, such as sea-level rise and altered atmospheric composition of gases, influence the provision of ecosystem services by coastal salt marshes by changing dynamic above- and belowground processes. Plant responses to atmospheric composition and hydrologic alterations are often not studied simultaneously nor in a controlled greenhouse environment. These types of experiments are crucial to more precisely understand how coastal wetlands may respond to multiple, interacting facets of climate change. To address these knowledge gaps, we experimentally manipulated atmospheric CO2 concentration and hydrologic regimes in mesocosms of Spartina alterniflora sods grown in climate-controlled greenhouses for over a year, and quantified salient plant and soil responses. Preliminary results indicate that hydrologic regimes that simulated high rates of sea-level rise enhanced aboveground production, resulting in more and larger stems and leaves than control mesocosms. High sea-level rise mesocosms also had high rates of surface elevation change, which was correlated with high rates of new stem production. Methane emissions were higher in August than in other seasons in the control and high sea-level rise mesocosms. Interestingly, although Spartina alterniflora marsh responded strongly to sea-level rise, we did not detect significant effects of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration (720 ppm). Our results indicate that Spartina alterniflora marsh may be able to increase elevation on pace with sea-level rise through an increase in production induced by greater flooding. Sea-level rise may also alter the carbon balance of these marshes by increasing methane emissions seasonally. Although more research remains to be completed, this controlled greenhouse experiment indicates that sea-level rise and hydrologic regime will likely remain dominant drivers in structuring Spartina alterniflora coastal wetlands, even under greatly elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2.

  20. Energy scenarios and greenhouse effect gases emissions model for Mexico; Modelo de escenarios energeticos y de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia; Rodriguez Viqueira, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the bases for the Model of Energy and Greenhouse Emission Scenarios (MEEEM) developed by the Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico`s Engineering Institute). This model was built with the objective of analyzing the different technological options for the mitigation of the greenhouse gases effect on Mexico. The MEEEM is a model for the end uses that simulate in a simple way the energy demand, transformation and supply and calculates the differential leveled costs among a basic scenario and several mitigation scenarios of the greenhouse emissions. The article also presents some of the results in evaluating three technologies of renewable energy sources. Although the model is perfectible, its development shows its usefulness in this type of models in the decision taking for the energy and environmental planning of the country. [Espanol] Este articulo presenta las bases del Modelo de Escenarios Energeticos y de Emisiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero para Mexico (MEEEM), desarrollado por el Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Este modelo fue construido con el objetivo de analizar las diversas opciones tecnologicas de mitigacion de gases de efecto invernadero para Mexico. El MEEEM es un modelo de usos finales que simula de una manera sencilla, la demanda, transformacion y oferta de la energia y calcula la diferencia de costos nivelados entre un escenario base y diversos escenarios de mitigacion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. El articulo presenta tambien algunos resultados obtenidos al evaluar tres tecnologias de fuentes renovables de energia. Aun cuando el modelo es perfectible, su desarrollo demuestra la utilidad de este tipo de modelos en la toma de decisiones para planeacion energetica y ambiental del pais.

  1. 沿海不同棚架构型温度变化规律及西瓜种植研究%Temperature Change Rules of Different Steel Greenhouses and Their Effects on Watermelon Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兴祥; 林红梅

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we studied the temperature change rules of different types of steel greenhouses and their effects on the growth and development of watermelon. The results showed that, as the greenhouse depth-width ratio became larger, the atmospheric temperature in the greenhouses increased and reduced quicker, and the difference of the day and night earth temperature became larger, indicating their better maintaining effects on atmospheric temperature but worse maintaining effects on earth temperature. In the watermelon cultivation in coastal areas of Jiangsu, the greenhouse A4 possessed the best temperature maintaining effects and comprehensive evaluation, and the structure of greenhouse A4 was as follows:the centre-height of the outer steel greenhouse, inner steel greenhouse and small arch shed were 2.5 m, 2.4 m and 0.8 m, with their width were 7.0 m, 6.6 m and 2.0 m, respectively. The greenhouse A1 was more affordable, and its structure was as follows:the centre-height of the outer steel greenhouse, inner steel greenhouse and small arch shed were 1.8 m, 1.7 m and 0.8 m, with their width were 5.0 m, 4.6 m and 2.0 m, respectively.%  研究了不同棚型内的温度变化,以及其对西瓜生长和发育的影响.研究结果表明,棚高宽比大,棚内气温升高快,降低也快,日夜气温温差大,日夜地温温差大,气温保温性差,但地温保温性好;沿海地区大棚西瓜种植采用A4型棚(外棚顶高2.5 m、宽7.0 m,内棚顶高2.4 m、宽6.6 m,小棚顶高0.8 m、宽2.0 m)效果好,采用A1型棚(外棚顶高1.8 m、宽5.0 m,内棚顶高1.7 m、宽4.6 m,小棚顶高0.8 m、宽2.0 m)较为经济.

  2. Application technique and slurry co-fermentation effects on ammonia, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions after spreading: II. Greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, S; Maeting, M; Clemens, J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different application techniques on greenhouse gas emission from co-fermented slurry. Ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) emissions were measured in two field experiments with four different application techniques on arable and grassland sites. To gather information about fermentation effects, unfermented slurry was also tested, but with trail hose application only. Co-fermented slurry was applied in April at a rate of 30 m3 ha(-1). Measurements were made every 4 h on the first day after application and were continued for 6 wk with gradually decreasing sampling frequency. Methane emissions were application and are discussed in the preceding paper. We evaluated the climatic relevance of the measured gas emissions from the different application techniques based on the comparison of CO2 equivalents. It was evident that NH3 emission reduction, which can be achieved by injection, is at least compensated by increased N2O emissions. Our results indicate that on arable land, trail hose application with immediate shallow incorporation, and on grassland, trail shoe application, bear the smallest risks of high greenhouse gas emissions when fertilizing with co-fermented slurry.

  3. The Impact of Secondary School Students' Preconceptions on the Evolution of their Mental Models of the Greenhouse effect and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfried, Sibylle; Tempelmann, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a video-based learning process study that investigates the kinds of mental models of the atmospheric greenhouse effect 13-year-old learners have and how these mental models change with a learning environment, which is optimised in regard to instructional psychology. The objective of this explorative study was to observe and analyse the learners' learning pathways according to their previous knowledge in detail and to understand the mental model formation processes associated with them more precisely. For the analysis of the learning pathways, drawings, texts, video and interview transcripts from 12 students were studied using qualitative methods. The learning pathways pursued by the learners significantly depend on their domain-specific previous knowledge. The learners' preconceptions could be typified based on specific characteristics, whereby three preconception types could be formed. The 'isolated pieces of knowledge' type of learners, who have very little or no previous knowledge about the greenhouse effect, build new mental models that are close to the target model. 'Reduced heat output' type of learners, who have previous knowledge that indicates compliances with central ideas of the normative model, reconstruct their knowledge by reorganising and interpreting their existing knowledge structures. 'Increasing heat input' type of learners, whose previous knowledge consists of subjective worldly knowledge, which has a greater personal explanatory value than the information from the learning environment, have more difficulties changing their mental models. They have to fundamentally reconstruct their mental models.

  4. Effects of shoot pruning and inflorescence thinning on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of greenhouse tomatoes in a tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. J. Max

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of shoot pruning (one or two stems and inflorescence thinning (five or ten flowers per inflorescence on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality were studied during the dry season (DS and rainy season (RS in Central Thailand. Poor fruit set, development of undersized (mostly parthenocarpic fruits, as well as the physiological disorders blossom-end rot (BER and fruit cracking (FC turned out to be the prevailing causes deteriorating fruit yield and quality. The proportion of marketable fruits was less than 10% in the RS and around 65% in the DS. In both seasons, total yield was significantly increased when plants were cultivated with two stems, resulting in higher marketable yields only in the DS. While the fraction of undersized fruits was increased in both seasons when plants were grown with a secondary stem, the proportions of BER and FC were significantly reduced. Restricting the number of flowers per inflorescence invariably resulted in reduced total yield. However, in neither season did fruit load considerably affect quantity or proportion of the marketable yield fraction. Inflorescence thinning tended to promote BER and FC, an effect which was only significant for BER in the RS. In conclusion, for greenhouse tomato production under climate conditions as they are prevalent in Central Thailand, the cultivation with two stems appears to be highly recommendable whereas the measures to control fruit load tested in this study did not proof to be advisable.

  5. Effect of Miscanthus cultivation on metal fractionation and human bioaccessibility in metal-contaminated soils: comparison between greenhouse and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Kleckerová, Andrea; Pourrut, Bertrand; Nsanganwimana, Florien; Douay, Francis; Waterlot, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The in situ stabilization of metals in soils using plants with great biomass value is a promising, cost-effective, and ecologically friendly alternative to manage metal-polluted sites. The goal of phytostabilization is to reduce the bioavailable concentrations of metals in polluted soil and thus reduce the risk to the environment and human health. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating Miscanthus × giganteus efficiency in phytostabilizing metals on three contaminated agricultural sites after short-term exposure under greenhouse conditions and after long-term exposure under field conditions. Particular attention was paid to the influence of Miscanthus cultivation on (i) Cd, Pb, and Zn fractionation using sequential extractions and (ii) metal bioaccessibility using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion test. Data gave evidence of (i) different behaviors between the greenhouse and the field; (ii) metal redistribution in soils induced by Miscanthus culture, more specifically under field conditions; (iii) higher environmental availability for Cd than for Pb and Zn was found in both conditions; and (iv) overall, a higher bioaccessible fraction for Pb (about 80 %) and Cd (65-77 %) than for Zn (36-52 %) was recorded in the gastric phase, with a sharp decrease in the intestinal phase (18-35 % for Cd, 5-30 % for Pb, and 36-52 % for Zn). Compared to soils without culture, the results showed that phytostabilization using Miscanthus culture provided evidence for substantial effects on oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Pb, and Zn.

  6. Effect of Biomixture Containing Spent Coffee Ground and Milled Egg-shells on The Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and Soil Fertility under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghia Khoi Nguyen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of biomixture including spent coffee ground and milled egg-shells (ratio of 10:2 (w/w on the yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench and soil fertility, an experiment was conducted in the greenhouse for 3 months with four replicates for each treatment. The soil sample in this study was collected from the experimental farm of Cantho University. The biomixture was applied with 3 levels: 5, 10 and 15% (w/w. A commonly recommended inorganic fertilizer application rate for Okra was used as control treatment and 15% of used coffee ground as another treatment to study a single effect of used coffee ground on yield of Okra and soil fertility.  Results showed that although the plan performance was much better in the control treatment, the highest yield of Okra was found in the treatments amended with 10 and 5% of the biomixture and was 167 and 161 g/plant/pot, respectively. The yield was much higher in these two treatments than that in the control treatment. The appearance of Okra fruits in the amended biomixture treatments reached the standard quality for selling. Moreover, organic matter, N, P, pH, bacterial and fungal cell counts in soils were enhanced considerably when amended with this biomixture. Five percent of the biomixture performed as the best treatment to enhance Okra yield in the greenhouse experiment.

  7. Effects of Low-Carbon Technologies and End-Use Electrification on Energy-Related Greenhouse Gases Mitigation in China by 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions in China have been increasing in line with its energy consumption and economic growth. Major means for energy-related greenhouse gases mitigation in the foreseeable future are transition to less carbon intensive energy supplies and structural changes in energy consumption. In this paper, a bottom-up model is built to examine typical projected scenarios for energy supply and demand, with which trends of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by 2050 can be analyzed. Results show that low-carbon technologies remain essential contributors to reducing emissions and altering emissions trends up to 2050. By pushing the limit of current practicality, emissions reduction can reach 20 to 28 percent and the advent of carbon peaking could shift from 2040 to 2030. In addition, the effect of electrification at end-use sectors is studied. Results show that electrifying transport could reduce emissions and bring the advent of carbon peaking forward, but the effect is less significant compared with low-carbon technologies. Moreover, it implies the importance of decarbonizing power supply before electrifying end-use sectors.

  8. Solar greenhouse training project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.; Kensil, D.; Lazar, B.; Yanda, B.; Yanda, S.

    1979-04-01

    The goals of this project were: (1) To train twenty teams, each from a different region, to organize and run workshops to build inexpensive, practical solar greenhouses. (2) To help create working solar greenhouse experts in the field available to respond to their community's needs. (3) To establish a national model program for solar greenhouse construction workshops. (4) To determine whether the barn-raising style used in the greenhouse construction workshops could be taught in the format of a 3 1/2 day seminar with a follow-up workshop. (5) To determine whether the audio-visual exhibit and printed materials used in the seminar were effective. (MOW)

  9. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Savvichev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, S. N. Vinogradskii Institute of Microbiology (Russian Federation); Zinchenko, A. V. [A. I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  10. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  11. Biobrás and Fitomas-E effect in growth of tomato cv. Undetermined in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pulido Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at the Agricultural Farm Spartacus in Cienfuegos province, in order to evaluate the impact of Fitomas-E and Biobras-16 on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill, during winter season, under a protected facility. The trial was conducted in a completely randomized design with 20 replicates per treatment. Each plant was evaluated according to the following variables: height, diameter, number of bunches of flowers and fruits, number of leaves, number and quality of fruits, and yield per treatment were also estimated. Results indicate that applications of Biobrás-16 at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 and Fitomas E increases the development and yield of tomato of indeterminate growth in greenhouses and are economically feasible to increase production levels between the 16 and 18.9%.

  12. Agriculture and greenhouse gas effect: status and perspectives; Agriculture et gaz a effet de serre: etat des lieux et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    In a first part, this report analyses the interactions between climate and agriculture: understanding of climate changes and their global impacts, understanding of carbon and nitrogen life cycles and their relationship with anthropic greenhouse gas emissions, emissions by agriculture and impacts of climate change on agriculture, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} emissions by agriculture. The authors address how to reduce emissions and increase carbon storage by crop management and N{sub 2}O emission reduction, by breeding management and CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, and by energy CO{sub 2} emission reduction. They discuss emission reduction policies in agriculture within the international political, European and French frameworks. They also identify possible economic tools

  13. Effects of Herbicides on Greenhouse Gases Emission from Vegetable Plantation Soil%除草剂对土壤温室气体排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洪; 郑祥洲; 雷俊杰; 张玉树; 陈静蕊; 李世清

    2012-01-01

    试验设对照、尿素、尿素+草甘膦和尿素+丁草胺4个处理,尿素氮用量为200 mg·kg-1干土,除草剂用量为10 mg有效成分·kg-1干土.在实验室恒温培养条件下,研究除草剂对菜田土壤温室气体排放的影响.结果表明,菜田土壤中施用氮肥显著增加了温室气体N2O、CO2和CH4的排放.尿素氮肥中添加草甘膦显著抑制N2O、CO2的排放,分别比尿素处理降低48.4%和20.2%;添加丁草胺显著抑制N2O排放,比尿素处理降低23.2%,对CO2排放略有减少但不显著;草甘膦和丁草胺对CH4排放都无明显影响.这说明除草剂对土壤温室气体的排放具有显著影响,但不同除草剂品种的效应也存在明显差异.因此,在农田温室气体排放估算时应考虑除草剂的施用对温室气体减排所产生的效果.%To assess the effects of herbicides on greenhouse gases emission from vegetable plantation soil, an incubation experiment was conducted under laboratory condition with 4 treatments including control, urea, urea+glyphosate and urea+butachlor, and 200 mgN·kg-1 dry soil and 10 mg active ingredient·kg-1 dry soil were applied in urea and herbicides treatments respectively. The experimental results showed that nitrogen fertilizer greatly increased greenhouse gases N2O、CO2 and CH4 emission from the soil, but glyphosate reduced N2O and CO2 emission by 48.4% and 20.2% contrast to urea treatment respectively; butachlor reduced N2O emission 23.2%, not significantly reduced CO2 emission; however, glyphosate and butachlor had no effect on CH4 emission. These indicated the effective influences and the differences of different herbicides on greenhouse gases emission. Therefore, effects of herbicides on greenhouse gases emission should be taken into account in estimation of total greenhouse gases emission amount from agricultural soils in the future.

  14. Effect of Temperature on Imago Life Span, Fecundity and Reproduction Rate of Greenhouse Whitefly (T. vaporariorum W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelija Perić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Imago life span, fecundity and survival rate of the different developmental stages and average abundance of female offspring of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum were studied at three constant (18, 22 and 27°C and one alternating (18/7°C temperature.Temperature highs are inversely proportionate to imago life span. Temperature increase from 18/7°C to 27°C decreased the whitefly life span 3.3-fold. Under 18°C and 22°C, whitefly laid eggs most abundantly (147 and 126, respectively, while fecundity decreased under lower and higher temperatures. Half the offspring of the investigated whitefly laboratory strain (49.5% were males, which resulted in lower values of reproduction and growth rates of the whitefly strain.Optimum development of greenhouse whitefly was achieved at 18°C, which is evident from a maximum number of eggs laid and highest average number of potential and actual female offspring (68.2 and 58.3, respectively, compared to the other investigated temperatures.The consequence of a 50.8-day long true generation time is evident from the low values of growth capacity (0.074 and intrinsic rate of increase (0.080. With temperature increasing to 22°C and 27°C, the period of whitefly oviposition showed a tendency to decrease further on. Higher temperatures reduced the total abundance of eggs laid and, consequently, the abundance of potential and actual female offspring, but increased growth rate.

  15. Combined effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation and doubled CO2 concentration on growth,fruit quality and yield of tomato in winter plastic greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fangmin; WANG Jun; CHEN Yuping; ZOU Zhirong; WANG Xunling; YUE Ming

    2007-01-01

    Five different doses of ultraviolet-B (UV-B)radiation were supplied to tomato (Lycopersicon esculeutum.in the winter plastic greenhouse.The influences on the seedling growth,fruit quality and yield of tomato were investigated.Results showed that the seedling growth,and the contents of UV absorbing compounds,soluble sugar,organic acid,vitamin C and lycopene of tomato fruits,and yield of tomato increased under doubled CO2 concentration.Under the doubled CO2 concentration the effects of lost doses of UV-B radiation could further promote the effects of doubled CO:concentration.However,there is no significant increase in yield of tomato.The best dose of UV-B radiation is about 1.163 kJ.m-2.When the dose of UV-B radiation is more than it,the effects of UV-B will be reduced.

  16. Evaluation of human-induced vibration of continuous footbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Robaa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of construction materials and the introduction of high strength steel and concrete, the human-induced vibration became a dominant criterion for the design of pedestrian bridges. Currently, longer spans and lightweight bridges have been comprised in most of design trends. This leads to lower the natural frequencies of the system which have a great effect on the dynamic performance of bridges subjected to human activities. Although the design of steel footbridges could reach the optimum level of design in terms of strength criterion, it might not reach the acceptance level for vibration condition. This will enforce the designer to choose section profiles with higher inertia to enhance stiffness of the whole system. This paper presents an overall assessment for floor vibration problem due to pedestrian induced vertical forces on continuous composite footbridges. The footfall method presented by concrete centre “CCIP-016” is adopted in this study to evaluate the response factor and acceleration of pedestrian bridges using a FEA software package “Robot Structural Analysis”.

  17. Forests and the national greenhouse gas inventory of Germany. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland. 28-30 Sep 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baritz R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995, experiences have been gathered with the calculation of National Greenhouse Gas Inventories in Germany. Because only marginal changes of the total forested area occur in Germany, relevant changes of the balance of greenhouse gases in the forest sector are related to forest management. It was found that the increment of wood by far exceeds the harvested timber volume. Therefore, forests in Germany currently represent a significant sink for carbon (8-9 Mt C per year. In the context of the Kyoto Protocol, area afforested, reforested and deforested (Afforestation Reforestation Deforestation under Intergovernemental Panel on Climate Change definitions is small. In contrast to the high quality of data from national forest inventories, reporting of Afforestation Reforestation Deforestation areas involves high error due to lacks and inconsistencies in national land-use statistics.

  18. Next Generation of Greenhouse Cultivation Courgette. Effects of a new cultivation concept on climate and energy consumption in greenhouses; Het Nieuwe Telen Courgette. Effecten van een nieuw teeltconcept op kasklimaat en energiegebruik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaphorst, M.; Janse, J.; Kempkes, F. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Several components of Next Generation Greenhouse Cultivation'' can be used at the cultivation of squash to save on the heat demand. A movable screen is almost always feasible. For early crops, we also advise a fixed transparent insulation sheet. Because squash tolerates high humidities, installing fans and tubes for the injection of dry outside air into the greenhouse, is not economic feasible [Dutch] Voor courgette kunnen verschillende onderdelen van Het Nieuwe Telen worden toegepast om te besparen op de warmtevraag. Een beweegbaar scherm is al snel rendabel, en bij vroege teelten is daarnaast ook een vast folie aan te raden. Doordat courgette relatief tolerant is voor een hoge luchtvochtigheid, is een installatie die droge buitenlucht inblaast hier nauwelijks rendabel.

  19. Stable bearing capacity coculation of greenhouse structures considering skin effect of covering material%考虑覆盖材料蒙皮效应的温室结构稳定承载力计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁敏; 李密密; 施旭栋; 张鹏; 蒋秀根

    2016-01-01

    The greenhouse is a kind of agriculture production building facilities. It should bear all kinds of loads, including the loads induced by gravity, improper operation, and live loads, such as wind load and snow load. At the present time, a large number of research studies on greenhouse have focused on illumination, temperature, gas and humidity, whereas there are few researches published on greenhouse structures, especially on greenhouse structure design theory taking the supporting role of covering materials into account. It is necessary to carry out the research on space robustness of greenhouse structure by bringing the design work condition into correspondence with the actual work condition. Then three types of greenhouse including Huabei-type greenhouse, venlo greenhouse and sunlight greenhouse, were chosen to be prototypes, and the numerical simulations on the overall collapse process of single hinged frame, whole frame structure, whole frame structure with plate glass covering, whole frame structure with PC board covering, and whole frame structure with membrane covering under windstorm and snowstorm were carried out by using finite element analysis software ANSYS with consideration of geometric imperfections, material nonlinearity and geometric large deformation. The collapse modes of greenhouse structure and the corresponding load-displacement curves were obtained. The stable bearing capacity and the space robustness of greenhouse structures were analyzed under three typical weather disasters. At the same time their ultimate load coefficient and stable bearing capacity coefficient were provided. The results showed that buckling failure mode happens easily for greenhouse structure under vertical snow load, the whole structure bearing capacity was higher for greenhouse structure under horizontal wind load considering skin effect of covering material. It was due to more compression-flexure members existing in greenhouse structure under vertical snow load than

  20. Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

    2014-01-15

    Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ≤ 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted.