WorldWideScience

Sample records for human-induced disasters declining

  1. Can a Human-Induced Climate Disaster be Avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are one of the greatest threats to our future prosperity. World emissions are currently around 50 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide-equivalent per annum and are growing rapidly. Atmospheric concentrations of GHG emissions in the atmosphere have increased, to over 400ppm of CO2e today, even after taking the offsetting radiative effects of aerosols into account, and are increasing at a rate of around 2.5ppm per year. The world's current lack of "adequate" commitments to reduce emissions are consistent with at least a 3oC rise (50-50 chance) in temperature: a temperature not seen on the planet for around 3 million years, with serious risks of 5oC rise: a temperature not seen on the planet for around 30 million years. So what are the implications of a 3-5oC rise in temperature, with associated changes in, rising sea levels, retreating mountain glaciers, melting of the Greenland ice cap, shrinking Arctic Sea ice, especially in summer, increasing frequency of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, and droughts, and intensification of cyclonic events, such as hurricanes in the Atlantic. Even a 2oC increase in mean surface temperatures will adversely affect freshwater, food and fiber, natural ecosystems, coastal systems and low-lying areas, human health and social systems, especially in developing countries. The impacts of 3-5oC will be extensive, predominantly negative, undermine development and poverty alleviation goals and cut across most sectors. To address human-induced climate change requires a transition to a low carbon economy, which will require rapid technological evolution in the efficiency of energy use, environmentally sound low-carbon renewable energy sources and carbon capture and storage. The longer we wait to transition to a low carbon economy the more we are locked into a high carbon energy system with consequent environmental damage to ecological and socio-economic systems. Unfortunately the political will

  2. Natural disaster vulnerability and human-induced pressure assessment in small islands developing states: A case study in the Union of the Comoros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, S.; Meddeb, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Comoros Islands are part of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) located in the Indian Ocean. SIDS are islands and low-lying coastal nations that face common barriers to sustainable development, including limited resources, poor economic resilience, and vulnerability to sea level rise and natural disasters. The Comoros Archipelago is made up of four islands but the present study was conducted on three islands, namely Mwali (Mohéli), Ngazidja (Grande Comore) and Dzwani (Anjouan) that are aligned in the Mozambique Channel and spread over a surface area of 1862 km2. These islands are exposed to natural disaster coupled with human-induced pressure on natural resources. The major natural disaster vulnerability has been identified by the National AdaptationProgramme of Action (NAPA, 2006) as climate change, whose likely adverse impacts on the Comoros Islands are: i) changes in rainfall patterns; ii) increases in temperature; iii) salinization of coastal aquifers as a result of salt water intrusion due to sea level rise; and iv) increased frequency of severe weather conditions (such as tropical cyclones, droughts, heavy rainfall and flooding). In addition, existing practices related to natural resources management (primarily land, forest and water management) are very poor and this failure is increasingly threatening water and food security, resulting in a decline of economic growth and standards of living within the Comoros. Human-induced pressure combined with climate change impact is the inherent vulnerabilities of these islands. The government of the Union of the Comoros is aware of the alarming nature of climate change impact and has put in place several projects aiming at implementing adaptation measures in order to help increase the resilience of the vulnerable population in the face of this threat. These projects involve strengthening institutions, policy and regulations so as to improve the management of natural resources, among other measures. The

  3. Economic development and declining vulnerability to climate-related disasters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jidong; Han, Guoyi; Zhou, Hongjian; Li, Ning

    2018-03-01

    Exposure and vulnerability are the main contributing factors of growing impact from climate-related disasters globally. Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamic patterns of vulnerability is important for designing effective disaster risk mitigation and adaptation measures. At national scale, most cross-country studies have suggested that economic vulnerability to disasters decreases as income increases, especially for developing countries. Research covering sub-national climate-related natural disasters is indispensable to obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the effect of regional economic growth on vulnerability reduction. Taking China as a case, this subnational scale study shows that economic development is correlated with the significant reduction in human fatalities but increase in direct economic losses (DELs) from climate-related disasters since 1949. The long-term trend in climate-related disaster vulnerability, reflected by mortality (1978-2015) and DELs (1990-2015) as a share of the total population and Gross Domestic Product, has seen significant decline among all economic regions in China. While notable differences remain among its West, Central and East economic regions, the temporal vulnerability change has been converging. The study further demonstrated that economic development level is correlated with human and economic vulnerability to climate-related disasters, and this vulnerability decreased with the increase of per-capita income. This study suggested that economic development can have nuanced effects on overall human and economic vulnerability to climate-related disasters. We argue that climate change science needs to acknowledge and examine the different pathways of vulnerability effects related to economic development.

  4. Hotspots of human-induced biomass productivity decline and their social-ecological types toward supporting national policy and local studies on combating land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Quyet Manh; Le, Quang Bao; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2014-10-01

    Identification and social-ecological characterization of areas that experience high levels of persistent productivity decline are essential for planning appropriate management measures. Although land degradation is mainly induced by human actions, the phenomenon is concurrently influenced by global climate changes that need to be taken into account in land degradation assessments. This study aims to delineate the geographic hotspots of human-induced land degradation in the country and classify the social-ecological characterizations of each specific degradation hotspot type. The research entailed a long-term time-series (1982-2006) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index to specify the extents of areas with significant biomass decline or increase in Vietnam. Annual rainfall and temperature time-series were then used to separate areas of human-induced biomass productivity decline from those driven by climate dynamics. Next, spatial cluster analyses identified social-ecological types of degradation for guiding further investigations at regional and local scales. The results show that about 19% of the national land mass experienced persistent declines in biomass productivity over the last 25 years. Most of the degraded areas are found in the Southeast and Mekong River Delta (17,984 km2), Northwest Mountains (14,336 km2), and Central Highlands (13,504 km2). We identified six and five social-ecological types of degradation hotspots in agricultural and forested zones, respectively. Constraints in soil nutrient availability and nutrient retention capability are widely spreading in all degradation hotspot types. These hotspot types are different from each other in social and ecological conditions, suggesting that region-specific strategies are needed for the formulation of land degradation combating policy.

  5. 13 CFR 123.412 - What happens if SBA declines your business' pre-disaster mitigation loan request?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...' loan request, SBA will notify your business in writing giving specific reasons for decline. If your... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if SBA declines your business' pre-disaster mitigation loan request? 123.412 Section 123.412 Business Credit and Assistance...

  6. Social capital and cognitive decline in the aftermath of a natural disaster: a natural experiment from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Tsuboya, Toru; Aida, Jun; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Kondo, Katsunori; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    We examined prospectively whether social capital mitigates the adverse effects of natural disaster on cognitive decline. The baseline for our study was established seven months before the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived 80 kilometers west of the epicenter (59.0% response rate). Approximately two and a half years after the disaster, the follow-up survey gathered information about personal experiences of disaster as well as incidence of cognitive disability (82.1% follow-up rate). Our primary outcome was cognitive disability (measured on an 8-level scale) assessed by in-home assessment. The experience of housing damage was associated with risk of cognitive impairment (coefficient = 0.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.02 to 0.06). Factor analysis of our analytic sample (n = 3,566) established two sub-scales of social capital: a cognitive dimension (perceptions of community social cohesion) and a structural dimension (informal socializing and social participation). Fixed effects regression showed that informal socializing and social participation buffered the risk of cognitive decline resulting from housing damage. Informal socializing and social participation may prevent cognitive impairment following natural disaster. National Institutes of Health (R01AG042463-04), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  7. Human-induced Arctic moistening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis

    2008-04-25

    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  8. Disaster Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given the tendency of books on disasters to predominantly focus on strong geophysical or descriptive perspectives and in-depth accounts of particular catastrophes, Disaster Research provides a much-needed multidisciplinary perspective of the area. This book is is structured thematically around key...... approaches to disaster research from a range of different, but often complementary academic disciplines. Each chapter presents distinct approaches to disaster research that is anchored in a particular discipline; ranging from the law of disasters and disaster historiography to disaster politics...... and anthropology of disaster. The methodological and theoretical contributions underlining a specific approach to disasters are discussed and illustrative empirical cases are examined that support and further inform the proposed approach to disaster research. The book thus provides unique insights into fourteen...

  9. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  10. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...

  12. Asset pricing under rational learning about rare disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Koulovatianos, Christos; Wieland, Volker

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach for modeling investor fear after rare disasters. The key element is to take into account that investors’ information about fundamentals driving rare downward jumps in the dividend process is not perfect. Bayesian learning implies that beliefs about the likelihood of rare disasters drop to a much more pessimistic level once a disaster has occurred. Such a shift in beliefs can trigger massive declines in price-dividend ratios. Pessimistic beliefs persist for s...

  13. Some international perspectives on legislation for the management of human-induced safety risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Niemand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legislation that governs the health and safety of communities near major-hazard installations in South Africa is largely based on existing legislation that had been developed in the United Kingdom and other European Union countries. The latter was developed as a consequence of several major human-induced technological disasters in Europe. The history of the evolution of health-and-safety legislation for the protection of vulnerable communities in European Union (EU countries, France, Malaysia and the USA is explored through a literature survey. A concise comparison is drawn between EU countries, the USA and South Africa to obtain an exploratory view of whether current South-African legislation represents an optimum model for the protection of the health-and-safety of workers and communities near major-hazard installations. The authors come to the conclusion that South-African legislation needs revision as was done in the UK in 2011. Specific areas in the legislation that need revision are an overlap between occupational health and safety and environmental legislation, appropriate land-use planning for the protection of communities near major-hazard installations, the inclusion of vulnerability studies and the refinement of appropriate decision-making instruments such as risk assessment. This article is the first in a series that forms part of a broader study aimed at the development of an optimised model for the regulatory management of human-induced health and safety risks associated with hazardous installations in South Africa.

  14. Human-induced geomorphic change across environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, V.; Molina, A.; Bellin, N.; Christl, M.

    2016-12-01

    Human-induced land cover changes are causing important adverse effects on the ecological services rendered by mountain ecosystems, and the number of case-studies of the impact of humans on soil erosion and sediment yield has mounted rapidly. Anthropogenic disturbance of natural vegetation can profoundly alter the physical, chemical and biological processes within soils. Rapid removal of topsoil during intense farming can result in an imbalance between soil production through chemical weathering and physical soil erosion, with direct implications on nutrient cycling, soil fertility and agricultural production. In this study, we present a conceptual model for assessing human-induced erosion for a wide variety of environmental settings and pose that human-induced geomorphic change cannot be assessed solely based on modern erosion rates as natural or baseline erosion rates can be important in e.g. mountainous terrain. As such, we assess the vulnerability of a given ecosystem to human-induced land cover change by quantifying the change in catchment-wide erosion rates resulting from anthropogenic changes in vegetation cover. Human-induced erosion is here approximated by the ratio of the total specific sediment yield to the natural erosional mass flux, and is dimensionless. The conceptual model is applied to three contrasting environmental settings where data on soil production, physical soil erosion and long-term denudation are available: the tropical Andes, subtropical southern Brazil, and semi-arid Spanish Cordillera. The magnitude of human-induced geomorphic change strongly differs between the three regions. The data suggest that the sensitivity to human-induced erosion is ecosystem dependent, and related to soil erosivity and potential vegetation cover disturbances as a result of human impact. It may therefore be expected that the potential for erosion regulation is larger in well-vegetated ecosystem where strong differences may exist in vegetation cover between

  15. Some Ethical Concerns About Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue Liang

    2016-10-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells can be obtained from somatic cells, and their derivation does not require destruction of embryos, thus avoiding ethical problems arising from the destruction of human embryos. This type of stem cell may provide an important tool for stem cell therapy, but it also results in some ethical concerns. It is likely that abnormal reprogramming occurs in the induction of human induced pluripotent stem cells, and that the stem cells generate tumors in the process of stem cell therapy. Human induced pluripotent stem cells should not be used to clone human beings, to produce human germ cells, nor to make human embryos. Informed consent should be obtained from patients in stem cell therapy.

  16. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  17. Disaster in Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illner, Peer

    initiatives and bottom-up organising as the preferred method to combat disaster. Once construed as strictly a responsibility of the state, the mitigation and management of disasters has shifted since the 1970s into a matter for civil society: a shift which has been heralded as progressive, democratic...... the banner of disaster. Focussing on the modifications to disaster management in the United States between 1970 and 2012, I show how the inclusion of civil society in the provision of aid services was accompanied by a structural withdrawal of the state from disaster relief and other welfare services. I...... contextualise this withdrawal in the US government’s general turn to austerity in response to the economic crisis of the 1970s. My account couples the notion of disaster with that of economic crisis on the one hand and structural violence on the other to examine disasters as a specific problem for social...

  18. Global Assessment of Human-induced Soil Degradation (GLASOD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldeman, L.R.; Hakkeling, R.T.A.; Sombroek, W.G.; Batjes, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    The GLASOD project (1987-1990) has produced a world map of human-induced soil degradation. Data were complied in cooperation with a large number of soil scientists throughout the world, using uniform Guidelines and international correlation. The status of soil degradation was mapped within loosely

  19. The Hyogo Framework for Action and its implications for disaster management and reduction in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available At the World Conference on Disaster Reduction, Hyogo, Japan, in January 2005, the international community adopted a 10-year plan to make the world safer from disasters. The resultant Hyogo Framework for Action is the global blueprint for disaster risk reduction with the goal of substantially reducing disaster losses in human lives and socio-economic assets. What is the signi!cance of the HFA for the adoption of disaster prevention, management and risk reduction frameworks in African States? Since 2005, what has been the attitude of African States to the promise of the HFA? In terms of policy and planning, how should African States engage the HFA towards securing human lives and properties against natural and human-induced disasters? With the myriad challenges of mass poverty and underdevelopment across Africa, what implications does the HFA hold for disaster risk reduction and management in African States? This article attempts to address this plethora of questions, drawing on lessons learned in Africa and beyond. The article examines the background of the HFA and its progress in shaping the global policy agenda towards disaster management and reduction. While the article acknowledges some of the inherent weaknesses in the promise of the HFA, it nonetheless accentuates its inimitable implications for broad legal and policy strategies towards ameliorating the usual horrific aftermath of disasters in Africa.

  20. Disaster mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  1. Disaster mitigation: initial response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, George; Richards, Michael; Chicarelli, Michael; Ernst, Amy; Harrell, Andrew; Stites, Danniel

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to stimulate the reader's considerations for developing community disaster mitigation. Disaster mitigation begins long before impact and is defined as the actions taken by a community to eliminate or minimize the impact of a disaster. The assessment of vulnerabilities, the development of infrastructure, memoranda of understanding, and planning for a sustainable response and recovery are parts of the process. Empowering leadership and citizens with knowledge of available resources through the planning and development of a disaster response can strengthen a community's resilience, which can only add to the viability and quality of life enjoyed by the entire community.

  2. Preparing for Disaster: Taking the Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colber, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Irwin Redlener, director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness describes disasters in relation to five phases that may serve as a helpful framework for planning disaster response: (1) before the disaster (pre-disaster); (2) during the disaster (intra-disaster); (3) immediately after the disaster (immediate…

  3. Innovative shelter for disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.A.; Akkerman, M.S.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Haas, de T.C.A.; Brouwer, E.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Disasters cause tremendous material and immaterial damage to people and their habitat. During the first days after the disaster the victims have to be provided with food, shelter, security, health care and registration. For sheltering, depending on the local circumstances, tents are often used for a

  4. Evaluation of human-induced vibration of continuous footbridges

    OpenAIRE

    El-Robaa Ahmed; Gaawan Sameh; Malek Charles

    2015-01-01

    With the development of construction materials and the introduction of high strength steel and concrete, the human-induced vibration became a dominant criterion for the design of pedestrian bridges. Currently, longer spans and lightweight bridges have been comprised in most of design trends. This leads to lower the natural frequencies of the system which have a great effect on the dynamic performance of bridges subjected to human activities. Although the design of steel footbridges could reac...

  5. The Economics and Ethics of Human Induced Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.; Gattringer, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Human induced climate change poses a series of ethical challenges to the current political economy, although it has often be regarded by economists as only an ethical issue for those concerned about future generations. The central debate in economics has then concerned the rate at which future costs and benefits should be discounted. Indeed the full range of ethical aspects of climate change are rarely even discussed. Despite recent high profile and lengthy academic papers on t...

  6. Behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Ulla; Candolin, Ulrika

    2011-08-01

    The initial response of individuals to human-induced environmental change is often behavioural. This can improve the performance of individuals under sudden, large-scale perturbations and maintain viable populations. The response can also give additional time for genetic changes to arise and, hence, facilitate adaptation to new conditions. On the other hand, maladaptive responses, which reduce individual fitness, may occur when individuals encounter conditions that the population has not experienced during its evolutionary history, which can decrease population viability. A growing number of studies find human disturbances to induce behavioural responses, both directly and by altering factors that influence fitness. Common causes of behavioural responses are changes in the transmission of information, the concentration of endocrine disrupters, the availability of resources, the possibility of dispersal, and the abundance of interacting species. Frequent responses are alterations in habitat choice, movements, foraging, social behaviour and reproductive behaviour. Behavioural responses depend on the genetically determined reaction norm of the individuals, which evolves over generations. Populations first respond with individual behavioural plasticity, whereafter changes may arise through innovations and the social transmission of behavioural patterns within and across generations, and, finally, by evolution of the behavioural response over generations. Only a restricted number of species show behavioural adaptations that make them thrive in severely disturbed environments. Hence, rapid human-induced disturbances often decrease the diversity of native species, while facilitating the spread of invasive species with highly plastic behaviours. Consequently, behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change can have profound effects on the distribution, adaptation, speciation and extinction of populations and, hence, on biodiversity. A better understanding of

  7. Agent-based simulation for human-induced hazard analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulleit, William M; Drewek, Matthew W

    2011-02-01

    Terrorism could be treated as a hazard for design purposes. For instance, the terrorist hazard could be analyzed in a manner similar to the way that seismic hazard is handled. No matter how terrorism is dealt with in the design of systems, the need for predictions of the frequency and magnitude of the hazard will be required. And, if the human-induced hazard is to be designed for in a manner analogous to natural hazards, then the predictions should be probabilistic in nature. The model described in this article is a prototype model that used agent-based modeling (ABM) to analyze terrorist attacks. The basic approach in this article of using ABM to model human-induced hazards has been preliminarily validated in the sense that the attack magnitudes seem to be power-law distributed and attacks occur mostly in regions where high levels of wealth pass through, such as transit routes and markets. The model developed in this study indicates that ABM is a viable approach to modeling socioeconomic-based infrastructure systems for engineering design to deal with human-induced hazards. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Epidemics after Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings. PMID:17370508

  9. Decline traffic information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Plessis, K [Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), Sydney (Australia)

    2007-09-06

    BHP Billion (BHPB) Cannington has experienced problems in regards to their traffic flow in the decline at the mine. The problems related to reports on near misses of vehicles moving towards each other in the decline. The decline is also to narrow for trucks to pass each other and the operators need to be aware of oncoming traffic in the decline to ensure they could take early evasive steps to ensure the rules of right of way in the decline are adhered to. BHPB Cannington requested CSC to conduct a problem analysis and to provide a solutions proposal to Cannington. The solution was put forward as an augmentation of their current safety procedures used with in the decline. During this phase of the project CSC developed a solutions architecture which involved the use of Active (Radio Frequency Identification) RFID tagging which will enable vehicle movement tracking on a real time basis after which the appropriate traffic movement can be relayed to the operators in the decline. The primary objective of the DTIS is to provide accurate information of traffic movement in the decline and present that information to the operators of the decline IN THE DECLINE upon which they would make their decisions. (orig.)

  10. Developing disaster management modules: a collaborative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Valerie

    Disasters, whether natural or human induced, can strike when least expected. The events of 9/11 in the US, the 7/7 bombings in the UK, and the anthrax incident in the US on 10th October 2001 indicate that there is a need to have a nursing workforce who is able to respond effectively to mass casualty events and incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear substances. Multi-agency collaboration is one of the fundamental principles of disaster preparedness and response. It was therefore necessary to take a similar multi-agency collaborative approach to develop modules on the management of mass casualty events and incidents involving hazardous substances. The modules are offered to registered nurses and registered paramedics. They can be taken independently or as part of a BSc in nursing or health pathway, on a part-time basis. Since the commencement of the modules in September 2004, registered paramedics and registered nurses who work in a wide range of specialties have accessed them.

  11. Natural disasters and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bruce; Alatas, Mohammad Fahmi; Robertson, Andrew; Steer, Henry

    2011-04-01

    As the world population expands, an increasing number of people are living in areas which may be threatened by natural disasters. Most of these major natural disasters occur in the Asian region. Pulmonary complications are common following natural disasters and can result from direct insults to the lung or may be indirect, secondary to overcrowding and the collapse in infrastructure and health-care systems which often occur in the aftermath of a disaster. Delivery of health care in disaster situations is challenging and anticipation of the types of clinical and public health problems faced in disaster situations is crucial when preparing disaster responses. In this article we review the pulmonary effects of natural disasters in the immediate setting and in the post-disaster aftermath and we discuss how this could inform planning for future disasters. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  12. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark. The longit...... but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  13. Coping with Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or friends. On-going stress from the secondary effects of disaster, such as temporarily living elsewhere, loss of friends and social networks, loss of personal property, parental unemployment, and costs ...

  14. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  15. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  16. Disaster Distress Helpline: Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook . Resources Helpline Brochure Helpline Wallet Card Disaster Kit Back To Top SAMHSA Quick Links + SAMHSA.gov Homepage Accessibility Privacy Disclaimer Viewers & Plugins FOIA Plain Language Site Map SAMHSA Archive Strategic Initiatives Health Financing Prevention ...

  17. Disaster Distress Helpline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook . Resources Helpline Brochure Helpline Wallet Card Disaster Kit Back To Top SAMHSA Quick Links + SAMHSA.gov Homepage Accessibility Privacy Disclaimer Viewers & Plugins FOIA Plain Language Site Map SAMHSA Archive Strategic Initiatives Health Financing Prevention ...

  18. Stealth Disasters and Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Susan W.

    2013-04-01

    Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility

  19. Disaster medicine. Mental care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haginoya, Masato; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2012-01-01

    Described are 5 essential comments of view concerning the post-disaster psychiatric care through authors' experience at the aid of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami including Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Firstly, at the acute phase of disaster, the ensured safe place, sleep and rest are necessary as a direct aid of sufferers and their family. Insomnia is seen in many of them and can partly be a prodrome of disorders like post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). US Psychological First Aid (PFA) is useful for a guide of the initial aid for disaster, and translated Japanese version is available free. Public anxiety as a psychological effect can be caused even out of the disaster-stricken area by such factors as on-site news reports (inducing identification), internet information, economical and social confusion, forecasted radiation hazard, etc. Cool-headed understanding is required for them and particularly for complicated radiological information. The system for psychiatric treatment is needed as exemplified by its temporary lack due to the radiation disaster near the Plant and consequent prompt dispatch of psychiatrists from Dokkyo Medical University. Survived sufferers' grief and bereavement are said to tend to last long, to be complicated and deteriorated, indicating the necessity of management of continuous mental health. Alcoholism as a result to avoid those feelings should be noted. Finally, pointed out is the mental care for supporters working for recovery from the disaster, like policeman, Self-Defense Force member, fireman, doctor, nurse, officer, volunteer and many others concerned, because PTSD prevalence is reported to amount to 12.4% of rescue and recovery workers of US World Trade Center Disaster (9.11) even 2-3 years after. (T.T.)

  20. ROBUST DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutawanir Darwis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.

  1. US Historic Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This programs derives a table of secular change in magnetic declination for a specified point in the conterminous United States. It utilizes the USD polynomial and...

  2. 77 FR 60004 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13307 and 13308] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/21/2012. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Centre. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Blair...

  3. 76 FR 30749 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12594 and 12595] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 05/18/2011. Incident... disaster: Primary Counties: Cumberland. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Adams, Dauphin, Franklin, Perry...

  4. 78 FR 52600 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00063

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13722 and 13723] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 08/14/2013. Incident: Severe... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Lawrence. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Beaver...

  5. 77 FR 65044 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13346 and 13347] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 10/18/2012. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Montgomery. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Berks...

  6. 76 FR 5647 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12449 and 12450] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/25/2011. Incident... the disaster: Primary Counties: Philadelphia. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Bucks, Delaware...

  7. 75 FR 71486 - Pennsylvania Disaster # PA-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12389 and 12390] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 11/15/2010. Incident: Severe... the disaster: Primary Counties: Delaware. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Chester, Montgomery...

  8. 75 FR 2165 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12002 and 12003] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/07/2010. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Centre. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Blair...

  9. 78 FR 47814 - Pennsylvania Disaster # PA-00059

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13676 and 13677] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of PENNSYLVANIA dated 07/29/2013. Incident: Severe... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Allegheny. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania...

  10. 78 FR 60366 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00064

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13777 and 13778] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/24/2013. Incident: Storms... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Armstrong. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania...

  11. Disaster Metrics: A Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Diana F; Spencer, Caroline; Boyd, Lee; Burkle, Frederick M; Archer, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Introduction The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level. Hypothesis/Problem While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies. The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and "grey literature") was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting. No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a "Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies" that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected. The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single

  12. A Dictionary of Disaster Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier; Dahlberg, Rasmus

    A Dictionary of Disaster Management offers over 200 terms covering different disasters from a social science perspective, brining together insights from many different disciplines including sociology, political science, history, anthropology, and natural science. It also features practical terms...

  13. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  14. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  15. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  16. Winged messengers of disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The work of the Soviet ecologists, led by A.I. Il'enko, on birds in the southern Urals area, site of the nuclear disaster in 1958, is discussed. The distribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in birds, food chains in a large running-water lake, bird migration patterns, and nest conservatism of ducks have been studied. It is pointed out that the existence of migratory species among contaminated species of the southern Urals provides an opportunity for observers in the West to test the truth about the 1958 nuclear disaster in the southern Urals. It is felt that the reports discussed here corroborate the author's original statement that the Urals nuclear disaster involved nuclear waste rather than a major reactor accident. (U.K.)

  17. Natural disasters and human mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbaye, L.; Zimmermann, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that

  18. Demographics of an ornate box turtle population experiencing minimal human-induced disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, S.J.; Iverson, J.B.; Savidge, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Human-induced disturbances may threaten the viability of many turtle populations, including populations of North American box turtles. Evaluation of the potential impacts of these disturbances can be aided by long-term studies of populations subject to minimal human activity. In such a population of ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata) in western Nebraska, we examined survival rates and population growth rates from 1981-2000 based on mark-recapture data. The average annual apparent survival rate of adult males was 0.883 (SE = 0.021) and of adult females was 0.932 (SE = 0.014). Minimum winter temperature was the best of five climate variables as a predictor of adult survival. Survival rates were highest in years with low minimum winter temperatures, suggesting that global warming may result in declining survival. We estimated an average adult population growth rate (????) of 1.006 (SE = 0.065), with an estimated temporal process variance (????2) of 0.029 (95% CI = 0.005-0.176). Stochastic simulations suggest that this mean and temporal process variance would result in a 58% probability of a population decrease over a 20-year period. This research provides evidence that, unless unknown density-dependent mechanisms are operating in the adult age class, significant human disturbances, such as commercial harvest or turtle mortality on roads, represent a potential risk to box turtle populations. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Forest decline through radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, G.; Kollert, R.

    1985-01-01

    Is more serious damage of forest observed in the vicinity of nuclear reactors. How are those decline patterns to be explained. Does the combined effect of radioactivity and different air pollutants (such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, oxidants etc.) have an influence in the decline of the forest. In what way do synergisms, i.e. mutually enhanced effects, participate. How does natural and artificial radioactivity affect the chemistry of air in the polluted atmosphere. What does this mean for the extension of nuclear energy, especially for the reprocessing plant planned. Damage in the forests near nuclear and industrial plants was mapped and the resulting hypotheses on possible emittors were statistically verified. Quantitative calculations as to the connection between nuclear energy and forest decline were carried through: they demand action. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark, 1963......-2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...... in new resources to the cluster but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  1. Emerging trends in disaster management and the Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging trends in disaster management and the Ethiopian experience: genesis, reform and transformation. ... Journal of Business and Administrative Studies ... Key words: disaster management, drought, pre-disaster action, post-disaster action, hazards, disaster, Ethiopian disaster management system, Ethiopia.

  2. Translocal disaster interventions:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2018-01-01

    The disaster-prone Philippine archipelago is a major sender of migrants worldwide.Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Philippines and Denmark, this article investi-gates how individual migrants channelled relief to their neighbourhoods of originafter the Bohol earthquake of 2013. I argue that ...

  3. Food for Disasters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  4. Decline and infiltrated lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Arboleda Casas, Felipe; Duarte, Monica; Triana Harker, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the decline and infiltrated lung in a patient of 45 years, with diagnosis of arthritis rheumatoid from the 43 years, asymptomatic, without treatment, married, of the 15 to the 35 years of 3 to 10 cigarettes daily, she refers of 7 months of evolution episodes of moderate dyspnoea with exercises and dry cough with occasional mucous expectoration between others

  5. Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Model Skeletal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barruet, Emilie; Hsiao, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders affecting the bones and joints are major health problems among children and adults. Major challenges such as the genetic origins or poor diagnostics of severe skeletal disease hinder our understanding of human skeletal diseases. The recent advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (human iPS cells) provides an unparalleled opportunity to create human-specific models of human skeletal diseases. iPS cells have the ability to self-renew, allowing us to obtain large amounts of starting material, and have the potential to differentiate into any cell types in the body. In addition, they can carry one or more mutations responsible for the disease of interest or be genetically corrected to create isogenic controls. Our work has focused on modeling rare musculoskeletal disorders including fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive (FOP), a congenital disease of increased heterotopic ossification. In this review, we will discuss our experiences and protocols differentiating human iPS cells toward the osteogenic lineage and their application to model skeletal diseases. A number of critical challenges and exciting new approaches are also discussed, which will allow the skeletal biology field to harness the potential of human iPS cells as a critical model system for understanding diseases of abnormal skeletal formation and bone regeneration.

  6. Evaluation of human-induced vibration of continuous footbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Robaa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of construction materials and the introduction of high strength steel and concrete, the human-induced vibration became a dominant criterion for the design of pedestrian bridges. Currently, longer spans and lightweight bridges have been comprised in most of design trends. This leads to lower the natural frequencies of the system which have a great effect on the dynamic performance of bridges subjected to human activities. Although the design of steel footbridges could reach the optimum level of design in terms of strength criterion, it might not reach the acceptance level for vibration condition. This will enforce the designer to choose section profiles with higher inertia to enhance stiffness of the whole system. This paper presents an overall assessment for floor vibration problem due to pedestrian induced vertical forces on continuous composite footbridges. The footfall method presented by concrete centre “CCIP-016” is adopted in this study to evaluate the response factor and acceleration of pedestrian bridges using a FEA software package “Robot Structural Analysis”.

  7. Generation of functional podocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osele Ciampi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Generating human podocytes in vitro could offer a unique opportunity to study human diseases. Here, we describe a simple and efficient protocol for obtaining functional podocytes in vitro from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Cells were exposed to a three-step protocol, which induced their differentiation into intermediate mesoderm, then into nephron progenitors and, finally, into mature podocytes. After differentiation, cells expressed the main podocyte markers, such as synaptopodin, WT1, α-Actinin-4, P-cadherin and nephrin at the protein and mRNA level, and showed the low proliferation rate typical of mature podocytes. Exposure to Angiotensin II significantly decreased the expression of podocyte genes and cells underwent cytoskeleton rearrangement. Cells were able to internalize albumin and self-assembled into chimeric 3D structures in combination with dissociated embryonic mouse kidney cells. Overall, these findings demonstrate the establishment of a robust protocol that, mimicking developmental stages, makes it possible to derive functional podocytes in vitro.

  8. Microtubule Abnormalities Underlying Gulf War Illness in Neurons from Human-Induced Pluripotent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), originating from GW...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0433 TITLE: Microtubule Abnormalities Underlying Gulf War Illness in Neurons from Human- Induced Pluripotent Cells ...A simple blood sample is taken from the soldier, and then transduced, using reliable established methods , to make the cells pluripotent .

  9. Academic Responses to Fukushima Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Yuko; Kamiya, Kenji; Miyatani, Rie; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Sakai, Akira; Yoshida, Koji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Chhem, Rethy; Abdel-Wahab, May; Ohtsuru, Akira

    2017-03-01

    Since radiation accidents, particularly nuclear disasters, are rarer than other types of disasters, a comprehensive radiation disaster medical curriculum for them is currently unavailable. The Fukushima compound disaster has urged the establishment of a new medical curriculum in preparation for any future complex disaster. The medical education will aim to aid decision making on various health risks for workers, vulnerable people, and residents addressing each phase in the disaster. Herein, we introduce 3 novel educational programs that have been initiated to provide students, professionals, and leaders with the knowledge of and skills to elude the social consequences of complex nuclear disasters. The first program concentrates on radiation disaster medicine for medical students at the Fukushima Medical University, together with a science, technology, and society module comprising various topics, such as public risk communication, psychosocial consequences of radiation anxiety, and decision making for radiation disaster. The second program is a Phoenix Leader PhD degree at the Hiroshima University, which aims to develop future leaders who can address the associated scientific, environmental, and social issues. The third program is a Joint Graduate School of Master's degree in the Division of Disaster and Radiation Medical Sciences at the Nagasaki University and Fukushima Medical University.

  10. Learning from mega disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    In Tokyo building on ruins has been its sine qua non ever since the city turned into an enormous urban formation in the seventeenth century: ‘The trauma of urban collapse has been so severe for us in Japan, the inevitability of destruction and rebirth’ (Arate Isozaki 2006 ). But March 2011...... the earthquake was 45 times as great as the 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake in the Tokyo area, which killed approximately 140.000 people. Even though Japan is considered one of the best-prepared countries in the world for handling major disasters the reality of a large nuclear disaster proved to be far worse than...... what was planned for. This paper presentation discusses “The Great East Japan Earthquake” of 2011 with particular focus on what happens to social relations and cultural norms, when uncertainty and crisis is something people are living through and living in....

  11. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei

    2001-01-01

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  12. Lessons from nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo

    2005-01-01

    The most severe and worst of all nuclear disasters is, needless to say, the explosion of an atomic bomb. The WHO committee on the effects of nuclear war, established in 1982, concluded that the only approach to the treatment of the health effects of nuclear warfare is primary prevention, that is, the prevention of nuclear war. Nuclear disasters have also occurred in nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities, causing various damage and acute anxiety among the workers and general public, but thus far the related health effects have not always been correctly evaluated. Such problems as exposed population, individual exposed dose and health risks which are associated with these evaluation efforts are discussed here. (author)

  13. Legislation for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Shozo

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear disaster accident clarified problems on nuclear-related legislation and its application. Legislation for nuclear disaster (LNA) could not respond to severe accident because assumed size of accident was not enough. After emergency event corresponding to the article 15 of LNA, was reported by the operator, more than two hours passed by the issuance of Emergency State Declaration. Off-site center could not work at all. This article reviewed outline of LNA and introduced discussion on the reform of legislation and its application. Reform discussion should be focused on swift and effective response readiness to emergency: 1) operator's substantial nuclear emergency drilling, (2) reinforcement of government's headquarters for emergency response, (3) after nuclear emergency, government's headquarters remained to enhance resident's safety from radiation hazard and (4) enactment of nuclear emergency preparedness guidelines for local communities. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Habitat split and the global decline of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carlos Guilherme; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista; Batista, Rômulo Fernandes; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2007-12-14

    The worldwide decline in amphibians has been attributed to several causes, especially habitat loss and disease. We identified a further factor, namely "habitat split"-defined as human-induced disconnection between habitats used by different life history stages of a species-which forces forest-associated amphibians with aquatic larvae to make risky breeding migrations between suitable aquatic and terrestrial habitats. In the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, we found that habitat split negatively affects the richness of species with aquatic larvae but not the richness of species with terrestrial development (the latter can complete their life cycle inside forest remnants). This mechanism helps to explain why species with aquatic larvae have the highest incidence of population decline. These findings reinforce the need for the conservation and restoration of riparian vegetation.

  15. Thalidomide induces apoptosis in undifferentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Saoko; Nishimura, Toshinobu; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Thalidomide, which was formerly available commercially to control the symptoms of morning sickness, is a strong teratogen that causes fetal abnormalities. However, the mechanism of thalidomide teratogenicity is not fully understood; thalidomide toxicity is not apparent in rodents, and the use of human embryos is ethically and technically untenable. In this study, we designed an experimental system featuring human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to investigate the effects of thalidomide. These cells exhibit the same characteristics as those of epiblasts originating from implanted fertilized ova, which give rise to the fetus. Therefore, theoretically, thalidomide exposure during hiPSC differentiation is equivalent to that in the human fetus. We examined the effects of thalidomide on undifferentiated hiPSCs and early-differentiated hiPSCs cultured in media containing bone morphogenetic protein-4, which correspond, respectively, to epiblast (future fetus) and trophoblast (future extra-embryonic tissue). We found that only the number of undifferentiated cells was reduced. In undifferentiated cells, application of thalidomide increased the number of apoptotic and dead cells at day 2 but not day 4. Application of thalidomide did not affect the cell cycle. Furthermore, immunostaining and flow cytometric analysis revealed that thalidomide exposure had no effect on the expression of specific markers of undifferentiated and early trophectodermal differentiated cells. These results suggest that the effect of thalidomide was successfully detected in our experimental system and that thalidomide eliminated a subpopulation of undifferentiated hiPSCs. This study may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying thalidomide teratogenicity and reveal potential strategies for safely prescribing this drug to pregnant women.

  16. Human induced pluripotent stem cells on autologous feeders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Takahashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For therapeutic usage of induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells, to accomplish xeno-free culture is critical. Previous reports have shown that human embryonic stem (ES cells can be maintained in feeder-free condition. However, absence of feeder cells can be a hostile environment for pluripotent cells and often results in karyotype abnormalities. Instead of animal feeders, human fibroblasts can be used as feeder cells of human ES cells. However, one still has to be concerned about the existence of unidentified pathogens, such as viruses and prions in these non-autologous feeders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This report demonstrates that human induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells can be established and maintained on isogenic parental feeder cells. We tested four independent human skin fibroblasts for the potential to maintain self-renewal of iPS cells. All the fibroblasts tested, as well as their conditioned medium, were capable of maintaining the undifferentiated state and normal karyotypes of iPS cells. Furthermore, human iPS cells can be generated on isogenic parental fibroblasts as feeders. These iPS cells carried on proliferation over 19 passages with undifferentiated morphologies. They expressed undifferentiated pluripotent cell markers, and could differentiate into all three germ layers via embryoid body and teratoma formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that autologous fibroblasts can be not only a source for iPS cells but also be feeder layers. Our results provide a possibility to solve the dilemma by using isogenic fibroblasts as feeder layers of iPS cells. This is an important step toward the establishment of clinical grade iPS cells.

  17. Natural Disasters and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Jon N.; Chan, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters. PMID:25644904

  18. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshiko; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  19. Gender, social norms, and survival in maritime disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, Mikael; Erixson, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Since the sinking of the Titanic, there has been a widespread belief that the social norm of “women and children first” (WCF) gives women a survival advantage over men in maritime disasters, and that captains and crew members give priority to passengers. We analyze a database of 18 maritime disasters spanning three centuries, covering the fate of over 15,000 individuals of more than 30 nationalities. Our results provide a unique picture of maritime disasters. Women have a distinct survival disadvantage compared with men. Captains and crew survive at a significantly higher rate than passengers. We also find that: the captain has the power to enforce normative behavior; there seems to be no association between duration of a disaster and the impact of social norms; women fare no better when they constitute a small share of the ship’s complement; the length of the voyage before the disaster appears to have no impact on women’s relative survival rate; the sex gap in survival rates has declined since World War I; and women have a larger disadvantage in British shipwrecks. Taken together, our findings show that human behavior in life-and-death situations is best captured by the expression “every man for himself.” PMID:22847426

  20. Methodology identification in mass disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Ampudia García, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Major disasters in Perul ack from a treatment plan and adapt to the current reality. Were rare and limited to natural disasters such as major earthquakes, floods, torrential rains, erupting volcanoes, and so on.At first these disasters were limited to certain geographic areas ingeneral,but with the advancement of science and technology these events have soared alarming lyas rail crashes, plane crashes, car crashes going at high speed,and if we add the attacks by fundamentalist groups with car...

  1. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary -shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  2. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  3. Natural Disasters (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be prepared. Games and Activities Stop Disasters (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction) - Online game to learn how to stop various disasters ... | Accessibility Videos and Players Contact Us: tehip@teh.nlm.nih. ...

  4. 76 FR 58328 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12820 and 12821] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4025-DR), dated 09/ 12..., Philadelphia, Sullivan, Wyoming. Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Pennsylvania: Berks...

  5. 78 FR 45282 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00058

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13669 and 13670] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 07/16/2013. Incident: Severe...: Pennsylvania: Armstrong; Blair; Cambria; Cameron; Centre; Clarion; Clinton; Elk; Forest; Greene; Indiana...

  6. 76 FR 58327 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12822 and 12823] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4030-DR), dated 09/ 12.... Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Pennsylvania: Berks, Carbon, Centre, Chester, Clinton...

  7. Living with disasters: social capital for disaster governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Zurita, Maria de Lourdes; Cook, Brian; Thomsen, Dana C; Munro, Paul G; Smith, Timothy F; Gallina, John

    2017-10-24

    This paper explores how social networks and bonds within and across organisations shape disaster operations and strategies. Local government disaster training exercises serve as a window through which to view these relations, and 'social capital' is used as an analytic for making sense of the human relations at the core of disaster management operations. These elements help to expose and substantiate the often intangible relations that compose the culture that exists, and that is shaped by preparations for disasters. The study reveals how this social capital has been generated through personal interactions, which are shared among disaster managers across different organisations and across 'levels' within those organisations. Recognition of these 'group resources' has significant implications for disaster management in which conducive social relations have become paramount. The paper concludes that socio-cultural relations, as well as a people-centred approach to preparations, appear to be effective means of readying for, and ultimately responding to, disasters. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  8. Disasters And Minimum Health Standards In Disaster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel GOGEN

    Full Text Available Millions of people are affected by natural or man made disasters all over the world. The number of people affected by disasters increase globally, due to global climate changes, increasing poverty, low life standards, inappropriate infrastructure, lack of early response systems, abuse of natural sources, and beside these, nuclear weapons, wars and conflicts, terrorist actions, migration, displacement and population movements. 95 % of life loss due to disasters are in the underdeveloped or developing countries. Turkey is a developing country, highly affected by disasters. For coping with disasters, not only national action plans, but also International Action Plans and cooperations are needed. Since all the disasters have direct and indirect effects on health, applications of minimal health standarts in disaster response, will reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, water supplies and sanitation, vector control, waste control, burial of corpses, nutrition and minimum health standards in disaster response, are reviewed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(12.000: 296-306

  9. 78 FR 45548 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to [[Page 45549

  10. Mangrove forest decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul; Mertz, Ole; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests in the tropics and subtropics grow in saline sediments in coastal and estuarine environments. Preservation of mangrove forests is important for many reasons, including the prevention of coastal erosion and seawater intrusion; the provision of spawning, nursery, and feeding grounds...... of diverse marine biota; and for direct use (such as firewood, charcoal, and construction material)—all of which benefit the sustainability of local communities. However, for many mangrove areas of the world, unsustainable resource utilization and the profit orientation of communities have often led to rapid...... and severe mangrove loss with serious consequences. The mangrove forests of the Takalar District, South Sulawesi, are studied here as a case area that has suffered from degradation and declining spatial extent during recent decades. On the basis of a post-classification comparison of change detection from...

  11. Major Natural Disasters in China, 1985–2014: Occurrence and Damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weixiao; Liang, Chen; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the characteristics of natural disasters and associated losses from 1985 to 2014. The Mann-Kendall method was used to detect any long-term trends and abrupt changes. Hotspot analysis was conducted to detect the spatial clusters of disasters. We found an increasing trend in the occurrence of integrated natural disasters (tau = 0.594, p natural disasters in 1998–2000. Hotspots of droughts, floods, landslides and storms were identified in central, southern, southwest and southeast areas of China, respectively. Annual deaths from integrated natural disasters were decreasing (tau = −0.237, p = 0.068) at about 32 persons/year, decreasing at 17 persons/year for floods (tau = −0.154, p = 0.239), and decreasing at approximately 12 persons/year for storms (tau = −0.338, p = 0.009). No significant trend was detected in inflation-adjusted damages while a declining trend was detected in the ratio of year damage against GDP (gross domestic product). In conclusion, there has been an increasing trend in occurrence of natural disasters in China with the absence of an increase in life and economic losses. Despite the progress in the disaster adaption, there will be great challenges in disaster control for China in the future. PMID:27834899

  12. Major Natural Disasters in China, 1985-2014: Occurrence and Damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weixiao; Liang, Chen; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2016-11-10

    This study aimed to describe the characteristics of natural disasters and associated losses from 1985 to 2014. The Mann-Kendall method was used to detect any long-term trends and abrupt changes. Hotspot analysis was conducted to detect the spatial clusters of disasters. We found an increasing trend in the occurrence of integrated natural disasters ( tau = 0.594 , p natural disasters in 1998-2000. Hotspots of droughts, floods, landslides and storms were identified in central, southern, southwest and southeast areas of China, respectively. Annual deaths from integrated natural disasters were decreasing (tau = -0.237, p = 0.068) at about 32 persons/year, decreasing at 17 persons/year for floods ( tau = -0.154, p = 0.239), and decreasing at approximately 12 persons/year for storms ( tau = -0.338, p = 0.009). No significant trend was detected in inflation-adjusted damages while a declining trend was detected in the ratio of year damage against GDP (gross domestic product). In conclusion, there has been an increasing trend in occurrence of natural disasters in China with the absence of an increase in life and economic losses. Despite the progress in the disaster adaption, there will be great challenges in disaster control for China in the future.

  13. Nuclear power plant disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of a nuclear power plant disaster is small but not excluded: in its event, assistance to the affected population mainly depends on local practitioners. Already existing diseases have to be diagnosed and treated; moreover, these physicians are responsible for the early detection of those individuals exposed to radiation doses high enough to induce acute illness. Here we present the pathogenesis, clinical development and possible diagnostic and therapeutical problems related to acute radiation-induced diseases. The differentiation of persons according to therapy need and prognosis is done on the sole base of the clinical evidence and the peripheral blood count. (orig.) [de

  14. Disasters as Usual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albris, Kristoffer

    In this thesis, I explore how citizens and public institutions have adjusted to recent recurring floods in Dresden. As a riverine city, Dresden regularly experienced damaging floods throughout its history, right up until the start of the Second World War. Then something strange happened. Although...... the future as being fraught with uncertainty. This has implications both for how people understand themselves as members of society as well as for the relationship between the state and civil society. In other words, floods in Dresden have a social, political and public life. Rather than seeing disasters...

  15. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie, S.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  16. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.

  17. Economic development and natural disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of large-scale natural disasters on economic development. A major obstacle in exploring this relationship is the poor data quality on GDP per capita in low-income countries, while at the same time more than 90% of all disasters that happen worldwide occur in

  18. Disaster: Prevention, Preparedness and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…

  19. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Sendai Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filipa A C; Pedersen, Roger A; Vallier, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the efficient isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from circulating blood via density gradient centrifugation and subsequent generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells are cultured for 9 days to allow expansion of the erythroblast population. The erythroblasts are then used to derive human induced pluripotent stem cells using Sendai viral vectors, each expressing one of the four reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.

  20. Disaster and Sociolegal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Sterett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are treated as independent events external to law. However, social processes define the beginning, end and extent of those events for mitigation, adaptation and response and recovery; those processes include the mobilization of law by people and organizations. Within the sociology of disaster, it is tempting to treat law as a problem-solving tool. Sociolegal analysis approaches law more skeptically: legal actors face problems and defer to the decisions others have made, or discount future problems as much as other institutions do and thereby contribute to problems, or offer compensation that does not ameliorate the inequality within and among countries that disaster can exacerbate. Law can signal that it is doing something about problems via national or supranational rights; for it actually to help requires legal actors to mobilize. Finally, the site of law has been displaced: from law being within public authority enacted through institutions to law as a matter of individual, self-governance set in expectation of disaster, and humanitarian assistance done through non-governmental organizations. This collection contributes analyses of individuals and organizations' action in disaster through legal processes. Los desastres se tratan como hechos independientes externos al derecho. Sin embargo, los procesos sociales definen el principio, el final y el alcance de esos acontecimientos en lo que respecta a su mitigación, adaptación, respuesta y recuperación; esos procesos incluyen la movilización del derecho por personas y organizaciones. En el ámbito de la sociología de los desastres, es tentador tratar el derecho como una herramienta para la resolución de problemas. Sin embargo, los análisis sociojurídicos se aproximan al derecho de forma más escéptica: los actores legales se enfrentan a problemas y se adhieren a decisiones que otros han tomado, o descartan problemas futuros de la misma forma que otras instituciones, aumentando

  1. Ecological disaster in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wray, T.K.

    1991-01-01

    Six million barrels of oil are going up in smoke each day in Kuwait, dumping 3.7 million pounds of toxic gases, soot, and smoke - including cancer-causing compounds - into the air each hour. This paper reports that the prognosis for the situation is dim. Even as specialized firefighting companies from the United States and Canada began arriving in Kuwait in March, oil officials there predicted dousing the fires would take at least two years and pumping up oil production to pre-war levels would take between five and 10 years. An oil well fire is a disaster. The effect on the ozone, the ecology, the marine life is massive. We aren't even breathing air here, we're just breathing smog

  2. Societal risk and major disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    A disaster can be defined as an event, or a series of events, in which a large number of people is adversely affected by a single cause. This definition includes man-made accidents, like that at Chernobyl, as well as the natural disasters that insurance companies are sometimes pleased to describe as Acts of God. In 1986 alone, 12,000 people died and 2.2 million were made homeless by 215 major accidents or disasters. The nature of risk is examined in this paper. (author)

  3. Disaster related heat illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasufumi

    2012-01-01

    Explained and discussed are the outline of heat illness (HI), its raised risk and measures taken at the disaster of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (FNPPA; Mar. 2011). High temperature and humid environment induce HI through the fervescence and dehydration resulting in the intestinal ischemia/hypoxia and organ failure. Epidemiologic data of the heatstroke in Japan suggest its seemingly parallel incidence to seasonal hotness of the summer. HI is classified in either classical (non-exertional) or exertional heatstroke, both with severity of I (slight), II (slight symptom of the central nervous system (CNS); necessary for consultation) and III (most serious; having dysfunction of CNS, organ or coagulation). Therapy depends on the severity: I for the first aid on site, II necessary for carrying to hospital and III for hospitalization. Protection is possible by personal, neighbors' and managers' carefulness, and supply of sufficient water and minerals. Risk of HI was suddenly raised at taking measures to meet with the FNPPA. Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) promptly organized JAAM-FNPPA Working Group to treat the emergent multiple incidents including the radiation exposure and HI as well. Exertional HI was mainly in labors wearing rather sealed closes to protect radiation to work for steps of the Accident, and which was similar to evacuees temporarily entering the evacuation area for visit to their own vacant houses. In the summer, classical HI was also a problem mainly in elderly living in the evacuation dwellings. Document of HI incidents and patients at FNPPA should be recorded for the reference to possible disaster in future. (T.T.)

  4. The impact of collaborative strategies on disaster risk reduction in Zimbabwe dairy supply chains in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Chari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are on the increase globally with accompanying devastating effects on dairy supply chains. The devastating effects, caused by disasters on economies in various countries such as United States of America, Japan, Kenya, Uganda, Mozambique and Zimbabwe call for urgent sustainable mitigating measures in disaster risk reduction. These countries have experienced notable natural and man-made disasters in the past. The disasters negatively impacted the economies of both developed and developing countries, causing misery to people as hunger and poverty drastically increased. Zimbabwe’s dairy industry was not spared from these devastating effects as it was vulnerable to disasters such as droughts and cyclones. Disasters adversely affected supply chains in the country as evidenced by the closure of some dairy firms between the years 2000 and 2014. This article is set against the backdrop of declining output across all agricultural sectors in Zimbabwe, evident particularly in the dairy farming sector which has witnessed inadequate supply of raw milk and dairy products by local producers. The article assesses the impact of dairy organisations’ partnerships with government departments and non-governmental organisations in reducing disaster risks on the dairy supply chain cost efficiency. It also aims to show how partnerships can reduce disaster risks and weighs the benefits of reduced supply chain costs in improving the affordability of milk and milk products to the general public. The study employs a mixed-methods approach comprising structured questionnaires, administered to a sample of 92 respondents out of a randomly sampled population of 122 participants from dairy farming clusters across the country, with an 85% response rate. Key informants in the form of 18 dairy officers were purposively sampled for interviews throughout the dairy farming regions. The research findings will help government in the formulation of public policies for the

  5. Not Only Health: Environmental Pollution Disasters and Political Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Gong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, the economy of China has sustained rapid growth. However, the extensive development pattern severely deteriorates the ecological environment, which has been recognized as adverse effects on citizens’ physical and mental health. Simultaneously, the political trust in China has been in decline after staying at a high level for a long time. In this paper, we state that, in addition to health issues, environmental pollution can also lead to important political consequences. Using statistics on the occurrence of environmental pollution disasters and a nationally representative survey database in China, we find that environmental pollution disasters can negatively affect citizens’ trust of the government. This relationship persists after a series of endogenous tests and robustness checks. Path analysis indicates that this relationship can be partially mediated by the increase in citizens’ environmental awareness. The cross-sectional analyses on individual characteristics demonstrate that the negative effect of environmental pollution disasters on political trust is less pronounced for female citizens and citizens who are communist party members. Finally, we report that the government’s positive attitudes and activities in resolving environmental pollution problems can partially offset the negative effect of environmental pollution disasters on political trust.

  6. Integrated simulation of emergency response in disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Taro; Furuta, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    An integrated simulation system of emergency response in disasters is under development that can consider various factors of disasters, such as disaster phenomena, activities of response organizations, resident behavior, and their environment. The aim of this system is to provide support for design and assessment of disaster management systems. This paper introduces the conceptual design of the entire system and presents simulators of organizational behavior in nuclear and earthquake disasters. (author)

  7. Disaster Concept at Different Educational Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Dikmenli, Yurdal; Gafa, İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    Disasters cover allthe events that damage both humans and their living environment. The disasters whichstem from nature are called natural disasters while those which stem from humankind,are called human disasters. Since humans constantly encounter such events at differenttimes, places and in different forms, it is inevitable that they will be affectedby them. Thus, one wonders what people understand the concept of disaster tobe. The aim of this study is to identify the students from all the ...

  8. FEMA Current Disaster Declarations -shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists the current Disaster Declarations in Shapefile. This data was compiled and distributed by FEMA Mapping and Analysis Center (MAC). Metadata file...

  9. Nuclear disaster in the Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.A.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is discussed in chapters, entitled: a big sensation begins; the sensation continues; the Urals disaster; radioactive contamination of lakes, water plants, and fish; mammals in the radioactive contaminated zone of the Urals; identification of the contaminated zone as the Chelyabinsk region and the time of the disaster as Fall-Winter 1957; birds in the radioactive biocenosis and the spread of radioactivity to other countries; soil animals in the Urals contaminated zone; trees in the Urals contaminated zone; field plants in the Urals radioactive zone and research in plant radiogenetics; population genetics research in the radioactive environment; the CIA documents on the Urals nuclear disaster; the causes of the Urals disaster - an attempted reconstruction of the 1957-1958 events. (U.K.)

  10. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  11. Chernobylsk, return on a disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.

    2006-01-01

    The author gives the result of the situation after the Chernobylsk disaster. She made its own inquiry by traveling in the forbidden area, meeting operators, victims, scientific people and ecologists. (N.C.)

  12. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers - KML

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a KML file for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  13. Psychological impact of nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behere, Prakash B.; Chougule, Kaveri N.; Syyed, S.

    2017-01-01

    There are major Nuclear Power plant disasters in world, one was Chernobyl, Ukraine 1986, and other was Fukushima, Japan 2011. There are many studies, which are evidence based to demonstrate short and long terms consequences of nuclear plant disasters. The psychological consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing serious illness like cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and safai workers are the highest risk groups. It is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment

  14. Practice parameter on disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Shaw, Jon A

    2013-11-01

    This Practice Parameter identifies best approaches to the assessment and management of children and adolescents across all phases of a disaster. Delivered within a disaster system of care, many interventions are appropriate for implementation in the weeks and months after a disaster. These include psychological first aid, family outreach, psychoeducation, social support, screening, and anxiety reduction techniques. The clinician should assess and monitor risk and protective factors across all phases of a disaster. Schools are a natural site for conducting assessments and delivering services to children. Multimodal approaches using social support, psychoeducation, and cognitive behavioral techniques have the strongest evidence base. Psychopharmacologic interventions are not generally used but may be necessary as an adjunct to other interventions for children with severe reactions or coexisting psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Natural Disasters, Gender and Handicrafts

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, Yoshito

    2012-01-01

    Using original post-disaster household survey data gathered in rural Fiji, this article explores the disaster–gender nexus. Female-headed households are disadvantaged, not because of bias against them in disaster damage or relief, but because of a newly emerging gendered division of labour for dwelling rehabilitation that tightens their constraints on intra-household labour allocation. Female-headed households with damaged dwellings resort to female labour activities connected with informal r...

  16. Chronicle of an announced disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanssay, B. de.

    1993-01-01

    Sociology of disasters is a global approach of situations of disasters. It is an analysis of behaviours and social dynamics used by a community to answer to it. Sociology studied different phases of these situations in a chronological and thematic way. It studies a social context, tries to find risk perceptions and then possibilities of populations to answer to a emergency situation. A concrete example is studied with the disastrous inundation happened in the south of France, the 22 September 1992

  17. A disaster relief exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliotti, Fulvia; Novaro Mascarello, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) is an effective tool for military applications, both for properly military operations, such as research missions and road surveillance, and for civilian support after natural disasters, like landslides, floods, and earthquakes, when reaching victims is often hard or it would take too much time for their survival. Information are needed without hazarding the life of the military troops. When roads, bridges and other communication ways are usually not available, the unmanned platform is the only easy and fast way to contact people. It can be launched directly from the operation site and it could take crucial information or carry medication, necessaries and everything that could help rescue teams. The unmanned platform can also be used for the first aid in an emergency situation when the use of a helicopter is too dangerous and other troops could be involved in heavy fighting. The RPAS has some advantages. First is the reduced cost, compared to traditional aircraft, that could enable the user to have several operating units. Secondly, pilots are not on board and therefore, if needed, the crew' rotation and rest do not imply the need to stop operations. The third fact is that, depending on the type of delivery that is used, the operations may take place on a twenty-four hours' base. The main benefit achieved with these three facts is that continuous operation may take place and eventually make up the capacity difference. To sum up, the main motivation behind this employment of UAS is to replace human lives on the cockpits and to assure the execution of Dangerous, Dull and Dirty missions. In May 2015, the ERIDANO Exercise was performed in Moncalieri city, near Turin (Italy) and it was a joint exercise between the Italian Army, National Emergency Service and Politecnico of Turin. The aim was the control and management of emergency situations due to natural disasters. In particular, a flood was simulated. A multicopter was used

  18. Mobility decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna Regina; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways...... to promote mobility in old age....

  19. Additional pest surveyed: hickory decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Ji-Hyun. Park

    2011-01-01

    A five year investigation of the cause of rapid crown decline and mortality of bitternut hickory was concluded in September 2011. Results of a series of related studies found that multiple cankers and xylem (the water conducting tissue) dysfunction caused by Ceratocystis smalleyi are correlated with rapid crown decline typical of a limited vascular...

  20. Natural disasters and gender dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide statistics reveal that the increasing number of risks and disaster impacts within the last decades have caused highly severe damages, with high death toll and huge economic damages (World Bank, 2010). As a consequence people's vulnerabilities have increased disproportionally in recent years. Individuals' ability to anticipate, prepare, cope, respond and recover from disasters differs according to some socio-economic attributes present in each community. The research on natural disasters in a gendered perspective is fairly limited compared to other variables. In fact, the need to track social vulnerabilities and investigate gender dynamics into all levels of the disaster life cycle has been recognized only recently, during the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (March 2015). For this purpose, we propose a review of the literature regarding the ways men and women conceptualise natural disasters, prepare and react, both physically and psychologically, to catastrophic events. This work tries to give some interpretation to these subjects analysing the social context in which sex discrepancies are developed, in different countries, cultures and in various socio-economic backgrounds. Findings highlighted that women perceived more the risk, and they have developed personal strategies to better react and withstand the impacts of negative occurrences. Being at home, working in the house and caring the children have been always placed them at a higher exposure to disasters. However, these circumstances, they gave them the means to organize the family for evacuations thanks to their deep knowledge of the territory they live and the neighbourhood networks they create. Women seem to be not sole victims, but valuable resources able to take leading roles in building disaster resilience. Some case studies, however, continue to demonstrate a female's higher fear and powerless face hazardous events than their counterparts, showing various mental health disorders

  1. The importance of mangrove forest in tsunami disaster mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, Rabindra; Tanaka, Shigenobu; Tokioka, Toshikazu

    2009-04-01

    Tsunamis and storm surges have killed more than one million people and some three billion people currently live with a high risk of these disasters, which are becoming more frequent and devastating worldwide. Effective mitigation of such disasters is possible via healthy coastal forests, which can reduce the energy of tsunamis. In recent years, these natural barriers have declined due to adverse human and natural activities. In the past 20 years, the world has lost almost 50 per cent of its mangrove forests, making them one of the most endangered landscapes. It is essential to recover them and to use them as a shield against a tsunami and as a resource to secure optimal socio-economic, ecological and environmental benefits. This paper examines the emerging scenario facing mangrove forests, discusses protection from tsunamis, and proposes a way to improve the current situation. We hope that practical tips will help communities and agencies to work collectively to achieve a common goal.

  2. NASA's Applied Sciences: Natural Disasters Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.

  3. Movies about nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portelli, A.; Guarnieri, F.; Martin, C.

    2014-01-01

    'The China Syndrome' by J.Bridges is the most famous film about nuclear energy, it was released in 1979 and tells the story of a television reporter who discovers safety cover-ups in the Ventana nuclear power plant. In the film 'Mount Fuji in red' a part of 'Akira Kurosawa's dreams' film released in 1990, the eruption of the Mount Fuji triggered a series of accidents in Japanese nuclear plants which sent millions of people fleeing in terror and blocked by the ocean. More recent films are 'Land of Oblivion' by M.Boganim - 2012, 'The land of hope' by S.Sion - 2012 or 'Grand Central' by R. Zlotowski - 2013. All this list of films depicting nuclear disasters and their dramatic consequences on the daily life of people contribute to build a frightening picture of nuclear energy in the mind of people. Although any film is fictional it can influence people but also open people's eyes on society issues like sub-contracting, unemployment, risk assessment... (A.C.)

  4. Waiting for Disasters: A Risk Reduction Assessment of Technological Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam

    2010-05-01

    This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the

  5. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  6. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period. ...

  7. Human-induced environmental degradation during Anthropocene in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Recep; Curebal, Isa; Soykan, Abdullah; Sönmez, Suleyman

    2015-04-01

    affected by humans (Sanderson et al., 2002; Braje&Erlandson, 2014). The area left in its natural state corresponds to only 15%. Due to population increase, agricultural areas shrinked, forests were destroyed, and pastures declined in size. More chemical fertilizers and agricultural pesticides were used in order to obtain more products. A greater number of machines were employed in agriculture, which led to a rise in the number of products. The human pressure on the environment in Anatolia dates back to thousands of years. Nomadic peoples on these lands have settled in the last 200 years due to settlement policies (Cürebal et al., 2015). This process saw the establishment of villages in higher and inclined areas as a result of the effects of the nomadic culture of Turkomans and other people in Anatolia. Forests in the inclined areas around these villages were destroyed and turned into agricultural areas. Machines, fertilizers, and pesticides were utilized in agricultural activities in order to produce more crops. This transformation led to an increased erosion effect, deterioration of soil, agricultural and environmental pollution (Chin et al., 2013; Hoang et al., 2014; Matteo et al., 2014). The change caused by industrialization gained ground in the 1950s in Turkey. In particular, migration from rural areas to cities gaining pace after the World War II brought about an increased human pressure in and around big cities. Areas around the cities became centers of attraction for many people. Plains around settlement areas were opened to settlement, and most industrial facilities were established there. As a consequence, first class agricultural areas were lost. Settlements and industrial areas generated large amounts of solid and liquid waste. Uncontrolled discharge of liquid waste and intensely stored solid waste caused the physical and chemical pollution of rivers, lakes, and seas to increase in Turkey and other parts of the world (Andersson et al., 2006; Steffen et al

  8. Learning from disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.

    2005-01-01

    Key common issues for preventing disasters are maintaining competence, application of acceptable standards, questioning attitude, organisational 'complacency'/loss of focus/organisational drift, poor communication, loss of 'oversight', management of change (often involving contractorisation) and external pressures. Lessons learned in leadership are well communicated standards and expectations, high visibility; 'actions align with words', demonstration that safety has priority; no 'turning a blind eye' because 'to tolerate is to validate', encouraging questioning and learning and need to be aware of these deeper root-causes and impact of organisational issues. Leadership issues relating to communication and learning comprise listening to the workforce and encouraging a questioning attitude 'If you really want to know how safe you are - ask your people', raise awareness of risks, consequences and promoting the importance of 'questioning and alert compliance', promoting the need for excellence in communication over safety issues at all levels e.g. between shifts and encouraging learning which leads to - 'the right message to the right people at the right time'. Alertness to 'organisational drift' means continuous review against best practice, monitoring of range of 'deeper' indicators, 'not just headlines', effective risk identification and management of change processes (particularly organisational), reinforcement of the safety message when perceptions may be that its priority has become lower and questioning and challenging the impact of changes in an organisational 'context'. Possible issues for the agency are to promote an understanding of these 'deeper' but vital issues in all organisations with an impact on nuclear safety, develop common ('hard hitting') messages about the vital role of leadership and the need for 'alertness and challenge', develop approaches and tools to assist and encourage self assessment and external scrutiny in the key areas, embed these

  9. Cognitive decline affects diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perzyński Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: DM provokes peripheral complications and changes in central nervous system. Central changes in the course of diabetes mellitus (DM include changes in brain tissue structure, electrophysiological abnormalities but also disturbances in neurotransmission leading to cognitive decline.

  10. Enhancing Saarc Disaster Management: A Comparative Study With Asean Coordinating Centre For Humanitarian Assistance On Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization NDMA National Disaster Management Authority NDMO National Disaster Management Organization NIDM National...disaster management authorities. National Disaster Management Authority ( NDMA ) has envisaged the role of the army in relief, recovery, management of

  11. CCL2 enhances pluripotency of human induced pluripotent stem cells by activating hypoxia related genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasegawa, Yuki; Tang, Dave; Takahashi, Naoko; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Forrest, Alistair R R; Suzuki, Harukazu; Clevers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Standard culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) requires basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) to maintain the pluripotent state, whereas hiPSC more closely resemble epiblast stem cells than true naïve state ES which requires LIF to maintain pluripotency. Here we show that

  12. Choices for Induction of Pluripotency: Recent Developments in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Reprogramming Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.; Zhou, Huiqing; Nadif Kasri, N.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells provides tremendous promises for regenerative medicine and its use has widely increased over recent years. However, reprogramming efficiencies remain low and chromosomal instability and tumorigenic potential are

  13. 78 FR 32416 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  14. 78 FR 41942 - Alaska; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster...

  15. 78 FR 32414 - Illinois; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049...

  16. 78 FR 51204 - Colorado; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049...

  17. Country logistics performance and disaster impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Alain; Haavisto, Ira

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact. The relationship is analysed through correlation analysis and regression models for 117 countries for the years 2007 to 2012 with disaster impact variables from the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT) and logistics performance indicators from the World Bank. The results show a significant relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact overall and for five out of six specific logistic performance indicators. These specific indicators were further used to explore the relationship between country logistic performance and disaster impact for three specific disaster types (epidemic, flood and storm). The findings enhance the understanding of the role of logistics in a humanitarian context with empirical evidence of the importance of country logistics performance in disaster response operations. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  18. 76 FR 54521 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12754 and 12755] Iowa Disaster IA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major [[Page 54522

  19. On civil engineering disasters and their mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lili; Qu, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Civil engineering works such as buildings and infrastructure are the carriers of human civilization. They are, however, also the origins of various types of disasters, which are referred to in this paper as civil engineering disasters. This paper presents the concept of civil engineering disasters, their characteristics, classification, causes, and mitigation technologies. Civil engineering disasters are caused primarily by civil engineering defects, which are usually attributed to improper selection of construction site, hazard assessment, design and construction, occupancy, and maintenance. From this viewpoint, many so-called natural disasters such as earthquakes, strong winds, floods, landslides, and debris flows are substantially due to civil engineering defects rather than the actual natural hazards. Civil engineering disasters occur frequently and globally and are the most closely related to human beings among all disasters. This paper emphasizes that such disasters can be mitigated mainly through civil engineering measures, and outlines the related objectives and scientific and technological challenges.

  20. Can Disaster Risk Education Reduce the Impacts of Recurring Disasters on Developing Societies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda

    2018-01-01

    The impacts of recurring disasters on vulnerable urban societies have been tragic in terms of destruction and fatalities. However, disaster risk education that promotes risk mitigation and disaster preparedness has been shown to be effective in minimizing the impacts of recurring disasters on urban societies. Although the recent integration of…

  1. Disaster imminent--Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, J B

    1990-04-01

    Response to a disaster situation depends upon the type of circumstances presented. In situations where the disaster is the type that affects the hospital as well as a wide surrounding area directly, the hospital and pharmacy itself may be called upon to continue functioning for some period of time without outside assistance. The ability to function for prolonged periods of time requires the staff to focus on the job at hand and the administrative staff to provide security, compassion, and flexibility. Plans for a disaster of the nature of a hurricane require that attention be paid to staffing, medication inventories, supplies, and services being rendered. Recognition of the singular position occupied by a hospital in the community and the expectations of the local population require that hospitals and the pharmacy department have the ability to respond appropriately.

  2. Disaster countermeasures around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuta, Yoshinori

    1982-01-01

    The following matters are described. Safety regulation administration for nuclear power plants; nuclear disaster countermeasures in the United States; disaster countermeasures around nuclear facilities (a report of the ad hoc committee in Nuclear Safety Commission), including general requirements, the scope of areas to take the countermeasures, emergency environmental monitoring, guidelines for taking the countermeasures, and emergency medical treatment. In the nuclear safety administration, the system of stationing safety expert personnel on the sites of nuclear power generation and qualifying the persons in charge of reactor operation in the control room is also introduced. As for the disaster countermeasures, such as the detection of an abnormal state, the notification of the abnormality to various organs concerned, the starting of emergency environmental monitoring, the establishment of the countermeasure headquarters, and emergency measures for the local people. (Mori, K.)

  3. Promoting Disaster Science and Disaster Science Communities as Part of Sound Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    During disasters, effectively engaging the vast expertise of the academic community can help responders make timely and critical decisions. A barrier to such engagement, however, is the cultural gap between reward systems in academia and in the disaster response community. Responders often are focused on ending the emergency quickly with minimal damage. Academic scientists often need to produce peer reviewed publications to justify their use of time and money. Each community is used to speaking to different audiences, and delivering answers on their own time scales. One approach to bridge this divide is to foster a cohesive community of interdisciplinary disaster scientists: researchers who focus on crises that severely and negatively disrupt the environment or threaten human health, and are able to apply scientific methods in a timely manner to understand how to prevent, mitigate, respond to, or recover from such events. Once organized, a disaster science community could develop its own unique culture. It is well known in the disaster response community that all the preparation that takes place before an event ever occurs is what truly makes the difference in reducing response time, improving coordination, and ultimately reducing impacts. In the same vein, disaster scientists would benefit from consistently interacting with the response community. The advantage of building a community for all disasters, rather than for just one type, is that it will help researchers maintain momentum between emergencies, which may be decades or more apart. Every disaster poses similar challenges: Knowing when to speak to the press and what to say; how to get rapid, actionable peer review; how to keep proprietary industry information confidential; how to develop "no regrets" actions; and how to communicate with decision makers and the public. During the Deepwater Horizonspill, I personally worked with members of the academic research community who cared not whether they got a peer

  4. System i Disaster Recovery Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Dolewski, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Mapping out all the preparations necessary for an effective disaster recovery plan and its safeguard-a continuous maintenance program-this guide is aimed at IT managers of small and medium businesses. The opening section covers the initial steps of auditing vulnerability, ranking essential IT functions, and reviewing the storage of tape backups, with the following discussion focused on the elements of the plan itself. The plan includes a mission statement, a definition of disaster, the assignment of staff to teams, methods of compensating for human error, and standards for documenting the step

  5. Nuclear disasters and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastian, T.

    1986-01-01

    The book is intended to serve as a source of information and a line of orientation for all people afraid of or angry about the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. The author describes the effects of nuclear disasters that might happen as a result of military or 'peaceful' application of nuclear energy; he explains the situation people will have to cope with, gives advice on protective means and methods and topical information with reference to institutions or authorities where assistance might be available, also including a list of addresses and telephone numbers that has been issued by the governments after the Chernobyl accident. (orig.) [de

  6. 76 FR 21935 - Hawaii Disaster #HI-00022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12503 and 12504] Hawaii Disaster HI-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment to the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Hawaii dated 03/29/2011. Incident: Honshu Tsunami...

  7. 76 FR 24554 - Hawaii Disaster # HI-00022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12503 and 12504] Hawaii Disaster HI-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment to the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of HAWAII dated 03/29/2011. Incident: Honshu Tsunami...

  8. 77 FR 25010 - Hawaii Disaster # HI-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13065 and 13066] Hawaii Disaster HI-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Hawaii (FEMA-4062- DR), dated 04...

  9. 76 FR 18613 - Hawaii Disaster #HI-00022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12503 and 12504] Hawaii Disaster HI-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Hawaii dated 03/29/2011. Incident: Honshu Tsunami...

  10. 76 FR 21935 - Hawaii Disaster #HI-00023

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12526 and 12527] Hawaii Disaster HI-00023 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Hawaii (FEMA-1967- DR), dated 04...

  11. Connecting care competencies and culture during disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Vivek

    2009-01-01

    Connecting care Competencies and Culture are core fundamentals in responding to disasters. Thick coordination between professionals, communities and agencies in different geographical areas is crucial to the happening of appropriate preparedness and thus efficient response and mitigation of a disaster. In the next few articles, we present diverse examples related to the preparedness and recovery process to adverse disasters across the globe PMID:19561968

  12. 75 FR 22167 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12132 and 12133] Minnesota Disaster MN-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of MINNESOTA (FEMA- 1900-DR), dated...

  13. 78 FR 36010 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00052

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13605 and 13606] Iowa Disaster IA-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4119- DR), dated 05/31...

  14. 76 FR 54522 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00037

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12760 and 12761] Iowa Disaster IA-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4016- DR), dated 08/24...

  15. 76 FR 27738 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12541 and 12542] Iowa Disaster IA-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Iowa dated 05/04/2011. Incident: Severe storms and tornadoes...

  16. 78 FR 28939 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13567 and 13568] Iowa Disaster IA-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4114- DR), dated 05/06...

  17. 76 FR 52042 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12734 and 12735] Iowa Disaster IA-00035 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Iowa Dated. Incident: Severe Storms and Flash Flooding. Incident...

  18. 76 FR 55721 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12772 and 12773] Iowa Disaster IA-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4018- DR), dated 08/30...

  19. 75 FR 47035 - Iowa Disaster # IA-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12258 and 12259] Iowa Disaster IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1930- DR), dated 07/29...

  20. 75 FR 51507 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12279 and 12280] Iowa Disaster IA-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1930-DR), dated 08/14/2010. Incident: Severe...

  1. 75 FR 10329 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00022

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12053 and 12054] Iowa Disaster IA-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of IOWA (FEMA--1877-- DR), dated 02...

  2. 75 FR 11582 - IOWA Disaster # IA-00023

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12062 and 12063] IOWA Disaster IA-00023 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1880- DR), dated 03/02...

  3. 78 FR 42147 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13645 and 13646] Iowa Disaster IA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4126- DR), dated 07/02...

  4. 76 FR 29284 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00031

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12568 and 12569] Iowa Disaster IA-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1977- DR), dated 05/05...

  5. 75 FR 45681 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12252 and 12253] Iowa Disaster IA-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1928- DR), dated 07/27...

  6. 76 FR 66768 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00033

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12895 and 12896] Iowa Disaster IA-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1998-DR), dated 10/18/2011. Incident: Flooding...

  7. 78 FR 48762 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13699 and 13700] Iowa Disaster IA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4135- DR), dated 07/31...

  8. 75 FR 53006 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12258 and 12259] Iowa Disaster IA-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA- 1930-DR...

  9. DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE – A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himayatullah KHAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explains the various concepts used in disastermanagement. The concepts explained include: Disaster, Hazard,Vulnerability, Capacity, Risk and Disaster Management Cycle. In addition tothe terminologies, the study also seeks to explain various types of disasters.

  10. 75 FR 7637 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12031 and 12032] Arkansas Disaster AR-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Arkansas dated 02/10/2010. Incident: Severe Storms and...

  11. 76 FR 42155 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00051

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12680 and 12681] Arkansas Disaster AR-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA- 4000-DR), dated 07...

  12. 75 FR 7636 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12034 and 12035] Arkansas Disaster AR-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-- 1872--DR), dated...

  13. 76 FR 42154 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12678 and 12679] Arkansas Disaster AR-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-4000-DR), dated 07/08/2011. Incident: Severe...

  14. 75 FR 30872 - Arkansas Disaster # AR-00043

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12196 and 12197] Arkansas Disaster AR-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Arkansas dated 05/26/2010. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes and...

  15. 78 FR 39821 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00064

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13637 and 13638] Arkansas Disaster AR-00064 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA- 4124-DR), dated 06...

  16. 76 FR 27140 - Arkansas Disaster # AR-00049

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12562 and 12563] Arkansas Disaster AR-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA- 1975-DR), dated 05...

  17. 78 FR 9448 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00061

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13473 and 13474] Arkansas Disaster AR-00061 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA- 4100-DR), dated 01...

  18. 76 FR 27139 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00048

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12560 and 12561] Arkansas Disaster AR-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-1975-DR), dated 05/02/2011. Incident: Severe...

  19. Performance of District Disaster Management Teams after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. Findings: The disasters most commonly experienced by the district ...

  20. 76 FR 64419 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00045

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12879 and 12880] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00045 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

  1. 78 FR 4967 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00057

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13463 and 13464] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00057 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Pennsylvania (FEMA...

  2. 76 FR 56861 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00043

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12807 and 12808] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

  3. 76 FR 44646 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12697 and 12698] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

  4. 75 FR 14331 - Disaster Assistance Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 123 RIN 3245-AF98 Disaster Assistance Loan Program...-term disaster loans to homeowners, renters, businesses, and non-profit organizations that have been... to disaster victims by raising the statutory loan limit for loans to businesses, increasing the...

  5. Ethics in disaster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, S.

    2012-04-01

    Ethics are basically a minimum level of moral values in a society that one must follow to do justice for honest practices in any profession. Geoscientists have significant roles to play, more particularly in the field of geohazards, to appraise the society about the possibilities of natural hazards like landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, earthquake etc. They can not only assess these hazards but also can estimate the potential consequences if these hazards occur in a given place and a given time. However, sometimes it has been found that the credibility of geoscientist among the society and the governance is lost due to some unethical practices for a short term gain or due to improper understanding of the geological phenomena. Some of the hazards that cannot be predicted with the existing capabilities have been forecasted by some geoscientists to draw social/media's attention, thereby bringing the reputation of the profession down. One must be fair enough to accept the limitations of our profession in informing about natural hazards which are yet not fully well understood by the professionals in this field. More specifically the predictions related to earthquakes have drawn the attention of the society as well as media in the developing world where common people have different perceptions. Most often the popular myths take over the scientific facts among the public and lead to rumours about natural hazards. The paper attempts to cite some cases of rumours about natural disasters, particularly earthquakes and response of the society, media and governance. It emphasizes the role of geoscientists as the ethical responsibility to inform the public about the factual situations on the geohazards, to avert the panic caused by rumours from non-specialists or hyper-active pseudo experts. The paper points out the recent rumours about lake outburst, flash-floods and volcanic activities after a moderate earthquake (M6.8, 18 September 2011) in the Sikkim State, India

  6. Ethics in disaster management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Parkash

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In any profession, a basic set of moral values needs to be followed to comply with what we call ethics. Geoscientists have significant roles to play, more particularly in the field of geohazards, to appraise society about the possibilities of natural hazards such as landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, and earthquakes. Geoscientists cannot only assess these hazards, but they can also estimate the potential consequences if these hazards occur in a given place and at a given time. However, sometimes it has been found that the credibility of geoscientists among society and government is lost, due to some unethical practices for short-term gain, or due to incorrect understanding of geological phenomena. Some of the hazards that cannot be predicted with the existing capabilities have been forecast by some pseudo-geoscientists, to draw social/ media attention, thereby bringing the reputation of the profession into disrepute. There is the need to be fair enough to accept the limitations of our profession in providing information about natural hazards that are not yet fully understood by the professionals themselves. More specifically, the predictions related to earthquakes have drawn the attention of society as well as media in the developing countries where the ‘common’ people have different perceptions. Most often, popular myths take over scientific facts among the public, and this can lead to rumors about natural hazards. This article will mention some cases of rumors about natural disasters, and particularly earthquakes, and the response of society, media and government. It emphasizes the role of geoscientists as the ethical responsibility to inform the public about the actual situations and the geohazards, to avoid panic caused by rumors from non-specialists or hyperactive pseudo experts. This article indicates the recent rumors about a lake outburst, flash floods, and volcanic activities after a moderate earthquake (M 6.9, September 18

  7. Disasters and development: natural disasters, credit constraints, and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, T.K.J.; Barry, F.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a simple two-period model of the economy, we demonstrate the potential effects of natural disasters on economic growth over the medium to long term. In particular, we focus on the effect of such shocks on investment. We examine two polar cases: an economy in which agents have unconstrained

  8. [Disaster nursing and primary school teachers' disaster-related healthcare knowledge and skills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An

    2012-06-01

    The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan.

  9. Lung function decline in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantucci C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Tantucci, Denise ModinaUnit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: The landmark study of Fletcher and Peto on the natural history of tobacco smoke-related chronic airflow obstruction suggested that decline in the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is slow at the beginning, becoming faster with more advanced disease. The present authors reviewed spirometric data of COPD patients included in the placebo arms of recent clinical trials to assess the lung function decline of each stage, defined according to the severity of airflow obstruction as proposed by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines. In large COPD populations the mean rate of FEV1 decline in GOLD stages II and III is between 47 and 79 mL/year and 56 and 59 mL/year, respectively, and lower than 35 mL/year in GOLD stage IV. Few data on FEV1 decline are available for GOLD stage I. Hence, the loss of lung function, assessed as expiratory airflow reduction, seems more accelerated and therefore more relevant in the initial phases of COPD. To have an impact on the natural history of COPD, it is logical to look at the effects of treatment in the earlier stages.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, decline, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, FEV1

  10. Human induced prehistoric and historical soil erosion and landscape development in Southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Ivester, Andrew H.; Hanson, Paul R.; Daniel, Larsen; Dye, David H.; Foster, Thomas H., II

    2015-04-01

    gathered data will be used to i) compare the spatial extent of prehistoric and historic erosion and the short-term and long-term pedological and geomorphological effects of subtle soil erosion against extreme events, ii) assess the feedback-mechanisms of soil erosion on soil fertility and measurable land use changes in prehistorical and historical times, and (iii) estimate the long term effects of soil erosion and sediment deposition on archaeological features. The outcome will provide a decisive step forward to gather new qualitative and quantitative information on soil erosion during the Native American land use period to be able to achieve a better understanding of the long-term human induced landscape evolution in the uplands of the Southeastern USA and deliver data for a better predicting of landscape evolution to future climatic shifts in precipitation regimes.

  11. Hydroxocobalamin: improved public health readiness for cyanide disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, S W; Keim, M E

    2001-06-01

    The United States is under the constant threat of a mass casualty cyanide disaster from industrial accidents, hazardous material transportation incidents, and deliberate terrorist attacks. The current readiness for cyanide disaster by the emergency medical system in the United States is abysmal. We, as a nation, are simply not prepared for a significant cyanide-related event. The standard of care for cyanide intoxication is the cyanide antidote kit, which is based on the use of nitrites to induce methemoglobinemia. This kit is both expensive and ill suited for out-of-hospital use. It also has its own inherent toxicity that prevents rapid administration. Furthermore, our hospitals frequently fail to stock this life-saving antidote or decline to stock more than one. Hydroxocobalamin is well recognized as an efficacious, safe, and easily administered cyanide antidote. Because of its extremely low adverse effect profile, it is ideal for out-of-hospital use in suspected cyanide intoxication. To effectively prepare for a cyanide disaster, the United States must investigate, adopt, manufacture, and stockpile hydroxocobalamin to prevent needless morbidity and mortality.

  12. With Prudhoe Bay in decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Pollock, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Almost every day, it seems, someone is mentioning Prudhoe Bay---its development activities, the direction of its oil production, and more recently its decline rate. Almost as frequently, someone is mentioning the number of companies abandoning exploration in Alaska. The state faces a double-edged dilemma: decline of its most important oil field and a diminished effort to find a replacement for the lost production. ARCO has seen the Prudhoe Bay decline coming for some time and has been planning for it. We have reduced staff, and ARCO and BP Exploration are finding cost-effective ways to work more closely together through such vehicles as shared services. At the same time, ARCO is continuing its high level of Alaskan exploration. This article will assess the future of Prudhoe Bay from a technical perspective, review ARCO's exploration plans for Alaska, and suggest what the state can do to encourage other companies to invest in this crucial producing region and exploratory frontier

  13. An introduction to neglected disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wisner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This theme issue of Jàmbá takes up the question of neglected disasters. It is an important topic because the world is changing, disasters are changing, and theory is changing. All these changes call for a re-assessment of why some human suffering and social disruption receive attention from authorities, donors, researchers and the media, while some does not. Recent progress in both development studies and disaster studies provides tools for answering this question. Development and disaster studies date in their current forms to ways of thinking that were current in academic and policy circles in the late 1950s and 1960s. At that time the world was recovering from world war and former colonies of Europe were gaining independence. It was a world in which (with some exceptions conflict was held in check in an uneasy cold war balance. It was also a world where a growing UN system held the promise of meeting humanitarian needs when they arose. That world is no more. ‘Development’ has changed.

  14. Disaster Rescue and Response Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of disaster responders. Preventive Medicine, 75, 70-74. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.03.017 Pietrzak, R. H., ... effort.. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46, 835-842. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.03.011 Pietrzak, R. H., ...

  15. Planning in emergencies and disasters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgical training - although this mainly comprises the clinical aspect of it. A disaster is a large-scale emergency and thus involves many other disciplines other than medical. In the last .... old, refugees and migrants .... Thought should be put into the preservation, dignity ... especially rescue workers and volunteers, working in.

  16. Dealing with death and disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veere, van der H.

    2011-01-01

    The triple disaster of earthquake, tsunami and nuclear fallout has done great damage. From the perspective of the ritual system and worldview, veneration of ancestors and ritual duties, the damage is even greater although hard to imagine for outsiders to the specifics of Japanese culture. This

  17. Longitudinal health effects of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzermans, C.J.; Donker, G.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aim: We are involved in research on the possible health effects of three disasters in the Netherlands: a plane crash in an Amsterdam neighbourhood, the explosion of a firework factory in the city of Enschede and a fire in a discotheque in Volendam. Which methodologies were used and

  18. Natural disasters and agricultural protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; Hoogezand, Barry

    2018-01-01

    We explore the impact of natural disasters on the degree of agricultural protection using data from 76 countries thereby covering more than 70 of the most traded agricultural commodities. Theoretically, the direction of this effect is not a priori directly clear as it balances the trade-off

  19. Information flow through the disaster circle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egedorf, Maren Marie; Villanueva Holm-Nielsen, Pablo

    The traditional view of the disaster circle is phase based. Disaster and development professionals recognize that the actions carried out in the various phases of the disaster management cycle are overlapping and build upon each other, having resilience as the overall goal. However information does...... not necessarily flow across the phases of the circle in an effective manner. This is particularly true for the information that crosses the disaster point of the circle. Organisations carry out assessments, surveys and baselines for various purposes, at various points of time in the disaster circle. Output...

  20. Global Asbestos Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugio Furuya

    2018-05-01

    European Union, and equivalent of 0.70% of the Gross Domestic Product or 114 × 109 United States Dollars. Intangible costs could be much higher. When applying the Value of Statistical Life of 4 million EUR per cancer death used by the European Commission, we arrived at 410 × 109 United States Dollars loss related to occupational cancer and 340 × 109 related to asbestos exposure at work, while the human suffering and loss of life is impossible to quantify. The numbers and costs are increasing practically in every country and region in the world. Asbestos has been banned in 55 countries but is used widely today; some 2,030,000 tons consumed annually according to the latest available consumption data. Every 20 tons of asbestos produced and consumed kills a person somewhere in the world. Buying 1 kg of asbestos powder, e.g., in Asia, costs 0.38 United States Dollars, and 20 tons would cost in such retail market 7600 United States Dollars. Conclusions: Present efforts to eliminate this man-made problem, in fact an epidemiological disaster, and preventing exposures leading to it are insufficient in most countries in the world. Applying programs and policies, such as those for the elimination of all kind of asbestos use—that is banning of new asbestos use and tight control and management of existing structures containing asbestos—need revision and resources. The International Labor Organization/World Health Organization Joint Program for the Elimination of Asbestos-Related Diseases needs to be revitalized. Exposure limits do not protect properly against cancer but for asbestos removal and equivalent exposure elimination work, we propose a limit value of 1000 fibres/m3.

  1. Stroke in Asia: a global disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong S

    2014-10-01

    Although stroke is a world-wide problem, the burden of stroke is particularly serious in Asia; its mortality is higher than in Europe or North America. The situation in Asia is dichotomized. Stroke mortality and case fatality has been declining in northern-eastern countries such as Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and urbanized areas of China. This is attributed to both the risk factor control and stroke care improvement. However, declining stroke incidence is rarely observed, which is in part due to rapidly aging population. As a result, there is an increase in the number of stroke survivors who require long-term, costly care. The extremely low birth rate and relatively insecure social health system markedly increases the caregiver burden. The problem in southern Asian countries, such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Indonesia is more fundamental. With the improving control of infectious diseases, life expectancy is prolonged. However, risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cigarette smoking become prevalent, and are poorly controlled. Stroke neurologists, organized stroke centers, and diagnostic tools are insufficient, which has resulted in high stroke fatality and mortality. Throughout Asia, the most urgent priority should be the primary stroke prevention through promoting a healthy lifestyle, e.g. low salt intake, regular physical exercise, stopping smoking, government sectors should take a stronger initiative to accomplish this. The rapidly aging populations and stroke burden will shrink the economy and destabilize the society, not only in Asia but also globally unless appropriate efforts are promptly initiated, this may result in a global disaster. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  2. For establishment on nuclear disaster prevention system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    For increasing requirement of peoples for review of nuclear disaster countermeasure at a chance of the JCO critical accident, the Japanese Government newly established the 'Special Measure Act on Nuclear Disaster Countermeasure', which was enacted on July 16, 2000. The nuclear business relatives such as electric power company and so forth established the Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives' after their consultation with local communities at their construction, under their co-operation. Simultaneously, the electric power industry field decided to intend to provide some sufficient countermeasures to incidental formation of nuclear accident such as start of the Co-operative agreement on nuclear disaster prevention among the nuclear business relatives' and so forth. Here were described on nuclear safety and disaster prevention, nuclear disaster prevention systems at the electric power industry field, abstract on 'Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives', preparation of technical assistance system for nuclear disaster prevention, executive methods and subjects on nuclear disaster prevention at construction areas, recent business on nuclear disaster prevention at the Nuclear Technical Center, and subjects on establishment of nuclear disaster prevention system. (G.K.)

  3. Field Organization and Disaster Medical Assistance Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim ARZIMAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Disasters cause an acute deterioration in all stages of life. An area affected by the disaster in which the normal activities of life are disrupted is described as a “Field” in disaster terminology. Although it is not easy to define the borders of this zone, the area where there is normally functioning society is accepted as the boundary. Disaster management is the responsibility of the local government. However, in many large disaster responses many non-governmental and international organizations play a role. A Disaster Medical Team is a trained, mobile, self-contained, self-sufficient, multidisciplinary medical team that can act in the acute phase of a sudden-onset disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence to provide medical treatment in the affected area. The medical team can include physicians, nurses, paramedics and EMTS, technicians, personnel to manage logistics, security and others. Various models of Disaster Medical Teams can be observed around the world. There is paucity of evidence based literature regarding DMTs. There is a need for epidemiological studies with rigorous designs and sampling. In this section of the special edition of the journal, field organizations in health management during disasters will be summarized, with emphasis on preparedness and response phases, and disaster medical teams will be discussed. Keywords: Field organization, disaster, medical team, DMAT

  4. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  5. Children's Cognitive Functioning in Disasters and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Jacobs, Anne K; Varma, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    A growing literature has begun to address the cognitions that influence children's disaster reactions as well as the effects of disasters on children's cognitions. These cognitions must be viewed in the context of developmental and cultural considerations as well as disaster-related factors such as exposure and secondary stressors. This review examines the extant literature on children's cognitions related to disasters and terrorism including threat appraisal, beliefs, attention and concentration, memory, academic achievement, and executive functioning. The review highlights areas where research is lacking such as the effect of disasters on children's attention, concentration, content of disaster memories, and executive functioning. It also notes findings that may advance post-disaster screening and intervention.

  6. Indispensable disaster countermeasures and resiliency in the age of complex disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Hirotada

    2012-01-01

    We live in the age of complex disasters. One disaster brings about new disaster in succession like dominoes. Disaster chain does not always stand in a line and propagate in two-dimensional extend to focus on social fragility. Later disaster would cause larger damages. The East Japan disaster was a typical complex one derived from hazards of earthquakes, tsunamis and reactor accidents, which would have significant effects on Japanese society for the future. Disaster countermeasures and resilience were important especially for 'slow onset type disaster' such as tsunami or reactor accident, which had lead-time to cause damage after initiation of hazard. Hazard simulation was beneficial for disaster countermores but not well developed to use for hazard prediction. It would be wrong and eventually lose public's trust to appear safe in uncertain state of disaster not so as to cause panic to the society. When facing a danger, people enter a 'normal bias' state and fail to adequately prepare for a disaster. People could not respond without imagination of disaster. It was highly important for coping with a disaster to perceive a hazard definitely in the age of complex disasters. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  8. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  9. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Pelosi, Mauro; Nurmi, Jari

    2012-01-01

    of human-induced perturbations for enhancing the final positioning accuracy through cooperative schemes has been assessed. It has been proved that the effect of cooperation is very limited if human factors are not taken into account when performing experimental activities.......We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS-) based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip...... on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors introduced in the distance estimation using path-loss-based methods has been carried out. Moreover, the exploitation...

  10. Basic Safety Considerations for Nuclear Power Plant Dealing with External Human Induced Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, W., E-mail: wafaasalem21@yahoo.com [Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (Egypt)

    2014-10-15

    Facilities and human activities in the region in which a nuclear power plant is located may under some conditions affect its safety. The potential sources of human induced events external to the plant should be identified and the severity of the possible resulting hazard phenomena should be evaluated to derive the appropriate design bases for the plant. They should also be monitored and periodically assessed over the lifetime of the plant to ensure that consistency with the design assumptions is maintained. External human induced events that could affect safety should be investigated in the site evaluation stage for every nuclear power plant site. The region is required to be examined for facilities and human activities that have the potential, under certain conditions, to endanger the nuclear power plant over its entire lifetime. Each relevant potential source is required to be identified and assessed to determine the potential interactions with personnel and plant items important to safety. (author)

  11. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  12. Disaster mitigation science for Earthquakes and Tsunamis -For resilience society against natural disasters-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Hori, T.; Kawaguchi, K.; Isouchi, C.; Fujisawa, K.

    2017-12-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For instance, 2004 Sumatra Earthquake in Indonesia, 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China, 2010 Chile Earthquake and 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan etc., these earthquakes generated very severe damages. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software developments/preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important. In Japan, DONET as the real time monitoring system on the ocean floor is developed and deployed around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone southwestern Japan. So, the early detection of earthquakes and tsunamis around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone will be expected by DONET. The integration of the real time data and advanced simulation researches will lead to reduce damages, however, in the resilience society, the resilience methods will be required after disasters. Actually, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. This means the resilience society. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, geography and psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. Finally, to realize and progress disaster mitigation science, human resource cultivation is indispensable. We already carried out disaster mitigation science under `new disaster mitigation research project on Mega

  13. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Platform for Personalized and Precision Cardiovascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsa, Elena; Ahrens, John H; Wu, Joseph C

    2016-07-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have revolutionized the field of human disease modeling, with an enormous potential to serve as paradigm shifting platforms for preclinical trials, personalized clinical diagnosis, and drug treatment. In this review, we describe how hiPSCs could transition cardiac healthcare away from simple disease diagnosis to prediction and prevention, bridging the gap between basic and clinical research to bring the best science to every patient. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Generation of Oligodendrogenic Spinal Neural Progenitor Cells From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Mohamad; Ahuja, Christopher S; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-08-14

    This unit describes protocols for the efficient generation of oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (o-NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Specifically, detailed methods are provided for the maintenance and differentiation of hiPSCs, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cell-oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (hiPSC-o-NPCs) with the final products being suitable for in vitro experimentation or in vivo transplantation. Throughout, cell exposure to growth factors and patterning morphogens has been optimized for both concentration and timing, based on the literature and empirical experience, resulting in a robust and highly efficient protocol. Using this derivation procedure, it is possible to obtain millions of oligodendrogenic-NPCs within 40 days of initial cell plating which is substantially shorter than other protocols for similar cell types. This protocol has also been optimized to use translationally relevant human iPSCs as the parent cell line. The resultant cells have been extensively characterized both in vitro and in vivo and express key markers of an oligodendrogenic lineage. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  15. Indirect effects of human-induced environmental change on offspring production mediated by behavioural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candolin, Ulrika; Nieminen, Anne; Nyman, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes often cause behavioural alterations in animals. The consequences that these alterations in turn have for the viability of populations are, however, poorly known. We used a population of threespine sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea to investigate the consequences of behavioural responses to human-induced eutrophication for offspring production. The investigated population has been growing during the last decades, and one cause could be increased offspring production. We combined field-based surveys with laboratory-based experiments, and found that an enhanced growth of macroalgae relaxed agonistic interactions among males. This allowed more males to nest, improved hatching success, and increased the number of reproductive cycles that males completed. Thus, the behavioural responses were adaptive at the individual level and increased offspring production. However, a larger proportion of small males of low competitive ability reproduced in dense vegetation. As male size and dominance are heritable, this could influence the genetic composition of the offspring. Together with a higher number of offspring produced, this could influence natural selection and the rate of adaptation to the changing environment. Thus, behavioural responses to a rapid human-induced environmental change can influence offspring production, with potential consequences for population dynamics and evolutionary processes.

  16. Merapi Disaster Impact on The Dairy Business in The District of Sleman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Merapi disaster with a variety of volcanic material caused fatalities or death and directly influenced on the health of cattle. Both of these effects in addition to psychological effects that cause farmers panic and economically are very harmful. This study aims to analyze the impact of Merapi disaster on dairy cow production and estimate the economic losses on the dairy cattle business. The analysis showed that Merapi disaster caused the death of livestock and reduced milk production. Livestock deaths are mainly caused by hot clouds, lava and ash that consumed through food and the respiratory tract. Decrease in milk production varies from 6.7 percent to 84 percent. Cows that are left displaced and not given food and drink for four days obviously decreased in milk production. The death of livestock, disruption of institutional marketing input and output, falling livestock prices and the decline in milk production resulted in losses IDR. 21.0 billion.

  17. Disaster Mythology and Availability Cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Grow Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sociological research conducted in the aftermath of natural disasters has uncovered a number of “disaster myths” – widely shared misconceptions about typical post-disaster human behavior. This paper discusses the possibility that perpetuation of disaster mythology reflects an “availability cascade,” defined in prior scholarship as a “self-reinforcing process of collective belief formation by which an expressed perception triggers a chain reaction that gives the perception increasing plausibility through its rising availability in public discourse.” (Kuran and Sunstein 1999. Framing the spread of disaster mythology as an availability cascade suggests that certain tools may be useful in halting the myths’ continued perpetuation. These tools include changing the legal and social incentives of so-called “availability entrepreneurs” – those principally responsible for beginning and perpetuating the cascade, as well as insulating decision-makers from political pressures generated by the availability cascade. This paper evaluates the potential effectiveness of these and other solutions for countering disaster mythology. Las investigaciones sociológicas realizadas tras los desastres naturales han hecho evidentes una serie de “mitos del desastre”, conceptos erróneos ampliamente compartidos sobre el comportamiento humano típico tras un desastre. Este artículo analiza la posibilidad de que la perpetuación de los mitos del desastre refleje una “cascada de disponibilidad”, definida en estudios anteriores como un “proceso de auto-refuerzo de la formación de una creencia colectiva, a través del que una percepción expresada produce una reacción en cadena que hace que la percepción sea cada vez más verosímil, a través de una mayor presencia en el discurso público” (Kuran y Sunstein 1999. Enmarcar la propagación de los mitos del desastre como una cascada de disponibilidad sugiere que ciertas herramientas pueden ser

  18. Longitudinal effects of disaster-related experiences on mental health among Fukushima nuclear plant workers: The Fukushima NEWS Project Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, A; Tanigawa, T; Charvat, H; Wada, H; Shigemura, J; Kawachi, I

    2017-08-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Energy Workers' Support (NEWS) Project Study previously showed that experiences related to the Fukushima nuclear disaster on 11 March 2011 had a great impact on psychological states, including post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) and general psychological distress (GPD), among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers. To determine the causal relationship between disaster-related experiences and levels of psychological states, we conducted a 3-year longitudinal study from 2011 to 2014. PTSR and GPD of the nuclear plant workers were assessed by annual questionnaires conducted from 2011 to 2014. The present study included a total of 1417 workers who provided an assessment at baseline (2011). A total of 4160 observations were used in the present analysis. The relationship between disaster-related experiences and psychological states over time was analysed using mixed-effects logistic regression models. A declining influence of disaster-related experiences on PTSR over time was found. However, the impact on PTSR remained significantly elevated even 3 years after the disaster in several categories of exposure including the experience of life-threatening danger, experiences of discrimination, the witnessing of plant explosion, the death of a colleague and home evacuation. The associations between GPD and disaster-related experiences showed similar effects. The effects of disaster-related experiences on psychological states among the nuclear plant workers reduced over time, but remained significantly high even 3 years after the event.

  19. HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN RESPONSE TO NATURAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters have increased in their frequency, and the intensity of their destruction over the last ten years in Indonesia. Households usually respond to these difficulties by cutting their consump-tion, especially for non-essential goods. Arguably natural disasters are exogenous events, so this paper uses the exogenous variation from natural disasters as a natural experiment design to estimate the effect of disasters on household expenditure. When a certain group is exposed to the causal variable of interest, such as a disaster, and other groups are not, the Difference In Difference model (DID can be used for estimation. Using a micro level survey data set from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS which covers approximately 83 percent of the Indonesian population within the survey area, this paper examines the effects of natural disasters on household expenditure. This paper also examines whether there are any different impacts from different types of disasters. The finding is there are no significant effects of disasters on total household expenditure for households living in disaster regions, whether they are affected directly or not by the disaster.

  20. Disaster Preparedness Among University Students in Guangzhou, China: Assessment of Status and Demand for Disaster Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yibing; Liao, Xiaolan; Su, Haihao; Li, Chun; Xiang, Jiagen; Dong, Zhaoyang

    2017-06-01

    This study had 2 aims. First, we evaluated the current levels of disaster preparedness among university students in southern China. Second, we assessed students' demands for future disaster education. In addition, we examined the influence of demographic factors on current disaster preparedness status and demand. A cross-sectional design was used. The data were collected from 1893 students in 10 universities in the Guangzhou Higher Education Mega (GHEM) center. A self-administered questionnaire developed for this study was administered to assess the current status and demand for disaster education. The results are based on 1764 valid questionnaires. Among the participants, 77.8% reported having had disaster education experiences before, 85.5% indicated their desire for a systematic disaster course, and 75.4% expressed their willingness to take such a course upon its availability. The total mean score for demand for disaster course content (5-point Likert scale) was 4.17±0.84, with items relating to rescue skills given the highest scores. These results suggested that students had high desires for disaster preparedness knowledge, especially knowledge concerning rescue skills. We observed significant differences in disaster education experiences between male and female students and across programs, school years, and home locations. Furthermore, we observed significant differences in demand for disaster course content between male and female students and across universities, student programs, years of school, and students' majors. A systematic disaster course focused on rescue skills is needed by all types of universities. To improve the disaster education system in universities, disaster drills should be performed on a semester basis as a refresher and to enhance disaster preparedness. The government and universities should support building a simulated disaster rescue center and recruit faculty from the emergency department, especially those who have had disaster

  1. Optimism following a tornado disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suls, Jerry; Rose, Jason P; Windschitl, Paul D; Smith, Andrew R

    2013-05-01

    Effects of exposure to a severe weather disaster on perceived future vulnerability were assessed in college students, local residents contacted through random-digit dialing, and community residents of affected versus unaffected neighborhoods. Students and community residents reported being less vulnerable than their peers at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year after the disaster. In Studies 1 and 2, absolute risk estimates were more optimistic with time, whereas comparative vulnerability was stable. Residents of affected neighborhoods (Study 3), surprisingly, reported less comparative vulnerability and lower "gut-level" numerical likelihood estimates at 6 months, but later their estimates resembled the unaffected residents. Likelihood estimates (10%-12%), however, exceeded the 1% risk calculated by storm experts, and gut-level versus statistical-level estimates were more optimistic. Although people believed they had approximately a 1-in-10 chance of injury from future tornadoes (i.e., an overestimate), they thought their risk was lower than peers.

  2. Natural hazard and disaster tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucińska Dorota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An observed trend, which can be defined as tourist interest in natural hazards and disasters, has persuaded the authors to attempt to research several issues, including tourist motivations and specific tourism properties and functions of this form of activity. The objective also covered the allocation of this social and natural process in the general structure of tourism. This interest has a long history, and a new stage is currently forming, which partly results from factors affecting society, such as information and education, which provoke antagonistic reactions. Extreme natural phenomena entail a common reduction of tourist interest in the destination which hosted the event; however, it never drops to zero. Differences are visible depending on the type of phenomenon. On the other hand, natural hazards and disasters are considered to hold a specific tourism value. This article discusses the allocation of this human activity in the tourism forms known to scientists, accounting for its diversity and relating to ethics.

  3. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  4. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  5. 78 FR 36556 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  6. 78 FR 45549 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42... Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially...

  7. 77 FR 73490 - Delaware; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  8. 78 FR 45549 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in...

  9. 76 FR 61730 - Texas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    .... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049...

  10. 77 FR 20043 - Indiana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  11. 78 FR 72918 - Nebraska; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  12. 78 FR 36557 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  13. 76 FR 44031 - Vermont; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  14. 78 FR 41943 - Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  15. 78 FR 51202 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  16. 76 FR 44031 - Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  17. 77 FR 44648 - Florida; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  18. 76 FR 61731 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster...

  19. 78 FR 32415 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  20. 76 FR 34090 - Missouri; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  1. 76 FR 72964 - Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  2. 78 FR 25462 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42... Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared...

  3. 77 FR 66859 - Florida; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  4. 78 FR 45547 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  5. 75 FR 45144 - Kentucky; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049...

  6. 76 FR 32984 - Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  7. 76 FR 61729 - Massachusetts; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  8. 78 FR 51203 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  9. 75 FR 30419 - Kentucky; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  10. 76 FR 33775 - Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  11. 78 FR 50436 - Missouri; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  12. Energy consumption declined in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    On presenting the energy consumption figures for 1993 the Minister for Economic Affairs of Baden-Wuerttemberg Dieter Spoeri (SPD) spoke of the eternal task of saving energy. In his view the slight decline in energy consumption from 1992 to 1993 should not be interpreted as a greater willingness to save energy; its main cause is rather to be seen in the course of the economy. According to estimations, total energy consumption fell 0.5% and electricity consumption 1.0% from 1992 to 1993. The economy on the other hand, still a decisive factor in energy consumption, is estimated to have declined 3% during that period. In the ten years from 1983 to 1993 total energy consumption in the Land rose an average annual 1.8% while electricity consumption kept astride with the economy with an average annual rise 2.7%, he said. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  14. Are our forests declining. Why

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leygonie, R.

    1991-01-01

    This article first presents the historical background of recent events popularized under the names: acid rains, forests declines. The first major crisis was soil and lake acidifications in Scandinavian countries, then a fast forest decay, first in Germany, in the early eighties, then in a number of European countries, including France. These phenomena were attributed to atmospheric pollutions, essentially acidic pollution. The consequences were drastic legislations in Germany, then the European Directive on large combustion plants (November 1988). Another consequence was the UNECE Convention on long range transport of pollutants (1979). Observations in the field on tree declines (loss of needles or leaves, abnormal yellowings, soil studies, etc.) and laboratory experiments showed that causes are very complex, involving the low quality of soils, abnormal droughts, presence of pollutants in atmosphere, mainly ozone [fr

  15. Designing for resistance to disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Tsunami is a Japanese word from a double root: tsu, meaning port or harbour, and nami, meaning wave. The word looks innocuous in simple translation, but to those who live on the rim of the Pacific it can spell disaster. The designers of nuclear installations at coastal sites, in particular, must take the possibility of occurrence of a tsunami into account in their work. (author)

  16. Cognitive decline in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsland, Dag; Creese, Byron; Politis, Marios; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; ffytche, Dominic H.; Weintraub, Daniel; Ballard, Clive

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a frequent problem encountered in advanced stages of Parkinson disease (PD). In recent years, research has focused on the pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in PD, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Several longitudinal studies have shown that MCI is a harbinger of dementia in PD, although the course is variable, and stabilization of cognition — or even reversal to normal cognition — is not uncommon. In addition to limbic and cortical spread of Lewy pathology, several other mechanisms are likely to contribute to cognitive decline in PD, and a variety of biomarker studies, some using novel structural and functional imaging techniques, have documented in vivo brain changes associated with cognitive impairment. The evidence consistently suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid-β42, a marker of comorbid Alzheimer disease (AD), predict future cognitive decline and dementia in PD. Emerging genetic evidence indicates that in addition to the APOE*ε4 allele (an established risk factor for AD), GBA mutations and SCNA mutations and triplications are associated with cognitive decline in PD, whereas the findings are mixed for MAPT polymorphisms. Cognitive enhancing medications have some effect in PD dementia, but no convincing evidence that progression from MCI to dementia can be delayed or prevented is available, although cognitive training has shown promising results. PMID:28257128

  17. The impact of disasters on small business disaster planning: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David T

    2007-12-01

    A major flood in 1997 forced the evacuation of Grand Forks, North Dakota and caused damage of USD 1 billion. Despite this recent disaster there is only marginal evidence of an increase in disaster recovery planning by businesses that experienced the flood. This finding is consistent with the results of other business-related disaster research. Statistical tests of survey results from 2003 indicate that there is a significantly higher rate of disaster recovery planning in businesses started since the 1997 flood than in businesses started before the flood and still in business. Such an outcome indicates a need for public policy actions emphasizing the importance of disaster planning. Improved disaster planning is an aid to business recovery and the results demonstrate the need for more widespread efforts to improve disaster recovery planning on the part of smaller businesses, even in areas that have recently experienced disasters.

  18. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  19. Historical and projected costs of natural disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.

    1995-04-01

    Natural disasters cause billions of dollars of damage and thousands Of deaths globally each year. While the magnitude is clear, the exact costs (in damage and fatalities) are difficult to clearly identify. This document reports on the results of a survey of data on the costs associated with significant natural disasters. There is an impressive amount of work and effort going into natural disaster research, mitigation, and relief. However, despite this effort, there are surprisingly few consistent and reliable data available regarding the effects of natural disasters. Even lacking consistent and complete data, it is clear that the damage and fatalities from natural disasters are increasing, both in the United States, and globally. Projections using the available data suggest that, in the United States alone, the costs of natural disasters between 1995 and 2010 will be in the range of $90 billion (94$) and 5000 lives.

  20. Natural disaster and mental health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokai, Masahiro; Fujii, Senta; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Edwards, Glen

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on disaster mental health in relation to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and cyclones throughout Asia. Articles reviewed show that disaster psychiatry in Asia is beginning to emerge from and leave behind the stigma attached to mental health. The emergence of the acceptance of disaster mental health throughout Asia can be attributed in part to the acceptance of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This has allowed greater involvement of mental health professionals in providing ongoing support to survivors of natural disasters as well as providing greater opportunities for further research. Also, articles reviewed in the present paper commonly suggested the need for using standardized diagnostic tools for PTSD to appropriately interpret the discrepancy of results among studies. The importance of post-disaster support services and cultural differences is highlighted.

  1. Risk assessment of flood disaster and forewarning model at different spatial-temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Xu, Jinchao; Guo, Qizhong; Hang, Qingfeng; Chen, Yaqian

    2018-05-01

    Aiming at reducing losses from flood disaster, risk assessment of flood disaster and forewarning model is studied. The model is built upon risk indices in flood disaster system, proceeding from the whole structure and its parts at different spatial-temporal scales. In this study, on the one hand, it mainly establishes the long-term forewarning model for the surface area with three levels of prediction, evaluation, and forewarning. The method of structure-adaptive back-propagation neural network on peak identification is used to simulate indices in prediction sub-model. Set pair analysis is employed to calculate the connection degrees of a single index, comprehensive index, and systematic risk through the multivariate connection number, and the comprehensive assessment is made by assessment matrixes in evaluation sub-model. The comparison judging method is adopted to divide warning degree of flood disaster on risk assessment comprehensive index with forewarning standards in forewarning sub-model and then the long-term local conditions for proposing planning schemes. On the other hand, it mainly sets up the real-time forewarning model for the spot, which introduces the real-time correction technique of Kalman filter based on hydrological model with forewarning index, and then the real-time local conditions for presenting an emergency plan. This study takes Tunxi area, Huangshan City of China, as an example. After risk assessment and forewarning model establishment and application for flood disaster at different spatial-temporal scales between the actual and simulated data from 1989 to 2008, forewarning results show that the development trend for flood disaster risk remains a decline on the whole from 2009 to 2013, despite the rise in 2011. At the macroscopic level, project and non-project measures are advanced, while at the microcosmic level, the time, place, and method are listed. It suggests that the proposed model is feasible with theory and application, thus

  2. Ecosystem Approach To Flood Disaster Risk Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    RK Kamble; Abhinav Walia; MG Thakare

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world. The country is prone to disasters due to number of factors; both natural and anthropogenic, including adverse geo-climatic conditions, topographical features, environmental degradation, population growth, urbanisation, industrlisation, non-scientific development practices etc. The factors either in original or by accelerating the intensity and frequency of disasters are responsible for heavy toll of human lives and disruptin...

  3. Is your automated system disaster proof?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, P.W.; Priest, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Disaster-proofing a system has four basic steps: (1) development of a disaster recovery plan; (2) creation and enforcement of procedures for developing and maintaining off-site back-ups for data, vital records, and documentation; (3) a performance test of the disaster recovery plan; and (4) the on-going maintenance of a plans currency and the periodic testing of the plant. The development of a complete disaster recovery plan has many elements: the operating environment for the system; the criteria under which an off-site recovery would be initiated; the back-up schedule and locations of all data; vital records and documentation; the steps required to recover the system; and any modifications necessitated by the off-site operating environment. Creation and enforcement of procedures for developing and maintaining current backups for all data, vital records, and documentation in a designated off-site location represent the second and most crucial step for ensuring an automated system can successfully survive a disaster. To effectively test any plan, a disaster scenario must be developed and performed by a disaster recovery team required to recover and operate the system in the off-site environment using nothing more than the disaster recovery plan and off-site information and data. Finally, the last step for ensuring that a system can survive a disaster is the maintenance of the plans currency and the continued performance of disaster recovery tests. As the environment surrounding a system changes a disaster recovery plan must be updated to reflect these changes. Equally important to the maintenance of currency is the on-going performance of disaster recovery tests on a periodic basis

  4. Gender-Sensitive Post-Disaster Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This note on gender-sensitive post-disaster assessments is the eighth in a series of guidance notes on gender issues in disaster risk management (DRM) in the East Asia and the Pacific region. Targeting World Bank staff, clients and development partners, this note gives an overview of the main reasons for assessing gender impacts as part of a post-disaster needs assessment, identifies the k...

  5. FEMA Individual Assistance Open Disaster Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Individual Assistance (IA) is provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency to individuals and families who have sustained losses due to disasters. Homeowners,...

  6. Center for Disaster & Humanitarian Assistance Medicine

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine (CDHAM) was formally established at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) by...

  7. 75 FR 10330 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00033

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ..., Madison, Morrill, Nance, Nemaha, Otoe, Pawnee, Rock, Saline, Saunders, Seward, Stanton, Thayer, Thurston... Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster...

  8. [Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kai-Hu

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters.

  9. 77 FR 52379 - Disaster Declaration #13239 and #13240; OHIO Disaster # H-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 13239 and 13240; OHIO Disaster H-00030 AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of OHIO (FEMA-4077- DR), dated 08/20..., Perry, Pickaway, Pike, Putnam, Shelby, Van Wert, Washington. The Interest Rates are: Percent For...

  10. Towards a politics of disaster response: presidential disaster instructions in China, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng; Chen, Chunliang

    2018-04-01

    China's disaster management system contains no law-based presidential disaster declarations; however, the national leader's instructions (pishi in Chinese) play a similar role to disaster declarations, which increase the intensity of disaster relief. This raises the question of what affects presidential disaster instructions within an authoritarian regime. This research shows that China's disaster politics depend on a crisis threshold system for operation and that the public and social features of disasters are at the core of this system. China's political cycle has no significant impact on disaster politics. A change in the emergency management system has a significant bearing on presidential disaster instructions, reflecting the strong influence of the concept of rule of law and benefiting the sustainable development of the emergency management system. In terms of disaster politics research, unlocking the black box of China's disaster politics and increasing the number of comparative political studies will benefit the development of empirical and theoretical study. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  11. 75 FR 68393 - Puerto Rico Disaster # PR-00011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12366 and 12367] Puerto Rico Disaster PR-00011 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster [[Page 68394

  12. civil-military relations in disaster rescue and relief activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    made disaster must ... use of foreign military assets in disaster response. To balance concerns, the .... 5 In the literature, disaster response pertains to actions undertaken during emergency ... These changes also reflected the underlying shift in the.

  13. 78 FR 72919 - Illinois; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Assistance Grant; [[Page 72920

  14. Helping Children with Disabilities Cope with Disaster and Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events General Information Caring for Children in a Disaster This web site from CDC has information for families, schools, and healthcare providers during and after crises and disasters. Children and Youth—SAMHSA Disaster Behavioral Health Information ...

  15. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  16. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayoubi, Sohrab; Sheikh, Søren P; Eskildsen, Tilde V

    2017-01-01

    . To this end, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have generated great enthusiasm, and have been a driving force for development of novel strategies in drug discovery and regenerative cell-therapy for the last decade. Hence, investigating the mechanisms underlying the differentiation of hi......PSCs into specialized cell types such as cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) may lead to a better understanding of developmental cardiovascular processes and potentiate progress of safe autologous regenerative therapies in pathological conditions. In this review, we summarize...

  17. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    OpenAIRE

    Hayato Fukusumi; Tomoko Shofuda; Yohei Bamba; Atsuyo Yamamoto; Daisuke Kanematsu; Yukako Handa; Keisuke Okita; Masaya Nakamura; Shinya Yamanaka; Hideyuki Okano; Yonehiro Kanemura

    2016-01-01

    Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB) formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi). Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPS...

  18. Donor cell type can influence the epigenome and differentiation potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kitai; Zhao, Rui; Doi, Akiko; Ng, Kitwa; Unternaehrer, Juli; Cahan, Patrick; Hongguang, Huo; Loh, Yuin-Han; Aryee, Martin J.; Lensch, M. William; Li, Hu; Collins, James J.; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Daley, George Q.

    2012-01-01

    We compared bona-fide human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from umbilical cord blood (CB) and neonatal keratinocytes (K). As a consequence of both incomplete erasure of tissue-specific methylation and aberrant de novo methylation, CB-iPSC and K-iPSC are distinct in genome-wide DNA methylation profiles and differentiation potential. Extended passage of some iPSC clones in culture didn't improve their epigenetic resemblance to ESC, implying that some human iPSC retain a residual “epigenetic memory” of their tissue of origin. PMID:22119740

  19. The Vulnerability of Earth Systems to Human-Induced Global Change and Strategies for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Since the IGY, there has been growing evidence that climate is changing in response to human activities. The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognizing that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world. The question is not whether climate will change, but rather how much (magnitude), how fast (the rate of change) and where (regional patterns). It is also clear that climate change and other human-induced modifications to the environment will, in many parts of the world, adversely affect socio-economic sectors, including water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human settlements, ecological systems (particularly forests and coral reefs), and human health (particularly diseases spread by insects), with developing countries being the most vulnerable. Environmental degradation of all types (i.e., climate change, loss of biodiversity, land degradation, air and water quality) all undermine the challenge of poverty alleviation and sustainable economic growth. One of the major challenges facing humankind is to provide an equitable standard of living for this and future generations: adequate food, water and energy, safe shelter and a healthy environment (e.g., clean air and water). Unfortunately, human-induced climate change, as well as other global environmental issues such as land degradation, loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion, threatens our ability to meet these basic human needs. The good news is, however, that the majority of experts believe that significant reductions in net

  20. Health after disaster: A perspective of psychological/health reactions to disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Superstorm Sandy, which affected millions of people in 2012, was a disaster in structural, financial, medical, and emotional terms. Many survivors experienced post-storm health psychology impacts. Depression levels increased by 25%, and physician visits were elevated by a significant amount. Clearly, large-scale disasters have a profound effect on the physical and emotional health of survivors. Understanding these effects can improve future disaster relief programs and policies. Exploration of post-disaster issues can inform government entities and non-government organizations to assist communities and individuals left in the aftermath of natural disasters.

  1. Smart disaster mitigation in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimmanee, S.; Ekkawatpanit, C.; Asanuma, H.

    2016-04-01

    Thailand is notoriously exposed to several natural disasters, from heavy thunder storms to earthquakes and tsunamis, since it is located in the tropical area and has tectonic cracks underneath the ground. Besides these hazards flooding, despite being less severe, occurs frequently, stays longer than the other disasters, and affects a large part of the national territory. Recently in 2011 have also been recorded the devastating effects of major flooding causing the economic damages and losses around 50 billion dollars. Since Thailand is particularly exposed to such hazards, research institutions are involved in campaigns about monitoring, prevention and mitigation of the effects of such phenomena, with the aim to secure and protect human lives, and secondly, the remarkable cultural heritage. The present paper will first make a brief excursus on the main Thailand projects aimed at the mitigation of natural disasters, referring to projects of national and international relevance, being implemented, such as the ESCAP1999 (flow regime regulation and water conservation). Adaptable devices such as foldable flood barriers and hydrodynamically supported temporary banks have been utilized when flooding. In the second part of the paper, will be described some new ideas concerning the use of smart and biomimicking column structures capable of high-velocity water interception and velocity detection in the case of tsunami. The pole configuration is composite cylindrical shell structure embedded with piezoceramic sensor. The vortex shedding of the flow around the pole induces the vibration and periodically strains the piezoelectric element, which in turn generates the electrical sensorial signal. The internal space of the shell is filled with elastic foam to enhance the load carrying capability due to hydrodynamic application. This more rigid outer shell inserted with soft core material resemble lotus stem in nature in order to prolong local buckling and ovalization of column

  2. Disaster medicine: the caring contradiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, David; Krin, Charles; Lorich, Dean; Mattox, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The nature of mankind is a concern for those in need. Disasters, both natural and manmade, have been with us since the beginning of recorded history but media coverage of them is a relatively new phenomenon. When these factors come together, there is great potential to both identify and serve the sick and injured. However, the mass media by its nature tends to enhance the humanistic aspect of rescue while minimizing the practical problems involved. We describe a recent scenario in Haiti that puts some of these complications into a practical perspective.

  3. Emergency and Disaster Information Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boszormenyi, Zsolt

    2010-05-01

    The Hungarian National Association of Radio Distress-Signalling and Infocommunications (RSOE) operates Emergency and Disaster Information Service (EDIS) within the frame of its own website which has the objective to monitor and document all the events on the Earth which may cause disaster or emergency. Our service is using the speed and the data spectrum of the internet to gather information. We are monitoring and processing several foreign organisation's data to get quick and certified information. The EDIS website operated together by the General-Directorate of National Disaster Management (OKF) and RSOE, in co-operation with the Crisis Management Centre of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, provides useful information regarding emergency situations and their prevention. Extraordinary events happening in Hungary, Europe and other areas of the World are being monitored in 24 hours per day. All events processed by RSOE EDIS are displayed real time - for the sake of international compatibility - according to the CAP protocol on a secure website. To ensure clear transparency all events are categorized separately in the RSS directory (e.g. earthquake, fire, flood, landslide, nuclear event, tornado, vulcano). RSOE EDIS also contributes in dissemination of the CAP protocol in Hungary. Beside the official information, with the help of special programs nearly 900-1000 internet press publication will be monitored and the publication containing predefined keywords will be processed. However, these "news" cannot be considered as official and reliable information, but many times we have learnt critical information from the internet press. We are screening the incoming information and storing in a central database sorted by category. After processing the information we are sending it immediately via E-Mail (or other format) for the organisations and persons who have requested it (e.g. National Disaster Management, United Nations etc.). We are aspiring that the processed data

  4. UV-B Radiation Contributes to Amphibian Population Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    UV-B (280-315 nm) radiation is the most significant biologically damaging radiation at the terrestrial surface. At the organismal level, UV-B radiation can slow growth rates, cause immune dysfunction and result in sublethal damage. UV-B radiation can lead to mutations and cell death. Over evolutionary time, UV radiation has been an important stressor on living organisms. Natural events, including impacts from comets and asteroids, volcanic activity, supernova explosions and solar flares, can cause large-scale ozone depletion with accompanying increases in UV radiation. However, these natural events are transient. Moreover, the amount of ozone damage due to natural events depends upon a number of variables, including the magnitude of the event. This is different from modern-day human-induced production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other chemicals that deplete stratospheric ozone continuously, resulting in long-term increases in UV-B radiation at the surface of the earth. We will briefly review the effects of UV-B exposure in one group of aquatic organisms_amphibians. UV-B has been implicated as a possible factor contributing to global declines and range reductions in amphibian populations.

  5. Appropriate Natural Disaster Handling Policy To Guarantee Effectiveness Of Post-Disaster Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyawati Boediningsih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a very rich country fascinating the beauty of the panoramic so attract much foreign tourists to come and see its beauty. Furthermore Indonesia is a country that often experience natural disasters ranging from floods mount erupted until to Tsunami Indonesia Located in a geographical location that is prone to disaster. Disasters can be caused by both natural and behavioral factors that are not responsible for utilizing and managing natural resources and the environment. In some areas of Indonesia disasters examples that hit the country. So far there are available disaster management regulation tools namely Law Number 24 Year 2007 which provides disaster management framework Pre-disaster comprehend emergency response and post-disaster. Although the law has outlined comprehensive disaster management provisions so far is still focused on the emergency response period. Further actions such as mitigation rehabilitation and reconstruction appear not to be a top priority of disaster management activities. Other issues that are still scattered are coordination rescue aid appropriateness of assistance and distribution spread evenly. Institutional On the mandate of Law 242007 also institutional had been formed National Disaster Management Agency BNPB at the local level throughout and Indonesia.BNPB also set up a technically existing technical unit UPTD of 12 units. A BNPB Institution supported by trained human resources HR trained to be deployed to even the most difficult terrain.

  6. How assessment and evaluation is interlinked with disaster governance? A case of the Tohoku Disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The linkage of governance, disaster management and policy are not well established both in terms of conceptual basis and practices and require more in-depth analysis for better disaster management and governance (disaster governance). The weak linkage may prevent effective disaster management. The 2011 Tohoku Disaster posed many governance-related challenges, including processes or institutions of disaster management or decision-making. Especially, the analysis of the challenges turns out that many of core problems are interlinked with assessment and evaluation. The research problems the paper addresses are two-fold given the existing studies and practices: First, there is few conceptual foundation for linking disaster management and governance especially in light of assessment and evaluation. Second, while assessment or evaluation lends to be taken for panted at practices, few analytical research or discussions exist about how it is interlinked with disaster governance. This paper aims at filling in the above gap and attempts to elucidate analytically the linkage of assessment and evaluation with disaster governance through a case of the 2011 Tohoku Disaster in Japan for better disaster governance and actionable policies. (author)

  7. Bridging international relations and disaster studies: the case of disaster-conflict scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Simon

    2018-01-01

    International relations and disaster studies have much to gain by thinking critically about their respective theoretical and epistemological assumptions. Yet, few studies to date have sought to assess the potential value of linking these two disciplines. This paper begins to address this shortfall by examining the relationship between disasters and conflict as a research sphere that intersects international relations and disaster studies. Through an analysis of whether or not disasters contribute to intra-national and international conflict, this paper not only provides a review of the state of the art, but also serves to invite scholars to reflect on related concepts from other fields to strengthen their own approaches to the study of disasters in an international setting. An evaluation of the conceptual and theoretical contributions of each subject area provides useful heuristics for the development of disaster-conflict scholarship and encourages alternative modes of knowledge production through interdisciplinarity. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  8. Disaster Reintegration Model: A Qualitative Analysis on Developing Korean Disaster Mental Health Support Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jung Choi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to describe the mental health problems experienced by Korean disaster survivors, using a qualitative research method to provide empirical resources for effective disaster mental health support in Korea. Participants were 16 adults or elderly adults who experienced one or more disasters at least 12 months ago recruited via theoretical sampling. Participants underwent in-depth individual interviews on their disaster experiences, which were recorded and transcribed for qualitative analysis, which followed Strauss and Corbin’s (1998 Grounded theory. After open coding, participants’ experiences were categorized into 130 codes, 43 sub-categories and 17 categories. The categories were further analyzed in a paradigm model, conditional model and the Disaster Reintegration Model, which proposed potentially effective mental health recovery strategies for disaster survivors, health providers and administrators. To provide effective assistance for mental health recovery of disaster survivors, both personal and public resilience should be promoted while considering both cultural and spiritual elements.

  9. Disaster waste management: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica

    2011-06-01

    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plastic Surgery Response in Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susan; Zimmerman, Amanda; Gaviria, Andres; Dayicioglu, Deniz

    2015-06-01

    Disasters cause untold damage and are often unpredictable; however, with proper preparation, these events can be better managed. The initial response has the greatest impact on the overall success of the relief effort. A well-trained multidisciplinary network of providers is necessary to ensure coordinated care for the victims of these mass casualty disasters. As members of this network of providers, plastic surgeons have the ability to efficiently address injuries sustained in mass casualty disasters and are a valuable member of the relief effort. The skill set of plastic surgeons includes techniques that can address injuries sustained in large-scale emergencies, such as the management of soft-tissue injury, tissue viability, facial fractures, and extremity salvage. An approach to disaster relief, the types of disasters encountered, the management of injuries related to mass casualty disasters, the role of plastic surgeons in the relief effort, and resource management are discussed. In order to improve preparedness in future mass casualty disasters, plastic surgeons should receive training during residency regarding the utilization of plastic surgery knowledge in the disaster setting.

  11. Records and Information Disaster Preparedness in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looked at the availability of rules and regulations governing access to and use of records; threats to records management; disaster response plan; extent to which organizations are committed in four major stages of disaster management in organizations in Uganda. In gathering the data, structured questionnaire ...

  12. Mental and social health in disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Silja; Elsass, Peter; Berliner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a study of important themes in relation to the Sphere standards of psycho-social interventions in disasters.......The article presents a study of important themes in relation to the Sphere standards of psycho-social interventions in disasters....

  13. Challenges of communication system during emergency disaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... 3.2.3.Satellite-Based Communication. Satellite-based communication is another alternative for communication in the event of disaster. Japan, United States of America and Russia are the countries that have utilised the system to disseminate emergency messages during previous disasters. Satellite-based.

  14. Imagery for Disaster Response and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Exposing the remotely sensed imagery for disaster response and recovery can provide the basis for an unbiased understanding of current conditions. Having created consolidated remotely sensed and geospatial data sources documents for US and Foreign disasters over the past six years, availability and usability are continuing to evolve. By documenting all existing sources of imagery and value added products, the disaster response and recovery community can develop actionable information. The past two years have provided unique situations to use imagery including a major humanitarian disaster and response effort in Haiti, a major environmental disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, a killer tornado in Joplin Missouri and long-term flooding in the Midwest. Each disaster presents different challenges and requires different spatial resolutions, spectral properties and/or multi-temporal collections. The community of data providers continues to expand with organized actives such as the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters and acquisitions by the private sector for the public good rather than for profit. However, data licensing, the lack of cross-calibration and inconsistent georeferencing hinder optimal use. Recent pre-event imagery is a critial component to any disaster response.

  15. New Map Symbol System for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Silvia T.

    2018-05-01

    In the last 10 years Bulgaria was frequently affected by natural and man-made disasters that caused considerable losses. According to the Bulgarian Disaster Management Act (2006) disaster management should be planned at local, regional and national level. Disaster protection is based on plans that include maps such as hazard maps, maps for protection, maps for evacuation planning, etc. Decision-making and cooperation between two or more neighboring municipalities or regions in crisis situation are still rendered difficult because the maps included in the plans differ in scale, colors, map symbols and cartographic design. To improve decision-making process in case of emergency and to reduce the number of human loss and property damages disaster management plans at local and regional level should be supported by detailed thematic maps created in accordance with uniform contents, map symbol system and design. The paper proposes a new symbol system for disaster management that includes a four level hierarchical classification of objects and phenomena according to their type and origin. All objects and phenomena of this classification are divided into five categories: disasters; infrastructure; protection services and infrastructure for protection; affected people and affected infrastructure; operational sites and activities. The symbols of these categories are shown with different background colors and shapes so that they are identifiable. All the symbols have simple but associative design. The new symbol system is used in the design of a series of maps for disaster management at local and regional level.

  16. Monitoring and prediction of natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyev, K. Ya; Krapivin, V. F.

    2004-01-01

    The problems of natural disaster predicting and accomplishing a synthesis of environmental monitoring systems to collect, store, and process relevant information for their solution are analysed. A three-level methodology is proposed for making decisions concerning the natural disaster dynamics. The methodology is based on the assessment of environmental indicators and the use of numerical models of the environment

  17. Disaster waste management: A review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems.

  18. Managing Post-Disaster Needs Assessments (PDNA)

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Brett

    2010-01-01

    This knowledge note provides an overview of the post-disaster assessment process, extracting lessons learned in the East Asia Pacific Region (EAP) and presenting best practices from recent assessments. The note explains the Post-Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA) methodology, and outlines: (i) the assessment triggers, (ii) key steps in assessment planning, and (iii) dos and don'ts in assessm...

  19. Behavioural responses to human-induced change: Why fishing should not be ignored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Pauli, Beatriz; Sih, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Change in behaviour is usually the first response to human-induced environmental change and key for determining whether a species adapts to environmental change or becomes maladapted. Thus, understanding the behavioural response to human-induced changes is crucial in the interplay between ecology, evolution, conservation and management. Yet the behavioural response to fishing activities has been largely ignored. We review studies contrasting how fish behaviour affects catch by passive (e.g., long lines, angling) versus active gears (e.g., trawls, seines). We show that fishing not only targets certain behaviours, but it leads to a multitrait response including behavioural, physiological and life-history traits with population, community and ecosystem consequences. Fisheries-driven change (plastic or evolutionary) of fish behaviour and its correlated traits could impact fish populations well beyond their survival per se , affecting predation risk, foraging behaviour, dispersal, parental care, etc., and hence numerous ecological issues including population dynamics and trophic cascades . In particular, we discuss implications of behavioural responses to fishing for fisheries management and population resilience. More research on these topics, however, is needed to draw general conclusions, and we suggest fruitful directions for future studies.

  20. The NASA Applied Science Program Disasters Area: Disaster Applications Research and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the Natural Disaster Application Area is to use NASA's capabilities in spaceborne, airborne, surface observations, higher-level derived data products, and modeling and data analysis to improve natural disaster forecasting, mitigation, and response. The Natural Disaster Application Area applies its remote sensing observations, modeling and analysis capabilities to provide hazard and disaster information where and when it is needed. Our application research activities specifically contribute to 1) Understanding the natural processes that produce hazards, 2)Developing hazard mitigation technologies, and 3)Recognizing vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure. The Natural Disasters Application area selects research projects through a rigorous, impartial peer-review process that address a broad spectrum of disasters which afflict populations within the United States, regionally and globally. Currently there are 19 active projects in the research portfolio which address the detection, characterization, forecasting and response to a broad range of natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and ash dispersion, wildfires, hurricanes, floods, tornado damage assessment, oil spills and disaster data mining. The Disasters team works with federal agencies to aid the government in meeting the challenges associated with natural disaster response and to transfer technologies to agencies as they become operational. Internationally, the Disasters Area also supports the Committee on Earth Observations Working Group on Disasters, and the International Charter on Space and Disasters to increase, strengthen, and coordinate contributions of NASA Earth-observing satellites and applications products to disaster risk management. The CEOS group will lead pilot efforts focused on identifying key systems to support flooding, earthquake, and volcanic events.

  1. [Disaster Control and Civil Protection in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippnich, Maximilian; Kowalzik, Barbara; Cermak, Rudolf; Kippnich, Uwe; Kranke, Peter; Wurmb, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The train crash of Bad Aibling/Germany in February 2016 and the terrorist attacks of the recent years in Europe have demonstrated the urgent need to be prepared for such disastrous events. Disaster preparedness and disaster control are very important governmental duties, as are civil protection and civil defense. In Germany the responsibility for those tasks are divided between the 16 "Länder" and the Federation. While the Federation takes care of the civil protection and disaster assistance, the Länder are responsible for disaster control. The presented article focuses on these issues and gives valuable insights into the German system of disaster control and civil protection with a focus on health protection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Who fears and who welcomes population decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik P. Van Dalen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available European countries are experiencing population decline and the tacit assumption in most analyses is that the decline may have detrimental welfare effects. In this paper we use a survey among the population in the Netherlands to discover whether population decline is always met with fear. A number of results stand out: population size preferences differ by geographic proximity: at a global level the majority of respondents favors a (global population decline, but closer to home one supports a stationary population. Population decline is clearly not always met with fear: 31 percent would like the population to decline at the national level and they generally perceive decline to be accompanied by immaterial welfare gains (improvement environment as well as material welfare losses (tax increases, economic stagnation. In addition to these driving forces it appears that the attitude towards immigrants is a very strong determinant at all geographical levels: immigrants seem to be a stronger fear factor than population decline.

  3. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  4. Towards thresholds of disaster management performance under demographic change: exploring functional relationships using agent-based modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dressler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective disaster management is a core feature for the protection of communities against natural disasters such as floods. Disaster management organizations (DMOs are expected to contribute to ensuring this protection. However, what happens when their resources to cope with a flood are at stake or the intensity and frequency of the event exceeds their capacities? Many cities in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, were strongly hit by several floods in the last years and are additionally challenged by demographic change, with an ageing society and out-migration leading to population shrinkage in many parts of Saxony. Disaster management, which is mostly volunteer-based in Germany, is particularly affected by this change, leading to a loss of members. We propose an agent-based simulation model that acts as a "virtual lab" to explore the impact of various changes on disaster management performance. Using different scenarios we examine the impact of changes in personal resources of DMOs, their access to operation relevant information, flood characteristics as well as differences between geographic regions. A loss of DMOs and associated manpower caused by demographic change has the most profound impact on the performance. Especially in rural, upstream regions population decline in combination with very short lead times can put disaster management performance at risk.

  5. Are snake populations in widespread decline?

    OpenAIRE

    Reading, C. J.; Luiselli, L. M.; Akani, G. C.; Bonnet, X.; Amori, G.; Ballouard, J. M.; Filippi, E.; Naulleau, G.; Pearson, D.; Rugiero, L.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies have revealed population declines in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. In birds, and particularly amphibians, these declines are a global phenomenon whose causes are often unclear. Among reptiles, snakes are top predators and therefore a decline in their numbers may have serious consequences for the functioning of many ecosystems. Our results show that, of 17 snake populations (eight species) from the UK, France, Italy, Nigeria and Australia, 11 have declined ...

  6. Altered Reproductive Function and Amphibian Declines

    OpenAIRE

    Gallipeau, Sherrie

    2014-01-01

    Agrochemical exposure is one of the factors that contributes to worldwide amphibian declines. Most studies that examine agrochemicals and amphibian declines focus on toxicity. However, declines are more likely caused by the sub-lethal effects of agrochemical exposure. Past emphases on the lethal effects of agrochemical exposure have overshadowed the contribution of decreased recruitment in amphibian declines. Additionally, studies that examine agrochemicals and reproductive function tend to f...

  7. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  8. Disaster and hazard prevention research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    It is third project year on `Application of mobile diesel equipment in underground mines` for providing appropriate measures to improve underground working environment contaminated by the diesel exhaust pollutants. The result of disaster and hazard prevention research is as follows ; 1) There are three categories of possible disaster of hazard in workings where diesel equipment are operating : a) exhausting pollutants, b) mine fire, c) other causes. 2) Workings employing diesel equipment should be properly ventilated all the time to maintain the gas concentration bellow the permissible level. 3) Major cause of fire is known as the high engine temperature by heavy duty and rupture of hydraulic hoses or fuel pipes and fuel spillage. So, sound engine maintenance and workers` train is essential matter to prevent fire outbreak. 4) By simulating the expected mine fire, The proper measures can be provided in actual fire. 5) Fuel and other are recommended to be stored at surface and, when the storage installed in underground, all the safety regulation should be kept strictly. (author). 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  10. Novel Method of Production Decline Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shan; Lan, Yifei; He, Lei; Jiao, Yang; Wu, Yong

    2018-02-01

    ARPS decline curves is the most commonly used in oil and gas field due to its minimal data requirements and ease application. And prediction of production decline which is based on ARPS analysis rely on known decline type. However, when coefficient index are very approximate under different decline type, it is difficult to directly recognize decline trend of matched curves. Due to difficulties above, based on simulation results of multi-factor response experiments, a new dynamic decline prediction model is introduced with using multiple linear regression of influence factors. First of all, according to study of effect factors of production decline, interaction experimental schemes are designed. Based on simulated results, annual decline rate is predicted by decline model. Moreover, the new method is applied in A gas filed of Ordos Basin as example to illustrate reliability. The result commit that the new model can directly predict decline tendency without needing recognize decline style. From arithmetic aspect, it also take advantage of high veracity. Finally, the new method improves the evaluation method of gas well production decline in low permeability gas reservoir, which also provides technical support for further understanding of tight gas field development laws.

  11. Managing anaesthetic provision for global disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, R M

    2017-12-01

    The numbers of people affected by large-scale disasters has increased in recent decades. Disasters produce a huge burden of surgical morbidity at a time when the affected country is least able to respond. For this reason an international disaster response is often required. For many years this disaster response was not coordinated. The response consisted of what was available not what was needed and standards of care varied widely producing a healthcare lottery for the affected population. In recent years the World Health organisation has initiated the Emergency Medical Team programme to coordinate the response to disasters and set minimum standards for responding teams. Anaesthetists have a key role to play in Level 2 Surgical Field Hospitals. The disaster context produces a number of logistical challenges that directly impact on the anaesthetist requiring adaptation of anaesthetic techniques from their everyday practice. The context in which they will be working and the wider scope of practice that will be expected from them in the field mandates that deploying anaesthetists should be trained for disaster response. There have been significant improvements in recent years in the speed of response, equipment availability, coordination and training for disasters. Future challenges include increasing local disaster response capacity, agreeing international standards for training and improving data collection to allow for future research and improvement in disaster response. The goal of this review article is to provide an understanding of the disaster context and what logistical challenges it provides. There has been a move during the last decade from a globally uncoordinated, unregulated response, with no consensus on standards, to a globally coordinated response through the World Health Organisation (WHO). A classification system for responding Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs) and a set of agreed minimum standards has been defined. This review outlines the scope of

  12. Ecosystem Approach To Flood Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Kamble

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world. The country is prone to disasters due to number of factors; both natural and anthropogenic, including adverse geo-climatic conditions, topographical features, environmental degradation, population growth, urbanisation, industrlisation, non-scientific development practices etc. The factors either in original or by accelerating the intensity and frequency of disasters are responsible for heavy toll of human lives and disrupting the life support systems in the country. India has 40 million hectares of the flood-prone area, on an average, flood affect an area of around 7.5 million hectares per year. Knowledge of environmental systems and processes are key factors in the management of disasters, particularly the hydro-metrological ones. Management of flood risk and disaster is a multi-dimensional affair that calls for interdisciplinary approach. Ecosystem based disaster risk reduction builds on ecosystem management principles, strategies and tools in order to maximise ecosystem services for risk reduction. This perspective takes into account the integration of social and ecological systems, placing people at the centre of decision making. The present paper has been attempted to demonstrate how ecosystem-based approach can help in flood disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 70-82 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9209

  13. Spatial and temporal distribution of geophysical disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters of all kinds (meteorological, hydrological, geophysical, climatological and biological are increasingly becoming part of everyday life of modern human. The consequences are often devastating, to the life, health and property of people, as well to the security of states and the entire international regions. In this regard, we noted the need for a comprehensive investigation of the phenomenology of natural disasters. In addition, it is particularly important to pay attention to the different factors that might correlate with each other to indicate more dubious and more original facts about their characteristics. However, as the issue of natural disasters is very wide, the subject of this paper will be forms, consequences, temporal and spatial distribution of geophysical natural disasters, while analysis of other disasters will be the subject of our future research. Using an international database on natural disasters of the centre for research on the epidemiology of disasters (CRED based in Brussels, with the support of the statistical analysis (SPSS, we tried to point out the number, trends, consequences, the spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and dry mass movements in the world, from 1900 to 2013.

  14. Post-Disaster Social Justice Group Work and Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses post-disaster group counseling and group supervision using a social justice orientation for working with post-disaster survivors from underserved populations. The Disaster Cross-Cultural Counseling model is a culturally responsive group counseling model that infuses social justice into post-disaster group counseling and…

  15. Can We Protect Our Communities from Natural Disasters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There are two ways one might protect communities from natural disasters. One is to minimize the damage from disasters, and the other is to prevent the disasters in the first place. However, preventing disasters is another matter, and in trying to do so, we have to be aware of unintended consequences of our efforts. To address the issues associated…

  16. 75 FR 2165 - Puerto Rico Disaster No. PR-00007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration Nos. 12004 and 12005; Puerto Rico Disaster No. PR-00007] Puerto Rico Disaster No. PR-00007 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of...

  17. Continuity and Change in Disaster Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe post-war continuity and change in disaster education in Japan. Preparedness for natural disasters has been a continuous agenda in Japan for geographical and meteorological reasons, and disaster education has been practised in both formal and informal settings. Post-war disaster management and education have taken a…

  18. 76 FR 2431 - New Mexico Disaster #NM-00016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12320 and 12321] New Mexico Disaster NM-00016... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-1936... INFORMATION: The notice of the President's major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in...

  19. 78 FR 66982 - New Mexico Disaster #NM-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13809 and 13810] New Mexico Disaster NM-00035... declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of New Mexico (FEMA- 4152-DR), dated... INFORMATION: Notice is hereby given that as a result of the President's major disaster declaration on 10/29...

  20. Disaster Management in Academic Libraries in Ghana | Akussah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article presents the findings of a survey of the management of disasters in academic libraries in Ghana. In the 12 academic libraries surveyed, the findings revealed varying levels of unpreparedness of most academic libraries for disasters in Ghana. The absence of purpose of recovery after disasters, the lack of disaster ...

  1. 77 FR 54601 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C... Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared...

  2. 78 FR 23278 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in...

  3. 78 FR 51201 - Wisconsin; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''). Therefore, I..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  4. 78 FR 45548 - Montana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. Sec. Sec... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in...

  5. 75 FR 2883 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster...

  6. 78 FR 27414 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  7. 78 FR 51200 - Florida; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    .... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared...

  8. 76 FR 36140 - Mississippi; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... major disaster under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance.... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  9. 78 FR 36557 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  10. 78 FR 32415 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  11. 78 FR 51199 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  12. 78 FR 59045 - Missouri; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  13. 75 FR 30419 - Mississippi; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  14. 78 FR 38728 - Michigan; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  15. 78 FR 23279 - New Hampshire; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''). Therefore, I..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  16. 78 FR 23278 - Maine; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  17. 77 FR 61425 - Washington; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  18. 76 FR 63939 - Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially...

  19. 76 FR 61374 - New Jersey; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    .... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  20. 78 FR 50437 - Texas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  1. 77 FR 69648 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  2. 77 FR 41195 - Colorado; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  3. 75 FR 65500 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared...

  4. 76 FR 61375 - Vermont; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... declared a major disaster under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in...

  5. 76 FR 60515 - Connecticut; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have declared a major disaster under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and... (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  6. 78 FR 55754 - Karuk Tribe; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  7. 78 FR 59044 - Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  8. 75 FR 49506 - Texas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  9. 76 FR 64097 - Maryland; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in...

  10. 78 FR 51201 - Vermont; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  11. 78 FR 51200 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''). Therefore, I..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  12. 75 FR 2882 - Alabama; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  13. 78 FR 38727 - Vermont; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  14. Flood disaster preparedness: a retrospect from Grand Forks, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siders, C; Jacobson, R

    1998-01-01

    Natural disasters often come without warning. The clinical, financial, and business risks can be enormous. Grand Forks' (ND) healthcare systems experienced a flooding disaster of unprecedented proportions in April of 1997. Planned and practiced disaster and evacuation procedures can significantly reduce a healthcare facilities' risk to life, health, and safety. This article retrospectively analyzes disaster preparation and the complete evacuation of the facilities' patients.

  15. Practitioner Perspectives on a Disaster Management Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) is constructing a high-level reference model for the use of satellites, sensors, models, and associated data products from many different global data and service providers in disaster response and risk assessment. To help streamline broad, effective access to satellite information, the reference model provides structured, shared, holistic views of distributed systems and services - in effect, a common vocabulary describing the system-of-systems building blocks and how they are composed for disaster management. These views are being inferred from real-world experience, by documenting and analyzing how practitioners have gone about using or providing satellite data to manage real disaster events or to assess or mitigate hazard risks. Crucial findings and insights come from case studies of three kinds of experience: - Disaster response and recovery (such as the 2008 Sichuan/Wenchuan earthquake in China; and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan); - Technology pilot projects (such as NASA's Flood Sensor Web pilot in Namibia, or the interagency Virtual Mission Operation Center); - Information brokers (such as the International Charter: Space and Major Disasters, or the U.K.-based Disaster Management Constellation). Each of these experiences sheds light on the scope and stakeholders of disaster management; the information requirements for various disaster types and phases; and the services needed for effective access to information by a variety of users. They also highlight needs and gaps in the supply of satellite information for disaster management. One need stands out: rapid and effective access to complex data from multiple sources, across inter-organizational boundaries. This is the near-real-time challenge writ large: gaining access to satellite data resources from multiple organizationally distant and geographically disperse sources, to meet an

  16. dLOGIS: Disaster Logistics Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesuma, Sorja; Riantana, Rio; Siswanto, Budi; Aji Purnomo, Fendi; Lelono, Sarjoko

    2017-11-01

    There are three timing of disaster mitigation which is pre-disaster, emergency response and post-disaster. All of those is important in disaster mitigation, but emergency response is important when we are talking about time. Emergency response has limited time when we should give help. Rapid assessment of kind of logistic, the number of survivors, number children and old people, their gender and also for difable person. It should be done in emergency response time. Therefore we make a mobile application for logistics management system. The name of application is dLOGIS, i.e. Disaster Logistics Information System. The application is based on Android system for mobile phone. Otherwise there is also website version. The website version is for maintenance, data input and registration. So the people or government can use it directly when there is a disaster. After login in dLOGIS, there is five main menus. The first main menu shows disaster information, refugees conditions, logistics needed, available logistics stock and already accepted logistics. In the second menu is used for entering survivors data. The field coordinator can enter survivors data based on the rapid assessment in disaster location. The third menu is used for entering kind of logistic. Number and kind of logistics are based on the BNPB needed standard for the survivor. The fourth menu displays the logistics stock available in field coordinator. And the last menu displays the logistics help that already accepted and sent by donation. By using this application when a disaster happened, field coordinator or local government can use maintenance distribution of logistics base on their needs. Also for donor people who will give help to survivor, they can give logistics with the corresponding of survivor needs.

  17. Purification of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursors using magnetic activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gonçalo M C; Fernandes, Tiago G; Rodrigues, Carlos A V; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Diogo, Maria Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Neural precursor (NP) cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), and their neuronal progeny, will play an important role in disease modeling, drug screening tests, central nervous system development studies, and may even become valuable for regenerative medicine treatments. Nonetheless, it is challenging to obtain homogeneous and synchronously differentiated NP populations from hiPSCs, and after neural commitment many pluripotent stem cells remain in the differentiated cultures. Here, we describe an efficient and simple protocol to differentiate hiPSC-derived NPs in 12 days, and we include a final purification stage where Tra-1-60+ pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are removed using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), leaving the NP population nearly free of PSCs.

  18. Cell adhesion monitoring of human induced pluripotent stem cell based on intrinsic molecular charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Haruyo; Sakata, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    We have shown a simple way for real-time, quantitative, non-invasive, and non-label monitoring of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell adhesion by use of a biologically coupled-gate field effect transistor (bio-FET), which is based on detection of molecular charges at cell membrane. The electrical behavior revealed quantitatively the electrical contacts of integrin-receptor at the cell membrane with RGDS peptide immobilized at the gate sensing surface, because that binding site was based on cationic α chain of integrin. The platform based on the bio-FET would provide substantial information to evaluate cell/material bio-interface and elucidate biding mechanism of adhesion molecules, which could not be interpreted by microscopic observation.

  19. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Fukusumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi. Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes.

  20. An Efficient Platform for Astrocyte Differentiation from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia TCW

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence implicates the importance of glia, particularly astrocytes, in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we describe a rapid and robust method for the differentiation of highly pure populations of replicative astrocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs, via a neural progenitor cell (NPC intermediate. We evaluated this protocol across 42 NPC lines (derived from 30 individuals. Transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that hiPSC-astrocytes from four individuals are highly similar to primary human fetal astrocytes and characteristic of a non-reactive state. hiPSC-astrocytes respond to inflammatory stimulants, display phagocytic capacity, and enhance microglial phagocytosis. hiPSC-astrocytes also possess spontaneous calcium transient activity. Our protocol is a reproducible, straightforward (single medium, and rapid (<30 days method to generate populations of hiPSC-astrocytes that can be used for neuron-astrocyte and microglia-astrocyte co-cultures for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. Development and Characterization of a Brain Endothelial Cell Phenotype using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldeman, Charlotte; Saaby, Lasse; Holst, Bjørn

    for experiments the following day. The model was monitored by measuring the trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). RA had an inductive effect on the model, shown by an elevation in barrier tightness which correlated with the presence of tight junction proteins, shown by confocal microscopy images which...... be used to investigate drug transport in vitro, and screen candidates for permeation properties. One recent approach is to develop in vitro models of the BBB using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) as described by Stebbins et al. (2015).The aim of the present study was to investigate whether...... the published protocols were generically applicable and thus to develop and characterize in vitro models of the BBB using hIPSCs from different sources. Two stem cell lines, Bioni010-C and WTSli024-A, were seeded and maintained on Matrigel in mTesR1 media. Cells were then seeded as single cells at different...

  2. Human induced pluripotent stem cells: a review of the US patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Bilyana P; Love, Jane M

    2010-07-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and human embryonic stem cells are cells that have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Embryonic stem cells are derived from human embryos; however, by contrast, human iPS cells can be obtained from somatic cells that have undergone a process of 'reprogramming' via genetic manipulation such that they develop pluripotency. Since iPS cells are not derived from human embryos, they are a less complicated source of human pluripotent cells and are considered valuable research tools and potentially useful in therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. Worldwide, there are only three issued patents concerning iPS cells. Therefore, the patent landscape in this field is largely undefined. This article provides an overview of the issued patents as well as the pending published patent applications in the field.

  3. The Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiu Wu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Supported by the World Bank, the Integrated Information System for Natural Disaster Mitigation (ISNDM, including the operational service system and network telecommunication system, has been in development for three years in the Center of Disaster Reduction, Chinese Academy of Sciences, based on the platform of the GIS software Arcview. It has five main modules: disaster background information, socio- economic information, disaster-induced factors database, disaster scenarios database, and disaster assessment. ISNDM has several significant functions, which include information collection, information processing, data storage, and information distribution. It is a simple but comprehensive demonstration system for our national center for natural disaster reduction.

  4. Service Learning Through Disaster Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J. Duerst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Rock County 4-H Disaster Relief Committee raised $1,550 to aid tsunami victims in Sri Lanka and then turned its attention to Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. Thirty-one 4-H youth participated in a service learning trip to the South with the objectives of helping hurricane victims, learning about new cultures and achieving personal growth during three days of service projects in Louisiana and Mississippi. Their written reflections and other evaluative measures revealed they learned about southern culture, gained a greater appreciation for their lives, gained self confidence and developed a desire to help others more often. The trip was a valuable developmental experience for the youth, and information from the trip could be utilized to create similar experiences based on service learning. This article provides an overview of the trip and describes the evaluation methods used to measure learning and assess personal growth.

  5. Best Buy: Planning for Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Adam; Ellis, Kerry; Sachs, Adam

    2008-01-01

    When a 1981 tornado in Minnesota revolutionized the retail approach of Sound of Music, which later changed its name to the now very familiar Best Buy, those who founded the company never imagined that a series of hurricanes twenty years later would also help give it a cutting-edge lead in customer service and disaster planning. That original "Tornado Sale'' introduced low prices in a "no-frills" environment that gave the company higher sales than the industry average and paved the way to a new business model. But before Best Buy could find the silver lining of these new storm clouds., it needed to survive them by planning for the destructive weather that plagued Florida during the summer of 2004. Having seen the power of listening to its employees and customers, Best Buy now seeks to capture their thoughts and feedback about other elements of the business.

  6. Drought as a natural disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maybank, J. [Agvironics Consulting, SK (Canada); Bonsal, B. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Jones, K. [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada). Canadian Climate Centre; Lawford, R. [Canadian Climate Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). National Hydrology Research Centre; O`Brien, E.G. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Analysis and Policy Div.; Ripley, E.A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science; Wheaton, E. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    A discussion of droughts as a major natural disaster in dry areas such as the Canadian Prairies where precipitation patterns are seasonal, was presented. Environmental damages include soil degradation and erosion, vegetation damage, slough and lake deterioration and wildlife loss. The development and application of specific soil moisture and drought indices based on cumulative precipitation deficits have enhanced drought monitoring programs. The identification of precursor conditions raises the possibility that the likelihood of a drought occurring in a particular year or growing season might be predictable. The ability to forecast seasonal temperature and precipitation anomalies is potentially feasible using a suitable merging of precursor parameters and modelling methodologies. Research activity to identify and evaluate new mitigative measure should be increased to keep pace with the prospects of drought predictability. 90 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  7. Medical management of nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinugasa, Tatsuya

    1996-01-01

    This report briefly describes the measures to be taken other than ordinary duties when an accident happens in nuclear facilities such as atomic power plant, reprocessing plant, etc. Such nuclear disasters are assigned into four groups; (1) accidents in industrial levels, (2) accidents in which the workers are implicated, (3) accidents of which influence to environments should be taken into consideration and (4) accidents to which measures for inhabitants should be taken. Therefore, the measures to be taken at an emergency were also grouped in the following four; (1) treatments for the accident, itself, (2) measures to minimize the effects on the environment, (3) rescues of the victims and emergency cares for them and (4) measures and medical cares to protect the inhabitants from radiation exposure. Presently, medical professionals, especially doctors, nurses etc. are not accustomed to control nuclear contaminations. Therefore, it is needed for radiological professionals to actively provide appropriate advises about the control and measurement of contamination. (M.N.)

  8. Disaster recovery: mitigating loss through documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Flood, fire, tornado, hurricane. Whatever the cause, natural or man-made, the result on an organization can be devastating. Planning and preparation for disaster must include significant attention to disaster recovery. The ability to produce documentation of what existed, what was damaged, recovery costs and income losses will be essential to the claims adjustment process. This article discusses strategies for creating a historical record, leveraging contemporaneous incident command documentation and working with contractors to identify and record disaster-related expenses. © 2011 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  9. Technology of disaster response robot and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The needs, function structure , ability of disaster response robot are stated. Robots are classified by move mode such as Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV), Legged Robots, Exoskeleton, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Wall Climbing Robots, robots for narrow space. Quince, disaster response robot, collected at first information in the building of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Functions of rescue robots and technical problems under disaster conditions, shape and characteristics of robots and TRL, PackBot, Pelican, Quince, scope camera, and three-dimensional map made by Quince are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  10. Government Disaster Response and Narrative Retrospection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    that voters did not appear to immediately punish the Danish and Swedish governments for the Tsunami despite the severe impacts and the widespread public disapproval of the governments’ disaster responses. The concept of narrative retrospection shows how there was limited pressure to politicize the government’s...... disaster management efforts in Denmark, while the brunt of the political blame in Sweden occurred more than a year after the Tsunami.......This paper investigates the nexus between disaster response and voting behaviour through a comparative study of the electoral dynamics in the immediate aftermath of the 2004 Tsunami in Denmark and Sweden. The paper addresses three hypotheses of retrospection: (i) blind retrospection where voters...

  11. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  12. Keyword: help! Online resources for disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Amadie H; Cushman, Margaret J

    2002-01-01

    Health care organizations such as home care agencies should have post-disaster contingency plans in place that include contacts with the local, county, or state emergency management office, local branch of the Red Cross, and a clearly identified point person within the agency to coordinate disaster response efforts. Home care agencies must plan for the far-reaching effects that disasters can have on people in the community. This article provides some online resources to help you, your organization, and your family prepare for unexpected events.

  13. Roles of CDX2 and EOMES in human induced trophoblast progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Gong, Yun Guo; Khoo, Sok Kean [Genomic Microarray Core Facility, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► CDX2 and EOMES play critical roles in human induced trophoblast progenitors (iTP). ► iTP cells directly transformed from fibroblasts. ► Differentiation of iTP cells into extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. -- Abstract: Abnormal trophoblast lineage proliferation and differentiation in early pregnancy have been associated with the pathogenesis of placenta diseases of pregnancy. However, there is still a gap in understanding the molecular mechanisms of early placental development due to the limited primary trophoblast cultures and fidelity of immortalized trophoblast lines. Trophoblasts stem (TS) cells, an in vitro model of trophectoderm that can differentiate into syncytiotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts, can be an attractive tool for early pregnancy research. TS cells are well established in mouse but not in humans due to insufficient knowledge of which trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors are involved in human trophectoderm (TE) proliferation and differentiation. Here, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell technique to investigate the human trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors. We established human induced trophoblast progenitor (iTP) cells by direct reprogramming the fibroblasts with a pool of mouse trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors consisting of CDX2, EOMES, and ELF5. The human iTP cells exhibit epithelial morphology and can be maintained in vitro for more than 2 months. Gene expression profile of these cells was tightly clustered with human trophectoderm but not with human neuron progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells, or endoderm cells. These cells are capable of differentiating into cells with an invasive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts. They also form multi-nucleated cells which secrete human chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol, consistent with a syncytiotrophoblast phenotype. Our results provide the evidence that transcription factors CDX2 and

  14. Differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells into insulin-producing clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaer, Anahita; Azarpira, Negar; Vahdati, Akbar; Karimi, Mohammad Hosein; Shariati, Mehrdad

    2015-02-01

    In diabetes mellitus type 1, beta cells are mostly destroyed; while in diabetes mellitus type 2, beta cells are reduced by 40% to 60%. We hope that soon, stem cells can be used in diabetes therapy via pancreatic beta cell replacement. Induced pluripotent stem cells are a kind of stem cell taken from an adult somatic cell by "stimulating" certain genes. These induced pluripotent stem cells may be a promising source of cell therapy. This study sought to produce isletlike clusters of insulin-producing cells taken from induced pluripotent stem cells. A human-induced pluripotent stem cell line was induced into isletlike clusters via a 4-step protocol, by adding insulin, transferrin, and selenium (ITS), N2, B27, fibroblast growth factor, and nicotinamide. During differentiation, expression of pancreatic β-cell genes was evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; the morphologic changes of induced pluripotent stem cells toward isletlike clusters were observed by a light microscope. Dithizone staining was used to stain these isletlike clusters. Insulin produced by these clusters was evaluated by radio immunosorbent assay, and the secretion capacity was analyzed with a glucose challenge test. Differentiation was evaluated by analyzing the morphology, dithizone staining, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunocytochemistry. Gene expression of insulin, glucagon, PDX1, NGN3, PAX4, PAX6, NKX6.1, KIR6.2, and GLUT2 were documented by analyzing real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Dithizone-stained cellular clusters were observed after 23 days. The isletlike clusters significantly produced insulin. The isletlike clusters could increase insulin secretion after a glucose challenge test. This work provides a model for studying the differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells to insulin-producing cells.

  15. Organizational Behavior in Disasters and Implications for Disaster Planning. Volume 1, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    the personal challenges presented by the disaster. There may be expectations of panic, but what almost always occurs is rational behavior . For many...Similarly, there may be expectations of disorder, but what appears is a great deal of prosocial instead of antisocial behavior . To inexperienced...FEMA 104/July 1986 (5-1 Organizational Behavior in Disasters and IMpliCations for Disaster Planning - ii;~1COPBy Enrico L. Quarante~l , Ph. D

  16. The Capacity Building in the Natural Disaster Management of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Eakarat Boonreang

    2015-01-01

    The past two decades, Thailand faced the natural disasters, for instance, Gay typhoon in 1989, tsunami in 2004, and huge flood in 2011. The disaster management in Thailand was improved both structure and mechanism for cope with the natural disaster since 2007. However, the natural disaster management in Thailand has various problems, for examples, cooperation between related an organizations have not unity, inadequate resources, the natural disaster management of public s...

  17. Supply Chain Management in Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    In todays society that disasters seem to be striking all corners of the United States and the globe, the importance of emergency management is undeniable. Much human loss and unnecessary destruction of infrastructure can be avoided with more fores...

  18. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Pruitt, Basil A

    2005-01-01

    Mass casualty burn disasters are potentially challenging, in part because the majority of health care providers are inexperienced in the care of thermally injured patients and in part because of the...

  19. Connect the Dots in Disaster Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jolene; Benton, Kathy; Calhoun, Terry

    2002-01-01

    In the second article in a series on the implications of September 11 to colleges and universities, executives at the Society for College and University Planning outline an integrated approach to preparing for disasters. (EV)

  20. Chernobyl today and compared to other disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, L.

    2000-01-01

    The disaster in Unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl, now Ukraine, occurred fourteen years ago. Although much has been written about the accident, the public still has no proper yardstick by which to assess realistically the risk involved. This is true not only with respect to nuclear power plants of the type found in Germany and almost anywhere in the western world, but also in relation to non-nuclear disasters, which tend to be accepted by the public much more readily. As far as the number of persons killed or injured is concerned, the scope of the Chernobyl disaster turned out to be smaller than, or at least comparable to, other disasters. This is true even in comparison with other power generation technologies, for instance, accidents in coal mining or dam bursts. Even major railway accidents, airplane crashes, or the large number of people regularly killed in road traffic, are soon forgotten by the media. (orig.) [de

  1. Report focuses on improving resilience to disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-08-01

    Disaster resilience is everyone's business,” states a new report that calls for a series of local and national measures to increase resilience in the face of an increasingly costly toll from natural disasters to human lives and the economy. In 2011 natural disasters were responsible for damages in the United States exceeding $55 billion, and costs could increase with more people and structures located in harm's way and with the effects of extreme events, according to the report, Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative, issued by a committee of the U.S. National Academies on 1 August. Among the recommendations is for federal government agencies to incorporate national resilience as an organizing principle to guide federal government actions and programs. The report defines resilience as “the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events.”

  2. 75 FR 42470 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ..., Greeley, Harlan, Hayes, Holt, Howard, Keya Paha, Knox, Lincoln, Logan, Loup, Madison, Mcpherson, Morrill... and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2010-17778 Filed...

  3. Renovating animal facilities to withstand disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jim; Contratto, Jim; Gould, Nathan; Freeman, William

    2013-10-01

    In the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy, new attention has been drawn to planning for and mitigating the effects of disasters on laboratory animal facilities. A number of design approaches and solutions can be easily incorporated into a new vivarium, enhancing its ability to withstand and recover from a disaster. Renovating a vivarium poses special challenges, however. Existing conditions in the project area may dictate which approaches or solutions are feasible, and retrofitting is often more complex and expensive than incorporating the same features into new construction. The authors explain how project design teams can evaluate the types of disasters that a renovated facility will need to address and develop a design strategy that responds to these disasters in the most effective way.

  4. Positivists, Postmodernists, Aristotelians, and the Challenger Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Arthur E.; Gross, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Examines the deliberations prior to the Challenger disaster from the perspective of three major approaches in recent scholarship in rhetoric as applied to technical communications: positivism, postmodernistic social constructionism, and classical Aristotelianism. Champions an approach based on Aristotle's "Rhetoric." (HB)

  5. Magnetic fusion energy. Disaster operation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    In a major disaster such as an earthquake, toxic chemical release, or fire, these Disaster Operations Procedures can be used, in combination with good judgment, to minimize the risk of injury to personnel and of property damage in our laboratory, shop, and office areas. These emergency procedures apply to all personnel working within MFE/Zone-11 area including visitors, program contract personnel, and construction contract personnel

  6. Rethinking risk and disasters in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Kenneth; Mehta, Manjari

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents a view of risk and disaster in the mountains that finds them fully a part of public safety issues in modern states and developments, rather than separated from them. This contrasts with prevailing approaches to disaster focused on natural hazards, “unscheduled” or extreme events, and emergency preparedness; approaches strongly reinforced by mountain stereotypes. Rather, we find the legacies of social and economic histories, especially relations to down-country or metropo...

  7. A Communications Strategy for Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    there were “ pockets ” of cellular coverage in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, thus enabling some critical life-saving SMS traffic.105 4...Accessed 30 October 2014. http://www.oxfam.org/en/haiti-earthquake-our-response. Oxford Learners Dictionary . “Definition of Wicked.” Oxford University...Press. Assessed 02 September 2014. http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/ definition/ english /wicked_1. Pacific Disaster Center. “Disaster Response

  8. Health Sector Coordination in Disasters: Barriers & Facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadkarim Bahadori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coordination is a critical factor in successful organization and appropriate response to disasters. In this regard, a centralized coordination mechanism is the first step towards an effective, efficient, and sustainable response in order to be ensured of the short- and long-term recovery. Thus, this study aimed to identify and prioritize the barriers and facilitators of coordination in disasters. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted in 2016. The participants comprised 22 experts in field of disaster. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire according to the analytical hierarchy process approach. For data analysis, we used Expert Choice software. Results: Based on the results, “dominance of organizational approach instead of national points of view when addressing the health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.344 among the barriers. Furthermore, among the facilitators, “having a processive and organizational view in health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.374. Conclusion: To increase the effective coordination in health area, we should develop infrastructure and structural measures, which include bolstering authorities’ belief about the health system’s role in the response to disasters, reinforcing the national approach rather than organizational approach in the field of health at disasters, implementing the coordination requirements, attending sufficiently and specifically to public participation, reducing the organizational friction in the health field for sharing resources and information, raising the level of readiness with a focus on people and training programs, and finally creating an evolutionary process in the health field at disasters.

  9. Disaster management: using Internet-based technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitruk, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Disasters impose operational challenges and substantial financial burdens on hospitals. Internet-based disaster management technology can help. This technology should: Capture, analyze, and track relevant data. Be available 24/7. Guide decision makers in setting up an incident command center and monitor the completion of jobs by ICC role. Provide assistance in areas that hospitals are not used to dealing with, e.g., chemical or bio-terror agents.

  10. International Charter `Space and Major Disasters' Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    The International Charter aims at providing a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to national disaster authorities of countries affected by natural or man-made disasters. Each of the sixteen Member Agencies has committed resources to support the objectives of the Charter and thus helping to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life and property, getting critical information into the hands of the disaster responders so that they can make informed decisions in the wake of a disaster. The Charter Member Agencies work together to provide remotely sensed imagery to any requesting country that is experiencing a natural or man-made disaster. The Space Agencies contribute priority satellite taskings, archive retrievals, and map production, as well as imagery of the affected areas. The imagery is provided at no cost to the affected country and is made available for the immediate response phase of the disaster. The Charter also has agreements with Sentinel Asia to submit activation requests on behalf of its 30+ member countries and the United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs (UN OOSA) and United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)/ United Nations Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT) to submit activations on behalf of United Nations relief agencies such as UNICEF and UNOCHA. To further expand accessibility to the Charter Member Agency resources, the Charter has implemented the Universal Access initiative, which allows any country's disaster management authority to submit an application, attend a brief training session, and after successful completion, become an Authorized User able to submit activation requests without assistance from Member Agencies. The data provided by the Charter is used for many purposes including damage assessments, reference maps, evacuation route planning, search and rescue operations, decision maker briefings, scientific evaluations, and other response activities.

  11. Public opinion on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Hirotada

    2013-01-01

    This article showed trend of public opinion on nuclear power after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, for which the survey had been done five times under the same method and inquiries. Most unreliable source of information at disaster was government ministries and offices, whose unreliability sharply increased from 20% to about 50% after 3 months later and one year later after March 11 and reliability after 2 year and 5 months later (August 2013) was not high and almost comparable with unreliability of 27%. Nuclear disaster was most serious cause of Great East Japan earthquake disaster (60%) and not entirely ended due to such increase of contaminated water. Public opinion survey in August 2013 showed nuclear power stoppage totaled about 80% with immediate of about 30% and phaseout of about 50%, and possibility of occurrence of another nuclear accident comparable with Fukushima disaster was almost 80% with a belief not only earthquakes, tsunamis, terrorism but also human errors might initiate nuclear disaster if nuclear power restarted. Future most serious disaster would be earthquake (50%) and nuclear disaster (35%). Nuclear accident preparedness of government and local government was not enough (58% and 24%) and nothing (33% and 24%). Residents within UPZ (Urgent Protection action Planning Zone) of 30 km radius could not evacuate safely (57%) and entirely (22%). If government and local government encouraged damaged residents to come home with declaration of safety for evacuation area of nuclear accident, damaged residents might not return almost (46%) and entirely (9%). Notwithstanding people's strong feeling against nuclear power, LDP (Liberal Democratic Party) promoting nuclear power won an overwhelming victory at the election of House of Councilors in July 2013. Public opinion survey in August 2013 showed most important issue of voters was party's image (25%), economic measures (20%) and candidate's personality (13%), and nuclear power policy was only 5%. (T

  12. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  13. Setting Foundations for Developing Disaster Response Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abir, Mahshid; Bell, Sue Anne; Puppala, Neha; Awad, Osama; Moore, Melinda

    2017-08-01

    There are few reported efforts to define universal disaster response performance measures. Careful examination of responses to past disasters can inform the development of such measures. As a first step toward this goal, we conducted a literature review to identify key factors in responses to 3 recent events with significant loss of human life and economic impact: the 2003 Bam, Iran, earthquake; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami; and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Using the PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) database, we identified 710 articles and retained 124 after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seventy-two articles pertained to the Haiti earthquake, 38 to the Indian Ocean tsunami, and 14 to the Bam earthquake. On the basis of this review, we developed an organizational framework for disaster response performance measurement with 5 key disaster response categories: (1) personnel, (2) supplies and equipment, (3) transportation, (4) timeliness and efficiency, and (5) interagency cooperation. Under each of these, and again informed by the literature, we identified subcategories and specific items that could be developed into standardized performance measures. The validity and comprehensiveness of these measures can be tested by applying them to other recent and future disaster responses, after which standardized performance measures can be developed through a consensus process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:505-509).

  14. Three-Dimensional Maps for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrova, T.; Zlatanova, S.; Konecny, M.

    2012-07-01

    Geo-information techniques have proven their usefulness for the purposes of early warning and emergency response. These techniques enable us to generate extensive geo-information to make informed decisions in response to natural disasters that lead to better protection of citizens, reduce damage to property, improve the monitoring of these disasters, and facilitate estimates of the damages and losses resulting from them. The maintenance and accessibility of spatial information has improved enormously with the development of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs), especially with second-generation SDIs, in which the original product-based SDI was improved to a process-based SDI. Through the use of SDIs, geo-information is made available to local, national and international organisations in regions affected by natural disasters as well as to volunteers serving in these areas. Volunteer-based systems for information collection (e.g., Ushahidi) have been created worldwide. However, the use of 3D maps is still limited. This paper discusses the applicability of 3D geo-information to disaster management. We discuss some important aspects of maps for disaster management, such as user-centred maps, the necessary components for 3D maps, symbols, and colour schemas. In addition, digital representations are evaluated with respect to their visual controls, i.e., their usefulness for the navigation and exploration of the information. Our recommendations are based on responses from a variety of users of these technologies, including children, geospecialists and disaster managers from different countries.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of information dissemination in disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Huang, H.; Su, Boni

    2016-11-01

    China is a country that experiences a large number of disasters. The number of deaths caused by large-scale disasters and accidents in past 10 years is around 900,000. More than 92.8 percent of these deaths could be avoided if there were an effective pre-warning system deployed. Knowledge of the information dissemination characteristics of different information media taking into consideration governmental assistance (information published by a government) in disasters in urban areas, plays a critical role in increasing response time and reducing the number of deaths and economic losses. In this paper we have developed a comprehensive information dissemination model to optimize efficiency of pre-warning mechanics. This model also can be used for disseminating information for evacuees making real-time evacuation plans. We analyzed every single information dissemination models for pre-warning in disasters by considering 14 media: short message service (SMS), phone, television, radio, news portals, Wechat, microblogs, email, newspapers, loudspeaker vehicles, loudspeakers, oral communication, and passive information acquisition via visual and auditory senses. Since governmental assistance is very useful in a disaster, we calculated the sensitivity of governmental assistance ratio. The results provide useful references for information dissemination during disasters in urban areas.

  16. Post Disaster Assessment with Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Florence J. Franco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop an online system that would expedite the response of agencies after disaster strikes; generate a list of the kinds and volume of relief aids needed per family affected for a fair, precise and timely distribution; implement community-based ICT by remotely gathering all the necessary data needed for disaster assessment; and adhere to ISO 9126 standards. The system was designed to calculate the effects of disaster in human lives and economy. Integrated into the system were Goggle Maps, Mines and GeoSciences Bureau Hazard Maps, SMS sending features, best passable routes calculations, and decision support on the needs that has to be addressed. The system was made live at pdrrmcguimaras.herokuapp.com to allow remote data entry. The functionality and usability of the system were evaluated by 19 potential users by computing for the arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation of the survey. The result showed that most of them strongly agreed that the system is acceptable based on these criteria. A group of IT experts also evaluated the system’s conformance to ISO 9126 standards using the same method. The result showed that majority of them strongly agreed that the system conforms to this international standard. The system is seen as a valuable tool for the Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (PDRRMC and the National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (NDRRMC for it could help expedite the assessment of the effects of disasters and the formulation of response plans and strategies.

  17. External human induced events in site evaluation for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance for the examination of the region considered for site evaluation for a plant in order to identity hazardous phenomena associated with human induced events initiated by sources external to the plant. In some cases it also presents preliminary guidance for deriving values of relevant parameters for the design basis. This Safety Guide is also applicable for periodic site evaluation and site evaluation following a major human induced event, and for the design and operation of the site's environmental monitoring system. Site evaluation includes site characterization. Consideration of external events that could lead to a degradation of the safety features of the plant and cause a release of radioactive material from the plant and/or affect the dispersion of such material in the environment. And consideration of population issues and access issues significant to safety (such as the feasibility of evacuation, the population distribution and the location of resources). The process of site evaluation continues throughout the lifetime of the facility, from siting to design, construction, operation and decommissioning. The external human induced events considered in this Safety Guide are all of accidental origin. Considerations relating to the physical protection of the plant against wilful actions by third parties are outside its scope. However, the methods described herein may also have some application for the purposes of such physical protection. The present Safety Guide may also be used for events that may originate within the boundaries of the site, but from sources which are not directly involved in the operational states of the nuclear power plant units, such as fuel depots or areas for the storage of hazardous materials for the construction of other facilities at the same site. Special consideration should be given to the hazardous material handled during the construction, operation and

  18. Natural Disaster Induced Losses at Household Level: A Study on the Disaster Affected Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaque, A.; Nazem, N. I.; Jerin, T.

    2015-12-01

    Given its geographical location Bangladesh frequently confronts natural disasters. Disaster induced losses often obligate socio-economic dislocation from rural areas to large urban centers. After incurring what type/amount of losses people migrate is still unknown. In this paper we focus on migrants who migrated due to natural disasters. Thus, the objectives of this paper are, first, ascertaining the proportion of disaster migrants in Dhaka city; second, determining types of natural disasters which compel rural out-migration; third, assessing the resource and economic losses stem from these disasters at household level. Using the slum database (N = 4966), we select eight slums randomly with a purpose to include migrants from maximum districts available. In order to identify the proportion of disaster affected migrants a census is conducted in 407 households of those 8 slums and the result demonstrates that 18.43% of the migrants are disaster affected, which was only 5% in 1993. Out of all hydro-meteorological disasters, river bank erosion (RBE), followed by flood, drives most people out of their abode. However, unlike RBE migrants, migrants affected by flood usually return to their origin after certain period. In-depth interviews on the disaster migrants reveal that RBE claims total loss of homestead land & agricultural land while flood causes 20% and 23% loss respectively. Agricultural income decreases 96% because of RBE whereas flood victims encounter 98% decrease. People also incur 79% & 69% loss in livestock owing to RBE and flood severally. These disasters cause more than eighty percent reduction in total monthly income. Albeit RBE appears more vigorous but total economic loss is greater in flood- on average each household experiences a loss of BDT 350,555 due to flood and BDT 300,000 on account of RBE. Receiving no substantial support from community or government the affected people are compelled to migrate.

  19. Monitoring Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes with Genetically Encoded Calcium and Voltage Fluorescent Reporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinnawi, Rami; Huber, Irit; Maizels, Leonid; Shaheen, Naim; Gepstein, Amira; Arbel, Gil; Tijsen, Anke J.; Gepstein, Lior

    2015-01-01

    The advent of the human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology has transformed biomedical research, providing new tools for human disease modeling, drug development, and regenerative medicine. To fulfill its unique potential in the cardiovascular field, efficient methods should be

  20. Characterization of energy and neurotransmitter metabolism in cortical glutamatergic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana, Blanca I; Zhang, Yu; Lihme, Maria Fog

    2017-01-01

    pathways in neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). With this aim, cultures of hiPSC-derived neurons were incubated with [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]glutamate or [U-(13)C]glutamine. Isotopic labeling in metabolites was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass...

  1. Robust Differentiation of mRNA-Reprogrammed Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Toward a Retinal Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Akshayalakshmi; Ohlemacher, Sarah K; Langer, Kirstin B; Meyer, Jason S

    2016-04-01

    The derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from patient-specific sources has allowed for the development of novel approaches to studies of human development and disease. However, traditional methods of generating hiPSCs involve the risks of genomic integration and potential constitutive expression of pluripotency factors and often exhibit low reprogramming efficiencies. The recent description of cellular reprogramming using synthetic mRNA molecules might eliminate these shortcomings; however, the ability of mRNA-reprogrammed hiPSCs to effectively give rise to retinal cell lineages has yet to be demonstrated. Thus, efforts were undertaken to test the ability and efficiency of mRNA-reprogrammed hiPSCs to yield retinal cell types in a directed, stepwise manner. hiPSCs were generated from human fibroblasts via mRNA reprogramming, with parallel cultures of isogenic human fibroblasts reprogrammed via retroviral delivery of reprogramming factors. New lines of mRNA-reprogrammed hiPSCs were established and were subsequently differentiated into a retinal fate using established protocols in a directed, stepwise fashion. The efficiency of retinal differentiation from these lines was compared with retroviral-derived cell lines at various stages of development. On differentiation, mRNA-reprogrammed hiPSCs were capable of robust differentiation to a retinal fate, including the derivation of photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells, at efficiencies often equal to or greater than their retroviral-derived hiPSC counterparts. Thus, given that hiPSCs derived through mRNA-based reprogramming strategies offer numerous advantages owing to the lack of genomic integration or constitutive expression of pluripotency genes, such methods likely represent a promising new approach for retinal stem cell research, in particular, those for translational applications. In the current report, the ability to derive mRNA-reprogrammed human induced pluripotent stem cells (hi

  2. How widespread is human-induced seismicity in the USA and Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Baan, M.

    2017-12-01

    There has been significant public and scientific interest in the observation of changed seismicity rates in North America since 2008, possibly due to human activities. Van der Baan and Calixto (2017) find that the seismicity rate in Oklahoma between 2008 and 2016 is strongly correlated to increased hydrocarbon production. The possibility of systematic correlations between increased hydrocarbon production and seismicity rates is a pertinent question since the USA became the world's largest hydrocarbon producer in 2013, surpassing both Saudi Arabia's oil production and Russia's dry gas production. In most areas increased production is due to systematic hydraulic fracturing which involves high-pressure, underground fluid injection. Increased hydrocarbon production also leads to increased salt-water production which is often disposed of underground. Increased underground fluid injection in general may cause increased seismicity rates due to facilitated slip on pre-existing faults. Contrary to Oklahoma, analysis of oil and gas production versus seismicity rates in six other States in the USA and three provinces in Canada finds no State/Province-wide correlation between increased seismicity and hydrocarbon production, despite 8-16 fold increases in production in some States (Van der Baan and Calixto, 2017). However, in various areas, seismicity rates have increased locally. A comparison with seismic hazard maps shows that human-induced seismicity is less likely in areas that have historically felt fewer earthquakes. The opposite is not necessarily true. ReferencesVan der Baan, M. and Calixto, F. J. (2017), Human-induced seismicity and large-scale hydrocarbon production in the USA and Canada. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 18, doi:10.1002/2017GC006915 AcknowledgmentsThe author thanks Frank Calixto who co-authored the paper on which a large portion of this lecture is based, the sponsors of the Microseismic Industry Consortium for financial support, the SEG for funding and

  3. Maggot Debridement Therapy in Disaster Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Frank; Shaban, Ramon Z; Tatham, Peter

    2016-02-01

    When disaster strikes, the number of patients requiring treatment can be overwhelming. In low-income countries, resources to assist the injured in a timely fashion may be limited. As a consequence, necrosis and wound infection in disaster patients is common and frequently leads to adverse health outcomes such as amputations, chronic wounds, and loss of life. In such compromised health care environments, low-tech and cheap wound care options are required that are in ready supply, easy to use, and have multiple therapeutic benefits. Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is one such wound care option and may prove to be an invaluable tool in the treatment of wounds post-disaster. This report provides an overview of the wound burden experienced in various types of disaster, followed by a discussion of current treatment approaches, and the role MDT may play in the treatment of complex wounds in challenging health care conditions. Maggot debridement therapy removes necrotic and devitalized tissue, controls wound infection, and stimulates wound healing. These properties suggest that medicinal maggots could assist health care professionals in the debridement of disaster wounds, to control or prevent infection, and to prepare the wound bed for reconstructive surgery. Maggot debridement therapy-assisted wound care would be led by health care workers rather than physicians, which would allow the latter to focus on reconstructive and other surgical interventions. Moreover, MDT could provide a larger window for time-critical interventions, such as fasciotomies to treat compartment syndrome and amputations in case of life-threatening wound infection. There are social, medical, and logistic hurdles to overcome before MDT can become widely available in disaster medical aid. Thus, research is needed to further demonstrate the utility of MDT in Disaster Medicine. There is also a need for reliable MDT logistics and supply chain networks. Integration with other disaster management

  4. Research on Disaster Early Warning and Disaster Relief Integrated Service System Based on Block Data Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.; Tang, D.

    2018-04-01

    With the continuous development of social economy, the interaction between mankind and nature has become increasingly evident. Disastrous global catastrophes have occurred from time to time, causing huge losses to people's lives and property. All governments recognize the importance of the establishment of disaster early warning and release mechanisms, and it is also an urgent issue to improve the comprehensive service level of emergency response and disaster relief. However, disaster early warning and emergency relief information is usually generated by different departments, and the diverse data sources, difficult integration, and limited release speed have always been difficult issues to be solved. Block data is the aggregation of various distributed (point data) and segmentation (data) big data on a specific platform and make them happen continuous polymerization effect, block data theory is a good solution to cross-sectoral, cross-platform Disaster information data sharing and integration problems. This paper attempts to discuss the integrated service mechanism of disaster information aggregation and disaster relief based on block data theory and introduces a location-based integrated service system for disaster early warning and disaster relief.

  5. International Charter "Space and Major Disasters": Typical Examples of Disaster Management Including Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Castan, Eliane; Bequignon, Jerome; Mahmood, Ahmed; Lauritson, Levin; Soma, P.; Platzeck, Gabriel; Chu, Ishida

    2005-03-01

    The International Charter 'Space and Major Disaster', now entering its 5th year of operation, has been activated nearly 80 times to provide space-based data and information in response to natural disasters. The disasters ranged from volcanic eruption in Columbia, floods in Europe, Argentina, Sudan to earthquakes in Iran, from landslides in Philippines to the tragic tsunami in Asia, all resulting in major loss of life and property. The Charter provided imagery and the related information were found to be useful in disaster relief and assessment. Since July 1st 2003, a framework cooperation agreement has been allowing United Nations organizations involved in disaster response to request activation of the Charter.The purpose of the Charter is to provide assistance in situations of emergencies caused by natural and technological disasters by pooling together the space and associated ground resources of the Charter participants, which are currently the European (ESA), French (CNES), Canadian (CSA), Indian (ISRO), American (NOAA), Argentinean (CONAE) and Japanese (JAXA) space organizations.This paper will point out some of the best cases of Charter activation for different disasters leading to change detection imagery and damage assessment products which could be used for disaster reduction in close co-ordination with the end users after the crisis period.

  6. Why a disaster is not just normal business ramped up: Disaster response among ED nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Karen S; Arbon, Paul; Gebbie, Kristine; Hutton, Alison

    2017-11-15

    The emergency department (ED) is a familiar place for the emergency nurse who spends their working days inside it. A disaster threatens that familiarity and creates changes that make working in the ED during a disaster response different from the everyday experience of working in the ED. This research reports on an aspect of the findings from a larger study about the experience of working as a nurse in the ED during a disaster response. Thirteen nurses from 8 different countries were interviewed about their experience. The findings from this research demonstrate that a disaster event leads to a chain reaction of changes in process, space and practice. Nurses' respond to the news of a disaster event with shock and disbelief. The ED may change as a result of the event requiring nurses to work in an altered environment or a completely different setting. These changes provoke nurses to alter their behaviour and practice and reflect on the experience after the response. Emergency nurses have a high likelihood of participating in disaster response and as such should be adequately prepared. This highlights how disaster response is different and leads to recommendations to enhance training for emergency nurses which will better prepare them Disasterresponse is not normal business ramped up. There are a number of challenges and changes that should be considered when preparing emergency nurses for the realities of disaster response. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. All rights reserved.

  7. [Community intervention during economic disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, O A

    1991-03-01

    A political conflict forced banks to close down in Panama during March 1988. Thus, thousand of families were unable to meet their most basic needs during that lapse of time. This paper describes a community intervention program that was set up in the midst of such an economic disaster. That program emphasized mental health consultation techniques to help devising an effective organizational action as well as developing standards to determine needs, and a clear-cut two-way communication with the affected families. The incidence of emotional disorder was assessed with the Self Report Questionnaire, and crisis intervention was offered to any people who should apply for it. Cognitive responses, coping behaviors, and social supports were also assessed. Results showed that those individuals excluded from a full participation in their culture were much more likely to develop emotional disorders. Finding that affected people showed a scarce self-help behavior was interpreted as a feature of the transcultural transaction between affected people, and professionals.

  8. 2003 hydrological drought - natural disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trninic, Dusan; Bosnjak, Tomislava

    2004-01-01

    An exceptionally dry and warm period from February to early October 2003 resulted in hydrological drought with attributes of a natural disaster in most of the Croatian regions. The paper presents hydrological analysis of the Sava River near Zupanja for the period 1945-2003 (N=59 years). In defining maximum annual volumes of isolated waves below the reference discharges, the following reference discharges were used:Q 30,95% = 202m 3 s -1 - minimum mean 30-day discharge, 95 % probability, Q 30,80% = 254m 3 s -1 - minimum mean 30-day discharge, 80 % probability, Q 95% = 297m 3 s -1 - (H = -17cm minimum navigation level = 95 % of water level duration from average duration curve). The analysis results have shown that the hydrological drought recorded during the current year belongs to the most thoroughly studied droughts in 59 years. For example, hydrological analysis of the reference discharge of 297m 3 s -1 has shown that this year drought comes second, immediately after the driest year 1946. However, this year hydrological drought hit the record duration of 103 days, unlike the one from 1946, which lasted 98 days. It is interesting that the hydrological droughts affect the Sava River usually in autumn and summer, rarely in winter, and it has never been recorded in spring (referring to the analysed 1945-2003 period). In conclusion, some recommendations are given for increase in low streamflows and on possible impacts of climate changes on these flows.(Author)

  9. NIDI scenario. Strong population decline in China

    OpenAIRE

    de Beer, J.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    United Nations projections assume that by the end of this century one third of the world population will live in India, China or Nigeria. While population growth in India will slow down and the population size of China will decline, population growth in Nigeria will accelerate. A new NIDI scenario projects less population growth in Nigeria and sharp population decline in China.

  10. Modeling Treatment Response for Lamin A/C Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Ki; Lau, Yee-Man; Cai, Zhu-Jun; Lai, Wing-Hon; Wong, Lai-Yung; Tse, Hung-Fat; Ng, Kwong-Man; Siu, Chung-Wah

    2017-07-28

    Precision medicine is an emerging approach to disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in the environment, lifestyle, and genetic makeup of patients. Patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells hold promise to transform precision medicine into real-life clinical practice. Lamin A/C (LMNA)-related cardiomyopathy is the most common inherited cardiomyopathy in which a substantial proportion of mutations in the LMNA gene are of nonsense mutation. PTC124 induces translational read-through over the premature stop codon and restores production of the full-length proteins from the affected genes. In this study we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes from patients who harbored different LMNA mutations (nonsense and frameshift) to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of PTC124 in LMNA -related cardiomyopathy. We generated human induced pluripotent stem cells lines from 3 patients who carried distinctive mutations (R225X, Q354X, and T518fs) in the LMNA gene. The cardiomyocytes derived from these human induced pluripotent stem cells lines reproduced the pathophysiological hallmarks of LMNA -related cardiomyopathy. Interestingly, PTC124 treatment increased the production of full-length LMNA proteins in only the R225X mutant, not in other mutations. Functional evaluation experiments on the R225X mutant further demonstrated that PTC124 treatment not only reduced nuclear blebbing and electrical stress-induced apoptosis but also improved the excitation-contraction coupling of the affected cardiomyocytes. Using cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells carrying different LMNA mutations, we demonstrated that the effect of PTC124 is codon selective. A premature stop codon UGA appeared to be most responsive to PTC124 treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. A quantitatively effectiveness of hybrid sewerage systems allowing rainwater flow into sewage facilities for disaster prevention of inland flooding

    OpenAIRE

    Shirayanagi, Hiroaki; Kitamura, Yukisada

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, recent low birthrate and aging population have progressively led to a crisis for infrastructure. In particular, the quantity of drainage from homes and factories is remarkably decreasing, along with the decline of economic activity resulting from the overseas move of Japanese companies. As a result, a condition of overcapacity of sewage systems has arisen. On the other hand, the risks of natural disaster, such as damage from local flooding by heavy rain, are rapidly increasing. But ...

  12. Are snake populations in widespread decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, C J; Luiselli, L M; Akani, G C; Bonnet, X; Amori, G; Ballouard, J M; Filippi, E; Naulleau, G; Pearson, D; Rugiero, L

    2010-12-23

    Long-term studies have revealed population declines in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. In birds, and particularly amphibians, these declines are a global phenomenon whose causes are often unclear. Among reptiles, snakes are top predators and therefore a decline in their numbers may have serious consequences for the functioning of many ecosystems. Our results show that, of 17 snake populations (eight species) from the UK, France, Italy, Nigeria and Australia, 11 have declined sharply over the same relatively short period of time with five remaining stable and one showing signs of a marginal increase. Although the causes of these declines are currently unknown, we suspect that they are multi-faceted (such as habitat quality deterioration, prey availability), and with a common cause, e.g. global climate change, at their root.

  13. Social media and disasters: a functional framework for social media use in disaster planning, response, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J Brian; Hawthorne, Joshua; Perreault, Mildred F; Park, Eun Hae; Goldstein Hode, Marlo; Halliwell, Michael R; Turner McGowen, Sarah E; Davis, Rachel; Vaid, Shivani; McElderry, Jonathan A; Griffith, Stanford A

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive review of online, official, and scientific literature was carried out in 2012-13 to develop a framework of disaster social media. This framework can be used to facilitate the creation of disaster social media tools, the formulation of disaster social media implementation processes, and the scientific study of disaster social media effects. Disaster social media users in the framework include communities, government, individuals, organisations, and media outlets. Fifteen distinct disaster social media uses were identified, ranging from preparing and receiving disaster preparedness information and warnings and signalling and detecting disasters prior to an event to (re)connecting community members following a disaster. The framework illustrates that a variety of entities may utilise and produce disaster social media content. Consequently, disaster social media use can be conceptualised as occurring at a number of levels, even within the same disaster. Suggestions are provided on how the proposed framework can inform future disaster social media development and research. © 2014 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  14. Leadership success within disaster restoration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Randy R; Baroudi, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Successful project managers draw their performance from essential leadership traits, as guided by their core values.Within disaster recovery, contractors who mitigate, repair, and reconstruct the built environment are often faced with challenges exceeding the norm. The effective leader is commonly expected to consider stakeholder motivations within distressing situations as well as other external and environmental factors when seeking to lead the project team to successful outcomes. This research is most concerned with leadership within the context of disaster restoration of the built environment. Its stimulus comes from the Restoration Industry Association (RIA)'s efforts to highlight leadership traits and core values for its Certified Restorer Body of Knowledge but would be of value to others associated with disaster recovery operations. Among organizations whose membership includes thousands of practitioners who restore and reconstruct the built environment after disasters, the RIA is the only one yet to formally and substantially research which core values and leader traits are deemed critical for the success of efforts to manage the means and methods applied on recovery job sites. Forty-six seasoned disaster restoration industry project professionals voluntarily responded to a survey questionnaire that sought their opinions about the traits and core values that they consider most important for successful disaster restoration project leadership. The most important leader traits were effective communication, professional competence, and leadership by example. The most important restoration industry values were integrity, compassion, and trustworthiness. The recognized imperative of compassion was unexpected in light of stereotypes often associated with construction-related contractors. This and other findings permit disaster response and recovery stakeholders to better understand qualities they should wish to see in leaders of contractor organizations, which

  15. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  16. Ketamine Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tokujiro; Makita, Koshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ketamine toxicity has been demonstrated in nonhuman mammalian neurons. To study the toxic effect of ketamine on human neurons, an experimental model of cultured neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was examined, and the mechanism of its toxicity was investigated. Methods Human iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons were treated with 0, 20, 100 or 500 μM ketamine for 6 and 24 h. Ketamine toxicity was evaluated by quantification of caspase 3/7 activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP concentration, neurotransmitter reuptake activity and NADH/NAD+ ratio. Mitochondrial morphological change was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Results Twenty-four-hour exposure of iPSC-derived neurons to 500 μM ketamine resulted in a 40% increase in caspase 3/7 activity (P ketamine (100 μM) decreased the ATP level (22%, P ketamine concentration, which suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction preceded ROS generation and caspase activation. Conclusions We established an in vitro model for assessing the neurotoxicity of ketamine in iPSC-derived neurons. The present data indicate that the initial mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy may be related to its inhibitory effect on the mitochondrial electron transport system, which underlies ketamine-induced neural toxicity. Higher ketamine concentration can induce ROS generation and apoptosis in human neurons. PMID:26020236

  17. Physiological evidence for a human-induced landscape of fear in brown bears (Ursus arctos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Ordiz, Andres; Evans, Alina L; Laske, Timothy G; Kindberg, Jonas; Fröbert, Ole; Swenson, Jon E; Arnemo, Jon M

    2015-12-01

    Human persecution is a major cause of mortality for large carnivores. Consequently, large carnivores avoid humans, but may use human-dominated landscapes by being nocturnal and elusive. Behavioral studies indicate that certain ecological systems are "landscapes of fear", driven by antipredator behavior. Because behavior and physiology are closely interrelated, physiological assessments may provide insight into the behavioral response of large carnivores to human activity. To elucidate changes in brown bears' (Ursus arctos) behavior associated with human activity, we evaluated stress as changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in 12 GPS-collared, free-ranging bears, 7 males and 5 females, 3-11 years old, using cardiac-monitoring devices. We applied generalized linear regression models with HR and HRV as response variables and chest activity, time of day, season, distance traveled, and distance to human settlements from GPS positions recorded every 30 min as potential explanatory variables. Bears exhibited lower HRV, an indication of stress, when they were close to human settlements and especially during the berry season, when humans were more often in the forest, picking berries and hunting. Our findings provide evidence of a human-induced landscape of fear in this hunted population of brown bears. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Different Chondrogenic Potential among Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Diverse Origin Primary Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeri Alice Rim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have tried to reprogram various origins of primary cells into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs. Every somatic cell can theoretically become a hiPSC and give rise to targeted cells of the human body. However, there have been debates on the controversy about the differentiation propensity according to the origin of primary cells. We reprogrammed hiPSCs from four different types of primary cells such as dermal fibroblasts (DF, n=3, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, n=3, cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC, n=3, and osteoarthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (OAFLS, n=3. Established hiPSCs were differentiated into chondrogenic pellets. All told, cartilage-specific markers tended to express more by the order of CBMC > DF > PBMC > FLS. Origin of primary cells may influence the reprogramming and differentiation thereafter. In the context of chondrogenic propensity, CBMC-derived hiPSCs can be a fairly good candidate cell source for cartilage regeneration. The differentiation of hiPSCs into chondrocytes may help develop “cartilage in a dish” in the future. Also, the ideal cell source of hiPSC for chondrogenesis may contribute to future application as well.

  19. CRISPR-Cas9-Based Genome Editing of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Joseph C; Sharma, Tasneem P; Burnight, Erin R; Fingert, John F; Mullins, Robert F; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A

    2018-02-28

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are the ideal cell source for autologous cell replacement. However, for patients with Mendelian diseases, genetic correction of the original disease-causing mutation is likely required prior to cellular differentiation and transplantation. The emergence of the CRISPR-Cas9 system has revolutionized the field of genome editing. By introducing inexpensive reagents that are relatively straightforward to design and validate, it is now possible to correct genetic variants or insert desired sequences at any location within the genome. CRISPR-based genome editing of patient-specific iPSCs shows great promise for future autologous cell replacement therapies. One caveat, however, is that hiPSCs are notoriously difficult to transfect, and optimized experimental design considerations are often necessary. This unit describes design strategies and methods for efficient CRISPR-based genome editing of patient- specific iPSCs. Additionally, it details a flexible approach that utilizes positive selection to generate clones with a desired genomic modification, Cre-lox recombination to remove the integrated selection cassette, and negative selection to eliminate residual hiPSCs with intact selection cassettes. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Disease Modeling Using 3D Organoids Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Beatrice Xuan; Pek, Nicole Min Qian; Soh, Boon-Seng

    2018-03-21

    The rising interest in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived organoid culture has stemmed from the manipulation of various combinations of directed multi-lineage differentiation and morphogenetic processes that mimic organogenesis. Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) structures that are comprised of multiple cell types, self-organized to recapitulate embryonic and tissue development in vitro. This model has been shown to be superior to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture methods in mirroring functionality, architecture, and geometric features of tissues seen in vivo. This review serves to highlight recent advances in the 3D organoid technology for use in modeling complex hereditary diseases, cancer, host-microbe interactions, and possible use in translational and personalized medicine where organoid cultures were used to uncover diagnostic biomarkers for early disease detection via high throughput pharmaceutical screening. In addition, this review also aims to discuss the advantages and shortcomings of utilizing organoids in disease modeling. In summary, studying human diseases using hiPSC-derived organoids may better illustrate the processes involved due to similarities in the architecture and microenvironment present in an organoid, which also allows drug responses to be properly recapitulated in vitro.

  1. Multi-kilobase homozygous targeted gene replacement in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Susan M; Ortiz, Luis; Mali, Prashant; Aach, John; Church, George M

    2015-02-18

    Sequence-specific nucleases such as TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 system have so far been used to disrupt, correct or insert transgenes at precise locations in mammalian genomes. We demonstrate efficient 'knock-in' targeted replacement of multi-kilobase genes in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Using a model system replacing endogenous human genes with their mouse counterpart, we performed a comprehensive study of targeting vector design parameters for homologous recombination. A 2.7 kilobase (kb) homozygous gene replacement was achieved in up to 11% of iPSC without selection. The optimal homology arm length was around 2 kb, with homology length being especially critical on the arm not adjacent to the cut site. Homologous sequence inside the cut sites was detrimental to targeting efficiency, consistent with a synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) mechanism. Using two nuclease sites, we observed a high degree of gene excisions and inversions, which sometimes occurred more frequently than indel mutations. While homozygous deletions of 86 kb were achieved with up to 8% frequency, deletion frequencies were not solely a function of nuclease activity and deletion size. Our results analyzing the optimal parameters for targeting vector design will inform future gene targeting efforts involving multi-kilobase gene segments, particularly in human iPSC. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. May I Cut in? Gene Editing Approaches in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhouser, Nicholas; Raman, Sreedevi; Potts, Christopher; Brafman, David A

    2017-02-06

    In the decade since Yamanaka and colleagues described methods to reprogram somatic cells into a pluripotent state, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have demonstrated tremendous promise in numerous disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine applications. More recently, the development and refinement of advanced gene transduction and editing technologies have further accelerated the potential of hiPSCs. In this review, we discuss the various gene editing technologies that are being implemented with hiPSCs. Specifically, we describe the emergence of technologies including zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 that can be used to edit the genome at precise locations, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each of these technologies. In addition, we present the current applications of these technologies in elucidating the mechanisms of human development and disease, developing novel and effective therapeutic molecules, and engineering cell-based therapies. Finally, we discuss the emerging technological advances in targeted gene editing methods.

  3. Gamma Spectrometry for Chronology of Recent Sediments. Tracing Human Induced Climate Change in NW Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittauerova, D.; Fischer, H. W. [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Mulitza, S. [MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Gamma spectroscopy was used for the determination of radionuclides in sediment cores from the continental shelf off northwest africa to provide age control of the sediment record used for a study of aridification of the Sahel zone. {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the upper part of a gravity core and the associated multicorer and used for aligning these cores. This provided information about the amount of sediment loss due to the sampling procedure in the upper part of the gravity core. The age model based on the matched profiles extended to 140 years B.P. and the rest of the gravity core was dated by {sup 14}C. The {sup 210}Pb age allowed the estimation of the local radiocarbon reservoir age. Application of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs chronology helps to significantly extend paleoclimatic proxy data into the Anthropocene, thereby allowing the comparison of human induced climate change with natural climate variability. (author)

  4. Disease modeling and phenotypic drug screening for diabetic cardiomyopathy using human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawnel, Faye M; Boccardo, Stefano; Prummer, Michael; Delobel, Frédéric; Graff, Alexandra; Weber, Michael; Gérard, Régine; Badi, Laura; Kam-Thong, Tony; Bu, Lei; Jiang, Xin; Hoflack, Jean-Christophe; Kiialainen, Anna; Jeworutzki, Elena; Aoyama, Natsuyo; Carlson, Coby; Burcin, Mark; Gromo, Gianni; Boehringer, Markus; Stahlberg, Henning; Hall, Benjamin J; Magnone, Maria Chiara; Kolaja, Kyle; Chien, Kenneth R; Bailly, Jacques; Iacone, Roberto

    2014-11-06

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a complication of type 2 diabetes, with known contributions of lifestyle and genetics. We develop environmentally and genetically driven in vitro models of the condition using human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes. First, we mimic diabetic clinical chemistry to induce a phenotypic surrogate of diabetic cardiomyopathy, observing structural and functional disarray. Next, we consider genetic effects by deriving cardiomyocytes from two diabetic patients with variable disease progression. The cardiomyopathic phenotype is recapitulated in the patient-specific cells basally, with a severity dependent on their original clinical status. These models are incorporated into successive levels of a screening platform, identifying drugs that preserve cardiomyocyte phenotype in vitro during diabetic stress. In this work, we present a patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of a complex metabolic condition, showing the power of this technique for discovery and testing of therapeutic strategies for a disease with ever-increasing clinical significance. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrical Stimulation Promotes Cardiac Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are an attractive source of cardiomyocytes for cardiac repair and regeneration. In this study, we aim to determine whether acute electrical stimulation of human iPSCs can promote their differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Methods. Human iPSCs were differentiated to cardiac cells by forming embryoid bodies (EBs for 5 days. EBs were then subjected to brief electrical stimulation and plated down for 14 days. Results. In iPS(Foreskin-2 cell line, brief electrical stimulation at 65 mV/mm or 200 mV/mm for 5 min significantly increased the percentage of beating EBs present by day 14 after plating. Acute electrical stimulation also significantly increased the cardiac gene expression of ACTC1, TNNT2, MYH7, and MYL7. However, the cardiogenic effect of electrical stimulation was not reproducible in another iPS cell line, CERA007c6. Beating EBs from control and electrically stimulated groups expressed various cardiac-specific transcription factors and contractile muscle markers. Beating EBs were also shown to cycle calcium and were responsive to the chronotropic agents, isoproterenol and carbamylcholine, in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that brief electrical stimulation can promote cardiac differentiation of human iPS cells. The cardiogenic effect of brief electrical stimulation is dependent on the cell line used.

  6. Billion-scale production of hepatocyte-like cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Takayama, Kazuo; Sakurai, Fuminori; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-19

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells are expected to be utilized in drug screening and regenerative medicine. However, hepatocyte-like cells have not been fully used in such applications because it is difficult to produce such cells on a large scale. In this study, we tried to establish a method to mass produce hepatocyte-like cells using a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture bioreactor called the Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS). RCCS enabled us to obtain homogenous hepatocyte-like cells on a billion scale (>10 9  cells). The gene expression levels of some hepatocyte markers (alpha-1 antitrypsin, cytochrome (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha) were higher in 3D-cultured hepatocyte-like cells than in 2D-cultured hepatocyte-like cells. This result suggests that RCCS could provide more suitable conditions for hepatocyte maturation than the conventional 2D cell culture conditions. In addition, more than 90% of hepatocyte-like cells were positive for albumin and could uptake low-density lipoprotein in the culture medium. We succeeded in the large-scale production of homogenous and functional hepatocyte-like cells from human iPS cells. This technology will be useful in drug screening and regenerative medicine, which require enormous numbers of hepatocyte-like cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology and Cardiomyocyte Generation: Progress and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Di Baldassarre

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are reprogrammed cells that have hallmarks similar to embryonic stem cells including the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation into cardiac myocytes. The improvements in reprogramming and differentiating methods achieved in the past 10 years widened the use of hiPSCs, especially in cardiac research. hiPSC-derived cardiac myocytes (CMs recapitulate phenotypic differences caused by genetic variations, making them attractive human disease models and useful tools for drug discovery and toxicology testing. In addition, hiPSCs can be used as sources of cells for cardiac regeneration in animal models. Here, we review the advances in the genetic and epigenetic control of cardiomyogenesis that underlies the significant improvement of the induced reprogramming of somatic cells to CMs; the methods used to improve scalability of throughput assays for functional screening and drug testing in vitro; the phenotypic characteristics of hiPSCs-derived CMs and their ability to rescue injured CMs through paracrine effects; we also cover the novel approaches in tissue engineering for hiPSC-derived cardiac tissue generation, and finally, their immunological features and the potential use in biomedical applications.

  8. Application of human induced pluripotent stem cells to model fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barruet, Emilie; Hsiao, Edward C

    2018-04-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a genetic condition characterized by massive heterotopic ossification. FOP patients have mutations in the Activin A type I receptor (ACVR1), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor. FOP is a progressive and debilitating disease characterized by bone formation flares that often occur after trauma. Since it is often difficult or impossible to obtain large amounts of tissue from human donors due to the risks of inciting more heterotopic bone formation, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provide an attractive source for establishing in vitro disease models and for applications in drug screening. hiPSCs have the ability to self-renew, allowing researchers to obtain large amounts of starting material. hiPSCs also have the potential to differentiate into any cell type in the body. In this review, we discuss how the application of hiPSC technology to studying FOP has changed our perspectives on FOP disease pathogenesis. We also consider ongoing challenges and emerging opportunities for the use of human iPSCs in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology and Cardiomyocyte Generation: Progress and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, Angela; Cimetta, Elisa; Bollini, Sveva; Gaggi, Giulia; Ghinassi, Barbara

    2018-05-25

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are reprogrammed cells that have hallmarks similar to embryonic stem cells including the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation into cardiac myocytes. The improvements in reprogramming and differentiating methods achieved in the past 10 years widened the use of hiPSCs, especially in cardiac research. hiPSC-derived cardiac myocytes (CMs) recapitulate phenotypic differences caused by genetic variations, making them attractive human disease models and useful tools for drug discovery and toxicology testing. In addition, hiPSCs can be used as sources of cells for cardiac regeneration in animal models. Here, we review the advances in the genetic and epigenetic control of cardiomyogenesis that underlies the significant improvement of the induced reprogramming of somatic cells to CMs; the methods used to improve scalability of throughput assays for functional screening and drug testing in vitro; the phenotypic characteristics of hiPSCs-derived CMs and their ability to rescue injured CMs through paracrine effects; we also cover the novel approaches in tissue engineering for hiPSC-derived cardiac tissue generation, and finally, their immunological features and the potential use in biomedical applications.

  10. Graphene Sheet-Induced Global Maturation of Cardiomyocytes Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxian; Cui, Chang; Nan, Haiyan; Yu, Yuanfang; Xiao, Yini; Poon, Ellen; Yang, Gang; Wang, Xijie; Wang, Chenchen; Li, Lingsong; Boheler, Kenneth Richard; Ma, Xu; Cheng, Xin; Ni, Zhenhua; Chen, Minglong

    2017-08-09

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can proliferate infinitely. Their ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes provides abundant sources for disease modeling, drug screening and regenerative medicine. However, hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) display a low degree of maturation and fetal-like properties. Current in vitro differentiation methods do not mimic the structural, mechanical, or physiological properties of the cardiogenesis niche. Recently, we present an efficient cardiac maturation platform that combines hiPSCs monolayer cardiac differentiation with graphene substrate, which is a biocompatible and superconductive material. The hiPSCs lines were successfully maintained on the graphene sheets and were able to differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes. This strategy markedly increased the myofibril ultrastructural organization, elevated the conduction velocity, and enhanced both the Ca 2+ handling and electrophysiological properties in the absence of electrical stimulation. On the graphene substrate, the expression of connexin 43 increased along with the conduction velocity. Interestingly, the bone morphogenetic proteins signaling was also significantly activated during early cardiogenesis, confirmed by RNA sequencing analysis. Here, we reasoned that graphene substrate as a conductive biomimetic surface could facilitate the intrinsic electrical propagation, mimicking the microenvironment of the native heart, to further promote the global maturation of hiPSC-CMs. Our findings highlight the capability of electrically active substrates to influence cardiomyocyte development. We believe that application of graphene sheets will be useful for simple, fast, and scalable maturation of regenerated cardiomyocytes.

  11. Detailed Characterization of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Manufactured for Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbaderani, Behnam Ahmadian; Syama, Adhikarla; Sivapatham, Renuka; Pei, Ying; Mukherjee, Odity; Fellner, Thomas; Zeng, Xianmin; Rao, Mahendra S

    2016-08-01

    We have recently described manufacturing of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) master cell banks (MCB) generated by a clinically compliant process using cord blood as a starting material (Baghbaderani et al. in Stem Cell Reports, 5(4), 647-659, 2015). In this manuscript, we describe the detailed characterization of the two iPSC clones generated using this process, including whole genome sequencing (WGS), microarray, and comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. We compare their profiles with a proposed calibration material and with a reporter subclone and lines made by a similar process from different donors. We believe that iPSCs are likely to be used to make multiple clinical products. We further believe that the lines used as input material will be used at different sites and, given their immortal status, will be used for many years or even decades. Therefore, it will be important to develop assays to monitor the state of the cells and their drift in culture. We suggest that a detailed characterization of the initial status of the cells, a comparison with some calibration material and the development of reporter sublcones will help determine which set of tests will be most useful in monitoring the cells and establishing criteria for discarding a line.

  12. Cell-autonomous correction of ring chromosomes in human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershteyn, Marina; Hayashi, Yohei; Desachy, Guillaume; Hsiao, Edward C.; Sami, Salma; Tsang, Kathryn M.; Weiss, Lauren A.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.; Yamanaka, Shinya; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2014-03-01

    Ring chromosomes are structural aberrations commonly associated with birth defects, mental disabilities and growth retardation. Rings form after fusion of the long and short arms of a chromosome, and are sometimes associated with large terminal deletions. Owing to the severity of these large aberrations that can affect multiple contiguous genes, no possible therapeutic strategies for ring chromosome disorders have been proposed. During cell division, ring chromosomes can exhibit unstable behaviour leading to continuous production of aneuploid progeny with low viability and high cellular death rate. The overall consequences of this chromosomal instability have been largely unexplored in experimental model systems. Here we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient fibroblasts containing ring chromosomes with large deletions and found that reprogrammed cells lost the abnormal chromosome and duplicated the wild-type homologue through the compensatory uniparental disomy (UPD) mechanism. The karyotypically normal iPSCs with isodisomy for the corrected chromosome outgrew co-existing aneuploid populations, enabling rapid and efficient isolation of patient-derived iPSCs devoid of the original chromosomal aberration. Our results suggest a fundamentally different function for cellular reprogramming as a means of `chromosome therapy' to reverse combined loss-of-function across many genes in cells with large-scale aberrations involving ring structures. In addition, our work provides an experimentally tractable human cellular system for studying mechanisms of chromosomal number control, which is of critical relevance to human development and disease.

  13. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Basic Research to Potential Clinical Applications in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa de Souza Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are derived from a direct reprogramming of human somatic cells to a pluripotent stage through ectopic expression of specific transcription factors. These cells have two important properties, which are the self-renewal capacity and the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the human body. So, the discovery of hiPSCs opens new opportunities in biomedical sciences, since these cells may be useful for understanding the mechanisms of diseases in the production of new diseases models, in drug development/drug toxicity tests, gene therapies, and cell replacement therapies. However, the hiPSCs technology has limitations including the potential for the development of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities leading to tumorigenicity. Nowadays, basic research in the hiPSCs field has made progress in the application of new strategies with the aim to enable an efficient production of high-quality of hiPSCs for safety and efficacy, necessary to the future application for clinical practice. In this review, we show the recent advances in hiPSCs’ basic research and some potential clinical applications focusing on cancer. We also present the importance of the use of statistical methods to evaluate the possible validation for the hiPSCs for future therapeutic use toward personalized cell therapies.

  14. An Efficient Platform for Astrocyte Differentiation from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcw, Julia; Wang, Minghui; Pimenova, Anna A; Bowles, Kathryn R; Hartley, Brigham J; Lacin, Emre; Machlovi, Saima I; Abdelaal, Rawan; Karch, Celeste M; Phatnani, Hemali; Slesinger, Paul A; Zhang, Bin; Goate, Alison M; Brennand, Kristen J

    2017-08-08

    Growing evidence implicates the importance of glia, particularly astrocytes, in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we describe a rapid and robust method for the differentiation of highly pure populations of replicative astrocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), via a neural progenitor cell (NPC) intermediate. We evaluated this protocol across 42 NPC lines (derived from 30 individuals). Transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that hiPSC-astrocytes from four individuals are highly similar to primary human fetal astrocytes and characteristic of a non-reactive state. hiPSC-astrocytes respond to inflammatory stimulants, display phagocytic capacity, and enhance microglial phagocytosis. hiPSC-astrocytes also possess spontaneous calcium transient activity. Our protocol is a reproducible, straightforward (single medium), and rapid (method to generate populations of hiPSC-astrocytes that can be used for neuron-astrocyte and microglia-astrocyte co-cultures for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Directed Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qizhou; Zhang, Yuelin; Liang, Xiaoting; Gao, Fei; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent stromal cells, also known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), possess great potential to generate a wide range of cell types including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, bone, cartilage, and lipid cells. This protocol describes in detail how to perform highly efficient, lineage-specific differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with an MSCs fate. The approach uses a clinically compliant protocol with chemically defined media, feeder-free conditions, and a CD105 positive and CD24 negative selection to achieve a single cell-based MSCs derivation from differentiating human pluripotent cells in approximately 20 days. Cells generated with this protocol express typical MSCs surface markers and undergo adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and chondrogenesis similar to adult bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). Nonetheless, compared with adult BM-MSCs, iPSC-MSCs display a higher proliferative capacity, up to 120 passages, without obvious loss of self-renewal potential and constitutively express MSCs surface antigens. MSCs generated with this protocol have numerous applications, including expansion to large scale cell numbers for tissue engineering and the development of cellular therapeutics. This approach has been used to rescue limb ischemia, allergic disorders, and cigarette smoke-induced lung damage and to model mesenchymal and vascular disorders of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS).

  16. Small-Molecule Induction Promotes Corneal Epithelial Cell Differentiation from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mikhailova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs offer unique opportunities for developing novel cell-based therapies and disease modeling. In this study, we developed a directed differentiation method for hiPSCs toward corneal epithelial progenitor cells capable of terminal differentiation toward mature corneal epithelial-like cells. In order to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of our method, we replicated signaling cues active during ocular surface ectoderm development with the help of two small-molecule inhibitors in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in serum-free and feeder-free conditions. First, small-molecule induction downregulated the expression of pluripotency markers while upregulating several transcription factors essential for normal eye development. Second, protein expression of the corneal epithelial progenitor marker p63 was greatly enhanced, with up to 95% of cells being p63 positive after 5 weeks of differentiation. Third, corneal epithelial-like cells were obtained upon further maturation.

  17. Gene editing and clonal isolation of human induced pluripotent stem cells using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumlu, Saniye; Stumm, Jürgen; Bashir, Sanum; Dreyer, Anne-Kathrin; Lisowski, Pawel; Danner, Eric; Kühn, Ralf

    2017-05-15

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) represent an ideal in vitro platform to study human genetics and biology. The recent advent of programmable nucleases makes also the human genome amenable to experimental genetics through either the correction of mutations in patient-derived iPSC lines or the de novo introduction of mutations into otherwise healthy iPSCs. The production of specific and sometimes complex genotypes in multiple cell lines requires efficient and streamlined gene editing technologies. In this article we provide protocols for gene editing in hiPSCs. We presently achieve high rates of gene editing at up to three loci using a modified iCRISPR system. This system includes a doxycycline inducible Cas9 and sgRNA/reporter plasmids for the enrichment of transfected cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Here we cover the selection of target sites, vector construction, transfection, and isolation and genotyping of modified hiPSC clones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expandable and Rapidly Differentiating Human Induced Neural Stem Cell Lines for Multiple Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. Cairns

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited availability of human neurons poses a significant barrier to progress in biological and preclinical studies of the human nervous system. Current stem cell-based approaches of neuron generation are still hindered by prolonged culture requirements, protocol complexity, and variability in neuronal differentiation. Here we establish stable human induced neural stem cell (hiNSC lines through the direct reprogramming of neonatal fibroblasts and adult adipose-derived stem cells. These hiNSCs can be passaged indefinitely and cryopreserved as colonies. Independently of media composition, hiNSCs robustly differentiate into TUJ1-positive neurons within 4 days, making them ideal for innervated co-cultures. In vivo, hiNSCs migrate, engraft, and contribute to both central and peripheral nervous systems. Lastly, we demonstrate utility of hiNSCs in a 3D human brain model. This method provides a valuable interdisciplinary tool that could be used to develop drug screening applications as well as patient-specific disease models related to disorders of innervation and the brain.

  19. Scalable Generation of Universal Platelets from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Feng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide a potentially replenishable source for the production of transfusable platelets. Here, we describe a method to generate megakaryocytes (MKs and functional platelets from iPSCs in a scalable manner under serum/feeder-free conditions. The method also permits the cryopreservation of MK progenitors, enabling a rapid “surge” capacity when large numbers of platelets are needed. Ultrastructural/morphological analyses show no major differences between iPSC platelets and human blood platelets. iPSC platelets form aggregates, lamellipodia, and filopodia after activation and circulate in macrophage-depleted animals and incorporate into developing mouse thrombi in a manner identical to human platelets. By knocking out the β2-microglobulin gene, we have generated platelets that are negative for the major histocompatibility antigens. The scalable generation of HLA-ABC-negative platelets from a renewable cell source represents an important step toward generating universal platelets for transfusion as well as a potential strategy for the management of platelet refractoriness.

  20. Tributyltin induces mitochondrial fission through Mfn1 degradation in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Asanagi, Miki; Hirata, Naoya; Itagaki, Hiroshi; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2016-08-01

    Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT), are well-known endocrine disruptors. TBT is also known to cause various forms of cytotoxicity, including neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity. However, TBT toxicity has not been identified in normal stem cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of TBT on cell growth in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We found that exposure to nanomolar concentrations of TBT decreased intracellular ATP levels and inhibited cell viability in iPSCs. Because TBT suppressed energy production, which is a critical function of the mitochondria, we further assessed the effects of TBT on mitochondrial dynamics. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that nanomolar concentrations of TBT induced mitochondrial fragmentation. TBT also reduced the expression of mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), and this effect was abolished by knockdown of the E3 ubiquitin ligase membrane-associated RING-CH 5 (MARCH5), suggesting that nanomolar concentrations of TBT could induce mitochondrial dysfunction via MARCH5-mediated Mfn1 degradation in iPSCs. Thus, mitochondrial function in normal stem cells could be used to assess cytotoxicity associated with metal exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scalable topographies to support proliferation and Oct4 expression by human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Andreas; Vasilevich, Aliaksei; Hulshof, Frits; Viswanathan, Priyalakshmi; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan; Watt, Fiona M

    2016-01-13

    It is well established that topographical features modulate cell behaviour, including cell morphology, proliferation and differentiation. To define the effects of topography on human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), we plated cells on a topographical library containing over 1000 different features in medium lacking animal products (xeno-free). Using high content imaging, we determined the effect of each topography on cell proliferation and expression of the pluripotency marker Oct4 24 h after seeding. Features that maintained Oct4 expression also supported proliferation and cell-cell adhesion at 24 h, and by 4 days colonies of Oct4-positive, Sox2-positive cells had formed. Computational analysis revealed that small feature size was the most important determinant of pluripotency, followed by high wave number and high feature density. Using this information we correctly predicted whether any given topography within our library would support the pluripotent state at 24 h. This approach not only facilitates the design of substrates for optimal human iPSC expansion, but also, potentially, identification of topographies with other desirable characteristics, such as promoting differentiation.

  2. Microfluidic perfusion culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells under fully defined culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimitsu, Ryosuke; Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kondo, Yuki; Yamada, Rotaro; Tachikawa, Saoko; Satoh, Taku; Kurisaki, Akira; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi; Asashima, Makoto; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising cell source for drug screening. For this application, self-renewal or differentiation of the cells is required, and undefined factors in the culture conditions are not desirable. Microfluidic perfusion culture allows the production of small volume cultures with precisely controlled microenvironments, and is applicable to high-throughput cellular environment screening. Here, we developed a microfluidic perfusion culture system for hiPSCs that uses a microchamber array chip under defined extracellular matrix (ECM) and culture medium conditions. By screening various ECMs we determined that fibronectin and laminin are appropriate for microfluidic devices made out of the most popular material, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). We found that the growth rate of hiPSCs under pressure-driven perfusion culture conditions was higher than under static culture conditions in the microchamber array. We applied our new system to self-renewal and differentiation cultures of hiPSCs, and immunocytochemical analysis showed that the state of the hiPSCs was successfully controlled. The effects of three antitumor drugs on hiPSCs were comparable between microchamber array and 96-well plates. We believe that our system will be a platform technology for future large-scale screening of fully defined conditions for differentiation cultures on integrated microfluidic devices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Macrophages for Unraveling Human Macrophage Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanrui; Reilly, Muredach P

    2017-11-01

    Despite a substantial appreciation for the critical role of macrophages in cardiometabolic diseases, understanding of human macrophage biology has been hampered by the lack of reliable and scalable models for cellular and genetic studies. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived macrophages (IPSDM), as an unlimited source of subject genotype-specific cells, will undoubtedly play an important role in advancing our understanding of the role of macrophages in human diseases. In this review, we summarize current literature in the differentiation and characterization of IPSDM at phenotypic, functional, and transcriptomic levels. We emphasize the progress in differentiating iPSC to tissue resident macrophages, and in understanding the ontogeny of in vitro differentiated IPSDM that resembles primitive hematopoiesis, rather than adult definitive hematopoiesis. We review the application of IPSDM in modeling both Mendelian genetic disorders and host-pathogen interactions. Finally, we highlighted the potential areas of research using IPSDM in functional validation of coronary artery disease loci in genome-wide association studies, functional genomic analyses, drug testing, and cell therapeutics in cardiovascular diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. A Refined Culture System for Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Intestinal Epithelial Organoids

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    Yu Takahashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gut epithelial organoids are routinely used to investigate intestinal biology; however, current culture methods are not amenable to genetic manipulation, and it is difficult to generate sufficient numbers for high-throughput studies. Here, we present an improved culture system of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived intestinal organoids involving four methodological advances. (1 We adopted a lentiviral vector to readily establish and optimize conditioned medium for human intestinal organoid culture. (2 We obtained intestinal organoids from human iPSCs more efficiently by supplementing WNT3A and fibroblast growth factor 2 to induce differentiation into definitive endoderm. (3 Using 2D culture, followed by re-establishment of organoids, we achieved an efficient transduction of exogenous genes in organoids. (4 We investigated suspension organoid culture without scaffolds for easier harvesting and assays. These techniques enable us to develop, maintain, and expand intestinal organoids readily and quickly at low cost, facilitating high-throughput screening of pathogenic factors and candidate treatments for gastrointestinal diseases.

  5. Promise and Capability of NASA's Earth Observing System to Monitor Human-Induced Climate Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and launched on Terra in December 1999 and Aqua in May 2002, is designed to meet the scientific needs for satellite remote sensing of clouds, aerosols, water vapor, and land and ocean surface properties. This sensor and multi-platform observing system is especially well suited to observing detailed interdisciplinary components of the Earth s surface and atmosphere in and around urban environments, including aerosol optical properties, cloud optical and microphysical properties of both liquid water and ice clouds, land surface reflectance, fire occurrence, and many other properties that influence the urban environment and are influenced by them. In this presentation I will summarize the current capabilities of MODIS and other EOS sensors currently in orbit to study human-induced climate variations.

  6. The human-induced pluripotent stem cell initiative—data resources for cellular genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Ian; Harrison, Peter W.; Faulconbridge, Adam; Flicek, Paul; Parkinson, Helen; Clarke, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Initiative (HipSci) isf establishing a large catalogue of human iPSC lines, arguably the most well characterized collection to date. The HipSci portal enables researchers to choose the right cell line for their experiment, and makes HipSci's rich catalogue of assay data easy to discover and reuse. Each cell line has genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and cellular phenotyping data. Data are deposited in the appropriate EMBL-EBI archives, including the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA), ArrayExpress and PRoteomics IDEntifications (PRIDE) databases. The project will make 500 cell lines from healthy individuals, and from 150 patients with rare genetic diseases; these will be available through the European Collection of Authenticated Cell Cultures (ECACC). As of August 2016, 238 cell lines are available for purchase. Project data is presented through the HipSci data portal (http://www.hipsci.org/lines) and is downloadable from the associated FTP site (ftp://ftp.hipsci.ebi.ac.uk/vol1/ftp). The data portal presents a summary matrix of the HipSci cell lines, showing available data types. Each line has its own page containing descriptive metadata, quality information, and links to archived assay data. Analysis results are also available in a Track Hub, allowing visualization in the context of public genomic annotations (http://www.hipsci.org/data/trackhubs). PMID:27733501

  7. The human-induced pluripotent stem cell initiative-data resources for cellular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Ian; Harrison, Peter W; Faulconbridge, Adam; Flicek, Paul; Parkinson, Helen; Clarke, Laura

    2017-01-04

    The Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Initiative (HipSci) isf establishing a large catalogue of human iPSC lines, arguably the most well characterized collection to date. The HipSci portal enables researchers to choose the right cell line for their experiment, and makes HipSci's rich catalogue of assay data easy to discover and reuse. Each cell line has genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and cellular phenotyping data. Data are deposited in the appropriate EMBL-EBI archives, including the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA), ArrayExpress and PRoteomics IDEntifications (PRIDE) databases. The project will make 500 cell lines from healthy individuals, and from 150 patients with rare genetic diseases; these will be available through the European Collection of Authenticated Cell Cultures (ECACC). As of August 2016, 238 cell lines are available for purchase. Project data is presented through the HipSci data portal (http://www.hipsci.org/lines) and is downloadable from the associated FTP site (ftp://ftp.hipsci.ebi.ac.uk/vol1/ftp). The data portal presents a summary matrix of the HipSci cell lines, showing available data types. Each line has its own page containing descriptive metadata, quality information, and links to archived assay data. Analysis results are also available in a Track Hub, allowing visualization in the context of public genomic annotations (http://www.hipsci.org/data/trackhubs). © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Synchrony in hunting bags: reaction on climatic and human induced changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Robert; Heurich, Marco; Kröschel, Max; Herdtfelder, Micha

    2014-01-15

    Human induced land use changes negatively impact the viability of many wildlife species through habitat modifications and mortality, while some species seem to benefit from it. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), a wide spread ungulate increased both its abundance and range throughout Europe. This pattern is also reflected in the increasing hunting bags over the last 40 years. Such a development raises questions about the relationship between human hunting and population dynamics and, in particular, about the potential of human hunting to control related populations. We analysed and reconstructed annual hunting bags of roe deer for three federal states of northern Germany, Brandenburg, Lower Saxony and Mecklenburg West Pomerania for the years 1972 to 2011. Since 1992 the hunting bags from these three states are significantly higher than those reported for the years 1972-1991. Our reconstruction takes into consideration effects of climate variability, expressed by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation and impacts from rapeseed and wheat cultivation. We found that severe winters, which are indicated by negative values of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the months December-March, directly, or with a time lag of two years affect the number of deer shot. In contrast, an increase in the area used for rapeseed cultivation coincides with higher numbers of roe deer shot, with respect to the overall mean value. Consequently, we recommend that wildlife management addresses changes in large scale processes including land use pattern and climate variability. © 2013.

  9. Observing Human-induced Linkages between Urbanization and Earth's Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Most of world s population has moved to urban areas. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities. Human activity in urban environments also alters atmospheric composition; impacts components of the water cycle; and modifies the carbon cycle and ecosystems. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth s atmosphere-ocean-land-biosphere components interact as a coupled system and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical. The goal of the 2003 AGU Union session Human-induced climate variations on urban areas: From observations to modeling was to bring together scientists from interdisciplinary backgrounds to discuss the data, scientific approaches and recent results on observing and modeling components of the urban environment with the intent of sampling our current stand and discussing future direction on this topic. Herein, a summary and discussion of the observations component of the session are presented.

  10. Disease Modeling and Phenotypic Drug Screening for Diabetic Cardiomyopathy using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye M. Drawnel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a complication of type 2 diabetes, with known contributions of lifestyle and genetics. We develop environmentally and genetically driven in vitro models of the condition using human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes. First, we mimic diabetic clinical chemistry to induce a phenotypic surrogate of diabetic cardiomyopathy, observing structural and functional disarray. Next, we consider genetic effects by deriving cardiomyocytes from two diabetic patients with variable disease progression. The cardiomyopathic phenotype is recapitulated in the patient-specific cells basally, with a severity dependent on their original clinical status. These models are incorporated into successive levels of a screening platform, identifying drugs that preserve cardiomyocyte phenotype in vitro during diabetic stress. In this work, we present a patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC model of a complex metabolic condition, showing the power of this technique for discovery and testing of therapeutic strategies for a disease with ever-increasing clinical significance.

  11. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived models to investigate human cytomegalovirus infection in neural cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo D'Aiuto

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is one of the leading prenatal causes of congenital mental retardation and deformities world-wide. Access to cultured human neuronal lineages, necessary to understand the species specific pathogenic effects of HCMV, has been limited by difficulties in sustaining primary human neuronal cultures. Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells now provide an opportunity for such research. We derived iPS cells from human adult fibroblasts and induced neural lineages to investigate their susceptibility to infection with HCMV strain Ad169. Analysis of iPS cells, iPS-derived neural stem cells (NSCs, neural progenitor cells (NPCs and neurons suggests that (i iPS cells are not permissive to HCMV infection, i.e., they do not permit a full viral replication cycle; (ii Neural stem cells have impaired differentiation when infected by HCMV; (iii NPCs are fully permissive for HCMV infection; altered expression of genes related to neural metabolism or neuronal differentiation is also observed; (iv most iPS-derived neurons are not permissive to HCMV infection; and (v infected neurons have impaired calcium influx in response to glutamate.

  12. Socio-economic exposure to natural disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.marin@uniurb.it [Department of Economics, Society, Politics, University of Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , via Aurelio Saffi, 2, 61029 Urbino (Italy); IRCrES - CNR, Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth, Via Corti 12, 20133 - Milano (Italy); SEEDS, Ferrara (Italy); Modica, Marco, E-mail: marco.modica@ircres.cnr.it [IRCrES - CNR, Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth, Via Corti 12, 20133 - Milano (Italy); SEEDS, Ferrara (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    Even though the correct assessment of risks is a key aspect of the risk management analysis, we argue that limited effort has been devoted in the assessment of comprehensive measures of economic exposure at very low scale. For this reason, we aim at providing a series of suitable methodologies to provide a complete and detailed list of the exposure of economic activities to natural disasters. We use Input-Output models to provide information about several socio-economic variables, such as population density, employment density, firms' turnover and capital stock, that can be seen as direct and indirect socio-economic exposure to natural disasters. We then provide an application to the Italian context. These measures can be easily incorporated into risk assessment models to provide a clear picture of the disaster risk for local areas. - Highlights: • Ex ante assessment of economic exposure to disasters at very low geographical scale • Assessment of the cost of natural disasters in ex-post perspective • IO model and spatial autocorrelation to get information on socio-economic variables • Indicators supporting risk assessment and risk management models.

  13. Disaster mobile health technology: lessons from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, David W; Peabody, Christopher R; Hoffman, Ari; Cote, Elizabeth; Moulton, Seth; Baez, Amado Alejandro; Nathanson, Larry

    2012-04-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) technology can play a critical role in improving disaster victim tracking, triage, patient care, facility management, and theater-wide decision-making. To date, no disaster mHealth application provides responders with adequate capabilities to function in an austere environment. The Operational Medicine Institute (OMI) conducted a qualitative trial of a modified version of the off-the-shelf application iChart at the Fond Parisien Disaster Rescue Camp during the large-scale response to the January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti. The iChart mHealth system created a patient log of 617 unique entries used by on-the-ground medical providers and field hospital administrators to facilitate provider triage, improve provider handoffs, and track vulnerable populations such as unaccompanied minors, pregnant women, traumatic orthopedic injuries and specified infectious diseases. The trial demonstrated that even a non-disaster specific application with significant programmatic limitations was an improvement over existing patient tracking and facility management systems. A unified electronic medical record and patient tracking system would add significant value to first responder capabilities in the disaster response setting.

  14. Socio-economic exposure to natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Giovanni; Modica, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Even though the correct assessment of risks is a key aspect of the risk management analysis, we argue that limited effort has been devoted in the assessment of comprehensive measures of economic exposure at very low scale. For this reason, we aim at providing a series of suitable methodologies to provide a complete and detailed list of the exposure of economic activities to natural disasters. We use Input-Output models to provide information about several socio-economic variables, such as population density, employment density, firms' turnover and capital stock, that can be seen as direct and indirect socio-economic exposure to natural disasters. We then provide an application to the Italian context. These measures can be easily incorporated into risk assessment models to provide a clear picture of the disaster risk for local areas. - Highlights: • Ex ante assessment of economic exposure to disasters at very low geographical scale • Assessment of the cost of natural disasters in ex-post perspective • IO model and spatial autocorrelation to get information on socio-economic variables • Indicators supporting risk assessment and risk management models

  15. Disaster risk reduction and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshedi, N.

    2005-01-01

    During the past four decades, natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and slides, tsunami tropical cyclones and other severe storms, tornadoes and high winds, river floods and coastal flooding, wildfire and associated haze drought, sand/dust storms, and insect infestations have caused major loss of human lives and livelihoods, the destruction of economic and social infrastructure, as well as environmental damages. Economic losses have increased almost ten times during this period. As it happen in recent Asia Tsunami, in which over 2, 00,000 people reportedly killed, estimated five million homeless, and resulted in massive displacement of population and extensive damage to infrastructure. The escalation of severe disaster events triggered by natural hazards and related technological and environment disasters is increasingly threatening both sustainable development and poverty-reduction initiatives. The loss of human lives and the rise in the cost of reconstruction efforts and loss of development assets has forced the issue of disaster reduction and risk management higher on the policy agenda of affected governments as well a multilateral and bilateral agencies and NGOs. For this Disaster risk reduction-.strategies are aimed at enabling societies at risk to become engaged in the conscious management of risk and the reduction of vulnerability. The adoption of appropriate development policies can reduce disaster risk. These policies should be gender sensitive and need the necessary political commitment. They involve the adoption of suitable regulatory and other legal measures, institutional reform, improved analytical and methodological capabilities, financial planning, education and awareness. (author)

  16. Virtual reality disaster training: translation to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farra, Sharon L; Miller, Elaine T; Hodgson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Disaster training is crucial to the mitigation of both mortality and morbidity associated with disasters. Just as clinical practice needs to be grounded in evidence, effective disaster education is dependent upon the development and use of andragogic and pedagogic evidence. Educational research findings must be transformed into useable education strategies. Virtual reality simulation is a teaching methodology that has the potential to be a powerful educational tool. The purpose of this article is to translate research findings related to the use of virtual reality simulation in disaster training into education practice. The Ace Star Model serves as a valuable framework to translate the VRS teaching methodology and improve disaster training of healthcare professionals. Using the Ace Star Model as a framework to put evidence into practice, strategies for implementing a virtual reality simulation are addressed. Practice guidelines, implementation recommendations, integration to practice and evaluation are discussed. It is imperative that health educators provide more exemplars of how research evidence can be moved through the various stages of the model to advance practice and sustain learning outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Community Disasters, Psychological Trauma, and Crisis Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A

    The current issue of International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience is focused on community disasters, the impact of trauma exposure, and crisis intervention. The articles incorporated include studies ranging from the World Trade Center disaster to Hurricane Sandy. These studies are related to public attitudes and beliefs about disease outbreaks, the impact of volunteerism following the World Trade Center attacks, alcohol misuse among police officers after Hurricane Katrina, posttraumatic stress disorder after Hurricane Sandy among those exposed to the Trade Center disaster, compassion fatigue and burnout among trauma workers, crisis interventions in Eastern Europe, and police officers' use of stress intervention services. While this scope is broad, it reflects the knowledge that has emerged since the Buffalo Creek and Chernobyl catastrophes, to the more recent Hurricane Katrina and Sandy disasters. Given the current threat environment, psychologists, social workers, and other providers need to be aware of these developments and be prepared to mitigate the impact of psychological trauma following community disasters, whether natural or man-made.

  18. Early-Transition Output Decline Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crt Kostevc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the issue of aggregate output decline that took place in the early transition period. We propose an alternative explanation of output decline that is applicable to Central- and Eastern-European countries. In the first part of the paper we develop a simple dynamic general equilibrium model that builds on work by Gomulka and Lane (2001. In particular, we consider price liberalization, interpreted as elimination of distortionary taxation, as a trigger of the output decline. We show that price liberalization in interaction with heterogeneous adjustment costs and non-employment benefits lead to aggregate output decline and surge in wage inequality. While these patterns are consistent with actual dynamics in CEE countries, this model cannot generate output decline in all sectors. Instead sectors that were initially taxed even exhibit output growth. Thus, in the second part we consider an alternative general equilibrium model with only one production sector and two types of labor and distortion in a form of wage compression during the socialist era. The trigger for labor mobility and consequently output decline is wage liberalization. Assuming heterogeneity of workers in terms of adjustment costs and non-employment benefits can explain output decline in all industries.

  19. Drivers and moderators of business decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reports of business failure elicit various reactions, while research in this domain often appears to be limited by a lack of access to information about failure and by the negativity that surrounds it. Those who have experienced failure do not readily talk about it, or they disappear from the radar screen of researchers. Yet failure is preceded by decline which, when focused on strategically, can reduce eventual failures if early action is taken. The main purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework or typology of the drivers and moderators of business decline. Design/methodology/approach: After applying the "grounded theory" approach to the academic literature on decline and failure, a conceptual framework for the variables that drive and moderate business decline is proposed. Findings: The study proposes that decline has three core drivers, three peripheral drivers and four moderators. The core drivers identified are: resource munificence; leadership as origin; and causality (strategic versus operational origin of decline. The three peripheral drivers are: unique preconditions; continuous decisions impact; and extremes dichotomy. The study describes four moderators of the drivers: life cycle stage; stakeholder perspective; quantitative versus qualitative nature of signs and causes; and finally the age and size effects. Research limitations/implications: The proposed conceptual framework is based on literature only, although it has found support during discussions with practitioners. It is proposed to readers of this journal for scrutiny and validation. Practical implications: Strategists need to understand what drives decline in order to act timeously; practitioners who have an insight into the moderators with their impacts could make better decisions in response to decline in organisations and possibly avoid business failure. Originality/Value: Understanding business decline is still a huge theoretical challenge, which

  20. Impact of Natural Disasters on Livelihood Resilience of Sichuan Rural Residents and Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    Livelihood resilience is defined as the capacity of all people across generations to sustain and improve their livelihood opportunities and well-being despite environmental, economic, social and political disturbances. Livelihood resilience has become a popular research and policy concept in the context of climate change. In this paper, we employ the structural dynamics method to describe livelihood resilience of Sichuan rural residents based on four components of livelihood quality, livelihood promotion, livelihood provision, and natural disasters pressure. Results indicate that: (i) The livelihood resilience of rural residents was significantly positively correlated with livelihood quality, livelihood promotion and livelihood provision, but there was a strong negative correlation with the natural disaster pressure. In the past 30 years, both livelihood promotion and livelihood provision declined, and the increase in disasters pressure offset the significant increase in the quality of livelihoods in Sichuan Province. The change curve of the livelihood resilience of rural residents showed the characteristics of first rising and then descending. (ii) The impact of different natural disasters on the resilience of livelihood is different. The contribution rates of earthquake, drought and flood disaster to the resilience of livelihood were -0.9 percent, -0.8 percent, and -0.3percent respectively. Due to the fact that the research area is not divided into earthquake-stricken area, non-earthquake-stricken area, heavy stricken area and light stricken area, to a certain extent, this has weakened the negative effect of earthquake disaster on the livelihood resilience of rural residents. (iii) From central government perspective, the reform of income distribution, tax system, and to change the reality of the income growth of rural residents behind national economic development are shown to be associated with highly significant and positive impact on livelihood resilience of

  1. The decline of hysterectomy for benign disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, R P

    2012-01-31

    Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynaecological surgical procedures performed but there appears to be a decline in the performance of this procedure in Ireland in recent times. We set out to establish the extent of the decline of hysterectomy and to explore possible explanations. Data for hysterectomy for benign disease from Ireland was obtained from the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry Scheme (HIPE) section of the Economic and Social Research Institute for the years 1999 to 2006. The total number of hysterectomies performed for benign disease showed a consistent decline during this time. There was a 36% reduction in the number of abdominal hysterectomy procedures performed.

  2. DISASTER REGIME CHARACTER: A STUDY OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AT MERAPI VOLCANO ERUPTION IN SLEMAN DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlia Dian Paramita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research analyses how the existence of the character occurred in one of disaster management phases which is an emergency response. In addition, it aims to discuss and see the relationship between authority institutions in the disaster management which are Kesbanglinmas & PB Kab. Sleman, Muhammadiyah Disaster Management Centre (MDMC, and Merapi Circle Information Network (JALIN MERAPI. This research uses qualitative method. The data about the policy and survivor handling are got through interviews with representatives from Pakem, Turi, and Cangkringan. They are head of sub districts, head of villages, and head of country-sides. The findings of this research show that the disaster regime character is fatalist-individualist and the authority relation is substitution (acts as a substitute. Therefore, humanity-based point of view is important to see the risk. It will empower the capacity of government institutions. The last, involving civil society (CSO is also significant to streamline the role of disaster management regime guide. Therefore, the synergy between government and CSO will easily be achieved to implement Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM. CSO is the government’s partner to reduce disaster.

  3. The Good, The Bad and The Ugly: Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Versus Disaster Risk Creation (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James

    2012-06-21

    In understanding and trying to reduce the risk from disasters, connections are often articulated amongst poverty, vulnerability, risk, and disasters. These are welcome steps, but the approach taken in top-down international documents is rarely to articulate explicitly that vulnerability accrues from a wide variety of dynamic and long-term processes. Neglecting these processes-and failing to explore their links with poverty, risk, and disasters-tends to encourage disaster risk creation. This paper identifies seven examples of on-the-ground realities of long-term vulnerability within two clusters: Endangerment: 1 Environmental degradation. 2 Discrimination. 3 Displacement. Impoverishment: 4 Self-seeking public expenditure. 5 Denial of access to resources. 6 Corruption. 7 Siphoning of public money. Examples are presented as vignettes, many contemporary and many rooted in historical contexts, to demonstrate the extent to which "vulnerability drivers" emanate from greed, the misuse of political and commercial power, mismanagement and incompetence amongst other behaviours. Moving forward to the tackling of disaster risk creation, instead of simply seeking disaster risk reduction, requires detailed investigation into these contemporary and historical realities of the causes of vulnerability. That would support the integration of disaster risk reduction within the many wider contexts that foment and perpetuate vulnerability.

  4. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabutola, W.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national

  5. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabutola, W.; Scheer, S.

    2009-04-01

    Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national

  6. Organizing the health sector for response to disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Shoaf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each year millions of people around the world are affected by natural and manmade disasters. The consequences of natural disasters in terms of health are complex. Disasters directly impact the health of the population resulting in physical trauma, acute disease, and emotional trauma. Furthermore, disasters may increase the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic and infectious diseases due to the impact on the health system. The health sector must be organized for adequate preparedness, mitigation, response and recuperation from a plethora of potential disasters. This paper examines the various potential impacts of disasters on health, the components of the health sector and their roles in emergency medical care and disaster situations, as well as the coordination and organization necessary within the system to best meet the health needs of a population in the aftermath of a disaster.

  7. Aero-disaster in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aero-disaster in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A case study ... Aero-disaster in Nigeria is posing a serious problem to government, the public and relatives of victims, ..... which was recorded in one of our victim's relation, ... this communication.

  8. Public-private partnerships in local disaster management: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    and effective response and post-disaster recovery.31 Essentially, the DMA regulates disaster management ..... face the visible effects of climate change and the growing demand for improved ...... (Ministry of Foreign Affairs Netherlands 2013) ...

  9. civil-military relations in disaster rescue and relief activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    military's task in disaster response; (2) whether said framework invests authoritative decisions to a ... conflict or political instability. In the latter, security is a .... The Philippine emergency-management framework rests on disaster coordinating ...

  10. TAGGS: Grouping Tweets to Improve Global Geoparsing for Disaster Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, J.A.; de Moel, H.; Jongman, B.; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2018-01-01

    Timely and accurate information about ongoing events are crucial for relief organizations seeking to effectively respond to disasters. Recently, social media platforms, especially Twitter, have gained traction as a novel source of information on disaster events. Unfortunately, geographical

  11. Tips for Disaster Responders: Preventing and Managing Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... actions to prevent stress and to strengthen your stress management skills is before your disaster assignment. Responder stress ... the disaster role, developing a personal toolkit of stress management skills, and preparing yourself and your loved ones. ...

  12. Disaster forensics understanding root cause and complex causality

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book aims to uncover the root causes of natural and man-made disasters by going beyond the typical reports and case studies conducted post-disaster. It opens the black box of disasters by presenting ‘forensic analysis approaches’ to disasters, thereby revealing the complex causality that characterizes them and explaining how and why hazards do, or do not, become disasters. This yields ‘systemic’ strategies for managing disasters. Recently the global threat landscape has seen the emergence of high impact, low probability events. Events like Hurricane Katrina, the Great Japan Earthquake and tsunami, Hurricane Sandy, Super Typhoon Haiyan, global terrorist activities have become the new norm. Extreme events challenge our understanding regarding the interdependencies and complexity of the disaster aetiology and are often referred to as Black Swans. Between 2002 and 2011, there were 4130 disasters recorded that resulted from natural hazards around the world. In these, 1,117,527 people perished and a mi...

  13. Rainwater harvesting for drought disaster alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widodo, B.; Prinzand, D.; Malik, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Too little water and too much water can be as devastating as well. Drought usually does not show up instantly like flood, but it creeps slowly. Drought that is less popular than flood has impact more serious than flood. It is difficult to be identified when it comes and when it goes away. However, it is suddenly understood when water becomes scare, or no more water is available in wells, rivers and reservoirs. Managing flood and drought has to be at an integrated basis. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) combined with water conservation methods can be developed to alleviate drought disaster as well as flood disaster in the same time. RWH and water conservation must be an integral part of integrated water resources management. Preventing drought could be automatically reducing the extent of flood that means preventing people and the environment from the disasters. (author)

  14. Disaster management and mitigation: the telecommunications infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricelli, Frédéric; Beakley, James E; Carnevale, Angelo; Tarabochia, Marcello; von Lubitz, Dag K J E

    2009-03-01

    Among the most typical consequences of disasters is the near or complete collapse of terrestrial telecommunications infrastructures (especially the distribution network--the 'last mile') and their concomitant unavailability to the rescuers and the higher echelons of mitigation teams. Even when such damage does not take place, the communications overload/congestion resulting from significantly elevated traffic generated by affected residents can be highly disturbing. The paper proposes innovative remedies to the telecommunications difficulties in disaster struck regions. The offered solutions are network-centric operations-cap able, and can be employed in management of disasters of any magnitude (local to national or international). Their implementation provide ground rescue teams (such as law enforcement, firemen, healthcare personnel, civilian authorities) with tactical connectivity among themselves, and, through the Next Generation Network backbone, ensure the essential bidirectional free flow of information and distribution of Actionable Knowledge among ground units, command/control centres, and civilian and military agencies participating in the rescue effort.

  15. The lesson of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhaud, G.

    1991-01-01

    On april 26, 1986 a major nuclear disaster took place at 1 h 24 min local time, destroying the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl plant. Five years later the consequences of the disaster are still not fully known. Nevertheless the long term future of nuclear energy in the world is uncertain. Questions need to be answered by observing hard facts if emotional attitudes are not to prevail over reality. The reactor and its core were destroyed by an explosion, causing two radioactive jet emissions of iodine 131, followed by caesium 137. Both elements are mainly incorporated in the body via food. The Chernobyl disaster was a consequence of inadequate safety regulations and human error. Enforcement of strict regulations are likely to be highly effective in preventing a further catastrophe. However, governments should consider another possibility. What would be the consequences for public health if a terroristic act deliberately destroyed a nuclear power station

  16. Meteoric 10Be as a tool to investigate human induced soil fluxes: a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; De Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Minella, Jean; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik

    2014-05-01

    The use of meteoric 10Be as a tool to understand long term landscape behavior is becoming increasingly popular. Due its high residence time, meteoric 10Be allows in principle to investigate in situ erosion rates over time scales exceeding the period studied with classical approaches such as 137Cs. The use of meteoric 10Be strongly contributes to the traditional interpretation of sedimentary archives which cannot be unequivocally coupled to sediment production and could provide biased information over longer time scales (Sadler, 1981). So far, meteoric 10Be has successfully been used in geochemical fingerprinting of sediments, to date soil profiles, to assess soil residence times and to quantify downslope soil fluxes using accumulated 10Be inventories along a hill slope. However, less attention is given to the potential use of the tracer to directly asses human induced changes in soil fluxes through deforestation, cultivation and reforestation. A good understanding of the processes governing the distribution of meteoric 10Be both within the soil profile and at landscape scale is essential before meteoric 10Be can be successfully applied to assess human impact. We developed a spatially explicit 2D-model (Be2D) in order to gain insight in meteoric 10Be movement along a hillslope that is subject to human disturbance. Be2D integrates both horizontal soil fluxes and vertical meteoric 10Be movement throughout the soil prolife. Horizontal soil fluxes are predicted using (i) well studied geomorphical laws for natural erosion and soil formation as well as (ii) human accelerated water and tillage erosion. Vertical movement of meteoric 10Be throughout the soil profile is implemented by inserting depth dependent retardation calculated using experimentally determined partition coefficients (Kd). The model was applied to different environments such as (i) the Belgian loess belt, characterized by aeolian deposits enriched in inherited meteoric 10Be, (ii) highly degraded and stony

  17. Human-induced Terrestrial Water Storage Change: A Global Analysis using Hydrological Models and GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfelani, F.; Pokhrel, Y. N.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrological models and data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are used to study terrestrial water storage (TWS) change; however, both have disadvantages that necessitate the integrated use of them. While GRACE doesn't disintegrate the vertical storage into its components, most models do not account for human activities. Here we use two Land Surface Models (LSMs), i.e., HiGW-MAT and PCRGLOBWB that fully couple natural and human drivers of changes in water cycle, explicitly simulating the changes in various TWS compartments. We first evaluate the models performance with GRACE observations. Then, we quantify the human footprint over global river basins located in different geographic and climate regions. To quantify human impacts, a new framework is proposed based on the GRACE observations (representing both climate variability and human activities) together with the natural simulation of LSMs using water budget equation (P-ET-R; P for precipitation, ET for evapotranspiration, and R for runoff). Finally, we examine the uncertainty in TWS simulations arising from the uncertainties in forcing data. Results indicate that, in snow-dominated regions, PCRGLOBWB generally fails to reproduce neither the interannual variability of observed TWS nor the seasonal cycle, while HiGW-MAT model shows significantly better results. In basins with human signatures, PCRGLOBWB generally shows better agreement with GRACE compared to HiGW-MAT. It is found that HiGW-MAT tends to overestimate groundwater depletion in basins with human impacts (e.g., Amudarya, Colorado, Euphrates and Indus), which results in larger negative interannual TWS trend compared to GRACE. Euphrates and Ganges river basins experience the highest human-induced TWS deficit rates (2.08 cm/yr and 1.94 cm/yr, respectively) during the simulation period of 2002-2010. Uncertainty analysis of results from the same model but with different forcing data suggests a high standard

  18. In vitro chondrogenesis and in vivo repair of osteochondral defect with human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ji-Yun; Kim, Kyung-Il; Park, Siyeon; Im, Gun-Il

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the chondrogenic features of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and examine the differences in the chondrogenesis between hiPSCs and human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hBMMSCs). Embryoid bodies (EBs) were formed from undifferentiated hiPSCs. After EBs were dissociated into single cells, chondrogenic culture was performed in pellets and alginate hydrogel. Chondro-induced hiPSCs were implanted in osteochondral defects created on the patellar groove of immunosuppressed rats and evaluated after 12 weeks. The ESC markers NANOG, SSEA4 and OCT3/4 disappeared while the mesodermal marker BMP-4 appeared in chondro-induced hiPSCs. After 21 days of culture, greater glycosaminoglycan contents and better chondrocytic features including lacuna and abundant matrix formation were observed from chondro-induced hiPSCs compared to chondro-induced hBMMSCs. The expression of chondrogenic markers including SOX-9, type II collagen, and aggrecan in chondro-induced hiPSCs was comparable to or greater than chondro-induced hBMMSCs. A remarkably low level of hypertrophic and osteogenic markers including type X collagen, type I collagen and Runx-2 was noted in chondro-induced hiPSCs compared to chondro-induced hBMMSCs. hiPSCs had significantly greater methylation of several CpG sites in COL10A1 promoter than hBMMSCs in either undifferentiated or chondro-induced state, suggesting an epigenetic cause of the difference in hypertrophy. The defects implanted with chondro-induced hiPSCs showed a significantly better quality of cartilage repair than the control defects, and the majority of cells in the regenerated cartilage consisted of implanted hiPSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic Correction and Hepatic Differentiation of Hemophilia B-specific Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Wang, Hui-Hui; Cheng, Tao; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Ma, Yu-Po; Jiang, Yong-Ping; Ren, Zhi-Hua

    2017-09-27

    Objective To genetically correct a disease-causing point mutation in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from a hemophilia B patient. Methods First, the disease-causing mutation was detected by sequencing the encoding area of human coagulation factor IX (F IX) gene. Genomic DNA was extracted from the iPSCs, and the primers were designed to amplify the eight exons of F IX. Next, the point mutation in those iPSCs was genetically corrected using CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the presence of a 129-nucleotide homologous repair template that contained two synonymous mutations. Then, top 8 potential off-target sites were subsequently analyzed using Sanger sequencing. Finally, the corrected clones were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells, and the secretion of F IX was validated by immunocytochemistry and ELISA assay. Results The cell line bore a missense mutation in the 6 th coding exon (c.676 C>T) of F IX gene. Correction of the point mutation was achieved via CRISPR/Cas9 technology in situ with a high efficacy at about 22% (10/45) and no off-target effects detected in the corrected iPSC clones. F IX secretion, which was further visualized by immunocytochemistry and quantified by ELISA in vitro, reached about 6 ng/ml on day 21 of differentiation procedure. Conclusions Mutations in human disease-specific iPSCs could be precisely corrected by CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and corrected cells still maintained hepatic differentiation capability. Our findings might throw a light on iPSC-based personalized therapies in the clinical application, especially for hemophilia B.

  20. Disease modeling using human induced pluripotent stem cells: lessons from the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseck, Richard L; Colquhoun, Jennifer; Hannan, Nicholas R F

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into any of the hundreds of distinct cell types that comprise the human body. This unique characteristic has resulted in considerable interest in the field of regenerative medicine, given the potential for these cells to be used to protect, repair, or replace diseased, injured, and aged cells within the human body. In addition to their potential in therapeutics, hPSCs can be used to study the earliest stages of human development and to provide a platform for both drug screening and disease modeling using human cells. Recently, the description of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) has allowed the field of disease modeling to become far more accessible and physiologically relevant, as pluripotent cells can be generated from patients of any genetic background. Disease models derived from hIPSCs that manifest cellular disease phenotypes have been established to study several monogenic diseases; furthermore, hIPSCs can be used for phenotype-based drug screens to investigate complex diseases for which the underlying genetic mechanism is unknown. As a result, the use of stem cells as research tools has seen an unprecedented growth within the last decade as researchers look for in vitro disease models which closely mimic in vivo responses in humans. Here, we discuss the beginnings of hPSCs, starting with isolation of human embryonic stem cells, moving into the development and optimization of hIPSC technology, and ending with the application of hIPSCs towards disease modeling and drug screening applications, with specific examples highlighting the modeling of inherited metabolic disorders of the liver. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Linking transcription to physiology in lipodomics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Erythroid differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells is independent of donor cell type of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Isabel; Klich, Katharina; Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Radstaak, Martina; Santourlidis, Simeon; Ghanjati, Foued; Radke, Teja F; Psathaki, Olympia E; Hargus, Gunnar; Kramer, Jan; Einhaus, Martin; Kim, Jeong Beom; Kögler, Gesine; Wernet, Peter; Schöler, Hans R; Schlenke, Peter; Zaehres, Holm

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells, which is related to the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, might lead to variations in the differentiation capacities of the pluripotent stem cells. In this context, induced pluripotent stem cells from human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells might be more suitable for hematopoietic differentiation than the commonly used fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. To investigate the influence of an epigenetic memory on the ex vivo expansion of induced pluripotent stem cells into erythroid cells, we compared induced pluripotent stem cells from human neural stem cells and human cord blood-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells and evaluated their potential for differentiation into hematopoietic progenitor and mature red blood cells. Although genome-wide DNA methylation profiling at all promoter regions demonstrates that the epigenetic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells is influenced by the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, we found a similar hematopoietic induction potential and erythroid differentiation pattern of induced pluripotent stem cells of different somatic cell origin. All human induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed terminal maturation into normoblasts and enucleated reticulocytes, producing predominantly fetal hemoglobin. Differences were only observed in the growth rate of erythroid cells, which was slightly higher in the induced pluripotent stem cells derived from CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. More detailed methylation analysis of the hematopoietic and erythroid promoters identified similar CpG methylation levels in the induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from CD34(+) cells and those derived from neural stem cells, which confirms their comparable erythroid differentiation potential. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  2. Comparison of the glycosphingolipids of human-induced pluripotent stem cells and human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säljö, Karin; Barone, Angela; Vizlin-Hodzic, Dzeneta; Johansson, Bengt R; Breimer, Michael E; Funa, Keiko; Teneberg, Susann

    2017-04-01

    High expectations are held for human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) since they are established from autologous tissues thus overcoming the risk of allogeneic immune rejection when used in regenerative medicine. However, little is known regarding the cell-surface carbohydrate antigen profile of hiPSC compared with human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Here, glycosphingolipids were isolated from an adipocyte-derived hiPSC line, and hiPSC and hESC glycosphingolipids were compared by concurrent characterization by binding assays with carbohydrate-recognizing ligands and mass spectrometry. A high similarity between the nonacid glycosphingolipids of hiPSC and hESC was found. The nonacid glycosphingolipids P1 pentaosylceramide, x2 pentaosylceramide and H type 1 heptaosylceramide, not previously described in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), were characterized in both hiPSC and hESC. The composition of acid glycosphingolipids differed, with increased levels of GM3 ganglioside, and reduced levels of GD1a/GD1b in hiPSC when compared with hESC. In addition, the hESC glycosphingolipids sulf-globopentaosylceramide and sialyl-globotetraosylceramide were lacking in hiPSC. Neural stem cells differentiating from hiPSC had a reduced expression of sialyl-lactotetra, whereas expression of the GD1a ganglioside was significantly increased. Thus, while sialyl-lactotetra is a marker of undifferentiated hPSC, GD1a is a novel marker of neural differentiation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Generation of Functional Lentoid Bodies From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived From Urinary Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuli; Qin, Zhenwei; Jin, Xiuming; Zhang, Lifang; Chen, Zhijian; He, Jiliang; Ji, Junfeng; Yao, Ke

    2017-01-01

    The pathological mechanisms underlying cataract formation remain largely unknown on account of the lack of appropriate in vitro cellular models. The aim of this study is to develop a stable in vitro system for human lens regeneration using pluripotent stem cells. Isolated human urinary cells were infected with four Yamanaka factors to generate urinary human induced pluripotent stem cells (UiPSCs), which were induced to differentiate into lens progenitor cells and lentoid bodies (LBs). The expression of lens-specific markers was examined by real-time PCR, immunostaining, and Western blotting. The structure and magnifying ability of LBs were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and observing the magnification of the letter "X," respectively. We developed a "fried egg" differentiation method to generate functional LBs from UiPSCs. The UiPSC-derived LBs exhibited crystalline lens-like morphology and a transparent structure and expressed lens-specific markers αA-, αB-, β-, and γ-crystallin and MIP. During LB differentiation, the placodal markers SIX1, EYA1, DLX3, PAX6, and the specific early lens markers SOX1, PROX1, FOXE3, αA-, and αB-crystallin were observed at certain time points. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of lens epithelial cells adjacent to the lens capsule as well as both immature and mature fiber-like cells. Optical analysis further demonstrated the magnifying ability (1.7×) of the LBs generated from UiPSCs. Our study provides the first evidence toward generating functional LBs from UiPSCs, thereby establishing an in vitro system that can be used to study human lens development and cataractogenesis and perhaps even be useful for drug screening.

  4. Thermo-responsive polymeric nanoparticles for enhancing neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hye In; Cho, Ann-Na; Jang, Jiho; Kim, Dong-Wook; Cho, Seung-Woo; Chung, Bong Geun

    2015-10-01

    We report thermo-responsive retinoic acid (RA)-loaded poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide (PNIPAM-co-Am) nanoparticles for directing human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) fate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis confirmed that RA was efficiently incorporated into PNIAPM-co-Am nanoparticles (PCANs). The size of PCANs dropped with increasing temperatures (300-400 nm at room temperature, 80-90 nm at 37°C) due to its phase transition from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Due to particle shrinkage caused by this thermo-responsive property of PCANs, RA could be released from nanoparticles in the cells upon cellular uptake. Immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that neuronal differentiation of hiPSC-derived neuronal precursors was enhanced after treatment with 1-2 μg/ml RA-loaded PCANs. Therefore, we propose that this PCAN could be a potentially powerful carrier for effective RA delivery to direct hiPSC fate to neuronal lineage. The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been at the forefront of research in the field of regenerative medicine, as these cells have the potential to differentiate into various terminal cell types. In this article, the authors utilized a thermo-responsive polymer, Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), as a delivery platform for retinoic acid. It was shown that neuronal differentiation could be enhanced in hiPSC-derived neuronal precursor cells. This method may pave a way for future treatment of neuronal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental changes in electrophysiological characteristics of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Meital; Naor, Shulamit; Zeevi-Levin, Naama; Schick, Revital; Ben Jehuda, Ronen; Reiter, Irina; Raveh, Amit; Grijnevitch, Inna; Barak, Omri; Rosen, Michael R.; Weissman, Amir; Binah, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies proposed that throughout differentiation of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) only 3 types of action potentials (AP) exist: nodal, atrial and ventricular-like. Objective To investigate whether there are precisely 3 phenotypes or a continuum exists among them, we tested 2 hypotheses: (1) during culture development a cardiac precursor cell is present that - depending on age - can evolve into the 3 phenotypes. (2) The predominant pattern is early prevalence of nodal phenotype, transient appearance of atrial phenotype, evolution to ventricular phenotype, and persistence of transitional phenotypes. Methods To test these hypotheses we: (1) performed FACS analysis of nodal, atrial and ventricular markers; (2) recorded AP from 280 7-to-95 day old iPSC-CMs; (3) analyzed AP characteristics. Results The major findings were: (1) FACS analysis of 30 and 60-day old cultures showed that an iPSC-CMs population shifts from nodal into atrial/ventricular phenotype, while including significant transitional populations.(2) The AP population did not consist of 3 distinct phenotypes; (3) Culture aging was associated with a shift from nodal to ventricular dominance, with a transient (57–70 days) appearance of atrial phenotype; (4) Beat Rate Variability was more prominent in nodal than ventricular cardiomyocytes while If density increased in older cultures. Conclusions From the onset of development the iPSC-CMs population includes nodal, atrial and ventricular AP and a broad spectrum of transitional phenotypes. The most readily distinguishable phenotype is atrial which appears only transiently, yet dominates at 57–70 days of evolution. PMID:27639456

  6. Developmental changes in electrophysiological characteristics of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Meital; Naor, Shulamit; Zeevi-Levin, Naama; Schick, Revital; Ben Jehuda, Ronen; Reiter, Irina; Raveh, Amit; Grijnevitch, Inna; Barak, Omri; Rosen, Michael R; Weissman, Amir; Binah, Ofer

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies proposed that throughout differentiation of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs), only 3 types of action potentials (APs) exist: nodal-, atrial-, and ventricular-like. To investigate whether there are precisely 3 phenotypes or a continuum exists among them, we tested 2 hypotheses: (1) During culture development a cardiac precursor cell is present that-depending on age-can evolve into the 3 phenotypes. (2) The predominant pattern is early prevalence of a nodal phenotype, transient appearance of an atrial phenotype, evolution to a ventricular phenotype, and persistence of transitional phenotypes. To test these hypotheses, we (1) performed fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of nodal, atrial, and ventricular markers; (2) recorded APs from 280 7- to 95-day-old iPSC-CMs; and (3) analyzed AP characteristics. The major findings were as follows: (1) fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of 30- and 60-day-old cultures showed that an iPSC-CMs population shifts from the nodal to the atrial/ventricular phenotype while including significant transitional populations; (2) the AP population did not consist of 3 phenotypes; (3) culture aging was associated with a shift from nodal to ventricular dominance, with a transient (57-70 days) appearance of the atrial phenotype; and (4) beat rate variability was more prominent in nodal than in ventricular cardiomyocytes, while pacemaker current density increased in older cultures. From the onset of development in culture, the iPSC-CMs population includes nodal, atrial, and ventricular APs and a broad spectrum of transitional phenotypes. The most readily distinguishable phenotype is atrial, which appears only transiently yet dominates at 57-70 days of evolution. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional cardiotoxicity assessment of cosmetic compounds using human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Umesh; Nemade, Harshal; Sureshkumar, Poornima; Vinken, Mathieu; Ates, Gamze; Rogiers, Vera; Hescheler, Jürgen; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2018-01-01

    There is a large demand of a human relevant in vitro test system suitable for assessing the cardiotoxic potential of cosmetic ingredients and other chemicals. Using human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), we have already established an in vitro cardiotoxicity assay and identified genomic biomarkers of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in our previous work. Here, five cosmetic ingredients were studied by the new hiPSC-CMs test; kojic acid (KJA), triclosan (TS), triclocarban (TCC), 2,7-naphthalenediol (NPT), and basic red 51 (BR51) based on cytotoxicity as well as ATP assays, beating rate, and genomic biomarkers to determine the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) and no observed effect concentration (NOEC). The LOEC for beating rate were 400, 10, 3, >400, and 3 µM for KJA, TS, TCC, NPT, and BR51, respectively. The corresponding concentrations for cytotoxicity or ATP depletion were similar, with the exception of TS and TCC, where the cardiomyocyte-beating assay showed positive results at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Functional analysis also showed that the individual compounds caused different effects on hiPSC-CMs. While exposure to KJA, TS, TCC, and BR51 induced significant arrhythmic beating, NPT slightly decreased cell viability, but did not influence beating. Gene expression studies showed that TS and NPT caused down-regulation of cytoskeletal and cardiac ion homeostasis genes. Moreover, TS and NPT deregulated genomic biomarkers known to be affected also by anthracyclines. The present study demonstrates that hiPSC-CMs can be used to determine LOECs and NOECs in vitro, which can be compared to human blood concentrations to determine margins of exposure. Our in vitro assay, which so far has been tested with several anthracyclines and cosmetics, still requires validation by larger numbers of positive and negative controls, before it can be recommended for routine analysis.

  8. Proarrhythmia risk prediction using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Daiju; Kitaguchi, Takashi; Ishimura, Masakazu; Taniguchi, Tomohiko; Yamanishi, Atsuhiro; Saji, Daisuke; Takahashi, Etsushi; Oguchi, Masao; Moriyama, Yuta; Maeda, Sanae; Miyamoto, Kaori; Morimura, Kaoru; Ohnaka, Hiroki; Tashibu, Hiroyuki; Sekino, Yuko; Miyamoto, Norimasa; Kanda, Yasunari

    2018-04-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are expected to become a useful tool for proarrhythmia risk prediction in the non-clinical drug development phase. Several features including electrophysiological properties, ion channel expression profile and drug responses were investigated using commercially available hiPSC-CMs, such as iCell-CMs and Cor.4U-CMs. Although drug-induced arrhythmia has been extensively examined by microelectrode array (MEA) assays in iCell-CMs, it has not been fully understood an availability of Cor.4U-CMs for proarrhythmia risk. Here, we evaluated the predictivity of proarrhythmia risk using Cor.4U-CMs. MEA assay revealed linear regression between inter-spike interval and field potential duration (FPD). The hERG inhibitor E-4031 induced reverse-use dependent FPD prolongation. We next evaluated the proarrhythmia risk prediction by a two-dimensional map, which we have previously proposed. We determined the relative torsade de pointes risk score, based on the extent of FPD with Fridericia's correction (FPDcF) change and early afterdepolarization occurrence, and calculated the margins normalized to free effective therapeutic plasma concentrations. The drugs were classified into three risk groups using the two-dimensional map. This risk-categorization system showed high concordance with the torsadogenic information obtained by a public database CredibleMeds. Taken together, these results indicate that Cor.4U-CMs can be used for drug-induced proarrhythmia risk prediction. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Usefulness of cardiotoxicity assessment using calcium transient in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Honda, Yayoi; Deguchi, Jiro; Yamada, Toru; Bando, Kiyoko

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring dramatic changes in intracellular calcium ion levels during cardiac contraction and relaxation, known as calcium transient, in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) would be an attractive strategy for assessing compounds on cardiac contractility. In addition, as arrhythmogenic compounds are known to induce characteristic waveform changes in hiPSC-CMs, it is expected that calcium transient would allow evaluation of not only compound-induced effects on cardiac contractility, but also compound arrhythmogenic potential. Using a combination of calcium transient in hiPSC-CMs and a fast kinetic fluorescence imaging detection system, we examined in this study changes in calcium transient waveforms induced by a series of 17 compounds that include positive/negative inotropic agents as well as cardiac ion channel activators/inhibitors. We found that all positive inotropic compounds induced an increase in peak frequency and/or peak amplitude. The effects of a negative inotropic compound could clearly be detected in the presence of a β-adrenergic receptor agonist. Furthermore, most arrhythmogenic compounds raised the ratio of peak decay time to peak rise time (D/R ratio) in calcium transient waveforms. Compound concentrations at which these parameters exceeded cutoff values correlated well with systemic exposure levels at which arrhythmias were reported to be evoked. In conclusion, we believe that peak analysis of calcium transient and determination of D/R ratio are reliable methods for assessing compounds' cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenic potential, respectively. Using these approaches would allow selection of compounds with low cardiotoxic potential at the early stage of drug discovery.

  10. A direct pedestrian-structure interaction model to characterize the human induced vibrations on slender footbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Alonso, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the scientific community had knowledge of the human induced vibration problems in structures since the end of the 19th century, it was not until the occurrence of the vibration phenomenon happened in the Millennium Bridge (London, 2000 that the importance of the problem revealed and a higher level of attention devoted. Despite the large advances achieved in the determination of the human-structure interaction force, one of the main deficiencies of the existing models is the exclusion of the effect of changes in the footbridge dynamic properties due to the presence of pedestrians. In this paper, the formulation of a human-structure interaction model, addresses these limitations, is carried out and its reliability is verified from previously published experimental results.Aunque la comunidad científica tenía conocimiento de los problemas vibratorios inducidos por peatones en estructuras desde finales del siglo xix, no fue hasta la ocurrencia de los eventos vibratorios acontecidos en la pasarela del Milenio (Londres, 2000, cuando la importancia del problema se puso de manifiesto y se le comenzó a dedicar un mayor nivel de atención. A pesar de los grandes avances alcanzados en la caracterización de la fuerza de interacción peatón-estructura una de las principales deficiencias de los modelos existentes es la exclusión del cambio en las propiedades dinámicas de la pasarela por la presencia de peatones. En este artículo, se presenta la formulación de un modelo de interacción peatón-estructura que intenta dar respuesta a dichas limitaciones, y su validación a partir de resultados experimentales previamente publicados por otros autores.

  11. Wnt/Yes-Associated Protein Interactions During Neural Tissue Patterning of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejoy, Julie; Song, Liqing; Zhou, Yi; Li, Yan

    2018-04-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have special ability to self-assemble into neural spheroids or mini-brain-like structures. During the self-assembly process, Wnt signaling plays an important role in regional patterning and establishing positional identity of hiPSC-derived neural progenitors. Recently, the role of Wnt signaling in regulating Yes-associated protein (YAP) expression (nuclear or cytoplasmic), the pivotal regulator during organ growth and tissue generation, has attracted increasing interests. However, the interactions between Wnt and YAP expression for neural lineage commitment of hiPSCs remain poorly explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of Wnt signaling and YAP expression on the cellular population in three-dimensional (3D) neural spheroids derived from hiPSCs. In this study, Wnt signaling was activated using CHIR99021 for 3D neural spheroids derived from human iPSK3 cells through embryoid body formation. Our results indicate that Wnt activation induces nuclear localization of YAP and upregulates the expression of HOXB4, the marker for hindbrain/spinal cord. By contrast, the cells exhibit more rostral forebrain neural identity (expression of TBR1) without Wnt activation. Cytochalasin D was then used to induce cytoplasmic YAP and the results showed the decreased HOXB4 expression. In addition, the incorporation of microparticles in the neural spheroids was investigated for the perturbation of neural patterning. This study may indicate the bidirectional interactions of Wnt signaling and YAP expression during neural tissue patterning, which have the significance in neurological disease modeling, drug screening, and neural tissue regeneration.

  12. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived beating cardiac tissues on paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xu, Cong; Zhu, Yujuan; Yu, Yue; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Feng, Ke; Qin, Jianhua

    2015-11-21

    There is a growing interest in using paper as a biomaterial scaffold for cell-based applications. In this study, we made the first attempt to fabricate a paper-based array for the culture, proliferation, and direct differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into functional beating cardiac tissues and create "a beating heart on paper." This array was simply constructed by binding a cured multi-well polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold with common, commercially available paper substrates. Three types of paper material (print paper, chromatography paper and nitrocellulose membrane) were tested for adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human-derived iPSCs. We found that hiPSCs grew well on these paper substrates, presenting a three-dimensional (3D)-like morphology with a pluripotent property. The direct differentiation of human iPSCs into functional cardiac tissues on paper was also achieved using our modified differentiation approach. The cardiac tissue retained its functional activities on the coated print paper and chromatography paper with a beating frequency of 40-70 beats per min for up to three months. Interestingly, human iPSCs could be differentiated into retinal pigment epithelium on nitrocellulose membrane under the conditions of cardiac-specific induction, indicating the potential roles of material properties and mechanical cues that are involved in regulating stem cell differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that different grades of paper could offer great opportunities as bioactive, low-cost, and 3D in vitro platforms for stem cell-based high-throughput drug testing at the tissue/organ level and for tissue engineering applications.

  13. Mental Health and Social Networks After Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Gallagher, H Colin; Gibbs, Lisa; Pattison, Philippa; MacDougall, Colin; Harms, Louise; Block, Karen; Baker, Elyse; Sinnott, Vikki; Ireton, Greg; Richardson, John; Forbes, David; Lusher, Dean

    2017-03-01

    Although disasters are a major cause of mental health problems and typically affect large numbers of people and communities, little is known about how social structures affect mental health after a disaster. The authors assessed the extent to which mental health outcomes after disaster are associated with social network structures. In a community-based cohort study of survivors of a major bushfire disaster, participants (N=558) were assessed for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and probable depression. Social networks were assessed by asking participants to nominate people with whom they felt personally close. These nominations were used to construct a social network map that showed each participant's ties to other participants they nominated and also to other participants who nominated them. This map was then analyzed for prevailing patterns of mental health outcomes. Depression risk was higher for participants who reported fewer social connections, were connected to other depressed people, or were connected to people who had left their community. PTSD risk was higher if fewer people reported being connected with the participant, if those who felt close to the participant had higher levels of property loss, or if the participant was linked to others who were themselves not interconnected. Interestingly, being connected to other people who in turn were reciprocally close to each other was associated with a lower risk of PTSD. These findings provide the first evidence of disorder-specific patterns in relation to one's social connections after disaster. Depression appears to co-occur in linked individuals, whereas PTSD risk is increased with social fragmentation. These patterns underscore the need to adopt a sociocentric perspective of postdisaster mental health in order to better understand the potential for societal interventions in the wake of disaster.

  14. Disaster risk assessment pattern in higher education centers

    OpenAIRE

    M. Omidvari; J. Nouri; M. Mapar

    2015-01-01

    Disasters are one of the most important challenges which must be considered by every management system. Higher education centers have high disaster risk because of their risk factors (existence of historical and scientific documents and resources and expensive laboratory equipment in these centers emphasizes the importance of disaster management). Moreover, the existence of young volunteers of human resources in universities urges the necessity of making these people familiar with disaster ma...

  15. Brain Metastases Treatment Worsens Cognitive Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In some patients with cancer that has spread to the brain, whole brain radiation following radiosurgery causes more severe cognitive decline and does not improve survival compared with radiosurgery alone, a new study has found.

  16. Predictors of combined cognitive and physical decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, H.H.; Cesari, M.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Fried, L.P.; Guralnik, J.M.; Williamson, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and correlates of combined declines in cognitive and physical performance. DESIGN: Cohort study of community-dwelling older women with moderate to severe disability. SETTING: The community surrounding Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the

  17. Decline and conservation of bumble bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulson, D; Lye, G C; Darvill, B

    2008-01-01

    Declines in bumble bee species in the past 60 years are well documented in Europe, where they are driven primarily by habitat loss and declines in floral abundance and diversity resulting from agricultural intensification. Impacts of habitat degradation and fragmentation are likely to be compounded by the social nature of bumble bees and their largely monogamous breeding system, which renders their effective population size low. Hence, populations are susceptible to stochastic extinction events and inbreeding. In North America, catastrophic declines of some bumble bee species since the 1990s are probably attributable to the accidental introduction of a nonnative parasite from Europe, a result of global trade in domesticated bumble bee colonies used for pollination of greenhouse crops. Given the importance of bumble bees as pollinators of crops and wildflowers, steps must be taken to prevent further declines. Suggested measures include tight regulation of commercial bumble bee use and targeted use of environmentally comparable schemes to enhance floristic diversity in agricultural landscapes.

  18. Is racial prejudice declining in Britain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Robert

    2008-12-01

    This article employs two previously neglected indicators of racial prejudice from the British Social Attitudes surveys to examine the social distribution of prejudices against black and Asian Britons. Three hypotheses are proposed and tested: that racial prejudice is declining in Britain; that this decline is principally generational in nature; and that greater prejudice is shown towards more culturally distinct Asian minorities than black minorities. Strong evidence is found for the first two hypotheses, with evidence of an overall decline in prejudice and of a sharp decline in prejudices among generations who have grown up since mass black and Asian immigration began in the 1950s. Little evidence is found for the third hypothesis: British reactions towards black and Asian minorities are broadly similar suggesting racial differences may still be the main factor prompting white hostility to British minorities.

  19. The Decline in America's Reputation: Why

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... ( We are all Americans now. ) Since then, polls conducted by the U.S. Government and respected private firms have revealed a precipitous decline in favorability toward the United States and its foreign policy...

  20. Understanding Amphibian Declines Through Geographic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Alisa

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern over worldwide amphibian declines warrants serious examination. Amphibians are important to the proper functioning of ecosystems and provide many direct benefits to humans in the form of pest and disease control, pharmaceutical compounds, and even food. Amphibians have permeable skin and rely on both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems during different seasons and stages of their lives. Their association with these ecosystems renders them likely to serve as sensitive indicators of environmental change. While much research on amphibian declines has centered on mysterious causes, or on causes that directly affect humans (global warming, chemical pollution, ultraviolet-B radiation), most declines are the result of habitat loss and habitat alteration. Improving our ability to characterize, model, and monitor the interactions between environmental variables and amphibian habitats is key to addressing amphibian conservation. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) to address issues surrounding amphibian declines.