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Sample records for human-dominated landscapes electronic

  1. Two strategies for conservation planning in human-dominated landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Schotman, A.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the modelling of two strategies for conservation planning in human-dominated landscapes: the enlargement of existing reserve sites and the allocation of stepping stones between these sites. We developed two spatial allocation models that plan new habitat according to these

  2. Two strategies for conservation planning in human-dominated landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Schotman, A.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the modelling of two strategies for conservation planning in human-dominated landscapes: the enlargement of existing reserve sites and the allocation of stepping stones between these sites. We developed two spatial allocation models that plan new habitat according to these strat

  3. Predicting Metapopulation Responses To Conservation In Human-Dominated Landscapes

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    Zachary S. Ladin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Loss of habitat to urbanization is a primary cause of population declines as human-dominated landscapes expand at increasing rates. Understanding how the relative effects of different conservation strategies is important to slow population declines for species in urban landscapes. We studied the wood thrush Hylocichla mustelina, a declining forest-breeding Neotropical migratory species, and umbrella species for forest-breeding songbirds, within the urbanized mid-Atlantic United States. We integrated 40 years of demographic data with contemporary metapopulation model simulations of breeding wood thrushes to predict population responses to differing conservation scenarios. We compared four conservation scenarios over a 30-year time period (2014–2044 representing A current observed state (Null, B replacing impervious surface with forest (Reforest, C reducing brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater parasitism pressure (Cowbird removal, and D simultaneous reforesting and cowbird removal. Compared to the Null scenario, the Reforest scenario increased mean annual population trends by 54 % , the Remove cowbirds scenario increased mean annual population trends by 38 %, and the scenario combining reforestation and cowbird removal increased mean annual population trends by 98 %. Mean annual growth rates (λ per site were greater in the Reforest (λ = 0.94 and Remove cowbirds (λ = 0.92 compared to the Null (λ = 0.88 model scenarios. However, only by combining the positive effects of reforestation and cowbird removal did wood thrush populations stop declining (λ = 1.00. Our results suggest that independently replacing impervious surface with forest habitat around forest patches and removing cowbirds may slow current negative population trends. Furthermore, conservation efforts that combine reforestation and cowbird removal may potentially benefit populations of wood thrushes and other similarly forest-breeding songbird species within urbanized fragmented

  4. Translocation as a tool for mitigating conflict with leopards in human-dominated landscapes of India.

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    Athreya, Vidya; Odden, Morten; Linnell, John D C; Karanth, K Ullas

    2011-02-01

    We examined the efficacy of a translocation program in which large numbers of leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) were trapped in human-dominated landscapes where livestock attacks were common and human attacks rare and released into adjoining forested areas in an attempt to reduce leopard presence and mitigate conflicts at the capture site. In the year starting in February of 2001, 29 leopards were captured in the human-dominated rural landscape of the Junnar region (4275 km(2) , 185 people/km(2) ), Maharashtra, India, and released an average of 39.5 km away in adjoining forests. Eleven leopards were also relocated to the same forests from other districts. Prior to the large-scale translocation program, an average of four leopard attacks on humans occurred each year between 1993 and 2001. After the translocation program was initiated, the average increased substantially to 17 attacks. Linear and logistic models showed that attack frequency increased in Junnar following nearby releases of leopards and decreased when leopards were removed for releases far away; that attacks became more lethal when the number of leopards introduced from other districts increased; and that attacks were most likely to occur in the regions where the largest number of leopards had been introduced from other areas. These results suggest that leopards did not stay at the release sites and that translocation induced attacks on people. Potential explanations for these results include increased aggression induced by stress of the translocation process, movement through unfamiliar human-dominated landscapes following release, and loss of fear of humans due to familiarity with humans acquired during captivity. Our results show that reactive solutions to attacks on humans by leopards, such as translocation, could in fact increase human-leopard conflict. Measures to reduce human-carnivore conflicts may include more effective compensation procedures to pay livestock owners for the loss of animals to

  5. Dynamic selective environments and evolutionary traps in human-dominated landscapes.

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    Rodewald, Amanda D; Shustack, Daniel P; Jones, Todd M

    2011-09-01

    Human activities can alter selective environments in ways that can reduce the usefulness of certain ornamental traits as honest signals of individual quality and, in some cases, may create evolutionary traps, where rapid changes in selective environments result in maladaptive behavioral decisions. Using the sexually dichromatic, socially monogamous Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) as a model, we hypothesized that urbanization would erode the relationship between plumage coloration and reproductive success. Because the exotic Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) provides carotenoids, is a preferred habitat attribute, and increases vulnerability to nest predation, we predicted the presence of an evolutionary trap, whereby the brightest males would achieve the lowest reproductive success. Working at 14 forests in Ohio, USA, 2006-2008, we measured plumage color, monitored reproduction, and quantified habitat within territories. In rural landscapes, the brightest males bred earliest in the season and secured more preferred territories; however, annual reproduction declined with plumage brightness. Coloration of urban males was not associated with territory attributes or reproduction. Female redness across all landscapes was negatively related to reproduction. Poor reproductive performance of otherwise higher-quality males probably resulted from preferences for honeysuckle, which reduces annual reproduction when used as a nesting substrate early in the season. In this way, exotic shrubs prompted an evolutionary trap that was avoided in urban forests where anthropogenic resources disassociated male color and reproductive phenology and success. Our study illustrates how modified selective environments in human-dominated landscapes might shape microevolutionary processes in wild bird populations.

  6. Big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in India.

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    Vidya Athreya

    Full Text Available Protected areas are extremely important for the long term viability of biodiversity in a densely populated country like India where land is a scarce resource. However, protected areas cover only 5% of the land area in India and in the case of large carnivores that range widely, human use landscapes will function as important habitats required for gene flow to occur between protected areas. In this study, we used photographic capture recapture analysis to assess the density of large carnivores in a human-dominated agricultural landscape with density >300 people/km(2 in western Maharashtra, India. We found evidence of a wide suite of wild carnivores inhabiting a cropland landscape devoid of wilderness and wild herbivore prey. Furthermore, the large carnivores; leopard (Panthera pardus and striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena occurred at relatively high density of 4.8±1.2 (sd adults/100 km(2 and 5.03±1.3 (sd adults/100 km(2 respectively. This situation has never been reported before where 10 large carnivores/100 km(2 are sharing space with dense human populations in a completely modified landscape. Human attacks by leopards were rare despite a potentially volatile situation considering that the leopard has been involved in serious conflict, including human deaths in adjoining areas. The results of our work push the frontiers of our understanding of the adaptability of both, humans and wildlife to each other's presence. The results also highlight the urgent need to shift from a PA centric to a landscape level conservation approach, where issues are more complex, and the potential for conflict is also very high. It also highlights the need for a serious rethink of conservation policy, law and practice where the current management focus is restricted to wildlife inside Protected Areas.

  7. Patterns of Exposure of Iberian Wolves (Canis lupus) to Canine Viruses in Human-Dominated Landscapes.

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    Millán, Javier; López-Bao, José Vicente; García, Emilio J; Oleaga, Álvaro; Llaneza, Luis; Palacios, Vicente; de la Torre, Ana; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Dubovi, Edward J; Esperón, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Wildlife inhabiting human-dominated landscapes is at risk of pathogen spill-over from domestic species. With the aim of gaining knowledge in the dynamics of viral infections in Iberian wolves (Canis lupus) living in anthropized landscapes of northern Spain, we analysed between 2010 and 2013 the samples of 54 wolves by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for exposure to four pathogenic canine viruses: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus-2 (CPV), canine adenovirus 1 and 2 (CAV-1 and CAV-2) and canine herpesvirus. Overall, 76% of the studied wolves presented evidence of exposure to CPV (96% by HI, 66% by PCR) and 75% to CAV (75% by virus neutralization (VN), 76% by PCR, of which 70% CAV-1 and 6% CAV-2). This represents the first detection of CAV-2 infection in a wild carnivore. CPV/CAV-1 co-infection occurred in 51% of the wolves. The probability of wolf exposure to CPV was positively and significantly correlated with farm density in a buffer zone around the place where the wolf was found, indicating that rural dogs might be the origin of CPV infecting wolves. CPV and CAV-1 appear to be enzootic in the Iberian wolf population, which is supported by the absence of seasonal and inter-annual variations in the proportion of positive samples detected. However, while CPV may depend on periodical introductions by dogs, CAV-1 may be maintained within the wolf population. All wolves were negative for exposure to CDV (by VN and PCR) and CHV (by PCR). The absence of acquired immunity against CDV in this population may predispose it to an elevated rate of mortality in the event of a distemper spill-over via dogs.

  8. Controls on methane concentrations and fluxes in streams draining human-dominated landscapes

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    Crawford, John T.; Emily H. Stanley,

    2016-01-01

    Streams and rivers are active processors of carbon, leading to significant emissions of CO2 and possibly CH4 to the atmosphere. Patterns and controls of CH4 in fluvial ecosystems remain relatively poorly understood. Furthermore, little is known regarding how major human impacts to fluvial ecosystems may be transforming their role as CH4 producers and emitters. Here, we examine the consequences of two distinct ecosystem changes as a result of human land use: increased nutrient loading (primarily as nitrate), and increased sediment loading and deposition of fine particles in the benthic zone. We did not find support for the hypothesis that enhanced nitrate loading down-regulates methane production via thermodynamic or toxic effects. We did find strong evidence that increased sedimentation and enhanced organic matter content of the benthos lead to greater methane production (diffusive + ebullitive flux) relative to pristine fluvial systems in northern Wisconsin (upper Midwest, USA). Overall, streams in a human-dominated landscape of southern Wisconsin were major regional sources of CH4 to the atmosphere, equivalent to ~20% of dairy cattle emissions, or ~50% of a landfill’s annual emissions. We suggest that restoration of the benthic environment (reduced fine deposits) could lead to reduced CH4 emissions, while decreasing nutrient loading is likely to have limited impacts to this ecosystem process.

  9. A panel of microsatellites to individually identify leopards and its application to leopard monitoring in human dominated landscapes

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    Selvaraj Velu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leopards are the most widely distributed of the large cats, ranging from Africa to the Russian Far East. Because of habitat fragmentation, high human population densities and the inherent adaptability of this species, they now occupy landscapes close to human settlements. As a result, they are the most common species involved in human wildlife conflict in India, necessitating their monitoring. However, their elusive nature makes such monitoring difficult. Recent advances in DNA methods along with non-invasive sampling techniques can be used to monitor populations and individuals across large landscapes including human dominated ones. In this paper, we describe a DNA-based method for leopard individual identification where we used fecal DNA samples to obtain genetic material. Further, we apply our methods to non-invasive samples collected in a human-dominated landscape to estimate the minimum number of leopards in this human-leopard conflict area in Western India. Results In this study, 25 of the 29 tested cross-specific microsatellite markers showed positive amplification in 37 wild-caught leopards. These loci revealed varied levels of polymorphism (four-12 alleles and heterozygosity (0.05-0.79. Combining data on amplification success (including non-invasive samples and locus specific polymorphisms, we showed that eight loci provide a sibling probability of identity of 0.0005, suggesting that this panel can be used to discriminate individuals in the wild. When this microsatellite panel was applied to fecal samples collected from a human-dominated landscape, we identified 7 individuals, with a sibling probability of identity of 0.001. Amplification success of field collected scats was up to 72%, and genotype error ranged from 0-7.4%. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the selected panel of eight microsatellite loci can conclusively identify leopards from various kinds of biological samples. Our methods can be used to

  10. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

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    Dario Moreira-Arce

    Full Text Available Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in

  11. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

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    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  12. Patterns of Snow Leopard Site Use in an Increasingly Human-Dominated Landscape.

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    Alexander, Justine Shanti; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M; Shi, Kun; Hughes, Joelene; Riordan, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Human population growth and concomitant increases in demand for natural resources pose threats to many wildlife populations. The landscapes used by the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and their prey is increasingly subject to major changes in land use. We aimed to assess the influence of 1) key human activities, as indicated by the presence of mining and livestock herding, and 2) the presence of a key prey species, the blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), on probability of snow leopard site use across the landscape. In Gansu Province, China, we conducted sign surveys in 49 grid cells, each of 16 km2 in size, within a larger area of 3392 km2. We analysed the data using likelihood-based habitat occupancy models that explicitly account for imperfect detection and spatial auto-correlation between survey transect segments. The model-averaged estimate of snow leopard occupancy was high [0.75 (SE 0.10)], but only marginally higher than the naïve estimate (0.67). Snow leopard segment-level probability of detection, given occupancy on a 500 m spatial replicate, was also high [0.68 (SE 0.08)]. Prey presence was the main determinant of snow leopard site use, while human disturbances, in the form of mining and herding, had low predictive power. These findings suggest that snow leopards continue to use areas very close to such disturbances, as long as there is sufficient prey. Improved knowledge about the effect of human activity on large carnivores, which require large areas and intact prey populations, is urgently needed for conservation planning at the local and global levels. We highlight a number of methodological considerations that should guide the design of such research.

  13. Patterns of Snow Leopard Site Use in an Increasingly Human-Dominated Landscape.

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    Justine Shanti Alexander

    Full Text Available Human population growth and concomitant increases in demand for natural resources pose threats to many wildlife populations. The landscapes used by the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia and their prey is increasingly subject to major changes in land use. We aimed to assess the influence of 1 key human activities, as indicated by the presence of mining and livestock herding, and 2 the presence of a key prey species, the blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, on probability of snow leopard site use across the landscape. In Gansu Province, China, we conducted sign surveys in 49 grid cells, each of 16 km2 in size, within a larger area of 3392 km2. We analysed the data using likelihood-based habitat occupancy models that explicitly account for imperfect detection and spatial auto-correlation between survey transect segments. The model-averaged estimate of snow leopard occupancy was high [0.75 (SE 0.10], but only marginally higher than the naïve estimate (0.67. Snow leopard segment-level probability of detection, given occupancy on a 500 m spatial replicate, was also high [0.68 (SE 0.08]. Prey presence was the main determinant of snow leopard site use, while human disturbances, in the form of mining and herding, had low predictive power. These findings suggest that snow leopards continue to use areas very close to such disturbances, as long as there is sufficient prey. Improved knowledge about the effect of human activity on large carnivores, which require large areas and intact prey populations, is urgently needed for conservation planning at the local and global levels. We highlight a number of methodological considerations that should guide the design of such research.

  14. Mapping Human-Dominated Landscapes: the Distribution and Yield of Major Crops of the World

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    Monfreda, C.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Croplands cover 18 million km2, an area the size of South America, and provide ecosystem goods and services essential to human well-being. Most global land-cover classifications group the diversity of croplands into a single or very few categories, thereby excluding critical information to answer key questions ranging from biodiversity conservation to food security to biogeochemical cycling. Information on land-use practices is even more limited. The relative lack of information about agricultural landscapes results partly from difficulties in using satellite data to identify individual crop types and land-use practices at a global scale. We address limitations common to remote-sensing classifications by distributing national, state, and county level statistics across a recently updated global dataset of cropland cover at 5 minute resolution. The resulting datasets depict the fractional harvested area and yield of twenty distinct crop types: maize, wheat, rice, sorghum, millet, barley, oats, soybeans, sunflower, rapeseed/canola, pulses, groundnuts/peanuts, oil palm, cassava, potatoes, sugar cane, sugar beets, tobacco, coffee, and cotton. These datasets represent the state of agriculture circa the year 2000 and will be made available for applications in ecological analysis, modeling, visualization, and education.

  15. Influence of connectivity, wild prey and disturbance on occupancy of tigers in the human-dominated western Terai Arc Landscape.

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    Harihar, Abishek; Pandav, Bivash

    2012-01-01

    Occupying only 7% of their historical range and confined to forested habitats interspersed in a matrix of human dominated landscapes, tigers (Panthera tigris) typify the problems faced by most large carnivores worldwide. With heads of governments of tiger range countries pledging to reverse the extinction process and setting a goal of doubling wild tiger numbers by 2022, achieving this target would require identifying existing breeding cores, potential breeding habitats and opportunities for dispersal. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) represents one region which has recently witnessed recovery of tiger populations following conservation efforts. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit tiger occupancy model with survey data from 2009-10 based on a priori knowledge of tiger biology and specific issues plaguing the western TAL (6,979 km(2)), which occurs in two disjunct units (Tiger Habitat Blocks; THBs). Although the overall occupancy of tigers was 0.588 (SE 0.071), our results clearly indicate that loss in functionality of a regional corridor has resulted in tigers now occupying 17.58% of the available habitat in THB I in comparison to 88.5% in THB II. The current patterns of occupancy were best explained by models incorporating the interactive effect of habitat blocks (AIC w = 0.883) on wild prey availability (AIC w = 0.742) and anthropogenic disturbances (AIC w = 0.143). Our analysis has helped identify areas of high tiger occupancy both within and outside existing protected areas, which highlights the need for a unified control of the landscape under a single conservation unit with the primary focus of managing tigers and associated wildlife. Finally, in the light of global conservation targets and recent legislations in India, our study assumes significance as we identify opportunities to secure (e.g. THB II) and increase (e.g. THB I) tiger populations in the landscape.

  16. Influence of connectivity, wild prey and disturbance on occupancy of tigers in the human-dominated western Terai Arc Landscape.

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    Abishek Harihar

    Full Text Available Occupying only 7% of their historical range and confined to forested habitats interspersed in a matrix of human dominated landscapes, tigers (Panthera tigris typify the problems faced by most large carnivores worldwide. With heads of governments of tiger range countries pledging to reverse the extinction process and setting a goal of doubling wild tiger numbers by 2022, achieving this target would require identifying existing breeding cores, potential breeding habitats and opportunities for dispersal. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL represents one region which has recently witnessed recovery of tiger populations following conservation efforts. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit tiger occupancy model with survey data from 2009-10 based on a priori knowledge of tiger biology and specific issues plaguing the western TAL (6,979 km(2, which occurs in two disjunct units (Tiger Habitat Blocks; THBs. Although the overall occupancy of tigers was 0.588 (SE 0.071, our results clearly indicate that loss in functionality of a regional corridor has resulted in tigers now occupying 17.58% of the available habitat in THB I in comparison to 88.5% in THB II. The current patterns of occupancy were best explained by models incorporating the interactive effect of habitat blocks (AIC w = 0.883 on wild prey availability (AIC w = 0.742 and anthropogenic disturbances (AIC w = 0.143. Our analysis has helped identify areas of high tiger occupancy both within and outside existing protected areas, which highlights the need for a unified control of the landscape under a single conservation unit with the primary focus of managing tigers and associated wildlife. Finally, in the light of global conservation targets and recent legislations in India, our study assumes significance as we identify opportunities to secure (e.g. THB II and increase (e.g. THB I tiger populations in the landscape.

  17. Structure and diversity of phyllostomid bat assemblages on riparian corridors in a human-dominated tropical landscape.

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    de la Peña-Cuéllar, Erika; Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Estrada, Alejandro

    2015-02-01

    Tropical forests around the world have been lost, mainly because of agricultural activities. Linear elements like riparian vegetation in fragmented tropical landscapes help maintain the native flora and fauna. Information about the role of riparian corridors as a reservoir of bat species, however, is scanty. We assessed the value of riparian corridors on the conservation of phyllostomid bat assemblage in an agricultural landscape of southern Mexico. For 2 years (2011-2013), mist-netting at ground level was carried out twice during the dry season (December to May) and twice during the wet season (June to November) in different habitats: (1) riparian corridors in mature forest, (2) riparian corridors in pasture, (3) continuous forest away from riparian vegetation, and (4) open pastures. Each habitat was replicated three times. To determine the influence of vegetation structure on bat assemblages, all trees (≥10 cm dbh) were sampled in all habitats. Overall, 1752 individuals belonging to 28 species of Phyllostomidae were captured with Sternodermatinae being the most rich and abundant subfamily. Riparian corridors in mature forest and pastures had the greatest species richness and shared 65% of all species. Open pastures had the lowest richness and abundance of bats with no Phyllostominae species recorded. Six of the 18 species recorded could be considered as habitat indicators. There was a positive relationship between bat species composition and tree basal area. Our findings suggest that contrary to our expectations, bats with generalist habits and naturally abundant could be useful detector taxa of habitat modification, rather than bats strongly associated with undisturbed forest. Also in human-dominated landscapes, the maintenance of habitat elements such as large trees in riparian corridors can serve as reservoirs for bat species, especially for those that are strongly associated with undisturbed forest.

  18. Jaguar Densities across Human-Dominated Landscapes in Colombia: The Contribution of Unprotected Areas to Long Term Conservation.

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    Boron, Valeria; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Gallo, Jenny; Barragan, Jorge; Jaimes-Rodriguez, Laura; Schaller, George; Payán, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivores such as jaguars (Panthera onca) are species of conservation concern because they are suffering population declines and are keystone species in their ecosystems. Their large area requirements imply that unprotected and ever-increasing agricultural regions can be important habitats as they allow connectivity and dispersal among core protected areas. Yet information on jaguar densities across unprotected landscapes it is still scarce and crucially needed to assist management and range-wide conservation strategies. Our study provides the first jaguar density estimates of Colombia in agricultural regions which included cattle ranching, the main land use in the country, and oil palm cultivation, an increasing land use across the Neotropics. We used camera trapping across two agricultural landscapes located in the Magdalena River valley and in the Colombian llanos (47-53 stations respectively; >2000 trap nights at both sites) and classic and spatially explicit capture-recapture models with the sex of individuals as a covariate. Density estimates were 2.52±0.46-3.15±1.08 adults/100 km2 in the Magdalena valley, whereas 1.12±0.13-2.19±0.99 adults/100 km2 in the Colombian llanos, depending on analysis used. We suggest that jaguars are able to live across unprotected human-use areas and co-exist with agricultural landscapes including oil-palm plantations if natural areas and riparian habitats persist in the landscape and hunting of both jaguar and prey is limited. In the face of an expanding agriculture across the tropics we recommend land-use planning, adequate incentives, regulations, and good agricultural practices for range-wide jaguar connectivity and survival.

  19. Jaguar Densities across Human-Dominated Landscapes in Colombia: The Contribution of Unprotected Areas to Long Term Conservation

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    Boron, Valeria; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Gallo, Jenny; Barragan, Jorge; Jaimes-Rodriguez, Laura; Schaller, George; Payán, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivores such as jaguars (Panthera onca) are species of conservation concern because they are suffering population declines and are keystone species in their ecosystems. Their large area requirements imply that unprotected and ever-increasing agricultural regions can be important habitats as they allow connectivity and dispersal among core protected areas. Yet information on jaguar densities across unprotected landscapes it is still scarce and crucially needed to assist management and range-wide conservation strategies. Our study provides the first jaguar density estimates of Colombia in agricultural regions which included cattle ranching, the main land use in the country, and oil palm cultivation, an increasing land use across the Neotropics. We used camera trapping across two agricultural landscapes located in the Magdalena River valley and in the Colombian llanos (47–53 stations respectively; >2000 trap nights at both sites) and classic and spatially explicit capture-recapture models with the sex of individuals as a covariate. Density estimates were 2.52±0.46–3.15±1.08 adults/100 km2 in the Magdalena valley, whereas 1.12±0.13–2.19±0.99 adults/100 km2 in the Colombian llanos, depending on analysis used. We suggest that jaguars are able to live across unprotected human-use areas and co-exist with agricultural landscapes including oil-palm plantations if natural areas and riparian habitats persist in the landscape and hunting of both jaguar and prey is limited. In the face of an expanding agriculture across the tropics we recommend land-use planning, adequate incentives, regulations, and good agricultural practices for range-wide jaguar connectivity and survival. PMID:27144280

  20. Jaguar Densities across Human-Dominated Landscapes in Colombia: The Contribution of Unprotected Areas to Long Term Conservation.

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    Valeria Boron

    Full Text Available Large carnivores such as jaguars (Panthera onca are species of conservation concern because they are suffering population declines and are keystone species in their ecosystems. Their large area requirements imply that unprotected and ever-increasing agricultural regions can be important habitats as they allow connectivity and dispersal among core protected areas. Yet information on jaguar densities across unprotected landscapes it is still scarce and crucially needed to assist management and range-wide conservation strategies. Our study provides the first jaguar density estimates of Colombia in agricultural regions which included cattle ranching, the main land use in the country, and oil palm cultivation, an increasing land use across the Neotropics. We used camera trapping across two agricultural landscapes located in the Magdalena River valley and in the Colombian llanos (47-53 stations respectively; >2000 trap nights at both sites and classic and spatially explicit capture-recapture models with the sex of individuals as a covariate. Density estimates were 2.52±0.46-3.15±1.08 adults/100 km2 in the Magdalena valley, whereas 1.12±0.13-2.19±0.99 adults/100 km2 in the Colombian llanos, depending on analysis used. We suggest that jaguars are able to live across unprotected human-use areas and co-exist with agricultural landscapes including oil-palm plantations if natural areas and riparian habitats persist in the landscape and hunting of both jaguar and prey is limited. In the face of an expanding agriculture across the tropics we recommend land-use planning, adequate incentives, regulations, and good agricultural practices for range-wide jaguar connectivity and survival.

  1. Value of Riparian Vegetation Remnants for Leaf-Litter Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a Human-Dominated Landscape in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

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    García-Martínez, Miguel Á; Escobar-Sarria, Federico; López-Barrera, Fabiola; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela; Valenzuela-González, Jorge E

    2015-12-01

    Riparian remnants are linear strips of vegetation immediately adjacent to rivers that may act as refuges for biodiversity, depending on their habitat quality. In this study, we evaluated the role of riparian remnants in contributing to the diversity of leaf-litter ants by determining the relationship between ant diversity and several riparian habitat characteristics within a human-dominated landscape in Veracruz, Mexico. Sampling was carried out in 2012 during both dry and rainy seasons at 12 transects 100 m in length, where 10 leaf-litter samples were collected along each transect and processed with Berlese-Tullgren funnels and Winkler sacks. A total of 8,684 individuals belonging to 53 species, 22 genera, and seven subfamilies were collected. The observed mean alpha diversity accounted for 34.4% of the total species recorded and beta diversity for 65.6%. Species richness and composition were significantly related to litter-layer depth and soil compaction, which could limit the distribution of ant species depending on their nesting, feeding, and foraging habits. Riparian remnants can contribute toward the conservation of ant assemblages and likely other invertebrate communities that are threatened by anthropogenic pressures. In human-dominated landscapes where remnants of riparian vegetation give refuge to a diverse array of myrmecofauna, the protection of the few remaining and well-preserved riparian sites is essential for the long-term maintenance of biodiversity. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Conservation outside protected areas and the effect of human-dominated landscapes on stress hormones in Savannah elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlering, M A; Maldonado, J E; Eggert, L S; Fleischer, R C; Western, D; Brown, J L

    2013-06-01

    Biodiversity conservation strategies are increasingly focused on regions outside national protected areas, where animals face numerous anthropogenic threats and must coexist with human settlements, livestock, and agriculture. The effects of these potential threats are not always clear, but they could have profound implications for population viability. We used savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) as a case study to assess the physiological stress associated with living in a human-livestock-dominated landscape. We collected samples over two 3-month periods in 2007 and 2008. We used fecal DNA to identify 96 individual elephants in a community conservation area (CCA) and measured fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations as a proxy for stress. The CCA is community Maasai land managed for livestock and wildlife. We compared the FGM concentrations from the CCA to FGM concentrations of 40 elephants in Amboseli National Park and 32 elephants in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, where human settlements and intense livestock grazing were absent. In the CCA, we found no significant individual differences in FGM concentrations among the elephants in 2007 (p = 0.312) or 2008 (p = 0.412) and no difference between years (p = 0.616). The elephants in the CCA had similar FGM concentrations to the Maasai Mara population, but Amboseli elephants had significantly lower FGM concentrations than those in either Maasai Mara or the CCA (Tukey pairwise test, p elephants living on CCA communal land, which is encouraging for conservation strategies promoting the protection of animals living outside protected areas.

  3. To Eat or Not To Eat? The Diet of the Endangered Iberian Wolf (Canis lupus signatus in a Human-Dominated Landscape in Central Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Tinoco Torres

    Full Text Available Livestock predation by large carnivores and their persecution by local communities are major conservation concerns. In order to prevent speculations and reduce conflicts, it is crucial to get detailed and accurate data on predators' dietary ecology, which is particularly important in human dominated landscapes where livestock densities are high. This is the case of the endangered Iberian wolf in Portugal, an endemic subspecies of the Iberian Peninsula, which has seen its population distribution and abundance decline throughout the 20th century. Accordingly, the diet of the Iberian wolf was analyzed, using scat analysis, in a humanized landscape in central Portugal. From 2011 to 2014, a total of 295 wolf scats were collected from transects distributed throughout the study area, prospected on a monthly basis. Scat analysis indicated a high dependence of Iberian wolf on livestock. Domestic goat predominated the diet (62% of the scats, followed by cow (20% and sheep (13%; the only wild ungulate present in the scat analysis was the wild boar (4% of the scats. Our results show that even though livestock constitute most part of wolves diet, different livestock species may represent different predation opportunities. We conclude that the high levels of livestock consumption may be a result of low diversity and density of wild ungulates that settles livestock as the only abundant prey for wolves. Our findings help on the understanding of the Iberian wolf feeding ecology and have implications for conflict management strategies. Finally, management implications are discussed and solutions are recommended.

  4. Slowing the rate of loss of mineral wetlands on human dominated landscapes - Diversification of farmers markets to include carbon (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, I. F.; Badiou, P.; Lobb, D.

    2013-12-01

    Canada is the fourth-largest exporter of agriculture and agri-food products in the world (exports valued at 28B), but instability of agriculture markets can make it difficult for farmers to cope with variability, and new mechanisms are needed for farmers to achieve economic stability. Capitalizing on carbon markets will help farmers achieve environmentally sustainable economic performance. In order to have a viable carbon market, governments and industries need to know what the carbon capital is and what potential there is for growth, and farmers need financial incentives that will not only allow them to conserve existing wetlands but that will also enable them to restore wetlands while making a living. In southern Ontario, farmers' needs to maximize the return on investment on marginal lands have resulted in loss of 70-90% of wetlands, making this region one of the most threatened region in terms of wetland degradation and loss in Canada. Our project establishes the role that mineral wetlands have in the net carbon balance by contributing insight into the potential benefits to carbon management provided by wetland restoration efforts in these highly degraded landscapes. The goal was to establish the magnitude of carbon offsets that could be achieved through wetland conservation (securing existing carbon stocks) and restoration (creating new carbon stocks). The experimental design was to focus on (1) small (0.2-2.0 ha) and (2) isolated (no inflow or outflow) mineral wetlands with the greatest restoration potential that included (3) a range of restoration ages (drained (0 yr), 3 yr, 6 yr, 12 yr, 20 yr, 35 yr, intact marshes) to capture potential changes in rates of carbon sequestration with restoration age of wetland. From each wetland, wetland soil carbon pools samples were collected at four positions: centre of wetland (open-water); emergent vegetation zone; wet meadow zone where flooding often occurs (i.e., high water mark); and upland where flooding rarely

  5. Modelling the Distribution of Forest-Dependent Species in Human-Dominated Landscapes: Patterns for the Pine Marten in Intensively Cultivated Lowlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    Full Text Available In recent years, the "forest-specialist" pine marten Martes martes has been reported to also occur also in largely fragmented, lowland landscapes of north-western Italy. The colonization of such an apparently unsuitable area provided the opportunity for investigating pine marten ecological requirements and predicting its potential south- and eastwards expansion. We collected available pine marten occurrence data in the flood plain of the River Po (N Italy and relate them to 11 environmental variables by developing nine Species Distribution Models. To account for inter-model variability we used average ensemble predictions (EP. EP predicted a total of 482 suitable patches (8.31% of the total study area for the pine marten. The main factors driving pine marten occurrence in the western River Po plain were the distance from watercourses and the distance from woods. EP suggested that the pine marten may further expand in the western lowland, whilst the negligible residual wood cover of large areas in the central and eastern plain makes the habitat unsuitable for the pine marten, except for some riparian corridors and the pine wood patches bordering the Adriatic coast. Based on our results, conservation strategies should seek to preserve remnant forest patches and enhance the functional connectivity provided by riparian corridors.

  6. Modelling the Distribution of Forest-Dependent Species in Human-Dominated Landscapes: Patterns for the Pine Marten in Intensively Cultivated Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, Alessandro; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Boano, Giovanni; Ruiz-González, Aritz; Saino, Nicola; Costa, Stefano; Milanesi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the “forest-specialist” pine marten Martes martes has been reported to also occur also in largely fragmented, lowland landscapes of north-western Italy. The colonization of such an apparently unsuitable area provided the opportunity for investigating pine marten ecological requirements and predicting its potential south- and eastwards expansion. We collected available pine marten occurrence data in the flood plain of the River Po (N Italy) and relate them to 11 environmental variables by developing nine Species Distribution Models. To account for inter-model variability we used average ensemble predictions (EP). EP predicted a total of 482 suitable patches (8.31% of the total study area) for the pine marten. The main factors driving pine marten occurrence in the western River Po plain were the distance from watercourses and the distance from woods. EP suggested that the pine marten may further expand in the western lowland, whilst the negligible residual wood cover of large areas in the central and eastern plain makes the habitat unsuitable for the pine marten, except for some riparian corridors and the pine wood patches bordering the Adriatic coast. Based on our results, conservation strategies should seek to preserve remnant forest patches and enhance the functional connectivity provided by riparian corridors. PMID:27368056

  7. From nature-dominated to human-dominated environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerli, Bruno; Grosjean, Martin; Hofer, Thomas; Núñez, Lautaro; Pfister, Christian

    2000-01-01

    To what extent is it realistic and useful to view human history as a sequence of changes from highly vulnerable societies of hunters and gatherers through periods with less vulnerable, well buffered and highly productive agrarian-urban societies to a world with regions of extreme overpopulation and overuse of life support systems, so that vulnerability to climatic-environmental changes and extreme events is again increasing? This question cannot be fully answered in our present state of knowledge, but at least we can try to illustrate, with three case studies from different continents, time periods and ecosystems, some fundamental changes in the relationship between natural processes and human activities that occur, as we pass from a nature-dominated to a human dominated environment. 1. Early-mid Holocene: Nature dominated environment — human adaptation, mitigation, and migration. In the central Andes, the Holocene climate changed from humid (10,800-8000 BP) to extreme arid (8000-3600 BP) conditions. Over the same period, prehistoric hunting communities adopted a more sedentary pattern of resource use by settling close to the few perennial water bodies, where they began the process of domesticating camelids around 5000 BP and irrigation from about 3100 BP. 2. Historical period: An agrarian society in transition from an "enduring" to an innovative human response. Detailed documentary evidence from Western Europe may be used to reconstruct quite precisely the impacts of climatic variations on agrarian societies. The period considered spans a major transition from an apparently passive response to the vagaries of the environment during the 16th century to an active and innovative attitude from the onset of the agrarian revolution in the late 18th century through to the present day. The associated changes in technology and in agricultural practices helped to create a society better able to survive the impact of climatic extremes. 3. The present day: A human dominated

  8. Urban transitions: on urban resilience and human-dominated ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstson, Henrik; van der Leeuw, Sander E; Redman, Charles L; Meffert, Douglas J; Davis, George; Alfsen, Christine; Elmqvist, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Urbanization is a global multidimensional process paired with increasing uncertainty due to climate change, migration of people, and changes in the capacity to sustain ecosystem services. This article lays a foundation for discussing transitions in urban governance, which enable cities to navigate change, build capacity to withstand shocks, and use experimentation and innovation in face of uncertainty. Using the three concrete case cities--New Orleans, Cape Town, and Phoenix--the article analyzes thresholds and cross-scale interactions, and expands the scale at which urban resilience has been discussed by integrating the idea from geography that cities form part of "system of cities" (i.e., they cannot be seen as single entities). Based on this, the article argues that urban governance need to harness social networks of urban innovation to sustain ecosystem services, while nurturing discourses that situate the city as part of regional ecosystems. The article broadens the discussion on urban resilience while challenging resilience theory when addressing human-dominated ecosystems. Practical examples of harnessing urban innovation are presented, paired with an agenda for research and policy.

  9. SPR imaging based electronic tongue via landscape images for complex mixture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genua, Maria; Garçon, Laurie-Amandine; Mounier, Violette; Wehry, Hillary; Buhot, Arnaud; Billon, Martial; Calemczuk, Roberto; Bonnaffé, David; Hou, Yanxia; Livache, Thierry

    2014-12-01

    Electronic noses/tongues (eN/eT) have emerged as promising alternatives for analysis of complex mixtures in the domain of food and beverage quality control. We have recently developed an electronic tongue by combining surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) with an array of non-specific and cross-reactive receptors prepared by simply mixing two small molecules in varying and controlled proportions and allowing the mixtures to self-assemble on the SPRi prism surface. The obtained eT generated novel and unique 2D continuous evolution profiles (CEPs) and 3D continuous evolution landscapes (CELs) based on which the differentiation of complex mixtures such as red wine, beer and milk were successful. The preliminary experiments performed for monitoring the deterioration of UHT milk demonstrated its potential for quality control applications. Furthermore, the eT exhibited good repeatability and stability, capable of operating after a minimum storage period of 5 months.

  10. Scholarly Publishing's Evolving Landscape: Impact Metrics, Electronic-Only Journals, and Open Access in Journalism and Communication Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antell, Karen; Foote, Joe S.; Foote, Jody Bales

    2016-01-01

    This study surveys the landscape of scholarly publishing, with particular emphasis on scholarly journals in the communication discipline, measuring the shift to electronic publishing in six selected disciplines and exploring two other important emerging topics: open-access publishing and new journal citation metrics. The goals are to inform…

  11. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  12. Blue carbon in human-dominated estuarine and shallow coastal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwae, Tomohiro; Kanda, Jota; Kubo, Atsushi; Nakajima, Fumiyuki; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Sohma, Akio; Suzumura, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    Estuarine and shallow coastal systems (ESCS) are recognized as not only significant organic carbon reservoirs but also emitters of CO2 to the atmosphere through air-sea CO2 gas exchange, thus posing a dilemma on ESCS's role in climate change mitigation measures. However, some studies have shown that coastal waters take up atmospheric CO2 (Catm), although the magnitude and determinants remain unclear. We argue that the phenomenon of net uptake of Catm by ESCS is not unusual under a given set of terrestrial inputs and geophysical conditions. We assessed the key properties of systems that show the net Catm uptake and found that they are often characteristic of human-dominated systems: (1) input of high terrestrial nutrients, (2) input of treated wastewater in which labile carbon is highly removed, and (3) presence of hypoxia. We propose that human-dominated ESCS are worthy of investigation as a contributor to climate change mitigation.

  13. Wildlife Population Dynamics in Human-Dominated Landscapes under Community-Based Conservation: The Example of Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Joseph O.; Kuloba, Bernard; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Kanga, Erustus

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in Africa, including in Kenya. We analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy (NWC), located in the Nakuru-Naivasha region of Kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from March 1996 to May 2015. Rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component and varying from 2.8 years for the dry season to 10.9 years for the wet season. These oscillations are associated with frequent severe droughts and food scarcity for herbivores. The trends for the 44 wildlife species showed five general patterns during 1996–2015. 1) Steinbuck, bushbuck, hartebeest and greater kudu numbers declined persistently and significantly throughout 1996–2015 and thus merit the greatest conservation attention. 2) Klipspringer, mongoose, oribi, porcupine, cheetah, leopard, ostrich and Sykes monkey numbers also decreased noticeably but not significantly between 1996 and 2015. 3) Dik dik, eland, African hare, Jackal, duiker, hippo and Thomson’s gazelle numbers first increased and then declined between 1996 and 2015 but only significantly for duiker and hippo. 4) Aardvark, serval cat, colobus monkey, bat-eared fox, reedbuck, hyena and baboon numbers first declined and then increased but only the increases in reedbuck and baboon numbers were significant. 5) Grant’s gazelle, Grevy’s zebra, lion, spring hare, Burchell’s zebra, bushpig, white rhino, rock hyrax, topi, oryx, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe, and wildebeest numbers increased consistently between 1996 and 2015. The increase was significant only for rock hyrax, topi, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe and wildebeest. 6) Impala, buffalo, warthog, and waterbuck, numbers increased significantly and then seemed to level off between 1996 and 2015. The aggregate biomass of primates and carnivores increased overall whereas that of herbivores first increased from 1996 to 2006 and then levelled off thereafter. Aggregate herbivore biomass increased linearly with increasing cumulative wet season rainfall. The densities of the 30 most abundant species were either strongly positively or negatively correlated with cumulative past rainfall, most commonly with the early wet season component. The collaborative wildlife conservation and management initiatives undertaken on the mosaic of private, communal and public lands were thus associated with increase or no decrease in numbers of 32 and decrease in numbers of 12 of the 44 species. Despite the decline by some species, effective community-based conservation is central to the future of wildlife in the NWC and other rangelands of Kenya and beyond and is crucially dependent on the good will, effective engagement and collective action of local communities, working in partnerships with various organizations, which, in NWC, operated under the umbrella of the Nakuru Wildlife Forum. PMID:28103269

  14. Body mass of wild Bornean orangutans living in human-dominated landscapes: Implications for understanding their ecology and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayadin, Yaya; Spehar, Stephanie N

    2015-06-01

    Body mass is a key determinant of a species' ecology, including locomotion, foraging strategies, and energetics. Accurate information on the body mass of wild primates allows us to develop explanatory models for relationships among body size, ecology, and behavior and is crucial for reconstructing the ecology and behavior of fossil primates and hominins. Information on body mass can also provide indirect information on health and can be an important tool for conservation in the context of increasingly widespread habitat disturbance. This study reports body mass data recorded for wild Northeast Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) during relocation efforts in forestry and oil palm plantations in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The average mass of flanged adult males (n = 12, 74 ± 9.78 kg) and adult females (n = 7, 35.29 ± 7.32 kg) from this study were 13.6% and 9% lower, respectively, than the only other published wild Bornean orangutan body mass measurements, but the range of weights for both males and females was larger for this study. This pattern could be due to sampling error, data collection differences, or the influence of habitat disturbance, specifically a lack of access to resources, on individual health. When necessary relocations present the opportunity, we encourage researchers to prioritize the collection of body size data for the purposes of understanding ecology but also as an indirect means of monitoring population viability. As primate habitat becomes increasingly fragmented and altered by humans such data will become critical to our ability to make informed conservation decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Wildlife Population Dynamics in Human-Dominated Landscapes under Community-Based Conservation: The Example of Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Joseph O; Kuloba, Bernard; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Kanga, Erustus

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in Africa, including in Kenya. We analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy (NWC), located in the Nakuru-Naivasha region of Kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from March 1996 to May 2015. Rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component and varying from 2.8 years for the dry season to 10.9 years for the wet season. These oscillations are associated with frequent severe droughts and food scarcity for herbivores. The trends for the 44 wildlife species showed five general patterns during 1996-2015. 1) Steinbuck, bushbuck, hartebeest and greater kudu numbers declined persistently and significantly throughout 1996-2015 and thus merit the greatest conservation attention. 2) Klipspringer, mongoose, oribi, porcupine, cheetah, leopard, ostrich and Sykes monkey numbers also decreased noticeably but not significantly between 1996 and 2015. 3) Dik dik, eland, African hare, Jackal, duiker, hippo and Thomson's gazelle numbers first increased and then declined between 1996 and 2015 but only significantly for duiker and hippo. 4) Aardvark, serval cat, colobus monkey, bat-eared fox, reedbuck, hyena and baboon numbers first declined and then increased but only the increases in reedbuck and baboon numbers were significant. 5) Grant's gazelle, Grevy's zebra, lion, spring hare, Burchell's zebra, bushpig, white rhino, rock hyrax, topi, oryx, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe, and wildebeest numbers increased consistently between 1996 and 2015. The increase was significant only for rock hyrax, topi, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe and wildebeest. 6) Impala, buffalo, warthog, and waterbuck, numbers increased significantly and then seemed to level off between 1996 and 2015. The aggregate biomass of primates and carnivores increased overall whereas that of herbivores first increased from 1996 to 2006 and then levelled off thereafter. Aggregate herbivore biomass increased linearly with increasing cumulative wet season rainfall. The densities of the 30 most abundant species were either strongly positively or negatively correlated with cumulative past rainfall, most commonly with the early wet season component. The collaborative wildlife conservation and management initiatives undertaken on the mosaic of private, communal and public lands were thus associated with increase or no decrease in numbers of 32 and decrease in numbers of 12 of the 44 species. Despite the decline by some species, effective community-based conservation is central to the future of wildlife in the NWC and other rangelands of Kenya and beyond and is crucially dependent on the good will, effective engagement and collective action of local communities, working in partnerships with various organizations, which, in NWC, operated under the umbrella of the Nakuru Wildlife Forum.

  16. Risk-taking by Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in a human-dominated landscape : Effects of sex and reproductive status.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnefeld, N; Linnell, J.D C; Odden, J; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Andersen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to test how the sex and reproductive status of Eurasian lynx influenced their use of 'attractive sinks' - habitats with high prey density and high mortality risks. Locations of 24 Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx were obtained by radio-telemetry in a mixed forest and agricultural habitat in

  17. Ecology and conservation of spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta Erxleben 1777)in human dominated landscapes in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yirga Abay, Gidey

    2013-01-01

    Most scientific literature on hyena-human interrelationships in Africa sug-gests conflict situations, often resulting in the killing of hyenas. Hyenas survive with difficulty in human-altered habitats and coexistence between hyenas and local communities is problematic. This is because hyenas need

  18. Ecohydrology across Scales in an Arid, Human-dominated Landscape: Implications for Ecosystems, Water Availability and Human Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, J.; Deems, J. S.; Kind, A.; Munson, S.; Neff, J.; Okin, G.; Painter, T. H.; Reheis, M. C.; Reynolds, R. L.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2011-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions constitute over 35% of global lands. The utilization of these areas is increasing rapidly in response to rising human populations and attendant food needs. In addition, they are also foci for activities associated with energy production, mineral extraction, military training and conflict, and recreation. The resultant disturbance reduces the protective cover of plants and physical and biological soil crusts. This leads to accelerated soil loss by both wind and water, across a wide range of parent materials, textures, or soil surface ages. Further vulnerability to soil erosion is expected with predicted future drier and hotter climates, as plant cover declines and fires increase. Synergistic effects, such as surface disturbance occurring during drought periods in plant communities dominated by annual weeds, can exacerbate the situation further. At a local scale, the redistribution of soil by wind and water results in nutrients being more heterogeneously distributed, subsequently altering abundance and distribution of plants, animals, and rates of biogeochemical cycling. Particles transported by wind from disturbed settings can be deposited in washes, subsequently entering streams and rivers.Particles saltating across the soil surface are also frequently deposited in washes, subsequently entering streams and rivers. This process represents a local loss of soil fertility and a local and regional decrease in water quality, as sediment and salts enter water bodies. At the larger watershed scale, dust is deposited on nearby snow cover, darkening the snow and increasing melt rates. Increased melt rates decrease the length of the snow-cover season, increasing water losses to evapotranspiration and thus the amount of water entering streams and rivers. As water quantity decreases, salts and sediments are concentrated, thereby further decreasing water quality. As water becomes scarcer in drylands around the world, the diminishing integrity of the soil surface is likely to become a major issue for land managers. In addition, the spatial decoupling between the people engaged in the upstream activities that lower water availability/quality and the downstream users facing water shortages will likely result in new combinations of interest groups and the need for novel ways to address their differences. The science of ecohydrology has an important role to play in these conversations.

  19. Electronic nicotine delivery system landscape in licensed tobacco retailers: results of a county-level survey in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, L S; Mowls, D S; Damphousse, K E; Beebe, L A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have recently emerged as a component of the tobacco retail environment. The aims of this study were to describe the availability, types of ENDS and placement of ENDS relative to traditional tobacco products at franchised licensed tobacco retailers and non-franchised licensed tobacco retailers. Design Observational study. Setting Franchised and non-franchised tobacco retailers in Cleveland County, Oklahoma, USA. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of stores selling ENDS, the variability in brands of ENDS sold, the location of the ENDS within the retailers, the quantity of ENDS sold compared with traditional tobacco products, and the presence of outdoor signage. Results Data from 57 randomly sampled tobacco retailers were used to describe the presence of ENDS at independent non-franchised and franchised tobacco retailers. The overwhelming majority (90%) of licensed tobacco retailers sold ENDS, and differences were observed between franchised and non-franchised stores. 45 of the 51 retailers (88%) selling ENDS had them placed at the point of sale. 2 of the 21 franchised retailers (9.5%) had ENDS placed at ≤3½ feet above floor level compared to none of the 30 non-franchised retailers (0%). Conclusions This small study is the first to characterise ENDS within the tobacco retail environment in a county in Oklahoma, USA. The results from this study demonstrate the complexity of the tobacco retail landscape and generate questions for future studies regarding the incorporation and placement of ENDS in tobacco retail environments. PMID:27266774

  20. Enhancing the Conservation Value of Human-Dominated Forestlands in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, G.; Pejchar, L.; Goldstein, J.

    2004-12-01

    Our goal is to help make conservation economically attractive and commonplace on land that is managed largely for human enterprise. Using the Kona District of Hawaii as a case study, we plan to assess the biodiversity value, ecosystems services and economic viability of a gradient of land cover/land uses. Kona is an ideal region for such a project because as the economic viability of ranching declines, and tourism continues to rise, managers are concerned that land use will change at the expense of Hawaii's already threatened wildlife. Koa (Acacia koa) forestry is a promising land use alternative in Kona because koa is an extremely valuable hardwood that also provides valuable forest habitat. Nonetheless, many private landowners are hesitant to switch to koa forestry because of the lack of information about the benefits and costs of this land use. Our land use analysis will take place at two scales. First, we will use existing GIS and remote sensing data to assess the biodiversity and ecosystem service value of different parts of the landscape as a function of land use, land cover, and landscape context. Second, we will conduct field surveys to determine the value of each land use to three well-known but threatened taxa: forest birds, endemic drosophilid flies, and the only native land mammal, the Hawaiian hoary bat. We will integrate these results with an assessment of economic trade-offs associated with each land use option. By comparing our data on koa forests to other land uses, we also hope to identify those policy incentives for private landowners that could enable innovative conservation mechanisms like koa forestry.

  1. Combining aesthetic with ecological values for landscape sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dewei; Luo, Tao; Lin, Tao; Qiu, Quanyi; Luo, Yunjian

    2014-01-01

    Humans receive multiple benefits from various landscapes that foster ecological services and aesthetic attractiveness. In this study, a hybrid framework was proposed to evaluate ecological and aesthetic values of five landscape types in Houguanhu Region of central China. Data from the public aesthetic survey and professional ecological assessment were converted into a two-dimensional coordinate system and distribution maps of landscape values. Results showed that natural landscapes (i.e. water body and forest) contributed positively more to both aesthetic and ecological values than semi-natural and human-dominated landscapes (i.e. farmland and non-ecological land). The distribution maps of landscape values indicated that the aesthetic, ecological and integrated landscape values were significantly associated with landscape attributes and human activity intensity. To combine aesthetic preferences with ecological services, the methods (i.e. field survey, landscape value coefficients, normalized method, a two-dimensional coordinate system, and landscape value distribution maps) were employed in landscape assessment. Our results could facilitate to identify the underlying structure-function-value chain, and also improve the understanding of multiple functions in landscape planning. The situation context could also be emphasized to bring ecological and aesthetic goals into better alignment.

  2. Unnameable landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stuart-Murray

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the key concepts of opacity, back formation and toponymic activity used by place name historians, and relates them to the naming of contemporary artefacts in the cultural landscape. It categorises place names according to a three-layered analytical model of landscape and argues that place naming is now carried out largely within a cultural framework. Exceptions are names given by modern recreationalists who have regained something of the intimate relationship with the land possessed by earlier agricultural societies. This view is supported by findings that students of landscape architecture have difficulty in naming and describing character where landscapes have been shaped largely by physical and biological processes. It is also consistent with the increasing articulation of landscapes at the cultural level independent of physical and natural process, allowed by the sophistication of modern technology.

  3. Implications from the Use of Non-timber Forest Products on the Consumption of Wood as a Fuel Source in Human-Dominated Semiarid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Maria Clara B. T.; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Araújo, Elcida L.; Albuquerque, Ulysses P.

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about what possible effects on wood resources might be caused by non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Here, we assessed the patterns of fuelwood consumption related to an NTFP ( Caryocar coriaceum) oil extraction and how this non-domestic activity can indirectly increase the use pressure on fuelwood species in a protected area, semiarid of Brazil. We conducted semi-structured interviews, in situ inventories, phytosociological surveys, and analyses of wood quality to identify the set of woody plants used in oil production. Householders use large volumes of dry wood and a set of woody species, which are highly exploited. Additionally, many preferred species have low fuel potential and suffer much use pressure. The best fuelwood species are underused, what requires management strategies to improve their potential as a source of energy. As a result, we suggest some conservation and management actions of fuelwood resources related to the use of NTFPs.

  4. Epidemiology of viral pathogens of free-ranging dogs and Indian foxes in a human-dominated landscape in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, A V; Vanak, A T; Gompper, M E

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing concern that free-ranging domestic dog (Canis familiaris) populations may serve as reservoirs of pathogens which may be transmitted to wildlife. We documented the prevalence of antibodies to three viral pathogens, canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus (CAV), in free-ranging dog and sympatric Indian fox (Vulpes bengalensis) populations in and around the Great Indian Bustard Wildlife Sanctuary, in Maharashtra, central India. A total of 219 dogs and 33 foxes were sampled during the study period. Ninety-three percentage of dogs and 87% of foxes were exposed to one or more of the three pathogens. Exposure rates in dogs were high: >88% for CPV, >72% for CDV and 71% for CAV. A large proportion of adult dogs had antibodies against these pathogens due to seroconversion following earlier natural infection. The high prevalence of exposure to these pathogens across the sampling sessions, significantly higher exposure rates of adults compared with juveniles, and seroconversion in some unvaccinated dogs documented during the study period suggests that these pathogens are enzootic. The prevalence of exposure to CPV, CDV and CAV in foxes was 48%, 18% and 52%, respectively. Further, a high rate of mortality was documented in foxes with serologic evidence of ongoing CDV infection. Dogs could be playing a role in the maintenance and transmission of these pathogens in the fox population, but our findings show that most dogs in the population are immune to these pathogens by virtue of earlier natural infection, and therefore, these individuals make little current or future contribution to viral maintenance. Vaccination of this cohort will neither greatly improve their collective immune status nor contribute to herd immunity. Our findings have potentially important implications for dog disease control programmes that propose using canine vaccination as a tool for conservation management of wild carnivore populations.

  5. Identifying source populations and genetic structure for savannah elephants in human-dominated landscapes and protected areas in the Kenya-Tanzania borderlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa A Ahlering

    Full Text Available We investigated the genetic metapopulation structure of elephants across the trans Rift Valley region of Kenya and Tanzania, one of the remaining strongholds for savannah elephants (Loxodonata africana in East Africa, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA markers. We then examined this population structure to determine the source population for a recent colonization event of savannah elephants on community-owned land within the trans rift valley region. Four of the five sampled populations showed significant genetic differentiation (p<0.05 as measured with both mtDNA haplotypes and microsatellites. Only the samples from the adjacent Maasai Mara and Serengeti ecosystems showed no significant differentiation. A phylogenetic neighbour-joining tree constructed from mtDNA haplotypes detected four clades. Clade four corresponds to the F clade of previous mtDNA studies that reported to have originated in forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis but to also be present in some savannah elephant populations. The split between clade four and the other three clades corresponded strongly to the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes across the rift valley in the study area. Clade four was the dominant clade detected on the west side of the rift valley with rare occurrences on the east side. Finally, the strong patterns of population differentiation clearly indicated that the recent colonists to the community-owned land in Kenya came from the west side of the rift valley. Our results indicate strong female philopatry within the isolated populations of the trans rift valley region, with gene flow primarily mediated via male movements. The recent colonization event from Maasai Mara or Serengeti suggests there is hope for maintaining connectivity and population viability outside formal protected areas in the region.

  6. To Eat or Not To Eat? The Diet of the Endangered Iberian Wolf (Canis lupus signatus) in a Human-Dominated Landscape in Central Portugal: e0129379

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rita Tinoco Torres; Nicole Silva; Gonçalo Brotas; Carlos Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    ... where livestock densities are high. This is the case of the endangered Iberian wolf in Portugal, an endemic subspecies of the Iberian Peninsula, which has seen its population distribution and abundance decline throughout the 20th century...

  7. To Eat or Not To Eat? The Diet of the Endangered Iberian Wolf (Canis lupus signatus) in a Human-Dominated Landscape in Central Portugal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torres, Rita Tinoco; Silva, Nicole; Brotas, Gonçalo; Fonseca, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    ... where livestock densities are high. This is the case of the endangered Iberian wolf in Portugal, an endemic subspecies of the Iberian Peninsula, which has seen its population distribution and abundance decline throughout the 20th century...

  8. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds – a former mining site in western Denmark. Exploring this industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different natural resources appear, we argue that what is even recognized as resources shifts over time...... according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. Natural resources emerge as feats of particular political and historical landscape configurations, rather than fixed dormant sediments waiting to be exploited. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness...... such as Søby both natural resources and historical developments are made through particular ad hoc perspectives, somehow providing their own argument on the basis of the ends they are seen to meet.. This view of natural resources and development processes as perspectival accomplishments calls for a detailed...

  9. Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramski, John R; Gattie, David K; Brown, James H

    2015-08-01

    Earth is a chemical battery where, over evolutionary time with a trickle-charge of photosynthesis using solar energy, billions of tons of living biomass were stored in forests and other ecosystems and in vast reserves of fossil fuels. In just the last few hundred years, humans extracted exploitable energy from these living and fossilized biomass fuels to build the modern industrial-technological-informational economy, to grow our population to more than 7 billion, and to transform the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity of the earth. This rapid discharge of the earth's store of organic energy fuels the human domination of the biosphere, including conversion of natural habitats to agricultural fields and the resulting loss of native species, emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting climate and sea level change, and use of supplemental nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics governing the trickle-charge and rapid discharge of the earth's battery are universal and absolute; the earth is only temporarily poised a quantifiable distance from the thermodynamic equilibrium of outer space. Although this distance from equilibrium is comprised of all energy types, most critical for humans is the store of living biomass. With the rapid depletion of this chemical energy, the earth is shifting back toward the inhospitable equilibrium of outer space with fundamental ramifications for the biosphere and humanity. Because there is no substitute or replacement energy for living biomass, the remaining distance from equilibrium that will be required to support human life is unknown.

  10. The potential for the exploration of activity patterns in the urban landscape with GPS-positioning and electronic activity diaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Lassen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    rythms affects the different parts of the city. GPS-based tracking has previously mainly been used to track vehicle movements, fx. in transportation surveys. The use of personal devices makes it foremost possible to place the individual respondents use of urban space in its context of transport routes......, other locations visited and the individuals total time budget. In the cross-disciplinary research project Space – Time – Flows currently being started at Aalborg University, the GPS/electronic diary technology is intended as a means to disclosure the imprint of information and communication technologies...... on the use of urban space. The core of the work will be an equal treatment of activities in the virtual as well as the physical world. Substitution effects between the virtual and the physical world will be in focus, together with differences between the spatio-temporal patterns of groups with different...

  11. The extent of shifts in vegetation phenology between rural and urban areas within a human-dominated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today. One of its particularly pressing effects is alterations to local and regional climate through, for example, the Urban Heat Island. Such changes in conditions are likely to have an impact on the phenology of urban vegetation, which will have knock-on implications for the role that urban green infrastructure can play in delivering multiple ecosystem services. Here, in a human-dominated region, we undertake an explicit comparison of vegetation phenology between urban and rural zones. Using satellite-derived MODIS-EVI data from the first decade of the 20th century, we extract metrics of vegetation phenology (date of start of growing season, date of end of growing season, and length of season) for Britain's 15 largest cities and their rural surrounds. On average, urban areas experienced a growing season 8.8 days longer than surrounding rural zones. As would be expected, there was a significant decline in growing season length with latitude (by 3.4 and 2.4 days/degree latitude in rural and urban areas respectively). Although there is considerable variability in how phenology in urban and rural areas differs across our study cities, we found no evidence that built urban form influences the start, end, or length of the growing season. However, the difference in the length of the growing season between rural and urban areas was significantly negatively associated with the mean disposable household income for a city. Vegetation in urban areas deliver many ecosystem services such as temperature mitigation, pollution removal, carbon uptake and storage, the provision of amenity value for humans and habitat for biodiversity. Given the rapid pace of urbanization and ongoing climate change, understanding how vegetation phenology will alter in the future is important if we wish to be able to manage urban greenspaces effectively.

  12. Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramski, John R.; Gattie, David K.; Brown, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Earth is a chemical battery where, over evolutionary time with a trickle-charge of photosynthesis using solar energy, billions of tons of living biomass were stored in forests and other ecosystems and in vast reserves of fossil fuels. In just the last few hundred years, humans extracted exploitable energy from these living and fossilized biomass fuels to build the modern industrial-technological-informational economy, to grow our population to more than 7 billion, and to transform the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity of the earth. This rapid discharge of the earth’s store of organic energy fuels the human domination of the biosphere, including conversion of natural habitats to agricultural fields and the resulting loss of native species, emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting climate and sea level change, and use of supplemental nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics governing the trickle-charge and rapid discharge of the earth’s battery are universal and absolute; the earth is only temporarily poised a quantifiable distance from the thermodynamic equilibrium of outer space. Although this distance from equilibrium is comprised of all energy types, most critical for humans is the store of living biomass. With the rapid depletion of this chemical energy, the earth is shifting back toward the inhospitable equilibrium of outer space with fundamental ramifications for the biosphere and humanity. Because there is no substitute or replacement energy for living biomass, the remaining distance from equilibrium that will be required to support human life is unknown. PMID:26178196

  13. Contemporary Danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Brandt, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring o...

  14. Changing Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders

    with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  15. Landscape relatedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anita J; Strønen, Astrid Vik; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Context Methods for detecting contemporary, fine-scale population genetic structure in continuous populations are scarce. Yet such methods are vital for ecological and conservation studies, particularly under a changing landscape. Objectives Here we present a novel, spatially explicit method that...

  16. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  17. Changing Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders

    with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  18. Disposable Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Whether we are a traditionalist or on the cutting edge of landscape care, we need to take a deep breath and think about what we are trying to achieve, before we select a specific treatment or practice for tree care. We should measure that treatment or practice against what we know about the tree system. I say "system" because the recent years of Modern...

  19. Conserving tigers in working landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A

    2016-06-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence

  20. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban......This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...

  1. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  2. Reading the Landscape: semitotics and landscape assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Field

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The metaphor of the landscape as a text provides fertile ground for considering theories of linguistics as conceptual frameworks for interpreting and assessing landscapes. In this essay, some key propositions of semiotic theory, a branch of linguistics, are reviewed. Furthermore, the development from structuralist semiotics to post-structuralist ways of thinking is traced through the work of key semiotic proponents such as Roland Barthes and Umberto Eco. The findings of this review are compared with the approach taken in a recent New Zealand landscape assessment – the Canterbury Regional Landscape Study. The challenges presented by the multiple reading of a text, or landscape, are confronted in this landscape assessment without explicit reference to semiotic theory. Semiotic concepts such as polysemy, unlimited semiosis, semiotic fields and codification have the potential for making explicit the difficulties involved in the interpretation of landscapes.

  3. Exploring the Visual Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Van Lammeren, R.; Van der Hoeven, F.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the Visual Landscape is about the combination of landscape research and planning, visual perception and Geographic Information Science. It showcases possible ways of getting a grip on themes like: landscape openness, cluttering of the rural landscape, high-rise buildings in relation to

  4. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  5. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    European cultural landscapes are mostly characterized by only one of the dimensions. Our paper can help to identify pressures to cultural landscapes and thus to target measures for the conservation of these landscapes, to link similar landscapes in different regions, and to inform policy design on the most......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes...

  6. Ecosystem services of human-dominated watersheds and land use influences: a case study from the Dianchi Lake watershed in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Li, Bo; Müller, Felix; Chen, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    Watersheds provide multiple ecosystem services. Ecosystem service assessment is a promising approach to investigate human-environment interaction at the watershed scale. The spatial characteristics of ecosystem services are closely related to land use statuses in human-dominated watersheds. This study aims to investigate the effects of land use on the spatial variations of ecosystem services at the Dianchi Lake watershed in Southwest China. We investigated the spatial variations of six ecosystem services-food supply, net primary productivity (NPP), habitat quality, evapotranspiration, water yield, and nitrogen retention. These services were selected based on their significance at the Dianchi Lake watershed and the availability of their data. The quantification of these services was based on modeling, value transference, and spatial analysis in combination with biophysical and socioeconomic data. Furthermore, we calculated the values of ecosystem services provided by different land use types and quantified the correlations between ecosystem service values and land use area proportions. The results show considerable spatial variations in the six ecosystem services associated with land use influences in the Dianchi Lake watershed. The cropland and forest land use types had predominantly positive influences on food productivity and NPP, respectively. The rural residential area and forest land use types reduced and enhanced habitat quality, respectively; these influences were identical to those of evapotranspiration. Urban area and rural residential area exerted significantly positive influences on water yield. In contrast, water yield was negatively correlated with forest area proportion. Finally, cropland and forest had significantly positive and negative influences, respectively, on nitrogen retention. Our study emphasizes the importance of consideration of the influences from land use composition and distribution on ecosystem services for managing the ecosystems of

  7. Lines of landscape organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a landscape analysis of the earliest linear landscape boundaries on Skovbjerg Moraine, Denmark, during the first millennium BC. Using Delaunay triangulation as well as classic distribution analyses, it demonstrates that landscape boundaries articulated already established use-pa...

  8. Landscape constraints on functional diversity of birds and insects in tropical agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscharntke, Teja; Sekercioglu, Cagan H; Dietsch, Thomas V; Sodhi, Navjot S; Hoehn, Patrick; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze databases [corrected] on birds and insects to assess patterns of functional diversity in human-dominated landscapes in the tropics. A perspective from developed landscapes is essential for understanding remnant natural ecosystems, because most species experience their surroundings at spatial scales beyond the plot level, and spillover between natural and managed ecosystems is common. Agricultural bird species have greater habitat and diet breadth than forest species. Based on a global data base, bird assemblages in tropical agroforest ecosystems were composed of disproportionately more frugivorous and nectarivorous, but fewer insectivorous bird species compared with forest. Similarly, insect predators of plant-feeding arthropods were more diverse in Ecuadorian agroforest and forest compared with rice and pasture, while, in Indonesia, bee diversity was also higher in forested habitats. Hence, diversity of insectivorous birds and insect predators as well as bee pollinators declined with agricultural transformation. In contrast, with increasing agricultural intensification, avian pollinators and seed dispersers initially increase then decrease in proportion. It is well established that the proximity of agricultural habitats to forests has a strong influence on the functional diversity of agroecosystems. Community similarity is higher among agricultural systems than in natural habitats and higher in simple than in complex landscapes for both birds and insects, so natural communities, low-intensity agriculture, and heterogeneous landscapes appear to be critical in the preservation of beta diversity. We require a better understanding of the relative role of landscape composition and the spatial configuration of landscape elements in affecting spillover of functionally important species across managed and natural habitats. This is important for data-based management of tropical human-dominated landscapes sustaining the capacity of communities to

  9. Exploring the rich energy landscape of sulfate-water clusters SO4(2-) (H2O)(n=3-7): an electronic structure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Daniel S; Clark, Gary N I; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2011-10-20

    We present a reinvestigation of sulfate-water clusters SO4(2-) (H2O)(n=3-7), which involves several new aspects. Using a joint molecular mechanics/first principles approach, we perform exhaustive searches for stable cluster geometries, showing that the sulfate-water landscape is much richer than anticipated previously. We check the compatibility of the new structures with experiment by comparing vertical detachment energies (VDEs) calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory and determine the energetic ordering of the isomers at the RI-MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level. Our results are bench-marked carefully against reference energies of estimated CCSD(T)/aug-cc-VTZ quality and VDEs of CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ quality. Furthermore, we calculate anharmonic vibrational corrections for up to the n = 6 clusters, which are shown to be significant for isomer energy ordering. We use energy decomposition analysis (EDA) based on the absolutely localized fragment (ALMO) expansion to gain chemical insight into the binding motifs.

  10. Dynamics of integrating landscape values in landscape character assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    While there has been extensive research undertaken on the values which insiders attribute to landscape there is a lack of literature which looks at how planning professionals handle landscape values. In this article, I develop a framework for questioning how landscape values are taken up in landscape planning, with the aim of conceptualising what landscape values mean in practice. This is undertaken through addressing landscape assessment, more specifically analysing how landscape character a...

  11. Landscape fragmentation affects responses of avian communities to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzyna, Marta A; Porter, William F; Maurer, Brian A; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Finley, Andrew O

    2015-08-01

    Forecasting the consequences of climate change is contingent upon our understanding of the relationship between biodiversity patterns and climatic variability. While the impacts of climate change on individual species have been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies on climate-mediated changes in community dynamics. Our objectives were to investigate the relationship between temporal turnover in avian biodiversity and changes in climatic conditions and to assess the role of landscape fragmentation in affecting this relationship. We hypothesized that community turnover would be highest in regions experiencing the most pronounced changes in climate and that these patterns would be reduced in human-dominated landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified temporal turnover in avian communities over a 20-year period using data from the New York State Breeding Atlases collected during 1980-1985 and 2000-2005. We applied Bayesian spatially varying intercept models to evaluate the relationship between temporal turnover and temporal trends in climatic conditions and landscape fragmentation. We found that models including interaction terms between climate change and landscape fragmentation were superior to models without the interaction terms, suggesting that the relationship between avian community turnover and changes in climatic conditions was affected by the level of landscape fragmentation. Specifically, we found weaker associations between temporal turnover and climatic change in regions with prevalent habitat fragmentation. We suggest that avian communities in fragmented landscapes are more robust to climate change than communities found in contiguous habitats because they are comprised of species with wider thermal niches and thus are less susceptible to shifts in climatic variability. We conclude that highly fragmented regions are likely to undergo less pronounced changes in composition and structure of faunal communities as a result of climate change

  12. Reading the Landscape: semitotics and landscape assessment

    OpenAIRE

    William Field

    1997-01-01

    The metaphor of the landscape as a text provides fertile ground for considering theories of linguistics as conceptual frameworks for interpreting and assessing landscapes. In this essay, some key propositions of semiotic theory, a branch of linguistics, are reviewed. Furthermore, the development from structuralist semiotics to post-structuralist ways of thinking is traced through the work of key semiotic proponents such as Roland Barthes and Umberto Eco. The findings of this review are compar...

  13. Why Landscape Beauty Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Krebs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This philosophical paper explores the aesthetic argument for landscape conservation. The main claim is that the experience of beautiful landscapes is an essential part of the good human life. Beautiful landscapes make us feel at home in the world. Their great and irreplaceable value lies therein. To establish this claim, the concepts of landscape and “Stimmung” are clarified. It is shown how “Stimmung” (in the sense of mood is infused into landscape (as atmosphere and how we respond to it aesthetically. We respond by resonating or feeling at home. The paper ends by indicating how art can help us to better appreciate landscape beauty. This is done by way of an example from contemporary nature poetry, Michael Donhauser’s Variationen in Prosa, which begins with “Und was da war, es nahm uns an” (“And what was there accepted us”.

  14. Estimating Resilience Across Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry D. Peterson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Although ecological managers typically focus on managing local or regional landscapes, they often have little ability to control or predict many of the large-scale, long-term processes that drive changes within these landscapes. This lack of control has led some ecologists to argue that ecological management should aim to produce ecosystems that are resilient to change and surprise. Unfortunately, ecological resilience is difficult to measure or estimate in the landscapes people manage. In this paper, I extend system dynamics approaches to resilience and estimate resilience using complex landscape simulation models. I use this approach to evaluate cross-scale edge, a novel empirical method for estimating resilience based on landscape pattern. Cross-scale edge provides relatively robust estimates of resilience, suggesting that, with some further development, it could be used as a management tool to provide rough and rapid estimates of areas of resilience and vulnerability within a landscape.

  15. Aesthetic Study of Native Landscape in Landscape Degisn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小伟

    2013-01-01

    As Ji Cheng says in "Yuan Ye": planning should be adapted to local conditions by the square, round, slope and winding. During landscape planning and design, we should make ful use of native landscape as a design element according to local conditions. The paper wil analyze the native landscape elements from an aesthetic point of view through case study of water landscape, plants, topography, heritage sites and so on to explain the aesthetic significance of native landscape in landscape planning.

  16. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    . This paper addresses the question of whether the sensation of landscape can be condensed in function or to the size of an urban building. It also discusses the benefits and potentials of the amalgamate, by underlining the unique qualities of such a hybrid. In an attempt to define the experience of landscape...

  17. Landscape assessment for tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare A. Gunn

    1979-01-01

    Increased development of landscapes for tourism now creates problems of integrating the many parts. Accomplishments at the site scale have not been matched with equal progress at the regional scale. This concept, and its example of application, shows promise of assisting regions in assessing their potential of landscapes before development. With such a concept, not...

  18. Retrospective landscape analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzbøger, Bo

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of maps from the 18th and 19th centuries, a retrospective analysis was carried out of documentary settlement and landscape data extending back to the Middle Ages with the intention of identifying and dating general structural and dynamic features of the cultural landscape in a selected...

  19. Principles of landscape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,

  20. Landscapes of the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the dramatic increase in the power of human agency over the environment through an analysis of landscape change. It discusses the processes that have shaped new landscapes in the capitalist world before focusing on one place that is characteristic of the ...

  1. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  2. Ecosystem services in urban landscapes: practical applications and governance implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Dagmar; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Elmqvist, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Urban landscapes are the everyday environment for the majority of the global population, and almost 80 % of the Europeans live in urban areas. The continuous growth in the number and size of urban areas along with an increasing demand on resources and energy poses great challenges for ensuring human welfare in cities while preventing an increasing loss of biodiversity. The understanding of how urban ecosystems function, provide goods and services for urban dwellers; and how they change and what allows and limits their performance can add to the understanding of ecosystem change and governance in general in an ever more human-dominated world. This Special Issue aims at bridging the knowledge gap among urbanization, demand creation, and provisioning of ecosystem services in urban regions on the one hand and schemes of urban governance and planning on the other.

  3. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  4. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  5. Entertainment Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Kučinskienė

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The entertainment society can not imagine the life without entertainment. It is not enough to a human just to come to an amusement park. He/she wants a theme park which is guided by the need not only for extreme experiences but also the environment that must be formed in such a way that satisfies all the five senses. Sensory stimulators that accompany the experiences have to maintain and enrich its theme. The more senses, the more effective and more memorable experiences, then the bigger part of society will be satisfied. To have such experiences there should be a suitable environment – the entertainment landscape. The article deals with the features of entertainment landscape planning, analyzes the performances of entertainment park and theme park design items; it contains the rules of specific landscape plan used for the entertainment landscape design and the entertainment landscape design techniques. The article is illustrated with the examples of entertainment landscape theme parks and analyzes the significance of entertainment landscape creation in modern experience society.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.659

  6. [Landscape and ecological genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetushkin, E Ia

    2013-10-01

    Landscape genomics is the modern version of landscape genetics, a discipline that arose approximately 10 years ago as a combination of population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. It studies the effects of environmental variables on gene flow and other microevolutionary processes that determine genetic connectivity and variations in populations. In contrast to population genetics, it operates at the level of individual specimens rather than at the level of population samples. Another important difference between landscape genetics and genomics and population genetics is that, in the former, the analysis of gene flow and local adaptations takes quantitative account of landforms and features of the matrix, i.e., hostile spaces that separate species habitats. Landscape genomics is a part of population ecogenomics, which, along with community genomics, is a major part of ecological genomics. One of the principal purposes of landscape genomics is the identification and differentiation of various genome-wide and locus-specific effects. The approaches and computation tools developed for combined analysis of genomic and landscape variables make it possible to detect adaptation-related genome fragments, which facilitates the planning of conservation efforts and the prediction of species' fate in response to expected changes in the environment.

  7. Quasispecies on Fitness Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Selection-mutation dynamics is studied as adaptation and neutral drift on abstract fitness landscapes. Various models of fitness landscapes are introduced and analyzed with respect to the stationary mutant distributions adopted by populations upon them. The concept of quasispecies is introduced, and the error threshold phenomenon is analyzed. Complex fitness landscapes with large scatter of fitness values are shown to sustain error thresholds. The phenomenological theory of the quasispecies introduced in 1971 by Eigen is compared to approximation-free numerical computations. The concept of strong quasispecies understood as mutant distributions, which are especially stable against changes in mutations rates, is presented. The role of fitness neutral genotypes in quasispecies is discussed.

  8. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  9. Eco-Landscape Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flannery, John A; Smith, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    .... The effects of drought, melting polar ice and increased incidences of extreme weather events will impact on the diverse landscapes of the earth and a human population predicted to be 9 billion...

  10. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal agencies, non-governmental organizations,...

  11. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  12. Appropriate complexity landscape modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Eppinga, Maarten B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834971; Passalacqua, Paola; Getz, Wayne M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Liang, Man

    2016-01-01

    Advances in computing technology, new and ongoing restoration initiatives, concerns about climate change's effects, and the increasing interdisciplinarity of research have encouraged the development of landscape-scale mechanistic models of coupled ecological-geophysical systems. However, communicati

  13. Flowscapes: Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With m

  14. Semiotics in landscape design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Jorgensen

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that concepts of language can help us create better and more relevant landscape design. It is based on research undertaken by Karsten Jørgensen (1989, and subsequent studies carried out at the department of Land Use and Landscape Planning at the Agricultural University in Norway. The 'signs' that constitute the design language are categorised using the analytical vocabulary of landscape design; for example, elements, materials, effects and shapes. Studies of these signs are based on elements of semiotics and cognitive science, especially the Umwelt-theories developed by Jakob von Uexküll (Hoffmeyer 1994. We are constantly exposed to numerous signs of different kinds. Everywhere in society we see signs around us; for example, traffic signs, advertising signs and logos. It is therefore relevant to introduce the term 'semiosphere' in order to focus on the significance of semiosis at all levels of activity in the world, from cellular activities, to complex systems of development such as those found in a population. This study focuses on the semantic aspects of landscape architecture. In explaining the meaning of a statement, it is useful to have a set of rules or 'codes' to correlate a specific expression with a specific interpretation. These codes may be based on conventions, or on similarity between or stylisation of objects, such as natural or cultural landscapes. In any case, they are based on the interpreter's language and 'mind-structure'. At a general level, it is only possible to study sign content. To analyse meaning in landscape design you have to look at the context; for example, the overall composition of a garden or park and the situation, which includes the interpreter's cultural background, their experiences and so on. In other words, you have to analyse a specific case to be able to speak reasonably about meaning in landscape (designs.

  15. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  16. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  17. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.

  18. Disorder on the landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Podolsky, Dmitry I; Jokela, Niko

    2008-01-01

    Disorder on the string theory landscape may significantly affect dynamics of eternal inflation leading to the possibility for some vacua on the landscape to become dynamically preferable over others. We systematically study effects of a generic disorder on the landscape starting by identifying a sector with built-in disorder -- a set of de Sitter vacua corresponding to compactifications of the Type IIB string theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds with a number of warped Klebanov-Strassler throats attached randomly to the bulk part of the Calabi-Yau. Further, we derive continuum limit of the vacuum dynamics equations on the landscape. Using methods of dynamical renormalization group we determine the late time behavior of the probability distribution for an observer to measure a given value of the cosmological constant. We find the diffusion of the probability distribution to significantly slow down in sectors of the landscape where the number of nearest neighboring vacua for any given vacuum is small. We discuss rela...

  19. Migrant decision-making in a frontier landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Across the tropics, rural farmers and livestock keepers use mobility as an adaptive livelihood strategy. Continued migration to and within frontier areas is widely viewed as a driver of environmental decline and biodiversity loss. Recent scholarship advances our understanding of migration decision-making in the context of changing climate and environments, and in doing so it highlights the variation in migration responses to primarily economic and environmental factors. Building on these insights, this letter investigates past and future migration decisions in a frontier landscape of Tanzania, East Africa. Combining field observations and household data within a multilevel modeling framework, the letter analyzes the explicit importance of social factors relative to economic and environmental factors in driving decisions to migrate or remain. Results indeed suggest that local community ties and non-local social networks drive both immobility and anticipated migration, respectively. In addition, positive interactions with local protected natural resource areas promote longer-term residence. Findings shed new light on how frontier areas transition to human dominated landscapes. This highlights critical links between migration behavior and the conservation of biodiversity and management of natural resources, as well as how migrants evolve to become integrated into communities.

  20. Landscape as World Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Jacob

    -consciousness, with an urban individual contemplating nature at an aesthetic distance. Apart from being structurally equivalent with the new Copernican cosmos and the colonial expansion of Western culture, the new territorial landscape image is shown to develop in close interaction with the early modern work ethic......This book presents a new and comprehensive theory concerning the manner in which landscapes in Western pictorial art may be interpreted in relation to the cultures that created them. Its point of departure is a hitherto unexplored developmental pattern that characterises landscape representation...... from Palaeolithic cave paintings through to 19th-century modernity. A structuralist comparison between this pattern and three additional fields of analysis - self-consciousness, socially-determined perception of nature, and world picture - reveals a fascinating insight into culture's macrohistorical...

  1. Recollecting landscapes: landscape photography as a didactic tool

    OpenAIRE

    NOTTEBOOM, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the subject of the image and its presentation by reinterpreting the rephotographic survey project Recollecting Landscapes. The aim of this project was to document a century of landscape transformation in Belgium through a series of sixty landscapes successively photographed in the early twentieth century, in 1980 and in 2003. Each stage was characterized by an explicit didactic agenda: the vulgarization of geographical and botanical aspects of the Belgian landscape by b...

  2. Conceiving Landscape through Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsø, Mads; Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2015-01-01

    This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation to their......This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation...

  3. Hydrologic landscape regions of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions group areas according to their similarity in landscape and climate characteristics. These characteristics represent variables assumed to...

  4. Landscape Architecture and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Jason Brian

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the role of sustainable development in Landscape Architecture. From reviewing the literature, a position is developed. The position is that Sustainable Development is an important issue for landscape architects and that there are reasons landscape architects have had limited success in sustainable development. The method of the thesis is derived from assessing a problem of sustainable development and landscape architecture and developing a solution t...

  5. The value of landscape essence.

    OpenAIRE

    Maria da Conceição Marques Freire

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to interpreting the landscape is examined by accepting its complexity through inductive reasoning. While attempting to identify the essence of the landscape in the city and municipality of Óbidos, Portugal, several architectural recommendations of Venturi (2004) have been adapted as a framework for understanding this landscape. These will then guide the process of landscape transformation through:•••using the concepts of closed and contained spaces and the...

  6. Toward ecologically scaled landscape indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, C C; Verboom, J; Opdam, P F; Ter Braak, C J

    2001-01-01

    Nature conservation is increasingly based on a landscape approach rather than a species approach. Landscape planning that includes nature conservation goals requires integrated ecological tools. However, species differ widely in their response to landscape change. We propose a framework of ecologically scaled landscape indices that takes into account this variation. Our approach is based on a combination of field studies of spatially structured populations (metapopulations) and model simulations in artificial landscapes. From these, we seek generalities in the relationship among species features, landscape indices, and metapopulation viability. The concept of ecological species profiles is used to group species according to characteristics that are important in metapopulations' response to landscape change: individual area requirements as the dominant characteristic of extinction risk in landscape patches and dispersal distance as the main determinant of the ability to colonize patches. The ecological profiles and landscape indices are then integrated into two ecologically scaled landscape indices (ESLI): average patch carrying capacity and average patch connectivity. The field data show that the fraction of occupied habitat patches is correlated with the two ESLI. To put the ESLI into a perspective of metapopulation persistence, we determine the viability for six ecological profiles at different degrees of habitat fragmentation using a metapopulation model and computer-generated landscapes. The model results show that the fraction of occupied patches is a good indicator for metapopulation viability. We discuss how ecological profiles, ESLI, and the viability threshold can be applied for landscape planning and design in nature conservation.

  7. The Anti-Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    There have always been some uninhabitable places, but in the last century human beings have produced many more of them. These anti-landscapes have proliferated to include the sandy wastes of what was once the Aral Sea, severely polluted irrigated lands, open pit mines, blighted nuclear zones...

  8. Complexity and valued landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael M. McCarthy

    1979-01-01

    The variable "complexity," or "diversity," has received a great deal of attention in recent research efforts concerned with visual resource management, including the identification of complexity as one of the primary evaluation measures. This paper describes research efforts that support the hypothesis that the landscapes we value are those with...

  9. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas; Daugaard, Morten; Nielsen, Tom

    This paper is based on a research project aimed at contributing to the qualification of the aesthetical value of the contemporary urban landscape. We see our work as part of a tradition within the architectural profession of making explorative projects, which combines analysis of the contemporary...

  10. Landscape Management: Field Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carole A.

    These materials for a six-unit course were developed to prepare secondary and postsecondary students for entry-level positions in landscape management. The six units are on orientation, hand tools, light power equipment, water and watering techniques, planting and maintaining plant beds, and establishing and maintaining turf. The first section is…

  11. Landscapes in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padfield, Rory; Drew, Simon; Syayuti, Khadijah; Page, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Kangayatkarasu, Nagulendran; Sayok, Alex; Hansen, Sune; Schouten, Greetje; Maulidia, Martha; Papargyropoulou, Effie; Tham, Mun Hou

    2016-01-01

    The recent Southeast Asian haze crisis has generated intense public scrutiny over the rate, methods and types of landscape change in the tropics. Debate has centred on the environmental impacts of large-scale agricultural expansion, particularly the associated loss of high carbon stock forest and

  12. Shaping the Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on various agents that change the landscape. Includes teaching activities on weathering, water, wind and ice erosion, plate tectonics, sedimentation, deposition, mountain building, and determining contour lines. Contains reproducible handouts and worksheets for two of the activities. (TW)

  13. Landscape Assessment (LA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Key; Nathan C. Benson

    2006-01-01

    Landscape Assessment primarily addresses the need to identify and quantify fire effects over large areas, at times involving many burns. In contrast to individual case studies, the ability to compare results is emphasized along with the capacity to aggregate information across broad regions and over time. Results show the spatial heterogeneity of burns and how fire...

  14. Landscapes. Artists' Workshop Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Penny; Roundhill, Clare

    This instructional resource, designed to be used by and with elementary level students, provides inspiration for landscape painting by presenting the work of six different artists. These include: "Fuji in Clear Weather" (Katsushika Hokusai, 1823-29); "The Tree of Life" (Gustav Klimt, c. 1905-1909); "The Waterlily…

  15. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas; Daugaard, Morten; Nielsen, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project aimed at contributing to the qualification of the aesthetical value of the contemporary urban landscape. We see our work as part of a tradition within the architectural profession of making explorative projects, which combines analysis of the contemporary...

  16. Landscape genetics [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin S. McKelvey; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael K. Schwartz

    2009-01-01

    In reading this book, you have observed that the spatial data used in landscape ecology come from many sources and in many forms. For many organisms, these data take the form of presence or absence at a location, or numbers of individuals at that same location. For species such as trees, where huge size differences exist between individuals, indices such as basal area...

  17. Landscapes in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padfield, Rory; Drew, Simon; Syayuti, Khadijah; Page, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Kangayatkarasu, Nagulendran; Sayok, Alex; Hansen, Sune; Schouten, Greetje; Maulidia, Martha; Papargyropoulou, Effie; Tham, Mun Hou

    2016-01-01

    The recent Southeast Asian haze crisis has generated intense public scrutiny over the rate, methods and types of landscape change in the tropics. Debate has centred on the environmental impacts of large-scale agricultural expansion, particularly the associated loss of high carbon stock forest and

  18. Landscape Designs for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patricia

    This annotated bibliography includes summaries of 15 books and articles dealing with the topic of school landscape design, as well as a brief introduction that comments on recent trends in the field. Most of the publications cited are fairly recent; about two-thirds of them were published after 1970. Annotations range from approximately 125 to 250…

  19. Landscapes. Artists' Workshop Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Penny; Roundhill, Clare

    This instructional resource, designed to be used by and with elementary level students, provides inspiration for landscape painting by presenting the work of six different artists. These include: "Fuji in Clear Weather" (Katsushika Hokusai, 1823-29); "The Tree of Life" (Gustav Klimt, c. 1905-1909); "The Waterlily…

  20. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant...

  1. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-07-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  2. A Study on the Forms and Characteristics of Landscape Trees in Landscaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing XIA

    2016-01-01

    The landscape tree is an important part of landscape,with a strong visual effect. This paper elaborates and discusses the concept of landscape trees as well as the forms and characteristics of landscaping,and summarizes the rules and features of landscape trees in plant landscaping,in order to provide a reference for the landscape construction practice.

  3. Raiders of the lost bark: orangutan foraging strategies in a degraded landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Campbell-Smith

    Full Text Available Deforestation is rapidly transforming primary forests across the tropics into human-dominated landscapes. Consequently, conservationists need to understand how different taxa respond and adapt to these changes in order to develop appropriate management strategies. Our two year study seeks to determine how wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii adapt to living in an isolated agroforest landscape by investigating the sex of crop-raiders related to population demographics, and their temporal variations in feeding behaviour and dietary composition. From focal animal sampling we found that nine identified females raided cultivated fruits more than the four males. Seasonal adaptations were shown through orangutan feeding habits that shifted from being predominantly fruit-based (56% of the total feeding time, then 22% on bark to the fallback food of bark (44%, then 35% on fruits, when key cultivated resources such as jackfruit (Artocarpus integer, were unavailable. Cultivated fruits were mostly consumed in the afternoon and evening, when farmers had returned home. The finding that females take greater crop-raiding risks than males differs from previous human-primate conflict studies, probably because of the low risks associated (as farmers rarely retaliated and low intraspecific competition between males. Thus, the behavioral ecology of orangutans living in this human-dominated landscape differs markedly from that in primary forest, where orangutans have a strictly wild food diet, even where primary rainforests directly borders farmland. The importance of wild food availability was clearly illustrated in this study with 21% of the total orangutan feeding time being allocated to feeding on cultivated fruits. As forests are increasingly converted to cultivation, humans and orangutans are predicted to come into conflict more frequently. This study reveals orangutan adaptations for coexisting with humans, e.g. changes in temporal foraging patterns, which

  4. Being There: Poetic Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Berry

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In early 2012, I was invited by Pilbara Writers group in Karratha to make a poetry map for the Pilbara region when they saw the Poetry 4 U website (http://poetry4U.org where poems are pinned to geographic locations. I visited the Pilbara June 17 – 23, 2012 to commence the poetry mapping project with members of the Pilbara Writers group. By walking with video when writers took me to their favourite places I was able to document visceral intersubjective experiences of these places, of being there together, so that I could empathically share the writers’ sense of landscape. This paper discusses what happens when a hodological approach is taken to explore connections and flows between poetic expressions, places and landscapes.

  5. Wildfire and landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, P.; Cannon, S.; DeGraff, J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire is a worldwide phenomenon that is expected to increase in extent and severity in the future, due to fuel accumulations, shifting land management practices, and climate change. It immediately affects the landscape by removing vegetation, depositing ash, influencing water-repellent soil formation, and physically weathering boulders and bedrock. These changes typically lead to increased erosion through sheetwash, rilling, dry ravel, and increased mass movement in the form of floods, debris flow, rockfall, and landslides. These process changes bring about landform changes as hillslopes are lowered and stream channels aggrade or incise at increased rates. Furthermore, development of alluvial fans, debris fans, and talus cones are enhanced. The window of disturbance to the landscape caused by wildfire is typically on the order of three to four years, with some effects persisting up to 30 years.

  6. Landscape as World Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Jacob

    Age, among the powers-that-be. The topic of Volume II is the breakthrough of the modern landscape image and its new perspectival vistas, transient time and cultivated - or completely deserted - terrains. This post-medieval paradigm shift is construed as the mature stage in the evolution of self......-consciousness, with an urban individual contemplating nature at an aesthetic distance. Apart from being structurally equivalent with the new Copernican cosmos and the colonial expansion of Western culture, the new territorial landscape image is shown to develop in close interaction with the early modern work ethic...... from Palaeolithic cave paintings through to 19th-century modernity. A structuralist comparison between this pattern and three additional fields of analysis - self-consciousness, socially-determined perception of nature, and world picture - reveals a fascinating insight into culture's macrohistorical...

  7. Simulations of Fluvial Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattan, D.; Birnir, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Smith-Bretherton-Birnir (SBB) model for fluvial landsurfaces consists of a pair of partial differential equations, one governing water flow and one governing the sediment flow. Numerical solutions of these equations have been shown to provide realistic models in the evolution of fluvial landscapes. Further analysis of these equations shows that they possess scaling laws (Hack's Law) that are known to exist in nature. However, the simulations are highly dependent on the numerical methods used; with implicit methods exhibiting the correct scaling laws, but the explicit methods fail to do so. These equations, and the resulting models, help to bridge the gap between the deterministic and the stochastic theories of landscape evolution. Slight modifications of the SBB equations make the results of the model more realistic. By modifying the sediment flow equation, the model obtains more pronounced meandering rivers. Typical landsurface with rivers.

  8. Landscape evolution of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, S.S.R.; Sugden, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    The relative roles of fluvial versus glacial processes in shaping the landscape of Antarctica have been debated since the expeditions of Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton in the early years of the 20th century. Here we build a synthesis of Antarctic landscape evolution based on the geomorphology of passive continental margins and former northern mid-latitude Pleistocene ice sheets. What makes Antarctica so interesting is that the terrestrial landscape retains elements of a record of change that extends back to the Oligocene. Thus there is the potential to link conditions on land with those in the oceans and atmosphere as the world switched from a greenhouse to a glacial world and the Antarctic ice sheet evolved to its present state. In common with other continental fragments of Gondwana there is a fluvial signature to the landscape in the form of the coastal erosion surfaces and escarpments, incised river valleys, and a continent-wide network of river basins. A selective superimposed glacial signature reflects the presence or absence of ice at the pressure melting point. Earliest continental-scale ice sheets formed around 34 Ma, growing from local ice caps centered on mountain massifs, and featured phases of ice-sheet expansion and contraction. These ice masses were most likely cold-based over uplands and warm-based across lowlands and near their margins. For 20 million years ice sheets fluctuated on Croll-Milankovitch frequencies. At ~14 Ma the ice sheet expanded to its maximum and deepened a preexisting radial array of troughs selectively through the coastal mountains and eroded the continental

  9. Landscape Management and Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Başkent, Emin Zeki

    1998-01-01

    For the protection, enhancement and management of forests for today's and future generations, an understanding of the spatial structure of forest ecosystems along with base forest management planning are necessary. In this study are presented an introduction, a description, an explanation of different approaches and the basic principles of landscape management or ecosystems management within the evolution of the forest management process. Furthermore, the issue of biodiversity or biologi...

  10. Urbanization drives community shifts towards thermophilic and dispersive species at local and landscape scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Elena; De Wolf, Katrien; Bona, Francesca; Bonte, Dries; Bowler, Diana E; Isaia, Marco; Lens, Luc; Merckx, Thomas; Mertens, Daan; van Kerckvoorde, Marc; De Meester, Luc; Hendrickx, Frederik

    2016-12-20

    The increasing conversion of agricultural and natural areas to human-dominated urban landscapes is predicted to lead to a major decline in biodiversity worldwide. Two conditions that typically differ between urban environments and the surrounding landscape are increased temperature, and high patch isolation and habitat turnover rates. However, the extent and spatial scale at which these altered conditions shape biotic communities through selection and/or filtering on species traits are currently poorly understood. We sampled carabid beetles at 81 sites in Belgium using a hierarchically nested sampling design wherein three local-scale (200 × 200 m) urbanization levels were repeatedly sampled across three landscape-scale (3 × 3 km) urbanization levels. First, we showed that communities sampled in the most urbanized locations and landscapes displayed a distinct species composition at both local and landscape scale. Second, we related community means of species-specific thermal preferences and dispersal capacity (based on European distribution and wing morphology, respectively) to the urbanization gradients. We showed that urban communities consisted on average of species with a preference for higher temperatures and with better dispersal capacities compared to rural communities. These shifts were caused by an increased number of species tolerating higher temperatures, a decreased richness of species with low thermal preference, and an almost complete depletion of species with very low-dispersal capacity in the most urbanized localities. Effects of urbanization were most clearly detected at the local scale, although more subtle effects could also be found at the scale of entire landscapes. Our results demonstrate that urbanization may fundamentally and consistently alter species composition by exerting a strong filtering effect on species dispersal characteristics and favouring replacement by warm-dwelling species.

  11. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  12. Trypanosoma from rodents as potential source of infection in human-shaped landscapes of South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumhom, Pornpan; Morand, Serge; Tran, Annelise; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Desquesnes, Marc

    2015-03-15

    Reports of atypical human cases of Trypanosoma lewisi or T. lewisi-like and Trypanosoma evansi infections have increased in South-East Asia, urging to investigate the possible links between humans, animal reservoirs and habitats. We tested how habitat structure affects the infection by Trypanosoma species of common murine rodents, inhabiting human-dominated landscapes in South East Asia. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents investigated for Trypanosoma infection and land cover maps produced for seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR. High prevalence of infection by T. lewisi was observed in rodents living near human settlement and in areas with high cover of built-up habitat, while the infection of rodents by T. evansi was explained by increased landscape patchiness and high cover of rain-fed agriculture lands. These results suggest a likely role of wild rodents as reservoir and possible source of atypical human infection by animal trypanosomes.

  13. The influence of modern Chinese architectural landscape landscape painting aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永伟

    2016-01-01

    the modern architecture to the spread of Chinese localization were style of architecture, this article is based on the research on localization urban landscape to explore traditional Chinese landscape painting aesthetics and the cognitive way of Chinese garden aesthetics art, through the Chinese traditional aesthetics to explore the modern people and the nature harmonious living environment, the traditional aesthetic concept of “landscape” for the development of Chinese modern city landscape, qian xuesen proposed the concept of “landscape city” and the development, purpose is to find the environment concept of Chinese national culture characteristics.

  14. Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail;

    2016-01-01

    Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper is to pr......Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper...... (acting in multifunctional landscapes and combining different objectives), the involvement and coordination of different sectors and stakeholders at many levels, and the role as agents of awareness raising and learning hubs. Integrated landscape initiatives mainly depend on impulses of local civil society...

  15. Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper is to pr......Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper...... (acting in multifunctional landscapes and combining different objectives), the involvement and coordination of different sectors and stakeholders at many levels, and the role as agents of awareness raising and learning hubs. Integrated landscape initiatives mainly depend on impulses of local civil society...

  16. Economic linkages to changing landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeffrey M; Caldas, Marcellus M; Bergtold, Jason S; Sturm, Belinda S; Graves, Russell W; Earnhart, Dietrich; Hanley, Eric A; Brown, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Many economic processes are intertwined with landscape change. A large number of individual economic decisions shape the landscape, and in turn the changes in the landscape shape economic decisions. This article describes key research questions about the economics of landscape change and reviews the state of research knowledge. The rich and varied economic-landscape interactions are an active area of research by economists, geographers, and others. Because the interactions are numerous and complex, disentangling the causal relationships in any given landscape system is a formidable research challenge. Limited data with mismatched temporal and spatial scales present further obstacles. Nevertheless, the growing body of economic research on these topics is advancing and shares fundamental challenges, as well as data and methods, with work in other disciplines.

  17. GIS-based landscape design research: Stourhead landscape garden as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape design research is important for cultivating spatial intelligence in landscape architecture. This study explores GIS (geographic information systems) as a tool for landscape design research – investigating landscape designs to understand them as architectonic compositions and to acquire

  18. Landscape Architecture in Contemporary Danish Suburban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roden, Tina Maria

    2013-01-01

    design, it is argued that the current discourse of landscape urbanism needs to define itself more clearly in relation to the Danish landscape architecture tradition and more actively consider amenity and aesthetics. Via the discourse of landscape urbanism, landscape architecture in Danish suburban...... it became a theory, landscape urbanism has been common practice in European design projects. This implies that the urban challenges have been in the centre of landscape thought and practice for so long that Danish landscape architecture already includes urbanism. In order to recover momentum in Danish urban...... the indeterminacy of the future. KEYWORDS: Suburban development, landscape urbanism, landscape architecture, sustainability...

  19. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...... left by the wayside. The 14 often both fitting and well crafted contributions of this publication offer an approach to how landscape architecture has been and is currently represented; in the design study, in presentation, in criticism, and in the creation of landscape architecture....

  20. The concept of hydrologic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrologic landscapes are multiples or variations of fundamental hydrologic landscape units. A fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is defined on the basis of land-surface form, geology, and climate. The basic land-surface form of a fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is an upland separated from a lowland by an intervening steeper slope. Fundamental hydrologic landscape units have a complete hydrologic system consisting of surface runoff, ground-water flow, and interaction with atmospheric water. By describing actual landscapes in terms of land-surface slope, hydraulic properties of soils and geologic framework, and the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration, the hydrologic system of actual landscapes can be conceptualized in a uniform way. This conceptual framework can then be the foundation for design of studies and data networks, syntheses of information on local to national scales, and comparison of process research across small study units in a variety of settings. The Crow Wing River watershed in central Minnesota is used as an example of evaluating stream discharge in the context of hydrologic landscapes. Lake-research watersheds in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Nebraska are used as an example of using the hydrologic-landscapes concept to evaluate the effect of ground water on the degree of mineralization and major-ion chemistry of lakes that lie within ground-water flow systems.

  1. The Value of Landscape Essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Marques Freire

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to interpreting the landscape is examined by accepting its complexity through inductive reasoning. While attempting to identify the essence of the landscape in the city and municipality of Óbidos, Portugal, several architectural recommendations of Venturi (2004 have been adapted as a framework for understanding this landscape. These will then guide the process of landscape transformation through:•••using the concepts of closed and contained spaces and the concept of fluid space;•recognising the existence of interstitial open spaces;•using those elements which are common to the distinct typologies of space;•defining the components that should be respected and those that can be respected;•observing landscape as a whole , while emphasising the relationship between the parts and the whole; and•rejecting simplification in the landscape transformation process.valuing the ambiguity incorporating the complexity Underlying this approach is the belief that the process of transformation must be based on the essence of each landscape. This implies the use of elements and structures of the landscape which are related to ecological, morphological and cultural systems. These elements and structures represent points of reference which should be considered in the process of landscape transformation.

  2. Landscape Construction in Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Wang, Gaowei; Ao, Ping

    The idea of landscape has been recently applied to study various of biological problems. We demonstrate that a dynamical structure built into nonlinear dynamical systems allows us to construct such a global optimization landscape, which serves as the Lyapunov function for the ordinary differential equation. We find exact constructions on the landscape for a class of dynamical systems, including a van der Pol type oscillator, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, and a chaotic system. The landscape constructed provides a new angle for understanding and modelling biological network dynamics.

  3. Energy landscape Allgaeu; Energielandschaft Allgaeu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    In tandems with questions on the energy policy turnaround, the topics cultural landscape history, morphology, actual land use, tourism, settlement development or infrastructure are summarized in regional concepts and designs to a consistent landscape. Thus, a true integration of renewable energies in the landscape enhances existing or creates completely new landscape qualities. Energy supply shall be understood as a component of the every day life world. The energy supply shall not be hidden any more, but it rather should be communicated as the brand 'Allgaeu'.

  4. Ch'ixi landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthias, Penelope Fay

    2017-01-01

    of Guaraní everyday life. Such ch’ixi landscapes emerge at the confluence of capitalist efforts at rendering territories investable, governmental efforts at managing dispossession, and Guaraní efforts to maintain life and exercise territorial sovereignty amidst contradictory processes of (post......, capitalist development processes. Rather, they are subject to multiple land values, ontologies, and investments. A contested indigenous land titling process, capitalist labor relations, hydrocarbon compensation money, and efforts to maintain relations with spirit beings are all interwoven in the fabric...

  5. Reprogramming the chromatin landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Tina B; Voss, Ty C; Sung, Myong-Hee;

    2013-01-01

    , mechanistic details defining the cellular interactions between ER and GR are poorly understood. We investigated genome-wide binding profiles for ER and GR upon coactivation and characterized the status of the chromatin landscape. We describe a novel mechanism dictating the molecular interplay between ER...... and GR. Upon induction, GR modulates access of ER to specific sites in the genome by reorganization of the chromatin configuration for these elements. Binding to these newly accessible sites occurs either by direct recognition of ER response elements or indirectly through interactions with other factors...

  6. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  7. Landscapes of the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    of the shifting balance of ecological agency in favour of humans during the Anthropocene. Banks Peninsula on the east coast of New Zealand’s South Island was first settled by Polynesian peoples within the last few hundred years. The nature of their footprint contrasts with the dramatic change wrought by Europeans...... since the 1840s, when indigenous forests were transformed into improved landscapes of sown grass. The chapter is shaped by a broad question. What can be learned from this place about the ways in which people have exercised and are coming to terms with what Gibson-Graham and Roelvink describe as our...

  8. Editorial: Mapping the Intellectual Landscape of Landscape and Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Maps are central to our understanding of landscapes. When this Editorship began to revise the journal's Aims and Scope for presentation in a forthcoming editorial, we sought ways in which we could identify the core knowledge base and boundaries, however permeable, of what the journal community considers to be Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND). Strategically, we...

  9. An Online Landscape Object Library to Support Interactive Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Chan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using landscape objects with geo-visualisation tools to create 3D virtual environments is becoming one of the most prominent communication techniques to understand landscape form, function and processes. Geo-visualisation tools can also provide useful participatory planning support systems to explore current and future environmental issues such as biodiversity loss, crop failure, competing pressures on water availability and land degradation. These issues can be addressed by understanding them in the context of their locality. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies which facilitate our work on the issues of sustainability and productivity, and ultimately support for planning and decision-making. We demonstrate an online Landscape Object Library application with a suite of geo-visualisation tools to support landscape planning. This suite includes: a GIS based Landscape Constructor tool, a modified version of a 3D game engine SIEVE (Spatial Information Exploration and Visualisation Environment and an interactive touch table display. By integrating the Landscape Object Library with this suite of geo-visualisation tools, we believe we developed a tool that can support a diversity of landscape planning activities. This is illustrated by trial case studies in biolink design, whole farm planning and renewable energy planning. We conclude the paper with an evaluation of our Landscape Object Library and the suite of geographical tools, and outline some further research directions.

  10. Linking ecosystem services with cultural landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaich, Harald; Biding, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    neglected within the ecosystem services framework. This could result in trade-off assessments which are biased and mislead ecosystem management and landscape planning. However, cultural landscape research approaches have proven valuable in the assessment of different nonmaterial landscape values...

  11. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  12. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  13. Landscapes Impacted by Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, B.; Roca, J.

    2016-06-01

    The gradual spread of urbanization, the phenomenon known under the term urban sprawl, has become one of the paradigms that have characterized the urban development since the second half of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. However, there is no unanimous consensus about what means "urbanization". The plurality of forms of human settlement on the planet difficult to identify the urbanization processes. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and more meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, the paper proposes a new methodology based on the analysis of the satellite image of nighttime lights designed to identify the highly impacted landscapes worldwide and to build an index of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc) as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The used methodology allows the identification of different typologies of urbanized areas (villages, cities or metropolitan areas), as well as "rural", "rurban", "periurban" and "central" landscapes. The study identifies 186,134 illuminated contours (urbanized areas). In one hand, 404 of these contours could be consider as real "metropolitan areas"; and in the other hand, there are 161,821 contours with less than 5,000 inhabitants, which could be identify as "villages". Finally, the paper shows that 44.5 % live in rural areas, 15.5 % in rurban spaces, 26.2 % in suburban areas and only 18.4 % in central areas.

  14. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium.

  15. Urban landscape as palimpsest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Gabriel Vâlceanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current urban morphology and the identity building of the city construction can be designed as a palimpsest; the spatial development stages of urban systems represent the result of their evolution over time. The characteristics of urban palimpsest depend mainly on the emergent factors that influenced the territorial dynamics and the configuration of urban bodies. Urban life and its quality are directly influenced by spatial and temporal factors of the city evolution. For this reason the study aims to achieve a research to explain the concept of urban palimpsest and the current morphology of urban tissue because they are products of landscape transformations along the history. The current knowledge on urban palimpsest characteristics is very important and useful to plan the current and future evolution of urban systems. The case study presents a vast view on the history of spatial development and urban system as well as a dynamics of the landscape interconditioned by the elements of such development in the context of reference historical eras

  16. Road network in an agrarian landscape: Potential habitat, corridor or barrier for small mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon (de), Louis; Le Viol, Isabelle; Jiguet, Frédéric; Machon, Nathalie; Scher, Olivier; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    If the negative effects of road networks on biodiversity are now recognized, their role as barriers, habitats or corridors remain to be clarified in human altered landscapes in which road verges often constitute the few semi-natural habitats where a part of biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning may maintain. In human-dominated landscape, their roles are crucial to precise in comparison to other habitats for small mammal species considered as major natural actors (pests (voles) or biological control agents (shrew)). We studied these roles through the comparison of small mammal abundance captured (418 individuals belonging to 8 species) using non-attractive pitfall traps (n = 813) in 176 sampled sites distributed in marginal zones of road and crop, in natural areas and in fields. We examined the effect of roadside width and isolation of sites. We found the higher small mammal abundances in roadside verges and an effect of width margins for shrews. The significant effect of the distance to the next adjacent natural habitat at the same side of the road on the relative abundance of Sorex coronatus, and the absence of a significant effect of distance to the next natural habitat at the opposite side of road, suggest that highway and road verges could be used as corridor for their dispersal, but have also a barrier effect for shrews. Our results show that in intensive agricultural landscapes roadside and highway verges may often serve as refuge, habitat and corridor for small mammals depending on species and margin characteristics.

  17. The integrated landscape assessment project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles A. Hemstrom; Janine Salwasser; Joshua Halofsky; Jimmy Kagan; Cyndi Comfort

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Landscape Assessment Project (ILAP) is a three-year effort that produces information, models, data, and tools to help land managers, policymakers, and others examine mid- to broad-scale (e.g., watersheds to states and larger areas) prioritization of land management actions, perform landscape assessments, and estimate potential effects of management...

  18. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  19. Complex Landscape Terms in Seri

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Carolyn; Bohnemeyer, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    The nominal lexicon of Seri is characterized by a prevalence of analytical descriptive terms. We explore the consequences of this typological trait in the landscape domain. The complex landscape terms of Seri classify geographic entities in terms of their material make-up and spatial properties such as shape, orientation, and merological…

  20. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  1. Influences of Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes within Mixed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J.; Contosta, A.; Deng, J.; Lepine, L. C.; Li, C.; Ollinger, S. V.; Ouimette, A.; Tang, J.; Varner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities (e.g., urbanization, land use planning) have led to complex patterns of urban, suburban, agricultural, and forested landscapes. Ecosystems within these landscapes play an important role in climate regulation by acting as regulators of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and altering surface albedo and other biophysical properties. The overarching goal of our work is to examine the interactions among carbon cycling, land use, and climate change in a human-dominated, mixed land use region that includes urban, suburban, agriculture, and forest land uses. We combine field measurements of carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O), an improved process-based biogeochemical model - DNDC (DeNitrification and DeComposition) designed to predict C fluxes and trace gas emissions, and historical and projected land use change data derived from Landsat imagery and cellular automata/agent-based modeling. Our specific objectives designed to achieve the overarching goal are to: (1) Measure C pools and greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) in urban, suburban, agricultural, and forested landscapes; (2) Improve and parameterize the DNDC (DeNitrification and DeComposition) model and validate model predictions; (3) Develop historical land use change data for the last three decades from Landsat imagery and projections of future land use change; (4) Generate spatially continuous predictions of C pools and greenhouse gas emissions using Urban-DNDC and assess how land use interacts with C cycling and climate change and how future land use change will influence carbon sequestration potential within these complex landscapes. Our results will have implications for crafting effective land management policies that balance C sequestration and climate mitigation with food production, forest resources and many other services that these landscapes provide.

  2. Incorporating resilience and cost in ecological restoration strategies at landscape scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Stefanes

    2016-12-01

    win-win scenarios in human-dominated landscapes.

  3. WIND PROTECTION OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubitsyna Natalja Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the interaction between the wind regime and the landscape. Examples of objects of landscape architecture in high-tech and science-intensive spheres, such as the launch pad of a spacecraft, are given. Wind protection is represented as a result of work on wind power engineering and a means of increasing bioclimatic comfort. The terms of landscape architecture are disclosed and mutual influence on the climate and impact on woody-shrub vegetation and field crops are analyzed. The phenomenon of air permeability for optimal operation of windproof structures and orientations of geoplastics and dendroplastics is described. In this paper, a classification of terrain types is described with a description of their elemental composition, as well as various categories of landscape. The proposal to consider the landscape as a territorial complex, and landscape buildings, landscape-architectural structures as objects of landscape architecture possessing properties of wind protection and air permeability was introduced. Thus, the concept of a landscape-architectural complex as a single group of landscape-architectural objects located on the territory and connected by a common system of communications, functions, technical elements and a visual image is formulated. Further research is based on the rationale for the use of the term ensemble in relation to the objects of the landscape and architectural complex and the identification of their design and planning features that can affect the parameters of wind protection and air permeability. The paper concludes that frequent coincidence of favorable for the fauna wind regime and mimicry of landscape architecture objects. The combination in the landscape of functions for wind protection and aesthetics is analyzed with analysis of such elements of landscape architecture as hedges and windproof properties of green plantations. In the work examples of wind engineering small architectural forms are

  4. Evaluation principles in Landscape Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Miccoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Landscape is a crucial component of the world heritage. Landscape projects play a vital role in the development of sustainable scenarios. The assessment of a project plays a dual role: it is a procedure to pass judgements on both “values” and “choices”. From a strictly economic perspective, the community’s appreciation of Landscape Projects may be ascertained through its “total economic value”. The value of a Landscape Project may be ascertained also through a multidimensional approach, based on the analysis of different project attributes whose outcome is calculated in non-monetary terms. This paper illustrates the cultural foundations and theoretical-methodological principles to assess Landscape Projects.

  5. Some questions about landscape modlling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses mainly about the modelling process and related problems with examples from Chinese and French cases. Five practical problems must be solved for modelling the functioning of any landscape: (1) The field data are necessarily taken with a sampling procedure that implies a spatial (and often temporal) scale. (2) Every landscape modelled has to be identified, delimited and characterised before application of the hierarchical theory. (3) The functioning of a landscape involves data of multiple types (climate, soil, vegetation, fauna, buildings,communications, economy, aesthetics, etc.) which must be integrated in a holistic approach. (4) Every landscape is spatially heterogeneous, and the structure of the model must be more or less isomorphic with its heterogeneity. (5) The evolution of the landscape must be modelled on a rather long period of time. For all these reasons, it is necessary to build ad hoc models. Object-oriented computing languages may be useful for this purpose.

  6. Long Island Sound: a Human Dominated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    Long Island Sound (LIS) is a marginally marine urban estuary, with Long Island (NY) as its southern coastline, New York and Connecticut along its northern coast. LIS has a narrow opening to the West (East River), but most exchange with the ocean occurs at its eastern end, resulting in an east-west gradient in salinity. There is also an east-west gradient in indicators of contamination in the surface sediments (e.g., trace metals). Western LIS is close to the main population center (New York City), but also is a focusing region for fine- grained sediments. Since the 1970s, western LIS and to a lesser extent, central LIS, suffer summer hypoxia or even anoxia. We used sediment cores in westernmost and central LIS to document environmental changes over the last millennium, including the time of European settlement, using microfossil, geochemical, sedimentological, and trace element proxies. Sediment ages were determined using metal pollution records and radiometric carbon dating. Before European settlement, the low-diversity benthic faunas were dominated by Elphidium excavatum (feeding on diatoms) at shallow depths (human population growth in the region, with a marked decrease in salinity in westernmost LIS, and with the beginning of low oxygen conditions as indicated by carbon isotope values in foraminiferal tests. At the same time, accumulation rates of organic carbon and nitrogen increased several fold, most extremely so in westernmost LIS. These data thus all indicate that humans influenced LIS and its ecosystems from the mid 19th century on, causing eutrophication, increased fresh water run-off due to urbanization and possibly re-routing of fresh water through waste water treatment plants, and increased organic carbon and trace metal storage in the sediments. A period of additional faunal changes started in the late 1960s, when overall foraminiferal abundance decreased, but Ammonia parkinsoniana, formerly absent or rare, became common to dominant especially in western LIS. This last faunal change might have resulted from even more increased eutrophication, with high N/Si values resulting in decreased dominance of primary producers by diatoms, affecting organisms that feed on them and thus reverberating through the whole ecosystem. We thus document a coastal ecosystem that changed significantly with human population growth in the middle 1800s, and again with more severe eutrophication over the last few decades.

  7. Perception of Landscape Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Coy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex landscape management instruments based on a dynamic, innovative land-conservation paradigm and spatial zoning to provide for graded intensity of protection and human use are being implemented in the newer generation of biosphere reserves and biosphere parks. The multifunctionality of these exemplary landscapes with sustainable development is a great challenge; it also offers considerable potential for conflict. This paper intends to demonstrate the extent to which multifunctionality has been realised in the alpine Großes Walsertal Biosphere Park, and how the local population perceive the quality of their park five years after it was created. Landscape management efforts in the Großes Walsertal were monitored by accompanying regional-economic and perceptional studies, resulting in a discussion of required future actions.Des instruments complexes de gestion du paysage, fondés sur un paradigme dynamique et innovant de conservation ainsi que sur un zonage de l’espace visant à réguler la protection du territoire et son utilisation par l’homme, ont été mis en œuvre dans la dernière génération de réserves de biosphère et de parcs. La multifonctionnalité de ces paysages exemplaires du développement durable constitue un défi majeur, mais représente également une importante source de conflits. L’objectif de cet article est de démontrer dans quelle mesure la notion de multifonctionnalité a été appliquée à la réserve de biosphère alpine de Grosse Walsertal et d’évaluer comment la population locale perçoit la qualité de son parc, cinq ans après sa création. Les efforts de gestion du paysage dans la réserve de Grosse Walsertal ont été évalués par des études économiques régionales et par des enquêtes de perception, à l’origine d’un débat sur les actions futures à mettre en place.

  8. A Classification of Landscape Services to Support Local Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services approach has been proven successful to measure the contributions of nature and greenery to human well-being. Ecosystems have an effect on quality of life, but landscapes also, as a broader concept, may contribute to people's well-being. The concept of landscape services, compared to ecosystem services, involves the social dimension of landscape and the spatial pattern resulting from both natural and human processes in the provision of benefits for human-well being. Our aim is to develop a classification for landscape services. The proposed typology of services is built on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES and on a critical review of existing literature on human well-being dimensions, existing ecosystem service classifications, and landscape perception. Three themes of landscape services are defined, each divided into several groups: provisioning, regulation and maintenance, cultural and social life fulfillment, with the latter focusing on health, enjoyment, and personal and social fulfillment. A special emphasis is made on cultural services, which are especially important when applied to landscape and which have received less attention.

  9. Ancient Chinese Landscape Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    IN the past decade,the worldhas suddenly discovered thewonders of Chinese landscapegardening and garden architecture,and places like New York,Singaporeand London have all built Chinese-style gardens.The architectural stylespecial to Chinese gardens has,infact,developed·a“school”of itsown.In China,the landscaped gardenhas long been a part of culture,andliterature,painting,philosophy,cal-ligraphy and folk customs have alldealt with it at one time or another.Two categories of garden architec-ture exist:the imperial garden andthe private garden.The former is,ofcourse,grand and palatial and occu-pies large tracts of land,while the

  10. Towards productive landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Sunderland, Terry; Kshatriya, Mrigesh

    2016-01-01

    One of the main causes of tropical forest loss is conversion to agriculture, which is constantly increasing as a dominant land cover in the tropics. The loss of forests greatly affects biodiversity and ecosystem services. This paper assesses the economic return from increasing tree cover in agric......One of the main causes of tropical forest loss is conversion to agriculture, which is constantly increasing as a dominant land cover in the tropics. The loss of forests greatly affects biodiversity and ecosystem services. This paper assesses the economic return from increasing tree cover...... in agricultural landscapes in two tropical locations, West Java, Indonesia and eastern Bangladesh. Agroforestry systems are compared with subsistence seasonal food-crop-based agricultural systems. Data were collected through rapid rural appraisal, field observation, focus groups and semi-structured interviews...

  11. Villages in landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    For more than 30 years the physical environment (buildings, gardens, roads and spaces, etc.) in Danish villages has undergone dramatic changes. Many villages close to the bigger towns have grown and are dominated by modern, architecturally maladapted buildings, and as one of the results other...... villages especially in the periphery are declining with physical impoverishment and decay. Mainly due to the structural rationalization processes in the agricultural sector throughout the last generation the physical rural structures are under pressure. The changes in the countryside are highly visible......, and the physical appearance of many villages and detached farms can at best be characterized as shockingly inferior. It can be argued that the Danish society has grossly omitted to take care of the largest and most important part of its cultural heritage in the Danish landscape; 6-7,000 large and small villages...

  12. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  13. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  14. LANDSCAPES IMPACTED BY LIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Arellano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The gradual spread of urbanization, the phenomenon known under the term urban sprawl, has become one of the paradigms that have characterized the urban development since the second half of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. However, there is no unanimous consensus about what means "urbanization". The plurality of forms of human settlement on the planet difficult to identify the urbanization processes. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and more meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, the paper proposes a new methodology based on the analysis of the satellite image of nighttime lights designed to identify the highly impacted landscapes worldwide and to build an index of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The used methodology allows the identification of different typologies of urbanized areas (villages, cities or metropolitan areas, as well as “rural”, “rurban”, “periurban” and “central” landscapes. The study identifies 186,134 illuminated contours (urbanized areas. In one hand, 404 of these contours could be consider as real “metropolitan areas”; and in the other hand, there are 161,821 contours with less than 5,000 inhabitants, which could be identify as “villages”. Finally, the paper shows that 44.5 % live in rural areas, 15.5 % in rurban spaces, 26.2 % in suburban areas and only 18.4 % in central areas.

  15. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  16. Cougar space use and movements in the wildland-urban landscape of western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertson, B.N.; Spencer, R.D.; Marzluff, J.M.; Hepinstall-Cymerman, J.; Grue, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface lies at the confluence of human-dominated and wild landscapes, creating a number of management and conservation challenges. Because wildlife ecology, behavior, and evolution at this interface are shaped by both natural and human phenomena, this requires greater understanding of how diverse factors affect ecosystem and population processes. We illustrate the challenge of understanding and managing a frequent and often undesired inhabitant of the wildland-urban landscape, the cougar (Puma concolor). In wildland and residential areas of western Washington State, USA, we captured and radiotracked 27 cougars to model space use and understand the role of landscape features in interactions (sightings, encounters, and depredations) between cougars and humans. Resource utilization functions (RUFs) identified cougar use of areas with features that were probably attractive to prey, influential on prey vulnerability, and associated with limited or no residential development. Early-successional forest (+), conifer forest (+), distance to road (-), residential density (-), and elevation (-) were significant positive and negative predictors of use for the population, whereas use of other landscape features was highly variable. Space use and movement rates in wildland and residential areas were similar because cougars used wildland-like forest patches, reserves, and corridors in residential portions of their home range. The population RUF was a good predictor of confirmed cougar interactions, with 72% of confirmed reports occurring in the 50% of the landscape predicted to be medium-high and high cougar use areas. We believe that there is a threshold residential density at which the level of development modifies the habitat but maintains enough wildland characteristics to encourage moderate levels of cougar use and maximize the probability of interaction. Wildlife managers trying to reduce interactions between cougars and people should incorporate

  17. Landscape perspective on energy forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaerbaeck, Erik; Becht, Peter [SLU, Dept. of Landscape Planning, Alnarp (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    In 1982-1983, a 70 ha energy forest project was established in an arable landscape in southern Sweden. Many aspects of the energy forest system were investigated. This paper reports mainly on the aesthetic impacts of the project at a landscape level. One effect is an increasing variation in the views and the aesthetic values of the arable land. The Salix crops introduce new colours into the arable landscape. The green colour of the Salix fields lasts longer in the autumn. Also, from year to year a spatial variation appears. The increasing wildlife shelter seems to make the fauna richer. Viewed as an energy crop only, the commercial competitiveness of energy forests is often low. However, if the benefits of energy crops as elements of the landscape are added, the socio-economic value could be substantial. Such landscape benefits include increasing biodiversity in the arable landscape, wind-shelter against soil erosion and snow, shelter for wildlife, the reduction of nitrogen leaching, views of the landscape and aesthetic considerations, and recovery of the organic soil component of arable land. An interesting question is whether or not energy forests grown on arable land are profitable from a socio-economic point of view when considering a more holistic evaluation of all the largely beneficial impacts of energy forests. (Author)

  18. Landscape characterization and biodiversity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Offerman, H. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Geography Dept.; Frohn, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Gardner, R.H. [Appalachian Environmental Lab., Frostburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rapid deforestation often produces landscape-level changes in forest characteristics and structure, including area, distribution, and forest habitat types. Changes in landscape pattern through fragmentation or aggregation of natural habitats can alter patterns of abundance for single species and entire communities. Examples of single-species effects include increased predation along the forest edge, the decline in the number of species with poor dispersal mechanisms, and the spread of exotic species that have deleterious effects (e.g., gypsy moth). A decrease in the size and number of natural habitat patches increases the probability of local extirpation and loss of diversity of native species, whereas a decline in connectivity between habitat patches can negatively affect species persistence. Thus, there is empirical justification for managing entire landscapes, not just individual habitat types, in order to insure that native plant and animal diversity is maintained. A landscape is defined as an area composed of a mosaic of interacting ecosystems, or patches, with the heterogeneity among the patches significantly affecting biotic and abiotic processes in the landscape. Patches comprising a landscape are usually composed of discrete areas of relatively homogeneous environmental conditions and must be defined in terms of the organisms of interest. A large body of theoretical work in landscape ecology has provided a wealth of methods for quantifying spatial characteristics of landscapes. Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems allow these methods to be applied over large areas. The objectives of this paper are to present a brief overview of common measures of landscape characteristics, to explore the new technology available for their calculation, to provide examples of their application, and to call attention to the need for collection of spatially-explicit field data.

  19. Beyond Landscape MacArchitecture: new languages, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rackham

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The sine qua non of landscape architecture is respect for the genius loci, but even in the landscape, as in architecture and society more generally, a process of cultural homogenisation has been taking place. Against this process, a resurgence of interest in minority languages in Europe can be seen as an assertion of pride, and a desire to preserve difference. In Scotland, landscape architects are attempting to reinterpret Scottish and northern European urban design influences and materials: in effect to develop a new regional dialect for the new landscapes. Rooted in sound design principles and materials which respond to and reflect the climate, way of life and traditions of the place, design languages can communicate effectively about cultural values and differences.

  20. Studying landscape architecture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2010-01-01

    s demanded large numbers of landscape architects. Today landscape architecture education addresses current challenges of climate change and the need for sustainable development where an understanding of natural systems is seen as essential for future urbanisation processes in evermore innovative......Landscape architecture is a well-established profession in Denmark. From the early 20th Century the profession developed steadily. However, it was 1960 before a separate education was established. This proved timely as the immense physical development of the Danish welfare state of the 1970s and 80...

  1. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  2. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  3. Descision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  4. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  5. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning

  6. Perspectives on landscape identity, a conceptual challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Pedroli, B.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of landscape identity is often referred to in landscape policy and planning. A clear definition of the concept is lacking however. This is problematic because the term ‘landscape identity’ can have many different meanings and thus easily lead to confusion. We define landscape identity as

  7. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning (i

  8. Simulating historical landscape dynamics using the landscape fire succession model LANDSUM version 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Sarah D. Pratt

    2006-01-01

    The range and variation of historical landscape dynamics could provide a useful reference for designing fuel treatments on today's landscapes. Simulation modeling is a vehicle that can be used to estimate the range of conditions experienced on historical landscapes. A landscape fire succession model called LANDSUMv4 (LANDscape SUccession Model version 4.0) is...

  9. Configuration entropy of fractal landscapes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodríguez‐Iturbe, Ignacio; D'Odorico, Paolo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    .... The spatial arrangement of two‐dimensional images is found to be an effective way to characterize fractal landscapes and the configurational entropy of these arrangements imposes demanding conditions for models attempting to represent these fields.

  10. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Gomez-Reino, Marta, E-mail: jose@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch, E-mail: Konstantinos.Metallinos@tufts.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  11. Flowscapes: Designing infrastructure as landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important agen

  12. The evolving landscape of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the financial services industry is in flux. Liberalization, deregulation, and advances in information technology have changed the financial landscape dramatically. Interbank competition has heated up and banks face increasing competition from nonbanking financial institutions and th

  13. Flowscapes: Designing infrastructure as landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important

  14. Accidental Inflation in the Landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J; Metallinos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P^4_[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  15. Qualified Health Plan (QHP) Landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QHP Landscape Files present basic information about certified Qualified Health Plans and Stand-alone Dental Plans for individuals-families and small businesses...

  16. Landscapes of the Digital Baroque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Alvaro Ocampo traversed many landscapes to arrive at his current space in the digital art landscape. Eventually, the artist then made his way to the digital world, where he is no longer subjected to the tyranny of the one-off. He believes digital art is the new version of traditional etching in the way that it eliminates the idea of the one original piece of art.

  17. Magical Landscapes and Designed Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    Abstract  Based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighbourhoods in the outskirts of Århus, Denmark, this article focusses on how landscapes are perceived. Local residents describe and use the landscapes of Skåde Bakker and Fedet as endowed with “somet......-Strauss and Greimas are discussed in connection with the empirical setting of the city of Århus...

  18. 2-bit Flip Mutation Elementary Fitness Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Langdon, William

    2010-01-01

    Genetic Programming parity is not elementary. GP parity cannot be represented as the sum of a small number of elementary landscapes. Statistics, including fitness distance correlation, of Parity's fitness landscape are calculated. Using Walsh analysis the eigen values and eigenvectors of the Laplacian of the two bit flip fitness landscape are given and a ruggedness measure for elementary landscapes is proposed. An elementary needle in a haystack (NIH) landscape is g...

  19. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  20. PSEUDO-CODEWORD LANDSCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    The authors discuss performance of Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) codes decoded by Linear Programming (LP) decoding at moderate and large Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNR). Frame-Error-Rate (FER) dependence on SNR and the noise space landscape of the coding/decoding scheme are analyzed by a combination of the previously introduced instanton/pseudo-codeword-search method and a new 'dendro' trick. To reduce complexity of the LP decoding for a code with high-degree checks, {ge} 5, they introduce its dendro-LDPC counterpart, that is the code performing identifically to the original one under Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) decoding but having reduced (down to three) check connectivity degree. Analyzing number of popular LDPC codes and their dendro versions performing over the Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN) channel, they observed two qualitatively different regimes: (i) error-floor sets early, at relatively low SNR, and (ii) FER decays with SNR increase faster at moderate SNR than at the largest SNR. They explain these regimes in terms of the pseudo-codeword spectra of the codes.

  1. Landscape Visualisation on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, M. P.; Cox, M. T.; Harvey, D. W.; Heemskerk, G. E.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    The Victorian Resources Online (VRO) website (http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/vro) is the principal means for accessing landscapebased information in Victoria. In this paper we introduce a range of online landscape visualisations that have been developed to enhance existing static web content around the nature and distribution of Victoria's landforms and soils as well as associated processes. Flash is used to develop online visualisations that include interactive landscape panoramas, animations of soil and landscape processes and videos of experts explaining features in the field as well as landscape "flyovers". The use of interactive visualisations adds rich information multimedia content to otherwise static pages and offers the potential to improve user's appreciation and understanding of soil and landscapes. Visualisation is becoming a key component of knowledge management activities associated with VRO - proving useful for both "knowledge capture" (from subject matter specialists) and "knowledge transfer" to a diverse user base. A range of useful visualisation products have been made available online, with varying degrees of interactivity and suited to a variety of users. The use of video files, animation and interactive visualisations is adding rich information content to otherwise static web pages. These information products offer new possibilities to enhance learning of landscapes and the effectiveness of these will be tested as the next phase of development.

  2. Using landscape history to predict biodiversity patterns in fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M; Didham, Raphael K; Pearse, William D; Lefebvre, Véronique; Rosa, Isabel M D; Carreiras, João M B; Lucas, Richard M; Reuman, Daniel C

    2013-10-01

    Landscape ecology plays a vital role in understanding the impacts of land-use change on biodiversity, but it is not a predictive discipline, lacking theoretical models that quantitatively predict biodiversity patterns from first principles. Here, we draw heavily on ideas from phylogenetics to fill this gap, basing our approach on the insight that habitat fragments have a shared history. We develop a landscape 'terrageny', which represents the historical spatial separation of habitat fragments in the same way that a phylogeny represents evolutionary divergence among species. Combining a random sampling model with a terrageny generates numerical predictions about the expected proportion of species shared between any two fragments, the locations of locally endemic species, and the number of species that have been driven locally extinct. The model predicts that community similarity declines with terragenetic distance, and that local endemics are more likely to be found in terragenetically distinctive fragments than in large fragments. We derive equations to quantify the variance around predictions, and show that ignoring the spatial structure of fragmented landscapes leads to over-estimates of local extinction rates at the landscape scale. We argue that ignoring the shared history of habitat fragments limits our ability to understand biodiversity changes in human-modified landscapes.

  3. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genomic landscape of liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Deepika; Nagata, Yasunobu; Garg, Manoj; Lee, Dhong Hyun; Sato, Aiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Sato, Yusuke; Sanada, Masashi; Mayakonda, Anand; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Doan, Ngan B; Said, Jonathan W; Mohith, S; Gunasekar, Swetha; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Myklebost, Ola; Yang, Henry; Dugas, Martin; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Silberman, Allan W; Forscher, Charles; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2015-12-15

    Liposarcoma (LPS) is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma accounting for 20% of all adult sarcomas. Due to absence of clinically effective treatment options in inoperable situations and resistance to chemotherapeutics, a critical need exists to identify novel therapeutic targets. We analyzed LPS genomic landscape using SNP arrays, whole exome sequencing and targeted exome sequencing to uncover the genomic information for development of specific anti-cancer targets. SNP array analysis indicated known amplified genes (MDM2, CDK4, HMGA2) and important novel genes (UAP1, MIR557, LAMA4, CPM, IGF2, ERBB3, IGF1R). Carboxypeptidase M (CPM), recurrently amplified gene in well-differentiated/de-differentiated LPS was noted as a putative oncogene involved in the EGFR pathway. Notable deletions were found at chromosome 1p (RUNX3, ARID1A), chromosome 11q (ATM, CHEK1) and chromosome 13q14.2 (MIR15A, MIR16-1). Significantly and recurrently mutated genes (false discovery rate < 0.05) included PLEC (27%), MXRA5 (21%), FAT3 (24%), NF1 (20%), MDC1 (10%), TP53 (7%) and CHEK2 (6%). Further, in vitro and in vivo functional studies provided evidence for the tumor suppressor role for Neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene in different subtypes of LPS. Pathway analysis of recurrent mutations demonstrated signaling through MAPK, JAK-STAT, Wnt, ErbB, axon guidance, apoptosis, DNA damage repair and cell cycle pathways were involved in liposarcomagenesis. Interestingly, we also found mutational and copy number heterogeneity within a primary LPS tumor signifying the importance of multi-region sequencing for cancer-genome guided therapy. In summary, these findings provide insight into the genomic complexity of LPS and highlight potential druggable pathways for targeted therapeutic approach.

  5. Exploring constrained quantum control landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katharine W.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2012-10-01

    The broad success of optimally controlling quantum systems with external fields has been attributed to the favorable topology of the underlying control landscape, where the landscape is the physical observable as a function of the controls. The control landscape can be shown to contain no suboptimal trapping extrema upon satisfaction of reasonable physical assumptions, but this topological analysis does not hold when significant constraints are placed on the control resources. This work employs simulations to explore the topology and features of the control landscape for pure-state population transfer with a constrained class of control fields. The fields are parameterized in terms of a set of uniformly spaced spectral frequencies, with the associated phases acting as the controls. This restricted family of fields provides a simple illustration for assessing the impact of constraints upon seeking optimal control. Optimization results reveal that the minimum number of phase controls necessary to assure a high yield in the target state has a special dependence on the number of accessible energy levels in the quantum system, revealed from an analysis of the first- and second-order variation of the yield with respect to the controls. When an insufficient number of controls and/or a weak control fluence are employed, trapping extrema and saddle points are observed on the landscape. When the control resources are sufficiently flexible, solutions producing the globally maximal yield are found to form connected "level sets" of continuously variable control fields that preserve the yield. These optimal yield level sets are found to shrink to isolated points on the top of the landscape as the control field fluence is decreased, and further reduction of the fluence turns these points into suboptimal trapping extrema on the landscape. Although constrained control fields can come in many forms beyond the cases explored here, the behavior found in this paper is illustrative of

  6. Epigenetic Inheritance Across the Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Vaughn Whipple

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  7. Landscape characterization for watershed management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.; Jackson, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schwartz, P.M. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Streams and rivers serve as integrators of terrestrial landscape characteristics and as recipients of pollutants from both the atmosphere and the land; thus, large rivers are especially good indicators of cumulative impacts. Landscape ecologists seek to better understand the relationships between landscape structure and ecosystem processes at various spatial scales. Understanding how scale, both data resolution and geographic extent, influences landscape characterization and how terrestrial processes affect water quality are critically important for model development and translation of research results from experimental watersheds to management of large drainage basins. Measures of landscape structure are useful to monitor change and assess the risks it poses to ecological resources. Many studies have shown that the proportion of different land uses within a watershed can account for some of the variability in surface water quality. Hunsaker and Levine showed that both proportion of land uses and the spatial pattern of land uses is important for characterizing and modeling water quality; however, proportion consistently accounted for the most variance (40% to 86%) across a range of watershed sizes (1000 to 1.35 million ha). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is performing a demonstration of its Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) for the Mid-Atlantic Region. One activity, the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment, is designed as a collaborative initiative between EPA`s Office of Research and Development and EPA`s Region III.

  8. Modern Landscape Representation of Hakka Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hakka culture is a combination of ancient Chinese culture, aboriginal southern culture and hilly environment, whose influence spreads more than 80 countries and regions in the world. It is more difficult to summarize the regional landscape representation techniques of Hakka culture under the background of modern landscape. The author makes a comparative study of landscape representation techniques of the three typical Hakka landscapes, putting forward modern landscape ideas of Hakka culture in order to provide reference for construction of other regional landscapes.

  9. Exploring the Hamiltonian inversion landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ashley; Rabitz, Herschel

    2014-08-07

    The identification of quantum system Hamiltonians through the use of experimental data remains an important research goal. Seeking a Hamiltonian that is consistent with experimental measurements constitutes an excursion over a Hamiltonian inversion landscape, which is the quality of reproducing the data as a function of the Hamiltonian parameters. Recent theoretical work showed that with sufficient experimental data there should be local convexity about the true Hamiltonian on the landscape. The present paper builds on this result and performs simulations to test whether such convexity is observed. A gradient-based Hamiltonian search algorithm is incorporated into an inversion routine as a means to explore the local inversion landscape. The simulations consider idealized noise-free as well as noise-ridden experimental data. The results suggest that a sizable convex domain exists about the true Hamiltonian, even with a modest amount of experimental data and in the presence of a reasonable level of noise.

  10. Why some fitness landscapes are fractal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, E D; Stadler, P F

    1993-07-21

    Many biological and biochemical measurements, for example the "fitness" of a particular genome, or the binding affinity to a particular substrate, can be treated as a "fitness landscape", an assignment of numerical values to points in sequence space (or some other configuration space). As an alternative to the enormous amount of data required to completely describe such a landscape, we propose a statistical characterization, based on the properties of a random walk through the landscape and, more specifically, its autocorrelation function. Under assumptions roughly satisfied by two classes of simple model landscapes (the N-k model and the p-spin model) and by the landscape of estimated free energies of RNA secondary structures, this autocorrelation function, along with the mean and variance of individual points and the size of the landscape, completely characterize it. Having noted that these and other landscapes of estimated replication and degradation rates all have a well-defined correlation length, we propose a classification of landscapes depending on how the correlation length scales with the diameter of the landscape. The landscapes of some of the kinetic parameters of RNA molecules scale similarly to the model landscapes introduced into evolutionary studies from other fields, such as quadratic spin glasses and the traveling salesman problem, but the correlation length of RNA landscapes are considerably smaller. Nevertheless, both the model and some of the RNA landscapes satisfy a test of self-similarity proposed by Sorkin (1988).

  11. International Documents on Landscape Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pouperová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the theory and practice of cultural monuments protection, including garden art monuments and landscape protection, it has been often referred to international conventions and other international documents relating to this protection. Necessary condition for these documents to be adequately used in the practice is the precise understanding of their legal nature and a question arising therefrom, if and to what extent and to whom are those documents binding.The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the international documents relating to the landscape restoration. Following the analysis, the authors explore the scope and way of transposition of these documents and obligation arising therefrom into the Czech legal order. In the general part the authors analyse knowledge of the current jurisprudence on treaties and other international documents. They focus on the issue of the legal force of such documents, both on the international and national level. In the following part the authors deal with international documents on landscape restoration, explain legal nature of those documents and explicate whether the documents are formally legally binding or whether they may have other practical effects. The legally binding international treaties on the landscape protection include in particular the Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (Paris, 1972 and the European Landscape Convention (Florence, 2000. As regard legally non-binding acts of international non-governmental organizations, the paper discusses the charters of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS, the Venice Charter of 1964 and the Florence Charter of 1981. Mentioned is also the Athens Charter (1933, respectively the New Athens Charter of 1998 dealing with the landscape in terms of the principles of urban planning.

  12. How wind power landscapes change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    appears to be planning uncertainty regarding the future impact on landscapes. Visual impact has seldom been an issue so far, but growing turbine size and less local involvement may change this. This paper presents a deterministic approach of quantifying percieved visual impact on landscapes and population...... viewsheds are computed for a variety of thresholds of visual impact, and since overlaid with population and land use data. The results indicate that the construction of new turbines replacing 40% of the old turbine stock and raising the installed capacity by 20% will not add to the comparative impact...

  13. Rapa Nui Landscapes of Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Hamilton

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapa Nui (Easter Island is the most remote inhabited spot in the world. It is famous for its gigantic stone statues, which have been the focus of much archaeological study. The new Rapa Nui Landscapes of Construction Project, described in this article, adopts a more holistic approach, aiming to place the statues and associated monumental structures in the context of the wider landscape of settlement and cultivation. It also concentrates on the processes of construction as much as the final products, with an emphasis on quarries and other places of construction, approached through multiple methods of field exploration.

  14. Monitoring carnivore populations at the landscape scale: occupancy modelling of tigers from sign surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Kota Ullas; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Kumar, Narayanarao Samba; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Nichols, James D.; MacKenzie, Darryl I.

    2011-01-01

    sampling using spatial replicates can be used to reliably and efficiently identify tiger population sources and help monitor metapopulations. Our results reinforce earlier findings that prey depletion and human disturbance are key drivers of local tiger extinctions and tigers can persist even in human-dominated landscapes through effective protection of source populations. Our approach facilitates efficient targeting of tiger conservation interventions and, more generally, provides a basis for the reliable integration of large carnivore monitoring data between local and landscape scales.

  15. Landscape preference assessment of Louisiana river landscapes: a methodological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Lee

    1979-01-01

    The study pertains to the development of an assessment system for the analysis of visual preference attributed to Louisiana river landscapes. The assessment system was utilized in the evaluation of 20 Louisiana river scenes. Individuals were tested for their free choice preference for the same scenes. A statistical analysis was conducted to examine the relationship...

  16. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria...

  17. Imaginative Landscapes: This World and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John Noell, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a variety of books that offer fictional and poetic landscapes--five historical novels set in disparate locales, a book set in medieval Denmark, another addressing the landscape of memory, and a novel about a poet-scientist. (SR)

  18. Sustainable multifunctional landscapes: a review to implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Farrell, PJ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Historic land use practices have dramatically altered landscapes across all scales, homogenising them and restricting opportunities for humans and wildlife. The need for multifunctional landscapes which simultaneously provide food security...

  19. LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS METHOD OF RIVERINE TERRITORIES

    OpenAIRE

    Fedoseeva O. S.

    2013-01-01

    The article proposes a method for landscape area analysis, which consists of four stages. Technique is proposed as a tool for the practical application of pre-project research materials in the design solutions for landscape areas planning and organization

  20. LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPE AS AN OBJECT OF SOCIOLINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramova, E.I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses linguistic landscape as an object of study in sociolinguistics. The investigation deals with different approaches to the definition of linguistic landscape. The author specifies its functions, subjects and structural elements.

  1. Hantavirus seropositivity in rodents in relation to habitat heterogeneity in human-shaped landscapes of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasdell, Kim; Morand, Serge; Henttonen, Heikki; Tran, Annelise; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    To establish how the conversion of natural habitats for agricultural purposes may impact the distribution of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia, we tested how habitat structure affects hantavirus infection prevalence of common murine rodents that inhabit human-dominated landscapes in this region. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents analysed for hantavirus infection and land cover maps produced for the seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR where they were collected. Rodents were tested by serological methods that detect several hantaviruses, including pathogenic ones. Rodents with a seropositive status were more likely to be found near to agriculture on steep land, and also in environments with a high proportion of agriculture on steep land. These results suggest that in Southeast Asia, hantaviruses, which are often associated with generalist rodent species with a preference for agricultural land, may benefit from land conversion to agriculture.

  2. Interacting effects of landscape context and habitat quality on flower visiting insects in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Langevelde, van F.

    2006-01-01

    Landscape context and habitat quality may have pronounced effects on the diversity of flower visiting insects. We investigated whether the effects of landscape context and habitat quality on flower visiting insects interact in agricultural landscapes in the Netherlands. Landscape context was express

  3. On the Mountain Urban Landscape Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU ChunLan

    2009-01-01

    Mountain Urban Landscape Studies is a discipline to research on the formation, evolution and char-acteristics of the urban landscape in mountainous areas. The author has made systematic research on the basic issues of the subject, including the definition of mountain urban landscape studies, its con-notation and denotation, the research scope, research background and significance, research meth-odology, its relationship with landscape architecture, architecture, city planning and other disciplines.

  4. On the Mountain Urban Landscape Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Mountain Urban Landscape Studies is a discipline to research on the formation,evolution and characteristics of the urban landscape in mountainous areas. The author has made systematic research on the basic issues of the subject,including the definition of mountain urban landscape studies,its connotation and denotation,the research scope,research background and significance,research methodology,its relationship with landscape architecture,architecture,city planning and other disciplines.

  5. THE METHODOLOGY OF VALORISING AND ASSESSING LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Jacek Bacior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape evaluation process requires access to particular information resources making it possible to regionalize (divide into zones the area under investigation. Thus, the starting point is landscape assessment and evaluation followed by regionalization. As a result of this step, we determine certain areas that are homogenous with regards to their landscape assets Keywords: assessing landscape, structure of rural areas, spatial planning of rural areas.

  6. Thoughts concerning the economic valuation of landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Peter V

    2008-11-01

    The incorporation of economic thinking into the valuation of landscapes is still relatively new. It is an approach that yields valuable new insights and can help with prioritizing the use of scarce resources to improve and/or preserve landscapes. This paper explores and discusses the uses and limitations of economic valuation of landscapes from market failure, policy process, and theoretical and philosophical perspectives.

  7. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the social-ecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1 that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2 that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3 that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus on drivers of landscape change are needed; and (4 that managing landscapes for ecosystem services provision may benefit from a social-ecological resilience perspective.

  8. The Wadden area, a multiple landscape?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomars, E.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The concept ‘multiple landscapes’ implies that one particular landscape can entail different landscapes. Various social groups can ascribe different meanings to the same physical landscape. In this paper the Dutch Wadden area (Lancewad project) is analysed and described as a case of a multiple lands

  9. FOTOGRAFI URBAN LANDSCAPE DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KAMERA LOMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cito Yasuki Rahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscape photography is not a new thing in photography. It’s similar with temple or street photography, only that the objects in focus are in urban regions. By using lomography camera the urban landscapes are caputered in special manners that new, extraordinary images appear. They are like unnatural colour, fish eye effects, and others. Keywords: Urban landscape, Lomography

  10. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.;

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains...

  11. Ecosystem services in changing landscapes: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis Iverson; Cristian Echeverria; Laura Nahuelhual; Sandra. Luque

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services from landscapes is rapidly gaining momentum as a language to communicate values and benefits to scientists and lay alike. Landscape ecology has an enormous contribution to make to this field, and one could argue, uniquely so. Tools developed or adapted for landscape ecology are being increasingly used to assist with the quantification...

  12. How Landscape Ecology Can Promote the Development of Sustainable Landscapes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Antrop, Marc; Ramos, Isabel Loupa;

    2013-01-01

    related concepts. International cooperation demands a certain harmonization of these concepts for better mutual understanding. The 2000 European Landscape Convention provided an important momentum to rethink research, policy and management of landscapes from the perspective of sustainable development......In Europe, landscape research has a long tradition of drawing on several disciplines. 'National schools' of landscape research developed which were related to the characteristic landscapes found in the different countries and to specific linguistic meanings and legal traditions when using landscape...... and participatory planning. Landscape ecology as a transdisciplinary science with a dynamic and holistic perspective on landscape offers a great potential for an integrative approach. The specificity of the European landscape research rests on its long history and on the great diversity of the landscapes...

  13. Ecological Networks in Urban Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    This research focuses on the topic of ecological networks in urban landscapes. Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In agricultural areas and with existing nature preserves this

  14. A heuristic for landscape management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Alfonso B. Mendoza; Jesús S. Zepeta; Juan José A. Fajardo

    2006-01-01

    The development of landscape ecology has stressed out the importance of spatial and sequential relationships as explanations to forest stand dynamics, and for other natural ambiences. This presentation offers a specific design that introduces spatial considerations into forest planning with the idea of regulating fragmentation and connectivity in commercial forest...

  15. Landscape design methods in architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Landscape has been used as a metaphor or conceptual reference for an increasing amount of excellent architectural projects in the last two decades. The phenomenon seems to be a substantial innovation of architecture with an interesting potential for artistic, social and ecological gains. To be able

  16. Axion landscape and natural inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsutaro Higaki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple axions form a landscape in the presence of various shift symmetry breaking terms. Eternal inflation populates the axion landscape, continuously creating new universes by bubble nucleation. Slow-roll inflation takes place after the tunneling event, if a very flat direction with a super-Planckian decay constant arises due to the alignment mechanism. We study the vacuum structure as well as possible inflationary dynamics in the axion landscape scenario, and find that the inflaton dynamics is given by either natural or multi-natural inflation. In the limit of large decay constant, it is approximated by the quadratic chaotic inflation, which however is disfavored if there is a pressure toward shorter duration of inflation. Therefore, if the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio turn out to be different from the quadratic chaotic inflation, there might be observable traces of the bubble nucleation. Also, the existence of small modulations to the inflaton potential is a common feature in the axion landscape, which generates a sizable and almost constant running of the scalar spectral index over CMB scales. Non-Gaussianity of equilateral type can also be generated if some of the axions are coupled to massless gauge fields.

  17. Axion landscape and natural inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro, E-mail: thigaki@post.kek.jp [Theory Center, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2015-05-11

    Multiple axions form a landscape in the presence of various shift symmetry breaking terms. Eternal inflation populates the axion landscape, continuously creating new universes by bubble nucleation. Slow-roll inflation takes place after the tunneling event, if a very flat direction with a super-Planckian decay constant arises due to the alignment mechanism. We study the vacuum structure as well as possible inflationary dynamics in the axion landscape scenario, and find that the inflaton dynamics is given by either natural or multi-natural inflation. In the limit of large decay constant, it is approximated by the quadratic chaotic inflation, which however is disfavored if there is a pressure toward shorter duration of inflation. Therefore, if the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio turn out to be different from the quadratic chaotic inflation, there might be observable traces of the bubble nucleation. Also, the existence of small modulations to the inflaton potential is a common feature in the axion landscape, which generates a sizable and almost constant running of the scalar spectral index over CMB scales. Non-Gaussianity of equilateral type can also be generated if some of the axions are coupled to massless gauge fields.

  18. Surface fluxes in heterogeneous landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C.

    1997-01-01

    The surface fluxes in homogeneous landscapes are calculated by similarity scaling principles. The methodology is well establish. In heterogeneous landscapes with spatial changes in the micro scale range, i e from 100 m to 10 km, advective effects are significant. The present work focus on these effects in an agricultural countryside typical for the midlatitudes. Meteorological and satellite data from a highly heterogeneous landscape in the Rhine Valley, Germany was collected in the large-scale field experiment TRACT (Transport of pollutants over complex terrain) in 1992. Classified satellite images, Landsat TM and ERS SAR, are used as basis for roughness maps. The roughnesses were measured at meteorological masts in the various cover classes and assigned pixel by pixel to the images. The roughness maps are aggregated, i e spatially averaged, into so-called effective roughness lengths. This calculation is performed by a micro scale aggregation model. The model solves the linearized atmospheric flow equations by a numerical (Fast Fourier Transform) method. This model also calculate maps of friction velocity and momentum flux pixel wise in heterogeneous landscapes. It is indicated how the aggregation methodology can be used to calculate the heat fluxes based on the relevant satellite data i e temperature and soil moisture information. (au) 10 tabs., 49 ills., 223 refs.

  19. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  20. Dutch Architecture with Landscape Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.

    2009-01-01

    14 Project Documentations and Analysis of Dutch Architecture with Landscape Methods. MVRDV Villa VPRO, Powerhouse Company Villa 1, Herman Herzberger Coda Museum, NL Architects Basket Ba, SeARCH Posbank Pavillion, Wiel Arets Hedge House, OMA Kunsthal and Educatorium, Maaskant Johnson Wax, Diller & Sc

  1. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  2. Monarto’s Contested Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposal to develop a new city at Monarto in South Australia during the 1970s was an important project of the reforming government of Don Dunstan. Dunstan’s view was that Monarto would be a city environmentally suited to the tough conditions of its site, and to an ‘Australian way of life’. As planning and preliminary design proceeded from 1972 to 1975, the landscape potential of the city’s selected site became central to its conception. This paper draws on new research comprising interviews with key participants and archival material to examine four issues: the adoption of an environmental orientation in Australian urban planning and discourse in the 1970s; strategies in the design proposals that seemingly gave Monarto validity even as the demographic and political drivers for it dissolved away; the investigations that supported Monarto’s landscape strategies; and attitudes to social and cultural history that the Monarto project adopted. While ultimately the plan for Monarto was abandoned, the projected city’s landscape can be seen as a theatre for competing values in relation to natural and cultural heritage and design ambitions. The paper situates Monarto within national and international urban discourse that is more complex than has been previously acknowledged, indicative of competing values and ideologies in the planning, landscape and design discourses of the period.

  3. Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012

    2009-01-01

    This publication helps the reader to select wisely among the many species and varieties of flowering trees available. The following are considerations that should be taken into account when choosing flowering trees for the home landscape: selections factors, environmental responses, availability and adaptability, and flowering tree descriptions.

  4. Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language (Basque or Frisian), the state language (Spanish or Dutch) and English as an international…

  5. Landscape and landscape ecology as factors in the process of integrated spatial management

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    During the last years, the landscape definition related to the European Landscape Convention has been more and more recognized among scientists and planners dealing with different aspects of landscapes. Sometimes the definition has been abbreviated to the sentence: ‘ an area, as perceived by people', see, e.g. (Olwig 2005), thus focusing on the mental construction of the landscape concept. Indeed, this perceptional aspect is also crucial to understand the ongoing mental battles on landscape i...

  6. Energy Landscape of Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2008-03-01

    Cellular Networks are in general quite robust and perform their biological functions against the environmental perturbations. Progresses have been made from experimental global screenings, topological and engineering studies. However, there are so far few studies of why the network should be robust and perform biological functions from global physical perspectives. In this work, we will explore the global properties of the network from physical perspectives. The aim of this work is to develop a conceptual framework and quantitative physical methods to study the global nature of the cellular network. The main conclusion of this presentation is that we uncovered the underlying energy landscape for several small cellular networks such as MAPK signal transduction network and gene regulatory networks, from the experimentally measured or inferred inherent chemical reaction rates. The underlying dynamics of these networks can show bi-stable as well as oscillatory behavior. The global shapes of the energy landscapes of the underlying cellular networks we have studied are robust against perturbations of the kinetic rates and environmental disturbances through noise. We derived a quantitative criterion for robustness of the network function from the underlying landscape. It provides a natural explanation of the robustness and stability of the network for performing biological functions. We believe the robust landscape is a global universal property for cellular networks. We believe the robust landscape is a quantitative realization of Darwinian principle of natural selection at the cellular network level. It may provide a novel algorithm for optimizing the network connections, which is crucial for the cellular network design and synthetic biology. Our approach is general and can be applied to other cellular networks.

  7. The farmer as a landscape steward: Comparing local understandings of landscape stewardship, landscape values, and land management actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Christopher M; Bieling, Claudia; Fagerholm, Nora; Martin-Lopez, Berta; Plieninger, Tobias

    2016-03-01

    We develop a landscape stewardship classification which distinguishes between farmers' understanding of landscape stewardship, their landscape values, and land management actions. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with small-holder (100 acres) in South-West Devon, UK. Thematic analysis revealed four types of stewardship understandings: (1) an environmental frame which emphasized the farmers' role in conserving or restoring wildlife; (2) a primary production frame which emphasized the farmers' role in taking care of primary production assets; (3) a holistic frame focusing on farmers' role as a conservationist, primary producer, and manager of a range of landscape values, and; (4) an instrumental frame focusing on the financial benefits associated with compliance with agri-environmental schemes. We compare the landscape values and land management actions that emerged across stewardship types, and discuss the global implications of the landscape stewardship classification for the engagement of farmers in landscape management.

  8. Reproductive Contributions of Cardinals Are Consistent with a Hypothesis of Relaxed Selection in Urban Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Rodewald

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are leading to rapid environmental change globally and may affect the eco-evolutionary dynamics of species inhabiting human-dominated landscapes. Theory suggests that increases in environmental heterogeneity should promote variation in reproductive performance among individuals. At the same time, we know that novel environments, such as our urbanizing study system, may represent more benign or predictable environments due to resource subsidies and ecological changes. We tested the hypothesis that reduced environmental heterogeneity and enhanced resource availability in cities relax selective pressures on birds by testing if urban females vary less than rural females in their demographic contributions to local populations. From 2004 to 2014, we monitored local population densities and annual reproductive output of 470 female Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis breeding at 14 forested sites distributed across a rural-to-urban landscape gradient in Ohio, USA. Reproductive contribution was measured as the difference between individual and site-averaged annual reproductive output across all nesting attempts, divided by the annual density at each site. We show that among-individual variation in reproductive contribution to the next year's population declined with increasing urbanization, despite similar variability in body condition across the rural-urban gradient. Thus, female cardinals that bred in urban habitats within our study area were more similar in their contribution to the next generation than rural breeders, where a pattern of winners and losers was more evident. Within-individual variation in annual reproductive contribution also declined with increasing urbanization, indicating that performance of females was also more consistent among years in urban than rural landscapes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that urbanized environments offer more homogeneous or predictable conditions that may buffer

  9. Creativity, Complexity, and Precision: Information Visualization for (Landscape) Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buscher, Monika; Christensen, Michael; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    2000-01-01

    and links are created and maintained as an integral part of ongoing work with `live' documents and objects. The result is an extension of the physical information space of the architects' studio that utilizes the potential of electronic data storage, visualization and network technologies to support work......Drawing on ethnographic studies of (landscape) architects at work, this paper presents a human-centered approach to information visualization. A 3D collaborative electronic workspace allows people to configure, save and browse arrangements of heterogeneous work materials. Spatial arrangements...

  10. Landscapes of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. D Gertenbach

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the abiotic and biotic components of the Kruger National Park (KNP system has increased to such an extent, that it was possible to zonate the KNP into landscapes. A landscape was defined as an area with a specific geomorphology, climate, soil and vegetation pattern together with the associated fauna. On this basis 35 landscapes were identified and described in terms of the components mentioned in the definition. The objective of classification is that future management should be based on these landscapes. Relevant management considerations may change, but the landscape a@ a basic functional unit should not be negotiable.

  11. Localization on the landscape and eternal inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the validity of the assertion that eternal inflation populates the landscape of string theory. We verify that bubble solutions do not satisfy the Klein-Gordon equation for the landscape potential. Solutions to the landscape potential within the formalism of quantum cosmology are Anderson localized wavefunctions. These are inconsistent with inflating bubble solutions. The physical reasons behind the failure of a relation between eternal inflation and the landscape are rooted in quantum phenomena such as interference between wavefunction concentrated around the various vacua in the landscape.

  12. Localization on the Landscape and Eternal Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the assertion that eternal inflation populates the landscape of string theory. We verify that bubble solutions do not satisfy the Klein Gordon equation for the landscape potential. Solutions to the landscape potential within the formalism of quantum cosmology are Anderson localized wavefunctions. Those are inconsistent with inflating bubble solutions. The physical reasons behind the failure of a relation between eternal inflation and the landscape are rooted in quantum phenomena such as interference between wavefunction concentrated around the various vacua in the landscape.

  13. Multifunctional landscape practice and accessibility in manorial landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    . However classical manorial estates seems to represent an opposite trend. Although working at the same market conditions as other large specialized holdings developed through the process of structural rationalization, they have often maintained and elaborated a land use strategy based on a multifunctional...... use of the potential ecosystem services present within their domain. The targeted combination of agriculture, forestry, hunting rents, rental housing, and a variety of recreational activities influences makes a certain public accessibility to an integrated part of this strategy, diverging from...... the trends at the other big modern specialized holdings. A historical tradition for access to the manorial landscape as an integrated part of the pre-capitalist way of landscape management at the manorial estates might play a certain role, but it is anticipated that this is being of less importance than...

  14. Multifunctional landscape practice and accessibility in manorial landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    . However classical manorial estates seems to represent an opposite trend. Allthough working at the same market conditions as other large specialized holdings developed through the process of structural rationalization, they have often maintained and elaborated a land use strategy based on a multifunctional...... use of the potential ecosystem services present within their domain. The targeted combination of agriculture, forestry, hunting rents, rental housing, and a variety of recreational activities influences makes a certain public accessibility to an integrated part of this strategy, diverging from...... the trends at the other big modern specialized holdings. A historical tradition for access to the manorial landscape as an integrated part of the pre-capitalist way of landscape management at the manorial estates might play a certain role, but it is anticipated that this is being of less importance than...

  15. Applying ecological landscape concepts and metrics in urban landscape management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Magalhães Fonseca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Landscape Ecology applied to urban planning may favor the hierarchical classification of vegetation fragments, identifying the most important ones according to the city zones’ land use. We present the case study of São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo, a town that is going through a deep transformation process due to the iron mining activities in the Iron Quadrangle in the state of Minas Gerais. The methodological process presupposes the classification of RapidEye satellite images and mapping of use and land cover; application of landscape metrics (area, perimeter, distance to nearest neighbor, core area, shape index and NRVI; and the integration of metrics using multi-criteria evaluation. Areas that are appropriate for the application of public policies, which promote the management of the vegetation cover, have been identified. These comprise not only the institutional green areas but also private properties, since the vegetation cover must be understood as a systemic network.

  16. Social Evaluation Approaches in Landscape Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Miccoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Landscape is a crucial component of world heritage and, in the last few years, landscape projects have played a vital role in the development of sustainable scenarios. As reported in the European Landscape Convention, landscape means an area, as perceived by people, of which the character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors. Therefore, in landscape planning and assessment, the community is necessarily involved. In order to improve the effectiveness of a project for landscape enhancement, this study suggests strategies for an integrated project, taking into account the numerous, heterogeneous variables involved. A landscape project, therefore, is a complex project that requires structured valuation stages, open to the community dimension. The qualitative, intergenerational, and inclusive characteristics of landscapes suggest that the limits of traditional economic analysis should be exceeded by adopting new assessment methods. With this aim in mind, this paper proposes social evaluation approaches, which operate by combining deliberative processes with total economic and multidimensional approaches. In this paper, we present: (1 a brief overview of the main features and issues concerning landscape projects; (2 strategies for integrated projects in landscape enhancement; and (3 social approaches in landscape assessment that account for complexity and social inclusion.

  17. Landscape coordination changes in Jinggezhuang mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Mei-chen; Zhou, Jin-hua; Chen, Qiu-ji [China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing (China). School of Land Science and Technology

    2008-10-15

    Indexes of all types of landscape in Jinggezhuang mining area in different periods were calculated using FRAGSTATS 3.3 software. The landscape pattern information indicates that the landscape in the mining area has changed greatly. The former landscape dominated by cultivation has become mining-occupied land with waste piles; the rural settlement land changes most of all the landscape types; the information entropy of landscape pattern is in a rising trend; each type of landscape shows its own change regularity: (1) farmland is divided and integrated by other types of landscape; (2) vegetable plots are dispersed; (3) forest land is the main landscape resulting from ecological reconstruction; (4) the gulch declines and its natural boundary becomes artificial; (5) the area of mining seeper increases and its quantity declines and the shape tends to be regular;(6) the quantity of fish ponds increases; (7) the villages move continuously and the uniformity of rural settlement land declines; (8) the connectivity of road corridors increases. The analyses indicate that mining and urbanization have great influences on the landscape pattern in the mining area on the urban-rural fringe. Land reclamation and ecological reconstruction improve the landscape. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Assessment of landscape diversity and determination of landscape hotspots - a case of Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Drago; Ciglič, Rok; Hrvatin, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Areas with high landscape diversity can be regarded as landscape hotspots, and vice versa areas with low landscape diversity can be marked as landscape coldspots. The main purpose of this paper is to use quantitative geoinformatical approach and identify parts of our test area (the country of Slovenia) that can be described as very diverse according to natural landscapes and natural elements. We used different digital raster data of natural elements and landscape classifications and defined landscape diversity and landscape hotspots. We defined diversity for each raster pixel by counting the number of different unique types of landscape elements and types of landscapes in its neighborhood. Namely, the method was used separately to define diversity according to natural elements (types of relief forms, rocks, and vegetation) and diversity according to existing geographical landscape classifications of Slovenia (types of landscapes). In both cases one-tenth of Slovenia's surface with the highest landscape diversity was defined as landscape hotspots. The same applies to the coldspots. Additionally we tested the same method of counting different types of landscapes in certain radius also for the area of Europe in order to find areas that are more diverse at continental level. By doing so we were able to find areas that have similar level of diversity as Slovenia according to different European landscape classifications. Areas with landscape diversity may have an advantage in economic development, especially in tourism. Such areas are also important for biodiversity, habitat, and species diversity. On the other hand, localities where various natural influences mix can also be areas where it is hard to transfer best practices from one place to another because of the varying responses of the landscapes to human intervention. Thus it is important to know where areas with high landscape diversity are.

  19. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.

    2016-01-01

    . Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution......The paper describes an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains...... of bioenergy products and services. The approach includes performance monitoring and reporting along the bioenergy supply chain. Examples of landscape design applied to bioenergy production systems are presented. Barriers to implementation of landscape design include high costs, the need to consider diverse...

  20. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; van der Horst, Dan; Schleyer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the socialecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes......, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage...... Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape...

  1. A Landscape of Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Maxfield, Travis; Sethi, Savdeep

    2015-01-01

    Studying a quantum field theory involves a choice of space-time manifold and a choice of background for any global symmetries of the theory. We argue that many more choices are possible when specifying the background. In the context of branes in string theory, the additional data corresponds to a choice of supergravity tensor fluxes. We propose the existence of a landscape of field theory backgrounds, characterized by the space-time metric, global symmetry background and a choice of tensor fluxes. As evidence for this landscape, we study the supersymmetric six-dimensional (2,0) theory compactified to two dimensions. Different choices of metric and flux give rise to distinct two-dimensional theories, which can preserve differing amounts of supersymmetry.

  2. A landscape of field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, Travis [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Robbins, Daniel [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-11-28

    Studying a quantum field theory involves a choice of space-time manifold and a choice of background for any global symmetries of the theory. We argue that many more choices are possible when specifying the background. In the context of branes in string theory, the additional data corresponds to a choice of supergravity tensor fluxes. We propose the existence of a landscape of field theory backgrounds, characterized by the space-time metric, global symmetry background and a choice of tensor fluxes. As evidence for this landscape, we study the supersymmetric six-dimensional (2,0) theory compactified to two dimensions. Different choices of metric and flux give rise to distinct two-dimensional theories, which can preserve differing amounts of supersymmetry.

  3. A landscape of field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxfield, Travis; Robbins, Daniel; Sethi, Savdeep

    2016-11-01

    Studying a quantum field theory involves a choice of space-time manifold and a choice of background for any global symmetries of the theory. We argue that many more choices are possible when specifying the background. In the context of branes in string theory, the additional data corresponds to a choice of supergravity tensor fluxes. We propose the existence of a landscape of field theory backgrounds, characterized by the space-time metric, global symmetry background and a choice of tensor fluxes. As evidence for this landscape, we study the supersymmetric six-dimensional (2, 0) theory compactified to two dimensions. Different choices of metric and flux give rise to distinct two-dimensional theories, which can preserve differing amounts of supersymmetry.

  4. Designer landscapes for sustainable biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Lian Pin; Levang, Patrice; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2009-08-01

    Oil palm is one of the most extensively cultivated biodiesel feedstocks worldwide, and expansion of its cultivation poses a significant threat to ecosystems, biodiversity and potentially the global climate. We evaluate the prospects of land sparing and wildlife-friendly farming, two contrasting approaches for reducing the impacts of oil palm agriculture. We draw on concepts from both approaches to suggest more sustainable production systems and argue that landscapes under threat from oil palm expansion need to be designed in recognition of biodiversity, economic and livelihood needs. Specifically, we advocate agroforestry zones between high conservation value areas and intensive oil palm plantations to create a more heterogeneous landscape benefiting both biodiversity and rural communities. Similar principles could apply to biofuel systems elsewhere.

  5. Vacuum Selection on Axionic Landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    We compute the distribution of minima that are reached dynamically on multi-field axionic landscapes, both numerically and analytically. Such landscapes are well suited for inflationary model building due to the presence of shift symmetries and possible alignment effects (the KNP mechanism). The resulting distribution of dynamically reached minima differs considerably from the naive expectation based on counting all vacua. These differences are more pronounced in the presence of many fields due to dynamical selection effects: while low lying minima are preferred as fields roll down the potential, trajectories are also more likely to get trapped by one of the many nearby minima. We show that common analytic arguments based on random matrix theory in the large $D$-limit to estimate the distribution of minima are insufficient for quantitative arguments pertaining to the dynamically reached ones. This discrepancy is not restricted to axionic potentials. We provide an empirical expression for the expectation value...

  6. Implementing Forest Landscape Restorationin Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Pistorius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Driven by various initiatives and international policy processes, the concept of Forest Landscape Restoration, is globally receiving renewed attention. It is seen internationally and in national contexts as a means for improving resilience of land and communities in the face of increasing environmental degradation through different forest activities. Ethiopia has made a strong voluntary commitment in the context of the Bonn Challenge—it seeks to implement Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR on 15 million ha. In the context of rural Ethiopia, forest establishment and restoration provide a promising approach to reverse the widespread land degradation, which is exacerbated by climate change and food insecurity. This paper presents an empirical case study of FLR opportunities in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia’s largest spans of degraded and barren lands. Following the Restoration Opportunity Assessment Methodology, the study categorizes the main types of landscapes requiring restoration, identifies and prioritizes respective FLR options, and details the costs and benefits associated with each of the five most significant opportunities: medium to large‐scale afforestation and reforestation activities on deforested or degraded marginal land not suitable for agriculture, the introduction of participatory forest management, sustainable woodland management combined with value chain investments, restoration of afro‐alpine and sub‐afro‐alpine areas and the establishment of woodlots.

  7. Energy landscapes and persistent minima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Joanne M.; Wales, David J., E-mail: dw34@cam.ac.uk [University Chemical Laboratories, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Mazauric, Dorian; Cazals, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.cazals@inria.fr [Inria Sophia Antipolis Méditerranée, 2004 route des Lucioles, F-06902 Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2016-02-07

    We consider a coarse-graining of high-dimensional potential energy landscapes based upon persistences, which correspond to lowest barrier heights to lower-energy minima. Persistences can be calculated efficiently for local minima in kinetic transition networks that are based on stationary points of the prevailing energy landscape. The networks studied here represent peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, an atomic cluster, and a glassy system. Minima with high persistence values are likely to represent some form of alternative structural morphology, which, if appreciably populated at the prevailing temperature, could compete with the global minimum (defined as infinitely persistent). Threshold values on persistences (and in some cases equilibrium occupation probabilities) have therefore been used in this work to select subsets of minima, which were then analysed to see how well they can represent features of the full network. Simplified disconnectivity graphs showing only the selected minima can convey the funnelling (including any multiple-funnel) characteristics of the corresponding full graphs. The effect of the choice of persistence threshold on the reduced disconnectivity graphs was considered for a system with a hierarchical, glassy landscape. Sets of persistent minima were also found to be useful in comparing networks for the same system sampled under different conditions, using minimum oriented spanning forests.

  8. Vacuum selection on axionic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaoyuan; Battefeld, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    We compute the distribution of minima that are reached dynamically on multi-field axionic landscapes, both numerically and analytically. Such landscapes are well suited for inflationary model building due to the presence of shift symmetries and possible alignment effects (the KNP mechanism). The resulting distribution of dynamically reached minima differs considerably from the naive expectation based on counting all vacua. These differences are more pronounced in the presence of many fields due to dynamical selection effects: while low lying minima are preferred as fields roll down the potential, trajectories are also more likely to get trapped by one of the many nearby minima. We show that common analytic arguments based on random matrix theory in the large D-limit to estimate the distribution of minima are insufficient for quantitative arguments pertaining to the dynamically reached ones. This discrepancy is not restricted to axionic potentials. We provide an empirical expression for the expectation value of such dynamically reached minimas' height and argue that the cosmological constant problem is not alleviated in the absence of anthropic arguments. We further comment on the likelihood of inflation on axionic landscapes in the large D-limit.

  9. Axion Landscape and Natural Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Higaki, Tetsutaro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple axions form a landscape in the presence of various shift symmetry breaking terms. Eternal inflation populates the axion landscape, continuously creating new universes by bubble nucleation. Slow-roll inflation naturally takes place after the tunneling event, because a very flat direction with a super-Planckian decay constant arises due to the alignment mechanism. We study the vacuum structure as well as possible inflationary dynamics in the axion landscape scenario, and find that the inflaton dynamics is given by either natural or multi-natural inflation. In the limit of large decay constant, it is approximated by the quadratic chaotic inflation, which however is disfavored if there is a pressure toward shorter duration of inflation. If the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio turn out to be different from the quadratic chaotic inflation, there might be observable traces of the bubble nucleation. Also, the existence of small modulations to the inflaton potential is a common feature in the axi...

  10. Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora van Oosten

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscape restoration includes both the planning and implementation of measures to restore degraded forests within the perspective of the wider landscape. Governing forest landscape restoration requires fundamental considerations about the conceptualisation of forested landscapes and the types of restoration measures to be taken, and about who should be engaged in the governance process. A variety of governance approaches to forest landscape restoration exist, differing in both the nature of the object to be governed and the mode of governance. This paper analyses the nature and governance of restoration in three cases of forest landscape restoration in Indonesia. In each of these cases, both the original aim for restoration and the initiators of the process differ. The cases also differ in how deeply embedded they are in formal spatial planning mechanisms at the various political scales. Nonetheless, the cases show similar trends. All cases show a dynamic process of mobilising the landscape’s stakeholders, plus a flexible process of crafting institutional space for conflict management, negotiation and decision making at the landscape level. As a result, the landscape focus changed over time from reserved forests to forested mosaic lands. The cases illustrate that the governance of forest landscape restoration should not be based on strict design criteria, but rather on a flexible governance approach that stimulates the creation of novel public-private institutional arrangements at the landscape level.

  11. Applying landscape genetics to the microbial world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudaniec, Rachael Y; Tesson, Sylvie V M

    2016-07-01

    Landscape genetics, which explicitly quantifies landscape effects on gene flow and adaptation, has largely focused on macroorganisms, with little attention given to microorganisms. This is despite overwhelming evidence that microorganisms exhibit spatial genetic structuring in relation to environmental variables. The increasing accessibility of genomic data has opened up the opportunity for landscape genetics to embrace the world of microorganisms, which may be thought of as 'the invisible regulators' of the macroecological world. Recent developments in bioinformatics and increased data accessibility have accelerated our ability to identify microbial taxa and characterize their genetic diversity. However, the influence of the landscape matrix and dynamic environmental factors on microorganism genetic dispersal and adaptation has been little explored. Also, because many microorganisms coinhabit or codisperse with macroorganisms, landscape genomic approaches may improve insights into how micro- and macroorganisms reciprocally interact to create spatial genetic structure. Conducting landscape genetic analyses on microorganisms requires that we accommodate shifts in spatial and temporal scales, presenting new conceptual and methodological challenges not yet explored in 'macro'-landscape genetics. We argue that there is much value to be gained for microbial ecologists from embracing landscape genetic approaches. We provide a case for integrating landscape genetic methods into microecological studies and discuss specific considerations associated with the novel challenges this brings. We anticipate that microorganism landscape genetic studies will provide new insights into both micro- and macroecological processes and expand our knowledge of species' distributions, adaptive mechanisms and species' interactions in changing environments.

  12. A Holistic Landscape Description Reveals That Landscape Configuration Changes More over Time than Composition: Implications for Landscape Ecology Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mimet

    Full Text Available Space-for-time substitution-that is, the assumption that spatial variations of a system can explain and predict the effect of temporal variations-is widely used in ecology. However, it is questionable whether it can validly be used to explain changes in biodiversity over time in response to land-cover changes.Here, we hypothesize that different temporal vs spatial trajectories of landscape composition and configuration may limit space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology. Land-cover conversion changes not just the surface areas given over to particular types of land cover, but also affects isolation, patch size and heterogeneity. This means that a small change in land cover over time may have only minor repercussions on landscape composition but potentially major consequences for landscape configuration.Using land-cover maps of the Paris region for 1982 and 2003, we made a holistic description of the landscape disentangling landscape composition from configuration. After controlling for spatial variations, we analyzed and compared the amplitudes of changes in landscape composition and configuration over time.For comparable spatial variations, landscape configuration varied more than twice as much as composition over time. Temporal changes in composition and configuration were not always spatially matched.The fact that landscape composition and configuration do not vary equally in space and time calls into question the use of space-for-time substitution in landscape ecology studies. The instability of landscapes over time appears to be attributable to configurational changes in the main. This may go some way to explaining why the landscape variables that account for changes over time in biodiversity are not the same ones that account for the spatial distribution of biodiversity.

  13. Dongtan Modern Agro-park Landscape Evaluation and Landscape Mode Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Sheng-quan

    2007-01-01

    Agro-park landscape is an important and special type of rural landscape, the multi-funcitons of modern agro-park are agricultural high-tech demonstration, rural landscape tourism, ecology eduacation et al.In order to clarify how to reserch agro-park landscape and design landscape modes in Dongtan modern agro-park, the landscape patterns, ecological maker, and environmental color were investigated firstly, then, the agro-park landscape evaluation method was established, finally, the landscape evaluation and landscape mode design were studied.The Dongtan modern agro-park lanscape evaluation indexes include three levels, namely, rule layer B( 3 items), and index layer C( 9 items), index layer D(26 items), the value of landscape comprehensive evaluation is 0.51 based on the comprehensive evaluation model.The landscape design modes of the Dongtan modern agro-park include landscape structure design mode-spacial increasing form in growth ring style, landscape element combination mode design and environmental color mode design.This research has established a significant foundation for further lanscape detail design and landcape management of a Dongtan modern agro-park.

  14. Agrarian Landscape Management in a Modernized World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    processes within the Western world. Case landscapes in Denmark and New Zealand were selected based on a maximum variation sampling strategy, in order to be able to identify and analyse patterns of change manifesting across a variety of Western, modern agricultural landscapes. The thesis consists of : (1......) A historical analysis of social drivers of land use change affecting agrarian landscapes in the Western world in the period 1700-2000 based on a litterature review of modernization theory applied to two local scale historical case studies of changes in landscape structure; (2) A national scale analysis based...... land use patterns within the Western world based on historical cartographic evidence, (4) A local scale analysis of the decision making practices of landscape managers in four modern case landscapes in Denmark and New Zealand, based on interview surveys conducted in 2011 and 2012. Findings indicate...

  15. Trends in landscape research and landscape planning : implications for PhD students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tress, G.; Tress, B.; Fry, G.; Antrop, M.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter introduces the contents of the book through an analysis of current trends in landscape research and landscape planning and a discussion of the consequences of these trends for PhD students.

  16. DigiFys : The interactive play landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Waern, Annika; Back, Jon; Sallnäs Pysander, Eva-Lotta; Heefer, Jasper; Rau, Andreas; Paget, Susan; Petterson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The DigiFys project explores the design of interactive landscapes for children's outdoor play. The project combines landscape architecture with design of interactive technology, working towards designs that support children in their everyday play activity, close to home. In the creative lab session, we want to co-design the play landscape together with local children. The focus is on acquiring a perspective on similarities and differences between the children’s play culture in Sweden where th...

  17. Healthy Modern Landscape Inherited from Hakka Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hakka modern landscape is guided by its spirit of ambition, optimism, tolerance, and enterprising. The Meizhou Ruishan Agricultural and Ecological Garden Project (phase 1 combines the attributes of colors, materials and forms from the traditional Hakka architecture, Hakka culture, and the healthy landscape as a general concept and study. Thus, a new concept of modern Hakka landscape has been put forward through practice.

  18. Controlling energy landscapes with correlations between minima

    CERN Document Server

    Pusuluri, Sai Teja; Mehta, Pankaj; Castillo, Horacio Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Neural network models have been used to construct energy landscapes for modeling biological phenomena, in which the minima of the landscape correspond to memory patterns stored by the network. Here, we show that dynamic properties of those landscapes, such as the sizes of the basins of attraction and the density of stable and metastable states, depend strongly on the correlations between the memory patterns and can be altered by introducing hierarchical structures. Our findings suggest dynamic features of energy landscapes can be controlled by choosing the correlations between patterns

  19. Operationalizing the integrated landscape approach in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia E. Freeman

    2015-03-01

    the process of taking a landscape approach. Drawing on a review of the literature, we identify and discuss three different kinds of landscape approaches: using the landscape scale, a sectoral landscape approach, and an integrated landscape approach. Focusing on an integrated landscape approach, we examine five concepts to help characterize landscape approaches: multifunctionality, transdisciplinarity, participation, complexity, and sustainability. For each term, a continuum of application exists. To help improve and move the integrated landscape approach more toward operationalization, more focus needs to be placed on the process of taking the approach. Although the process can be implemented in a range of ways, in a more integrated approach it will require explicitly defined objectives as well as a clear understanding of what is meant by multifunctionality and sustainability. It will also require collaborative participation, transdisciplinarity/cross-sectoral approaches, managing for adaptive capacity, and applying an iterative process to address the inherent complexity within the system. Although these concepts are not new, we present continuums on which they can exist, allowing for clarification and distinctions to be made regarding what it means to take a landscape approach.

  20. The values of landscape in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Micheel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing interest in landscapes and the values assigned to them can be observed in politics and planning as well as in people’s everyday life. However, discourses regarding space, spatial development and landscapes have been mainly examined from an elitist perspective. In my research, on the contrary, an everyday perspective has been adopted to develop insights into the way in which meanings and values are conferred to landscapes by the people who live in them. My approach emphasises the everyday perspective in order to deepen our understanding of the “social construction” (Berger and Luckmann 1967 of landscape.

  1. Planning Construction Research of Modern Urban Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Z. Q.; Chen, W.

    With the development and expansion of the city's traditional urban landscape planning methods have been difficult to adapt to the requirements of modern urban development, in the new urban construction, planning what kind of urban landscape is a new research topic. The article discusses the principles of modern urban landscape planning and development, promote the adoption of new concepts and theories, building more regional characteristics, more humane, more perfect, more emphasis on urban landscape pattern natural ecological protection and construction can sustainable development of urban living environment, and promote the development and construction of the city.

  2. Northern Alaska Landscape/Permafrost GIS Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This data set represents an updated Ecological Subsection Map for Northern Alaska. This update includes permafrost mapping to include the following new layers:...

  3. European landscape character areas : typologies, cartography and indicators for the assessment of sustainable landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Landscape Character Assessment (LCA) is designed to describe landscape character. It can be applied at a range of scales, from the national, though to the regional and local. It may also integrate landscape character analysis with biodiversity assessments, the analysis of historical character, air,

  4. Agroforestry landscapes and global change: landscape ecology tools for management and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo Martinez Pastur; Emilie Andrieu; Louis R. Iverson; Pablo Luis. Peri

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are impacted by multiple uses under the influence of global drivers, and where landscape ecology tools may substantially facilitate the management and conservation of the agroforestry ecosystems. The use of landscape ecology tools was described in the eight papers of the present special issue, including changes in forested landscapes due to...

  5. Urban landscape infrastructures: Designing operative landscape structures for the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure. The hybridisation of the two concepts, landscape and infrastructure, seeks to redefine infrastructure beyond its strictly utilitarian definition, while allowing design disciplines to gain operative f

  6. Urban landscape infrastructures: Designing operative landscape structures for the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure. The hybridisation of the two concepts, landscape and infrastructure, seeks to redefine infrastructure beyond its strictly utilitarian definition, while allowing design disciplines to gain operative

  7. The Globalized Landscape: Rural Landscape Change and Policy in the United States and European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassauer, J.I.; Wascher, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    While some rural areas draw increasing populations to their landscape amenities and some are changed by the long reach of metropolitan sprawl, agriculture defines, and dominates rural landscapes. Amenity characteristics and ecological services of many rural landscapes occur in the context of

  8. From landscape to inflationary perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hector, Cecelie

    2012-07-15

    We discuss a quantum tunneling event in a piecewise potential where the false vacuum part is either linear or quartic and the true vacuum is described by a quartic potential. We find exact solutions for these tunneling processes and explain how exact tunneling solutions can give information about the local shape of the string theory landscape. We investigate the existence of bounce solutions for effective potentials with sharp minima and maxima. We also partly derive the two-point correlation function for a {lambda}{phi}{sup 4}-theory on a de Sitter background for a massless minimally coupled scalar field {phi}. (orig.)

  9. Martian Arctic Landscape Panorama Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation Typical view if you were standing on Mars and slowly turned around for a look. Starting at the north, SSI sees its shadow and turns its head viewing solar arrays, the lander deck and landscape. Note very few rocks on the hummocky terrain and network of troughs, typical of polar surfaces here on Earth. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Chungthang: an emerging urban landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Mona

    2017-01-01

    , pharmaceutical companies and educational institutes, has been the predominant cause of social, economic and spatial transformation in the region, visible in infrastructural growth, rapid urbanisation of rural and semi-urban areas, increased consumerism and changing aspirations. This paper focuses on state......The Indian border state of Sikkim has remained relatively detached from the rest of India owing to its cultural distinction and geographical isolation from the Indian mainland. However, over the recent decade state-induced economic liberalisation, evinced in private hydro-power projects......-induced development in Chungthang, north Sikkim, and the creation of an urban landscape that raises questions and concerns about belonging and identity....

  11. Assessment of Landscape Fragmentation Associated With Urban Centers Using ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, W. L.

    2002-12-01

    and landscape fragmentation are assessed for 9 urban centers (Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA; Baghdad, Iraq; Las Vegas, Nevada, USA; Lisbon, Portugal; Madrid, Spain; San Francisco, California, USA; Tokyo, Japan; and Vancouver, Canada). These data provide a useful baseline for comparison of human-dominated ecosystem land cover and associated regional landscape fragmentation. Continued collection of ASTER data throughout the duration of the Terra mission will enable further investigation of urban ecosystem trends.

  12. Landscape Indicators for Detection of Temporal Change in Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch-based landscape metrics dominate the conceptualization and practice of landscape ecology, but they have not been evaluated for detection of temporal change. Our evaluation, complemented by existing literature, indicates that patch-based landscape metrics have four shortcomi...

  13. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  14. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY ALONG LIMES TRANSALUTANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen S. Teodor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The project addresses the historical monuments comprised in the longest Roman ‘linear defence’ structure present on the Romanian territory.Despite it being the longest, this historic structure is the least protected and the least known in its technical details. Was indeed Limes Transalutanus an incomplete limes (lacking civilian settlements, for example, an odd construction (a vallum without fossa, an early-alarm line rather than a proper defensive line? Taking on these historical and archaeological challenges, the team attempts to develop an investigation technology applicable to large scale archaeological landscapes - a full evaluation chain, involving aerial survey, surface survey, geophysical investigation, multispectral images analysis, statistic evaluation and archaeological diggings. This technological chain will be systematically applied on the whole length of the objective, that is, on a 155 km distance. The attempt to find answers to issues related to the earth works’ functionality, layout, structure, chronology and relation with adjacent sites will be grounded on exploring the relations of the monument with the surrounding environment, by focussing on finding methods to reconstruct the features of the ancient landscapes, like systematic drilling, palynological tests and toponymical studies.

  15. Open inflation in the landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Naruko, Atsushi; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Open inflation scenario is attracting a renewed interest in the context of string landscape. Since there are a large number of metastable de Sitter vacua in string landscape, tunneling transitions to lower metastable vacua through the bubble nucleation occur quite naturally. Although the deviation of Omega_0 from unity is small by the observational bound, we argue that the effect of this small deviation on the large angle CMB anisotropies can be significant for tensor-type perturbation in open inflation scenario. We consider the situation in which there is a large hierarchy between the energy scale of the quantum tunneling and that of the slow-roll inflation in the nucleated bubble. If the potential just after tunneling is steep enough, a rapid-roll phase appears before the slow-roll inflation. In this case the power spectrum is basically determined by the Hubble rate during the slow-roll inflation. If such rapid-roll phase is absent, the power spectrum keeps the memory of the high energy density there in the...

  16. Usual populations, unusual individuals: insights into the behavior and management of Asian elephants in fragmented landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant M Srinivasaiah

    , in addition to populations, in our efforts to manage and conserve this threatened species, particularly in human-dominated landscapes.

  17. Weight watching and the effect of landscape on honeybee colony productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Kryger, Per; Vejsnæs, Flemming;

    2015-01-01

    sites can give valuable insight on the influence of landscape on their productivity and might point towards future directions for modernized beekeeping practices. Using data on honeybee colony weights provided by electronic scales spread across Denmark, we investigated the effect of the immediate...

  18. Landscape change detection in Yulin prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANJinyan; DENGXiangzheng; YUETianxiang

    2004-01-01

    Landscape is a dynamic phenomenon that almost continuously changes. The overall change of a landscape is the result of complex and interacting natural and spontaneous processes and planned actions by man. However, numerous activities by a large number of individuals are not concerted and contribute to the autonomous evolution of the landscape in a similar way as natural processes do. There is a well-established need to detect land use and ecological change so that appropriate policies for the ;egional sustainable development can be developed. Landscape change detection is considered to be effectively repeated surveillance and needs especially strict protocols to identify landscape change. This paper developed a series of technical frameworks on landscape detection based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Data. Through human-machine interactive interpretation, the interpretation precision was 92.00% in 1986 and 89.73% in 2000. Based on the interpretation results of TM images and taking Yulin prefecture as a case study area, the area of main landscape types was summarized respectively in 1986 and 2000. The landscape pattern changes in Yulin could be divided into ten types.

  19. The linguistic encoding of landscape in Lokono

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybka, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates how landscape elements are expressed linguistically in Lokono (Arawakan). As a background to the analysis, an account of language vitality and a description of the grammar of space are given. The linguistic analysis of landscape starts with landform terms, which form a syste

  20. Editorial: What do we mean by "landscape"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang

    2012-01-01

    As a prelude to revising the Aims and Scope of Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND), our last editorial discussed the journal’s "intellectual landscape" as revealed by an analysis of conceptual and proximal relationships between articles published in LAND and 50 other research journals. The six conceptual themes we identified--ecology, planning and management...

  1. Nature mangement, landscape and the CAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.; Godeschalk, F.E.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of nature management, landscape and environmental concerns into the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has gained momentum with the CAP reforms adopted in June 2003. The report explores instruments and approaches that contribute to the inte-gration of nature conservation and landscape

  2. Sustainable energy landscapes : designing, planning, and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Dobbelsteen, van den A.

    2013-01-01

    In the near future the appearance and spatial organization of urban and rural landscapes will be strongly influenced by the generation of renewable energy. One of the critical tasks will be the re-integration of these sustainable energy landscapes into the existing environment—which people value and

  3. Landscape pattern metrics and regional assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert V. O' Neill; Kurt H. Riitters; J.D. Wickham; Bruce K. Jones

    1999-01-01

    The combination of remote imagery data, geographic information systems software, and landscape ecology theory provides a unique basis for monitoring and assessing large-scale ecological systems. The unique feature of the work has been the need to develop interpret quantitative measures of spatial patter-the landscape indices. This article reviews what is known about...

  4. Analysis of NK-xor landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, C.H.M. van

    1998-01-01

    The NK-xor landscapes are a class of optimization problems with adjustable ruggedness of its fitness landscape. There is no specific preference for either a 0 or a 1 value at any of the loci and The optimal value for each of the loci is dependent upon a $k$-neighbourhood of this locus. A set of the

  5. Spurious correlations and inference in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth

    2010-01-01

    Reliable interpretation of landscape genetic analyses depends on statistical methods that have high power to identify the correct process driving gene flow while rejecting incorrect alternative hypotheses. Little is known about statistical power and inference in individual-based landscape genetics. Our objective was to evaluate the power of causalmodelling with partial...

  6. Effective Exercises in Teaching Landscape Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Pearson; Monica G. Turner; Dean L. Urban

    1999-01-01

    The development of landscape ecology and its many applications to land management created a need for courses that address both the conceptual and practical sides of the discipline. Graduate seminars and full-fledged courses in landscape ecology are now featured at many colleges and universities; undergraduate ecology courses may include an introduction to principles...

  7. 3D-models in landscape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Stellingwerff, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Landscape architecture consists of a basic attitude that involves four principles of study and practice. These are: anamnesis (palimpsest), process, three-dimensional space and scale-continuum (relational context). The core of landscape architecture as a design discipline is the construction and art

  8. Sustainable energy landscapes : designing, planning, and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Dobbelsteen, van den A.

    2013-01-01

    In the near future the appearance and spatial organization of urban and rural landscapes will be strongly influenced by the generation of renewable energy. One of the critical tasks will be the re-integration of these sustainable energy landscapes into the existing environment—which people value and

  9. Quantitative analyses of empirical fitness landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szendro, I.G.; Schenk, M.F.; Franke, J.; Krug, J.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a fitness landscape is a powerful metaphor that offers insight into various aspects of evolutionary processes and guidance for the study of evolution. Until recently, empirical evidence on the ruggedness of these landscapes was lacking, but since it became feasible to construct all po

  10. The farmer as a landscape steward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymond, Christopher M.; Bieling, Claudia; Fagerholm, Nora

    2016-01-01

    production assets; (3) a holistic frame focusing on farmers’ role as a conservationist, primary producer, and manager of a range of landscape values, and; (4) an instrumental frame focusing on the financial benefits associated with compliance with agri-environmental schemes. We compare the landscape values...

  11. Landscape practise and key concepts for landscape sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2013-01-01

    of accessibility and its related conflicts, and opportunities for a sustainable development of tourism in and around the protected areas. It is concluded that the concept of carrying capacity cannot meaningfully be used for sustainability studies at an abstract conceptual level, but proves its relevance through...... time, the practice behind such conceptual frameworks has survived in many land use systems, being a fundamental source of inspiration for the modern challenge of landscape sustainability. Here, the concept and practice of carrying capacity is used as an example. We provide a modern interpretation......Conceptual frameworks which have seen man and nature as being an integrated whole were widespread before they became suppressed by developments within both capitalism and socialism. Therefore an idealistic use of such concepts in scientific work has often had limited practical value. At the same...

  12. Landscape practise and key concepts for landscape sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar;

    2013-01-01

    time, the practice behind such conceptual frameworks has survived in many land use systems, being a fundamental source of inspiration for the modern challenge of landscape sustainability. Here, the concept and practice of carrying capacity is used as an example. We provide a modern interpretation...... of accessibility and its related conflicts, and opportunities for a sustainable development of tourism in and around the protected areas. It is concluded that the concept of carrying capacity cannot meaningfully be used for sustainability studies at an abstract conceptual level, but proves its relevance through...... for a more detailed analysis of the accessibility and related conflicts and opportunities for a sustainable development of tourism and related planning in and around the protected areas. It is concluded that the concept of carrying capacity cannot meaningfully be used for sustainability studies...

  13. Landscape practise and key concepts for landscape sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar;

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual frameworks which have seen man and nature as being an integrated whole were widespread before they became suppressed by developments within both capitalism and socialism. Therefore an idealistic use of such concepts in scientific work has often had limited practical value. At the same...... time, the practice behind such conceptual frameworks has survived in many land use systems, being a fundamental source of inspiration for the modern challenge of landscape sustainability. Here, the concept and practice of carrying capacity is used as an example. We provide a modern interpretation...... and relate it to an empirical study of sustainable tourism in eight protected areas and their regions in the Baltic. They are subject to large differences in human pressure. The political commitment to the related EU Natura 2000 networks has been taken as our point of departure for a more detailed analysis...

  14. Exploring geovisualization symbology for landscape genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoidh, Eoin Mac; Martinsohn, Jann Th.; Maes, Gregory E.;

    2013-01-01

    Landscape genetics, which considers genetic population structure in the context of spatially referenced parameters in the surrounding landscape, has been shown to be extremely useful for wildlife management. Unfortunately its widespread uptake beyond the research community is hampered due to a la...... to communicate landscape genetic information through an accessible, web‐based interface. A full problem description, review of available technologies, development rationale, and discussion of the symbology exploration are provided.......Landscape genetics, which considers genetic population structure in the context of spatially referenced parameters in the surrounding landscape, has been shown to be extremely useful for wildlife management. Unfortunately its widespread uptake beyond the research community is hampered due to a lack...... or genetic expertise. While specialist applications exist, alternative accessible solutions do not provide adequate support for the visualization of multi‐attribute spatially referenced genetic population structure information. As a solution, we document our exploration for an appropriate symbology...

  15. Roads Belong In the Urban Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2012-01-01

    In spite of being an essential part of the system of automobility and as such playing an important role in the development of urban landscapes, road networks seldom attracts much attention among architects involved in the planning and design of urban landscapes. One reason is probably found...... to infrastructure and claim that ‘roads belong in the urban landscape’, a claim that echoes John Brinkerhoff Jacksons essay Roads Belong in The Landscape (1994). Furthermore, it will be argued that road networks can be considered an important framework for creating new ‘green infrastructures’ that can qualify urban...... landscapes in terms of improving their overall porosity and connectivity. In order to strengthen this argument, the paper will (re)visit tree different ‘sites’ in relation to modern road networks, which holds a potential in relation to the development of green infrastructures in fragmented urban landscapes...

  16. Dynamic landscape models of coevolutionary games

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Players of coevolutionary games may update not only their strategies but also their networks of interaction. Based on interpreting the payoff of players as fitness, dynamic landscape models are proposed. The modeling procedure is carried out for Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and Snowdrift (SD) games that both use either birth-death (BD) or death-birth (DB) strategy updating. With the main focus on using dynamic fitness landscapes as an alternative tool for analyzing coevolutionary games, landscape measures such as modality, ruggedness and information content are computed and analyzed. In addition, fixation properties of the games and quantifiers characterizing the network of interaction are calculated numerically. Relations are established between landscape properties expressed by landscape measures and quantifiers of coevolutionary game dynamics such as fixation probabilities, fixation times and network properties

  17. Our Common Landscapes For The Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    , but also changed in different time-perspectives. They present different approaches to landscape assessment for practical purposes as well as for aesthetic, mental use and as a source of inspiration. And they end up in the discussion of the establishment of the common endeavor of taking practical care......Foreword for Marc Antrop and Veerle van Eetvelde: Landscape Perspectives – The Holistic Nature of Landscapes Our common landscapes for the future by Jesper Brandt The solution of the ecological crisis through a transformation towards sustainable development is the most urgent challenge in our time....... It is not just a question of CO2 and conversion toward renewable energy. The reestablishment and conscious development of our common landscapes at all spatial scales for the combined benefits of biodiversity, our cultural heritage and the preservation and development of ecosystem services will probably...

  18. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; van der Horst, Dan; Schleyer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2) that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3) that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus......Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the socialecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes......, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage...

  19. Linking ecosystem services with cultural landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaich, Harald; Biding, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    neglected within the ecosystem services framework. This could result in trade-off assessments which are biased and mislead ecosystem management and landscape planning. However, cultural landscape research approaches have proven valuable in the assessment of different nonmaterial landscape values...... the same object. A closer link between the two research communities would enrich and possibly sharpen both approaches. In particular, landscape research on cultural services such as aesthetics or cultural heritage could provide valuable results and methods for a comprehensive assessment of ecosystem......The concept of ecosystem services facilitates the valuation of the multiple services from ecosystems and landscapes, the identification of trade-offs between different land use scenarios, and also informs decision making in land use planning. Unfortunately, cultural services have been mostly...

  20. Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative Boundaries, Feb 2013 update.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This dataset depicts the terrestrial boundaries of the Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCC) within Alaska. Those LCCs are: Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands,...

  1. Source-sink landscape theory and its ecological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Exploring the relatiouships between landscape pattern and ecological processes is the key topic of landscape ecology,for which,a large number of indices as well as landscape pattern analysis model were developed.However,one problem faced by landscape ecologists is that it is hard to link the landscape indices with a specific ecological process.Linking landscape pattern and ecological processes has become a challenge for landscape ecologists."Source" and "sink" are common concepts used in air pollution research,by which the movement direction and pattern of different pollutants in air can be clearly identified.In fact,for any ecological process,the research can be considered as a balance between the source and the sink in space.Thus,the concepts of "source" and "sink" could be implemented to the research of landscape pattern and ecological processes.In this paper,a theory of sourcesink landscape was proposed,which include:(1) In the research of landscape pattern and ecological process,all landscape types can be divided into two groups,"source"landscape and "sink" landscape."Source" landscape contributes positively to the ecological process,while "sink" landscape is unhelpful to the ecological process.(2) Both landscapes are recognized with regard to the specific ecological process."Source" landscape in a target ecological process may change into a "sink"landscape as in another ecological process.Therefore,the ecological process should be determined before "source"or "sink" landscape were defined.(3) The key point to distinguish "source" landscape from "sink" landscape is to quantify the effect of landscape on ecological process.The positive effect is made by "source" landscape,and the negative effect by "sink" landscape.(4) For the same ecological process,the contribution of "source" landscapes may vary,and it is the same to the "sink"landscapes.It is required to determine the weight of each landscape type on ecological processes.(5) The sourcesink principle can be

  2. Landscape genetics as a tool for conservation planning: predicting the effects of landscape change on gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Maarten J; Keller, Daniela; Holderegger, Rolf; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Kienast, Felix; Bolliger, Janine

    2014-03-01

    For conservation managers, it is important to know whether landscape changes lead to increasing or decreasing gene flow. Although the discipline of landscape genetics assesses the influence of landscape elements on gene flow, no studies have yet used landscape-genetic models to predict gene flow resulting from landscape change. A species that has already been severely affected by landscape change is the large marsh grasshopper (Stethophyma grossum), which inhabits moist areas in fragmented agricultural landscapes in Switzerland. From transects drawn between all population pairs within maximum dispersal distance (landscape planning.

  3. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2006-10-01

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem -- why is Lambda not huge? -- I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments.

  4. Dark Matter in Axion Landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Daido, Ryuji; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2016-01-01

    If there are a plethora of axions in nature, they may have a complicated potential and create an axion landscape. We study a possibility that one of the axions is so light that it is cosmologically stable, explaining the observed dark matter density. In particular we focus on a case in which two (or more) shift-symmetry breaking terms conspire to make the axion sufficiently light at the potential minimum. In this case the axion has a flat-bottomed potential. In contrast to the case in which a single cosine term dominates the potential, the axion abundance as well as its isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed. This allows an axion with a rather large mass to serve as dark matter without fine-tuning of the initial misalignment, and further makes higher-scale inflation to be consistent with the scenario.

  5. Economic Growth and Landscape Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Prato and Fagre offer the first systematic, multi-disciplinary assessment of the challenges involved in managing the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem (CCE), an area of the Rocky Mountains that includes northwestern Montana, southwestern Alberta, and southeastern British Columbia. The spectacular landscapes, extensive recreational options, and broad employment opportunities of the CCE have made it one of the fastest growing regions in the United States and Canada, and have lead to a shift in its economic base from extractive resource industries to service-oriented recreation and tourism industries. In the process, however, the amenities and attributes that draw people to this “New West” are under threat. Pastoral scenes are disappearing as agricultural lands and other open spaces are converted to residential uses, biodiversity is endangered by the fragmentation of fish and wildlife habitats, and many areas are experiencing a decline in air and water quality.

  6. Dark matter in axion landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Daido

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available If there are a plethora of axions in nature, they may have a complicated potential and create an axion landscape. We study a possibility that one of the axions is so light that it is cosmologically stable, explaining the observed dark matter density. In particular we focus on a case in which two (or more shift-symmetry breaking terms conspire to make the axion sufficiently light at the potential minimum. In this case the axion has a flat-bottomed potential. In contrast to the case in which a single cosine term dominates the potential, the axion abundance as well as its isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed. This allows an axion with a rather large mass to serve as dark matter without fine-tuning of the initial misalignment, and further makes higher-scale inflation to be consistent with the scenario.

  7. Dark matter in axion landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daido, Ryuji; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2017-02-01

    If there are a plethora of axions in nature, they may have a complicated potential and create an axion landscape. We study a possibility that one of the axions is so light that it is cosmologically stable, explaining the observed dark matter density. In particular we focus on a case in which two (or more) shift-symmetry breaking terms conspire to make the axion sufficiently light at the potential minimum. In this case the axion has a flat-bottomed potential. In contrast to the case in which a single cosine term dominates the potential, the axion abundance as well as its isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed. This allows an axion with a rather large mass to serve as dark matter without fine-tuning of the initial misalignment, and further makes higher-scale inflation to be consistent with the scenario.

  8. Landscape evolution by subglacial quarrying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Sofie Vej; Egholm, D.L.; Iverson, Neal R.

    , and this keeps the effective pressure low and prevents the overdeepening from growing infinitely. In addition, the strong influence of effective pressure indicates that erosion rate depends strongly on ice thickness. This could associate to sudden jumps in erosion rate and fjord formation along margins......In glacial landscape evolution models, subglacial erosion rates are often related to basal sliding or ice discharge by a power-law. This relation can be justified for bedrock abrasion because rock debris transported in the basal ice drives the erosion. However, a simple relation between rates...... stress, form along the lee side of bed obstacles when the sliding velocity is to high to allow for the ice to creep around the obstacles. The erosion rate is quantified by considering the likelihood of rock fracturing on topographic bumps. The model includes a statistical treatment of the bedrock...

  9. Linguistic Landscape and Space: A Multimodal Analysis of Linguistic landscape in Robot Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the linguistic landscape in an indoor public place, Robot Open Space in Zhongguancun Dream Laboratory, which is a building housing a handful of innovative entrepreneurial enterprises. The subject of analysis in this present paper is the impact of different spaces on the features of linguistic landscape. Each of the three major sub-spaces in the company Robot Open Space has different functions and the linguistic landscape with its different features varies accordingly. This present study has the following contributions. First, the shift of analytical attention from the outdoor linguistic landscape to the indoor linguistic landscape provides a new angle for LL analysis and further expands the scenery of linguistic landscape. Then, the newly establish analytical framework, the “multimodal model for linguistic landscape analysis” enrich the current theoretical models that is quite rare. Last, the qualitative analysis of the linguistic landscapes in different spaces shed light on the correlation between space and linguistic landscape, indicating that space is an integral factor to be considered when it comes to LL analysis.Keywords: linguistic landscape; multimodal model; qualitative analysis; space

  10. Virtual Museums for Landscape Valorization and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroni, E.

    2017-08-01

    Research in the domain of landscape virtual reconstructions has been mainly focused on digitization and recording inside GIS systems, or real time visualization, paying a minor attention to the development of a methodological approach for the landscape narration, combing different registers, conceptual, emotional incitements and, thus, able to arouse in the public a feeling of emotional "sensing" and self- identification. The landscape reflects also the human activities in the territory and the communities' cultural patterns, their sense of "belonging". In a virtual museum of landscapes, the multidisciplinary approach, the multiplication of perspectives and voices, storytelling, acquire primary importance. A Virtual Museum of landscapes should integrate both holistic and delimited visions. The holistic vision requires a diachronic approach, including both present and past phases of life. On the other side, delimited, or "monographic", representations are useful to go deeper into specific and exemplar stories, regarding specific groups of people. Beside, the emergence of new social media enhancing cultural interactions among people induce the creation of specific social platforms for Cultural Heritage for the active participation of a large number of stakeholders. Co-creation scenarios and tools can be particularly promising. Aton is an example of front-end VR social platform in the web end, for the efficient streaming of medium/large landscape, their exploration and characterization. The Tiber Valley Virtual Museum is an example of sensorial cultural landscape. Starting from the acquisition of topographical data through integrated technologies, several multi-sensory scenarios have been created, inside which visitors can feel embodied and involved.

  11. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matthew J; Creed, Irena F; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B; Calhoun, Aram J K; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E; Jawitz, James W; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L Katherine; Lane, Charles R; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L; Mushet, David M; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C

    2016-02-23

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  12. Topology topical thoughts on the contemporary landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Bucher, Annemarie; Körner, Stefan; Krull, Wilhelm; Kühn, Norbert; Kuster, Hansjörg; Lampugnani, Vittorio Magnago; Schäfer, Lothar; Schwartz, Joseph; Seelis, Martin; Seiler, Michael; Stokman, Antje; Tessin, Wulf; Girot, Christophe; Kirchengast, Albert; Freytag, Anette; Richter, Dunja

    2014-01-01

    How can an abstract term like ""Topology"" become pertinent and effective to landscape thinking today? There is a schism between the way landscape is understood scientifically, either as a normative network or an environmental system, and the way the same place exists emotionally for people. This disparity which prevails in today''s landscape calls for a change of approach, both in terms of action and perception. Topology, in this instance, is not confined to the science of continuous surfaces in mathematics, it can pay greater attention to deeper spatial, physical, poetic and philosophical va

  13. Landscape predictions from cosmological vacuum selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Yang, Sheng

    2007-04-23

    In Bousso-Polchinski models with hundreds of fluxes, we compute the effects of cosmological dynamics on the probability distribution of landscape vacua. Starting from generic initial conditions, we find that most fluxes are dynamically driven into a different and much narrower range of values than expected from landscape statistics alone. Hence, cosmological evolution will access only a tiny fraction of the vacua with small cosmological constant. This leads to a host of sharp predictions. Unlike other approaches to eternal inflation, the holographic measure employed here does not lead to staggering, an excessive spread of probabilities that would doom the string landscape as a solution to the cosmological constant problem.

  14. Fairy circle landscapes under the sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz-Reynés, Daniel

    2017-08-03

    Short-scale interactions yield large-scale vegetation patterns that, in turn, shape ecosystem function across landscapes. Fairy circles, which are circular patches bare of vegetation within otherwise continuous landscapes, are characteristic features of semiarid grasslands. We report the occurrence of submarine fairy circle seascapes in seagrass meadows and propose a simple model that reproduces the diversity of seascapes observed in these ecosystems as emerging from plant interactions within the meadow. These seascapes include two extreme cases, a continuous meadow and a bare landscape, along with intermediate states that range from the occurrence of persistent but isolated fairy circles, or solitons, to seascapes with multiple fairy circles, banded vegetation, and

  15. Denmark seen from above: communicating landscape change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Hansen, Mette Dahl; Dupont, Henrik

    and as a result most people do not have an every-day experience with rural landscapes change. In order to inform a wider range of people, in competition with other types of information, the story has to have a point of reference of which people without specific training in landscape research can relate to....... This poster will explore the potential for a new way of communicating landscape change to a broader public audience by using a newly developed portal with digitized and geo-referenced historical oblique aerial photographs from 1939 to 1990s, provided by the Danish Royal Library. The basic idea is, popularly...

  16. Human Exploitation of Aquatic Landscapes. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic landscapes such as rivers, lakes, and seas played an important role in past human behaviour, affecting modes of subsistence, patterns of mobility, access to material resources, and technological choices and their developments. The interaction with aquatic landscapes was also influential in the establishment of economic and social structures and in the formation of communal identities. The aim of this special themed issue of Internet Archaeology is to contribute to a better understanding of different forms of human interaction with aquatic landscapes.

  17. Landscape and landscape ecology as factors in the process of integrated spatial management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    landscapes. Dutch landscape ecology had already a strong tradition for international cooperation, mainly in western Europe and North America, but decisive for the initiative was the participation of Dutch landscape ecologists in some landscape ecological conferences in eastern Europe, opening their eyes...... science, and concentrated on the collection of empirical data for a few species, often studied only at one or two different landscape scales. Allow me to give you an example on this development, and the social mechanisms it produces: In the mid-80ties a group of West European landscape ecologist...... dispersal ecological or metapopulation studies of some carefully selected so-called ‘key-species' based on extensive field work. Both groups went often, but not exclusively, into computerbased modelbuilding and development of spatial statistics based on GIS and Remote Sensing data. But these trends were...

  18. Analysis on the Fusion and Sustainable Developmental of Landscape Sculpture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlU Jinmin[1,2; GE Li[1,2

    2015-01-01

    Landscape sculpture, as part of landscape environment, features fusion that is not possessed by other art forms. Therefore, it will lose its existence value and meaning once it is without fusion. Along with the development of the times, landscape sculpture can attain a sustainable development, and this is a highlight in the development of the modem landscape sculpture design.

  19. Integrating Landsat Data and High-Resolution Imagery for Applied Conservation Assessment of Forest Cover in Latin American Heterogenous Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Rueda, X.; Lambin, E.; Mendenhall, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Large intact forested regions of the world are known to be critical to maintaining Earth's climate, ecosystem health, and human livelihoods. Remote sensing has been successfully implemented as a tool to monitor forest cover and landscape dynamics over broad regions. Much of this work has been done using coarse resolution sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS in combination with moderate resolution sensors, particularly Landsat. Finer scale analysis of heterogeneous and fragmented landscapes is commonly performed with medium resolution data and has had varying success depending on many factors including the level of fragmentation, variability of land cover types, patch size, and image availability. Fine scale tree cover in mixed agricultural areas can have a major impact on biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability but may often be inadequately captured with the global to regional (coarse resolution and moderate resolution) satellite sensors and processing techniques widely used to detect land use and land cover changes. This study investigates whether advanced remote sensing methods are able to assess and monitor percent tree canopy cover in spatially complex human-dominated agricultural landscapes that prove challenging for traditional mapping techniques. Our study areas are in high altitude, mixed agricultural coffee-growing regions in Costa Rica and the Colombian Andes. We applied Random Forests regression tree analysis to Landsat data along with additional spectral, environmental, and spatial variables to predict percent tree canopy cover at 30m resolution. Image object-based texture, shape, and neighborhood metrics were generated at the Landsat scale using eCognition and included in the variable suite. Training and validation data was generated using high resolution imagery from digital aerial photography at 1m to 2.5 m resolution. Our results are promising with Pearson's correlation coefficients between observed and predicted percent tree canopy cover of .86 (Costa

  20. Open inflation in the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Linde, Andrei; Naruko, Atsushi; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-08-01

    The open inflation scenario is attracting a renewed interest in the context of the string landscape. Since there are a large number of metastable de Sitter vacua in the string landscape, tunneling transitions to lower metastable vacua through the bubble nucleation occur quite naturally, which leads to a natural realization of open inflation. Although the deviation of Ω0 from unity is small by the observational bound, we argue that the effect of this small deviation on the large-angle CMB anisotropies can be significant for tensor-type perturbation in the open inflation scenario. We consider the situation in which there is a large hierarchy between the energy scale of the quantum tunneling and that of the slow-roll inflation in the nucleated bubble. If the potential just after tunneling is steep enough, a rapid-roll phase appears before the slow-roll inflation. In this case the power spectrum is basically determined by the Hubble rate during the slow-roll inflation. On the other hand, if such a rapid-roll phase is absent, the power spectrum keeps the memory of the high energy density there in the large angular components. Furthermore, the amplitude of large angular components can be enhanced due to the effects of the wall fluctuation mode if the bubble wall tension is small. Therefore, although even the dominant quadrupole component is suppressed by the factor (1-Ω0)2, one can construct some models in which the deviation of Ω0 from unity is large enough to produce measurable effects. We also consider a more general class of models, where the false vacuum decay may occur due to Hawking-Moss tunneling, as well as the models involving more than one scalar field. We discuss scalar perturbations in these models and point out that a large set of such models is already ruled out by observational data, unless there was a very long stage of slow-roll inflation after the tunneling. These results show that observational data allow us to test various assumptions concerning

  1. Weight watching and the effect of landscape on honeybee colony productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Kryger, Per; Vejsnæs, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    sites can give valuable insight on the influence of landscape on their productivity and might point towards future directions for modernized beekeeping practices. Using data on honeybee colony weights provided by electronic scales spread across Denmark, we investigated the effect of the immediate...... landscape on colony productivity. In order to extract meaningful information, data manipulation was necessary prior to analysis as a result of different management regimes or scales malfunction. Once this was carried out, we were able to show that colonies situated in landscapes composed of more than 50......% urban areas were significantly more productive than colonies situated in those with more than 50% agricultural areas or those in mixed areas. As well as exploring some of the potential reasons for the observed differences, we discuss the value of weight monitoring of colonies on a large scale...

  2. Epistasis and the Structure of Fitness Landscapes: Are Experimental Fitness Landscapes Compatible with Fisher's Geometric Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquart, François; Bataillon, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The fitness landscape defines the relationship between genotypes and fitness in a given environment and underlies fundamental quantities such as the distribution of selection coefficient and the magnitude and type of epistasis. A better understanding of variation in landscape structure across species and environments is thus necessary to understand and predict how populations will adapt. An increasing number of experiments investigate the properties of fitness landscapes by identifying mutations, constructing genotypes with combinations of these mutations, and measuring the fitness of these genotypes. Yet these empirical landscapes represent a very small sample of the vast space of all possible genotypes, and this sample is often biased by the protocol used to identify mutations. Here we develop a rigorous statistical framework based on Approximate Bayesian Computation to address these concerns and use this flexible framework to fit a broad class of phenotypic fitness models (including Fisher's model) to 26 empirical landscapes representing nine diverse biological systems. Despite uncertainty owing to the small size of most published empirical landscapes, the inferred landscapes have similar structure in similar biological systems. Surprisingly, goodness-of-fit tests reveal that this class of phenotypic models, which has been successful so far in interpreting experimental data, is a plausible in only three of nine biological systems. More precisely, although Fisher's model was able to explain several statistical properties of the landscapes-including the mean and SD of selection and epistasis coefficients-it was often unable to explain the full structure of fitness landscapes.

  3. The geometry of the Waddington Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ling-Nan; Doyle, Adele; Jang, Sumin; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2014-03-01

    We study the ``landscape'' of cell states that emerge during in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Profiling the gene expression of cell populations captured at specific locations along different developmental trajectories, we uncover a low-dimensional landscape with an ultrametric distance structure between states; this provide a natural basis (and limit) for reconstructing cell lineages from gene expression profiles. From the correlation spectrum of this landscape, we infer ``directions'' in gene expression along which cells transition from one state to another, as well as signaling pathways that control these transitions. Finally, we study the dynamics of cell movement on this landscape using an ES cell line where yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) has been fused to Otx2, a transcription factor that plays an important role during early development.

  4. Tensor modes on the string theory landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, Alexander

    2012-06-15

    We attempt an estimate for the distribution of the tensor mode fraction r over the landscape of vacua in string theory. The dynamics of eternal inflation and quantum tunneling lead to a kind of democracy on the landscape, providing no bias towards large-field or small-field inflation regardless of the class of measure. The tensor mode fraction then follows the number frequency distributions of inflationary mechanisms of string theory over the landscape. We show that an estimate of the relative number frequencies for small-field vs large-field inflation, while unattainable on the whole landscape, may be within reach as a regional answer for warped Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of type IIB string theory.

  5. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  6. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  7. Tensor modes on the string theory landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Westphal, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We attempt an estimate for the distribution of the tensor mode fraction $r$ over the landscape of vacua in string theory. The dynamics of eternal inflation and quantum tunneling lead to a kind of democracy on the landscape, providing no bias towards large-field or small-field inflation regardless of the class of measure. The tensor mode fraction then follows the number frequency distributions of inflationary mechanisms of string theory over the landscape. We show that an estimate of the relative number frequencies for small-field vs large-field inflation, while unattainable on the whole landscape, may be within reach as a regional answer for warped Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of type IIB string theory.

  8. Detecting Critical Scales in Fragmented Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean L. Urban

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop methods for quantifying habitat connectivity at multiple scales and assigning conservation priority to habitat patches based on their contribution to connectivity. By representing the habitat mosaic as a mathematical "graph," we show that percolation theory can be used to quantify connectivity at multiple scales from empirical landscape data. Our results indicate that connectivity of landscapes is highly scale dependent, exhibiting a marked transition at a characteristic distance and varying significantly for organisms with different dispersal behavior. More importantly, we show that the sensitivity and importance of landscape pattern is also scale dependent, peaking at scales associated with the percolation transition. In addition, the sensitivity analysis allows us to identify critical "stepping stone" patches that, when removed from the landscape, cause large changes in connectivity.

  9. The relationship between landscape planting patterns and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahmad

    Key words: Urban parks, landscape content and perceived safety. INTRODUCTION .... gested not only vegetation type, size, and location are important but the .... they were asked to rank the top five related photos at each planting pattern (1= ...

  10. LANDSCAPING FOR PASSIVE SECURITY AND ADAPTATION TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LANDSCAPING FOR PASSIVE SECURITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE IN CHURCH ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... placed with the aim of using them to deter intrusion as in the case of security but rather for beautifying the church.

  11. Permeable landscapes for wildlife in the Northeast

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape permeability, also referred to as "habitat connectivity," is the ability of a diverse land area to provide for passage of animals. This project will...

  12. VT Biodiversity Project - Representative Landscapes boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This coverage represents the results of an analysis of landscape diversity in Vermont. Polygons in the dataset represent as much as possible (in a...

  13. Free enthalpy landscape of SrO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, J C; Cancarević, Z P; Hannemann, A; Jansen, M

    2008-05-21

    Trying to predict thermodynamically stable and metastable solid compounds as function of pressure and temperature requires the global exploration of the enthalpy landscapes of chemical systems and the subsequent construction of their free enthalpy landscapes. In this work, we present a general approach to the determination of a free energy landscape. As an example, we construct the free enthalpy landscape of SrO for two different pressures on the empirical potential level and also compute various thermodynamic and elastic properties of SrO in the NaCl-, CsCl-, NiAs-, NbS-, TiP-, beta-BeO, sphalerite-, and wurtzite-structure type on an ab initio level. We employ density functional theory within the hybrid B3LYP approximation. The results show good agreement with experimental and theoretical data.

  14. Hierarchical landscape models for endemic unionid mussels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The specific objectives of this project are to a) assemble existing mussel, water quality, and landscape level (e.g., GIS) data bases; b) conduct expert interviews,...

  15. Landscape Plan: Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The landscape plan is a general description of refuge lands and provides a broad description of cover types and their locations. The identification of these...

  16. Landscape Conservative Cooperatives for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Landscape conservation cooperatives (LCCs) are conservation-science partnerships between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and other...

  17. The World Heritage and cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes have a range of values that communities recognize as important and want to conserve. Cultural and natural values are the qualities which make a place or landscape important. In particular, we can consider Cultural Landscapes an important and constitutional part of the World Heritage. It is fundamental that stakeholders must know what values are to be found in their cultural landscapes and consequently reinforce the protection and enhancement of the values. The attempt to help the awareness is presented in the paper and discussed as an UNESCO instrument of observation, retention and pro-active conservation of the heritage of our past, as institutional to the formation of continuity in the future years to come and for the future generations. Finally, one case study is also illustrated as a very good example of effective values-based management

  18. Sociology of Professions: The Evolution of Landscape Architecture in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Timothy Baird

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In mid- to late-nineteenth-century American history, there was a fairly uniform evolution of 'occupations' that developed into specialised 'professions'; the process of which has long been an area of study for sociologists. Acknowledged professions such as law and medicine were beneficiaries of this transition - being cited today as consummate authorities in their respective knowledge bases. Yet, landscape architecture, to date, has not achieved the same level of public understanding and approbation even in comparison to sister professions of planning and architecture. This paper uses the theoretical framework of the sociology of professions to understand the comparatively latent development of the profession of landscape architecture in achieving public recognition. Based on these theoretical standards, the findings of this study include possible reasons for landscape architecture's slower evolution in public recognition and acceptance, as well as a projection of its future through a review of recent accomplishments and events that indicate how public approbation and understanding of landscape architecture might be expanded. The paper concludes with reasons for optimism towards the future of the profession and discipline. The research goal of this undertaking was to trace landscape architecture's trajectory from occupation to profession, beginning in the late nineteenth century, and to compare that path with other disciplines, such as planning and architecture, in order to determine the reasons for landscape architecture's slower journey toward public recognition and understanding. This article frames the professional evolution of landscape architecture in the United States through a sociological lens of professional development. The study begins with a survey of the development of professions as a sociological phenomenon, and is placed in context by a literature review of scholarly journals, professional trade magazines and various studies of

  19. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). Reducing potable water demand for landscape irrigation correlates to lower energy costs necessary...irrigation is necessary. Typically, timer-based systems are adjusted higher than needed to account for consecutive hot days that stress turf beyond the...implementation at sports field, parade grounds, and/or landscape near buildings. Appendix C details the life cycle cost for the smart water

  20. The social dimension of coastal risk landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Roca Bosch, Elisabet; Villares Junyent, Míriam; Oroval Junyent, Laia; Gabarró, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    Within the context of the PaiRisc project, the coastal risk landscape can be defined as a coastal zone subjected to different kinds of risks. We used a systemic approach to defining the risks, their impacts, their mechanisms of action, feedback loops and stakeholder perceptions. Our objective was to integrate the social dimension into the landscape risk map for the Maresme Sud coast, a short distance north of Barcelona. Methodologically, the research was based on semi-structured interviews an...

  1. Energy landscapes shape animal movement ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, Emily L. C.; Wilson, Rory P; Rees, W. Gareth; Grundy, Edward; Lambertucci, Sergio Agustin; Vosper, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic costs of animal movement have been studied extensively under laboratory conditions, although frequently these are a poor approximation of the costs of operating in the natural, heterogeneous environment. Construction of “energy landscapes,” which relate animal locality to the cost of transport, can clarify whether, to what extent, and how movement properties are attributable to environmental heterogeneity. Although behavioral responses to aspects of the energy landscape are well...

  2. Modelling landslide dynamics in forested landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The research resulting in this thesis covers the geological, geomorphological and landscape ecology related themes of the project 'Podzolisation under Kauri (Agathis australis): for better or worse?' supported by theNetherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The general objective of this thesis is to investigate landscape, soil and vegetation dynamics in theWaitakereRangesRegionalParkon the North Island of New Zealand, where also all the fieldwork was carried out. The main core o...

  3. Energy landscapes shape animal movement ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Emily L C Shepard; Wilson, Rory P.; Rees, W. Gareth; Grundy, Edward; Lambertucci, Sergio Agustin; Vosper, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic costs of animal movement have been studied extensively under laboratory conditions, although frequently these are a poor approximation of the costs of operating in the natural, heterogeneous environment. Construction of “energy landscapes,” which relate animal locality to the cost of transport, can clarify whether, to what extent, and how movement properties are attributable to environmental heterogeneity. Although behavioral responses to aspects of the energy landscape are well...

  4. Landscape, water and religion in ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Shaw

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available As Buddhism spread into central and western India from its centre of origin in the central Gangetic Plain, how did this change the ways in which the landscape was perceived and organized? In this study of the regional setting of the great site of Sanchi and of other important sites in central and western India, religious, political, economic and agricultural changes are integrated in an holistic approach to archaeological landscapes.

  5. The cultural biography of landscape as an interdisciplinary tool for landscape planning at Banjarmasin City, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damayanti, Vera; Spek, Mattheus

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century concepts of cultural landscape have been developed that have led to the inclusion of the cultural dimension in landscape studies. The implication of this in landscape planning and management is that planners should not only comprehend the physical dimension of a landscap

  6. Introduction to landscape design elements - water body beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海蓉

    2014-01-01

    both in classical gardens of piled mountain water or the water in the modern city landscape, is almost no water is not a scene, as an essential element in landscape water body, not only has the aesthetic value, and has the ecological value. This article through to the water landscape characteristics and the importance of this paper, analyzes the form of waterscape, water landscape design in landscape design provides sufficient theoretical basis and the reference material.

  7. Astrobiology and the Risk Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirkovic, M. M.

    2013-09-01

    We live in the epoch of explosive development of astrobiology, a novel interdisciplinary field dealing with the origin, evolution, and the future of life. While at first glance its relevance for risk analysis is small, there is an increasing number of crossover problems and thematic areas which stem from considerations of observation selection effects and the cosmic future of humanity, as well as better understanding of our astrophysical environment and the open nature of the Earth system. In considering the totality of risks facing any intelligent species in the most general cosmic context (a natural generalization of the concept of global catastrophic risks or GCRs), there is a complex dynamical hierarchy of natural and anthropogenic risks, often tightly interrelated. I shall argue that this landscape-like structure can be defined in the space of astrobiological/SETI parameters and that it is a concept capable of unifying different strands of thought and research, a working concept and not only a metaphor. Fermi's Paradox or the "Great Silence" problem represents the crucial boundary condition on generic evolutionary trajectories of individual intelligent species; I briefly consider the conditions of its applicability as far as quantification of GCRs is concerned. Overall, such a perspective would strengthen foundations upon which various numerical models of the future of humanity can be built; the lack of such quantitative models has often been cited as the chief weakness of the entire GCR enterprise.

  8. Landscape resistance to frog movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Desrochers, A.

    2005-01-01

    An animal's capacity to recolonize a patch depends on at least two components: its ability to detect the patch and its ability to reach it. However, the disruption of such processes by anthropic disturbances could explain low animal abundance patterns observed by many investigators in certain landscapes. Through field experiments, we compared the orientation and homing success of northern green frogs (Rana clamitans melanota Rafinesque, 1820) and northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens Schreber, 1782) translocated across disturbed or undisturbed surfaces. We also monitored the path selected by individuals when presented with a choice between a short distance over a disturbed surface and a longer, undisturbed route. Finally, we measured the water loss and behaviour of frogs on substrates resulting from anthropogenic disturbances and a control. When presented with a choice, 72% of the frogs avoided disturbed surfaces. Although able to orient towards the pond of capture when translocated on disturbed surfaces, frogs had a lower probability of homing successfully to the pond than when translocated at a similar distance on an undisturbed surface. Frogs lost the most water on substrates associated with disturbance and in the absence of cover. Our data illustrate that anthropically disturbed areas devoid of cover, such as mined peatlands and agricultural fields, disrupt the ability of frogs to reach habitat patches and are likely explanations to their reduced abundance patterns in such environments. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  9. On University Campus Landscape Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 祁素萍

    2014-01-01

    In a few years, with the progress of China's society, material needs and spiritual needs are in the corresponding en-hancement. All needs and requirements of society for talents are in the unceasing increase and improvement, and certainly will need to increase the country's national education. Our country put forward the strategy of developing the country through sci-ence and education, and the university education is the center of it. So our country on the one hand, through expanding enroll-ment rate, let more people to accept higher education;On the other hand, through increasing the investment of the infrastructure construction in colleges and universities, the campus can satisfy the need of more features. Along with the progress of market economy and urban modernization, the campus development level has become an important symbol in measuring the progress of a city, a regional economic and cultural development. It is also the origin to transport all kinds of advanced talents for urban. The construction of university campus is gradually developed in such an environment, striving to reflect new period, new era universi-ty campus's new look and new attitude. Trying to develop the campus to which has its own characteristic humanities landscape and put the characteristic of open and humanistic, functional and artistic quality, ecological and sustainable in organic combina-tion of unity, advancing with The Times.

  10. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscaping Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2010-07-28

    The document lays-out step by step instructions to estimate landscaping water using two alternative approaches: evapotranspiration method and irrigation audit method. The evapotranspiration method option calculates the amount of water needed to maintain a healthy turf or landscaped area for a given location based on the amount of water transpired and evaporated from the plants. The evapotranspiration method offers a relatively easy “one-stop-shop” for Federal agencies to develop an initial estimate of annual landscape water use. The document presents annual irrigation factors for 36 cities across the U.S. that represents the gallons of irrigation required per square foot for distinct landscape types. By following the steps outlined in the document, the reader can choose a location that is a close match their location and landscape type to provide a rough estimate of annual irrigation needs without the need to research specific data on their site. The second option presented in the document is the irrigation audit method, which is the physical measurement of water applied to landscaped areas through irrigation equipment. Steps to perform an irrigation audit are outlined in the document, which follow the Recommended Audit Guidelines produced by the Irrigation Association.[5] An irrigation audit requires some knowledge on the specific procedures to accurately estimate how much water is being consumed by the irrigation equipment.

  11. Soil erosion dynamics response to landscape pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Skidmore, Andrew K; Hao, Fanghua; Wang, Tiejun

    2010-02-15

    Simulating soil erosion variation with a temporal land use database reveals long-term fluctuations in landscape patterns, as well as priority needs for soil erosion conservation. The application of a multi-year land use database in support of a Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) led to an accurate assessment, from 1977 to 2006, of erosion in the upper watershed of the Yellow River. At same time, the impacts of land use and landscape service features on soil erosion load were assessed. A series of supervised land use classifications of Landsat images characterized variations in land use and landscape patterns over three decades. The SWAT database was constructed with soil properties, climate and elevation data. Using water flow and sand density data as parameters, regional soil erosion load was simulated. A numerical statistical model was used to relate soil erosion to land use and landscape. The results indicated that decadal decrease of grassland areas did not pose a significant threat to soil erosion, while the continual increase of bare land, water area and farmland increased soil erosion. Regional landscape variation also had a strong relationship with erosion. Patch level landscape analyses demonstrated that larger water area led to more soil erosion. The patch correlation indicated that contagious grassland patches reduced soil erosion yield. The increased grassland patches led to more patch edges, in turn increasing the sediment transportation from the patch edges. The findings increase understanding of the temporal variation in soil erosion processes, which is the basis for preventing local pollution.

  12. Geoheritage, geotourism and cultural landscapes in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John E.

    2015-04-01

    Geoheritage is closely linked with many aspects of cultural heritage and the development of tourism in Scotland. Historically, aesthetic appreciation of the physical landscape and links with literature and art formed the foundation for tourism during the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, exploration of the cultural links between geodiversity and landscape is providing new opportunities for raising awareness of geoheritage through literature, poetry, art and the built heritage. Interpreting the cultural dimension of geodiversity can enable people to connect with geodiversity through different experiences and a renewed sense of wonder about the physical landscape and the creative inspiration provided by geodiversity. It can also link geodiversity to cultural roots and sense of place, allowing exploration of different connections between people and the natural world. Such experiential engagement is promoted through the development of Geoparks. It requires thinking about how interpretation can add value to people's experiences and provide involvement that evokes a sense of wonder about the physical landscape. This means encouraging new and memorable experiential ways of interpreting the landscape and communicating its geological stories, not simply presenting information. Rediscovering a sense of wonder about the physical landscape through cultural links can enable wider public appreciation of geoheritage and help to develop greater support for geoconservation.

  13. Landscape structure and the speed of adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudino, Elder S.; Campos, Paulo R.A., E-mail: prac@df.ufpe.br

    2014-07-18

    The role of fragmentation in the adaptive process is addressed. We investigate how landscape structure affects the speed of adaptation in a spatially structured population model. As models of fragmented landscapes, here we simulate the percolation maps and the fractal landscapes. In the latter the degree of spatial autocorrelation can be suited. We verified that fragmentation can effectively affect the adaptive process. The examination of the fixation rates and speed of adaptation discloses the dichotomy exhibited by percolation maps and fractal landscapes. In the latter, there is a smooth change in the pace of the adaptation process, as the landscapes become more aggregated higher fixation rates and speed of adaptation are obtained. On the other hand, in random percolation the geometry of the percolating cluster matters. Thus, the scenario depends on whether the system is below or above the percolation threshold. - Highlights: • The role of fragmentation on the adaptive process is addressed. • Our approach makes the linkage between population genetics and landscape ecology. • Fragmentation affects gene flow and thus influences the speed of adaptation. • The level of clumping determines how the speed of adaptation is influenced.

  14. Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-11-05

    The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape-flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments.

  15. MINES, QUARRIES AND LANDSCAPE. VISUALITY AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López JIMENO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a review of two basic concepts is carried out: scenery and landscape integration, proposing a new concept: "visuality", alternative to the classical "visibility" used in landscape studies related to mining activity, which explores the qualitative aspects that define the visual relationships between observer and environment. In relation to landscape integration studies, some reflections on substantive issues are made which induce certain prejudices at the time of addressing the issue of mining operations landscape integration, and some guidance and integration strategies are formulated. In the second part of the text, a new approach to the landscape integration of mines and quarries is raised, closely linked to the concept of visuality which are based on a basic goal: the re-qualification of the place, and give innovative answers to re-qualify the place and show how to catch the opportunity in the deep transformation generated by the development of mining activities. As a conclusion, a case study is presented in the last section, the landscape integration study conducted on marble exploitations Coto Pinos (Alicante, Spain, considered the largest ornamental rock quarry in Europe.

  16. Assessing Urban Landscape Variables’ Contributions to Microclimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy E. Parece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-known urban heat island (UHI effect recognizes prevailing patterns of warmer urban temperatures relative to surrounding rural landscapes. Although UHIs are often visualized as single features, internal variations within urban landscapes create distinctive microclimates. Evaluating intraurban microclimate variability presents an opportunity to assess spatial dimensions of urban environments and identify locations that heat or cool faster than other locales. Our study employs mobile weather units and fixed weather stations to collect air temperatures across Roanoke, Virginia, USA, on selected dates over a two-year interval. Using this temperature data, together with six landscape variables, we interpolated (using Kriging and Random Forest air temperatures across the city for each collection period. Our results estimated temperatures with small mean square errors (ranging from 0.03 to 0.14; landscape metrics explained between 60 and 91% of temperature variations (higher when the previous day’s average temperatures were included as a variable. For all days, similar spatial patterns appeared for cooler and warmer areas in mornings, with distinctive patterns as landscapes warmed during the day and over successive days. Our results revealed that the most potent landscape variables vary according to season and time of day. Our analysis contributes new dimensions and new levels of spatial and temporal detail to urban microclimate research.

  17. Assessing the habitat suitability of agricultural landscapes for characteristic breeding bird guilds using landscape metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Friederike; Glemnitz, Michael; Schultz, Alfred; Stachow, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Many of the processes behind the decline of farmland birds can be related to modifications in landscape structure (composition and configuration), which can partly be expressed quantitatively with measurable or computable indices, i.e. landscape metrics. This paper aims to identify statistical relationships between the occurrence of birds and the landscape structure. We present a method that combines two comprehensive procedures: the "landscape-centred approach" and "guild classification". Our study is based on more than 20,000 individual bird observations based on a 4-year bird monitoring approach in a typical agricultural area in the north-eastern German lowlands. Five characteristic bird guilds, each with three characteristic species, are defined for the typical habitat types of that area: farmland, grassland, hedgerow, forest and settlement. The suitability of each sample plot for each guild is indicated by the level of persistence (LOP) of occurrence of three respective species. Thus, the sample plots can be classified as "preferred" or "less preferred" depending on the lower and upper quartiles of the LOP values. The landscape structure is characterized by 16 different landscape metrics expressing various aspects of landscape composition and configuration. For each guild, the three landscape metrics with the strongest rank correlation with the LOP values and that are not mutually dependent were identified. For four of the bird guilds, the classification success was better than 80%, compared with only 66% for the grassland bird guild. A subset of six landscape metrics proved to be the most meaningful and sufficiently classified the sample areas with respect to bird guild suitability. In addition, derived logistic functions allowed the production of guild-specific habitat suitability maps for the whole landscape. The analytical results show that the proposed approach is appropriate to assess the habitat suitability of agricultural landscapes for characteristic

  18. Landscape evolution by subglacial quarrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugelvig, Sofie V.; Egholm, David L.; Iverson, Neal R.

    2014-05-01

    In glacial landscape evolution models, subglacial erosion rates are often related to basal sliding or ice discharge by a power-law. This relation can be justified for bedrock abrasion because rock debris transported in the basal ice drives the erosion. However, a simple relation between rates of sliding and erosion is not well supported when considering models for quarrying of rock blocks from the bed. Iverson (2012) introduced a new subglacial quarrying model that operates from the theory of adhesive wear. The model is based on the fact that cavities, with a high level of bedrock differential stress, form along the lee side of bed obstacles when the sliding velocity is to high to allow for the ice to creep around the obstacles. The erosion rate is quantified by considering the likelihood of rock fracturing on topographic bumps. The model includes a statistical treatment of the bedrock weakness: larger rock bodies have lower strengths since they have greater possibility of containing a large flaw [Jaeger and Cook, 1979]. Inclusion of this effect strongly influences the erosion rates and questions the dominant role of sliding rate in standard models for subglacial erosion. Effective pressure, average bedslope, and bedrock fracture density are primary factors that, in addition to sliding rate, influence the erosion rate of this new quarrying model [Iverson, 2012]. We have implemented the quarrying model in a depth-integrated higher-order ice-sheet model [Egholm et al. 2011], coupled to a model for glacial hydrology. In order to also include the effects of cavitation on the subglacial sliding rate, we use a sliding law proposed by Schoof (2005), which includes an upper limit for the stress that can be supported at the bed. Computational experiments show that the combined influence of pressure, sliding rate and bed slope leads to realistically looking landforms such as U-shaped valleys, cirques, hanging valleys and overdeepenings. Compared to model results using a

  19. No interest in landscape? The art of non-participation in Danish landscape planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Laura Tolnov

    2017-01-01

    landscape planning, two key categories are identified as the deeper causes of people’s non-participation: the fear of the intimate, and the fear of the strange. A general conclusion is that non-participation can be explained in terms of ambivalence. The desire for landscape development does exist...

  20. Functional decay in tree community within tropical fragmented landscapes: Effects of landscape-scale forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Santos, Larissa; Benchimol, Maíra; Mayfield, Margaret M; Faria, Deborah; Pessoa, Michaele S; Talora, Daniela C; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Cazetta, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    As tropical rainforests are cleared, forest remnants are increasingly isolated within agricultural landscapes. Understanding how forest loss impacts on species diversity can, therefore, contribute to identifying the minimum amount of habitat required for biodiversity maintenance in human-modified landscapes. Here, we evaluate how the amount of forest cover, at the landscape scale, affects patterns of species richness, abundance, key functional traits and common taxonomic families of adult trees in twenty Brazilian Atlantic rainforest landscapes. We found that as forest cover decreases, both tree community richness and abundance decline, without exhibiting a threshold. At the family-level, species richness and abundance of the Myrtaceae and Sapotaceae were also negatively impacted by the percent forest remaining at the landscape scale. For functional traits, we found a reduction in shade-tolerant, animal-dispersed and small-seeded species following a decrease in the amount of forest retained in landscapes. These results suggest that the amount of forest in a landscape is driving non-random losses in phylogenetic and functional tree diversity in Brazil's remaining Atlantic rainforests. Our study highlights potential restraints on the conservation value of Atlantic rainforest remnants in deforested landscapes in the future.

  1. Exploring the visual landscape : advances in physiognomic landscape research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.; Hoeven, van der F.

    2011-01-01

    The book is the second volume in the Research in Urbanism Series of IOS Press and is about the combination of landscape research and planning, visual perception and Geographic Information Science. It offers clues for visual landscape assessment of spaces in cities, parks and rural areas. In that

  2. Integrating Landscape Ecology and Geoinformatics to Decipher Landscape Dynamics for Regional Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikou, Angela; Papapanagiotou, Evangelos; Troumbis, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    We used remote sensing and GIS in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods to: (i) quantify landscape composition (land cover types) and configuration (patch density, diversity, fractal dimension, contagion) for five coastal watersheds of Kalloni gulf, Lesvos Island, Greece, in 1945, 1960, 1971, 1990 and 2002/2003, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of physical (slope, geologic substrate, stream order) and human (road network, population density) variables on landscape composition and configuration, and (iii) characterize processes that led to land cover changes through land cover transitions between these five successive periods in time. Distributions of land cover types did not differ among the five time periods at the five watersheds studied because the largest cumulative changes between 1945 and 2002/2003 did not take place at dominant land cover types. Landscape composition related primarily to the physical attributes of the landscape. Nevertheless, increase in population density and the road network were found to increase heterogeneity of the landscape mosaic (patchiness), complexity of patch shape (fractal dimension), and patch disaggregation (contagion). Increase in road network was also found to increase landscape diversity due to the creation of new patches. The main processes involved in land cover changes were plough-land abandonment and ecological succession. Landscape dynamics during the last 50 years corroborate the ecotouristic-agrotouristic model for regional development to reverse trends in agricultural land abandonment and human population decline and when combined with hypothetical regulatory approaches could predict how this landscape could develop in the future, thus, providing a valuable tool to regional planning.

  3. The Q-Sort method: use in landscape assessment research and landscape planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Pitt; Ervin H. Zube

    1979-01-01

    The assessment of visual quality inherently involves the measurement of perceptual response to landscape. The Q-Sort Method is a psychometric technique which produces reliable and valid interval measurements of people's perceptions of landscape visual quality as depicted in photographs. It is readily understood by participants across a wide range of age groups and...

  4. Analytical Tools Interface for Landscape Assessments (ATtILA) for landscape metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATtILA is easy to use ArcView extension that calculates many commonly used landscape metrics. By providing an intuitive interface, the extension provides the ability to generate landscape metrics to a wide audience regardless of their GIS knowledge level.

  5. Landscape reorganization under changing climatic forcing: Results from an experimental landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind; Reinhardt, Liam; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how landscapes respond to climate dynamics in terms of macroscale (average topographic features) and microscale (landform reorganization) is of interest both for deciphering past climates from today's landscapes and for predicting future landscapes in view of recent climatic trends. Although several studies have addressed macro-scale response, only a few have focused on quantifying smaller-scale basin reorganization. To that goal, a series of controlled laboratory experiments were conducted where a self-organized complete drainage network emerged under constant precipitation and uplift dynamics. Once steady state was achieved, the landscape was subjected to a fivefold increase in precipitation (transient state). Throughout the evolution, high-resolution spatiotemporal topographic data in the form of digital elevation models were collected. The steady state landscape was shown to possess three distinct geomorphic regimes (unchannelized hillslopes, debris-dominated channels, and fluvially dominated channels). During transient state, landscape reorganization was observed to be driven by hillslopes via accelerated erosion, ridge lowering, channel widening, and reduction of basin relief as opposed to channel base-level reduction. Quantitative metrics on which these conclusions were based included slope-area curve, correlation analysis of spatial and temporal elevation increments, and wavelet spectral analysis of the evolving landscapes. Our results highlight that landscape reorganization in response to increased precipitation seems to follow "an arrow of scale": major elevation change initiates at the hillslope scale driving erosional regime change at intermediate scales and further cascading to geomorphic changes at the channel scale as time evolves.

  6. On a landscape approach to design and eco-poetic approach to Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2008-01-01

    For Landscape Architecture to become an academic discipline it must present its own coherent theory and methodology for the planning, designing and management of (built) landscapes. This also requires not only an articulated if difficult differentiation of planning, design and management and the

  7. Multiple ecosystem services landscape index: a tool for multifunctional landscapes conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Loinaz, Gloria; Alday, Josu G; Onaindia, Miren

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of ecosystems to human well-being has been widely recognised. Taking into account existing trade-offs between ecosystem services (ES) at the farm scale and the dependence of multiple ES on processes that take place at the landscape scale, long-term preservation of multifunctional landscapes must be a priority. Studies carried out from such perspective, and those that develop appropriate indicators, could provide useful tools for integrating ES in landscape planning. In this study we propose a new integrative environmental indicator based on the ES provided by the landscape and named "multiple ecosystem services landscape index" (MESLI). Because synergies and trade-offs between ES are produced at regional or local levels, being different from those perceived at larger scales, MESLI was developed at municipality level. Furthermore, in order to identify main drivers of change in ES provision at the landscape scale an analysis of the relationship between the environmental and the socioeconomic characteristics of the municipalities was carried out. The study was located in the Basque Country and the results demonstrated that the MESLI index is a good tool to measure landscape multifunctionality at local scales. It is effective evaluating landscapes, distinguishing between municipalities based on ES provision, and identifying the drivers of change and their effects. This information about ES provisioning at the local level is usually lacking; therefore, MESLI would be very useful for policy-makers and land managers because it provides relevant information to local scale decision-making.

  8. Beyond the conventional: meeting the challenges of landscape governance within the European Landscape Convention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alister

    2011-10-01

    Academics and policy makers seeking to deconstruct landscape face major challenges conceptually, methodologically and institutionally. The meaning(s), identity(ies) and management of landscape are controversial and contested. The European Landscape Convention provides an opportunity for action and change set within new governance agendas addressing interdisciplinarity and spatial planning. This paper critically reviews the complex web of conceptual and methodological frameworks that characterise landscape planning and management and then focuses on emerging landscape governance in Scotland within a mixed method approach involving policy analyses, semi-structured interviews and best practice case studies. Using Dower's (2008) criteria from the Articles of the European Landscape Convention, the results show that whilst some progress has been made in landscape policy and practice, largely through the actions of key individuals and champions, there are significant institutional hurdles and resource limitations to overcome. The need to mainstream positive landscape outcomes requires a significant culture change where a one-size-fits-all approach does not work.

  9. When do glaciated landscapes form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial erosion is a fundamental link between climate and the tectonic and surface processes that create topography. Mountain ranges worldwide have undergone large-scale modification due the erosive action of ice masses, yet the mechanisms that control the timing of this modification and the rate by which ice erodes remain poorly understood. Available data report a wide range of erosion rates from individual ice masses over varying timescales, from the modern to orogenic. Recent numerical modeling efforts have focused on replicating the processes that produce the geomorphic signatures of glacial landscapes. Central to these models is a simple index that relates erosion rate to ice dynamics. To provide a quantitative test of the links between glacial erosion, sliding and ice discharge, we examined explicitly the factors controlling modern glacier erosion rates across climatic regimes, from Patagonia to the Antarctic Peninsula. We find that modern, basin-averaged erosion rates vary by three orders of magnitude, from 1->10 mm yr-1 in Patagonia to 0.01-ELA, in accord with theories of glacial erosion. Notably, erosion rates decrease by over two orders of magnitude between temperate and polar glaciers with similar discharge rates. The difference in erosion rates between temperate and colder glaciers of similar shape and size is primarily related to the abundance of meltwater accessing the bed. Since all glaciers worldwide have experienced colder than current climatic conditions, the 100-fold decrease in long-term relative to modern erosion rates may in part reflect the temporal averaging of temperate and polar conditions over the lifecycle of these glaciers. Hence, climatic variation, more than the extent of ice cover or tectonic changes, controls the pace at which glaciers shape mountains.

  10. Probability landscapes for integrative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benecke Arndt

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The comprehension of the gene regulatory code in eukaryotes is one of the major challenges of systems biology, and is a requirement for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for multifactorial diseases. Its bi-fold degeneration precludes brute force and statistical approaches based on the genomic sequence alone. Rather, recursive integration of systematic, whole-genome experimental data with advanced statistical regulatory sequence predictions needs to be developed. Such experimental approaches as well as the prediction tools are only starting to become available and increasing numbers of genome sequences and empirical sequence annotations are under continual discovery-driven change. Furthermore, given the complexity of the question, a decade(s long multi-laboratory effort needs to be envisioned. These constraints need to be considered in the creation of a framework that can pave a road to successful comprehension of the gene regulatory code. Results We introduce here a concept for such a framework, based entirely on systematic annotation in terms of probability profiles of genomic sequence using any type of relevant experimental and theoretical information and subsequent cross-correlation analysis in hypothesis-driven model building and testing. Conclusion Probability landscapes, which include as reference set the probabilistic representation of the genomic sequence, can be used efficiently to discover and analyze correlations amongst initially heterogeneous and un-relatable descriptions and genome-wide measurements. Furthermore, this structure is usable as a support for automatically generating and testing hypotheses for alternative gene regulatory grammars and the evaluation of those through statistical analysis of the high-dimensional correlations between genomic sequence, sequence annotations, and experimental data. Finally, this structure provides a concrete and tangible basis for attempting to formulate a

  11. The new landscape for nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, W P

    1999-01-01

    For most of this century, society's caring functions have been the work of government and charities. But social services in the United States are in a period of transition. Today the U.S. government no longer considers nonprofits to be entitled--or even best qualified--to provide social services. Profit-seeking companies like Lockheed Martin are now winning contracts for such services. William Ryan describes how government outsourcing and a new business mind-set have changed the landscape of social services. The change raises fundamental questions about the mission and future of nonprofits. Ryan attributes the growth of for-profits in the social service industry to four factors: size, capital, mobility, and responsiveness. While those attributes give for-profits an advantage in acquiring new contracts, nonprofits have not yet lost their foothold. Ryan cites examples of organizations like the YWCA and Abraxas to demonstrate various ways that nonprofits are responding--from subcontracting to partnership to outright conversion to for-profit status. By playing in the new marketplace, nonprofits will be forced to reconfigure their operations and organizations in ways that could compromise their missions. Because nonprofits now find themselves sharing territory with for-profits, sometimes as collaborators and sometimes as competitors, the distinctions between these organizations will continue to blur. The point, Ryan argues, is not whether nonprofits can survive opposition from for-profits. Many have already adjusted to the new competitive environment. The real issue is whether nonprofits can adapt without compromising the qualities that distinguish them from for-profit organizations.

  12. VIRTUAL MUSEUMS FOR LANDSCAPE VALORIZATION AND COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pietroni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in the domain of landscape virtual reconstructions has been mainly focused on digitization and recording inside GIS systems, or real time visualization, paying a minor attention to the development of a methodological approach for the landscape narration, combing different registers, conceptual, emotional incitements and, thus, able to arouse in the public a feeling of emotional “sensing” and self- identification. The landscape reflects also the human activities in the territory and the communities’ cultural patterns, their sense of “belonging”. In a virtual museum of landscapes, the multidisciplinary approach, the multiplication of perspectives and voices, storytelling, acquire primary importance. A Virtual Museum of landscapes should integrate both holistic and delimited visions. The holistic vision requires a diachronic approach, including both present and past phases of life. On the other side, delimited, or “monographic”, representations are useful to go deeper into specific and exemplar stories, regarding specific groups of people. Beside, the emergence of new social media enhancing cultural interactions among people induce the creation of specific social platforms for Cultural Heritage for the active participation of a large number of stakeholders. Co-creation scenarios and tools can be particularly promising. Aton is an example of front-end VR social platform in the web end, for the efficient streaming of medium/large landscape, their exploration and characterization. The Tiber Valley Virtual Museum is an example of sensorial cultural landscape. Starting from the acquisition of topographical data through integrated technologies, several multi-sensory scenarios have been created, inside which visitors can feel embodied and involved.

  13. Effect of Landscape Structure on Species Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R A Campos

    Full Text Available The effects of habitat fragmentation and their implications for biodiversity is a central issue in conservation biology which still lacks an overall comprehension. There is not yet a clear consensus on how to quantify fragmentation even though it is quite common to couple the effects of habitat loss with habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Here we address the spatial patterns of species distribution in fragmented landscapes, assuming a neutral community model. To build up the fragmented landscapes, we employ the fractional Brownian motion approach, which in turn permits us to tune the amount of habitat loss and degree of clumping of the landscape independently. The coupling between the neutral community model, here simulated by means of the coalescent method, and fractal neutral landscape models enables us to address how the species-area relationship changes as the spatial patterns of a landscape is varied. The species-area relationship is one of the most fundamental laws in ecology, considered as a central tool in conservation biology, and is used to predict species loss following habitat disturbances. Our simulation results indicate that the level of clumping has a major role in shaping the species-area relationship. For instance, more compact landscapes are more sensitive to the effects of habitat loss and speciation rate. Besides, the level of clumping determines the existence and extension of the power-law regime which is expected to hold at intermediate scales. The distributions of species abundance are strongly influenced by the degree of fragmentation. We also show that the first and second commonest species have approximately self-similar spatial distributions across scales, with the fractal dimensions of the support of the first and second commonest species being very robust to changes in the spatial patterns of the landscape.

  14. Species mobility and landscape context determine the importance of local and landscape-level attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Montemayor, Elisa; Watts, Kevin; Macgregor, Nicholas A; Lopez-Gallego, Zeltia; J Park, Kirsty

    2017-07-01

    Conservation strategies to tackle habitat loss and fragmentation require actions at the local (e.g., improving/expanding existing habitat patches) and landscape level (e.g., creating new habitat in the matrix). However, the relative importance of these actions for biodiversity is still poorly understood, leading to debate on how to prioritize conservation activities. Here, we assess the relative importance of local vs. landscape-level attributes in determining the use of woodlands by bats in fragmented landscapes; we also compare the role of habitat amount in the surrounding landscape per se vs. a combination of both habitat amount and configuration and explore whether the relative importance of these attributes varies with species mobility and landscape context. We conducted acoustic surveys in 102 woodland patches in the UK that form part of the WrEN project (www.wren-project.com), a large-scale natural experiment designed to study the effects of 160 yr of woodland creation on biodiversity and inform landscape-scale conservation. We used multivariate analysis and a model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of local (e.g., vegetation structure) and landscape-level (e.g., amount/configuration of surrounding land types) attributes on bat occurrence and activity levels. Species mobility was an important trait determining the relative importance of local vs. landscape-level attributes for different bat species. Lower mobility species were most strongly influenced by local habitat quality; the landscape became increasingly important for higher mobility species. At the landscape-scale, a combination of habitat amount and configuration appeared more important than habitat amount alone for lower mobility species, while the opposite was observed for higher mobility species. Regardless of species mobility, landscape-level attributes appeared more important for bats in a more homogeneous and intensively farmed landscape. Conservation strategies involving

  15. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL PATCHGRADIENT MAPS IN NATURE CONSERVATIONAL LANDSCAPE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER CSORBA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There are rather limited opportunities for using the results of landscape ecology in practical nature conservation. The reasonS for this are – at least partly – the different scales and frames of the two fields. For more effective cooperation there is an opportunity for landscape ecology to determine patch-gradients that are helpful for nature protection in expanding the living space of endangered species via CORINE land use-pattern in mixed use agricultural areas. Such alternative migration tracks become valuable in places, where landscape ecological corridors and stepping stone places are missing. The method applies the gradient concept of landscape structure of McGarigal and Cushman (2005. Determination of patch-gradients can be a good background material for settlement- and infrastructure planning; and for the elaboration of medium- and long term nature protection concepts or for even general landscape protection strategies as well.

  16. Landscape heterogeneity as an ecological filter of species traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duflot, Rémi; Georges, Romain; Ernoult, Aude; Aviron, Stéphanie; Burel, Françoise

    2014-04-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is a major driver of biodiversity in agricultural areas and represents an important parameter in conservation strategies. However, most landscape ecology studies measure gamma diversity of a single habitat type, despite the assessment of multiple habitats at a landscape scale being more appropriate. This study aimed to determine the effects of landscape composition and spatial configuration on life-history trait distribution in carabid beetle and herbaceous plant communities. Here, we assessed the gamma diversity of carabid beetles and plants by sampling three dominant habitats (woody habitats, grasslands and crops) across 20 landscapes in western France. RLQ and Fourth Corner three-table analyses were used to assess the association of dispersal, phenology, reproduction and trophic level traits with landscape characteristics. Landscape composition and configuration were both significant in explaining functional composition. Carabid beetles and plants showed similar response regarding phenology, i.e. open landscapes were associated with earlier breeding species. Carabid beetle dispersal traits exhibited the strongest relationship with landscape structure; for instance, large and apterous species preferentially inhabited woody landscapes, whereas small and macropterous species preferentially inhabited open landscapes. Heavy seeded plant species dominated in intensified agricultural landscapes (high % crops), possibly due to the removal of weeds (which are usually lightweight seeded species). The results of this study emphasise the roles of landscape composition and configuration as ecological filters and the importance of preserving a range of landscape types to maintain functional biodiversity at regional scales.

  17. Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape–flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments. PMID:24145451

  18. Tourism and landscape in South Tyrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, Werner; Reeh, Tobias

    2011-12-01

    An increasing number of the people responsible for promoting tourism understand the necessity of landscape conservation and sustainable development. Sustainability and the maintenance of regional identity depend on the kind of tourism that takes account of the landscape and stops short of a blind modification of it, for instance through the installation of inappropriate large-scale tourist infrastructure. Since the 1970s South Tyrol, Italy's most northern province (Autonome Provinz Bozen/Südtirol; Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano/Alto Adige), has engaged in tourism of outstanding quality, centreed on the existing landscape potential. Until today this has been the basis for successful tourism development. In the meantime however, there have been calls in South Tyrol for a quantitative expansion, founded on the implementation of an artificial touristic infrastructure and products. As is the case in many other alpine regions, this could be detrimental to the quality of the landscape. Supported by tourism research and based on the authors' own long-standing experience, this article analyzes the development and trends of tourism in South Tyrol from a geographical perspective and takes a critical look at the various planning prospects and the problems which might evolve for the landscape and for tourism marketing.

  19. Graph representation of protein free energy landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghai; Duan, Mojie; Fan, Jue; Han, Li; Huo, Shuanghong

    2013-11-14

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding and protein conformational changes are governed by the underlying free energy landscape. However, the multidimensional nature of the free energy landscape makes it difficult to describe. We propose to use a weighted-graph approach to depict the free energy landscape with the nodes on the graph representing the conformational states and the edge weights reflecting the free energy barriers between the states. Our graph is constructed from a molecular dynamics trajectory and does not involve projecting the multi-dimensional free energy landscape onto a low-dimensional space defined by a few order parameters. The calculation of free energy barriers was based on transition-path theory using the MSMBuilder2 package. We compare our graph with the widely used transition disconnectivity graph (TRDG) which is constructed from the same trajectory and show that our approach gives more accurate description of the free energy landscape than the TRDG approach even though the latter can be organized into a simple tree representation. The weighted-graph is a general approach and can be used on any complex system.

  20. Emerging Relationships Between Structure and Ecological Function in the Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brown

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of landscape ecology are theoretically applicable to landscapes anywhere in the world. Much information has been generated relating sizes, shapes, and composition of patches and corridors in the landscape to their ecological function. Many patterns related to ecological processes are emerging that can be applied with increasing confidence in landscape planning and design. In this context, we developed a comprehensive approach that makes use of three-dimensional (3-D models to describe visually the structural properties of landscape elements. This approach may be used by landscape architects so that the patterns they create also have an appropriate ecological function.

  1. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Periurban landscapes in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bertrand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Les mutations des paysages régionaux dues aux pressions urbaines questionnent l’usage du sol. Elles interpellent à la fois des enjeux économiques, sociaux et environnementaux voire spatiaux sous-tendus par l’étalement urbain, l’accroissement des déplacements domicile-travail, le mitage de l’espace. Ces évolutions et dysfonctionnements renvoient à la question de la durabilité du développement des régions, et particulièrement des Alpes, espace contraint géographiquement et objet de nombreuses pressions anthropiques et riche en biotopes remarquables. Cet article est basé sur deux ans de travaux menés par des socio-économistes et des écologues sur les effets sur le paysage et l’environnement de la périurbanisation d’un massif alpin. Nous avons pris en compte l’espace dans les processus environnementaux, économiques ou sociaux. Intrinsèque dans les analyses écologiques, elle a longtemps posé problème à l’économie pour intégrer l’espace comme dimension à part entière des processus économiques. Trois thèmes sont ici développés : l’approche du point de vue du paysage, les problèmes d’échelles spatiales et temporelles, le choix d’indicateurs. Ils demandent de hiérarchiser les questions et de pratiquer le travail en commun. Aller au-delà nécessite de développer une interrogation plus écologique ou plus économique et/ou sociale en quittant de ce fait l’interface pour favoriser des interrogations disciplinaires particulières.Changes in regional landscapes due to urban pressures raise questions regarding land use. They also give rise to economic, social and environmental issues related to urban sprawl, increases in daily commuting, and land consumption. These changes and dysfunctions are ultimately underpinned by the question of sustainable regional development. Mountain regions such as the Alps, with their various outstanding biotopes in a restricted space, are particularly vulnerable.

  3. DIGITALIZATION AND NEW MEDIA LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Praprotnik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the phenomena of new communication technologies. It exposes the role of social media (Web 2.0 and sketches some global trends within the field of new media. It further outlines basic characteristics of traditional mass communication and consumption of media products, and as a counter-part presents interactive nature of a new media and the phenomena of user-generated media contents. The main focus of the article is the process of digitalization and its influence on important social system: media industry and production. Digitalization and growth of social media have challenged the news industry, so the latter has to adjust its media production to the rising power of independent publishers on social media platforms, as well as to users, which became publishers themselves, the so-called prosumers. The process of multimedia production is described through various types of inclusion promised in the technological formats. This article also highlights the transformed “intimacy” of new media cultures, which presents further evidence of new, unstable, and to some respect blurring divisions between the public and private spheres of communication. Several positive and negative consequences of digitalization on media landscape are enumerated. There are problems concerning transparency, accountability and professionalism of media production. Digital media has speed up the process of media production, journalists are faced with lack of time. Journalists as multitasking professionals are becaming the norm. The article exposes social activities manifested on social media (networks. Social networks, such as Facebook and Twitter, are becoming news platforms for spreading information and news among users. Moreover, social media has become a powerful tool for publishers and journalists, as it enables them to augment or to keep their audience. Since social networks are usually used to accomplish interpersonal rather than professional goals

  4. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  5. Farm multifunctional diversification and agricultural landscape trasformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Chiodo

    Full Text Available The work aims to analyze changes in agricultural landscape linked to transformations in agricultural productive system. The territory for analysis is situated along the “internal Marche ridge” of the Apennines, in the province of Ancona (Marche region, partly included in the Regional Natural Park “Gola della Rossa e Frassassi”. The work aims at elaborating an investigative methodology which can highlight the transformation of territorial structures and the dynamics that influence management of the territory and landscape in order to provide operative instructions for an integrated elaboration of instruments for urban planning and economic programming, specially for agricultural policies. Multi-functionality and diversification in agriculture are the instruments that can help agriculture to improve the economic value of products and at the same time to improve the quality of territory and landscape.

  6. Agrarian Landscape Management in a Modernized World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    This PhD thesis presents a study of the causes and consequences of land use modernization in Western agricultural landscapes. The thesis is based on case study research in Denmark and New Zealand framed and interpreted within the context of a broader-scale historical analysis of modernization...... processes within the Western world. Case landscapes in Denmark and New Zealand were selected based on a maximum variation sampling strategy, in order to be able to identify and analyse patterns of change manifesting across a variety of Western, modern agricultural landscapes. The thesis consists of : (1...... on archival and cartographic sources of the way selected modernization processes affected rural land use patterns in New Zealand in the period from its first Europeancolonial exploration in the 17th century until the present. (3) A global scale analysis of historical patterns of modernization affecting rural...

  7. Brownian motion on random dynamical landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suñé Simon, Marc; Sancho, José María; Lindenberg, Katja

    2016-03-01

    We present a study of overdamped Brownian particles moving on a random landscape of dynamic and deformable obstacles (spatio-temporal disorder). The obstacles move randomly, assemble, and dissociate following their own dynamics. This landscape may account for a soft matter or liquid environment in which large obstacles, such as macromolecules and organelles in the cytoplasm of a living cell, or colloids or polymers in a liquid, move slowly leading to crowding effects. This representation also constitutes a novel approach to the macroscopic dynamics exhibited by active matter media. We present numerical results on the transport and diffusion properties of Brownian particles under this disorder biased by a constant external force. The landscape dynamics are characterized by a Gaussian spatio-temporal correlation, with fixed time and spatial scales, and controlled obstacle concentrations.

  8. Landscape habitat diversity: An information theoretic measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wein, G. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1994-06-01

    Biotic diversity is a topic of increasing concern, but current tools for quantifying diversity at the landscape level are inadequate. A new index is proposed. Beginning with a classified raster image of a landscape, each habitat type is assigned a value based on an ordination axis distance. The change in value from one patch to the next depends on how similar the two patches are. An information measure d{sub I} is used to evaluate deviation from uniformity of the ordination values at different scales. Different areas can be compared if habitat values are based on the same ordination scale. This new method provides a powerful tool for both displaying and calculating landscape habitat diversity.

  9. Reframing landscape fragmentation's effects on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Suarez-Castro, Andrés F; Martinez-Harms, Maria; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive; Gaston, Kevin J; Johansen, Kasper; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Landscape structure and fragmentation have important effects on ecosystem services, with a common assumption being that fragmentation reduces service provision. This is based on fragmentation's expected effects on ecosystem service supply, but ignores how fragmentation influences the flow of services to people. Here we develop a new conceptual framework that explicitly considers the links between landscape fragmentation, the supply of services, and the flow of services to people. We argue that fragmentation's effects on ecosystem service flow can be positive or negative, and use our framework to construct testable hypotheses about the effects of fragmentation on final ecosystem service provision. Empirical efforts to apply and test this framework are critical to improving landscape management for multiple ecosystem services.

  10. Exploring the fitness landscape of poliovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Acevedo, Ashely; Andino, Raul; Tang, Chao

    2012-02-01

    RNA viruses are known to display extraordinary adaptation capabilities to different environments, due to high mutation rates. Their very dynamical evolution is captured by the quasispecies concept, according to which the viral population forms a swarm of genetic variants linked through mutation, which cooperatively interact at a functional level and collectively contribute to the characteristics of the population. The description of the viral fitness landscape becomes paramount towards a more thorough understanding of the virus evolution and spread. The high mutation rate, together with the cooperative nature of the quasispecies, makes it particularly challenging to explore its fitness landscape. I will present an investigation of the dynamical properties of poliovirus fitness landscape, through both the adoption of new experimental techniques and theoretical models.

  11. Measure Landscape Diversity with Logical Scout Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, E.; Szabó, G.; Czinkóczky, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy reform of the EU focuses on three long-term objectives: viable food production, sustainable management of natural resources and climate action with balanced territorial development. To achieve these goals, the EU farming and subsidizing policies (EEA, 2014) support landscape heterogeneity and diversity. Current paper introduces an agent-based method to calculate the potential of landscape diversity. The method tries to catch the nature of heterogeneity using logic and modelling as opposed to the traditional statistical reasoning. The outlined Random Walk Scouting algorithm registers the land cover crossings of the scout agents to a Monte Carlo integral. The potential is proportional with the composition and the configuration (spatial character) of the landscape. Based on the measured points a potential map is derived to give an objective and quantitative basis to the stakeholders (policy makers, farmers).

  12. Using Landscape metrics to analyze the landscape evolution under land abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelorosso, Raffaele; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Gobattoni, Federica; Leone, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The human actions and the human-linked land use changes are the main responsible of the present landscapes and vegetation patterns (Antrop, 2005; Pelorosso et al., 2009). Hence, revised concept of potential natural vegetation has been developed in landscape ecology. In fact, it cannot more be considered as the optimum for a certain landscape, but only as a general indication never widely reached. In particular Ingegnoli and Pignatti (2007) introduced the concept of fittest vegetation as "the most suitable or suited vegetation for the specific climate and geomorphic conditions, in a limited period of time and in a certain defined place with a particular range of incorporable disturbances (including man's) under natural or not natural conditions". Anthropic exploitation of land and its resources to obtain goods and services (Willemen et al, 2008) can be considered therefore the main cause of landscape change as an integrant part of nature, not external. The abandon of the land by farmers or other users it is one of the more felt problems for the marginal territories of Mediterranean basin. It is therefore caused by socio-economic changes of last decades and cause several impact on biodiversity (Geri et al. 2010) and hydro-geological assessment. A mountain landscape has however the capacity to provide goods like timber and services like aesthetic pleasure or regulation of water system. The necessity of a conservation strategy and the development of sustainable socio-economic management plan play a very important role in governing land and quality of life for people and ecosystems also for marginal territory. After a land abandonment, soil conditions and several climatic and orographic characteristic plus human disturbance affect the length of time required by secondary succession, throwing the establishment of vegetation with different association, structure and composition until a (stable or meta-stable) equilibrium is reached (Ingegnoli and Pignatti, 2007). In this

  13. Landscape Builder: Software for the creation of initial landscapes for LANDIS from FIA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Dijak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available I developed Landscape Builder to create spatially explicit landscapes as starting conditions for LANDIS Pro 7.0 and LANDIS II landscape forest simulation models from classified satellite imagery and Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA data collected over multiple years. LANDIS Pro and LANDIS II models project future landscapes by simulating tree growth, tree species succession, disease, insects, fire, wind, and management disturbance. Landscape Builder uses inventory plot attributes from the FIA inventory database, FIA unit map, National Forest type map, National Forest size class map, land cover map, and landform map to assign FIA plot attributes to raster pixels representing a real forest landscape. In addition to creating a detailed map of current (initial forest landscape conditions, the software produces specific files required for use in LANDIS Pro 7.0 or LANDIS II format. Other tools include the ability to create a dominant species and age-class map from previously created LANDIS maps, a tool to create a dominant species and age-class map from a stand map and field plot data, and a tool to convert between Esri ascii rasters and Erdas file format types.

  14. Multi-sensory landscape assessment: the contribution of acoustic perception to landscape evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yonghong; Luo, Tao; Breitung, Werner; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Tianhai

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the contribution of visual and acoustic preference to multi-sensory landscape evaluation was quantitatively compared. The real landscapes were treated as dual-sensory ambiance and separated into visual landscape and soundscape. Both were evaluated by 63 respondents in laboratory conditions. The analysis of the relationship between respondent's visual and acoustic preference as well as their respective contribution to landscape preference showed that (1) some common attributes are universally identified in assessing visual, aural and audio-visual preference, such as naturalness or degree of human disturbance; (2) with acoustic and visual preferences as variables, a multi-variate linear regression model can satisfactorily predict landscape preference (R(2 )= 0.740), while the coefficients of determination for a unitary linear regression model were 0.345 and 0.720 for visual and acoustic preference as predicting factors, respectively; (3) acoustic preference played a much more important role in landscape evaluation than visual preference in this study (the former is about 4.5 times of the latter), which strongly suggests a rethinking of the role of soundscape in environment perception research and landscape planning practice.

  15. Consensus in landscape preference judgments: the effects of landscape visual aesthetic quality and respondents' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivoda, Ondřej; Vojar, Jiří; Skřivanová, Zuzana; Zahradník, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Landscape's visual aesthetic quality (VAQ) has been widely regarded as a valuable resource worthy of protection. Although great effort has been devoted to determining the factors driving aesthetic preferences, public consensus in judgments has been neglected in the vast majority of such studies. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze three main possible sources of judgment variance: landscape VAQ, landscape type, and variability among respondents. Based upon an extensive perception-based investigation including more than 400 hikers as respondents, we found that variance in respondents' judgments differed significantly among assessed landscape scenes. We discovered a significant difference in judgment variances within each investigated respondent characteristic (gender, age, education level, occupational classification, and respondent's type of residence). Judgment variance was at the same time affected by landscape VAQ itself - the higher the VAQ, the better the consensus. While differences caused by characteristics indicate subjectivity of aesthetic values, the knowledge that people better find consensus for positively perceived landscapes provides a cogent argument for legal protection of valuable landscape scenes.

  16. Quantifying landscape resilience using vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, I. M. S.; Gergel, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape resilience refers to the ability of systems to adapt to and recover from disturbance. In pastoral landscapes, degradation can be measured in terms of increased desertification and/or shrub encroachment. In many countries across Central Asia, the use and resilience of pastoral systems has changed markedly over the past 25 years, influenced by centralized Soviet governance, private property rights and recently, communal resource governance. In Kyrgyzstan, recent governance reforms were in response to the increasing degradation of pastures attributed to livestock overgrazing. Our goal is to examine and map the landscape-level factors that influence overgrazing throughout successive governance periods. Here, we map and examine some of the spatial factors influencing landscape resilience in agro-pastoral systems in the Kyrgyzstan Republic where pastures occupy >50% of the country's area. We ask three questions: 1) which mechanisms of pasture degradation (desertification vs. shrub encroachment), are detectable using remote sensing vegetation indices?; 2) Are these degraded pastures associated with landscape features that influence herder mobility and accessibility (e.g., terrain, distance to other pastures)?; and 3) Have these patterns changed through successive governance periods? Using a chronosequence of Landsat imagery (1999-2014), NDVI and other VIs were used to identify trends in pasture condition during the growing season. Least-cost path distances as well as graph theoretic indices were derived from topographic factors to assess landscape connectivity (from villages to pastures and among pastures). Fieldwork was used to assess the feasibility and accuracy of this approach using the most recent imagery. Previous research concluded that low herder mobility hindered pasture use, thus we expect the distance from pasture to village to be an important predictor of pasture condition. This research will quantify the magnitude of pastoral degradation and test

  17. Dynamics of coupled human-landscape systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B. T.; McNamara, D. E.

    2007-11-01

    A preliminary dynamical analysis of landscapes and humans as hierarchical complex systems suggests that strong coupling between the two that spreads to become regionally or globally pervasive should be focused at multi-year to decadal time scales. At these scales, landscape dynamics is dominated by water, sediment and biological routing mediated by fluvial, oceanic, atmospheric processes and human dynamics is dominated by simplifying, profit-maximizing market forces and political action based on projection of economic effect. Also at these scales, landscapes impact humans through patterns of natural disasters and trends such as sea level rise; humans impact landscapes by the effect of economic activity and changes meant to mitigate natural disasters and longer term trends. Based on this analysis, human-landscape coupled systems can be modeled using heterogeneous agents employing prediction models to determine actions to represent the nonlinear behavior of economic and political systems and rule-based routing algorithms to represent landscape processes. A cellular model for the development of New Orleans illustrates this approach, with routing algorithms for river and hurricane-storm surge determining flood extent, five markets (home, labor, hotel, tourism and port services) connecting seven types of economic agents (home buyers/laborers, home developers, hotel owners/ employers, hotel developers, tourists, port services developer and port services owners/employers), building of levees or a river spillway by political agents and damage to homes, hotels or port services within cells determined by the passage or depth of flood waters. The model reproduces historical aspects of New Orleans economic development and levee construction and the filtering of frequent small-scale floods at the expense of large disasters.

  18. Sample design effects in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fedy, Bradley C.; Landguth, Erin L.

    2012-01-01

    An important research gap in landscape genetics is the impact of different field sampling designs on the ability to detect the effects of landscape pattern on gene flow. We evaluated how five different sampling regimes (random, linear, systematic, cluster, and single study site) affected the probability of correctly identifying the generating landscape process of population structure. Sampling regimes were chosen to represent a suite of designs common in field studies. We used genetic data generated from a spatially-explicit, individual-based program and simulated gene flow in a continuous population across a landscape with gradual spatial changes in resistance to movement. Additionally, we evaluated the sampling regimes using realistic and obtainable number of loci (10 and 20), number of alleles per locus (5 and 10), number of individuals sampled (10-300), and generational time after the landscape was introduced (20 and 400). For a simulated continuously distributed species, we found that random, linear, and systematic sampling regimes performed well with high sample sizes (>200), levels of polymorphism (10 alleles per locus), and number of molecular markers (20). The cluster and single study site sampling regimes were not able to correctly identify the generating process under any conditions and thus, are not advisable strategies for scenarios similar to our simulations. Our research emphasizes the importance of sampling data at ecologically appropriate spatial and temporal scales and suggests careful consideration for sampling near landscape components that are likely to most influence the genetic structure of the species. In addition, simulating sampling designs a priori could help guide filed data collection efforts.

  19. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  20. Landscape of Future Accelerators at the Energy and Intensity Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M. J. [Northern Illinois U.; Chattopadhyay, S. [Northern Illinois U.

    2016-11-21

    An overview is provided of the currently envisaged landscape of charged particle accelerators at the energy and intensity frontiers to explore particle physics beyond the standard model via 1-100 TeV-scale lepton and hadron colliders and multi-Megawatt proton accelerators for short- and long- baseline neutrino experiments. The particle beam physics, associated technological challenges and progress to date for these accelerator facilities (LHC, HL-LHC, future 100 TeV p-p colliders, Tev-scale linear and circular electron-positron colliders, high intensity proton accelerator complex PIP-II for DUNE and future upgrade to PIP-III) are outlined. Potential and prospects for advanced “nonlinear dynamic techniques” at the multi-MW level intensity frontier and advanced “plasma- wakefield-based techniques” at the TeV-scale energy frontier and are also described.

  1. Landscape Connectivity as a Function of Scale and Organism Vagility in a Real Forested Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. D'Eon

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Landscape connectivity is considered a vital element of landscape structure because of its importance to population survival. The difficulty surrounding the notion of landscape connectivity is that it must be assessed at the scale of the interaction between an organism and the landscape. We present a unique method for measuring connectivity between patches as a function of organism vagility. We used this approach to assess connectivity between harvest, old-growth, and recent wildfire patches in a real forested landscape in southeast British Columbia. By varying a distance criterion, habitat patches were considered connected and formed habitat clusters if they fell within this critical distance. The amount of area and distance to edge within clusters at each critical distance formed the basis of connectivity between patches. We then assessed landscape connectivity relative to old-growth associates within our study area based on species' dispersal abilities. Connectivity was greatest between harvest patches, followed by old-growth, and then wildfire patches. In old-growth patches, we found significant trends between increased connectivity and increased total habitat amount, and between decreased connectivity and increased old-growth harvesting. Highly vagile old-growth associates, such as carnivorous birds, perceive this landscape as connected and are able to access all patches. Smaller, less vagile species, such as woodpeckers, chickadees, and nuthatches, may be affected by a lack of landscape connectivity at the scale of their interaction with old-growth patches. Of particular concern is the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus, which we predict is limited in this landscape due to relatively weak dispersal abilities.

  2. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. The Energy Landscape of Social Balance

    CERN Document Server

    Marvel, Seth A; Kleinberg, Jon M

    2009-01-01

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social "balance" allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying depths. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  4. Iceland as a Landscape Investigation Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campanini, Manuela Silvia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Icelanders continue an ancient dialogue. Nature is part of their soul and they take with them bits of their terrestrial landscape when they move to the elsewhere. When they move out in the sea they often name their ships or boats after natural spots (waterfalls, mountains, etc., Moving to the town, architects build monuments inspired by wild nature like Hallgrimskirkja (inspired by Hraundrangar and the columnar basalt or Perlan (inspired by the Geysir and the geothermal water. This is the way Icelanders compensate and take care of their perennial landscape nostalgia.

  5. Importance of native grassland habitat for den-site selection of Indian foxes in a fragmented landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Arjun Punjabi

    Full Text Available Fragmentation of native habitats is now a ubiquitous phenomenon affecting wildlife at various scales. We examined selection of den-sites (n = 26 by Indian foxes (Vulpes bengalensis in a highly modified short-grassland landscape in central India (Jan-May, 2010. At the scale of the home-range, defined by an 800 m circular buffer around den sites, we examined the effect of land-cover edges and roads on selection of sites for denning using a distance-based approach. At the smaller den-area scale, defined by a 25 m x 25 m plot around den and paired available sites, the effect of microhabitat characteristics was examined using discrete-choice models. Indian foxes selected den-sites closer to native grasslands (t = -9.57, P < 0.001 and roads (t = -2.04, P = 0.05 than random at the home-range scale. At the smaller scale, abundance of rodents and higher visibility increased the odds of selection of a site by eight and four times respectively, indicating resource availability and predator avoidance to be important considerations for foxes. Indian foxes largely chose to den in human-made structures, indicated by the proportion of dens found in earthen bunds (0.69 and boulder piles (0.27 in the study area. With agricultural expansion and human modification threatening native short-grassland habitats, their conservation and effective management in human-dominated landscapes will benefit the Indian fox. The presence of some human-made structures within native grasslands would also be beneficial for this den-dependent species. We suggest future studies examine the impact of fragmentation and connectivity of grasslands on survival and reproductive success of the Indian fox.

  6. GIS-based landscape design research: Stourhead landscape garden as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Nijhuis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Landscape design research is important for cultivating spatial intelligence in landscape architecture. This study explores GIS (geographic information systems as a tool for landscape design research - investigating landscape designs to understand them as architectonic compositions (architectonic plan analysis. The concept ‘composition’ refers to a conceivable arrangement, an architectural expression of a mental construct that is legible and open to interpretation. Landscape architectonic compositions and their representations embody a great wealth of design knowledge as objects of our material culture and reflect the possible treatment of the ground, space, image and program as a characteristic coherence. By exploring landscape architectonic compositions with GIS, design researchers can acquire design knowledge that can be used in the creation and refinement of a design. The research aims to identify and illustrate the potential role of GIS as a tool in landscape design research, so as to provide insight into the possibilities and limitations of using GIS in this capacity. The critical, information-oriented case of Stourhead landscape garden (Wiltshire, UK, an example of a designed landscape that covers the scope and remit of landscape architecture design, forms the heart of the study. The exploration of Stourhead by means of GIS can be understood as a plausibility probe. Here the case study is considered a form of ‘quasi-experiment’, testing the hypothesis and generating a learning process that constitutes a prerequisite for advanced understanding, while using an adjusted version of the framework for landscape design analysis by Steenbergen and Reh (2003. This is a theoretically informed analytical method based on the formal interpretation of the landscape architectonic composition addressing four landscape architectonic categories: the basic, the spatial, the symbolic and the programmatic form. This study includes new aspects to be

  7. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  8. Toward an environmental history of Sudano-Sahelian landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wardell, David Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; empire forestry; Sudano-Sahelian landscapes......Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; empire forestry; Sudano-Sahelian landscapes...

  9. CHARACTERISTICS AND CONSTRUCTION OF LANDSCAPE???ECOLOGY IN ARID REGIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the characteristics of the landscape structures and landacape ecological processes in arid regions of China. Landscape structure is simplicity and homogeneity with the pattern of desert-oasis-river and canal corridor. The spatial distribution of landscape heterogeneity mosaics is relatively dependent on water resources. In arid regions,the landscape changes rapidly and extensively because of the sensitive landscape ecosystems and fragile regional ecosystems.For the sustainable development of arid regions, the theories and methods for the eco-environmental construction and the strategies of ecological construction in the arid regions were proposed in the view of landscape ecology. Keynote subjects of landscape ecology were also discussed. The paper points out that protecting and increasing landscape diversity and heterogeneity are critical to control ecological safety in arid regions.

  10. Landscape evolution of West Kunlun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chang, Hong

    2010-05-01

    trend is also found from west to east. According to the previous studies, there are 5500 meters, 4000 meters and 2000 meters elevation of the three major surfaces in the West Kunlun region by the SRTM maps. They probably formed in different periods of tectonic uplift, when ancient planation surfaces were eroded. It need further study to confirm which factors control these processes. The study area developed a number of rivers due to glaciers and orographic precipitation. Most of them flow north into the Tarim Basin, with tectonic activities playing significant roles on their flow direction and development patterns. By using longitudinal section maps of major rivers and topographic profiles of drainage area, we find that rivers' longitudinal sections match well with structural phenomena of drainage. The rivers cut through a large number of valleys due to high gradient. The shaping of the erosion features was also largely influenced by the glaciations. In particular, spatially variable erosion resulting from climate gradients may localize exhumation and deformation in orogens and thereby influence the geologic structure and morphology of mountain ranges. Our results support the view that tectonics formed the basic pattern of geological features and is the first-order control on the morphology of the West Kunlun Mountains. Climate variations play a significant role in the geomorphologic formation. Keywords: landscape, tectonics, climate, erosion, West Kunlun Mountains.

  11. Unveiling the Antarctic subglacial landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Roland; Roberts, Jason

    2010-05-01

    Better knowledge of the subglacial landscape of Antarctica is vital to reducing uncertainties regarding prediction of the evolution of the ice sheet. These uncertainties are associated with bedrock geometry for ice sheet dynamics, including possible marine ice sheet instabilities and subglacial hydrological pathways (e.g. Wright et al., 2008). Major collaborative aerogeophysics surveys motivated by the International Polar Year (e.g. ICECAP and AGAP), and continuing large scale radar echo sounding campaigns (ICECAP and NASA Ice Bridge) are significantly improving the coverage. However, the vast size of Antarctica and logistic difficulties mean that data gaps persist, and ice thickness data remains spatially inhomogeneous. The physics governing large scale ice sheet flow enables ice thickness, and hence bedrock topography, to be inferred from knowledge of ice sheet surface topography and considerations of ice sheet mass balance, even in areas with sparse ice thickness measurements (Warner and Budd, 2000). We have developed a robust physically motivated interpolation scheme, based on these methods, and used it to generate a comprehensive map of Antarctic bedrock topography, using along-track ice thickness data assembled for the BEDMAP project (Lythe et al., 2001). This approach reduces ice thickness biases, compared to traditional inverse distance interpolation schemes which ignore the information available from considerations of ice sheet flow. In addition, the use of improved balance fluxes, calculated using a Lagrangian scheme, eliminates the grid orientation biases in ice fluxes associated with finite difference methods (Budd and Warner, 1996, Le Brocq et al., 2006). The present map was generated using a recent surface DEM (Bamber et al., 2009, Griggs and Bamber, 2009) and accumulation distribution (van de Berg et al., 2006). Comparing our results with recent high resolution regional surveys gives confidence that all major subglacial topographic features are

  12. Urban landscape architecture design under the view of sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, WeiLin

    2017-08-01

    The concept of sustainable development in modern city landscape design advocates landscape architecture, which is the main development direction in the field of landscape design. They are also effective measures to promote the sustainable development of city garden. Based on this, combined with the connotation of sustainable development and sustainable design, this paper analyzes and discusses the design of urban landscape under the concept of sustainable development.

  13. Land-use and climate effects on soil respiration quantified with a landscape sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, S.; Jenerette, D.

    2014-12-01

    Land-use change alters the magnitudes and variability of soil respiration (Rs). However, the importance of ecosystem and landscape drivers of Rs remain poorly understood from an empirical and mechanistic standpoint and likely vary across climate gradients. To address this knowledge gap we asked, what regulates the spatial and temporal variation of Rs across a human dominated region? From a landscape perspective, climate and land-use are hypothesized to be key drivers of Rs. From a soil physiological perspective, variability in temperature, moisture, and substrate availability regulate Rs. According to an inverse metabolic activity hypothesis, systems with higher metabolic activity will have less temporal variability in Rs than those with lower rates. Alternatively, soil substrate availability may drive sensitivity of Rs to water inputs. To quantify variability in Rs and test hypotheses of its regulation we deployed an Rs sensor network beginning in November 2013 with nodes distributed across three land-use types - lawn, agriculture, and wildland - at three sub-regions spanning a coastal to inland to desert climate gradient (total 9 sites, 3 land-uses x 3 sub-regions). At each node we are measuring soil Rs using the flux gradient approach, which includes soil state CO2 sensors, temperature, and moisture measured at three depths and at five minute intervals. We analyzed the data for the winter sampling period, which is southern California's rainy season. The mean of Rs was lowest at the coastal and highest in the desert sub-regions for both lawn (3.99 and 4.7 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) and wildland (0.23 and 0.49 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) land-uses. Rs was the highest in the inland sub-region for agricultural land-uses (4.1 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). Lawn and wildland land-uses had increasing coefficient of variation in Rs across the coastal to desert climate gradient, while agriculture had decreasing variation. Sites that had higher mean fluxes and soil organic matter, a proxy for

  14. The production of mindscapes : a comprehensive theory of landscape experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: landscape experience, philosophy of mind, consciousness, perception, emotion, cultural influence, landscape, place

    The study of landscape experience is dispersed across different scientific disciplines such as environmental psychology, human geogra

  15. Landscape machines: productive nature and the future sublime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roncken, P.A.; Stremke, S.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Design and research in landscape design have yet to be balanced into a fine triad of theory, method and practice. Many practitioners worry that such academic seriousness may weaken the imaginative aspects of landscape design. Their trouble reveals a typical weakness in contemporary landscape archite

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Sustainable Landscapes Initiative 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Leah [Environmental Landscape Design Associates; Rogers, Sam [Environmental Landscape Design Associates; Sipes, James L. [Sand County Studios

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the ORNL Sustainable Landscapes Initiative 2020 is to provide a framework that guides future environmental resources and sustainable landscape practices on the ORNL campus. This document builds on the 2003 ORNL Conceptual Landscape Plan and is presented in the context of embracing new opportunities.

  17. Quantifying the lag time to detect barriers in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. L. Landguth; S. A Cushman; M. K. Schwartz; K. S. McKelvey; M. Murphy; G. Luikart

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how spatial genetic patterns respond to landscape change is crucial for advancing the emerging field of landscape genetics. We quantified the number of generations for new landscape barrier signatures to become detectable and for old signatures to disappear after barrier removal. We used spatially explicit, individualbased simulations to examine the...

  18. Addressing the Multi-scale lapsus of landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    "Addressing the Multi-scale Lapsus of Landscape" with the sub-title "Multi-scale landscape process modelling to support sustainable land use: A case study for the Lower Guadalhorce valley South Spain" focuses on the role of landscape as the main driving factor behind many geo-environm

  19. Assessing landscape vulnerability to wildfire in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Vaillant; Crystal A. Kolden; Alistair M. S. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire is an ever present, natural process shaping landscapes. Having the ability to accurately measure and predict wildfire occurrence and impacts to ecosystem goods and services, both retrospectively and prospectively, is critical for adaptive management of landscapes. Landscape vulnerability is a concept widely utilized in the ecosystem management literature that...

  20. Visual unit analysis: a descriptive approach to landscape assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Tetlow; S. R. J. Sheppard

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the visible attributes of landscapes is an important component of the planning process. When landscapes are at regional scale, economical and effective methodologies are critical. The Visual Unit concept appears to offer a logical and useful framework for description and evaluation. The concept subdivides landscape into coherent, spatially-defined units....

  1. Social-ecology networks : building connections for sustainable landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans adapt their landscapes, their living environment. Sustainable use of the various landscape benefits requires that land owners and users collaborate in managing ecological networks. Because the government is stepping back as the organizer of coordinated landscape adaptation, we need new landsc

  2. Landscape Design Dialogue. Bridging the gap between knowledge and action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.M.; Valk, van der A.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial planners and landscape architects do not excel in theory development. The authors, being a practicing landscape architect-planner and a planning scholar, explore new roads to a middle range theory of landscape design and planning. Building on theories-in-use in regional planning practice the

  3. The production of mindscapes : a comprehensive theory of landscape experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: landscape experience, philosophy of mind, consciousness, perception, emotion, cultural influence, landscape, place

    The study of landscape experience is dispersed across different scientific disciplines such as environmental psychology, human geogra

  4. Landscape Design Dialogue. Bridging the gap between knowledge and action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.M.; Valk, van der A.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial planners and landscape architects do not excel in theory development. The authors, being a practicing landscape architect-planner and a planning scholar, explore new roads to a middle range theory of landscape design and planning. Building on theories-in-use in regional planning practice

  5. Applied research of landscape ecology in desertification monitoring and assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary research on landscape ecology in desertification monitoring and assessment was reported. Also, this paper laid stress on the study of landscape diversity, dominance, evenness and Markov Matrix model and their respective landscape ecological meanings in the desertification monitoring and assessment. Concurrently, it took Shazhuyu Experimental Area, Qinghai Province as a specific case study.

  6. Sensitivity of resource selection and connectivity models to landscape definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Samuel A. Cushman; Paul Beier; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2017-01-01

    Context: The definition of the geospatial landscape is the underlying basis for species-habitat models, yet sensitivity of habitat use inference, predicted probability surfaces, and connectivity models to landscape definition has received little attention. Objectives: We evaluated the sensitivity of resource selection and connectivity models to four landscape...

  7. Why Go Native? Landscaping for Biodiversity and Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermath, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that campus and urban landscaping has important connections to biodiversity conservation, perceptions of natural heritage, sense-of-place, ecological literacy and the role of campus landscapes in the larger community. It also aims to show how campus landscapes express values and perform as a…

  8. Design in science: extending the landscape ecology paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassauer, J.I.; Opdam, P.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Landscape ecological science has produced knowledge about the relationship between landscape pattern and landscape processes, but it has been less effective in transferring this knowledge to society. We argue that design is a common ground for scientists and practitioners to bring scientific knowled

  9. Design in science: extending the landscape ecology paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassauer, J.I.; Opdam, P.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Landscape ecological science has produced knowledge about the relationship between landscape pattern and landscape processes, but it has been less effective in transferring this knowledge to society. We argue that design is a common ground for scientists and practitioners to bring scientific

  10. Landscape planning for good looks and affordable maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, D

    1983-01-01

    Attractive landscaping can contribute considerably to a medical group's overall image. There is more that goes into landscaping property than selecting greenery that suits the design of the building. Landscaping is a living thing that must be maintained. Unless it is properly planned and attended, the expensive greenery can become an eyesore.

  11. Understanding the Global Cold War Legacy: Narrating through Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Klein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War brought the shrinking and dismantling of vast nuclear weapons complexes. As a result, some landscape architects will find themselves reclaiming a new, very specific type of Cold War landscape: those degraded by nuclear arms testing, production and waste storage. Nuclear landscapes pose multiple and complex challenges. Before designing nuclear reclamations, one must ask: what are the issues? If designers misunderstand the nuclear landscape 'problem', it will be 'solved' in the wrong way. My position is based on the assumption that society desires these landscapes to be reclaimed safely and in ways that allow them to educate the public. Landscape architects can find ways to reclaim nuclear landscapes safely while leaving narratives for generations to come. Perhaps it is too early to describe how nuclear reclamations will look. It is not too early to discuss what designs for nuclear reclamations should accomplish. This paper raises questions critical to the design of nuclear reclamations, both globally and locally. Near precedents - past reclamations that narrate other types of degraded landscapes - are discussed, and it is noted how we can learn from them when considering nuclear landscape reclamation. This paper does not articulate a specific design theory or solution to Cold War nuclear landscapes, but rather, it seeks to pose critical questions that designers should ask. These questions will be broad because we consider nuclear landscapes globally. The questions will require in-depth investigation of local issues as each unique nuclear landscape is considered.

  12. Applications of landscape genetics in conservation biology: concepts and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernot Segelbacher; Samuel A. Cushman; Bryan K. Epperson; Marie-Josee Fortin; Olivier Francois; Olivier J. Hardy; Rolf Holderegger; Stephanie Manel

    2010-01-01

    Landscape genetics plays an increasingly important role in the management and conservation of species. Here, we highlight some of the opportunities and challenges in using landscape genetic approaches in conservation biology. We first discuss challenges related to sampling design and introduce several recent methodological developments in landscape genetics (analyses...

  13. Landscape ecology in North America: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica G. Turner

    2005-01-01

    Landscape ecology offers a spatially explicit perspective on the relationships between ecological patterns and processes that can be applied across a range of scales. Concepts derived from landscape ecology now permeate ecological research across most levels of ecological organization and many scales. Landscape ecology developed rapidly after ideas that originated in...

  14. Landscape machines: productive nature and the future sublime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roncken, P.A.; Stremke, S.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Design and research in landscape design have yet to be balanced into a fine triad of theory, method and practice. Many practitioners worry that such academic seriousness may weaken the imaginative aspects of landscape design. Their trouble reveals a typical weakness in contemporary landscape

  15. Social-ecology networks : building connections for sustainable landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans adapt their landscapes, their living environment. Sustainable use of the various landscape benefits requires that land owners and users collaborate in managing ecological networks. Because the government is stepping back as the organizer of coordinated landscape adaptation, we need new landsc

  16. The Landscape Architecture - Between the Art of the Gardens and the Science of the Landscape Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina-Mira Dascălu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern landscape architecture being a profession that has an important impact on the environment, tries and succeeds to cover a very wide area. Because of its complex preoccupations area, the profession of the landscape architect may find itself in a nebula regarding the comprehension and the reaction of the public and cities mayors towards it. The landscape architecture has as purpose the realization of an ambience that is favourable to the human life progress, having in view the increasing of life’s quality and of the urban comfort, the maintenance of the ecological equilibrium. Despite the complexity of its preoccupations, the landscape architecture has been often lowered to the same level with the exclusive arrangement of green spaces.

  17. From Landscape Research to Landscape Planning : Aspects of Integration, Education and Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tress, B.; Tress, G.; Fry, G.; Opdam, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Research policy favours projects that integrate disciplinary knowledge and involve non-academic stakeholders. Consequently, integrative concepts - interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity - are gaining currency in landscape research and planning. Researchers are excited by the prospect of merging

  18. Landscape as ulpan: the development of an Israeli landscape architecture language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Helphand

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Israel is a new nation with ancient roots. Over the past century the Zionist return to the land and the building of a modern nation has had a counterpart in language: the revitalisation of Hebrew as spoken tongue. There is a design analogy with the immigrant process, learning Hebrew, and ulpan (language classes for new immigrants.' Designers too, have learned the basics of the landscape language, appreciated its character and nuance, and found out how to be expressive within its vocabulary and structure. For Israeli landscape architects there has been a conscious search for a language of landscape design. As a result of this quest, a palette of identifiable materials, forms, compositions, and functions has emerged, and these have been used to create a design narrative which speaks of Israel's complex national culture and identity. This paper explores the continuing process through a case study of one landscape space, the wadi/nahal.

  19. Richard Murphy: Autobiography and the Connemara landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Meihuizen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It could be argued that an important feature of Richard Murphy’s work, and of his identity as a poet is the relationship between the creative self and a particular place, where ‘place’ should be understood as referring not just to physical qualities of the natural environment, but in a broader sense to denote an environment in which everything is interrelated and connected, and in which there is no sharp division between the natural and the human. The landscape providing inspiration for Murphy’s poetic imagination is the landscapes and seascapes of Connemara in north-west Ireland. In 1959 he settled in this environment which was to be his base for the next 20 years and from this period and this location emanated the bulk of his poetic oeuvre. For Murphy committing to a life of writing poetry necessarily means being in the Connemara landscape. Returning to this environment in adulthood represents a quest for recovering childhood feelings, of belonging and love, as connected to particular places. Murphy’s Connemara poems could be read as an account of this process of re-placement, as a type of autobiographical text in which the artist creates a ‘double portrait’: in writing about the landscape he also writes about himself, creating a place-portrait which is, at the same time, a self-portrait.

  20. Research and Design in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Bobbink, I.; Jauslin, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce the particular methodology of the author's and their colleagues at TU Delft Chair of Landscape Architecture. This approach is characterised by theories, methods and techniques converging towards design and research and research by design. The relation and interaction bet

  1. Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovac, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    ISBN: 978-94-6257-443-4 Author: Catarina C. Jakovac Title: Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification Swidden cultivation is the traditional agricultural system in riverine Amazonia, which supports local livelihoods and trans

  2. Visualisation of unbuilt buildings in their landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Robert; Petersen, Ernst Steffen

    1999-01-01

    Computer modelling can provide better information on building projects presented in two dimensional drawings but never built. A cemetery project in Denmark was formed as a solid model in its sloping landscape using Softimage. Boolean operations were used to position walls at a given height above...

  3. Modelling landslide dynamics in forested landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.F.G.

    2005-01-01

    The research resulting in this thesis covers the geological, geomorphological and landscape ecology related themes of the project 'Podzolisation under Kauri (Agathis australis): for better or worse?' supported by theNetherlands Organisation fo

  4. Mapping the Cultural Learnability Landscape of Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, H. Clark; Peterson, Christopher D.; Frankenhuis, Willem E.

    2016-01-01

    Cultural transmission is often viewed as a domain-general process. However, a growing literature suggests that learnability is influenced by content and context. The idea of a learnability landscape is introduced as a way of representing the effects of interacting factors on how easily information is acquired. Extending prior work (Barrett &…

  5. [Impacts of farmland consolidation on farmland landscape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Li, Jun; Xu, Junfeng; Shen, Zhangquan; Gao, Yurong

    2006-01-01

    Farmland consolidation is the act of regulating, improving, and comprehensively renovating the structure, quality, and layout of field, water, road, forestry, and village in the countryside in a certain area by means of administration, economy, law, and engineering techniques according to the goal and usage defined by land use planning, so as to improve farmland use rate and its output rate, to increase farmland area, and to achieve better productive, living, and ecological environment. Recently, farmland consolidation has been carried out all over the country, especially in its economy-developed regions. But, unscientific planning and unsuitable farmland consolidation engineering have negative effects on field ecological system. In this paper, based on the technology of GIS and RS, the basic theories and methods of landscape ecology and a compositive grading method were applied to analysis the dynamics of farmland landscape fragmentation in Tongxiang county. The results showed that the farmland landscape fragmentation in this county was strongly affected by consolidation. More attention should be paid to the protection of farmland landscape during consolidation, and to avoid or decrease the negative effects resulted from unscientific planning and unsuitable farmland consolidation engineering.

  6. Landscape Evolution Modelling of naturally dammed rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, van W.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Baartman, J.E.M.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural damming of upland river systems, such as landslide or lava damming, occurs worldwide. Many dams fail shortly after their creation, while other dams are long-lived and therefore have a long-term impact on fluvial and landscape evolution. This long-term impact is still poorly understood and

  7. Landscape Evolution Modelling of naturally dammed rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, Wouter; Temme, Arnaud J. A. M.; Baartman, Jantiene E. M.; Schoorl, Jeroen M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural damming of upland river systems, such as landslide or lava damming, occurs worldwide. Many dams fail shortly after their creation, while other dams are long-lived and therefore have a long-term impact on fluvial and landscape evolution. This long-term impact is still poorly understood and la

  8. Processes of aesthetic transformation in ordinary landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Jonna Majgaard

    2004-01-01

    with utilitarian aspects. This is seen both as an example of how transnational contemporary cultural changes have an impact on local Nordic farming landscapes and their aesthetic expression and as an example of how processes of transformation in aesthetic experience and interpretation have an impact on the general...

  9. Fractal profit landscape of the stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Andreas; Yi, Il Gu; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the profit landscape obtained from the most basic, fluctuation based, trading strategy applied for the daily stock price data. The strategy is parameterized by only two variables, p and q Stocks are sold and bought if the log return is bigger than p and less than -q, respectively. Repetition of this simple strategy for a long time gives the profit defined in the underlying two-dimensional parameter space of p and q. It is revealed that the local maxima in the profit landscape are spread in the form of a fractal structure. The fractal structure implies that successful strategies are not localized to any region of the profit landscape and are neither spaced evenly throughout the profit landscape, which makes the optimization notoriously hard and hypersensitive for partial or limited information. The concrete implication of this property is demonstrated by showing that optimization of one stock for future values or other stocks renders worse profit than a strategy that ignores fluctuations, i.e., a long-term buy-and-hold strategy.

  10. Research and Design in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Bobbink, I.; Jauslin, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce the particular methodology of the author's and their colleagues at TU Delft Chair of Landscape Architecture. This approach is characterised by theories, methods and techniques converging towards design and research and research by design. The relation and interaction

  11. Scale Mismatches in Management of Urban Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Alfsen-Norodom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes constitute the future environment for most of the world’s human population. An increased understanding of the urbanization process and of the effects of urbanization at multiple scales is, therefore, key to ensuring human well-being. In many conventional natural resource management regimes, incomplete knowledge of ecosystem dynamics and institutional constraints often leads to institutional management frameworks that do not match the scale of ecological patterns and processes. In this paper, we argue that scale mismatches are particularly pronounced in urban landscapes. Urban green spaces provide numerous important ecosystem services to urban citizens, and the management of these urban green spaces, including recognition of scales, is crucial to the well-being of the citizens. From a qualitative study of the current management practices in five urban green spaces within the Greater Stockholm Metropolitan Area, Sweden, we found that 1 several spatial, temporal, and functional scales are recognized, but the cross-scale interactions are often neglected, and 2 spatial and temporal meso-scales are seldom given priority. One potential effect of the neglect of ecological cross-scale interactions in these highly fragmented landscapes is a gradual reduction in the capacity of the ecosystems to provide ecosystem services. Two important strategies for overcoming urban scale mismatches are suggested: 1 development of an integrative view of the whole urban social–ecological landscape, and 2 creation of adaptive governance systems to support practical management.

  12. New Tools: Digital media in landscape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape architects use analogue and digital media to understand and design urban areas and the countryside. Because new media in particular enable us to use different approaches to thinking and communicating about spatial design issues, they are contributing to the development of the field. This

  13. Research Support Services: Landscape in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Presentation given to Research Support Services for Academic and Special Libraries students, Queensland University of Technology (webinar), 29 November 2016 Outlines the landscape of research support services provided by libraries in the UK, and the main policy and research drivers influencing services now and in the future.

  14. Soil erosion dynamics response to landscape pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, W.; Skidmore, A.K.; Hao, F.; Wang, T.

    2010-01-01

    Simulating soil erosion variation with a temporal land use database reveals long-term fluctuations in landscape patterns, as well as priority needs for soil erosion conservation. The application of a multi-year land use database in support of a Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) led to an accurate as

  15. Between Landscape and Laboratory – an Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura

    A written introduction to a bi-lingual anthology Field_Notes - From Landscape to Laboratory - Maisemasta Laboratorioon. "Every second year the Finnish Society of Bioart invites a significant group of artists and scientists to the Kilpisjärvi Biological Station in Lapland/Finland to work for one...

  16. 40 CFR 247.15 - Landscaping products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydroseeding and as an over-spray for straw mulch in landscaping, erosion control, and soil reclamation. (b) Compost made from recovered organic materials. (c) Garden and soaker hoses containing recovered plastic or rubber. (d) Lawn and garden edging containing recovered plastic or rubber. (e) Plastic lumber...

  17. The transcriptome landscape of early maize meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiosis, particularly meiotic recombination, is a major factor affecting yield and breeding of plants. To gain insight into the transcriptome landscape during early initiation steps of meiotic recombination, we profiled early prophase I meiocytes from maize using RNA-seq. Our analyses of genes prefe...

  18. Landscape and Heritage: trajectories and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, David

    2015-01-01

    The recent histories of heritage and landscape studies appear to be closely linked, with their epistemological, ideological and methodological twists and turns progressing amid a common broad intellectual and interdisciplinary space. This has not been a codependent evolution, but rather, a mutually...

  19. REDD+ and Climate Smart Agriculture in landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvini, G.

    2016-01-01

    Global challenges posed by an increasing food demand and climate change call for innovative mechanisms that consider both agriculture and forests. Agriculture and forests are deeply interconnected in mosaic landscapes, just as multiple pieces of the same puzzle. These pieces are handled by numerous

  20. Diseases of Landscape Ornamentals. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles C.; Sydnor, T. Davis

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with recognizing and controlling diseases found on ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 80 slides illustrating various foliar diseases (anthracnose, black spot, hawthorn leaf blight,…

  1. Landscape Design and the language of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Perry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Recognition that we need to live in a more ecologically sustainable way and that the physical forms of designed landscapes are an expression of the social values and cultural drivers of the time has underpinned the call by some landscape design professionals for a new design aesthetic - one that reflects modern ecological concerns. However, for an 'ecological aesthetic' to be accepted, it must be capable of generating landscape forms that are pleasurable to the general public, as it is the general public who will be responsible for delivering ecological sustainability in the long term. The growth in understanding of the mathematical properties of natural systems and processes has led some authors to suggest that fractal geometry, called the language of nature, could playa role in developing such an aesthetic. This is supported by recent research that suggests human perceptual systems have evolved to process fractal patterning and that we have a visual preference for images with certain fractal qualities. However, how fractal geometry can be used, and what form an aesthetic based on this geometry might take, remains elusive and undefined. To develop an aesthetic based on fractal geometry it is necessary to understand why fractal geometry should be considered as a potential tool and whether the application of fractal analysis can differentiate between the types of landscape forms encountered every day.

  2. Modelling landslide dynamics in forested landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.F.G.

    2005-01-01

    The research resulting in this thesis covers the geological, geomorphological and landscape ecology related themes of the project 'Podzolisation under Kauri (Agathis australis): for better or worse?' supported by theNetherlands Organisation fo

  3. Fieldwork, Heritage and Engaging Landscape Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines and analyses efforts to critically engage with "heritage" through the development and responses to a series of undergraduate residential fieldwork trips held in the North Coast of Jamaica. The ways in which we read heritage through varied "texts"--specifically, material landscapes, guided heritage tours,…

  4. Sustainable Landscapes Assessment for the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver Agoncillo; Jennifer Conje; Susan Cordell; James Halperin; Roopa Karia; Beth. Lebow

    2011-01-01

    As part of their development of a new Country Development Strategy, and with potential for incoming Sustainable Landscapes funding, USAID/Philippines commissioned the U.S. Forest Service to work with them on an assessment of efforts aimed at Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) in the Philippines, including the role of conservation,...

  5. The greenhouse gas balance of the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nol, Linda; Neubert, Rolf; Vermeulen, Alex; Vellinga, Olaf; Meesters, Antoon; Tolk, Lieselotte; Olivier, Jos; Peters, Wouter; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Hutjes, Ronald; Moors, Eddy

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to measure or even estimate the Dutch greenhouse gas emissions of the landscape, because we cannot put a flux chamber over the entire Netherlands. Greenhouse gas emissions are usually estimated by bottom-up methods or top-down methods. The Netherlands report most emissions to the

  6. Baltic Landscapes : Festival of Images from Baltics

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Hanno Soans eesti projektist "Analogue TV" N.E.W.S. (north-east-west-süd) seminaril. Eesti videoprogramm näitusel "Baltic Landscapes" (kunstnikud A. Maimik, K. Kaljo, E-L. Semper, M. Raat, M. Laanemets, K. Sukmit, J. Zoova) Bornholmis

  7. Linguistic Landscapes in Southern Carinthia (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinger, Sebastian M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the linguistic landscape (LL) in the southern Austrian province of Carinthia, which is home to an autochthonous Slovene minority. Following several decades of political and legal debate known as the "Ortstafelstreit" ("dispute of topographic signs"), recent legislation has strengthened the status of Slovene…

  8. Modelling landslide dynamics in forested landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.F.G.

    2005-01-01

    The research resulting in this thesis covers the geological, geomorphological and landscape ecology related themes of the project 'Podzolisation under Kauri (Agathis australis): for better or worse?' supported by theNetherlands Organisation

  9. Random Polynomials and the Friendly Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In hep-th/0501082, a field theoretic ``toy model'' for the Landscape was proposed. We show that the considerations of that paper carry through to realistic effective Lagrangians, such as those that emerge out of string theory. Extracting the physics of the large number of metastable vacua that ensue requires somewhat more sophisticated algebro-geometric techniques, which we review.

  10. The regional landscape: Nylsvley in perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PGH

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available is provided so that these processes may be seen in their regional perspective. Little has previously been published on the position of the study area in the regional landscape, yet the ecological patterns and processes being researched at Nylsvley are largely...

  11. Climate-responsive landscape architecture design education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzholzer, S.; Brown, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that Earth’s climate is changing, in most cases becoming warmer. This effect is exacerbated in urban environments by the growth of urban heat islands. These two processes can have far-reaching effects on human thermal comfort and health. Landscape architecture is well po

  12. Wind Statistics from a Forested Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnqvist, Johan; Segalini, Antonio; Dellwik, Ebba

    2015-01-01

    An analysis and interpretation of measurements from a 138-m tall tower located in a forested landscape is presented. Measurement errors and statistical uncertainties are carefully evaluated to ensure high data quality. A 40(Formula presented.) wide wind-direction sector is selected as the most re...

  13. Dynamic landscapes in human evolution and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devès, Maud; King, Geoffrey; Bailey, Geoffrey; Inglis, Robyn; Williams, Matthew; Winder, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Archaeological studies of human settlement in its wider landscape setting usually focus on climate change as the principal environmental driver of change in the physical features of the landscape, even on the long time scales of early human evolution. We emphasize that landscapes evolve dynamically due to an interplay of processes occurring over different timescales. Tectonic deformation, volcanism, sea level changes, by acting on the topography, the lithology and on the patterns of erosion-deposition in a given area, can moderate or amplify the influence of climate at the regional and local scale. These processes impose or alleviate physical barriers to movement, and modify the distribution and accessibility of plant and animal resources in ways critical to human ecological and evolutionary success (King and Bailey, JHE 2006; Bailey and King, Antiquity 2011, Winder et al. Antiquity in press). The DISPERSE project, an ERC-funded collaboration between the University of York and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, aims to develop systematic methods for reconstructing landscapes associated with active tectonics, volcanism and sea level change at a variety of scales in order to study their potential impact on patterns of human evolution and dispersal. Examples are shown to illustrate the ways in which changes of significance to human settlement can occur at a range of geographical scales and on time scales that range from lifetimes to tens of millennia, creating and sustaining attractive conditions for human settlement and exercising powerful selective pressures on human development.

  14. Global Optimization by Energy Landscape Paving

    CERN Document Server

    Wille, L T; Wille, Luc T.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a novel heuristic global optimization method, energy landscape paving (ELP), which combines core ideas from energy surface deformation and tabu search. In appropriate limits, ELP reduces to existing techniques. The approach is very general and flexible and is illustrated here on two protein folding problems. For these examples, the technique gives faster convergence to the global minimum than previous approaches.

  15. SHRUB BATTLE: Understanding the Making of Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depigny, Sylvain; Michelin, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Landscape changes in Europe's rural areas seem to generate a more visible impact. This trend raises new questions on rural management and brings about a conflict between farmers' land-use patterns and public expectations, which are often exclusively based on esthetics. The aim of the SHRUB BATTLE board game is to help tutors make future rural…

  16. Scale dependent inference in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth

    2010-01-01

    Ecological relationships between patterns and processes are highly scale dependent. This paper reports the first formal exploration of how changing scale of research away from the scale of the processes governing gene flow affects the results of landscape genetic analysis. We used an individual-based, spatially explicit simulation model to generate patterns of genetic...

  17. Utility of computer simulations in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan K. Epperson; Brad H. McRae; Kim Scribner; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael S. Rosenberg; Marie-Josee Fortin; Patrick M. A. James; Melanie Murphy; Stephanie Manel; Pierre Legendre; Mark R. T. Dale

    2010-01-01

    Population genetics theory is primarily based on mathematical models in which spatial complexity and temporal variability are largely ignored. In contrast, the field of landscape genetics expressly focuses on how population genetic processes are affected by complex spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity. It is spatially explicit and relates patterns to...

  18. Fractal profit landscape of the stock market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Grönlund

    Full Text Available We investigate the structure of the profit landscape obtained from the most basic, fluctuation based, trading strategy applied for the daily stock price data. The strategy is parameterized by only two variables, p and q Stocks are sold and bought if the log return is bigger than p and less than -q, respectively. Repetition of this simple strategy for a long time gives the profit defined in the underlying two-dimensional parameter space of p and q. It is revealed that the local maxima in the profit landscape are spread in the form of a fractal structure. The fractal structure implies that successful strategies are not localized to any region of the profit landscape and are neither spaced evenly throughout the profit landscape, which makes the optimization notoriously hard and hypersensitive for partial or limited information. The concrete implication of this property is demonstrated by showing that optimization of one stock for future values or other stocks renders worse profit than a strategy that ignores fluctuations, i.e., a long-term buy-and-hold strategy.

  19. Seri Landscape Classification and Spatial Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the growing field of ethnophysiography, a new subfield of cognitive anthropology that aims to determine the universals and variation in the categorization of landscape objects across cultures. More specifically, this work looks at the case of the Seri people of Sonora, Mexico to investigate the way they categorize…

  20. Lessons Learned from Strategy Landscape Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantmakers for Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Grantmakers for Education (GFE) partnered with the Monitor Institute to develop the K-12 Education Strategy Landscape Tool--an asset mapping tool that used interactive data visualization to provide a clear picture of the who, what, where, and when of education grantmaking. The prototype launched in January of 2012. Over a dozen funders…