Rawee Teanpaisan; Aksorntong Chooruk; Thanyanan Kampoo
Microencapsulation was evaluated as a means of preserving Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, a human-derived strain with probiotic potential, in orange and aloe vera juices. The microencapsulation parameters included alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration and hardening-time, and the efficacy of microencapsulation to preserve the survival of microencapsulated bacteria compared to free cells during exposure in fruit juices were determined. The results revealed that the via...
Gregoret, V; Perezlindo, M J; Vinderola, G; Reinheimer, J; Binetti, A
Specific strains should only be regarded as probiotics if they fulfill certain safety, technological and functional criteria. The aim of this work was to study, from a comprehensive point of view (in vitro and in vivo tests), three Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus paracasei JP1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 64 and Lactobacillus gasseri 37) isolated from feces of local newborns, determining some parameters of technological, biological and functional relevance. All strains were able to adequately grow in different economic culture media (cheese whey, buttermilk and milk), which were also suitable as cryoprotectants. As selective media, LP-MRS was more effective than B-MRS for the enumeration of all strains. The strains were resistant to different technological (frozen storage, high salt content) and biological (simulated gastrointestinal digestion after refrigerated storage in acidified milk, bile exposure) challenges. L. rhamnosus 64 and L. gasseri 37, in particular, were sensible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and vancomycin, increased the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage and induced the proliferation of IgA producing cells in small intestine when administered to mice. Even when clinical trails are still needed, both strains fulfilled the main criteria proposed by FAO/WHO to consider them as potential probiotics for the formulation of new foods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Microencapsulation was evaluated as a means of preserving Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, a human-derived strain with probiotic potential, in orange and aloe vera juices. The microencapsulation parameters included alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration and hardening-time, and the efficacy of microencapsulation to preserve the survival of microencapsulated bacteria compared to free cells during exposure in fruit juices were determined. The results revealed that the viable count of free-cell form markedly decreased compared to microencapsulated form. The microencapsulation of 2% alginate (w/v and 0.05 M CaCl2 gave the best result to preserve the probiotic. It was found that viability of microencapsulated probiotic bacteria was significantly higher than free-cell in fruit juices during 8 weeks of storage time in the refrigerator. The potential probiotic trait related to inhibitory effect was not affected after microencapsulation process. In summary, the microencapsulation method may be an alternative way of preserving the viability of probiotic L. paracasei SD1.
Nov 13, 2012 ... The application of effective probiotics in shrimp aquaculture is an excellent alternative for chemicals and antibiotics to prevent disease control. This study was carried out to evaluate the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus 04 (home made curd isolate) on pathogenic Vibrio in shrimp Penaeus.
The probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum ZLP001, isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy weaning piglet, was assessed as a probiotic in vitro and in vivo. The survival rate of L. plantarum ZLP001 when cultured in simulated gastric fluid with pH 2.0 and 3.0 and subsequent in intestinal fluid pH 8.0 was ...
María Antonieta Brizuela; Paulina Serrano; Yovanka Pérez
"In vitro" studies were carried out for the selection of Lactobacillus strains with probiotics characteristics. Two strains of Lactobacillus were evaluated for the growth specific rate, generation time, acids, bile and antimicrobial resistances. "In vitro" tests indicated that the strains presented a potential for being used as probiotics.Foram realizados estudos "in vitro" para selecionar cepas de Lactobacillus com características probióticas. Duas cepas de Lactobacillus foram avaliadas quan...
Messaoudi, S; Manai, M; Kergourlay, G; Prévost, H; Connil, N; Chobert, J-M; Dousset, X
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) antimicrobial peptides typically exhibit antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, as well as spoilage bacteria. Therefore, they have attracted the greatest attention as tools for food biopreservation. In some countries LAB are already extensively used as probiotics in food processing and preservation. LAB derived bacteriocins have been utilized as oral, topical antibiotics or disinfectants. Lactobacillus salivarius is a promising probiotic candidate commonly isolated from human, porcine, and avian gastrointestinal tracts (GIT), many of which are producers of unmodified bacteriocins of sub-classes IIa, IIb and IId. It is a well-characterized bacteriocin producer and probiotic organism. Bacteriocins may facilitate the introduction of a producer into an established niche, directly inhibit the invasion of competing strains or pathogens, or modulate the composition of the microbiota and influence the host immune system. This review gives an up-to-date overview of all L. salivarius strains, isolated from different origins, known as bacteriocin producing and/or potential probiotic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1 and L. casei (G3. Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogenes, but not on the growth of Candida albicans. The bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6358-P was shown only by L. plantarum G1. Moreover, the isolates G1 and G3 showed good viability in the acid gastric environment and in the gut environment containing bovine bile salts. The viability of G1 and G3 isolates in the gastrointestinal tract, and the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa were also confirmed in vivo. The biochemical tests of blood samples revealed lower levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as reduced activity of alkaline phosphatase in all lactobacilli-treated Wistar rats, compared to control ones. No toxicity for NMRI Ham mice was observed. According to our experimental results, these findings imply that L. plantarum G1 and L. casei G3 could be characterized as potential probiotics.
The application of effective probiotics in shrimp aquaculture is an excellent alternative for chemicals and antibiotics to prevent disease control. This study was carried out to evaluate the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus 04 (home made curd isolate) on pathogenic Vibrio in shrimp Penaeus monodon juveniles.
Pennacchia, C.; Vaughan, E.E.; Villani, F.
A rational selection of probiotic microorganisms is an important challenge and requires the definition of fundamental information about the physiology and genetics of candidate strains. In this study, selected Lactobacillus (Lact.) strains already characterized in a previous study for their
I Nengah Sujaya
Full Text Available This research was deigned to elucidate the potency of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from sumbawa mare milk to be developed as a probiotic. Sixteen lacobacilli were screened based on their resitancy to a model of gastric juice at pH 2, 3, and 4, then followed by their resistncy to small intestional fluid model containing deoxycholic. Three lactobacilli i.e. Lactobacillus sp. SKA13, Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were found to be resistentent to gastric juice at pH 3 and 4. However, there were no lactobacilli resisted to pH 2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were able to reach the colon even after being expossed to a model of intestinal fluid containing 0,4 mM deoxycholate and pancreatine. Therefore, these isolates have a potency to be developed as probiotic lactobacilli. Nevertherless, these lactobcailli could probably transform cholic acid into secondary bile acids, which were not expected to be found in the probiotic, and this capability is not appropriate for probiotic. This character is worthly to be studied since it has never been reported in lactobacilli.
Lara-Villoslada, F.; Sierra, S.; Martin, R.; Delgado, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Olivares, M.; Xaus, J.
Aims: The object of the present study was to evaluate the oral toxicity of the recently isolated probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 and Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714. Methods and Results: Enzymatic activity and antibiotic resistance profile were evaluated in vitro. Then, the
Maysaa Kadhim Al-Malkey; Munira Ch. Ismeeal; Fahema Jabbar Abo Al-Hur; Sinaa W. Mohammed; Hanan J. Nayyef
Objectives Study the antimicrobial effect of probiotics produced from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn and wound infection and their ability of protease production. Methods Swab samples were collected from 70 patients admitted at Burns Center/Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital. Primary bacterial identification cultured on differential selective media and biochemical tests were done. The Vitek2 compact system (Biomerieux, France...
Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Jones, Mitchell L; Shah, Divya; Jain, Poonam; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya
Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18±0.55 mg/10(10) cfu) in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70±63.33 mg/10(10) cfu) of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic.
Grażyna Cichosz; Beata Nalepa; Marika Kowalska; Marek Aljewicz
The objective of this study is to determine the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in Edam cheese as well as the effect of probiotic bacteria on paracasein...
Salas-Jara, María José; Ilabaca, Alejandra; Vega, Marco; García, Apolinaria
Probiotics are live bacteria, generally administered in food, conferring beneficial effects to the host because they help to prevent or treat diseases, the majority of which are gastrointestinal. Numerous investigations have verified the beneficial effect of probiotic strains in biofilm form, including increased resistance to temperature, gastric pH and mechanical forces to that of their planktonic counterparts. In addition, the development of new encapsulation technologies, which have exploited the properties of biofilms in the creation of double coated capsules, has given origin to fourth generation probiotics. Up to now, reviews have focused on the detrimental effects of biofilms associated with pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, this work aims to amalgamate information describing the biofilms of Lactobacillus strains which are used as probiotics, particularly L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. reuteri, and L. fermentum. Additionally, we have reviewed the development of probiotics using technology inspired by biofilms. PMID:27681929
María José Salas-Jara
Full Text Available Probiotics are live bacteria, generally administered in food, conferring beneficial effects to the host because they help to prevent or treat diseases, the majority of which are gastrointestinal. Numerous investigations have verified the beneficial effect of probiotic strains in biofilm form, including increased resistance to temperature, gastric pH and mechanical forces to that of their planktonic counterparts. In addition, the development of new encapsulation technologies, which have exploited the properties of biofilms in the creation of double coated capsules, has given origin to fourth generation probiotics. Up to now, reviews have focused on the detrimental effects of biofilms associated with pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, this work aims to amalgamate information describing the biofilms of Lactobacillus strains which are used as probiotics, particularly L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. reuteri, and L. fermentum. Additionally, we have reviewed the development of probiotics using technology inspired by biofilms.
Nov 2, 2009 ... The objective of this research was to investigate the potential probiotic of Lactobacillus johnsonii. LT171. It had aggregation (60 min) and antibacterial effects against Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O78:K80. It showed amylase and protease activity and high clear.
The objective of this research was to investigate the potential probiotic of Lactobacillus johnsonii LT171. It had aggregation (60 min) and antibacterial effects against Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O78:K80. It showed amylase and protease activity and high clear zone in culture medium ...
Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David; Wassenaar, Trudy M.
Six bacterial genera containing species commonly used as probiotics for human consumption or starter cultures for food fermentation were compared and contrasted, based on publicly available complete genome sequences. The analysis included 19 Bifidobacterium genomes, 21 Lactobacillus genomes, 4...... Lactococcus and 3 Leuconostoc genomes, as well as a selection of Enterococcus (11) and Streptococcus (23) genomes. The latter two genera included genomes from probiotic or commensal as well as pathogenic organisms to investigate if their non-pathogenic members shared more genes with the other probiotic......- and core genome of each genus were compared. In addition, it was investigated whether pathogenic genomes contain different COG classes compared to the probiotic or fermentative organisms, again comparing their pan- and core genomes. The obtained results were compared with published data from the literature...
Tulumoğlu, Şener; Kaya, Halil İbrahim; Şimşek, Ömer
The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from Tulum cheese. Seven L. fermentum strains were selected among the isolated and identified lactobacillus strains due to their abundance. When the gastric condition was considered, L. fermentum LP3 and LP4 were able to tolerate pH 2.5 and 1% bile salt. All L. fermentum strains had similar enzymatic activity and antibiotic resistance pattern but the highest antagonistic effect was detected within LP3, LP4 and LP6. Cholesterol assimilation amount of L. fermentum strains ranged between 12.1 and 45.3% in MRS and 20.7-71.1% in MRS with bile. The highest cholesterol assimilation in MRS and MRS with bile was occurred by LP3 and LP4, respectively. L. fermentum LP2 adhered to caco-2 cells more than Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG where LP3, LP4 and LP5 adhered at similar level. In conclusion, L. fermentum LP3 and LP4 fulfilled sufficient criteria to be probiotics for use as a starter culture in the production of tulum cheese or other dairy products. Also this study indicated that some food-associated Lactobacillus strains non-predominant for gut biota have significant probiotic potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Y; Huang, S; Wang, J; Jan, G; Jeantet, R; Chen, X D
Food-related carbohydrates and proteins are often used as thermoprotectants for probiotic lactobacilli during industrial production and processing. However, the effect of inorganic salts is rarely reported. Magnesium is the second-most abundant cation in bacteria, and commonly found in various foods. Mg(2+) homeostasis is important in Salmonella and has been reported to play a critical role in their thermotolerance. However, the role of Mg(2+) in thermotolerance of other bacteria, in particular probiotic bacteria, still remains a hypothesis. In this study, the effect of Mg(2+) on thermotolerance of probiotic lactobacilli was investigated in three well-documented probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Zhang and Lactobacillus plantarum P-8, in comparison with Zn(2+) and Na(+) . Concentrations of Mg(2+) between 10 and 50 mmol l(-1) were found to increase the bacterial survival upon heat challenge. Remarkably, Mg(2+) addition at 20 mmol l(-1) led to a 100-fold higher survival of L. rhamnosus GG upon heat challenge. This preliminary study also showed that Mg(2+) shortened the heat-induced extended lag time of bacteria, which indicated the improvement in bacterial recovery from thermal injury. In order to improve the productivity and stability of live probiotics, extensive investigations have been carried out to improve thermotolerance of probiotics. However, most of these studies focused on the effects of carbohydrates, proteins or amino acids. The roles of inorganic salts in various food materials, which have rarely been reported, should be considered when incorporating probiotics into these foods. In this study, Mg(2+) was found to play a significant role in the thermotolerance of probiotic lactobacilli. A novel strategy may be available in the near future by employing magnesium salts as protective agents of probiotics during manufacturing process. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef
The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264
Douillard, F.P.; Ribbera, A.; Järvinen, H.M.; Kant, R.; Pietilä, T.E.; Randazzo, C.L.; Paulin, L.; Laine, P.K.; Caggia, C.; Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Satokari, R.; Salminen, S.; Palva, A.; Vos, de W.M.
Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in
Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from traditional made cheeses constitute a reservoir of unexplored potential in biotechnology. In this study four autochthonous lactobacilli strains, isolated from traditional white brined cheeses and identified as Lactobacillus paracasei (08, 564, 05 and 02, were investigated on potential probiotic ability. The investigation comprised sensitivity to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity against wide range of pathogens, antibiotic resistance as well as autoaggregation ability. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was used as referent strain. Three tested strains grew well in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, but their sensitivity was greater on bile acids and pancreatin compared with pepsin low pH 2.5. The examined strains had different sensitivity to antibiotics, but three strains showed very good antimicrobial activity to pathogens. All strains demonstrated very good autoaggregation ability. For three of four examined strains of Lb. paracasei probiotic potential was similar with referent strain Lb. rhamnosus GG, determined in vitro
Saadatzadeh, Afrooz; Fazeli, Mohamma Reza; Jamalifar, Hossein; Dinarvand, Rassoul
In recent years there have been considerable interests in the use of probiotic live cells for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. This strategy can be concomitant with some limitations such as survival of live cell during the GI-transit and their effective delivery to target tissues upon ingestion. Several attempts have been made to overcome these limitations such as their microencapsulation, spray-drying and lyophilization. In this study extract of cultured probiotics without cells was evaluated for its antimicrobial effects, antioxidant activity, and its stability. In this work the potential of lyophilized-cell-free-probiotic-extract (LPE) as a suitable alternative strategy for the preparation of probiotic-products was investigated. The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of LPE and also its stability. LPE was obtained by centrifugation and subsequent lyophilization of the collected supernatant from culture media of Lactobacillus casei. An enzymatic reagent-kit was used for detection of its content of lactic acid. Antibacterial test was performed using agar cup-plat-method, the DPPH scavenging -assay was used to determine its antioxidant activity and during a storage course, LPE was under a long-term stability study. Results showed that, LPE had more antipathogenic effects, antioxidant activity, and stability during storage-time when compared to fresh probiotic-extract. Employing the LPE as a new approach, gives novel concept of probiotic-products in food and medical marketing.
Full Text Available Introduction: Lactobacillus is believed to be beneficial in human health, thus the search for isolation and identification of friendly human bacteria from traditional fermented foods is important in medicine. One of the dairy products, traditional cheese as a highly-consumed dairy product could be a valuable source of these friendly edible germs.Methods: In this research, home-made cheese from Lankaran, Jalil Abad and Salian regions in Azerbaijan was characterized for the presence of Lactobacilli with probiotic potential. The bacterial suspension was enriched and screened for acid and bile resistances. Then, the isolates were subjected to antibiotic resistance and antibacterial effects against convenient pathogenic bacteria. The isolates were identified by 16s rDNA sequencing. Results: The results clearly revealed two probiotics with higher homology to Lactobacillus planetarum and Lactobacillus fermentum.Conclusion: No antibiotic resistance was detected in any of the potentially probiotic lactobacilli isolates in these regions, where people continue to follow a life-style that is largely traditional, with traditional medications.
Sep 19, 2011 ... Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enterica were also determined. The result shows that this strain had high antimicrobial activity against selected pathogens. The probiotic strain was administered through the feed to 35-day old weaned piglets to estimate the effect of L. plantarum.
Pace, F; Pace, M; Quartarone, G
Probiotics are becoming increasingly important in basic and clinical research, but they are also a subject of considerable economic interest due to their expanding popularity. They are live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. From this very well-known definition, it is clear that, unlike drugs, probiotics might be useful in healthy subjects to reduce the risk of developing certain diseases or to optimise some physiological functions. They also may offer some advantages in already ill persons in relieving symptoms and signs, e.g. people with acute diarrhea. According to current definitions, probiotics should survive both gastric acid and bile to reach the small intestine and colon, where they exert their effects. Many of these are available in a lyophilized (freeze-dried) pill form, though some are available in yogurt or as packets (sachets), which can be mixed into non-carbonated drinks. The present review focuses on three main issues: 1) understanding why, at present, probiotics are so interesting for doctors and consumers; 2) reviewing the available data on probiotic use in digestive diseases, in particular irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), (prevention of) infectious diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and colorectal cancer (CRC); 3) highlighting the individual profile of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the above contexts, providing an assessment as well as recommendations on its use in gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) disorders. Research studies conducted in animals and humans with the main probiotics strains for GIT diseases, and published from the early 1990s to 2014 have been considered. PubMed, Medline and Ovid were the main sources adopted for data retrieving. The increasing attention on probiotics is a direct consequence of the improvement in the techniques for studying microbiota. Until recently, its composition has been analysed by culture-based methods
Full Text Available Susceptibility of 29 Lactobacilli to 13 antibiotics was assayed by paper disc diffusion method. Plasmids and gastrointestinal tolerance were detected. The relationship between plasmids andantibiotic resistance was discussed. The results showed that all of the strains were resistant to bacitracin, polymyxin B, kanamycin, and nalidixic acid. Many strains were relatively sensitive tochloramphenicol and tetracycline. Six strains contained plasmids and showed good gastrointestinal tolerance. β-lactam resistance gene blr was found in the plasmid of L. plantarum CICC 23180by PCR. The study will be helpful to promote the safety evaluation and development of potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria.
Lactobacilli are gram positive rods, which belong to normal oropharyngeal, gastrointestinal and urogenital flora. They are widely used in food industry and as food additives. Although their virulence is presumed to be very low, opportunistic bacteremic infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts, have been detected. In the present study, the possible effects of increasing probiotic use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on the occurrence of bacteremia due to lactobacilli was evaluated ...
Lara-Villoslada, F; Sierra, S; Martín, R; Delgado, S; Rodríguez, J M; Olivares, M; Xaus, J
The object of the present study was to evaluate the oral toxicity of the recently isolated probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 and Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714. Enzymatic activity and antibiotic resistance profile were evaluated in vitro. Then, the oral toxicity was analysed by an in vivo experiment using 20 Balb/C mice, which were orally treated with CECT5711 or CECT5714 (10(10) CFU mouse(-1) day(-1)) during 30 days. Results showed that CECT5711 and CECT5714 have no deleterious enzymatic activities and present intrinsic antibiotic resistance profile. Administration of both strains to mice had no adverse effects on body weight or food intake. No bacteraemia was present in liver or spleen and there was no treatment-associated bacterial translocation to these tissues. Liver glutathione content as well as plasma malondialdehide concentration were not statistically different in probiotic-treated mice when compared with control mice. Probiotic treatment did not cause changes in the biochemical and haematological parameters analysed. These results suggest that strains CECT5711 and CECT5714 are nonpathogenic and likely to be safe for human consumption. This study reveals the oral safety of two new lactobacilli strains that are aimed to be used as probiotics in food and pharmaceutical applications.
Santos, Carolina M A; Pires, Maria C V; Leão, Thiago L; Hernández, Zulema P; Rodriguez, Marisleydys L; Martins, Ariane K S; Miranda, Lilian S; Martins, Flaviano S; Nicoli, Jacques R
Lactobacilli are the dominant bacteria of the vaginal tract of healthy women, and imbalance of the local microbiota can predispose women to acquire infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Although antimicrobial therapy is generally effective, there is still a high incidence of recurrence and increase of microbial resistance due to the repetitive use of antimicrobials. Thus, it has been suggested that administration of probiotics incorporating selected Lactobacillus strains may be an effective strategy for preventing vaginal infections. Accordingly, the in vitro probiotic potential of 23 lactobacilli isolated from the vaginal ecosystem of healthy women from Cuba was evaluated for use in BV and VVC treatments. Eight strains were selected based on their antagonist potential against Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicansor both. In vitro assays revealed that all these strains reduced the pathogen counts in co-incubation, showed excellent adhesive properties (biofilm formation and auto-aggregation), were able to co-aggregate with G. vaginalis and C. albicans, yielded high amounts of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid and demonstrated high adhesion rates to epithelial HeLa cells. Interference tests within HeLa cells showed that all strains were able to reduce the adherence of pathogens by exclusion or displacement. Lactobacilli were able to inhibit HeLa cell apoptosis caused by pathogens when the cells were incubated with the probiotics prior to challenge. These results suggest that these strains have a promising probiotic potential and can be used for prevention or treatment of BV and VVC.
Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying
The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing
Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Mihkel
The paper lays out the short scientific history and characteristics of the new probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain ME-3 DSM-14241, elaborated according to the regulations of WHO/FAO (2002). L. fermentum ME-3 is a unique strain of Lactobacillus species, having at the same time the antimicrobial and physiologically effective antioxidative properties and expressing health-promoting characteristics if consumed. Tartu University has patented this strain in Estonia (priority June 2001, patent in 2006), Russia (patent in 2006) and the USA (patent in 2007). The paper describes the process of the identification and molecular typing of this probiotic strain of human origin, its deposition in an international culture collection, and its safety assessment by laboratory tests and testing on experimental animals and volunteers. It has been established that L. fermentum strain ME-3 has double functional properties: antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high total antioxidative activity (TAA) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of intact cells and lysates, and it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover. The functional efficacy of the antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic has been proven by the eradication of salmonellas and the reduction of liver and spleen granulomas in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected mice treated with the combination of ofloxacin and L. fermentum strain ME-3. Using capsules or foodstuffs enriched with L. fermentum ME-3, different clinical study designs (including double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies) and different subjects (healthy volunteers, allergic patients and those recovering from a stroke), it has been shown that this probiotic increased the antioxidative activity of sera and improved the composition of the low-density lipid particles (LDL) and post-prandial lipids as well as oxidative stress status, thus demonstrating a remarkable anti-atherogenic effect. The
H Atapour Mashhad
Full Text Available Background: Probiotic microorganisms are living normal flora of human body that have nutritional value and health benefits when administered in adequate amounts. The health benefits include prevention of bacterial diarrhea, skin eczema and recently understood, prevention and control of various cancers, as well. Different mechanisms such as stimulating the immune system, modifying the composition of gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract normal flora and prevention of the carcinogenic activity of fecal enzymes have been identified for their probiotic activity. Due to the high density of the normal flora in the gut and also preferentially sporadic nature of colorectal cancers, these cancers are among the main candidates of treatment trials with probiotics. In this study, direct effects of probiotic lactobacilli on colon cancer tumor cells were studied. Methods: Supernatant fluid and bacterial extracts were prepared and CaCo-2 cells were treated by these materials. Subsequently, the effects of the aforesaid elements were evaluated on cell proliferation, cell necrosis and cell apoptosis by MTT assay, LDH assay and caspase-3 activity. Results: The supernatants of lactobacilli decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis but they did not have any effect on cell necrosis. In contrast, when cancerous cells were treated by lactobacilli extract, it lead to cell necrosis in addition to reduction in cell proliferation and increase in cell apoptosis. Conclusion: The use of lactobacillus probiotics may reduce proliferation of tumor cells in the early stages of colorectal cancers.
Rönkä, Elina; Malinen, Erja; Saarela, Maria; Rinta-Koski, Merja; Aarnikunnas, Johannes; Palva, Airi
Two Lactobacillus brevis strains ATCC 8287 and ATCC 14869(T), were evaluated for their applicability as putative probiotics in dairy products. The strains expressed good in vitro adherence to human Caco-2 and Intestine 407 cells and tolerated well low pH, bile acids and pancreatic fluid under in vitro conditions. In antimicrobial activity assays, strain ATCC 8287 showed inhibitory properties toward selected potential harmful microorganisms, particularly against Bacillus cereus. Both L. brevis strains were resistant to vancomycin, which is typical for the genus Lactobacillus. The L. brevis strains were not able to acidify milk to yoghurt but were suitable as supplement strains in yoghurts. This was shown by producing a set of yoghurt products and analysing their rheological and sensory properties during a cold storage period of 28 days. Survival of the strains through human intestine was examined in 1-week feeding trials. Despite its human origin, L. brevis ATCC 14869(T) could not survive through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, whereas L. brevis ATCC 8287 was detected in the faecal samples taken during and immediately after ingestion of the strain. In conclusion, L. brevis ATCC 8287 is a promising candidate as a probiotic supplement in dairy products.
Full Text Available Dear Editor,We read with great interest the article by Jerković Raguž et al. published in the latest issue of your journal. First, we would like to commend the authors for their endeavor. We have comments regarding the methodological issues which require further clarification by the authors for the benefit of the readers of JPNIM. This corrispondence refers to the following article:Jerković Raguž M, Brzica J, Rozić S, Šumanović Glamuzina D, Mustapić A, Novaković Bošnjak M, Božić T. The impact of probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis on the treatment, course and outcome of premature infants in the Intensive Care Unit in Mostar. J Pediatr Neonat Individual Med. 2016;5(2:e050228. doi: 10.7363/050228.Authors’ reply can be found in the following article:Jerković Raguž M, Brzica J, Rozić S, Šumanović Glamuzina D, Mustapić A, Novaković Bošnjak M, Božić T. Correspondence: Probiotic (Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis in premature infants – Authors’ reply. J Pediatr Neonat Individual Med. 2017;6(1:e060130. doi: 10.7363/060130.
Dantas, Aline B; Jesus, Vitor F; Silva, Ramon; Almada, Carine N; Esmerino, E A; Cappato, Leandro P; Silva, Marcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo N; Carvalho, Celio C; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Bolini, Helena M A; Freitas, Monica Q; Cruz, Adriano G
In this study, the addition of Lactobacillus casei Zhang in the manufacture of Minas Frescal cheese was investigated. Minas Frescal cheeses supplemented with probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei Zhang) were produced by enzymatic coagulation and direct acidification and were subjected to physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, lactic acid, and acetic acid), microbiological (probiotic and lactic bacteria counts), and rheological analyses (uniaxial compression and creep test), instrumental color determination (luminosity, yellow intensity, and red intensity) and sensory acceptance test. The addition of L. casei Zhang resulted in low pH values and high proteolysis indexes during storage (from 5.38 to 4.94 and 0.470 to 0.702, respectively). Additionally, the cheese protocol was not a hurdle for growth of L. casei Zhang, as the population reached 8.16 and 9.02 log cfu/g by means of the direct acidification and enzymatic coagulation protocol, respectively, after 21 d of refrigerated storage. The rheology data showed that all samples presented a more viscous-like behavior, which rigidity tended to decrease during storage and lower luminosity values were also observed. Increased consumer acceptance was observed for the control sample produced by direct acidification (7.8), whereas the cheeses containing L. casei Zhang presented lower values for all sensory attributes, especially flavor and overall liking (5.37 and 4.61 for enzymatic coagulation and 5.57 and 4.72 for direct acidification, respectively). Overall, the addition of L. casei Zhang led to changes in all parameters and affected negatively the sensory acceptance. The optimization of L. casei Zhang dosage during the manufacturing of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese should be performed. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elsa Jacouton; Florian Chain; Harry Sokol; Philippe Langella; Luis G. Bermúdez-Humarán
.... In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of oral treatment with Lactobacillus casei BL23, a probiotic strain well known for its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05 higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05 increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05 higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for
Wine, Eytan; Gareau, Mélanie G; Johnson-Henry, Kathene; Sherman, Philip M
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of enterocolitis in humans, leading to diarrhoea and chronic extraintestinal diseases. Although probiotics are effective in preventing other enteric infections, beneficial microorganisms have not been extensively studied with C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to delineate the ability of selected probiotic Lactobacillus strains to reduce epithelial cell invasion by C. jejuni. Human colon T84 and embryonic intestine 407 epithelial cells were pretreated with Lactobacillus strains and then infected with two prototypic C. jejuni pathogens. Lactobacillus helveticus, strain R0052 reduced C. jejuni invasion into T84 cells by 35-41%, whereas Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 did not reduce pathogen invasion. Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 also decreased invasion of one C. jejuni isolate (strain 11168) into intestine 407 cells by 55%. Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 adhered to both epithelial cell types, which suggest that competitive exclusion could contribute to protection by probiotics. Taken together, these findings indicate that the ability of selected probiotics to prevent C. jejuni-mediated disease pathogenesis depends on the pathogen strain, probiotic strain and the epithelial cell type selected. The data support the concept of probiotic strain selectivity, which is dependent on the setting in which it is being evaluated and tested.
Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying
...) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected...
Yadav, Hariom; Jain, Shalini; Sinha, P R
We investigated the effect of low-fat (2.5%) dahi containing probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei on progression of high fructose-induced type 2 diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by feeding 21% fructose in water. The body weight, food and water intakes, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma insulin, liver glycogen content, and blood lipid profile were recorded. The oxidative status in terms of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and reduced glutathione contents in liver and pancreatic tissues were also measured. Values for blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose intolerance, plasma insulin, liver glycogen, plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood free fatty acids were increased significantly after 8 wk of high fructose feeding; however, the dahi-supplemented diet restricted the elevation of these parameters in comparison with the high fructose-fed control group. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased slightly and was retained in the dahi-fed group. The dahi-fed group also exhibited lower values of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and higher values of reduced glutathione in liver and pancreatic tissues compared with the high fructose-fed control group. The probiotic dahi-supplemented diet significantly delayed the onset of glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress in high fructose-induced diabetic rats, indicating a lower risk of diabetes and its complications.
Pyar, Hassan; Peh, Kok-Khiang
In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V) of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine.
Full Text Available In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine
Hynönen, U.; R Kant; Lähteinen, T.; Pietilä, T.E.; Beganovic, J.; Smidt, H; Uroic, K.; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, S.; Palva, A.
Abstract Background Adhesiveness to intestinal epithelium, beneficial immunomodulating effects and the production of pathogen-inhibitory compounds are generally considered as beneficial characteristics of probiotic organisms. We showed the potential health-promoting properties and the mechanisms of probiotic action of seven swine intestinal Lactobacillus amylovorus isolates plus the type strain (DSM 20531T) by investigating their adheren...
Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Svensson, Birte
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a well-known probiotic bacterium extensively studied for its beneficial health effects. Exoproteome (proteins exported into culture medium) and surface proteome (proteins attached to S-layer) of this probiotic were identified by using 2DE followed by MALDI TOF MS...
Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Dinesh
In the present study twelve Lactobacillus isolates (LBS 1-LBS 12) were characterized for probiotic properties. Out of the twelve, eight isolates (LBS 1-6, 8 and 11) were bile resistant (survival > 50% at 0.3% bile salt w/v) and five isolates (LBS 1, 2, 5, 6 and 11) were found acid pH value resistant (survival > 50% at pH 3). All twelve isolates inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus whereas isolate LBS 2 also inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolates was also performed and isolate LBS 2 was selected for further study based on its broad spectrum effect in clinical pathogen inhibition. LBS 2 was characterized phenotypically at Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH), Chandigarh, India and was confirmed as Lactobacillus rhamnosus by 16S rDNA sequencing and subsequent analysis using BLAST. The gene sequence was deposited in GenBank with accession number KJ562858. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was used to study in vitro epithelial cell adherence and bile salt effect on isolate LBS 2. Epithelial cells adherence assay showed positive results and surface roughness of LBS 2 increased with increase in bile salt (0.15-0.45% w/v). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dietrich, Christoph G; Kottmann, Tanja; Alavi, Manuela
To investigate the effect of Lactobacillus-containing commercially available probiotic formulations in Germany during antibiotic treatment with an analysis of cost-efficiency. In an observational study, we analyzed the frequency of bowel movements from 258 patients with infections in a primary care hospital in western Germany; 107 of the patients were offered a probiotic drink containing at least 10 billion cultures of Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 b.i.d. The economic analysis was based on the costs of patient isolation vs preventive intake of probiotics. In a second pilot study, two commercially available probiotic drinks with different Lactobacillus casei strains were directly compared in 60 patients in a randomized controlled fashion. In the first study, the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) was significantly reduced in the intervention group (6.5% vs 28.4%), and the duration of AAD in days was significantly shorter (1.7 ± 1.1 vs 3.1 ± 2.1). Higher age and creatinine and lower albumin were identified as risk factors for AAD. Ampicillin was the antibiotic with the highest rate of AAD (50%) and with the greatest AAD reduction in the probiotic group (4.2%, relative risk reduction 92%). The economic analysis showed a cost advantage of nearly 60000 €/year in a department of this size. The second study confirmed the preventive effect of the drink with Lactobacillus casei DN114001; however, there were no advantages found for the other tested probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota. In contrast to a drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota, a commercially available probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 cost-efficiently reduces the prevalence of AAD during antibiotic treatment.
Rousseau, Geneviève M.; Capra, María L.; Quiberoni, Andrea; Tremblay, Denise M.; Labrie, Simon J.
Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been extensively studied because some are used as probiotics in foods. Conversely, their phages have received much less attention. We analyzed the complete genome sequences of five L. paracasei temperate phages: CL1, CL2, iLp84, iLp1308, and iA2. Only phage iA2 could not replicate in an indicator strain. The genome lengths ranged from 34,155 bp (iA2) to 39,474 bp (CL1). Phages iA2 and iLp1308 (34,176 bp) possess the smallest genomes reported, thus far, for phages of the L. casei group. The GC contents of the five phage genomes ranged from 44.8 to 45.6%. As observed with many other phages, their genomes were organized as follows: genes coding for DNA packaging, morphogenesis, lysis, lysogeny, and replication. Phages CL1, CL2, and iLp1308 are highly related to each other. Phage iLp84 was also related to these three phages, but the similarities were limited to gene products involved in DNA packaging and structural proteins. Genomic fragments of phages CL1, CL2, iLp1308, and iLp84 were found in several genomes of L. casei strains. Prophage iA2 is unrelated to these four phages, but almost all of its genome was found in at least four L. casei strains. Overall, these phages are distinct from previously characterized Lactobacillus phages. Our results highlight the diversity of L. casei phages and indicate frequent DNA exchanges between phages and their hosts. PMID:26475105
Douillard, François P; Ribbera, Angela; Järvinen, Hanna M; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E; Randazzo, Cinzia; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K; Caggia, Cinzia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M
Four Lactobacillus strains were isolated from marketed probiotic products, including L. rhamnosus strains from Vifit (Friesland Campina) and Idoform (Ferrosan) and L. casei strains from Actimel (Danone) and Yakult (Yakult Honsa Co.). Their genomes and phenotypes were characterized and compared in detail with L. casei strain BL23 and L. rhamnosus strain GG. Phenotypic analysis of the new isolates indicated differences in carbohydrate utilization between L. casei and L. rhamnosus strains, which could be linked to their genotypes. The two isolated L. rhamnosus strains had genomes that were virtually identical to that of L. rhamnosus GG, testifying to their genomic stability and integrity in food products. The L. casei strains showed much greater genomic heterogeneity. Remarkably, all strains contained an intact spaCBA pilus gene cluster. However, only the L. rhamnosus strains produced mucus-binding SpaCBA pili under the conditions tested. Transcription initiation mapping demonstrated that the insertion of an iso-IS30 element upstream of the pilus gene cluster in L. rhamnosus strains but absent in L. casei strains had constituted a functional promoter driving pilus gene expression. All L. rhamnosus strains triggered an NF-κB response via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a reporter cell line, whereas the L. casei strains did not or did so to a much lesser extent. This study demonstrates that the two L. rhamnosus strains isolated from probiotic products are virtually identical to L. rhamnosus GG and further highlights the differences between these and L. casei strains widely marketed as probiotics, in terms of genome content, mucus-binding and metabolic capacities, and host signaling capabilities.
Full Text Available Forty potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains as well as reference strains of different genera were grown under standardised conditions. Cell masses were harvested and DNA was isolated. For identification, all strains were subjected to genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and the affiliation with the genus Lactobacillus was confirmed for all isolates. Using two species-specific primer-pairs for Lactobacillus reuteri, specific amplicons were observed for eight of the forty investigated strains. For differentiation, these eight strains as well as the reference strains of the species L. reuteri and closely related species were subjected to randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR using fourteen arbitrary primers. Two selected strains as well as probiotic and common reference strains were further investigated applying pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. With the latter two methods, individual profiles were found for most strains, but no difference between probiotic and common strains could be made out.
Dec, Marta; Puchalski, Andrzej; Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej
Lactobacilli are natural inhabitants of human and animal mucous membranes, including the avian gastrointestinal tract. Recently, increasing attention has been given to their probiotic, health-promoting capacities, among which their antagonistic potential against pathogens plays a key role. A study was conducted to evaluate probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from feces or cloacae of domestic geese. Among the 104 examined isolates, previously identified to the species level by whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of 16S-23S regions of rDNA, dominated Lactobacillus salivarius (35%), followed by Lactobacillus johnsonii (18%) and Lactobacillus ingluviei (11%). All lactobacilli were screened for antimicrobial activity toward Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida, and Riemerella anatipestifer using the agar slab method and the well diffusion method. Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum exhibited particularly strong antagonism toward all of the indicator strains. In the agar slab method, the highest sensitivity to Lactobacillus was observed in R. anatipestifer and P. multocida, and the lowest in E. coli and S. aureus. The ability to produce H₂O₂was exhibited by 92% of isolates, but there was no correlation between the rate of production of this reactive oxygen species and the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus sp. All lactobacilli showed resistance to pH 3.0 and 3.5 and to 2% bile. The data demonstrate that Lactobacillus isolates from geese may have probiotic potential in reducing bacterial infections. The antibacterial activity of the selected lactobacilli is mainly due to lactic acid production by these bacteria. The selected Lactobacillus strains that strongly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and were also resistant to low pH and bile salts, can potentially restore the balance
Conclusion There are no significant differences in recovery from functional dyspepsia, pain severity, or pain duration between the probiotics and placebo groups. However, the probiotics group has significantly reduced frequency of pain compared to that of the placebo group.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Urogenital infections of bacterial origin have a high incidence among the female population at reproductive age, affecting the fertility. Strains of Escherichia coli can colonize the vagina and replace natural microflora. Lactobacillus the predominant vaginal microorganism in healthy women, maintains the acidic vaginal pH which inhibits pathogenic microorganisms. Studies on Lactobacillus have shown that these can inhibit E. coli growth and vaginal colonization. An alternative therapeutic approach to antimicrobial therapy is to re-establish Lactobacillus in this microbiome through probiotic administration to resurge fertility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the capability of L. plantarum 2621 strain with probiotic properties, to prevent the vaginal colonization of E. coli causing agglutination of sperms and to evaluate its profertility effect in a murine model. m0 ethods: Screened mice were divided into five groups i.e. control group, E. coli group, Lactobacillus group, prophylactic and therapeutic groups. The control group was infused with 20 µl PBS, E.coli group was administered with 10  cfu/20 µl E. coli, and probiotic group was administered with Lactobacillus (10  cfu/20 µl for 10 consecutive days. In prophylactic group, the vagina was colonized with 10 consecutive doses of Lactobacillus (10  cfu/20 µl. After 24 h, it was followed by 10 day intravaginal infection with E. coli (10  cfu/20 µl whereas for the therapeutic group vagina was colonized with (10  cfu/20 µl E. coli for 10 consecutive days, followed by 10 day intravaginal administration with Lactobacillus after 24 h. Results: Upon mating and completion of gestation period, control, probiotic and the therapeutic groups had litters in contrast to the prophylactic group and the group administered with E. coli. Interpretation & conclusions: Results indicated that Lactobacillus intermitted colonization of pathogenic
Million, Matthieu; Raoult, Didier
Certain strains of Lactobacillus appear to have a reproducible effect on weight as a weight-gain effect in lean humans and animals or a weight-loss effect in overweight/obese humans and animals. These results are completely sufficient to capture the attention of the scientific community to assess the effect on the weight of Lactobacillus-containing probiotics sold for human consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spinler, Jennifer K; Sontakke, Amrita; Hollister, Emily B; Venable, Susan F; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Balderas, Miriam A; Saulnier, Delphine M A; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Devaraj, Sridevi; Walter, Jens; Versalovic, James; Highlander, Sarah K
The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri has diversified into separate clades reflecting host origin. Strains show evidence of host adaptation, but how host-microbe coevolution influences microbial-derived effects on hosts is poorly understood. Emphasizing human-derived strains of L. reuteri, we combined comparative genomic analyses with functional assays to examine variations in host interaction among genetically distinct ecotypes. Within clade II or VI, the genomes of human-derived L. reuteri strains are highly conserved in gene content and at the nucleotide level. Nevertheless, they share only 70-90% of total gene content, indicating differences in functional capacity. Human-associated lineages are distinguished by genes related to bacteriophages, vitamin biosynthesis, antimicrobial production, and immunomodulation. Differential production of reuterin, histamine, and folate by 23 clade II and VI strains was demonstrated. These strains also differed with respect to their ability to modulate human cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, and IL-13) by myeloid cells. Microarray analysis of representative clade II and clade VI strains revealed global regulation of genes within the reuterin, vitamin B12, folate, and arginine catabolism gene clusters by the AraC family transcriptional regulator, PocR. Thus, human-derived L. reuteri clade II and VI strains are genetically distinct and their differences affect their functional repertoires and probiotic features. These findings highlight the biological impact of microbe:host coevolution and illustrate the functional significance of subspecies differences in the human microbiome. Consideration of host origin and functional differences at the subspecies level may have major impacts on probiotic strain selection and considerations of microbial ecology in mammalian species. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on
Abhisingha, Mattika; Dumnil, Jureeporn; Pitaksutheepong, Chetsadaporn
Three hundred and sixty presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from pregnant sows, newborn, suckling, and weaned piglets were preliminarily screened for anti-Salmonella activity. Fifty-eight isolates consisting of Lactobacillus reuteri (n = 32), Lactobacillus salivarius (n = 10), Lactobacillus mucosae (n = 8), Lactobacillus johnsonii (n = 5), and Lactobacillus crispatus (n = 3) were selected and further characterized for probiotic properties including production of antimicrobial substances, acid and bile tolerance, and cell adherence to Caco-2 cells. Eight isolates including Lact. johnsonii LJ202 and Lact. reuteri LR108 were identified as potential probiotics. LJ202 was selected for further use in co-culture studies of two-bacterial and multiple-bacterial species to examine its inhibitory activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis DMST7106 (SE7106). Co-culture of LJ202 and SE7106 showed that LJ202 could completely inhibit the growth of SE7106 in 10 h of co-culture. In co-culture of multiple-bacterial species, culturable fecal bacteria from pig feces were used as representative of multiple-bacterial species. The study was performed to examine whether interactions among multiple-bacterial species would influence antagonistic activity of LJ202 against SE7106 and fecal coliform bacteria. Co-culture of SE7106 with different combinations of fecal bacteria and probiotic (LJ202 and LR108) or non-probiotic (Lact. mucosae LM303) strains revealed that the growth of SE7106 was completely inhibited either in the presence or in the absence of probiotic strains. Intriguingly, LJ202 exhibited notable inhibitory activity against fecal coliform bacteria while LR108 did not. Taken together, the results of co-culture studies suggested that LJ202 is a good probiotic candidate for further study its inhibitory effects against pathogen infections in pigs.
β- galactosidase and hemolytic activity as well as antibiotic susceptibility. In addition, antibacterial activity of the isolated strains against E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium ATCC 14028 was determined. Results: One strain, labeled as Lb3 showed the highest tolerance to low pH, bile and simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. This strain exhibited resistance to Streptomycin, Vancomycin and Polymixin B as well as effective antibacterial activity against two Gram negative pathogens, lacking hemolytic activity as well as high β- galactosidase activity. Finally, the strain Lb3 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP55 using biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequencing assay. Discussion and conclusion: In the present work, a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP55 was isolated from traditionally produced Siahmezgi cheese. The bacterium displayed good probiotic properties and could be used in dairy industry.
Full Text Available Introduction: Lactobacilli are a bacteria commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. Some species of this genus have probiotic properties. The most common of these is Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a microoganism, generally regarded as safe (GRAS. It is also a homofermentative L-(+-lactic acid producer. The genus Lactobacillus is characterized by an extraordinary degree of the phenotypic and genotypic diversity. However, the studies of the genus were conducted mostly with the unequally distributed, non-random choice of species for sequencing; thus, there is only one representative genome from the Lactobacillus rhamnosus clade available to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the genome sequencing of selected strains of Lactobacilli. Methods: 109 samples were isolated from national domestic dairy products in the laboratory of Center for life sciences. After screaning isolates for probiotic properties, a highly active Lactobacillus spp strain was chosen. Genomic DNA was extracted according to the manufacturing protocol (Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit. The Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain was identified as the highly active Lactobacillus strain accoridng to its morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties, and a genotypic analysis. Results: The genome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was sequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX (454 GS FLX platforms. The initial draft assembly was prepared from 14 large contigs (20 all contigs by the Newbler gsAssembler 2.3 (454 Life Sciences, Branford, CT. Conclusion: A full genome-sequencing of selected strains of lactic acid bacteria was made during the study.
Delphine M Saulnier
Full Text Available The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to differ with respect to antimicrobial production, biofilm formation, and immunomodulation. To explain possible mechanisms of survival in the host and probiosis, we completed a detailed genomic comparison of two breast milk-derived isolates representative of each group: an established probiotic strain (L. reuteri ATCC 55730 and a strain with promising probiotic features (L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. Transcriptomes of L. reuteri strains in different growth phases were monitored using strain-specific microarrays, and compared using a pan-metabolic model representing all known metabolic reactions present in these strains. Both strains contained candidate genes involved in the survival and persistence in the gut such as mucus-binding proteins and enzymes scavenging reactive oxygen species. A large operon predicted to encode the synthesis of an exopolysaccharide was identified in strain 55730. Both strains were predicted to produce health-promoting factors, including antimicrobial agents and vitamins (folate, vitamin B(12. Additionally, a complete pathway for thiamine biosynthesis was predicted in strain 55730 for the first time in this species. Candidate genes responsible for immunomodulatory properties of each strain were identified by transcriptomic comparisons. The production of bioactive metabolites by human-derived probiotics may be predicted using metabolic modeling and transcriptomics. Such strategies may facilitate selection and optimization of probiotics for health promotion, disease prevention and amelioration.
Presti, I; D'Orazio, G; Labra, M; La Ferla, B; Mezzasalma, V; Bizzaro, G; Giardina, S; Michelotti, A; Tursi, F; Vassallo, M; Di Gennaro, P
Probiotic ingestion is recommended as a preventive approach to maintain the balance of the intestinal microbiota and to enhance the human well-being. During the whole life of each individual, the gut microbiota composition could be altered by lifestyle, diet, antibiotic therapies and other stress conditions, which may lead to acute and chronic disorders. Hence, probiotics can be administered for the prevention or treatment of some disorders, including lactose malabsorption, acute diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis and mild forms of inflammatory bowel disease. The probiotic-mediated effect is an important issue that needs to be addressed in relation to strain-specific probiotic properties. In this work, the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains were screened, and their effects in vitro were evaluated. They were screened for probiotic properties by determining their tolerance to low pH and to bile salts, antibiotic sensitivity, antimicrobial activity and vitamin B8, B9 and B12 production, and by considering their ability to increase the antioxidant potential and to modulate the inflammatory status of systemic-miming cell lines in vitro. Three out of the examined strains presenting the most performant probiotic properties, as Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus rhamnosus PBS070 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis PBSO75, were evaluated for their effects also on human intestinal HT-29 cell line. The obtained results support the possibility to move to another level of study, that is, the oral administration of these probiotical strains to patients with acute and chronic gut disorders, by in vivo experiments.
Majumder, Avishek; Cai, Liyang; Ejby, Morten
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) is a well‐documented probiotic bacterium isolated from human gut. Detailed 2D gel‐based NCFM proteomics addressed the so‐called alkaline range, i.e., pH 6–11. Proteins were identified in 150 of the 202 spots picked from the Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained 2D...
Reunanen, J.; Ossowski, von I.; Hendrickx, A.P.; Palva, A.; Vos, de W.M.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a human intestinal isolate that has been studied intensively because of its probiotic properties. We have previously shown that L. rhamnosus GG produces proteinaceous pili that earlier had been observed only in Gram-positive pathogens (M. Kankainen et al., Proc. Natl.
Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by mixing raw cow’s or goat’s milk
Michael, Minto; Phebus, Randall K; Schmidt, Karen A
A commercial plant extract (prepared from olive, garlic, onion and citrus extracts with sodium acetate (SA) as a carrier) was evaluated to extend the viability of yogurt starter and probiotic bacteria as a means to enhance the shelf life of live and active culture, probiotic nonfat yogurt. Yogurts prepared from three different formulas (0.5* plant extract, 0.25* SA, or no supplement) and cultures (yogurt starter plus Bifidobacterium animalis,Lactobacillus acidophilus, or both probiotics) were assessed weekly during 29 days of storage at 5°C. Supplemented yogurt mixes had greater buffering capacities than non-supplemented yogurt mixes. At the end of storage, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and L. acidophilus counts in supplemented yogurts were greater compared with non-supplemented yogurts. Supplementation did not affect Streptococcus thermophilus and B. animalis counts. Hence the greater buffering capacity of yogurt containing plant extract could enhance the longevity of the probiotics, L. bulgaricus and L. acidophilus, during storage. PMID:25650127
Chimchang, Juntana; Theparee, Talent; Ladda, Boonyarut; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Wongsatayanon, Benjamas Thanomsub; Taweechotipatr, Malai
Probiotics are increasingly used to treat infectious diarrhea and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Many probiotic bacteria are classified in general such as Lactobacillus and are able to colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of infants. This study was performed to detect antimicrobial substances and activity in 200 Lactobacillus isolates obtained from healthy Thai newborn feces. Reuterin production was detected by the spot overlay technique and colorimetric assay. Antimicrobial activity was tested by using a well diffusion, agar method. Lactobacillus strain MSMC64-1 produced reuterin and demonstrated potent antimicrobial activity against seven pathogenic indicator strains with very strong inhibitory activities against Salmonella typhi DMST 5784 and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) DMST 20651. There was strong inhibitory activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) DMST20654, Vibrio parahaemolyticus DMST 5665 and Shigella dysenteriae DMST 15111. There was moderate to weak inhibitory activities against Vibrio cholerae DMST 2873 and Helicobacter pylori (H40). The Lactobacillus strain MSMC 64-1 showed resistance to acidic pH (pH 2, 3, 4) and tolerance to 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% bile concentrations. Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA identified the candidate's strain as Lactobacillus reuteri with 98% sequence homology. The active isolate could potentially be used as a probiotic to prevent and treat enteric infections.
Probiotics are health-promoting microorganisms that exert their beneficial effects in several ways. While it is known that probiotic bacteria interact with cells of the host gastrointestinal tractand modulate cell-signaling responses by which they might promote health, the underlying molecular
Nafiseh Sadat Foroutan
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Probiotics have to reach their site of action in certain numbers in order to exhibit positive health effects. Encapsulation has shown remarkable enhancing effects on probiotic survival in simulated gastric conditions compared to free bacteria. The purpose of this study was identification and evaluation of a potential probiotic strain using encapsulation process by new carriers in order to improve probiotic viability during in vitro simulated conditions.Material and Methods: A native Lactobacillus was isolated from yogurt, identified as Lactobacillus casei PM01 (NCBI registered and analyzed for probiotic properties alongside established probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43556, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. Acid and bile resistance, adhesion to Caco-2 cells and antibiotic resistance were evaluated. Lactobacillus casei PM01 was encapsulated with alginate, chitosan and natural branched polysaccharides (pectin, tragacanth gum and gum Arabic by using extrusion technique. Encapsulation efficiency, acidification activity and viability of entrapped Lactobacillus casei PM01 in simulated gastric pH were determined. Results and Conclusion: Based on the results, all the three strains could be considered as potential probiotics, and are good candidates for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation. The results showed that the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei PM01 was significantly (p≤0.05 increased when it was incubated in simulated gastric pH. It can be concluded that indigenous Lactobacillus casei PM01 in encapsulated form is introduced as an efficient probiotic strain for using in dairy products.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Järvenpää, S; Tahvonen, R L; Ouwehand, A C; Sandell, M; Järvenpää, E; Salminen, S
Our aim was to develop a prototype of a functional spread cheese containing both a specific probiotic and n-3 fatty acids and to analyze the viability of the probiotic and stability of n-3 fatty acids during 4 wk of shelf life. Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 (Lf ME-3) isolated from a healthy Estonian child has been shown to have probiotic and antioxidative properties in several recent studies. In the current study this promising bacterial strain was combined with vegetable oils rich in nutritionally important alpha-linolenic acid and with unflavored cheese to obtain soft cheese spreads with different fat contents. Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 survived well in all cheeses although the viable count did not increase during 4 wk of storage. The fatty acid composition of cheese triacylglycerols remained stable, whereas the profile of volatile compounds changed: hexanal and pentanal disappeared and the proportion of some alcohols increased. The changes in the profile of volatile compounds show the reductive power of Lf ME-3. A functional spread cheese containing n-3 fatty acids can be prepared with the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 strain leading to a reduced need for chemical anti-oxidants.
L. M. Rocha-Ramírez
Full Text Available Lactobacilli have been shown to promote health functions. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which four different strains of probiotics affected innate immunity, such as regulation of ROS, cytokines, phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, signaling by NF-κB pp65, and TLR2 activation. The production of ROS was dependent on the concentration and species of Lactobacillus. The results obtained from the tested strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus KLSD, L. helveticus IMAU70129, and L. casei IMAU60214 showed that strains induced early proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-8,TNF-α, IL-12p70, and IL-6. However, IL-1β expression was induced only by L. helveticus and L. casei strains (after 24 h stimulation. Phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of macrophages against various pathogens, such as S. aureus, S. typhimurium, and E. coli, were increased by pretreatment with Lactobacillus. The nuclear translocation NF-κB pp65 and TLR2-dependent signaling were also increased by treatment with the probiotics. Taken together, the experiments demonstrate that probiotic strains of Lactobacillus exert early immunostimulatory effects that may be directly linked to the initial inflammation of the response of human macrophages.
Moreno Guerrero, S. S.; Ramírez Pacheco, A.; García Garibay, M.; Eslava, C.
Lactobacilli have been shown to promote health functions. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which four different strains of probiotics affected innate immunity, such as regulation of ROS, cytokines, phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, signaling by NF-κB pp65, and TLR2 activation. The production of ROS was dependent on the concentration and species of Lactobacillus. The results obtained from the tested strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus KLSD, L. helveticus IMAU70129, and L. casei IMAU60214) showed that strains induced early proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-8,TNF-α, IL-12p70, and IL-6. However, IL-1β expression was induced only by L. helveticus and L. casei strains (after 24 h stimulation). Phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of macrophages against various pathogens, such as S. aureus, S. typhimurium, and E. coli, were increased by pretreatment with Lactobacillus. The nuclear translocation NF-κB pp65 and TLR2-dependent signaling were also increased by treatment with the probiotics. Taken together, the experiments demonstrate that probiotic strains of Lactobacillus exert early immunostimulatory effects that may be directly linked to the initial inflammation of the response of human macrophages. PMID:28758133
Full Text Available Today, burn injury is second most frequent diagnosis in all children hospitalized with injuries. The main cause of death in cases of extensive deep burns is burn infection that occurs in 23 to 82 % of all burn units’ patients. Antibacterial treatment rationality is of great importance in fighting the generalized infections. This paper is aimed at scrutinizing the incidence and course characteristics of the antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD in burn patients, as well as the possibility of its prevention in children receiving antibacterial treatment in the Regional Burn Unit of Zaporizhzhia. During 2012–2015, we have observed 438 children with burn injuries, who received antibiotics. We observed children receiving antibiotics and examined over hospitalization time by detection of the highly specific for antibiotic-associated diarrhea A + B Clostridium difficile toxins in stool, which allowed diagnosing the enterocolitis due to Clostridium difficile associated with antibiotics administration (A4.07, ICD‑10. AAD prevention methods have been developed, among which preventive (from the first hours of hospitalization administration of oral probiotic agent containing Lactobacillus acidophilus R0052 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 probiotic strains as a part of the Lacidofil® preparation dosed by age should be considered a major one. Prophylactic prescription of probiotic strains with antitoxic action against Clostridium difficile had reduced the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children and the severity of its symptoms by 3.4 times.
Cichosz, Grażyna; Nalepa, Beata; Kowalska, Marika
Summary The objective of this study is to determine the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in Edam cheese as well as the effect of probiotic bacteria on paracasein proteolysis and changes in the water activity during ripening. The use of probiotics L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM in Edam cheese slightly changed its chemical composition, but the change was not significant. The pH values were significantly correlated with the changes in Lactobacillus count (R=–0.807) and the level of phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen compounds in total nitrogen (PTA-SN/TN) (R=0.775). After 10 weeks of ripening, the highest level of trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen compounds in total nitrogen (TCA-SN/TN) was observed in the cheese containing L. rhamnosus HN001 (11.87%) and slightly lower level in the cheese containing L. acidophilus NCFM (7.60%) and control cheese (6.24%). The highest level of PTA-SN/TN fraction was noted in cheese containing L. acidophilus NCFM (3.48%) but the lowest level was observed in control cheese (2.24%) after ten weeks of ripening. The changes in the levels of PTA-SN/TN (R=–0.813) and TCA-SN/TN (R=–0.717) fractions were significantly (pcheeses were characterized by high counts of L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM during ten weeks of ripening. PMID:27904317
Herbel, Stefan R; Vahjen, Wilfried; Wieler, Lothar H; Guenther, Sebastian
Over the past decades the use of probiotics in food has increased largely due to the manufacturer's interest in placing "healthy" food on the market based on the consumer's ambitions to live healthy...
Diaz, MA; Bik, EM; Carlin, KP; Venn-Watson, SK; Jensen, ED; Jones, SE; Gaston, EP; Relman, DA; Versalovic, J
Aims In order to develop complementary health management strategies for marine mammals, we used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to identify gastrointestinal lactobacilli of the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Methods and Results We screened 307 bacterial isolates from oral and rectal swabs, milk and gastric fluid, collected from 38 dolphins in the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, for potentially beneficial features. We focused our search on lactobacilli and evaluated their ability to modulate TNF secretion by host cells and inhibit growth of pathogens. We recovered Lactobacillus salivarius strains which secreted factors that stimulated TNF production by human monocytoid cells. These Lact. salivarius isolates inhibited growth of selected marine mammal and human bacterial pathogens. In addition, we identified a novel Lactobacillus species by culture and direct sequencing with 96·3% 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Lactobacillus ceti. Conclusions Dolphin-derived Lact. salivarius isolates possess features making them candidate probiotics for clinical studies in marine mammals. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to isolate lactobacilli from dolphins, including a novel Lactobacillus species and a new strain of Lact. salivarius, with potential for veterinary probiotic applications. The isolation and identification of novel Lactobacillus spp. and other indigenous microbes from bottlenose dolphins will enable the study of the biology of symbiotic members of the dolphin microbiota and facilitate the understanding of the microbiomes of these unique animals. PMID:23855505
Ren, Dayong; Li, Chang; Qin, Yanqing; Yin, Ronglan; Du, Shouwen; Liu, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yanfang; Wang, Cuiyan; Rong, Fengjun; Jin, Ningyi
Here we evaluate the immunomodulatory function of two potential probiotic strains, Lactobacillus salivarius CICC 23174 and Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC 1.557. Mice were fed with each Lactobacillus strain at different doses for several consecutive days. The effects of the two probiotic strains on immune organs, immune cells and immune molecules were investigated on days 10 and 20. Both Lactobacillus strains increased the spleen index, improved the spleen lymphocyte transformation rate, enhanced sIgA production and improved the number of CD11c(+) CD80(+) double-positive cells. L. plantarum CGMCC 1.557 was the more active strain in enhancing the phagocytic activity of macrophages, while, L. salivarius CICC 23174 was the more effective strain at maintaining the Th1/Th2 balance. This study suggests that these two Lactobacillus strains have beneficial effects on regulation of immune responses, which has promising implications for the development of ecological agents and functional foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Zanten, Gabriella Christina; Knudsen, Anne; Bandsholm, O.
Prebiotics have been shown to support the growth of probiotic bacteria thereby having a beneficial effect on human health. The aim of this work was to evaluate selected and structurally different carbohydrate prebiotic candidate by measuring their capability to stimulate the growth of the two pro...... probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acdophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis BL-04....
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in Edam cheese as well as the effect of probiotic bacteria on paracasein proteolysis and changes in the water activity during ripening. The use of probiotics L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM in Edam cheese slightly changed its chemical composition, but the change was not significant. The pH values were significantly correlated with the changes in Lactobacillus count (R=–0.807 and the level of phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen compounds in total nitrogen (PTA-SN/TN (R=0.775. After 10 weeks of ripening, the highest level of trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen compounds in total nitrogen (TCA-SN/TN was observed in the cheese containing L. rhamnosus HN001 (11.87 % and slightly lower level in the cheese containing L. acidophilus NCFM (7.60 % and control cheese (6.24 %. The highest level of PTA-SN/TN fraction was noted in cheese containing L. acidophilus NCFM (3.48 % but the lowest level was observed in control cheese (2.24 % after ten weeks of ripening. The changes in the levels of PTA-SN/TN (R=–0.813 and TCA-SN/TN (R=–0.717 fractions were signifi cantly (p<0.05 correlated with the viability of probiotic counts. Water activity (aw strongly correlated with the PTA-SN/TN level (R=–0.824 and bacteria viability (R=–0.728. All of the analyzed cheeses were characterized by high counts of L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM during ten weeks of ripening.
The evaluation of the safety of probiotic strains includes the exclusion of antibiotic resistance of clinical importance. Ninety-two strains from the genus Lactobacillus isolated from probiotics, food, and clinical sources were included in the investigation. Species tested were the L. acidophilus group, L. casei group, L. reuteri/fermentum group, and L. sakei/curvatus group. Cell and colony morphology, fermentation patterns, and growth characteristics as well as soluble whole cell proteins were analyzed. Antibiotic resistance against clinically important agents was determined by broth dilution tests. The vanA and tet genes were confirmed. Resistances occurred mainly against gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, sulfonamides, and, in some cases, glycopeptides. The natural glycopeptide resistance within the L. casei group and L. reuteri appears to be not of clinical relevance, as there was no vanA gene present. Therefore, the transfer of this resistance is very unlikely. Tet-(A), -(B), -(C), -(M), or -(O) gene could not be detected. The protein fingerprinting within the L. casei group proved that L. rhamnosus strains of clinical origin clustered together with probiotic strains. For safety evaluations resistance patterns of a broad range of strains are a useful criterion together with the exclusion of known resistance genes (like the vanA gene) and can be used for decision making on the safety of probiotics, both by authorization bodies and manufacturers.
Verdenelli, M C; Silvi, S; Cecchini, C; Orpianesi, C; Cresci, A
This study aims to investigate the effect of different kinds of food products enriched with a combination of two potential probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502(®), on bowel habits of healthy adults. Fifty healthy volunteers took part in a double-blind placebo probiotic feeding study (25 fed probiotics, 25 fed placebo) for 12 weeks. Each volunteer ingested daily one or more food products enriched with a combination of the two potential probiotic strains (probiotic group) or the same food products without the probiotics (control group). Faecal samples were collected before, at the end and 2 weeks later the intervention period, and some of the main groups of faecal bacteria were enumerated by plate count and real-time PCR. Questionnaires on bowel habits were submitted to volunteers. After the intervention, a significant increase in faecal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were observed in the probiotic group, and stool frequency and stool volume were higher in the probiotic group than in the placebo group. Daily consumption of food products enriched with the two potential probiotic strains, Lact. rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and Lact. paracasei IMC 502(®) , contributes to improve intestinal microbiota with beneficial properties and enhances bowel habits of healthy adults. The study revealed that Lact. rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and Lact. paracasei IMC 502(®) exert a positive effect, in terms of improved bowel habits, on healthy adults. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Benfeldt, Eva; Nielsen, Susanne Dam
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that oral bacteriotherapy with probiotics might be useful in the management of atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the clinical and anti-inflammatory effect of probiotic supplementation in children with AD. METHODS...... intervention (ie, better, unchanged, or worse). The clinical severity of the eczema was evaluated by using the scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) score. As inflammatory markers, eosinophil cationic protein in serum and cytokine production by PBMCs were measured. RESULTS: After active treatment, 56...
Sanders, M E; Klaenhammer, T R
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic strain available in conventional foods (milk, yogurt, and toddler formula) and dietary supplements. Its commercial availability in the United States since the mid-1970s is predicated on its safety, its amenability to commercial manipulation, and its biochemical and physiological attributes presumed to be important to human probiotic functionality. The strain has been characterized in vitro, in animal studies, and in humans. NCFM is the progenitor of the strain being used for complete chromosome sequencing and therefore will be a cornerstone strain for understanding the relationship between genetics and probiotic functionality. Both phenotypic and genotypic techniques have verified its taxonomic status as a type A1 L. acidophilus strain. It adheres to Caco-2 and mucus-secreting HT-29 cell culture systems, produces antimicrobial compounds, and is amenable to genetic manipulation and directed DNA introduction. NCFM survives gastrointestinal tract transit in both healthy and diseased populations. NCFM inhibits aberrant crypt formation in mutagenized rats, indicative of activity that could decrease the risk of colon cancer. A blend of probiotic strains containing NCFM decreased the incidence of pediatric diarrhea. NCFM led to a significant decrease in levels of toxic amines in the blood of dialysis patients with small bowel bacterial overgrowth. At adequate daily feeding levels, NCFM may facilitate lactose digestion in lactose-intolerant subjects. Further validation of the probiotic properties of NCFM in humans and clarification of its mechanisms of probiotic action are needed to better understand the role this strain might play in promoting human health.
Full Text Available One hundred and twenty-five acid-resistant presumptive lactobacilli were isolated from Slovak Bryndza cheese and screened for their antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial pathogens using spot agar assay. Out of twenty-six Lactobacillus strains with strong inhibition activity, twenty were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and six as Lactobacillus fermentum. The most active eleven L. plantarum isolates were further characterized in vitro for some probiotic and safety properties. Only three isolates K10, K21, and ZS07 showed the ability to grow over 50% in the presence of 0.3% bile. Strong deconjugation efficiency was determined for CK06 and K21. The highest β-galactosidase activity was shown in isolates ZS11, B01, CK06, and ZS07. Only three of the strains had the ability to produce tyramine: CK06, LM1, and ZS11. Strains K09, K21, ZS11, and ZS15 were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Analysis of the results confirmed the L. plantarum isolates ZS07 and K21 as the most suitable for probiotic use, due to their desirable probiotic and safety characteristics.
Belicová, Anna; Mikulášová, Mária; Dušinský, Roman
One hundred and twenty-five acid-resistant presumptive lactobacilli were isolated from Slovak Bryndza cheese and screened for their antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial pathogens using spot agar assay. Out of twenty-six Lactobacillus strains with strong inhibition activity, twenty were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and six as Lactobacillus fermentum. The most active eleven L. plantarum isolates were further characterized in vitro for some probiotic and safety properties. Only three isolates K10, K21, and ZS07 showed the ability to grow over 50% in the presence of 0.3% bile. Strong deconjugation efficiency was determined for CK06 and K21. The highest β -galactosidase activity was shown in isolates ZS11, B01, CK06, and ZS07. Only three of the strains had the ability to produce tyramine: CK06, LM1, and ZS11. Strains K09, K21, ZS11, and ZS15 were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Analysis of the results confirmed the L. plantarum isolates ZS07 and K21 as the most suitable for probiotic use, due to their desirable probiotic and safety characteristics.
Jones, Sara E; Versalovic, James
Commensal-derived probiotic bacteria inhibit enteric pathogens and regulate host immune responses in the gastrointestinal tract, but studies examining specific functions of beneficial microbes in the context of biofilms have been limited in scope. Lactobacillus reuteri formed biofilms that retained functions potentially advantageous to the host including modulation of cytokine output and the production of the antimicrobial agent, reuterin. Immunomodulatory activities of biofilms were demonstrated by the abilities of specific L. reuteri strains to suppress human TNF production by LPS-activated monocytoid cells. Quantification of the antimicrobial glycerol derivative, reuterin, was assessed in order to document the antipathogenic potential of probiotic biofilms. L. reuteri biofilms differed in the quantities of reuterin secreted in this physiological state. L. reuteri biofilms secreted factors that confer specific health benefits such as immunomodulation and pathogen inhibition. Future probiotic selection strategies should consider a strain's ability to perform beneficial functions as a biofilm.
Probiotics are an intensively growing part of the pharmaceutical and nutrition industries. Along with the intensive development of sales volumes and product offers, more and more scientific publications on this subject are available (at the time of writing this article there are available almost 14 thousand publications in PubMed library). Scientists are trying to find new uses and new sources for this crucial group of nutrients or potential drugs. At the beginning of the XXI century it was discovered that the source of probiotics doesn't need to be only gastrointestinal tract (as previously thought), since they were obtained from breast milk which for many years were considered to be sterile. Probiotics from breast milk are an interesting group which could find application in mastitis, immunity support, infection prevention, infant colics and oral health. Main representative of this group is a strain of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716.
Gizani, Sotiria; Petsi, Georgia; Twetman, Svante
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of daily intake of lozenges containing probiotic bacteria on white spot lesion (WSL) formation as well as on salivary lactobacilli (LB) and mutans streptococci (MS) counts, in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment...... and randomly allocated to a test or placebo group. Subjects in the test group were instructed to take one probiotic lozenge containing two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri once daily. An identical lozenge without active bacteria was used in the placebo group. Dental plaque, WSL, and salivary MS and LB levels....../CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Daily intake of probiotic lozenges did not seem to affect the development of WSL during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances....
Full Text Available The potential of in vitro probiotic Lactobacillus spp. was evaluated in fermented milks marketed in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Of the samples analyzed, 86.7% had at least 10(6 CFU/mL of Lactobacillus spp., complying with the Brazilian quality standards for fermented milks. Furthermore, 56.7% had minimum count ranging from 10(8 to 10(9 CFU/mL, which is in accordance with legal parameters. The remaining 43.3% would not be able to satisfactorily guarantee benefits to consumers. The amount of Lactobacillus spp. varied between batches of products, which may indicate failures in monitoring during manufacture, transport or storage. All strains of Lactobacillus spp. showed some inhibitory activity against the indicator microorganisms, being more pronounced against pathogenic microorganisms than against non-pathogenic (P<0.05. Samples of Lactobacillus spp. showed different profiles of antimicrobial susceptibility, with an occurrence of cases of multidrug resistance. All strains tested showed sensitivity to bile salts (0.3% and resistance to gastric pH (2.0. Lactobacillus spp. of commercial fermented milks should be present in higher amounts in some brands, be resistant to bile salts and have no multiple resistance to antimicrobials.
Full Text Available Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host. Commonly, most of the organisms ascribed as having probiotic properties belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium and milk is the most commonly used vehicle. Objectives: The study was aimed at analyzing the biofilm formation by plaque regrowth method upon the usage of a probiotic toothpaste containing Lactobacillus paracasei by measuring the optical density using a spectrophotometer.Materials and Methods: A commercially available probiotic toothpaste, PerioBiotic (spearmint flavored from the company Designs for Health, has been tested. The toothpaste contains the strain L. paracasei, which has been found to co-aggregate with Streptococcus mutans (MS. The Plaque Glycolysis and Regrowth Method (PGRM was used for the evaluation of the antimicrobial effects on plaque metabolism in vivo. PGRM is based on the observation that natural fasted dental plaque, sampled from different quadrants of the dentition, exhibits similar metabolic and regrowth properties when suspended at equal “biomass” in standardized media. Conclusion: The results suggest that L. paracasei-based toothpaste, PerioBiotic, is effective in the reduction of MSmonospecies biofilm, but the activity appears short lived when high sucrose exposure is administered.
Full Text Available Present study documents the potential probiotic Lactobacillus isolated from indigenous fermented beverage Raabadi, consumed during summers in Haryana and Rajasthan regions of India. A total of 5 Raabadi samples were collected aseptically and 54 isolates were purified using MRS medium. All the isolates were assessed for tolerance to low pH and bile salts. It was observed that out of 54 only 24 isolates could survive the simulated gastric conditions. These isolates were further evaluated in vitro for cell surface hydrophobicity, cell surface hydrophobicity, hypocholesteramic activity, anti-oxidative potential, BSH activity, antagonistic activity and antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, the confirmation of phenol resistance was also done. On the basis of results obtained, the survival rate of isolates was noted and 6 isolates were finally selected for further studies. Among them Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 and RYPC7 showed good survival at pH 2 which shows good acid tolerance. Moreover, Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 showed the highest hydrophobicity (79.13% and represented the deconjugation of bile salts, which help in their adhesion to epithelial cells and colonization. Furthermore, RYPR1 also exhibited highest cholesterol reduction (59% and subsequent analysis of results revealed that the above mentioned isolates further exhibit a good hypocholesterolemic effect and could be possibly used to prevent hypercholesterolemia. The present study divulges that Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 has an excellent probiotic potential.
Rohani, Mahdi; Noohi, Nasrin; Talebi, Malihe; Katouli, Mohammad; Pourshafie, Mohammad R.
Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been considered as potentially probiotic organisms due to their potential human health properties. This study aimed to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo, the potential probiotic properties of Lactobacillus species isolated from fecal samples of healthy humans in Iran. Methods and Results A total of 470 LAB were initially isolated from 53 healthy individual and characterized to species level. Of these, 88 (86%) were Lactobacillus species. Biochemical and genetic fingerprinting with Phene-Plate system (PhP-LB) and RAPD-PCR showed that the isolates were highly diverse consisted of 67(76.1%) and 75 (85.2%) single types (STs) and a diversity indices of 0.994 and 0.997, respectively. These strains were tested for production of adhesion to Caco-2 cells, antibacterial activity, production of B12, anti-proliferative effect and interleukin-8 induction on gut epithelial cell lines and antibiotic resistance against 9 commonly used antibiotics. Strains showing the characteristics consistent with probiotic strains, were further tested for their anti-inflammatory effect in mouse colitis model. Only one L. brevis; one L. rhamnosus and two L. plantarum were shown to have significant probiotic properties. These strains showed shortening the length of colon compared to dextran sulfate sodium and disease activity index (DAI) was also significantly reduced in mouse. Conclusion Low number of LAB with potential probiotic activity as well as high diversity of lactobacilli species was evident in Iranian population. It also suggest that specific strains of L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. rhamnosus with anti-inflammatory effect in mouse model of colitis could be used as a potential probiotic candidate in inflammatory bowel disease to decrease the disease activity index. PMID:26645292
Sherid, Muhammed; Samo, Salih; Sulaiman, Samian; Husein, Husein; Sifuentes, Humberto; Sridhar, Subbaramiah
Lactobacilli are non-spore forming, lactic acid producing, gram-positive rods. They are a part of the normal gastrointestinal and genitourinary microbiota and have rarely been reported to be the cause of infections. Lactobacilli species are considered non-pathogenic organisms and have been used as probiotics to prevent antibiotic associated diarrhea. There are sporadic reported cases of infections related to lactobacilli containing probiotics. In this paper we discuss a case of an 82 year old female with liver abscess and bacteremia from lactobacillus after using probiotics containing lactobacilli in the course of her treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis. The Lactobacillus strain identification was not performed and therefore, both commensal microbiota and the probiotic product should be considered as possible sources of the strain. Lactobacilli can lead to bacteremia and liver abscesses in some susceptible persons and greater awareness of this potential side effect is warranted with the increasing use of probiotics containing lactobacilli.
Full Text Available The term "probiotic" was first used in 1965, by Lilly and Stillwell, to describe substances secreted by one organism which stimulate the growth of another. The use of antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy and irradiation, amongst other means of treatment, may cause alterations in the composition and have an effect on the GIT flora. Therefore, the introduction of beneficial bacterial species to GI tract may be a very attractive option to re-establish the microbial equilibrium and prevent disease. Prebiotic is a non-digestible food ingredient that confers benefits on the host by selectively stimulating one bacterium or a group of bacteria in the colon with probiotic properties. Both probiotics and prebiotics are together called as Synbiotics. Various bacterial genera most commonly used in probiotic preparations are Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Escherichia, Enterococcus, Bacillus and Streptococcus . Some fungal strains belonging to Saccharomyces have also been used. Probiotics have been shown to be effective in varied clinical conditions- ranging from infantile diarrhoea, necrotizing enterocolitis, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, relapsing Clostridium difficle colitis, Helicobacter pylori infections, inflammatory bowel disease to cancer, female uro-genital infection and surgical infections. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has proven beneficial affects on intestinal immunity. It increases the number of IgA and other immunoglobulins secreting cells in the intestinal mucosa. It also stimulates local release of interferons. It facilitates antigen transport to underlying lymphoid cells, which serves to increase antigen uptake in Peyer′s patches. Probiotics are live microorganisms, so it is possible that they may result in infection in the host. The risk and morbidity of sepsis due to probiotic bacteria should be weighed against the potential for sepsis due to more pathological bacteria and the morbidity of diseases for which probiotic bacteria
Monika Petruláková; Ľubomír Valík
The aim of the study was evaluation of growth and metabolic activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during fermentation of leguminous porridges (soybean flour, soybean, chickpea flour, chickpea, white bean, red bean, speckled bean, green lentil, husked lentil, yellow pea), and the evaluation of their stability during storage. A mixture of leguminous sample with water was inoculated after sterilization with equal number of L. rhamnosus GG, to obtain 5 log cfu/g in the porridge. Fermentation was...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to isolate Lactobacillus salivarius and Pediococcus pentosaceus strains from cecal content and investigate their probiotic potential in specific pathogen free (SPF chickens. L. salivarius and P. pentosaceus strains were isolated from the cecal content of SPF chickens and identified by 16s rDNA sequence analysis by BLAST analysis at the National Center for Biotechnology Information and phylogenetic analysis using DNAStar software. In an in vivo experiment, 180 7-day-old SPF chickens were randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 served as a control that was fed a basal diet without probiotic supplementation, and groups 2 and 3 were fed the basal diets supplemented with L. salivarius and P. pentosaceus at 2×108 CFU/g, respectively. Body weight (BW, average daily gain (ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, dressing percentage (DP, and the apparent digestibility of crude protein (AD-CP were calculated. We also determined meat color, fat content, shear force, water content and pH value of breast and thigh muscles; ammonia, urea nitrogen and uric acid content in plasma; fecal ammonia emission level and pH value; and Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli in ceca. Compared with the control group, L. salivarius and P. pentosaceus supplementation significantly increased BW, ADG, DP, AD-CP, fat content of meat, and the number of Lactobacillus in ceca (p<0.05, and decreased FCR, plasma ammonia content, fecal ammonia emission, and pH value and the number of E. coli in ceca (p<0.05. In the in vitro experiment, L. salivarius and P. pentosaceus treatments significantly decreased the ammonia content in medium compared with the control group without probiotic treatment (p<0.05. These results suggest that P. pentosaceus and L. salivarius strains show promising probiotic properties for improving growth, meat quality and microenvironment in chickens and decreasing ammonia content in the medium.
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the survival of autochthonous, potentially probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 564, and the influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (omega-3 PUFA fish oil fortification on the sensory quality of yoghurt. Three variants of yoghurt were produced using starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Chr. Hansen, Denmark, and the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 (Culture Collection of the Department for Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade as follows: (1 without omega-3 PUFA; (2 with 100 mg/l omega-3 PUFA; and (3 with 200mg/l omega-3 PUFA. The survival of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, the changes of starter bacteria counts, changes of pH values, as well as sensory evaluation, were examined during 3 weeks of yoghurt storage. Cells of Lb. plantarum 564 were maintained at >108 cfug−1. Starter bacteria counts were >107 cfug−1 for streptococci and >106 cfug−1 for lactobacilli. The changes of pH were within normal pH of fermented milks. Sensory evaluation showed that all variants of yoghurt produced with Lb. plantarum 564 and 2 concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had a high sensory quality (above 90% of maximal quality, and which did not change significantly throughout the examined storage period. Although the sensory quality of the control sample was evaluated as better, the experimental samples fortified with fish oil were also characterized with very acceptable sensory properties. Results of high viability of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, as well as very acceptable yoghurt sensory properties, indicate that this strain can be successfully used in the production of yoghurt fortified with PUFA omega-3 fish oil as a new functional dairy product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 046010 i br. 046009
Nivoliez, Adrien; Veisseire, Philippe; Alaterre, Elina; Dausset, Caroline; Baptiste, Fabrice; Camarès, Olivier; Paquet-Gachinat, Marylise; Bonnet, Muriel; Forestier, Christiane; Bornes, Stéphanie
The influence of the industrial process on the properties of probiotics, administered as complex manufactured products, has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we comparatively assessed the cell wall characteristics of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35® together with three of its commercial formulations with intestinal applications. Putative secreted and transmembrane-protein-encoding genes were initially searched in silico in the genome of L. rhamnosus Lcr35®. A total of 369 candidate genes were identified which expressions were followed using a custom Lactobacillus DNA chip. Among them, 60 or 67 genes had their expression either upregulated or downregulated in the Lcr Restituo® packet or capsule formulations, compared to the native Lcr35® strain. Moreover, our data showed that the probiotic formulations (Lcr Lenio®, Lcr restituo® capsule and packet) showed a better capacity to adhere to intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells than the native Lcr35® strain. Microbial (MATS) tests showed that the probiotic was an electron donor and that they were more hydrophilic than the native strain. The enhanced adhesion capacity of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to epithelial Caco-2 cells and their antipathogen effect could be due to this greater surface hydrophilic character. These findings suggest that the manufacturing process influences the protein composition and the chemical properties of the cell wall. It is therefore likely that the antipathogen effect of the formulation is modulated by the industrial process. Screening of the manufactured products' properties would therefore represent an essential step in evaluating the effects of probiotic strains.
Jin, Hong-Zhi; Fan, Xiao-Bing; Hang, Xiao-Min; Li, Kun-Bao; Yang, Hong
To investigate the distribution of child intestinal flora and the composition of its key probiotics community, study on intestinal flora of 21 Chinese children (age 2 - 5) was conducted, which included bacteria isolation and counting, 16S rDNA sequencing and homology analysis. For identification of the key probiotics such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in children feces at the species level, the specific primers Im26/Im3 and L159/L677 for PCR amplification of partial 16S rDNA were used. The results show that the composition of child intestinal flora is was relatively stable and almost same to the intestinal flora of the youth (age 20 - 25). Culture-based approaches show that the key probiotic community in feces at the species level was highly different in composition and numbers from individual to individual. B. longum and B. pseudocatenulatum, which are detected at levels of 10(7) CFU/g (wet) in samples and the detection rates are 90.48% and 85.71% respectively, are believed to be major bifidobacterial species in child intestinal microbiota. In addition, B. adolescentis, B. bifidum, B. infantis and B. thermacidophium have also been found. L. mucosae, L. fermentum, L. salivarius, L. ruminis, L. gasseri and L. plantarum are isolated from the stools. L. mucosae (3.68 log10 CFU/g (wet), detection rate 71.43%) and L. fermentum (3.97 log10 CFU/g (wet), detection rate 52.38%) are two dominant species of Lactobacillus. Study on Chinese child intestinal flora, especially on the compositions and numbers of key probiotics in the feces will be very helpful to the development of effective probiotics in future.
Diaz, M A; Bik, E M; Carlin, K P; Venn-Watson, S K; Jensen, E D; Jones, S E; Gaston, E P; Relman, D A; Versalovic, J
In order to develop complementary health management strategies for marine mammals, we used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to identify gastrointestinal lactobacilli of the common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. We screened 307 bacterial isolates from oral and rectal swabs, milk and gastric fluid, collected from 38 dolphins in the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, for potentially beneficial features. We focused our search on lactobacilli and evaluated their ability to modulate TNF secretion by host cells and inhibit growth of pathogens. We recovered Lactobacillus salivarius strains which secreted factors that stimulated TNF production by human monocytoid cells. These Lact. salivarius isolates inhibited growth of selected marine mammal and human bacterial pathogens. In addition, we identified a novel Lactobacillus species by culture and direct sequencing with 96·3% 16S rDNA sequence similarity to Lactobacillus ceti. Dolphin-derived Lact. salivarius isolates possess features making them candidate probiotics for clinical studies in marine mammals. This is the first study to isolate lactobacilli from dolphins, including a novel Lactobacillus species and a new strain of Lact. salivarius, with potential for veterinary probiotic applications. The isolation and identification of novel Lactobacillus spp. and other indigenous microbes from bottlenose dolphins will enable the study of the biology of symbiotic members of the dolphin microbiota and facilitate the understanding of the microbiomes of these unique animals. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.
Full Text Available Application of lactic acid probiotic bacteria in health food diversification currently is progressing rapidly. It is encouraged the study of searching the potential strains from local resources (Ponorogo Residence namely noni fruits (badeg pace and noni wine. Aims of this study were to perform the isolation, identification, and production of probiotic Lactobacillus sp. JR64 fermentation process as a producer of Omega-6 (ω-6 lowering cholesterol and design of probiotic creamy product. Beginning stages of research was strains isolating and in-vitro testing, the best result were used in molecular identification technology development for the production of metabolites through the manipulation of environmental variation of glucose 20 g / l, 30 g / l and 40 g / l that influenced the substrate concentration of linoleic acid productivity. The result of new isolates isolation showed that isolates that obtained from noni wine, Lactobacillus plantarum JR64, was potential as probiotic condidate. The effieciency of fermentation substrates using Yx/s and Yp /s in the exponential phase was the highest value for the fermentation of 24 hours of Yx/ s; 17.03% and Y p/s; 74.72%, while the results of design and the best formulation for viability cells of lactobacillus plantarum probiotics JR64 was composed of 15 g and 50g butter 15 g icing sugar as well as during storage of the refrigerant temperature was 8.92 x 108 CFU / ml. [Key Words : Omega-6, Lactobacillus plantarum JR64, fermentation
Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan
The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits. PMID:25105147
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits.
Shokryazdan, Parisa; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Liang, Juan Boo; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Ho, Yin Wan
The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize some lactic acid bacterial strains from human milk, infant feces, and fermented grapes and dates, as potential probiotics with antimicrobial activity against some human pathogenic strains. One hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated and, after initial identification and a preliminary screening for acid and bile tolerance, nine of the best isolates were selected and further identified using 16 S rRNA gene sequences. The nine selected isolates were then characterized in vitro for their probiotic characteristics and their antimicrobial activities against some human pathogens. Results showed that all nine isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. They were able to tolerate pH 3 for 3 h, 0.3% bile salts for 4 h, and 1.9 mg/mL pancreatic enzymes for 3 h. They exhibited good ability to attach to intestinal epithelial cells and were not resistant to the tested antibiotics. They also showed good antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogenic strains of humans, and most of them exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than the reference strain L. casei Shirota. Thus, the nine Lactobacillus strains could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains against human pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits.
Barrenetxe, J; Aranguren, P; Grijalba, A; Martínez-Peñuela, J M; Marzo, F; Urdaneta, E
The products called functional foods, which besides being merely nutritional have different beneficial effects on the organism, are situated in the context of diet and health promotion. Amongst these functional foods we can distinguish, amongst others, between probiotic and prebiotic compounds. The micro-organisms most widely used in probiotic foods belong to the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium types. In this article we have studied the effect of diets supplemented with Lactobacillus casei or Bifidobacterium bifidum on animal development and especially on the intestinal function, centred on their immune, digestive and absorptive activity in growing animals. The bacteria strains used modify the activity of the small intestine of healthy mice, significantly affecting their enzymatic activity (sucrase, maltase and aminopeptidase) and the collection of nutrients (galactose and glycilsarcosine), as well as the intestinal immune activity (higher number of Peyer's patches). However, these effects do not appear to disturb the development of the growing animals since no significant differences are appreciated in their body weight or in their blood parameters. These results make clear the possible beneficial effects on intestinal physiology and contribute to the understanding of the possible mechanisms of action of the probiotics, which could be employed in the preventive treatment of different pathologies related to the digestive apparatus.
Shokryazdan, Parisa; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Sieo, Chin Chin; Ho, Yin Wan
Two previously isolated Lactobacillus strains (L. fermentum HM3 from human milk and L. buchneri FD2 from fermented dates), intended as probiotic for human, were assessed for their safety using acute and subacute oral toxicity tests in rats. In addition, their effects on cecal microflora and harmful bacterial enzymes (β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase) of the tested animals were also determined. The results showed that L. buchneri FD2, L. fermentum HM3, or a mixture of them were safe up to a level of 1010 CFU/kg BW/day in a 14-day or 28-day treatment period. Both strains were well tolerated and there were no observed adverse effects on growth, feed consumption, cellular blood components and vital organs of the treated animals. The Lactobacillus strains were also able to reduce harmful intestinal bacterial enzymes, and decrease pathogenic bacterial populations while increasing beneficial bacterial populations. These results suggest that the two Lactobacillus strains are safe and could be potential probiotic for human.
Full Text Available Two previously isolated Lactobacillus strains (L. fermentum HM3 from human milk and L. buchneri FD2 from fermented dates, intended as probiotic for human, were assessed for their safety using acute and subacute oral toxicity tests in rats. In addition, their effects on cecal microflora and harmful bacterial enzymes (β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase of the tested animals were also determined. The results showed that L. buchneri FD2, L. fermentum HM3, or a mixture of them were safe up to a level of 1010 CFU/kg BW/day in a 14-day or 28-day treatment period. Both strains were well tolerated and there were no observed adverse effects on growth, feed consumption, cellular blood components and vital organs of the treated animals. The Lactobacillus strains were also able to reduce harmful intestinal bacterial enzymes, and decrease pathogenic bacterial populations while increasing beneficial bacterial populations. These results suggest that the two Lactobacillus strains are safe and could be potential probiotic for human.
Dias, Francesca Silva; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Santos, Marianna Rabelo Rios Martins; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Schwan, Rosane Freitas
The aim of this study was to select strains of Lactobacillus isolated from pork sausage for use as probiotics. Lactobacillus isolates were evaluated in tests based on probiotic characteristics and microbiological safety. The UFLA SAU 14, 52, and 91 isolates were differentiated by coaggregation with Listeria monocytogenes, production of lactic acid, and survival at pH 2. UFLA SAU 172 and 187 isolates had high levels of coaggregation with Salmonella Typhi and Escherichia coli, tolerance to pancreatic fluid, and adhesion to chloroform. UFLA SAU 20 and 34 isolates were characterized by exopolysaccharide production, autoaggregation, and resistance to simulated intestinal fluid. UFLA SAU 185, 238, and 258 isolates exhibited resistance to bile and adhesion to xylene. A cocktail of these 10 Lactobacillus isolates with potential probiotic properties was inoculated into pork sausage and inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes.
Full Text Available The biological properties (growth characteristics, adhesive activity and sensitivity to antimicrobial of probiotic Lactobacillus strains were studied under different gas composition of incubation atmosphere. It was found that the number of viable lactobacilli cells in the one dose of investigated probiotic preparations was lower than it was claimed by the manufacturer. Gas composition of incubation atmosphere affects cell viability of probiotic strains. The number of colony forming units of lactobacilli under microaerophilic conditions increased in 1,19-1,33 times as compared with aerobic conditions. It was proved that adhesive activity of probiotic Lactobacillus strains and sensitivity to 2th, 3th, 4th generations of cephalosporins (cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime and tetracyclines (doxycycline also increased under microaerophilic conditions. The changes of the biological properties of lactobacilli under different cultivation conditions require further study for optimization of correction of dysbiotic disorders.
Costa, D J; Marteau, P; Amouyal, M
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: An imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cells is involved in allergic rhinitis (AR) that may be improved by probiotics. To test the efficacy of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei LP-33, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was carried out......). All received loratadine for 5 weeks. The primary end point was the improvement in Rhinitis Quality of Life (RQLQ) global score at the fifth week of LP-33 consumption compared with placebo (in addition to loratadine). Secondary end points included nasal and ocular symptoms (individual and total symptom......=-0.286 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.536; -0.035)). No significant differences were noted for the change of the rhinitis total symptom score 5 global score between groups (P=0.1288, difference=-0.452 (95% CI: -1.036; 0.132)). Significant differences in ocular symptoms (RQLQ) were observed between...
Yeneneh eHaileselassie; Marit eNavis; Nam eVu; Khaleda Rahman Qazi; Bence eRethi; Eva eSverremark-Ekstrom
Lactobacilli are widely used as probiotics with beneficial effects on infection-associated diarrhea, but also used in clinical trials of e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The possibility of using probiotic metabolic products, so-called postbiotics, is desirable as it could prevent possible side effects of live bacteria in individuals with a disturbed gut epithelial barrier. Here, we studied how Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 cell-free supernatant (L. reuteri-CF...
Srinivasan, Ramesh; Meyer, Rosan; Padmanabhan, Ramnarayan; Britto, Joseph
Diarrhea is frequently observed among critically ill children (CIC) admitted for intensive care. There is increasing evidence that probiotics decrease the incidence of acute infectious and nosocomial and antibiotic induced diarrhea amongst children hospitalized in nonintensive care settings. Despite theoretic advantages for the use of probiotics in CIC, safety has remained a concern in this vulnerable group. The objective of this study was to establish clinical safety (invasive infection/colonization) of Lactobacillus casei shirota (LCS) used as a probiotic in CIC. Prospective, descriptive pilot study on children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit. Data regarding safety were collected on the initial recruits to a randomized controlled trial aimed to study the effects of LCS on stool frequency and consistency in CIC. Safety was assessed by bacteriologic surveillance for LCS in surface swabs and endotracheal aspirates (colonization) as well as blood, urine, and sterile body fluid cultures (invasive infection/bacteremia). Safety data were available on 28 patients. LCS was cultured from the feces of five of the six study subjects who opened bowels during their stay on the pediatric intensive care unit. There was no evidence of either colonization or bacteremia with LCS in bacteriologic cultures obtained from study subjects. The preparation was well tolerated with no apparent side effects. Our pilot safety study suggests that the use of LCS as a probiotic in enterally fed CIC is safe.
Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Laakso, Kati; Koponen, Johanna; Kankainen, Matti; Greco, Dario; Auvinen, Petri; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A; Surakka, Anu; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; de Vos, Willem M; Tynkkynen, Soile; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Varmanen, Pekka
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) is a widely used and intensively studied probiotic bacterium. Although the health benefits of strain GG are well documented, the systematic exploration of mechanisms by which this strain exerts probiotic effects in the host has only recently been initiated. The ability to survive the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, including gastric juice containing bile salts, is one of the vital characteristics that enables a probiotic bacterium to transiently colonize the host. Here we used gene expression profiling at the transcriptome and proteome levels to investigate the cellular response of strain GG toward bile under defined bioreactor conditions. The analyses revealed that in response to growth of strain GG in the presence of 0.2% ox gall the transcript levels of 316 genes changed significantly (p GG cells of gut entrance. Notably, the surfome analyses demonstrated significant reduction in the abundance of a protein catalyzing the synthesis of exopolysaccharides, whereas a protein dedicated for active removal of bile compounds from the cells was up-regulated. These findings suggest a role for these proteins in facilitating the well founded interaction of strain GG with the host mucus in the presence of sublethal doses of bile. The significance of these findings in terms of the functionality of a probiotic bacterium is discussed.
Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Laakso, Kati; Koponen, Johanna; Kankainen, Matti; Greco, Dario; Auvinen, Petri; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A.; Surakka, Anu; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; de Vos, Willem M.; Tynkkynen, Soile; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Varmanen, Pekka
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) is a widely used and intensively studied probiotic bacterium. Although the health benefits of strain GG are well documented, the systematic exploration of mechanisms by which this strain exerts probiotic effects in the host has only recently been initiated. The ability to survive the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, including gastric juice containing bile salts, is one of the vital characteristics that enables a probiotic bacterium to transiently colonize the host. Here we used gene expression profiling at the transcriptome and proteome levels to investigate the cellular response of strain GG toward bile under defined bioreactor conditions. The analyses revealed that in response to growth of strain GG in the presence of 0.2% ox gall the transcript levels of 316 genes changed significantly (p GG cells of gut entrance. Notably, the surfome analyses demonstrated significant reduction in the abundance of a protein catalyzing the synthesis of exopolysaccharides, whereas a protein dedicated for active removal of bile compounds from the cells was up-regulated. These findings suggest a role for these proteins in facilitating the well founded interaction of strain GG with the host mucus in the presence of sublethal doses of bile. The significance of these findings in terms of the functionality of a probiotic bacterium is discussed. PMID:21078892
Full Text Available The benefits of probiotic bacteria have been widely explored. However, fermented foods and digestive system of humans and animals are an inexhaustible source of new potentially probiotic microorganisms. In this study we present three new Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from different dairy products: cow′s cheese, sheep′s cheese and whey. In order to determine the antibacterial activity of yet unexplored L. plantarum strains against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, in vitro competition and co-culture tests were done. Furthermore, adhesion of these strains to Caco-2 cells and their influence on the adhesion of Salmonella were tested. Results showed the potential probiotic activity of isolated strains. L. plantarum strains survived in the presence of 1 % bile salts, they possessed acidification ability, antibacterial activity and significantly attenuated the growth of S. Typhimurium in brain heart infusion broth. All tested L. plantarum strains were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells and significantly impair the adhesion of S. Typhimurium. All three L. plantarum strains exhibited signifi cant probiotic potential and anti-Salmonella activity; therefore, further testing on in vivo models should follow.
Strompfová, Viola; Kubašová, Ivana; Lauková, Andrea
The importance of the intestinal microbiota has attracted much interest in recent years particularly with respect to ways in which the microbiota can be manipulated in order to improve health. Improving gut health through the use of probiotic microorganisms has become an area of research activity in both human and animal nutrition. However, the amount of research using companion animals is insufficient. The present review evaluates and compares the effects achieved after application of canine-derived probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 to healthy dogs as well as to dogs suffering from gastrointestinal disorders. The experiments involved varying duration of application (4 days-14 days), dosage (10 7 -10 9 CFU), form of application (fresh culture or lyophilized from) or combination with natural substances. Results from nine independent studies show the ability of probiotic strains to establish themselves in the canine gastrointestinal tract, alter the composition of intestinal microbiota and metabolites (organic acids), and modulate the physiology (serum biochemical parameters) and immunity parameters in dogs. Almost all observed effects were irrespective of dose or duration of probiotic administration.
Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene
important physiological traits and a variety of adaptive processes in different bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acidic stress on LuxS-mediated quorum sensing (AI-2 signalling) in four probiotic strains of different Lactobacillus species. Initially, the production of AI-2......-like molecule was investigated in four strains of Lactobacillus spp. at standard growth conditions using Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence assay. Species variation in AI-2 activity was observed. AI-2 activity started at early-exponential growth phase and increased during the mid-exponential phase...... concomitant with the reduction of pH, reaching maximum at late exponential phase (L. rhamnosus GG) or at stationary phase (L. salivarius UCC118, L. acidophilus NCFM and L. johnsonii NCC533). Acidic shock experiments were conducted on L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM after exposure to different acidic...
Li, Wei; Xia, Xiudong; Chen, Xiaohong; Rui, Xin; Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Qiuqin; Zhou, Jianzhong; Dong, Mingsheng
Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1 is a probiotic bacterium producing exopolysaccharides (EPS), which was isolated from traditional Sayram ropy fermented milk in southern Xinjiang, China. The genome consists of a circular 2,084,058bp chromosome with no plasmid. The genome sequence indicated that this strain includes a 15.20kb gene cluster involved in EPS biosynthesis. Genome sequencing information has provided the basis for understanding the potential molecular mechanism behind the EPS production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Beck, Hans Christian; Madsen, Søren M; Glenting, Jacob
In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to identify surface-associated proteins from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum 299v. Proteins were extracted from the cell surface using a mild wash in phosphate buffer and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel...... electrophoresis. Gel bands were excised and in-gel digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were analysed by capillary-LC-ESI-MS/MS. The peptide sequences were used for a database search and allowed identification of a total of 29 proteins, many of which could potentially be involved in the action...
Li, Bailiang; Liu, Fei; Tang, Yaru; Luo, Guangwen; Evivie, Smith; Zhang, Danqing; Wang, Nana; Li, Wan; Huo, Guicheng
This study investigated the functional diversity of Lactobacillus helveticus KLDS1.8701 by carrying out a whole-genome sequence analyses of L. helveticus KLDS1.8701. L. helveticus KLDS1.8701 strain was isolated from traditional sour milk in Sinkiang of China with desirable probiotic properties. Here we report the complete genome sequence of this organism and its genetic basis for adhesion, exopolysaccharides (EPS) production, acid and bile tolerance, bacteriocin production and immune system against bacteriophage. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yang, Yang; An, Haoran; Zhai, Zhengyuan; Wang, Guohong; Li, Jiaxi; Hao, Yanling
Here we report the complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus helveticus CAUH18, a new strain isolated from traditional fermented dairy product koumiss. Its genome has a circular 2.16Mb chromosome with no plasmid. The genome sequence indicated that this strain harbors a gene cluster involved in a novel exopolysaccharides (EPS) biosynthesis and a gene encoding cell-surface aggregation-promoting factors (APFs) to facilitate its colonization in gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This genome sequence provides a basis for further studies about its molecular genetics and probiotic functions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Asghar, S; Arif, M; Nawaz, M; Muhammad, K; Ali, M A; Ahmad, M D; Iqbal, S; Anjum, A A; Khan, M; Nazir, J
Aim of the present study was to characterise and evaluate probiotic potential of lactobacilli isolated from indigenous poultry. Lactobacilli were isolated from poultry droppings and identified by genus specific polymerase chain reaction and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Isolates were characterised in vitro by their ability to tolerate low pH and bile salts, phytase activity, antimicrobial activity, antibiotic susceptibility profile, and autoaggregation and coaggregation with poultry gut pathogens. In vivo evaluation of selected isolates was done by their effect on the body weight gain and immune response of broiler chicks. Total of 90, one-day old chicks, were randomly divided in 9 groups and given selected lactobacilli alone and in combinations (108 cfu/bird, daily) from day 7 to day 35. Body weight gain and humoral immune response to New Castle Disease Virus (NDV) vaccine were determined weekly. Three lactobacilli isolates (SMP52, SMP64 and SMP70) were selected as potentially probiotic bacteria on the basis of in vitro characterisation and identified as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus casei and L. crispatus, respectively. Chicks supplemented with 'SMP52', 'SMP64', 'SMP70' and 'SMP64+SMP70' and a commercial probiotic product (Protexin) showed significantly higher mean weight gain per bird (1,584±35.2, 1,629±30.6, 1,668±34.7, 1,619±29.5 and 1,576±31.7 g/bird, respectively) as compared to negative control group (1,394±26.7 g/bird), on day 35. SMP 70 also showed significantly higher geometric mean titre against NDV vaccine at day 21 as compared to negative control. It is concluded that L. crispatus SMP52, L. casei SMP64 and L. crispatus SMP70 are potential probiotic candidates which alone or in different combinations may increase body weight of broilers.
Beatriz Pérez Montoro
Full Text Available A collection of 31 Lactobacillus pentosus strains isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives were screened in depth in the present study for their probiotic potential. Several strains could be considered promising probiotic candidates since they showed good growth capacity and survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions (acidic pH of 1.5, up to 4% of bile salts and 5 mM of nitrate, good ability to auto-aggregate which may facilitate their adhesion to host cells as multiple aggregates and the subsequent displacement of pathogens. Moreover, co-aggregation of lactobacilli with pathogenic bacteria was shown with Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteriditis as good defense strategy against gut and food pathogens. Furthermore, they exhibited adherence to intestinal and vaginal cell lines, such property could be reinforced by their capacity of biofilm formation which is also important in food matrices such as the olive surface. Their antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria by means of acids and plantaricins, and also their different functional properties may determine their efficacy not only in the gastro-intestinal tract but also in food matrices. Besides their ability to ferment several prebiotics, the new evidence in the present study was their capacity to ferment lactose which reinforces their use in different food matrices including dairy as a dietary adjunct to improve lactose digestibility. Lactobacillus pentosus CF2-10N was selected to have best probiotic profile being of great interest in further studies. In conclusion, spontaneous fermented Aloreña table olives are considered a natural source of potential probiotic Lb. pentosus to be included as adjunct functional cultures in different fermented foods.
Treven, P; Mrak, V; Bogovič Matijašić, B; Horvat, S; Rogelj, I
The milk and mammary gland (MG) microbiome can be influenced by several factors, such as mode of delivery, breastfeeding, maternal lifestyle, health status, and diet. An increasing number of studies show a variety of positive effects of consumption of probiotics during pregnancy and breastfeeding on the mother and the newborn. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of probiotics Lactobacillus gasseri K7 (LK7) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) during pregnancy and lactation on microbiota of the mouse mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), MG, and milk. Pregnant FVB/N mice were fed skim milk or probiotics LGG or LK7 resuspended in skim milk during gestation and lactation. On d 3 and 8 postpartum, blood, feces, MLN, MG, and milk were analyzed for the presence of LGG or LK7. The effects of probiotics on MLN, MG, and milk microbiota was evaluated by real-time PCR and by 16S ribosomal DNA 454-pyrosequencing. In 5 of 8 fecal samples from the LGG group and in 5 of 8 fecal samples from the LK7 group, more than 1 × 10(3) of live LGG or LK7 bacterial cells were detected, respectively, whereas no viable LGG or LK7 cells were detected in the control group. Live lactic acid bacteria but no LGG or LK7 were detected in blood, MLN, and MG. Both probiotics significantly increased the total bacterial load as assessed by copies of 16S ribosomal DNA in MLN, and a similar trend was observed in MG. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that both probiotics increased the abundance of Firmicutes in MG, especially the abundance of lactic acid bacteria. The Lactobacillus genus appeared exclusively in MG from probiotic groups. Both probiotics influenced MLN microbiota by decreasing diversity (Chao1) and increasing the distribution of species (Shannon index). The LGG probiotic also affected the MG microbiota as it increased diversity and distribution of species and proportions of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. These results provide evidence that
Caggia, C; De Angelis, M; Pitino, I; Pino, A; Randazzo, C L
In the present study 177 Lactobacillus spp. strains, isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses, were in vitro screened for probiotic traits, and their characteristics were compared to those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, commercial strain. Based on acidic and bile salt resistance, thirteen Lactobacillus strains were selected. The multiplex-PCR application revealed that nine strains belonged to L. rhamnosus species and four to Lactobacillus paracasei species. All selected strains were further investigated for transit tolerance in simulated upper gastrointestinal tract (GI), for adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines, for hydrophobicity, for co-aggregation and auto-aggregation and for antimicrobial activities. Moreover, antibiotic resistance, hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities were investigated for safety assessment. Viable counts after simulated gastric and duodenal transit revealed that overall the selected lactobacilli tolerated better pancreatic juice and bile salts than acidic juice. In particular, three L. rhamnosus strains (FS10, FS2, and PS11) and one L. paracasei strain (PM8) increased their cell density after the simulated GI transit. The same strains showed also high percentage of auto-aggregation and co-aggregation with Escherichia coli. All strains were effective against both Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli and variability was achieved versus Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis used as pathogenic indicator strains. Different behavior was revealed by strains for adhesion ability and hydrophobicity, which are not always linked each other and are strongly strain-dependent. From the safety point of view, no isolate showed hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities, except one, and most of the strains were sensitive to a broad range of clinical antibiotics. This work showed that the L. rhamnosus FS10 and the L. paracasei PM8 are good promising probiotic candidates for further in vivo investigations
Rao, K Poornachandra; Chennappa, G; Suraj, U; Nagaraja, H; Raj, A P Charith; Sreenivasa, M Y
Sorghum-based traditional fermented food was screened for potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates were identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species identification was done by 16s rRNA sequence analysis. The functional probiotic potential of the two Lactobacillus species viz., Lactobacillus plantarum (Lact. plantarum) and Lactobacillus pentosus (Lact. pentosus) was assessed by different standard parameters. The strains were tolerant to pH 2 for 1 h and resistant to methicillin, kanamycin, vancomycin and norfloxacin. Two (Lact. plantarum COORG-3 and Lact. pentosus COORG-8) out of eight isolates recorded the cell surface hydrophobicity to be 59.12 and 64.06%, respectively. All the strains showed tolerance to artificial duodenum juice (pH 2) for 3 h, positive for bile salt hydrolase test and negative for haemolytic test. The neutralized cell-free supernatant of the strains Lact. pentosus COORG-4, Lact. plantarum COORG-1, Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-8 and Lact. plantarum COORG-3 showed good antibiofilm activity. Lact. pentosus COORG-8 exhibited 74% activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-MTCC 7903 and Lact. plantarum COORG-7 showed 68% inhibition of biofilm against Klebsiella pneumonia MTCC 7407. Three (Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-5 and Lact. pentosus COORG 8) out of eight isolates exhibited a good antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and five isolates (Lact. pentosus COORG 2, Lact. plantarum COORG 1, Lact. plantarum COORG 4, Lact. pentosus COORG 3 and Lact. plantarum COORG 6) are active against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis. The study also evaluated the cholesterol lowering property of the Lactobacillus strains using hen egg yolk as the cholesterol source. The cholesterol in hen egg yolk was assimilated by 74.12 and 68.26% by Lact. plantarum COORG 4 and Lact. pentosus COORG 7
Trinder, Mark; McDowell, Tim W; Daisley, Brendan A; Ali, Sohrab N; Leong, Hon S; Sumarah, Mark W; Reid, Gregor
Organophosphate pesticides used in agriculture can pose health risks to humans and wildlife. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus, a genus of commensal bacteria, would reduce absorption and toxicity of consumed organophosphate pesticides (parathion and chlorpyrifos [CP]). Several Lactobacillus species were screened for toleration of 100 ppm of CP or parathion in MRS broth based on 24-h growth curves. Certain Lactobacillus strains were unable to reach stationary-phase culture maxima and displayed an abnormal culture morphology in response to pesticide. Further characterization of commonly used, pesticide-tolerant and pesticide-susceptible, probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and L. rhamnosus strain GR-1 (LGR-1), respectively, revealed that both strains could significantly sequester organophosphate pesticides from solution after 24-h coincubations. This effect was independent of metabolic activity, as L. rhamnosus GG did not hydrolyze CP and no difference in organophosphate sequestration was observed between live and heat-killed strains. Furthermore, LGR-1 and LGG reduced the absorption of 100 μM parathion or CP in a Caco-2 Transwell model of the small intestine epithelium. To determine the effect of sequestration on acute toxicity, newly eclosed Drosophila melanogaster flies were exposed to food containing 10 μM CP with or without supplementation with live LGG. Supplementation with LGG simultaneously, but not with administration of CP 3 days prior (prophylactically), mitigated CP-induced mortality. In summary, the results suggest that L. rhamnosus may be useful for reducing toxic organophosphate pesticide exposure via passive binding. These findings could be transferable to clinical and livestock applications due to affordability and practical ability to supplement products with food-grade bacteria. The consequences of environmental pesticide pollution due to widespread usage in agriculture and soil leaching are becoming a
Full Text Available The aim of the study was evaluation of growth and metabolic activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during fermentation of leguminous porridges (soybean flour, soybean, chickpea flour, chickpea, white bean, red bean, speckled bean, green lentil, husked lentil, yellow pea, and the evaluation of their stability during storage. A mixture of leguminous sample with water was inoculated after sterilization with equal number of L. rhamnosus GG, to obtain 5 log cfu/g in the porridge. Fermentation was led at 37 °C during 10 hours and storage at 5 °C for 21 days. Monitoring of the lactobacilli counts, pH value, and concentration of organic acids during fermentation and storage was done. Calculation of growth and metabolic parameters during fermentation and storage period was performed by the mechanistic model of Baranyi and Roberts. L. rhamnosus GG was able to grow up to 6.8–7.9 log cfu/g during fermentation, cell density during storage period was stable, except whole soybean, yellow pea and red bean. Metabolic activity of L. rhamnosus GG during fermentation caused decrease of pH value to the final 5.6–6.0, increase of lactic and acetic acid concentration to 89.3–341.7 mg/kg and 129.2–525.2 mg/kg, respectively. During storage period, metabolic activity of L. rhamnosus GG continued.
Jawad Kadhim Isa
Full Text Available Background and Objective: The current study was undertaken to check in vitro different characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum as potential probiotic. These characteristics include viability of probiotic and pH during cold storage, tolerance to acid and bile, and antibiotic resistance.Material and Methods: Samples of yogurt were stored at 4°C and analyzed in time 0, 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of storage. In these periods, probiotic and starter cultures were enumerated and the pH parameter was analyzed.Results and Conclusion: A gradual decline in pH was noticed throughout the storage. Counting of starter cultures decreased by 0.42 log cycle, and the probiotic's viability decreased by 0.68 log cycle at the end of storage, whereas the probiotic's viability inthe samples subjected to re-pasteurization decreased by 0.30, 0.22 log cycles in the selective and reference media, respectively. The average viable cell counts of Lactobacillus plantarum decreased by 0.76, and 0.28 log cycles after incubation period (3 h at 37ºC in the simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0 and 3.0, respectively. Generally, probiotic can maintain its viability by 76.672% in (1.0% w v -1 bile. Lactobacillus plantarum was resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, and vancomycin but susceptible to chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Depended on these characteristics, Lactobacillus plantarum showed probiotic potential.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Haghshenas, B; Abdullah, N; Nami, Y; Radiah, D; Rosli, R; Yari Khosroushahi, A
Investigation on the use of herbal-based biopolymers for probiotic-Lactobacillus plantarum 15HN-encapsulation is presented. The objectives are to enhance its oral delivery, colonic release and survival rate of these probiotic cultures in gastrointestinal environment. Nine types of herbal-based polymers blend with different concentration of alginate alone or mixed with psyllium and fenugreek was used as candidate for encapsulation matrix by applying a simple extrusion method. All the blend formulations recorded high encapsulation efficiency at value >98%. The survival rate of viable probiotic cells under both low pH and high bile salt conditions was also high with value above 80% in 2% (w/v) alginate, alginate+psyllium (1·5 + 0·5%) blend and alginate+fenugreek (1·5 + 0·5%) blend as compared to other polymer formulations and nonencapsulated cells. Their release occurred after 2 h in colonic condition and sustained until the 12th hour incubation period. A value added prebiotic effect was observed in (1·5 + 0·5%) alginate-psyllium formulation. The high encapsulation efficiency, high viability of cell in low pH, high bile salt and the sustained release rates of probiotic cells in colonic condition during storage time was also observed for these herbal gel formulations. Herbal-based biopolymers offer added advantages of being prebiotic towards the enhancement of probiotic bacterial growth in the gastrointestinal environment. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Öztürk, Mehmet; Meterelliyöz, Merve
Probiotics are gaining popularity and increasing the importance of their accurate speciation. Lactobacillus species are commonly used as probiotic strains mostly of clinical importance. Present knowledge indicates that at least 14 Lactobacillus species are associated with the human intestinal tract. Currently, researchers are interested in developing efficient techniques for screening and selecting probiotics bacteria, but unfortunately most of these methods are time-consuming, labor-intensive and costly. The aim of this study is to develop reliable, rapid and accurate method to identify 14 references Lactobacillus species that could have been found in the human alimentary tract by 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. In this study, to develop an effective method for the genotype-based identification of the reference Lactobacillus species, 1.5 kb of 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences of 14 Lactobacillus were collected from the Gene Bank aligned, in silico restricted and analyzed in respect to their 16S-rRNA restriction fragment polymorphism. In silico restriction profiles of 16S-rRNA indicated that FspBI, HinfI and DraI restriction enzymes (RE) are convenient for differentiation of 14 Lactobacillus species in human intestinal tract except Lb. casei and Lb. paracasei. The patterns of our experimental findings obtained from 16S PCR-ARDRA completely confirmed our in silico patterns. The present work demonstrated that 16S PCR-ARDRA method with FspBI, HinfI and DraI RE is a rapid, accurate and reliable method for the identification of Lactobacillus species from human alimentary tract, especially during the identification of large numbers of isolates and any laboratory equipped with a thermo cycler for probiotic use.
Geraldi, Marina V; Tulini, Fabricio L; Souza, Vanessa M; De Martinis, Elaine C P
Yoghurts are dairy products consumed worldwide and can be supplemented with substances that provide extra health benefits as well as probiotic strains. In this context, the present study aimed to prepare a yoghurt added of juçara (Euterpe edulis M.) pulp and the commercial probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus La5. Moreover, the probiotic survival during storage and after in vitro exposure to simulated gastric and enteric conditions was evaluated. Four formulations of yoghurt were prepared: (a) natural yoghurt, (b) yoghurt added of probiotic, (c) yoghurt added of juçara pulp, and (d) yoghurt added of probiotic culture and juçara pulp. The preparations were evaluated for survival of probiotic strain during storage and its tolerance to gastric and enteric conditions in vitro. The probiotic population in yoghurt remained unchanged during 28 days of storage. In addition, juçara pulp increased the probiotic resistance to simulated gastric and enteric conditions in the first day of storage. These data indicate that juçara pulp is a potential ingredient for the production of probiotic yoghurts.
Mpofu, A.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Smid, E.J.; Besten, den H.M.W.
Mutandabota is a dairy product consumed as a major source of proteins and micronutrients in Southern Africa. In this study the microbial safety of traditional and a variant of mutandabota fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba (yoba mutandabota) was investigated by challenging the
Anwar, Munir A.; Kralj, Slavko; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert
Fructansucrase enzymes polymerize the fructose moiety of sucrose into levan or inulin fructans, with beta(2-6) and beta(2-1) linkages, respectively. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii strain NCC 533 possesses a single fructansucrase gene (open reading frame AAS08734) annotated as a
Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Delsoglio, Marta; Brix, Susanne
Scope: Plant phenolics, known to exert beneficial effects on human health, were supplemented to cultures of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) to assess their effect on its adhesive capacity and the abundancy of individual proteins. Methods and results: The presence...
Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Hansen, Morten Ejby; Majumder, Avishek
Whole cell and surface proteomes were analyzed together with adhesive properties of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) grown on the emerging prebiotic raffinose, exemplifying a synbiotic. Adhesion of NCFM to mucin and intestinal HT-29 cells increased three-fold after...
Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Satokari, R.M.; Vesterlund, S.; Kankainen, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Tynkkynen, S.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Palva, A.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a well-established Gram-positive probiotic strain, whose health-benefiting properties are in part dependent upon a prolonged residency in the gastrointestinal tract and likely dictated by an adherence to the intestinal mucosa. Previously, we identified two pilus gene
Baltova, Kalinka; Dimitrov, Zhechko
Lactobacillus gasseri within the Lactobacillus acidophilus group is a major species in the human microflora. The potential probiotic properties of a L. gasseri strain of human origin were evaluated. Out of 17 studied L. gasseri strains, L. gasseri 4/13 showed the highest immunomodulatory effect (induction of interferon gamma measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in Balb/c mouse splenocytes in vitro and the highest rate of adhesion to Caco-2 human epithelial cells. The strain also reduced the concentration of cholesterol in the growth medium by 65% as compared with the initial concentration (measured spectrophotometrically). These probiotic properties indicate that L. gasseri 4/13 could prove an attractive concentrated adjunct monoculture in the production of new functional foods. To obtain a freeze-dried bacterial concentrate from L. gasseri 4/13, the influence of different culture media, temperatures and pH values on the accumulation of cell biomass was studied. Yoghurt samples were produced using a classical fermentation technology. Freeze-dried concentrated monoculture of L. gasseri 4/13 with over 1 × 1010 CFU/g viable cells was added as an adjunct culture together with a starter. The viable L. gasseri 4/13 cells remained above the critical value of 106 CFU/g during storage at 5 °C for the entire 20-day period. Organoleptic tests did not reveal any adverse change in the product taste and aroma of yoghurt samples at the 20th day. In conclusion, L. gasseri 4/13 was selected as having suitable probiotic and cultural characteristics for production of fermented milk products with high nutritional and biological value.
Anandharaj, Marimuthu; Sivasankari, Balayogan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from mother's milk and their effects on cholesterol assimilation. In this study 120 isolates from mother's milk were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Among these, only 6 predominant strains were identified as Lactobacillus spp. The following parameters were selected as important test variables in model stomach passage survival trials: acid and bile tolerance, antimicrobial activity, antibiotic susceptibility and cholesterol reduction. Results showed that the considerable variation existed among six strains. Moreover, the strain HMI68 is the most acid-tolerant and the HMI28 and HMI74 is the most acid-sensitive of all strains tested. HMI118 did not grow at 0.5% and 1% bile concentration after 5 h but the HMI68 and HMI43 showed some tolerance to such bile concentration. The differences found in the growth rate were not significant (P > 0.05). HMI68 showed resistance to most of the antibiotics as well as antagonistic activity against the tested pathogens. The amount of cholesterol reduction is increased when the media supplemented with bile salts. HMI68 assimilate 61.05 ± 0.05 μg/ml cholesterol with the presence of 0.3% bile salt this could be significantly decreased by 25.41 ± 1.09 μg/ml without bile salt. HMI68 was identified to be Lactobacillus oris HMI68 and 16S rRNA sequence was deposited in the National Center for Biotechnological Information (GenBank). For the first time the cholesterol-reducing property of L. oris isolated from mother's milk were investigated in this study. Therefore the effective L. oris HMI68 strain was regarded as a candidate probiotic. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lara-Villoslada, Federico; Sierra, Saleta; Díaz-Ropero, María Paz; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Xaus, Jordi; Olivares, Mónica
Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716, a probiotic strain isolated from human milk, was characterized in a previous study. The objective of this study was to evaluate its sensitivity to antibiotics and its potential toxicity and translocation ability after oral administration to mice. For this purpose, 40 Balb/C mice were divided in two groups (n=20 per group). One group was treated orally with 10(10) colony forming units (cfu)/mouse/day of Lb. fermentum CECT5716 during 28 d. The other group only received the excipient and was used as control. Food intake, body weight, bacterial translocation and different biochemical and haematological parameters were analysed. Oral administration of Lb. fermentum CECT5716 to mice had no adverse effects on mice. There were no significant differences in body weight or food intake between control and probiotic-treated mice. No bacteraemia was observed and there was no treatment-associated bacterial translocation to liver or spleen. Stress oxidative markers were not different in control and probiotic-treated mice. These results suggest that the strain Lb. fermentum CECT5716 is non-pathogenic for mice even in doses 10,000 times higher (expressed per kg of body weight) than those normally consumed by humans.
Ma, Chengjie; Ma, Aimin; Gong, Guangyu; Liu, Zhenmin; Wu, Zhengjun; Guo, Benheng; Chen, Zhengjun
Lactobacillus casei, a probiotic, and Streptococcus thermophilus, a fast acidifying lactic acid bacterial strain, are both used in the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between L. casei and S. thermophilus in the presence or absence of S. thermophilus-specific bacteriophage during milk fermentation. The acidification capability of L. casei co-cultured with S. thermophilus was significantly higher than that observed for L. casei or S. thermophilus cultured alone. However, the probiotic content (i.e., L. casei cell viability) was low. The fastest acidification and the highest viable L. casei cell count were observed in co-cultures of L. casei and S. thermophilus with S. thermophilus phage. In these co-cultures, S. thermophilus compensated for the slow acid production of L. casei in the early exponential growth phase. Thereafter, phage-induced lysis of the S. thermophilus cells eliminated the competition for nutrients, allowing L. casei to grow well. Additionally, the ruptured S. thermophilus cells released intracellular factors, which further promoted the growth and function of the probiotic bacteria. Crude cellular extract isolated from S. thermophilus also significantly accelerated the growth and propagation of L. casei, supporting the stimulatory role of the phage on this micro-ecosystem. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Susi Merry Marini
Full Text Available AbstractLactic acid bacteria from bekasam has potential as an antimicrobial and enzyme producer, as well as probiotics. The purpose of this study were to get the selected formula of the jelly drink with the addition of carrageenan by organoleptic and determine the effect of adding wet biomass (WB and dry biomass (DB Lactobacillus plantarum (SK5 from bekasam against chemical and microbiological parameters jelly beverage probiotics during storage. This study consisted of two phases where a preliminary study to determine the best carrageenan concentration and primary research to determine the chemical and microbiological characteristics jelly drink probiotics during storage. Concentrations of carrageenan used were 0.67%; 1% and 1.34%. The best concentration obtained from the preliminary study was 0.67%. The pH of WB during storage decreased to 2.29; total microbial 0.91 log cfu/g; BAL total of 0.2 log cfu/g; dietary fiber 1.26% and 0.53% total sugars. Dry biomass characterization during storage decreased to pH of 2.54; Microbial total of 3.13 log cfu/g; LAB total of 2.22 log cfu/g, while the increase of the dietary fiber of 2.13% and total sugars 1.96%.
Schwendicke, F; Dörfer, C; Kneist, S; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S
Probiotic bacteria have been suggested to inhibit Streptococcus mutans (SM) and thus prevent dental caries. However, supporting evidence is weak and probiotic species might be cariogenic themselves. Thus, we compared and combined the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) with SM and analysed the resulting mineral loss (ΔZ) in dental tissues. We simulated three biofilm compositions (SM, LGG, SM × LGG), two lesion sites (smooth enamel, dentin cavity) and two nutrition supply frequencies (twice/day, 6 times/day) in a multi-station, continuous-culture biofilm model. A total of 240 bovine enamel and dentin samples were cut, polished and embedded. All experimental procedures were performed in independent duplicates, with 10 samples being allocated to each group for each experiment (final sample size n = 20/group). Biofilms were cultured on the specimens and supplied with 2% sucrose medium and artificial saliva in consecutive pulses. After 10 days, ΔZ and bacterial numbers were assessed. SM × LGG biofilms caused significantly increased ΔZ compared with SM or LGG biofilms (p biofilms of different species (p > 0.05, ANOVA). Frequent nutrition supply significantly increased bacterial numbers (p Biofilms in dentin cavities compared to smooth enamel harboured significantly more bacteria (p < 0.05). LGG induced mineral loss especially in dentin cavities and under highly cariogenic conditions. LGG did not have inhibitory effects on SM, but rather contributed to the caries process in vitro.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find new substrates suitable for growth and metabolism of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which would be interesting for development of new functional food. The growth and metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG in cereal (rye, barley, oat and millet porridges were monitored during fermentation process. Cereal and porridges, were inoculated with this strain at two initial levels to obtain approximately 5 or 6 log colony form units per gram of suspension after sterilization and cooling,. Fermentation was led stationary at 37 °C for 48 hours and viable cell count, pH value, titratable acidity and organic acids were analysed. Metabolic activity of Lb. rhamnosus GG was influenced by inoculation level and by the type of cereal used. The cereals fermented by lactic acid bacteria, especially probiotic strains, might broaden the offer of probiotic products for those suffering from milk allergy.doi:10.5219/242 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE
Selle, Kurt; Klaenhammer, Todd R
Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the capacity to occupy mucosal niches of humans, including the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina. Among commensal, LAB are species of the acidophilus complex, which have proven to be a substantial reservoir for microorganisms with probiotic attributes. Specifically, Lactobacillus gasseri is an autochthonous microorganism which has been evaluated for probiotic activity based on the availability of genome sequence and species-specific adaptation to the human mucosa. Niche-related characteristics of L. gasseri contributing to indigenous colonization include tolerance of low pH environments, resistance to bile salts, and adhesion to the host epithelium. In humans, L. gasseri elicits various health benefits through its antimicrobial activity, bacteriocin production, and immunomodulation of the innate and adaptive systems. The genomic and empirical evidence supporting use of L. gasseri in probiotic applications is substantiated by clinical trial data displaying maintenance of vaginal homeostasis, mitigation of Helicobacter pylori infection, and amelioration of diarrhea. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Velho, Renata Voltolini; Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Brandelli, Adriano
Twelve Lactobacillus isolates from Brazilian starter-free ovine cheeses were evaluated for their probiotic potential. The strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum (7), Lb. brevis (2), Lb. casei (2) and Lb. parabuchneri (1). All strains showed variable resistance to gastric juices and relative tolerance to pancreatin and bile salts. Only five strains of Lb. plantarum could not deconjugate the sodium salt of taurodeoxycholic acid. Autoaggregation ability after 24 h was above 50% and hydrophobicity was higher than 60% for most strains. All lactobacilli could inhibit linolenic acid oxidation, except Lb. parabuchneri strain, whereas none of them could scavenge DPPH radical. β-Galactosidase activity ranged from 47·7 to 2503 Miller units. Inhibition of food pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium was demonstrated and the production of organic acids could be associated with this effect. The Lactobacillus strains from Brazilian regional ovine cheese showed interesting functional characteristics, mainly the strains Lb. brevis SM-B and Lb. plantarum SM-I. Both presented high acid tolerance. In addition, Lb. brevis SM-B also displayed remarkable antioxidant activity and Lb. plantarum SM-I was the highest β-galactosidase producer, exhibited high autoaggregation and hydrophobicity properties.
Vanichanan, Jakapat; Chávez, Violeta; Wanger, Audrey; De Golovine, Aleksandra M; Vigil, Karen J
Lactobacillus sp. is a low virulence bacterium, which rarely causes infection in immunocompetent individuals and usually is considered a contaminant. Normally this organism is susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics, yet resistant strains have been reported. Here, we report a case of a 60-year-old renal transplant recipient who developed an intra-abdominal abscess which grew a carbapenem-resistant Lactobacillus casei. This is significant since it is the first report of a clinical isolate of Lactobacillus sp. that demonstrated both microbiological and clinical resistance to carbapenem use. Moreover, the probiotic supplement that the patient had taken also grew a similar organism raising the concern of probiotic associated infection in immunocompromised individual.
Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand
The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty isolates were selected. These isolates were further characterized and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus brevis (7 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (5), Lactobacillus paracasei (2), Lactobacillus buchneri (1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1) and Lactobacillus sp. (3). Identified isolates were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival in gastrointestinal tract, antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, cell surface characteristics, exopolysacharride production and haemolytic activity. The results of these experiments were used as input data for Principal Component Analysis; thus, to select the most promising probiotic isolates. Three isolates (L. brevis PLA2, L. paracasei PLA8 and L. brevis PLA16) were found to be most technological relevant and promising probiotic candidates in comparison to commercial probiotic strains. L. brevis PLA2 was selected as best isolate with probiotic potential by in vitro adherence to the human intestinal HT-29 cell line.
Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Schwan, Rosane Freitas
A total of 234 LAB isolates from Brazilian food products were initially screened for their ability to survive at pH 2.0. Fifty one of the isolates survived and were selected. They were characterized by phenotypic methods, rep-PCR and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus......) were selected. The highest co-aggregation ability with Escherichia coil was observed to L. plantarum CH41. L. brevis SAU105 and FFC199 and L. fermentum CH58 exhibited antagonistic activity towards the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 and L. brevis...
Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Chunhong; Li, Changying; Li, Shengyu; Li, Tiezhu; Li, Da; Zhao, Yujuan; Yang, Zhennai
The probiotic adjunct Lactobacillus plantarum K25 was inoculated into milk to produce probiotic cheese. The effect of Lb. plantarum K25 on cheese composition, microbiological growth and survival during the manufacturing and ripening period, primary and secondary proteolysis during cheese ripening, and the in vivo cholesterol-lowering ability of the probiotic cheese were investigated. The results showed that the use of adjunct Lb. plantarum K25 in Cheddar cheese did not affect the cheese components including moisture, protein, fat, salt content and the pH value of cheese. During the whole ripening period, the probiotic adjunct maintained its viability, suggesting the effectiveness of Cheddar cheese as a vehicle for delivery of probiotic bacteria. No significant differences were observed in water-soluble nitrogen, 70 % ethanol-soluble nitrogen, 5 % phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen, free amino acids and urea-PAGE patterns between the control and probiotic cheeses. Assessment of the in vivo cholesterol-lowering property of cheese with Lb. plantarum K25 showed that the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides decreased significantly, and the level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in mice fed with the probiotic cheese. The results indicated the potential function as a dietary item of the probiotic cheese with Lb. plantarum K25 to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Full Text Available The biofilm degradation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is essential as a complete periodontal disease therapy, and here we show the effects of potential probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp. for the biofilm of several serotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Eight of the 13 species showed the competent biofilm degradation of ≥ 90% reduction in biofilm values in A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b as well as four of the seven species for the biofilm of A. actinomycetemcomitans OMZ 534 (serotype e. In contrast, the probiotic bacteria did not have a big impact for the degradation of A. actinomycetemcomitans SUNY 75 (serotype a biofilm. The dispersed A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 cells through the biofilm detachment were still viable and plausible factors for the biofilm degradation were not due to the lactic acid and low pH conditions. The three enzymes, protease, lipase, and amylase may be responsible for the biofilm degradation; in particular, lipase was the most effective enzyme for the biofilm degradation of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 along with the protease activity which should be also important for the other serotypes. Remarkable lipase enzyme activities were detected from some of the potential probiotics and a supporting result using a lipase inhibitor presented corroborating evidence that lipase activity is one of the contributing factors for biofilm degradation outside of the protease which is also another possible factor for the biofilm of the other serotype of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. On the other hand, the biofilm of A. actinomycetemcomitans SUNY 75 (serotype a was not powerfully degraded by the lipase enzyme because the lipase inhibitor was slightly functional for only two of potential probiotics.
Damodharan, Karthiyaini; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won
In this study, we evaluated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from fermented radish. All the strains survived the simulated oro-gastrointestinal transit condition and showed significantly higher adherence to Caco-2 cells compared with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The strains showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, autoaggregation, and coaggregation capacity with pathogens. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus strains inhibited the adherence of Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica, Shigella boydii, and Salmonella choleraesuis to the Caco-2 cell line. The strains possessed bile salt hydrolase activity and their cholesterol-lowering activity in vitro was above 50% in the presence of bile. Strains of L. plantarum and L. pentosus possessed the plantaricin-encoding plnEF gene. In addition, the Lactobacillus strains maintained about 80% cell viability after freeze-drying in the presence of a combination of 5% skim milk and 5% maltodextrin as cryoprotectant, and 70% recovery of cell viability was observed in the absence of any cryoprotectant.
Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+): Characterization, Manufacture, Mechanisms of Action, and Quality Control of a Specific Probiotic Combination for Primary Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection.
Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu
A specific probiotic formulation composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 (Bio-K+) has been marketed in North America since 1996. The strains and the commercial products have been evaluated for safety, identity, gastrointestinal survival, and stability throughout shelf life. The capacity of both the fermented beverages and the capsules to reduce incidences of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been demonstrated in human clinical trials. Individual strains and the finished products have shown antimicrobial activity against C. difficile and toxin A/B neutralization capacity in vitro. The use of this specific probiotic formulation as part of a bundle of preventive measures to control CDI in healthcare settings is discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hai Kuan Wang; Cheng Dong; Yong Fu Chen; Li Min Cui; He Ping Zhang
Cheddar cheese has been manufactured with Lactobacillus casei Zhang as the dairy starter adjunct. L. casei Zhang had previously been isolated from koumiss collected from Xilin Guole in Inner Mongolia and characterized in detail with regard to their probiotic potential. The addition of L. casei Zhang to Cheddar cheese had no adverse effects on sensory criteria. The cheese made with 0.1, 1 and 2 % of the probiotic strain L. casei Zhang adjuncts contained high levels of the Lactobacillus after 6...
Gotteland, Martin; Cires, Maria Jose; Carvallo, Claudia; Vega, Natalia; Ramirez, Maria Antonieta; Morales, Pamela; Rivas, Patricia; Astudillo, Fernanda; Navarrete, Paola; Dubos, Céline; Figueroa, Alvaro; Troncoso, Miriam; Ulloa, Carolina; Mizgier, Maria Luisa; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Speisky, Hernan; Brunser, Oscar; Figueroa, Guillermo
The aim of this study was to select autochthonous strains of Lactobacillus from stools of healthy infants and adults, human milk, artisanal goat cheese, and fruits and vegetables according to their probiotic properties and safety. From 421 strains of Lactobacillus isolated, 102 (24.2%) were shown to be tolerant to gastric pH and bile salts; they were used to determine their anti-Helicobacter pylori (agar diffusion assay), antioxidant (oxygen radical absorption capacity), and anti-inflammatory (inhibition of interleukin-8 release by tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated HT-29 cells) activities as well as their ability to adhere to intestinal (Caco-2) and gastric (AGS) epithelial cells. Results obtained were compared with three commercial probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. plantarum 299v, and L. johnsonii NCC533. The five strains most efficient according to these activities were subsequently identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene, their susceptibility to antibiotics was determined, and their safety evaluated in mice. One strain of L. plantarum was discarded due to the higher prevalence of liver bacterial translocation observed in the animals fed this strain. In conclusion, four autochthonous strains of L. rhamnosus were finally selected with probiotic properties and safety allowing their eventual use in human studies. These results contribute to increase the diversity of probiotic strains available for the development of nutraceuticals and functional foods.
Zielińska, Dorota; Rzepkowska, Anna; Radawska, Anna; Zieliński, Konrad
Most important during probiotic selection are gastric acid and bile tolerance, the adhesion to the luminal epithelium to colonize the lower gastrointestinal tract of a human and safety for human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected probiotic in vitro properties of Lactobacillus spp. Strains isolated from traditional fermented food. A total 38 strains were isolated from the pickled samples and 14 were identified as Lactobacillus spp. The survival of almost all strains after incubation at pH 2.5 did not change markedly, and remained at above 90 % (10(9) CFU/mL). The strains also exhibited a high survival rate at pH 3.5 (>90 %), whereas pH 1.5 all were died. Just four strains could survive 90 min. at pH 1.5 (Safety evaluation excluded four of tested strains as candidate probiotics, according to antibiotic resistance patterns and certain metabolic activities. On the basis on the results 10 of the selected Lactobacillus strains are safe and can survive under gastrointestinal conditions, which requires them to future in vitro and in vivo probiotic studies.
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus affects numerous intracellular metabolic processes, which are reflected by changes in the concentration of some plasma constituents. Particularly, the disease may indirectly undermine some functions of the nervous system including learning and memory through altering oxidative stress status. On the other hand, probiotics can enhance the antioxidant capacity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of probiotics on spatial memory, maze learning and indices of oxidative stress in diabetic rats.Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 4 groups (n=10 for each: Control (CO, Control probiotic (CP, Control diabetic (DC, and Diabetic probiotic (DP. The probiotic supplement, including Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bifidobacterium lactis (334 mg of each with a CFU of ~1010, was administered through drinking water every 12 hours for 8 weeks. Using morris water maze (MWM, spatial learning and memory were evaluated. Serum insulin and oxidative stress indices, including superoxide dismutase (SOD and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, were measured by standard laboratory kits.Results: Oral administration of probiotics improved impairment of spatial learning (P=0.008 and consolidated memory (P=0.01 in the rats. Moreover, probiotic treatment increased serum insulin (P<0.0001 and serum superoxide dismutase activity (P=0.007 while it decreased their blood glucose (P=0.006 and 8-OHdG (P<0.0001.Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation reversed the serum concentrations of insulin and glucose along with an increase in antioxidant capacity in diabetic rats. It also improved spatial learning and memory in the animals. Relevancy of the metabolic changes and behavioral functions need to be further studied.
Full Text Available The objective of current study was to find out the effect of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum onto cow’s milk and soybean’s milk proportion to yoghurt quality. The results showed that the highest of total lactic acid was combination between Lactobacillus plantarum and soybean milk (45 ml. While the highest pH was combination between Lactobacillus casei and cow’s milk (6.48 and the highest viscosity was combination between Lactobacillus casei and cow’s milk (2.9 cp. Keywords: cow’s milk, soybean’s milk, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, yoghurt
Saraniya, Appukuttan; Jeevaratnam, Kadirvelu
Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are health promoters and have been traditionally consumed without the knowledge that they have beneficial properties. These bacteria mainly involve in secreting antimicrobials, enhance immune-modulatory effects, and preserve the intestinal epithelial barrier by competitively inhibiting the pathogenic organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic properties of Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. argentoratensis, and Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum isolated from fermented Uttapam batter. The isolates produced bacteriocins that were effective against several pathogens. All the isolates exhibited tolerance to bile, gastric, and intestinal conditions. Beneficial properties like cholesterol assimilation and production of enzymes such as β-galactosidase, phytase and bile hydrolase varied among the isolates. Four isolates from each sub-species effectively adhered to Caco-2 cells and prevented pathogen adhesion. Using these strains, the soy milk was fermented, which exhibited higher antioxidant activity, 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and decreased phytate content when compared to unfermented soy milk. Thus, these probiotic isolates can be successfully used for formulation of functional foods that thereby help to improvise human health.
Full Text Available Background Probiotics are survival microorganisms that, when administered in sufficient amounts, confer health benefits to the host and can be used in an antioxidative role. Objectives The antioxidative effect of whole cells and intracellular cell-free extracts of the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus (PTCC 1643 as a probiotic at three different time intervals was investigated. Materials and Methods Antioxidant biomarkers, such as total antioxidant power (TAP, measured with the FRAP (ferric-reducing ability of plasma method, were evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Results The results showed that extracts and bacteria of L. acidophilus were able to significantly increase TAP after 24 and 72 hours. Conclusions The results showed that the effect of L. acidophilus is time-dependent.
Lobley, Carina M C; Aller, Pierre; Douangamath, Alice; Reddivari, Yamini; Bumann, Mario; Bird, Louise E; Nettleship, Joanne E; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Owens, Raymond J; O'Toole, Paul W; Walsh, Martin A
The structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC188 has been determined at 1.72 Å resolution. The structure was solved by molecular replacement, which identified the functional homodimer in the asymmetric unit. Despite only showing 57% sequence identity to its closest homologue, the structure adopted the typical α and β D-ribose 5-phosphate isomerase fold. Comparison to other related structures revealed high homology in the active site, allowing a model of the substrate-bound protein to be proposed. The determination of the structure was expedited by the use of in situ crystallization-plate screening on beamline I04-1 at Diamond Light Source to identify well diffracting protein crystals prior to routine cryocrystallography.
Cox, A J; Pyne, D B; Saunders, P U; Fricker, P A
To evaluate the ability of a probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 (PCC) to enhance the mucosal immune system of elite athletes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was conducted over a 4-month period of winter training. PARTICIPANTS; 20 healthy elite male distance runners. PCC was given at a daily dose of 1.26 x 10(10) as a freeze-dried powder in gelatin capsules. Placebo capsules contained an inert excipient. Treadmill performance (monthly), mucosal and systemic immunity (monthly), training (daily) and illness (daily) were assessed. Serum cytokine levels, salivary IgA levels and incidence, duration and severity of respiratory tract infections were measured. Subjects reported less than half the number of days of respiratory symptoms during PCC treatment (30 days) compared with placebo (72 days, ptrained distance runners. Maintenance of IFNgamma levels may be one mechanism underpinning the positive clinical outcomes.
Yang, J J; Niu, C C; Guo, X H
Bacillus has been proposed as a probiotic due to its in vivo effectiveness in the gastrointestinal tract through antimicrobial activities. The present study investigates the effects of Lactobacillus alone or in the presence of Bacillus subtilis MA139 on the inhibition of pathogenic Escherichia coli K88. Mixed cultures were used to predict the possible interactions among these bacteria within the intestinal tract of animals. B. subtilis MA139 was first assayed for its inhibition against E. coli K88 both under shaking and static culture conditions. A co-culture assay was employed under static conditions to test the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus reuteri on E. coli K88, with or without addition of B. subtilis MA139. The results showed that B. subtilis MA139 had marked inhibition against E. coli K88 under shaking conditions and weak inhibition under static conditions. Lactobacillus alone as well as in combination with B. subtilis MA139 spores exerted strong inhibition against E. coli K88 under static conditions. However, the inhibition by Lactobacillus in combination with B. subilis spores was much higher than that by Lactobacillus alone (Psubtilis MA139 significantly decreased the pH and oxidation-reduction potential values of the co-culture broth compared to that of Lactobacillus alone (Psubtilis MA139 because of significantly higher Lactobacillus counts and lower pH values in the broth (PBacillus in the mixed culture models suggests that Bacillus may produce beneficial effects by increasing the viability of lactobacilli and subsequently inhibiting the growth of pathogenic E. coli. Therefore, the combination of Bacillus and Lactobacillus species as a probiotic is recommended.
Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun
Exopolysaccharide produced by lactic acid bacteria are the subject of an increasing number of studies for their potential applications in the food industry as stabilizing, bio-thickening and immunostimulating agents. In this regard, the authors isolated an exopolysaccharide producing probiotic lactic acid bacterium from fermented beverage Marcha of north eastern Himalayas. The isolate Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 showed extracellular glucansucrase activity of 0.48 U mg⁻¹ by synthesizing natural exopolysaccharide glucan (1.87 mg mL⁻¹) from sucrose. Zymogram analysis of purified enzyme confirms the presence of glucosyltransferase of approximately 148 kDa with optimal activity of 18.7 U mg⁻¹ at 30 °C and pH 5.4. The exopolysaccharide was purified by gel permeation chromatography and had an average molecular weight of 1.11 × 10⁶ Da. Acid hydrolysis and structural characterization of exopolysaccharide revealed that it was composed of d-glucose residues, containing 86.5% of α-(1→6) and 13.5% of α-(1→3) linkages. Rheological study exhibited a shear thinning effect of glucan appropriate for food additives. A cytotoxicity test of glucan on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines revealed its nontoxic biocompatible nature. This is the first report on the structure and biocompatibility of homopolysaccharide α-D-glucan (dextran) from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain and its unique physical and rheological properties that facilitate its application in the food industry as viscosifying and gelling agent. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Duncker, Swantje C; Kamiya, Takeshi; Wang, Lu; Yang, Pingchang; Bienenstock, John
Probiotic lactic acid bacteria have been reported to alleviate symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. However, they have not been tested for use in functional gastric disease. We therefore investigated if strains previously shown to protect from response to colorectal distension (CRD) in rats also modulate response to gastric distension (GD). Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with viable, heat-killed, gamma-irradiated Lactobacillus reuteri or viable Lactobacillus plantarum wild type (WT), L. plantarum Dlt¯mutant, conditioned medium or medium control (9 d), and subjected to GD under anesthesia using an i.g. Teflon catheter. Effects were measured by heart rate (HR) changes during noxious distension (60 mm Hg) compared to baseline HR values. We also investigated the localization of viable, green fluorescent protein-transfected bacteria in the stomach mucosa. Viable L. reuteri decreased the bradycardia induced by noxious GD compared to placebo controls (P < 0.001). Heat-killed or gamma-irradiated L. reuteri and conditioned medium did not have a protective effect in GD. Viable L. plantarum WT and Dlt¯mutant, previously shown to be effective antinociceptive agents in CRD, showed no protective effect in GD. All viable bacteria were associated with the pars glandularis of the rat stomach. Thus, we conclude that the antinociceptive mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria differ between the stomach and the colon. Symptom alleviation cannot be attributed to the localization of the bacteria in the stomach. Information derived from effects of CRD cannot be extrapolated to effects in the stomach, which are likely to be strain and organ specific.
Zanjani, Saman Yahyavi; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Kamali, Koorosh; Mohseni, Mehran
Lead is a toxic metal present in different concentrations in a wide variety of food products. Exposure to lead, even to low levels, causes acute and chronic toxicities. Lead can cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the nervous system. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when used in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Although a recent study demonstrated that the studied bacteria have a protective effect against acute lead toxicity, no research has been found that shows the long-term impact of these bacteria in vivo. The current study surveyed the protective effects of two species of probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, that are most widely used in many functional foods against oral lead exposure (4 weeks) in rat brains. The results revealed that, at the end of the second week of chronic exposure to lead and probiotic bacteria, the lowest level of lead belonged to the Lactobacillus group. At the end of the fourth week, the lowest amount of lead was related to the group receiving both types of probiotics. With the physiological benefits of probiotic consumption, the bacterial solution in this study did not show high efficacy in reducing brain lead concentrations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background MAP is a suspected zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of Johne’s Disease in cattle and other ruminant animals. With over $1 billion dollars in loss to the dairy industry due to Johne’s Disease, efforts to eliminate or reduce MAP from cattle are of importance. The purpose of this study was to determine if daily intake of probiotics could eliminate or reduce Johne’s Disease associated symptoms and pathogenesis by MAP. Post infection, animals are often asymptomatic carriers with limited shedding of the pathogen, proving early detection to be difficult. Disease and symptoms often appear 3–4 years after infection with antibiotic treatment proving ineffective. Symptoms include chronic gastrointestinal inflammation leading to severe weight-loss from poor feed and water intake cause a wasting disease. These symptoms are similar to those found in individuals with Crohn’s Disease (CD; MAP has been implicated by not proven to be the causative agent of CD. Probiotics administered to livestock animals, including dairy and beef cattle have demonstrated improvements in cattle performance and health. Our objectives included determining the benefits of Lactobacillus animalis (strain name: NP-51 in MAP infected BALB/c mice by evaluating systemic and gastrointestinal response by the host and gut microbiota. Male and female animals were fed 1×106 CFU/g probiotics in sterile, powdered mouse chow daily and infected with 1 × 107 CFU/ml MAP and compared to controls. Animals were evaluated for 180 days to assess acute and chronic stages of disease, with sample collection from animals every 45 days. MAP concentrations from liver and intestinal tissues were examined using real time-PCR methods and the expression of key inflammatory markers were measured during MAP infection (interferon-gamma [IFN-Υ], Interleukin-1α, IL-12, IL-10, IL-6, and Tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]. Results Our results demonstrate administration of
Karunasena, Enusha; Kurkure, Paresh C; Lackey, Russell D; McMahon, Kevin Wyatt; Kiernan, Estevan P; Graham, Suzanne; Alabady, Magdy S; Campos, David L; Tatum, Owatha L; Brashears, Mindy M
MAP is a suspected zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of Johne's Disease in cattle and other ruminant animals. With over $1 billion dollars in loss to the dairy industry due to Johne's Disease, efforts to eliminate or reduce MAP from cattle are of importance. The purpose of this study was to determine if daily intake of probiotics could eliminate or reduce Johne's Disease associated symptoms and pathogenesis by MAP. Post infection, animals are often asymptomatic carriers with limited shedding of the pathogen, proving early detection to be difficult. Disease and symptoms often appear 3-4 years after infection with antibiotic treatment proving ineffective. Symptoms include chronic gastrointestinal inflammation leading to severe weight-loss from poor feed and water intake cause a wasting disease. These symptoms are similar to those found in individuals with Crohn's Disease (CD); MAP has been implicated by not proven to be the causative agent of CD. Probiotics administered to livestock animals, including dairy and beef cattle have demonstrated improvements in cattle performance and health. Our objectives included determining the benefits of Lactobacillus animalis (strain name: NP-51) in MAP infected BALB/c mice by evaluating systemic and gastrointestinal response by the host and gut microbiota. Male and female animals were fed 1×106 CFU/g probiotics in sterile, powdered mouse chow daily and infected with 1 × 107 CFU/ml MAP and compared to controls. Animals were evaluated for 180 days to assess acute and chronic stages of disease, with sample collection from animals every 45 days. MAP concentrations from liver and intestinal tissues were examined using real time-PCR methods and the expression of key inflammatory markers were measured during MAP infection (interferon-gamma [IFN-Υ], Interleukin-1α, IL-12, IL-10, IL-6, and Tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]). Our results demonstrate administration of probiotics reduces production of IFN-Υ and IL-6 while
Wang, Lei; Fang, Mingjian; Hu, Yanping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Mingming; Chen, Yulin
The count and diffusion of Lactobacilli species in the different gastrointestinal tract (GI) regions of broilers were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the probiotic characteristics of six L. reuteri species isolated from broilers' GI tract were also investigated to obtain the potential target for genetic engineering. Lactobacilli had the highest diversity in the crop and the lowest one in the cecum. Compared with the lower GI tract, more Lactobacilli were found in the upper GI tract. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. salivarius, and L. aviarius were the predominant Lactobacillus species and present throughout the GI tract of chickens. Lactobacillus reuteri was the most abundant Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus reuteri XC1 had good probiotic characteristics that would be a potential and desirable target for genetic engineering. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Tripathi, Prachi; Beaussart, Audrey; Alsteens, David; Dupres, Vincent; Claes, Ingmar; von Ossowski, Ingemar; de Vos, Willem M; Palva, Airi; Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; Dufrêne, Yves F
Knowledge of the mechanisms by which bacterial pili adhere to host cells and withstand external forces is critical to our understanding of their functional roles and offers exciting avenues in biomedicine for controlling the adhesion of bacterial pathogens and probiotics. While much progress has been made in the nanoscale characterization of pili from Gram-negative bacteria, the adhesive and mechanical properties of Gram-positive bacterial pili remain largely unknown. Here, we use single-molecule atomic force microscopy to unravel the binding mechanism of pili from the probiotic Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). First, we show that SpaC, the key adhesion protein of the LGG pilus, is a multifunctional adhesin with broad specificity. SpaC forms homophilic trans-interactions engaged in bacterial aggregation and specifically binds mucin and collagen, two major extracellular components of host epithelial layers. Homophilic and heterophilic interactions display similar binding strengths and dissociation rates. Next, pulling experiments on living bacteria demonstrate that LGG pili exhibit two unique mechanical responses, that is, zipper-like adhesion involving multiple SpaC molecules distributed along the pilus length and nanospring properties enabling pili to resist high force. These mechanical properties may represent a generic mechanism among Gram-positive bacterial pili for strengthening adhesion and withstanding shear stresses in the natural environment. The single-molecule experiments presented here may help us to design molecules capable of promoting or inhibiting bacterial-host interactions.
Chaves, B D; Brashears, M M; Nightingale, K K
The goals of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the application of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotic in animals and humans, and to address safety concerns with its use on live hosts. Overall, several strains of L. salivarius are well established probiotics with multiple applications in animal health, particularly to reduce colonization by gastrointestinal pathogens, and to a lesser extent, as a production and quality aid. In humans, L. salivarius has been used to prevent and treat a variety of chronic diseases, including asthma, cancer, atopic dermatitis and halitosis, and to a much limited extent, to prevent or treat infections. Based on the results from primary research evidence, it seems that L. salivarius does not pose a health risk to animals or humans in the doses currently used for a variety of applications; however, there is a systematic lack of studies assuring the safety of many of the strains intended for clinical use. This review provides researchers in the field with up-to-date information regarding applications and safety of L. salivarius. Furthermore, it helps researchers identify knowledge gaps and potential opportunities for microbiological and clinical research. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
A. Paula Domínguez Rubio
Full Text Available Archaea, bacteria, and eukarya secrete membrane microvesicles (MVs as a mechanism for intercellular communication. We report the isolation and characterization of MVs from the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BL23. MVs were characterized using analytical high performance techniques, DLS, AFM and TEM. Similar to what has been described for other Gram-positive bacteria, MVs were on the nanometric size range (30–50 nm. MVs carried cytoplasmic components such as DNA, RNA and proteins. Using a proteomic approach (LC-MS, we identified a total of 103 proteins; 13 exclusively present in the MVs. The MVs content included cell envelope associated and secretory proteins, heat and cold shock proteins, several metabolic enzymes, proteases, structural components of the ribosome, membrane transporters, cell wall-associated hydrolases and phage related proteins. In particular, we identified proteins described as mediators of Lactobacillus’ probiotic effects such as p40, p75 and the product of LCABL_31160, annotated as an adhesion protein. The presence of these proteins suggests a role for the MVs in the bacteria-gastrointestinal cells interface. The expression and further encapsulation of proteins into MVs of GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe bacteria could represent a scientific novelty, with applications in food, nutraceuticals and clinical therapies.
Brinques, Graziela Brusch; do Carmo Peralba, Maria; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia
Biomass and lactic acid production by a Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from Serrano cheese, a microorganism traditionally used in foods and recognized as a potent probiotic, was optimized. Optimization procedures were carried out in submerged batch bioreactors using cheese whey as the main carbon source. Sequential experimental Plackett-Burman designs followed by central composite design (CCD) were used to assess the influence of temperature, pH, stirring, aeration rate, and concentrations of lactose, peptone, and yeast extract on biomass and lactic acid production. Results showed that temperature, pH, aeration rate, lactose, and peptone were the most influential variables for biomass formation. Under optimized conditions, the CCD for temperature and aeration rate showed that the model predicted maximal biomass production of 14.30 g l(-1) (dw) of L. plantarum. At the central point of the CCD, a biomass of 10.2 g l(-1) (dw), with conversion rates of 0.10 g of cell g(-1) lactose and 1.08 g lactic acid g(-1) lactose (w/w), was obtained. These results provide useful information about the optimal cultivation conditions for growing L. plantarum in batch bioreactors in order to boost biomass to be used as industrial probiotic and to obtain high yields of conversion of lactose to lactic acid.
Full Text Available The development of fruits and vegetables containing probiotics is a topic of great interest and popularity for health-conscious consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using dried fruit matrices as delivery vehicles for probiotics. Different fruits — kiwi, mango, strawberry, pineapple, banana — were used as food matrices to test the viability of a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum, which was determined after drying at 40ºC and at different storage times. Cell survival after drying decreased by ca. 1 log in banana and strawberry, to 3 log, for kiwi. The bacterial numbers in banana and strawberry dried pieces at the time of storage at room temperature and 4ºC were approximately 107 cfu/g. After 37 days storage at room temperature, no viable counts were observed in any of the fruits studied. However, at 4ºC after this period of time, viable cells were detected for all the fruits (1.9x106 cfu/g, 1.5x105 cfu/g 1.5x105 cfu/g, 4.7x104 cfu/g 8.0x103 cfu/g, for strawberry, banana, kiwi, mango and pineapple, respectively.
M. ASHRAF, M. ARSHAD, M. SIDDIQUE AND G. MUHAMMAD1
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the probiotic properties of locally isolated lactobacilli in-vitro conditions. For this purpose, intestinal contents (n=20 were collected from crop, gizzard, ileum and caecum of adult healthy chicks and conventional yogurt samples (n=20 were procured from the local market for the isolation of lactobacilli. These samples were mixed homogeneously in sterilized phosphate buffer saline (PBS separately. Samples from both sources were inoculated on deMan Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS agar. L. acidophilus 3, L. rhamnosus and L. salivarius were isolated from intestinal contents, while L. delbrucekii ssp bulgaricus and L. paracasei ssp paracasei 1 were isolated from yogurt samples. These lactobacilli were identified through standard API-50 CHL system and then screened for resistance against bile salt, acidic pH, gastric transit and ability to inhibit pathogens as well as survival under different storage temperatures. Tolerance level was found variable (P<0.05 among all the tested species of lactobacillus. All the tested species, except L. delbrucekii and L. paracasei, showed good survival (P<0.05. All lactobacilli inhibited the growth of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, except L. delbrucekii that showed significantly (P<0.05 low antimicrobial effect. The results showed that L. acidophilus 3, L. rhamnosus and L. salivarius fulfilled the criteria of in-vitro screening for probiotic properties.
Full Text Available In this study, survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus coagulans after freezing and during 90 days of storage at -18○C in probiotic and low-fat synbiotic ice-cream was evaluated. Addition to a control group (which was ordinary ice-cream, two probiotic ice-creams were formulated using L. acidophilus and B. coagulans and two synbiotic ice-creams were prepared using the aforementioned microorganisms but replacing 5% of milk-fat with inulin. The total solids of the ice-cream mixes did not differ significantly, however there was a significant difference (p
Full Text Available With the objective to check the potential probiotic of Lactobacillus plantarum on one of themost frequent diseases in guinea pig (Cavia porcellus caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, tests were conducted of inhibition and comparisonin front of antibiotics, showing favorable results, the inhibitt othe pathogenic bacterium. It valued by HPLC the possible peptides produced by L. plantarum, characterizing an presence of two peptides. Tests were performed for the selection of lactic bacteria which showed the following profile: catalase-negative, not producer of gas, resistant to bile salts (0, 5%, 1%, 2% and 3%, pH (2,5, 3,5 and 7,6 and temperature of 38 at 45°C. Also determined the characteristics of the kinetics of fermentation, using two mediums, where it is evaluated CFU/ mL, pH, consumption of total sugars (mg/L and production of lactic acid (%; Lactobacillus plantarum reached the exponential phase of growth in the mediums MRS and Pro, at the 12 and 14:24 hours, with values of 7,0x1011 UFC/mL and 5,0x1013 UFC/mL, respectively. A design of blocks was applied at random with two treatments and eleven blocks, the result allowed to determine that it doesn’t exist significant statistical differences (P>0,05 between the proposed means, but if between the hours of evaluation (P <0,05.
Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon
The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.
Full Text Available The gut microbiota plays a major role in intestinal health, and an imbalance in its composition can lead to chronic gut inflammation and a predisposition to developing colorectal cancer (CRC. Currently, the use of probiotic bacteria represents an emerging alternative to treat and prevent cancer. Moreover, consumption of these beneficial bacteria may also favorably modulate the composition of the gut microbiota, which has been described in several studies to play an important role in CRC carcinogenesis. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of oral treatment with Lactobacillus casei BL23, a probiotic strain well known for its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. First, CRC was induced in C57BL6 mice by a single intraperitoneal injection with azoxymethane (8 mg/kg, followed by four courses of dextran sodium sulfate (2.5% in drinking water that were separated by an adjustable recovery period. At the time of sacrifice (day 46, tumor incidence, histological scores, and epithelial proliferation were determined in colon samples. Our results show that L. casei BL23 significantly protected mice against CRC development; specifically, L. casei BL23 treatment reduced histological scores and proliferative index values. In addition, our analysis revealed that L. casei BL23 had an immunomodulatory effect, mediated through the downregulation of the IL-22 cytokine, and an antiproliferative effect, mediated through the upregulation of caspase-7, caspase-9, and Bik. Finally, L. casei BL23 treatment tended to counterbalance CRC-induced dysbiosis in mice, as demonstrated by an analysis of fecal microbiota. Altogether our results demonstrate the high potential of L. casei BL23 for the development of new, probiotic-based strategies to fight CRC.
Full Text Available Background: Commesal bacteria is an excellent inducer for beta defensin-2 (BD-2. Probiotics bacteria Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri as commensal bacteria may play the same role as an excellent inducer for BD-2. Beta defensin is natural antimicrobial peptides widely expressed in oral cavity, including in epithelium salivary gland. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans as the main of bacteria causing caries are sensitive to BD-2. Purpose: This research was aimed to determine whether administration of probiotic L. reuteri can increase salivary BD-2 level in Wistar rats. Methods: This research can be considered as a laboratory experimental research with a randomized control group post test only design. Twenty-four male Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats aged 3 months were used. They were randomly divided into four groups, namely two control groups (negative control group that was not induced and positive control group induced with S. mutans, and two treatment groups (K1: induced with L. reuteri for 14 days and S. mutans for 7 days, and K2: induced with L. reuteri and S. mutans simultaneously for 14 days. L. reuteri culture at a concentration of 108 CFU/ml and S. mutans culture at a concentration of 1010CFU/ml were induced into the oral cavity of Wistar rats. An examination of BD-2 level was then conducted by using Elisa techniques. results: There was significant difference of salivary BD-2 level among those treatment groups (p=0.001. BD-2 level in saliva was increased after the administration of L. reuteri. Conclusion: L. reuteri probiotic can increase salivary BD-2 level in Wistar rats.
Nimgampalle, Mallikarjuna; Kuna, Yellamma
Alzheimer's disease is a type of dementia, and till now there is no suitable drug available for the complete cure of this disease. Now-a-days Probiotics, Lactobacillus strains play a therapeutic role in cognitive disorders through Gut-Brain Axis communication. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-Alzheimer properties of Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC1325 against D-Galactose-induced Alzheimer's disease in albino rats. Healthy rats (48) of wistar strain were divided into four groups viz., Group-I: control rats received saline, Group-II: rats received intraperitoneal injection of D-Galactose (120 mg/kg body weight) throughout experiment, Group-III: initially animals were subjected to D-Galactose injection for six weeks, then followed by simultaneously received both D-Galactose and L. plantarum MTCC1325 (12×108 CFU/ml; 10 ml/kg body weight) for 60 days and Group-IV: rats which were orally administered only with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC1325 for 60 days. During the experimentation, both morphometric and behavioural aspects were studied. Later we have examined histopathological changes and estimated cholinergic levels in selected brain regions of all experimental groups of rats including control on selected days. Morphometric, behavioural changes, ACh levels were significantly decreased and pathological hallmarks such as amyloid plaques and tangles were also observed in AD model group. Treatment of AD-group with L. plantarum MTCC1325 for 60 days, not only ameliorated cognition deficits but also restored ACh and the histopathological features to control group. However, no significant effects have been observed in the group treated with L. plantarum alone. The study revealed that, L. plantarum MTCC1325 might have anti-Alzheimer properties against D-Galactose induced Alzheimer's disease.
Jiang, Meiling; Zhang, Fen; Wan, Cuixiang; Xiong, Yonghua; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua; Tao, Xueying
Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, a specific strain isolated from human breast milk, was investigated for its survival capacity (acid and bile salt tolerance, survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract, inhibition of pathogens, antibiotic susceptibility, yield of exopolysaccharides) and probiotic properties (antiadhesion of pathogens, protection from harmful effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and antiinflammatory stress on Caco-2 cells). The results showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 had broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54007, Bacillus cereus ATCC14579, and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003) and gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC10104, Shigella sonnei ATCC25931, Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC29544, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC13311, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 was susceptible to 8 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin and nitrofurantoin) and resistant to 6 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., kanamycin and bacitracin). Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 was able to survive at pH 2.5 for 3h and at 0.45% bile salt for 12h, suggesting that it can survive well in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the exopolysaccharide yield of Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reached 426.73 ± 65.56 mg/L at 24h. With strategies of competition, inhibition, and displacement, Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reduced the adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 (35.51%), Sal. typhimurium ATCC 13311 (8.10%), and Staph. aureus CMCC 26003 (40.30%) on Caco-2 cells by competition, and subsequently by 59.80, 62.50, and 42.60%, respectively, for the 3 pathogens through inhibition, and by 75.23, 39.97, and 52.88%, respectively, through displacement. Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 attenuated the acute stress induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate on Caco-2 cells and significantly inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α) on Caco-2 cells but increased IL-10 expression in vitro
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L. and Fragaria vesca L. pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86% and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49 and L. fermentum 111 were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30 and 1.00% did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains.
Sharma, K; Mahajan, R; Attri, S; Goel, G
The population of the Himalayan region is known to consume a variety of fermented and nonfermented foods and as a result they have been benefited in terms of overall health, because of the associated beneficial microbes. Therefore, the focus of the present study was to identify new strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from dairy products such as milk (cow, goat, buffalo) and fermented products (curd and buttermilk) with properties suitable for use as probiotic cultures. A total of 75 isolates tentatively identified as LAB from 100 samples were initially screened for production of β-haemolysin as indicators of virulence which resulted in 38 isolates with no haemolytic activity. Further subtractive screening based on resistance to gastrointestinal tract barriers (acid and bile salts) resulted in the selection of the eight most promising strains. All these eight strains were resistant to pH 2·0, 1% bile concentration and pancreatin (1 mg l-1 ). Among the eight isolates, three isolates were identified as Brevibacillus thermoruber and the others as Brevibacillus aydinogluensis, Lactobacillus gastricus, L. paracasei, Enterococcus sp. Weisella confusa based on 16S rDNA region. Among these isolates, L. paracasei CD4 and L. gastricus BTM7 indicated maximum tolerance to simulated gastric environment. Both the isolates possessed highest score for cell surface hydrophobicity, cell autoaggregation, adherence to Caco-2 cell lines and antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Shigella sp. comparable to standard strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Further principal component analysis and clustering analysis based on Euclidean Similarity index of probiotic characters revealed that L. paracasei strain CD4 and L. gastricus strain BTM7 were placed closest to reference strain L. rhamnosus GG and were therefore identified as most promising probiotic candidate cultures. These characteristics suggest that these strains could be excellent candidates
Hansen, Morten Ejby
and the discovery and documentation of novel ones. In this project we set out to investigate the metabolism of carbohydrates that are prebiotic or potential prebiotic compounds utilized by the probiotic organisms Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL-04 (Bl-04). The aim...... are defined as probiotics. The positive clinical effects of probiotics, mainly belonging to the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera in treatments of irritable bowel syndrome, gut infections and lifestyle diseases are well documented. Compounds that selectively stimulate the beneficial effect...
Anwar, Munir A.; Kralj, Slavko; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert
Fructansucrase enzymes polymerize the fructose moiety of sucrose into levan or inulin fructans, with beta(2-6) and beta(2-1) linkages, respectively. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii strain NCC 533 possesses a single fructansucrase gene (open reading frame AAS08734) annotated as a putative levansucrase precursor. However, 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the fructan product synthesized in situ revealed that this is of the inulin type. The ftf gene of L.johnsonii...
Renata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo
Full Text Available Os probióticos têm sido largamente utilizados em produtos lácteos. Recentemente, seu uso em produtos cárneos tem despertado interesse, principalmente em embutidos fermentados consumidos na forma crua e sem aquecimento prévio. Verificou-se a influência da utilização de Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei e L. rhamnosus sobre as características físico-químicas e sensoriais de embutido fermentado, bem como o desenvolvimento e a viabilidade das culturas no produto cárneo. Os embutidos foram processados em quatro tratamentos, sendo o primeiro tratamento usado como controle, enquanto os demais receberam a adição de uma espécie de Lactobacillus probiótico, seguindo procedimento de fabricação descrito para salame italiano por um período de 25 dias. A presença das culturas probióticas promoveu redução mais rápida do pH dos embutidos em relação ao tratamento controle, proporcionando gosto ácido mais intenso na avaliação sensorial, principalmente para cepa de L. rhamnosus. O crescimento de Staphylococcus xylosus da cultura starter sofreu redução com a adição dos probióticos, porém o desenvolvimento de Pediococcus pentosaceus não foi afetado. Os probióticos testados mostraram crescimento durante o processamento e permaneceram viáveis no produto final. Ficou demonstrada a viabilidade da utilização das culturas probióticas em embutido cárneo fermentado, principalmente L. casei e L. paracasei, preservando suas propriedades tecnológicas e sensoriais.Probiotic Lactobacillus strains have been widely used in dairy products. Recently, attention has been directed to the use of probiotics in meat products, mainly in fermented sausages. The effect of the utilization of Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus strains on physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of fermented sausage was evaluated. The sausages were processed in four batches: one was used as the control, while the other three batches
Delucchi, Luis; Fraga, Martín; Zunino, Pablo
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus murinus native strain (LbP2) on general clinical parameters of dogs with distemper-associated diarrhea. Two groups of dogs over 60 d of age with distemper and diarrhea were used in the study, which was done at the Animal Hospital of the Veterinary Faculty of the University of Uruguay, Montevideo, Uruguay. The dogs were treated orally each day for 5 d with the probiotic or with a placebo (vehicle without bacteria). Clinical parameters were assessed and scored according to a system specially designed for this study. Blood parameters were also measured. Administration of the probiotic significantly improved the clinical score of the patients, whereas administration of the placebo did not. Stool output, fecal consistency, mental status, and appetite all improved in the probiotic-treated dogs. These results support previous findings of beneficial effects with the probiotic L. murinus LbP2 in dogs. Thus, combined with other therapeutic measures, probiotic treatment appears to be promising for the management of canine distemper-associated diarrhea.
Ejtahed, H S; Mohtadi-Nia, J; Homayouni-Rad, A; Niafar, M; Asghari-Jafarabadi, M; Mofid, V; Akbarian-Moghari, A
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic and conventional yogurt on the lipid profile in type 2 diabetic people. In a randomized double-blind controlled trial, 60 people (23 males and 37 females) with type 2 diabetes and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) greater than 2.6 mmol/L were assigned to 2 groups. Participants consumed daily 300 g of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 or 300 g of conventional yogurt for 6 wk. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements and 3-d, 24-h dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Probiotic yogurt consumption caused a 4.54% decrease in total cholesterol and a 7.45% decrease in LDL-C compared with the control group. No significant changes from baseline were shown in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the probiotic group. The total cholesterol:HDL-C ratio and LDL-C:HDL-C ratio as atherogenic indices significantly decreased in the probiotic group compared with the control group. Probiotic yogurt improved total cholesterol and LDL-C concentrations in type 2 diabetic people and may contribute to the improvement of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Firman Jaya; Didik Kusumahadi; Dedes Amertaningtyas
The objective of current study was to find out the effect of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum onto cow’s milk and soybean’s milk proportion to yoghurt quality. The results showed that the highest of total lactic acid was combination between Lactobacillus plantarum and soybean milk (45 ml). While the highest pH was combination between Lactobacillus casei and cow’s milk (6.48) and the highest viscosity was combination between Lactobacillus casei and cow’s milk (2.9 cp). Keywo...
Härtel, Christoph; Pagel, Julia; Rupp, Jan; Bendiks, Meike; Guthmann, Florian; Rieger-Fackeldey, Esther; Heckmann, Matthias; Franz, Axel; Schiffmann, Jan-Holger; Zimmermann, Beate; Hepping, Nico; von der Wense, Axel; Wieg, Christian; Herting, Egbert; Göpel, Wolfgang
To evaluate outcome data in an observational cohort of very low birth weight infants of the German Neonatal Network stratified to prophylactic use of Lactobacillus acidophilus/Bifidobacterium infantis probiotics. Within the observational period (September 1, 2010, until December 31, 2012, n=5351 infants) study centers were categorized into 3 groups based on their choice of Lactobacillus acidophilus/Bifidobacterium infantis use: (1) no prophylactic use (12 centers); (2 a/b) change of strategy nonuser to user during observational period (13 centers); and (3) use before start of observation (21 centers). Primary outcome data of all eligible infants were determined according to center-specific strategy. The use of probiotics was associated with a reduced risk for necrotizing enterocolitis surgery (group 1 vs group 3: 4.2 vs 2.6%, P=.028; change of strategy: 6.2 vs 4.0%, Peffect on the risk of blood-culture confirmed sepsis. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, probiotics were protective for necrotizing enterocolitis surgery (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.91; P=.017), any abdominal surgery (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.51-0.95; P=.02), and the combined outcome abdominal surgery and/or death (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.33-0.56; PBifidobacterium infantis probiotics to reduce the risk for gastrointestinal morbidity but not sepsis in very low birth weight infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kyoung Whun Kim
Full Text Available Probiotics in livestock feed supplements are considered a replacement for antibiotics that enhance gastrointestinal immunity. Although bacterial cell wall components have been proposed to be associated with probiotic function, little evidence demonstrates that they are responsible for probiotic functions in livestock. The present study demonstrated that lipoteichoic acid (LTA of Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp.LTA confers anti-inflammatory responses in porcine intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2. A synthetic analog of viral double-stranded RNA, poly I:C, dose-dependently induced IL-8 production at the mRNA and protein levels in IPEC-J2 cells. Lp.LTA, but not lipoprotein or peptidoglycan from L. plantarum, exclusively suppressed poly I:C-induced IL-8 production. Compared with LTAs from other probiotic Lactobacillus strains including L. delbrueckii, L. sakei, and L. rhamnosus GG, Lp.LTA had higher potential to suppress poly I:C-induced IL-8 production. Dealanylated or deacylated Lp.LTA did not suppress poly I:C-induced IL-8 production, suggesting that D-alanine and lipid moieties in the Lp.LTA structure were responsible for the inhibition. Furthermore, Lp.LTA attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 kinase as well as the activation of NF-κB, resulting in decreased IL-8 production. Taken together, these results suggest that Lp.LTA acts as an effector molecule to inhibit viral pathogen-induced inflammatory responses in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.
Maldonado, José; Lara-Villoslada, Federico; Sierra, Saleta; Sempere, Lluis; Gómez, Marta; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Boza, Julio; Xaus, Jordi; Olivares, Mónica
Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the prevention of certain diseases during the pediatric years. Thus, there is an increasing interest in the addition of probiotics to infant formulas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of a follow-on formula with Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 in 6-mo-old children. The antibiotic susceptibility of L. salivarius CECT5713 was analyzed by a dilution method. A double-blinded, randomized, placebo controlled study was performed. Children (n = 80) were distributed in two groups and consumed the formula supplemented or not with probiotics (2 × 10(6) colony-forming units [cfu]/g) during 6 mo. Fecal samples were collected at enrollment, at 3 mo, and at the end of trial. Clinical and anthropometric evaluations were performed. Depending on the variable, one-way or two-way repeated measures analysis of variance were used for the statistical analysis. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the strain resulted as safe. No adverse effects associated with the consumption of the probiotic formula were reported. In addition, clinical parameters did not differ between groups. Consumption of the probiotic supplemented formula led to an increase in the fecal lactobacilli content (7.6 ± 0.2 versus 7.9 ± 0.1 log cfu/g, P < 0.05). Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 was detected in the feces of volunteers from the probiotic group. Probiotic consumption induced a significant increase in the fecal concentration of butyric acid at 6 mo. Thus, a follow-on formula with L. salivarius CECT5713 is safe and well tolerated in 6-mo-old infants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Zhen-Hua; Gao, Qin-Yan; Fang, Jing-Yuan
To meta-analyze whether Lactobacillus-containing and Bifidobacterium-containing probiotic compound preparation could improve Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates and reduce side effects. There have been several studies demonstrating that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species have an inhibitory effect on H. pylori. The application of probiotics in clinical practice is more often in the form of Lactobacillus-containing and Bifidobacterium-containing probiotic compound preparation. We included all parallel controlled trials comparing Lactobacillus-containing and Bifidobacterium-containing probiotic compound preparation supplementation or not during H. pylori eradication therapy in meta-analysis. Statistical analysis was performed with the Stata version 11.0 software. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Ten clinical trials were included in our meta-analysis. Eradication odds ratio (OR) was available for 1469 patients (708 in the probiotics supplementation group and 761 in the control group). The pooled OR by intention-to-treat analysis and by per-protocol analysis in the probiotics supplementation versus without probiotics was 2.066 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.398-3.055] and 2.321 (95% CI, 1.715-3.142), respectively. The pooled OR of incidence of total side effects was significantly decreased in the probiotics supplementation group (OR=0.305; 95% CI, 0.117-0.793) by the random model without significant publication bias. Lactobacillus-containing and Bifidobacterium-containing probiotic compound preparation during initial H. pylori eradication therapy in the adult may have beneficial effects on eradication rate and incidence of total side effects.
von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M; Palva, Airi
In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic.
von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M.; Palva, Airi
In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic. PMID:21602388
Bengoa, Ana A; Llamas, M Goretti; Iraporda, Carolina; Dueñas, M Teresa; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L
EPS-producing LAB are widely used in the dairy industry since these polymers improve the viscosity and texture of the products. Besides, EPS might be responsible for several health benefits attributed to probiotic strains. However, growth conditions (culture media, temperature, pH) could modify EPS production affecting both technological and probiotic properties. In this work, the influence of growth temperature on EPS production was evaluated, as well as the consequences of these changes in the probiotic properties of the strains. All Lactobacillus paracasei strains used in the study showed changes in EPS production caused by growth temperature, evidenced by the appearance of a high molecular weight fraction and an increment in the total amount of produced EPS at lower temperature. Nevertheless, these changes do not affect the probiotic properties of the strains; L. paracasei strains grown at 20 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C were able to survive in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, to adhere to Caco-2 cells after that treatment and to modulate the epithelial innate immune response. The results suggest that selected L. paracasei strains are new probiotic candidates that can be used in a wide range of functional foods in which temperature could be used as a tool to improve the technological properties of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Senan, S; Prajapati, J B; Joshi, C G
Recent years have witnessed an explosion in genome sequencing of probiotic strains for accurate identification and characterization. Regulatory bodies are emphasizing on the need for performing phase I safety studies for probiotics. The main hypothesis of this study was to explore the feasibility of using genome databases for safety screening of strains. In this study, we attempted to develop a framework for the safety assessment of a potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 based on genome mining for genes associated with antibiotic resistance, production of harmful metabolites, and virulence. The sequencing of MTCC 5463 was performed using GS-FLX Titanium reagents. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance and virulence were identified using Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database and Virulence Factors Database. Results indicated that MTCC 5463 carried antibiotic resistance genes associated with beta-lactam and fluoroquinolone. There is no threat of transfer of these genes to host gut commensals because the genes are not plasmid encoded. The presence of genes for adhesion, biofilm, surface proteins, and stress-related proteins provides robustness to the strain. The presence of hemolysin gene in the genome revealed a theoretical risk of virulence. The results of in silico analysis complemented the in vitro studies and human clinical trials, confirming the safety of the probiotic strain. We propose that the safety assessment of probiotic strains administered live at high doses using a genome-wide screening could be an effective and time-saving tool for identifying prognostic biomarkers of biosafety.
Romano, A; Blaiotta, G; Di Cerbo, A; Coppola, R; Masi, P; Aponte, M
Consumers' demand for innovative probiotic products has recently increased. In previous studies, chestnuts were evaluated as substrate for the growth of lactobacilli and chestnut extract was found to enhance acid tolerance of probiotic strains. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the suitability of chestnut extract as carrier for spray drying of two probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains and to develop a probiotic food chestnut based. The optimal settings for the spray-drying processes were defined and the loads of undamaged cells in the dried powders were quantified. Spray-dried cultures were incorporated into an anhydrous basis for chestnut mousse developed ad hoc. In this form, viable cells remained stable over 10(8) CFU g(-1) during a 3 months long storage at 15°C. Sensorial analysis did not highlighted significant differences (P food product naturally rich in antioxidant compounds, may represent an excellent carrier for probiotics delivering. To authors' knowledge, this is the first information on the survival of lactobacilli in an anhydrous basis for dessert. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Lorena P. Soto
Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota has an influence on the growth and health status of the hosts. This is of particular interest in animals reared using intensive farming practices. Hence, it is necessary to know more about complexity of the beneficial intestinal microbiota. The use of molecular methods has revolutionized microbial identification by improving its quality and effectiveness. The specific aim of the study was to analyze predominant species of Lactobacillus in intestinal microbial ecosystem of young calves. Forty-two lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from intestinal tract of young calves were characterized by: Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA, by using Hae III, Msp I, and Hinf I restriction enzymes, and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. ARDRA screening revealed nine unique patterns among 42 isolates, with the same pattern for 29 of the isolates. Gene fragments of 16S rDNA of 19 strains representing different patterns were sequenced to confirm the identification of these species. These results confirmed that ARDRA is a good tool for identification and discrimination of bacterial species isolated from complex ecosystem and between closely related groups. This paper provides information about the LAB species predominant in intestinal tract of young calves that could provide beneficial effects when administered as probiotic.
Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yu; Sun, Jing; Guo, Zirui; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng
The safety of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei LC-01 was evaluated for its use as a potential probiotic. In our in vitro study, the antibiotic resistance and the ability to produce biogenic amine were determined. The results showed that the strain was sensitive to all tested antibiotics and did not produce biogenic amine except for tyramine. The oral toxicity of this strain was evaluated in Balb/C mice. One hundred mice were divided into 10 groups. Four groups were administered 0, 10(8), 10(9), or 10(10) CFU/mouse per day dissolved in saline solution respectively, for 28 days. Three groups were injected intraperitoneally with 10(9) CFU/mouse dissolved in saline solution, and were killed 2, 5, and 10 days after injection. The last 3 groups were injected with the vehicle as controls respectively. The results showed that oral administration of the strain had no adverse effects on mouse body weight and that there was no treatment-associated bacterial translocation. Intraperitoneal administration caused a significant translocation to liver, spleen and kidney. However, this translocation did not cause illness or death throughout the experiment. The results suggest that L. paracasei subsp. paracasei LC-01 is likely to be safe for human consumption.
Wang, Jicheng; Wu, Rina; Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Zhihong; Zhao, Wenjing; Zhang, Heping
Soy milk is regarded as a substitute for milk and has become popular in varied diets throughout the world. It has been shown that a newly characterized probiotic bacterium (Lactobacillus casei Zhang) actually grows faster in soy milk than in bovine milk. To elucidate the mechanism involved, we carried out a proteomic analysis to characterize bacterial proteins that varied upon growth in soy milk and bovine milk at 3 different growth phases, and compare their expression under these conditions. A total of 104 differentially expressed spots were identified from different phases using a peptide mass fingerprinting assay. Functional analysis revealed that a major part of these identified proteins is associated with transport and metabolism of carbohydrates, nucleotides, and amino acids as well. The results from our proteomic analysis were clarified by real-time quantitative PCR assay, which showed that Lb. casei Zhang loci involved in purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis were transcriptionally enhanced during growth in soy milk at lag phase (pH 6.4), whereas the loci involved in carbohydrate metabolism were upregulated in bovine milk. Particularly, our results showed that l-glutamine might play an important role in the growth of Lb. casei Zhang in soy milk and bovine milk, perhaps by contributing to purine, pyrimidine, and amino sugar metabolism. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A beetroot beverage with Lactobacillus casei 431 as the probiotic microorganism was tested for sensory acceptability at 3 fermentation periods of 2, 4 and 6 hours at 37oC. The beverage fermented for 2 hours yielded the highest overall sensory acceptability. L. casei 431 grew well and reached nearly 108 CFU/ mL after 2 hours of fermentation at 37oC. Although the lactic culture in the fermented beetroot beverage gradually lost its viability during cold storage, viable cell count of lactic acid bacteria remained at 106–108 CFU/mL after 4 weeks of cold storage at 4oC. Titratable acidity increased significantly from 5.5±0.05 to 3.45x108 (P≤ 0.05 during storage. This study concludes that this beetroot-based synbiotic fermented beverage could be developed as a ready-to-drink product and kept for 6 weeks under refrigerated storage, meeting the standard 108–1010 CFU/mL of a functional drink.
Lee, J-K; Kim, S-J; Ko, S-H; Ouwehand, A C; Ma, D S
Probiotic Lactobacillus brevisCD2 (CD2) exerts anti-inflammatory properties by preventing nitric oxide synthesis. It is hypothesized that oral application of CD2 can inhibit naturally occurring gingival inflammation. Thirty-four healthy adults were randomized to receive L. brevisCD2 lozenges or placebo, three times daily for 14 days. The subjects refrained from oral hygiene, the extent of which was determined at various time points. In both groups, bleeding on probing scores increased continuously throughout the study except on day 3. In the placebo group, scores increased significantly from 9.50 at baseline to 14.75 and 14.81 on days 10 and 14, respectively (P gingival indices increased from baseline in both treatment groups, but no intergroup differences were observed. Measurements of immune markers in gingival crevicular fluid revealed increased production of nitric oxide in the placebo group (P gingivitis development in this model by downregulating an inflammatory cascade. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tan, Joanne Sh; Yeo, Chia-Rou; Popovich, David G
Ginsenosides are believed to be the principal components behind the pharmacological actions of ginseng, and their bioactive properties are closely related to the type, position, and number of sugar moieties attached to the aglycone; thus, modification of the sugar chains may markedly change their biological activities. In this study, major protopanaxadiol type ginsenosides (PD) Rb1, Rc, and Rb2 were isolated from Panax ginseng and were transformed using two probiotic strains namely Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 to obtain specific deglycosylated ginsenosides. It was demonstrated that B. lactis transformed ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, and Rb2 to Rd within 1 h of fermentation and rare ginsenoside F2 by the conversion of Rd after 12-h fermentation. The maximum Rd concentration was 147.52 ± 1.45 μg/mL after 48-h fermentation as compared to 45.85 ± 0.71 μg/mL before fermentation. In contrast, L. rhamnosus transformed Rb1, Rc, and Rb2 into Rd as the final metabolite after 72-h fermentation. B. lactis displayed significantly (p fermentation. The present study suggests that the fermentation of major PD type ginsenosides with B. lactis Bi-07 may serve as an effective means to afford bioactive deglycosylated ginsenosides and to create novel ginsenoside extracts.
Mailänder-Sánchez, Daniela; Braunsdorf, Christina; Grumaz, Christian; Müller, Christoph; Lorenz, Stefan; Stevens, Philip; Wagener, Jeanette; Hebecker, Betty; Hube, Bernhard; Bracher, Franz; Sohn, Kai; Schaller, Martin
Candida albicans is an inhabitant of mucosal surfaces in healthy individuals but also the most common cause of fungal nosocomial blood stream infections, associated with high morbidity and mortality. As such life-threatening infections often disseminate from superficial mucosal infections we aimed to study the use of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in prevention of mucosal C. albicans infections. Here, we demonstrate that LGG protects oral epithelial tissue from damage caused by C. albicans in our in vitro model of oral candidiasis. Furthermore, we provide insights into the mechanisms behind this protection and dissect direct and indirect effects of LGG on C. albicans pathogenicity. C. albicans viability was not affected by LGG. Instead, transcriptional profiling using RNA-Seq indicated dramatic metabolic reprogramming of C. albicans. Additionally, LGG had a significant impact on major virulence attributes, including adhesion, invasion, and hyphal extension, whose reduction, consequently, prevented epithelial damage. This was accompanied by glucose depletion and repression of ergosterol synthesis, caused by LGG, but also due to blocked adhesion sites. Therefore, LGG protects oral epithelia against C. albicans infection by preventing fungal adhesion, invasion and damage, driven, at least in parts, by metabolic reprogramming due to nutrient limitation caused by LGG.
Full Text Available Candida albicans is an inhabitant of mucosal surfaces in healthy individuals but also the most common cause of fungal nosocomial blood stream infections, associated with high morbidity and mortality. As such life-threatening infections often disseminate from superficial mucosal infections we aimed to study the use of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG in prevention of mucosal C. albicans infections. Here, we demonstrate that LGG protects oral epithelial tissue from damage caused by C. albicans in our in vitro model of oral candidiasis. Furthermore, we provide insights into the mechanisms behind this protection and dissect direct and indirect effects of LGG on C. albicans pathogenicity. C. albicans viability was not affected by LGG. Instead, transcriptional profiling using RNA-Seq indicated dramatic metabolic reprogramming of C. albicans. Additionally, LGG had a significant impact on major virulence attributes, including adhesion, invasion, and hyphal extension, whose reduction, consequently, prevented epithelial damage. This was accompanied by glucose depletion and repression of ergosterol synthesis, caused by LGG, but also due to blocked adhesion sites. Therefore, LGG protects oral epithelia against C. albicans infection by preventing fungal adhesion, invasion and damage, driven, at least in parts, by metabolic reprogramming due to nutrient limitation caused by LGG.
Full Text Available Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43 is a human intestinal isolate showing antimicrobial activity, amongst others, against Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri and Streptococcus pneumoniae. BGRA43 produces PrtH proteinase with proteolytic activity on both casein and β-lactoglobulin (BLG. BGRA43 is able to reduce the allergenicity of BLG. Bioactive peptides released in BGRA43 fermented milk are potent modulators of innate immunity by modulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. BGRA43 is able to survive in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The growth of BGRA43 in milk results in a fast acidification lowering the milk pH to 4.53 generating mild, homogeneous and viscous yoghurt-like product. The strain BGRA43 grows suitably in pure cow or goat’s milk as well as in milk containing inulin or nutrim even when they are used as the sole carbon source. It is suggested that strain BGRA43 could be used as a single-strain culture for the preparation of yoghurt-like products from bovine or caprine milk. Overall, L. helveticus BGRA43 could be considered as a potential probiotic candidate with appropriate technological properties attractive for the dairy industry.
Full Text Available To gain better understanding of the distributions of the culturable Lactobacillus species in the chicken intestinal tract, we collected ceca, and distal ileum from 10 3-weeks-old broiler chickens. Lactobacillus strains from cecal lumen contents (M-CL, and those associated with mucosa of ceca (M-CM and ileum (M-IM were recovered on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS agar plates, and used for microbiota analysis. The total cecal content (T-CL was also used directly for microbiota analysis. We purposefully focused on MRS-recovered populations to gain understanding of the culturable subpopulations of Lactobacillus, since the culturability is an important phenotype in order to exploit the chicken gut microbiota as a resource for development of probiotics. The V1–V3 regions of 16S rRNA gene was amplified from genomic DNA samples, and the pooled amplicons were analyzed by MiSeq sequencing with paired-end read 300 cycle option. Among MRS groups, Firmicutes were significantly higher in M-IM and M-CL as compared to M-CM, whereas Proteobacteria were significantly higher in M-CM as compared to M-IM and M-CL at p < 0.05. Among Lactobacillus, L. salivarius (36% and L. johnsonii (21% were higher in M-IM as compared to M-CL (L. salivarius, 28%; L. johnsonii, 15%, and M-CM (L. salivarius, 20%; L. johnsonii, 11%. L. crispatus was found significantly higher in M-CL as compared to M-IM (p < 0.01 whereas L. gasseri was found significantly higher in M-IM as compared to M-CM (p < 0.05. L. aviarius, and L. fornicalis were only observed in T-CL. In summary, Lactobacillus populations recovered on MRS vary with different regions and locations in chicken GIT, which might indicate their distinct functional roles in different gastrointestinal tract (GIT niches, and some species of Lactobacillus are not culturable on MRS agar media. This study is the first attempt to define culturable Lactobacillus subpopulations in the chicken intestinal tract comprehensively using 16S r
SVETLANA L. ŠEATOVIĆ
Full Text Available The aim of this study was the partial characterization of the antimicrobial peptide bacteriocin G2 produced by probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum G2, which was isolated from a clinical sample of a healthy person. Antimicrobial substance was secreted in the supernatant of an L. plantarum G2 culture, and showed a diverse spectrum of antimicrobial activity of all the tested strains of the genera Lactobacillus and the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella аbony. Isoelectric focusing revealed that bacteriocin G2 is a cationic peptide (pI about 10 with a molecular mass of 2.2 kDa according to tricine–sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE. The antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin G2 was diminished by the proteolytic action of trypsin and proteinase K. Bacteriocin G2 preserved its biological activity in the temperature range 40–60 °C (15 min, which was lost at 80 °C. Bacteriocin G2 was stable in the pH range 2–9, while treatment with 1 % Tween 80 and 1 % urea resulted in increased antimicrobial activity. The probiotic strain L. plantarum G2 produces the antimicrobial substance proteinaceous in nature with bacteriocin characteristics. Bacteriocin production is one of the key properties of probiotic bacteria with clinical potential as anti-infective agents, which will increase the likelihood of its in vivo efficacy.
Gorshein, Elan; Wei, Catherine; Ambrosy, Susan; Budney, Shanna; Vivas, Juliana; Shenkerman, Angelika; Manago, Jacqueline; McGrath, Mary Kate; Tyno, Anne; Lin, Yong; Patel, Vimal; Gharibo, Mecide; Schaar, Dale; Jenq, Robert R; Khiabanian, Hossein; Strair, Roger
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major adverse effect associated with allogeneic stem cell transplant. Previous studies in mice indicated that administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can reduce the incidence of GVHD after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Here we report results from the first randomized probiotic enteric regimen trial in which allogenic hematopoietic stem cell patients were supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Gut microbiome analysis confirmed a previously reported gut microbiome association with GVHD. However, the clinical trial was terminated when interim analysis did not detect an appreciable probiotic-related change in the gut microbiome or incidence of GVHD. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether probiotics can alter the incidence of GVHD after allogeneic stem cell transplant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... number of cold/flu days in otherwise healthy adults. Lactose intolerance. Research on the effects of lactobacillus on lactose intolerance is conflicting. Some research shows that drinking Lactobacillus acidophilus milk produces the same symptoms of intolerance as regular ...
Mahmoud Nouri Shadkam
Full Text Available Background: Feeding intolerance is a common problem among premature infants. There is limited information on the safety and effects of oral probiotic supplements, especially products containing Lactobacillus reuteri, and the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in low birth weight preterm infants. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri on the gastrointestinal complications and feeding tolerance in premature infants. Methods: This randomized triple-blind clinical trial was conducted on 60 premature infants divided into two groups of intervention and placebo. Subjects in the intervention group received one drop/kg of supplementary oral probiotic with 0.5 ml of distilled water, and infants in the placebo group only received 0.5 ml of distilled water. Probiotic administration continued to reach full enteral feeding. Results: In this study, mean time to reach full enteral feeding was 12.83 and 16.75 days in the intervention and placebo groups, respectively, which was indicative of a significant difference (P=0.01. However, mean of neonatal weight at discharge had no significant difference between the two groups. In addition, 6.7% and 36.7% of infants in the intervention and placebo groups were diagnosed with NEC, respectively, which showed a significant difference (P=0.005. Also, prevalence of jaundice and sepsis was not significantly different between the study groups. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, Lactobacillus reuteri could reduce the time to reach full enteral feeding while diminishing the incidence of NEC in very low birth weight premature infants.
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the long-term use of the composite probiotics in patients after restorative proctocolectomy. Method. Forty-three patients (20 females and 23 males, aged 21 to 68 years after restorative proctocolectomy were included in the study. After randomization patients were divided into placebo group and treatment group with oral intake of probiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium bifidus. Patients were investigated during initial visit and during final visit after 9 months. All patients were subjected to standard clinical and endoscopic examination with microscopic study of the specimens. Concentrations of calprotectin and pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2-PK were determined in all cases. Results. The average severity of pouchitis and the number of patients with pouchitis significantly decrease after 9 months of the probiotic taking. The concentrations of calprotectin and pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2-PK significantly decreased after the therapy. Conclusions. Nine months of the probiotic treatment (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium bifidus reduced the number of patients with pouchitis, decreased the PDAI score, and also decreased the fecal pyruvate kinase and calprotectin. The long-term probiotics use is safe and well accepted and can be an effective method of the pouchitis prevention.
Full Text Available Objectives. The ability of a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain (Lcr35 to adhere to cervical and vaginal cells and to affect the viability of two main vaginosis-associated pathogens, Prevotella bivia, Gardnerella vaginalis, as well as Candida albicans was investigated. Methods. Adhesion ability was determined in vitro with immortalized epithelial cells from the endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina. Coculture experiments were performed to count viable pathogens cells in the presence of Lcr35. Results. Lcr35 was able to specifically and rapidly adhere to the three cell lines. In coculture assays, a decrease in pathogen cell division rate was observed as from 4 hours of incubation and bactericidal activity after a longer period of incubation, mostly with P. bivia. Conclusion. The ability of Lcr35 to adhere to cervicovaginal cells and its antagonist activities against vaginosis-associated pathogens suggest that this probiotic strain is a promising candidate for use in therapy.
Agnes Izumi Nagashima
Full Text Available Probiotics are living microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host through a beneficial influence on the intestinal microbiota related to competition and to antagonistic and immunological effects. Thus, the objective of this study was the development of effervescent products (tablets and powder supplemented with the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces boulardii, and the identification of the best formulation in terms of viability of these microorganisms. The physical properties of the tablets (compressive force applied, mean weight, hardness, and friability were assessed, and the viability of the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract and their stability during storage were also determined. The results show that the microorganisms remained stable and viable during the 60-day storage period in the effervescent powder. However, the results indicated that the effect of compression force affected the viability of the microorganisms during the production of the effervescent tablets.
Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this research was to evaluate some probiotic traits of Lactobacillus acidophilus TS1 strain previously isolated from dahi. Methodology and results: For this purpose, tested strain was evaluated for their resistance to low pH, tolerance to bile and in vitro antibiotics susceptibility. It was observed that the strain TS1 remained viable at pH 3.0 to 6 and bile concentration of 0.1 to 0.3%. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: L. acidophilus TS1 was found resistant to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacine, gentamycin and vancomycin. The results highlighted the probiotic potential of L. acidophilus TS1 which deserves further investigation in vitro studies to elucidate its health benefits.
Braathen, G; Ingildsen, V; Twetman, S
The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the selected interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in young individuals with presence and non-presence of Lactobacillus reuteri in saliva after a three-week intervention with probiotic lozenges...... the three-week probiotic intervention. Individuals with presence of L. reuteri in saliva had significantly higher (P
Wildt, Signe; Munck, Lars K; Vinter-Jensen, Lars
Probiotic treatment may be effective in diseases involving gut microflora and intestinal inflammation. In collagenous colitis (CC), a potential pathogenic role of the gut microflora has been proposed. The effect of probiotic treatment in CC is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the clinical effe...... of treatment with Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (AB-Cap-10) in patients with CC....
Radulović, Zorica; Miočinović, Jelena; Mirković, Nemanja; Mirković, Milica; Paunović, Dušanka; Ivanović, Marina; Seratlić, Sanja
A high viability of probiotics in food product, with a living cells threshold of 107 /cfu/g (colony-forming units/g) is a challenge to achieve in food production. Spray drying is an efficient and economic industrial method for probiotic bacterial preservation and its application in food products. In this study, the survival of free and spray-dried cells of potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 564 after production and during 8 weeks of storage of soft acid coagulated goat cheese was investigated, as well as compositional and sensory quality of cheese. Total bacterial count of spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 cells were maintained at the high level of 8.82 log/cfu/g in cheese after 8 weeks of storage, while free-cell number decreased to 6.9 log/cfu/g. However, the chemical composition, pH values and sensory evaluation between control cheese (C1 sample made with commercial starter culture) and treated cheese samples (C2 and C3, made with the same starter, with the addition of free and spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 cells, respectively) did not significantly differ. High viability of potential probiotic bacteria and acceptable sensory properties indicate that spray-dried Lb. plantarum 564 strain could be successfully used in the production of soft acid coagulated goat cheeses. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Lim, Phebe Lixuan; Toh, Mingzhan; Liu, Shao Quan
The present study attempted to partially characterize and elucidate the viability-enhancing effect of a yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC-1118 on a probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 under acidic conditions using a model system (non-growing cells). The yeast was found to significantly enhance (P yeast concentrations. Microscopic observation and co-aggregation assay revealed that the viability-enhancing effect of the yeast could be attributed to direct cell-cell contact co-aggregation mediated by yeast cell surface and/or cell wall components or metabolites. Furthermore, non-viable yeast cells killed by thermal means were observed to enhance the viability of the probiotic strain as well, suggesting that the surface and/or cell wall component(s) of the yeast contributing to co-aggregation was heat-stable. Cell-free yeast supernatant was also found to enhance the viability of the probiotic strain, indicating the presence of protective yeast metabolite(s) in the supernatant. These findings laid the foundation for further understanding of the mechanism(s) involved and for developing novel microbial starter cultures possibly without the use of live yeast for ambient-stable high-moisture probiotic foods.
Full Text Available Due to the constant evolution of industrial poultry production and the global emergence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics there has been an increasing interest in alternatives for the treatment of poultry salmonellosis, such as phage therapy and probiotics. The present study evaluated the effects of the oral administration of the bacteriophage P22 and of a probiotic, consisting of four Lactobacillus species, on the level of circulating heterophils containing a superoxide anion of one-day-old broilers challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium for seven days. It was concluded that the treatment with a probiotic with lactobacilli of broilers experimentally infected with Salmonella spp eliminates this pathogen by increasing the circulating levels of reactive heterophils. When chicks are treated with a probiotic and a bacteriophage, the agent is eliminated with no changes in circulating reactive heterophil counts. It is also concluded that the heterophils of day-old chicks are not capable of producing superoxide anion. However, this capacity is detected after 48 h of life, indicating that heterophils mature as birds age.
Alegre, Isabel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Usall, Josep; Anguera, Marina; Abadias, Maribel
The effectiveness as protective culture of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamonosus GG (L. rham. GG) against Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes on minimally-processed apples throughout storage as well as its effect on apple quality and natural microflora was evaluated. Survival to subsequent exposure to gastric stress was also reported. Apples were cut into wedges and dipped in a solution containing Salmonella and L. monocytogenes (10(5) cfu mL(-1)) and/or L. rham. GG (10(8) cfu mL(-1)). Apple wedges were packed and stored at 5 and 10 °C. Periodically, microbial population, bacterial survival to gastric stress and quality of apple wedges were evaluated. Although Salmonella was not affected by co-inoculation with L. rham. GG, L. monocytogenes population was 1-log units lower in the presence of L. rham. GG. L. rham. GG population maintained over recommended levels for probiotic action (10(6) cfu g(-1)) along storage, however, viable cells after gastric stress were only above this level during the first 14 days. Pathogen survival after gastric stress was GG addition. Thus, L. rham. GG could be a suitable probiotic for minimally-processed apples capable to reduce L. monocytogenes growth; nevertheless shelf life should not be higher to 14 days to guarantee the probiotic effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luciana Justo Beserra Rosa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The ability to produce antimicrobial factors is considered an important feature of probiotic microorganisms. Bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid and lactic acid are examples of these substances. The present research aimed to develop probiotic dairy desserts (DD with Lactobacillus acidophilusand evaluate the viability of this strain, as well as its action on food pathogens. Treatments with and without interactions between L. acidophilusand pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonellasp. andEscherichiacoli O157:H7 and Gram positive (Bacillus cereusand Staphylococcus aureus were produced. The products were stored at a temperature of 8°C and analyzed at the times 24, 48, 72 hours, 7 days and 28 days (at 28 days, only T1 was analyzed because the other products were deteriorated. In an analysis of the potential for development of new products, the dairy dessert with L. acidophiluswas considered a probiotic product. Assessment of the counts of pathogens in dairy desserts with or without L. acidophilusshowed different behaviors of these products in response to pathogens, which could be justified by a possible action of bacteriocins or microbial competition, but there has been no overall reduction or reduction up to a safe level. It is concluded that the probiotic products developed reduced significant food pathogens, but not up to safe levels. Thus, we emphasize the importance of the use of quality tools in the development and monitoring of dairy desserts.
Thomas, Carissa M.; Hong, Teresa; van Pijkeren, Jan Peter; Hemarajata, Peera; Trinh, Dan V.; Hu, Weidong; Britton, Robert A.; Kalkum, Markus; Versalovic, James
Beneficial microbes and probiotic species, such as Lactobacillus reuteri, produce biologically active compounds that can modulate host mucosal immunity. Previously, immunomodulatory factors secreted by L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 were unknown. A combined metabolomics and bacterial genetics strategy was utilized to identify small compound(s) produced by L. reuteri that were TNF-inhibitory. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-HPLC) separation isolated TNF-inhibitory compounds, and HILIC-HPLC fraction composition was determined by NMR and mass spectrometry analyses. Histamine was identified and quantified in TNF-inhibitory HILIC-HPLC fractions. Histamine is produced from L-histidine via histidine decarboxylase by some fermentative bacteria including lactobacilli. Targeted mutagenesis of each gene present in the histidine decarboxylase gene cluster in L. reuteri 6475 demonstrated the involvement of histidine decarboxylase pyruvoyl type A (hdcA), histidine/histamine antiporter (hdcP), and hdcB in production of the TNF-inhibitory factor. The mechanism of TNF inhibition by L. reuteri-derived histamine was investigated using Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-activated human monocytoid cells. Bacterial histamine suppressed TNF production via activation of the H2 receptor. Histamine from L. reuteri 6475 stimulated increased levels of cAMP, which inhibited downstream MEK/ERK MAPK signaling via protein kinase A (PKA) and resulted in suppression of TNF production by transcriptional regulation. In summary, a component of the gut microbiome, L. reuteri, is able to convert a dietary component, L-histidine, into an immunoregulatory signal, histamine, which suppresses pro-inflammatory TNF production. The identification of bacterial bioactive metabolites and their corresponding mechanisms of action with respect to immunomodulation may lead to improved anti-inflammatory strategies for chronic immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22384111
Carissa M Thomas
Full Text Available Beneficial microbes and probiotic species, such as Lactobacillus reuteri, produce biologically active compounds that can modulate host mucosal immunity. Previously, immunomodulatory factors secreted by L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 were unknown. A combined metabolomics and bacterial genetics strategy was utilized to identify small compound(s produced by L. reuteri that were TNF-inhibitory. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-high performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-HPLC separation isolated TNF-inhibitory compounds, and HILIC-HPLC fraction composition was determined by NMR and mass spectrometry analyses. Histamine was identified and quantified in TNF-inhibitory HILIC-HPLC fractions. Histamine is produced from L-histidine via histidine decarboxylase by some fermentative bacteria including lactobacilli. Targeted mutagenesis of each gene present in the histidine decarboxylase gene cluster in L. reuteri 6475 demonstrated the involvement of histidine decarboxylase pyruvoyl type A (hdcA, histidine/histamine antiporter (hdcP, and hdcB in production of the TNF-inhibitory factor. The mechanism of TNF inhibition by L. reuteri-derived histamine was investigated using Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2-activated human monocytoid cells. Bacterial histamine suppressed TNF production via activation of the H(2 receptor. Histamine from L. reuteri 6475 stimulated increased levels of cAMP, which inhibited downstream MEK/ERK MAPK signaling via protein kinase A (PKA and resulted in suppression of TNF production by transcriptional regulation. In summary, a component of the gut microbiome, L. reuteri, is able to convert a dietary component, L-histidine, into an immunoregulatory signal, histamine, which suppresses pro-inflammatory TNF production. The identification of bacterial bioactive metabolites and their corresponding mechanisms of action with respect to immunomodulation may lead to improved anti-inflammatory strategies for chronic immune-mediated diseases.
Dimitrovski, Darko; Velickova, Elena; Dimitrovska, Maja; Langerholc, Tomaz; Winkelhausen, Eleonora
A probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26 was used to ferment Jerusalem artichoke juice. Growth kinetics of the bacterial strain was followed during juice fermentation both in flask and in laboratory fermentor. Jerusalem artichoke showed to be an excellent source of nutrients for L. plantarum PCS26 growth. The culture grew very well reaching more than 10(10) cfu/ml in just 12 h. The pH changed from the initial 6.5 to 4.6 at the end of fermentation. The culture hydrolyzed fructooligosaccharides present in the Jerusalem artichoke juice, yielding fructose which was presumably consumed along with the malic acid as energy and carbon source. Lactic acid was the main metabolite produced in concentration of 4.6 g/L. Acetic and succinic acid were also identified. Sensory evaluation of the fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice and its mixtures with blueberry juice showed that the 50/50 % v/v mixture would be very well accepted by the consumers. Above 80 % of the panelists would buy this drink, and over 60 % were willing to pay more for it. Culture survivability in the fermented juices during storage at 4-7 °C was assayed by the Weibullian model. The product shelf-life was extended from 19.70 ± 0.50 days of pure Jerusalem artichoke juice to 35.7 ± 6.4 days of the mixture containing 30 % blueberry juice.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus cells and supernatants on the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. Our study results indicated that the PM153 strain exhibits the best adhesion ability and the highest survival in the gastrointestinal tract simulation experiment. Furthermore, after an 8-h co-culture of PM153 and HT-29 cells, the PM153 strain can induce the secretion of nitric oxide from the HT-29 cells. In addition, after the co-culture of the BCRC17010 strain (109 cfu/mL and HT-29 cells, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the HT-29 cells was 1.19, which showed a significant difference from the other control and LAB groups (p < 0.05, which therefore led to the inference that the BCRC17010 strain exerts a pro-apoptotic effect on the HT-29 cells. Upon co-culture with HT-29 cells for 4, 8 and 12 h, the BCRC14625 strain (109 cfu/mL demonstrated a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity (p < 0.05, causing harm to the HT-29 cell membrane; further, after an 8-h co-culture with the HT-29 cells, it induced the secretion of nitric oxide (NO from the HT-29 cells. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains have ability to inhibit the growth of the colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 Bax/Bcl-2 pathway or NO production. In summary, we demonstrated that the BCRC17010 strain, good abilities of adhesion and increased LDH release, was the best probiotic potential for inhibition of HT-29 growth amongst the seven LAB strains tested in vitro.
Kumar, Sachin; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Shalini; Jadhav, Sunil Eknath; Dutta, Narayan; Kumar, Avneesh
The objective of the present study was to develop a probiotic of canine-origin for its potential application in pet nutrition. Accordingly, 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from faeces of dogs, out of which 9 strains were short-listed for further in vitro testing based on the aggregation time and cell surface hydrophobicity. The results of acid-, bile- and phenol-tolerance tests indicated that out of the nine, isolate cPRO23 was having better resistance to these adverse conditions likely to be encountered in the gastrointestinal tract. The isolate also showed optimal enzymatic activities for amylase, lipase and protease. Further assessments also indicated its superiority in terms of co-aggregation and antagonistic activity against pathogenic strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis. Subsequently, the isolate was identified through 16S rRNA sequencing and sequence homology, and designated as Lactobacillus johnsonii CPN23. The candidate probiotic was then evaluated in vivo using 15 adult Labrador dogs, divided into 3 groups, viz. CON (with no probiotics), dPRO (with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC 15 as a conventional dairy-origin probiotic) and cPRO (with L. johnsonii CPN23 as a canine-origin probiotic). Results of the 9-week study indicated that supplementation of cPRO improved (P origin L. johnsonii CPN23, in addition to possessing all the in vitro functional attributes of a candidate probiotic, also has the potential to be used as a probiotic in pet nutrition programs.
Zhang, Yi-Ran; Xiong, Hai-Rong; Guo, Xiao-Hua
In order to develop a multi-microbe probiotic preparation of Lactobacillus reuteri G8-5 and Bacillus subtilis MA139 in solid-state fermentation, a series of parameters were optimized sequentially in shake flask culture. The effect of supplementation of B. subtilis MA139 as starters on the viability of L. reuteri G8-5 was also explored. The results showed that the optimized process was as follows: water content, 50 %; initial pH of diluted molasses, 6.5; inocula volume, 2 %; flask dry contents, 30∼35 g/250 g without sterilization; and fermentation time, 2 days. The multi-microbial preparations finally provided the maximum concentration of Lactobacillus of about 9.01 ± 0.15 log CFU/g and spores of Bacillus of about 10.30 ± 0.08 log CFU/g. Compared with pure fermentation of L. reuteri G8-5, significantly high viable cells, low value of pH, and reducing sugar in solid substrates were achieved in mixed fermentation in the presence of B. subtilis MA139 (P fermentation showed the significantly higher antimicrobial activity against E. coli K88 (P solid-state fermentation with low cost. Moreover, the viability of L. reuteri G8-5 could be significantly enhanced in the presence of B. subtilis MA139 in solid-state fermentation, which favored the production of probiotics for animal use.
Damodharan, Karthiyaini; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won
We characterized the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus helveticus strains KII13 and KHI1 isolated from fermented cow milk by in vitro and in vivo studies. The strains exhibited tolerance to simulated orogastrointestinal condition, adherence to Caco-2 cells, and antimicrobial activity. Both L. helveticus strains produced bioactive tripeptides, isoleucylprolyl-proline and valyl-prolyl-proline, during fermentation of milk. KII13 showed higher in vitro cholesterol-lowering activity (47%) compared with KHI1 (28%) and L. helveticus ATCC 15009 (22%), and hence, it was selected for in vivo study of cholesterol-lowering activity in atherogenic diet-fed hypercholesterolemic mice. For the study, mice were divided into four groups ( viz ., normal diet control group, atherogenic diet control group (HCD), KII13- atherogenic diet group (HCD-KII13), and Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121-atherogenic diet group (HCD- L.ac ) as positive control). The serum total cholesterol level was significantly decreased by 8.6% and 7.78% in the HCD-KII13 and HCD- L.ac groups ( p cholesterol levels in both HCD-KII13 and HCD- L.ac groups were decreased by 13% and 11%, respectively, compared with the HCD group (both, p cholesterol metabolism-related gene expression in mice liver showed increased expression of LDLR and SREBF2 genes in mice fed with KII13. By comparing all the results, we conclude that L. helveticus KII13 could be used as a potential probiotic strain to produce antihypertensive peptides and reduce serum cholesterol.
Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa
SUMMARY A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432
Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L
A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract.
van Zanten, Gabriella Christina; Sparding, Nadja; Majumder, Avishek
of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) when grown on the potential prebiotic cellobiose as compared to glucose. Cytosolic cell extract proteomes after harvest at late exponential phase of NCFM grown on cellobiose or glucose were analyzed by two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis...
Himanshu K. Solanki
Full Text Available The present study deals with the formulation optimization of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-alginate mucoadhesive beads containing probiotic Lactobacillus sporogenes through ionotropic gelation using 32 factorial design. The effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-alginate concentration on the probiotic entrapment efficiency (PEE, %, viability in simulated gastric fluid (log CFU/g, and mucoadhesion over 8 hr (% was optimized. The optimized beads containing probiotic Lactobacillus sporogenes showed entrapment efficiency of 93.7±1.97%, viability of probiotic in simulated gastric fluid (log CFU/g of 9.34, mucoadhesion of 71.75±1.38%, and mean diameter of 1.21±0.11 mm. The beads were also characterized by SEM, FTIR, and XRD. The swelling and degradation of these beads were influenced by pH of the test medium. Finally, stability tests performed at room temperature (25~28°C highlighted a bacterial viability of about 91% and 86% after 1 and 2 months, respectively. The advantageous properties of probiotic Lactobacillus sporogenes-loaded mucoadhesive beads make them suitable for incorporation in functional food and/or pharmaceutical products.
Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah
Fermented foods produced using dates are used in Gulf countries as beneficial and healthful foods. The beneficial microbial flora in fermented dates contributes to maintaining the nutritional properties of dates by preventing the growth of spoilage fungi. Here, we examined the antifungal, probiotic, and antioxidant properties of the novel Lactobacillus strain D-3 isolated from fermented dates. Analyzing the morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of this strain demonstrated that it was similar to Lactobacillus species, and molecular-level amplification of the 16S rRNA gene showed that it belonged to Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Under shake flask cultivation using date juice, the strain produced significant amounts of ethanol and lactic, succinic, and acetic acids. Purification of benzoic acid extracted from the extracellular fermentation medium was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and infrared and mass spectral data revealed minimum inhibitory concentration values of 10, 20, 10, 5, and 10 mg mL -1 for Aspergillus fumigates, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium oxysporum, Gibberella moniliformis, and Penicillium chrysogenum, respectively. The strain showed several advantages, including the ability to survive under conditions similar to the gastrointestinal tract (low pH, bile salts, and antimicrobial susceptibility) and high levels of extracellular enzyme activities. The strain's growth patterns under various concentrations of H 2 O 2 and its scavenging properties towards hydroxyl radical (64.85%) and DPPH (84.97%) were also interesting properties. The antifungal, probiotic, and antioxidant properties of L. paraplantarum D3 may provide health benefits to consumers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Daniele, M; Pascual, L; Barberis, L
Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection characterized by changes in the vaginal microbiota. The objective of this work was to evaluate the colonization ability and curative effect of Lactobacillus fermentum L23 after vaginal administration in female BALB/c mice infected with Gardnerella vaginalis. One dose of Lact. fermentum L23 containing 10(9 ) CFU ml(-1) was administered locally in a murine vaginal model. L23 colonized the vaginal tract of BALB-c mice after one inoculation. The infection by G. vaginalis in a murine model was induced by vaginal administration of a 1 × 10(6 ) CFU ml(-1) suspension. Infection with the pathogen was observed in the vaginal tract for 4 days. At 144 h after inoculation, levels of 4 log10 CFU ml(-1) were observed. The curative effect of L23 was evaluated with one administration at 1 × 10(9 ) CFU ml(-1) 72 h after the inoculation with G. vaginalis. Lactobacillus fermentum L23 inhibited the growth of G. vaginalis. The results of suppression of G. vaginalis using different concentrations of L23 were favourable due that these concentrations are normally used in commercial formulas. The obtained results indicate that Lact. fermentum L23 inhibited the growth of G. vaginalis. Therefore, L23 might be used as a potential biotherapeutic agent for the elimination of this bacterium. The use of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum L23 as a biotherapeutic agent can be expected to prevent and treat genital infections, particularly recurrent bacterial vaginosis, with similar concentrations to those normally used in commercial formulas. It is likely that the use of this probiotic strain for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis will provide a natural and nontoxic treatment modality. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Čitar, M; Hacin, B; Tompa, G; Štempelj, M; Rogelj, I; Dolinšek, J; Narat, M; Matijašić, B Bogovič
Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are considered one of the permanent genera of the physiological human intestinal microbiota and represent an enormous pool of potential probiotic candidates. Approximately 450 isolates of presumptive Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium strains were obtained from bioptic samples of colonic and ileal mucosa from 15 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. On the basis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, 20 strains were selected for further taxonomic classification and characterisation, as well as assessment of probiotic properties and safety. Importantly, selected strains showed the capability of colonising different parts of the intestine. The most frequently isolated species was Lactobacillus paracasei followed by Lactobacillus fermentum. The majority of isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials of human and veterinary importance, however, tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistance was observed in Lactobacillus plantarum and L. fermentum strains. Thirteen strains were able to ferment more than 19 different carbon sources and three out of five tested strains exerted antagonistic activity against several different indicator strains. Two Lactobacillus isolates (L. paracasei L350 and L. fermentum L930 bb) and one Bifidobacterium isolate (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis IM386) fulfilled in vitro selection criteria for probiotic strains and exhibited strong downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 and upregulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10. The selected strains represent suitable candidates for further studies regarding their positive influence on host health and could play an important role in ameliorating the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Full Text Available Probiotics possess potential therapeutic and preventative effects for various diseases and metabolic disorders. One important limitation for the oral delivery of probiotics is the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT which challenge bacterial viability and activity. One proposed method to surpass this obstacle is the use of microencapsulation to improve the delivery of bacterial cells to the lower GIT. The aim of this study is to use alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA microcapsules to encapsulate Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 and characterize its enzymatic activity and viability through a simulated GIT. This specific strain, in previous research, was characterized for its inherent ferulic acid esterase (FAE activity which could prove beneficial in the development of a therapeutic for the treatment and prevention of cancers and metabolic disorders. Our findings demonstrate that the APA microcapsule does not slow the mass transfer of substrate into and that of the FA product out of the microcapsule, while also not impairing bacterial cell viability. The use of simulated gastrointestinal conditions led to a significant 2.5 log difference in viability between the free (1.10 × 104 ± 1.00 × 103 cfu/mL and the microencapsulated (5.50 × 106 ± 1.00 × 105 cfu/mL L. fermentum NCIMB 5221 following exposure. The work presented here suggests that APA microencapsulation can be used as an effective oral delivery method for L. fermentum NCIMB 5221, a FAE-active probiotic strain.
Golowczyc, Marina A; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula; De Antoni, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G
The injuries caused by spray drying (SD) of three potential probiotic lactobacilli isolated from kefir grains and the impact on some probiotic properties, were evaluated. Results demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum 83114 and L. kefir 8321 showed a slight reduction of viability (0.11 and 0.29 log CFU/ml respectively) after SD process, and L. kefir 8348 was found to be more sensitive to the process with a reduction in viability of 0.70 log CFU/ml. Neither membrane damage, evaluated by increased sensitivity to NaCl, lysozyme, bile salt and penicillin G, nor changes in acidifying activity in MRS and milk by lactobacilli were detected after SD. L. plantarum 83114 and L. kefir 8321 after SD did not lose their capacity to adhere to intestinal cells. Nevertheless, L. kefir 8348 showed a significant loss of adhesion capacity after SD. In addition, rehydrated spray-dried L. kefir 8321 retained the ability to protect against Salmonella invasion of intestinal cells. This effect was observed when L. kefir is co-incubated with Salmonella before invasion assay. This work shows that the membrane integrity evaluated by indirect methods and some probiotic properties of lactobacilli isolated from kefir did not change significantly after SD, and these powders could be used in functional foods applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Coussa-Charley, Michael; Kahouli, Imen; Jones, Mitchell L; Labbé, Alain; Prakash, Satya
Probiotics possess potential therapeutic and preventative effects for various diseases and metabolic disorders. One important limitation for the oral delivery of probiotics is the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) which challenge bacterial viability and activity. One proposed method to surpass this obstacle is the use of microencapsulation to improve the delivery of bacterial cells to the lower GIT. The aim of this study is to use alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microcapsules to encapsulate Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 and characterize its enzymatic activity and viability through a simulated GIT. This specific strain, in previous research, was characterized for its inherent ferulic acid esterase (FAE) activity which could prove beneficial in the development of a therapeutic for the treatment and prevention of cancers and metabolic disorders. Our findings demonstrate that the APA microcapsule does not slow the mass transfer of substrate into and that of the FA product out of the microcapsule, while also not impairing bacterial cell viability. The use of simulated gastrointestinal conditions led to a significant 2.5 log difference in viability between the free (1.10 × 104 ± 1.00 × 103 cfu/mL) and the microencapsulated (5.50 × 106 ± 1.00 × 105 cfu/mL) L. fermentum NCIMB 5221 following exposure. The work presented here suggests that APA microencapsulation can be used as an effective oral delivery method for L. fermentum NCIMB 5221, a FAE-active probiotic strain.
Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun
The aim of this work was to purify and characterize the bacteriocin produced by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 in order to evaluate its potential as nutraceuticals. Lb. plantarum DM5 exhibited in vitro probiotic properties such as high resistance to gastric juice and bile salt, adherence to human adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells, bile salt hydrolase and cholesterol assimilation activity. Moreover, Lb. plantarum DM5 showed bacteriocin activity against several major food borne pathogens. Zymogram analysis of purified bacteriocin (plantaricin DM5) showed a molecular size of ∼15.2 kDa. Plantaricin DM5 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes but stable in the pH range of 2.0-10.0, and it was heat resistant (121 °C for 15 min) and remained active upon treatment with surfactants and detergents. Cytotoxicity analysis of plantaricin DM5 on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines revealed its nontoxic and biocompatible nature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the isolated strain expressing probiotic properties and broad antimicrobial activity without any cytotoxic effect on mammalian cells from indigenous fermented beverage Marcha from India, and thus contributes to the food industry as a novel bio-preservant.
Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Marianthi; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kourkoutas, Yiannis
The use of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter culture in probiotic Feta-type cheese production was evaluated. The probiotic cultures resulted in significantly higher acidity; lower pH; reduced counts of coliforms, enterobacteria, and staphylococci; and improved quality characteristics compared with cheese with no culture. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis showed that both free and immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 were detected in the novel products at levels required for conferring a probiotic effect at the end of the ripening. The effect of starter culture on production of volatile compounds was investigated by the solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis technique. The immobilized cells resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds and the overall high quality of the novel products was ascertained by the preliminary sensory test. Finally, the high added value produced by exploitation of whey, which is an extremely polluting industrial waste, was highlighted and assessed. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tauá Alves Melo
Full Text Available The use of intestinal probiotic bacteria is very common in the food industry and has been the focus of the majority of research in this field. Yet in recent years, research on extraintestinal microorganisms has greatly increased due to their well-known potential as probiotics. Thus, we studied a strain of Lactobacillus fermentum (TCUESC01 extracted from fermenting cocoa. First, we examined the impact of pH on the growth of this strain and studied its survival under conditions similar to those of the human gastrointestinal tract. L. fermentum TCUESC01 demonstrated resistance to conditions mimicking the human stomach and intestines and grew well between pH 5 and pH 7. Next, we subjected L. fermentum TCUESC01 to storage at 4°C in a milk solution and found that it survived well for 28 days. Lastly, we measured the susceptibility of this strain to numerous antibiotics and its tendency to autoaggregate. L. fermentum TCUESC01 showed significant autoaggregation, as well as susceptibility to the majority of antibiotics tested. Overall, our findings support the potential use of this extraintestinal bacterium as a dietary probiotic.
Treatments for obesity have been shown to reduce pain secondary to weight loss. Intestinal microbiota, as an endogenous factor, influences obesity and pain sensitivity but the effect of oral probiotic supplementation on musculoskeletal pain perception has not been studied systematically. The present study examined the effect of a single daily oral dose (1 × 109 CFU) of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01, DSM14870) supplement on mechanical pain thresholds in behaving diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and their normal weight (NW) controls. The mice (N = 24, 6-week-old male) were randomly divided into four groups on either standard or high fat diet with and without probiotic supplementation. Both DIO and NW groups with probiotic supplementation maintained an insignificant weight gain while the control groups gained significant weight (P probiotics supplemented groups demonstrated a significantly (P probiotics on nociception circuits, which propose a direct result of the weight reduction or an indirect result of anti-inflammatory properties of the probiotics. Deciphering the exact underlying mechanism of the weight loss and lowering nociception effect of the probiotic applied in this study require further investigation. PMID:27647980
Full Text Available Treatments for obesity have been shown to reduce pain secondary to weight loss. Intestinal microbiota, as an endogenous factor, influences obesity and pain sensitivity but the effect of oral probiotic supplementation on musculoskeletal pain perception has not been studied systematically. The present study examined the effect of a single daily oral dose (1 × 109 CFU of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01, DSM14870 supplement on mechanical pain thresholds in behaving diet-induced obese (DIO mice and their normal weight (NW controls. The mice (N=24, 6-week-old male were randomly divided into four groups on either standard or high fat diet with and without probiotic supplementation. Both DIO and NW groups with probiotic supplementation maintained an insignificant weight gain while the control groups gained significant weight (P<0.05. Similarly, both DIO and NW probiotics supplemented groups demonstrated a significantly (P<0.05 lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulation compared to their corresponding control. The results of this study suggest a protective effect of probiotics on nociception circuits, which propose a direct result of the weight reduction or an indirect result of anti-inflammatory properties of the probiotics. Deciphering the exact underlying mechanism of the weight loss and lowering nociception effect of the probiotic applied in this study require further investigation.
Dardmeh, Fereshteh; Nielsen, Hans Ingolf; Alipour, Hiva; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Brandsborg, Erik; Gazerani, Parisa
Treatments for obesity have been shown to reduce pain secondary to weight loss. Intestinal microbiota, as an endogenous factor, influences obesity and pain sensitivity but the effect of oral probiotic supplementation on musculoskeletal pain perception has not been studied systematically. The present study examined the effect of a single daily oral dose (1 × 10(9) CFU) of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01, DSM14870) supplement on mechanical pain thresholds in behaving diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and their normal weight (NW) controls. The mice (N = 24, 6-week-old male) were randomly divided into four groups on either standard or high fat diet with and without probiotic supplementation. Both DIO and NW groups with probiotic supplementation maintained an insignificant weight gain while the control groups gained significant weight (P probiotics supplemented groups demonstrated a significantly (P probiotics on nociception circuits, which propose a direct result of the weight reduction or an indirect result of anti-inflammatory properties of the probiotics. Deciphering the exact underlying mechanism of the weight loss and lowering nociception effect of the probiotic applied in this study require further investigation.
Mantegazza, Cecilia; Molinari, Paola; D'Auria, Enza; Sonnino, Micol; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo
Antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) is a common complication in childhood in the outpatient and inpatient settings. This review provides up to date information on the use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AAD, including that from Clostridium Difficile, in children. The most recently systematic reviews and subsequently published randomized controlleds trials are considered. Different single and multistrain probiotics are described; a specific recommendation for the use of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) emerges. New information on LGG survival under amoxicillin/clavulanate therapy in children is also provided. This information is relevant in view of the frequent use of this molecule in children, its association with AAD, and LGG's sensitivity to penicillin that might make this probiotic ineffective. In spite of a demonstrated positive effect of specific strains of probiotics on AAD, safety issues still remain among which the risk of associated severe infections and of antibiotic resistant gene exchange. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Songisepp, E; Hütt, P; Rätsep, M; Shkut, E; Kõljalg, S; Truusalu, K; Stsepetova, J; Smidt, I; Kolk, H; Zagura, M; Mikelsaar, M
Safety of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain Tensia (DSM 21380) was tested in vitro, in semihard Edam-type cheese, in an animal model and after consumption of the probiotic cheese in double-blind randomized placebo-controlled human intervention studies with different age groups. The susceptibility of L. plantarum Tensia to 8 antibiotics, and the presence of tetracycline (tet M, S, O, K, L) genes and class 1 integron was assessed by applying epsilometer-test and PCR-based methods. Production of biogenic amines by the probiotic strain in decarboxylation medium containing 1% of l-histidine, l-glutamine, l-ornithine, l-arginine, or l-lysine and in cheese was tested by gas chromatography. The biosafety of L. plantarum Tensia was evaluated on National Institutes of Health-line mice fed cheese containing Tensia at a concentration of 9.6 log cfu/g for 30 consecutive days. In human intervention trials in adults and the elderly, the effects of different doses of Edam-type cheese and the probiotic bacterium on BW, gut functionality indices, and host metabolism were evaluated. The strain L. plantarum Tensia was susceptible to all tested antibiotics and did not possess the tetracycline resistance-determining genes tet(L), tet(S) and tet(O), nor did it contain the integron (Int1) gene. However, the strain was tet(K) and tet(M) positive. Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia did not produce potentially harmful biogenic amines, such as histamine or cadaverine. The amount of tyramine produced in the cheese environment during ripening and after 15 wk of storage was below the clinically significant content. In the animal model, no translocation of the administered strain or other microbes into the blood or organs of mice was detected. No harmful effect was observed on body mass index, inflammatory markers, or serum lipidograms during human intervention trials with different age groups at a daily dose of 10.3 or 8.17 log cfu/serving for 3 wk. No negative effect on gastrointestinal
Full Text Available Background and Aim: In the present study, the possibility of probiotic yoghurt production using Artemisia sieberi hydro- alcoholic extract and also the effects of different concentrations of this medicinal herb on the survival of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis, in probiotic yoghurt were investigated. Materials and Methods: In different treatments, the amounts of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 gr/lit of Artemisia sieberi extract together with conventional yoghurt starter, Bif. lactis and lact. acidophilus were added to 1 liter of boiled milk. The samples were incubated at 37˚centigrade, and then, the acidity and pH changes every two hours during the incubation period were examined up to approximately 80˚ of the survival of probiotic bacteria was tested during the storage of the samples in the refrigerator. On the tenth day, after yoghurt production, all the samples were examined for sensory evaluation using a panel test and the obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS software (V:19. Results: There was no significant difference in the acidity and pH changes during the production process of probiotic yoghurt in different treatments. The probiotic yoghurt containing 0.4 gr/lit of Artemisia hydro-alcoholic extract had the best quality in terms of organoleptic properties and shelf life of the product. During 21 days storage in the refrigerator none of the treatments showed the number of probiotic bacteria less than 106 bacteria in gram. Conclusion: It was found that appropriate concentrations of Artemisia sieberi extract can be used for the production of probiotic yoghurt, as a new functional food containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifodobacterium lactis.
Owusu-Kwarteng, James; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Akabanda, Fortune
activity was observed towards Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus but not E. coli and Salmonella enteritidis. Lactobacillus fermentum strains were generally susceptible to antibiotics except 6 strains which showed resistance towards streptomycin, gentamicin and kanamycin. CONCLUSION: In vitro...... for technological properties including rate of acidification, exopolysaccharide production and amylase activity. Following this, 48 strains showing desirable technological properties were first screened for acid resistance. Sixteen acid resistant strains were assessed for additional probiotic properties including...... resistance to bile salts, bile salt hydrolysis, antimicrobial property, haemolysis and antibiotics resistance. L. fermentum strains clustered into 3 groups represented by 36 %, 47 % and 17 % as fast, medium and slow acidifiers respectively. About 8 %, 78 % and 14 % of the strains showed strong, weak...
Full Text Available A comparative study of kinetic models to describe the dynamics of the fermentation process of culturing of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B1 was performed. The models of Monod, Aiba, Tiessier, Hinshelwood and the equation of the logistic curve combined with the model of Ludeking-Piret were used. It has been found that the different models described the observed fermentation dynamics differently. The conducted comparative study demonstrated that the models of Monod and the equation of the logistic curve combined with the model of Ludeking-Piret were suitable for the description of the fermentation dynamics. The mathematical models showed no significant product and/or substrate inhibition. The culture developed with a low specific growth rate, but nevertheless it accumulated 1012-1013 viable cells. The substrate was absorbed primarily from cells in the stationary growth phase rather than cells in the exponential growth phase
Hai Kuan Wang
Full Text Available Cheddar cheese has been manufactured with Lactobacillus casei Zhang as the dairy starter adjunct. L. casei Zhang had previously been isolated from koumiss collected from Xilin Guole in Inner Mongolia and characterized in detail with regard to their probiotic potential. The addition of L. casei Zhang to Cheddar cheese had no adverse effects on sensory criteria. The cheese made with 0.1, 1 and 2 % of the probiotic strain L. casei Zhang adjuncts contained high levels of the Lactobacillus after 6 months of ripening with final counts of 9.6·10^7, 7.7·10^7 and 1.02·10^8 CFU/g, respectively. In the ripe control cheese, without the addition of probiotic strain L. casei Zhang, the number of Lactobacillus reached 5.7·107 CFU/g. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR analysis was used to distinguish the added L. casei Zhang from the natural flora of the cheese and to determine whether L. casei Zhang grew in the cheese. ACE-inhibitory activity and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA concentrations in the cheese were measured. Compared with control cheese, experimental cheese with 0.1, 1 and 2 % of probiotic strain L. casei Zhang revealed some increase in ACE-inhibitory activity and GABA mass fraction. In the present study, the production of both ACE-inhibitory activity and GABA in the probiotic cheese with the L. casei Zhang adjunct isolated from koumiss has been found for the first time. The results suggest that cheese with the probiotic strain L. casei Zhang showed good potential for application in the management of hypertension.
Fan, Yu-Jing; Chen, Shu-Jie; Yu, Ying-Cong; Si, Jian-Min; Liu, Bin
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods: Eighty-five patients [male 32, female 53; age (45.31±11.72) years] were given live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules 1260 mg/d t.i.d.×4 weeks. Syndrome scales were used to evaluate the efficacy in gastrointestinal syndrome. Fecal flora was also measured before and after the treatment. Six bac...
Huang, Ying; Wu, Fei; Wang, Xiaojun; Sui, Yujie; Yang, Longfei; Wang, Jinfeng
Lactobacillus plantarum Lp27 was isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. The Lp27 isolate survived a 3-h incubation at pH 2.0 and grew normally in 0.3% oxgall. In addition, the Lp27 isolate exhibited an adhesion ratio of 9.5 ± 2.5% with Caco-2 cells. Antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that the Lp27 isolate was sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol, and was resistant to vancomycin with a minimum inhibitory value of 23µg/mL. The Lp27 isolate inhibited cholesterol absorption through downregulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) expression in Caco-2 cells. The Lp27 isolate was fed to hypercholesterolemic rats at a dose of 10(9) cfu/d for 4wk. The Lp27 feeding significantly lowered serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations, but no change was observed in the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. In addition, liver total cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased in the Lp27-fed group. The expression of NPC1L1 in the duodenum and jejunum was significantly decreased following Lp27 feeding. These results indicate that Lp27 might be an effective cholesterol-lowering probiotic and a possible mechanism for the cholesterol-reducing effects of probiotics. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sulemankhil, Imran; Parent, Mathieu; Jones, Mitchell Lawrence; Feng, Zhenqian; Labbé, Alain; Prakash, Satya
Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30253 was shown to have potential as a probiotic by reducing the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8. Moreover, this strain was evaluated, by in vitro and in vivo techniques, for its safety for human consumption. The identity of the strain was investigated by metabolic profiling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and in vitro safety evaluations were performed by molecular and metabolic techniques. Genetic analysis was confirmed by assessing the minimum inhibitory concentration to a panel of antibiotics, showing that the strain was susceptible to 8 antibiotics tested. The ability of the strain to produce potentially harmful by-products and antimicrobial compounds was evaluated, showing that the strain does not produce biogenic amines and does not show bacteriocin activity or reuterin production. A 28-day repeated oral dose study was conducted in normal Sprague-Dawley rats to support the in vivo strain safety. Oral administration of the strain resulted in no changes in general condition and no clinically significant changes to biochemical and haematological markers of safety relative to vehicle control treated animals. This comprehensive assessment of safety of L. reuteri NCIMB 30253 supports the safety of the strain for use as a probiotic.
Full Text Available Lactobacilli are widely used as probiotics with beneficial effects on infection-associated diarrhea, but also used in clinical trials of e.g. necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The possibility of using probiotic metabolic products, so called postbiotics, is desirable as it could prevent possible side effects of live bacteria in individuals with a disturbed gut epithelial barrier. Here we studied how Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 cell free supernatant (L. reuteri-CFS influenced retinoic acid (RA-driven mucosal-like dendritic cells (DC and their subsequent effect on T regulatory cells (Treg in vitro. RA clearly imprinted a mucosal-like DC phenotype with higher IL10 production, increased CD103 and CD1d expression and a down-regulated mRNA expression of several inflammatory-associated genes (NFκB1, RELB and TNF. Treatment with L. reuteri-CFS further influenced the tolerogenic phenotype of RA-DC by down-regulating most genes involved in antigen uptake, antigen presentation and signal transduction as well as several chemokine receptors, while up regulating IL10 production. L. reuteri-CFS also augmented CCR7 expression on RA-DC. In co-cultures, RA-DC increased IL10 and FOXP3 expression in Treg, but pre-treatment with L. reuteri-CFS did not further influence the Treg phenotype. In conclusion, L. reuteri-CFS modulates the phenotype and function of mucosal-like DC, implicating its potential application as postbiotic.
Haileselassie, Yeneneh; Navis, Marit; Vu, Nam; Qazi, Khaleda Rahman; Rethi, Bence; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva
Lactobacilli are widely used as probiotics with beneficial effects on infection-associated diarrhea, but also used in clinical trials of e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The possibility of using probiotic metabolic products, so-called postbiotics, is desirable as it could prevent possible side effects of live bacteria in individuals with a disturbed gut epithelial barrier. Here, we studied how Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 cell-free supernatant (L. reuteri-CFS) influenced retinoic acid (RA)-driven mucosal-like dendritic cells (DC) and their subsequent effect on T regulatory cells (Treg) in vitro. RA clearly imprinted a mucosal-like DC phenotype with higher IL10 production, increased CD103 and CD1d expression, and a downregulated mRNA expression of several inflammatory-associated genes (NFκB1, RELB, and TNF). Treatment with L. reuteri-CFS further influenced the tolerogenic phenotype of RA-DC by downregulating most genes involved in antigen uptake, antigen presentation, and signal transduction as well as several chemokine receptors, while upregulating IL10 production. L. reuteri-CFS also augmented CCR7 expression on RA-DC. In cocultures, RA-DC increased IL10 and FOXP3 expression in Treg, but pre-treatment with L. reuteri-CFS did not further influence the Treg phenotype. In conclusion, L. reuteri-CFS modulates the phenotype and function of mucosal-like DC, implicating its potential application as postbiotic.
Villena, Julio; Kitazawa, Haruki
The intestinal mucosa plays a critical role in the host's interactions with innocuous commensal microbiota and invading pathogenic microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and gut associated immune cells recognize the bacterial components via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and are responsible for maintaining tolerance to the large communities of resident luminal bacteria while being also able to mount inflammatory responses against pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of PRRs that are present on IECs and immune cells which are involved in the induction of both tolerance and inflammation. A growing body of experimental and clinical evidence supports the therapeutic and preventive application of probiotics for several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders in which TLRs exert a significant role. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of probiotic microorganisms with the capacity to modulate the immune system (immunobiotics) in the regulation of intestinal inflammation in pigs, which are very important as both livestock and human model. Especially we discuss the role of TLRs, their signaling pathways, and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory intestinal injury and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in general, and Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 in particular. This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with IECs and immune cells through TLRs and their application for improving animal and human health.
Full Text Available The intestinal mucosa plays a critical role in the host's interactions with innocuous commensal microbiota and invading pathogenic microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs and gut associated immune cells recognize the bacterial components via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs and are responsible for maintaining tolerance to the large communities of resident luminal bacteria while being also able to mount inflammatory responses against pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a major class of PRRs that are present on IECs and immune cells which are involved in the induction of both tolerance and inflammation. A growing body of experimental and clinical evidence supports the therapeutic and preventive application of probiotics for several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders in which TLRs exert a significant role. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of probiotic microorganisms with the capacity to modulate the immune system (immunobiotics in the regulation of intestinal inflammation in pigs, which are very important as both livestock and human model. Especially we discuss the role of TLRs, their signalling pathways and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory intestinal injury and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in general, and Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 in particular. This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with IECs and immune cells through TLRs and their application for improving animal and human health.
Shirouchi, Bungo; Nagao, Koji; Umegatani, Minami; Shiraishi, Aya; Morita, Yukiko; Kai, Shunichi; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Kadooka, Yukio; Sato, Masao
Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) reduces postprandial TAG absorption and exerts anti-obesity effects in rats and humans; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we addressed the mechanistic insights of the anti-obesity activity of LG2055 by feeding Sprague-Dawley rats diets containing skimmed milk fermented or not by LG2055 for 4 weeks and by analysing energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, the levels of SCFA in the caecum and serum inflammatory markers. Rats fed the LG2055-containing diet demonstrated significantly higher carbohydrate oxidation in the dark cycle (active phase for rats) compared with the control group, which resulted in a significant increase in energy expenditure. LG2055 significantly reduced cumulative blood glucose levels (AUC) compared with the control diet after 3 weeks and increased the molar ratio of butyrate:total SCFA in the caecum after 4 weeks. Furthermore, the LG2055-supplemented diet significantly reduced the levels of serum amyloid P component - an indicator of the inflammatory process. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, the intake of probiotic LG2055 enhanced energy expenditure via carbohydrate oxidation, improved glucose tolerance and attenuated inflammation, suggesting multiple additive and/or synergistic actions underlying the anti-obesity effects exerted by LG2055.
Markus, Josua; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Abbai, Ragavendran; Singh, Priyanka; Ahn, Sungeun; Perez, Zuly Elizabeth Jimenez; Hurh, Joon; Yang, Deok Chun
A straightforward synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) is achieved by novel probiotic Lactobacillus kimchicus DCY51T isolated from Korean kimchi via an intracellular membrane-bound mechanism. The bioreduction of HAuCl4 into AuNps was verified by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry at ∼540nm. AuNps were spherical with varying sizes of 5-30nm. AuNps maintained an average crystallite size of 13nm and demonstrated long-term stability in physiological buffer and biological media. Furthermore, the protective capping layer consisted of amino acid residues and surface-bound proteins rendered them non-toxic to murine macrophage (RAW264.7) and human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell lines. Finally, biosynthesized AuNps served as superior free radical scavengers against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in contrast to their corresponding gold salt. In short, this green synthesis is cost-effective and advantageous for the development of a new class of probiotics mediated and non-toxic carriers in targeted drug delivery systems, cancer diagnostic, photothermal therapy, biosensing, and medical imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Treven, Primož; Turkova, Kristyna; Trmčić, Aljoša; Obermajer, Tanja; Rogelj, Irena; Matijašić, Bojana Bogovič
Lactobacillus gasseri K7 is a probiotic strain that produces bacteriocins gassericin K7 A and K7 B. In order to develop a real-time quantitative PCR assay for the detection of L. gasseri K7, 18 reference strains of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group and 45 faecal samples of adults who have never consumed strain K7 were tested with PCR using 14 pairs of primers specific for gassericin K7 A and K7 B gene determinants. Incomplete gassericin K7 A or K7 B gene clusters were found to be dispersed in different lactobacilli strains as well as in faecal microbiota. One pair of primers was found to be specific for the total gene cluster of gassericin K7A and one for gassericin K7B. The real-time PCR analysis of faecal samples spiked with K7 strain revealed that primers specific for the gene cluster of the gassericin K7 A were more suitable for quantitative determination than those for gassericin K7 B, due to the lower detection level. Targeting of the gassericin K7 A or K7 B gene cluster with specific primers could be used for detection and quantification of L. gasseri K7 in human faecal samples without prior cultivation. The results of this study also present new insights into the prevalence of bacteriocin-encoding genes in gastrointestinal tract.
Anwar, Munir A; Kralj, Slavko; Piqué, Anna Villar; Leemhuis, Hans; van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert
Fructansucrase enzymes polymerize the fructose moiety of sucrose into levan or inulin fructans, with beta(2-6) and beta(2-1) linkages, respectively. Here, we report an evaluation of fructan synthesis in three Lactobacillus gasseri strains, identification of the fructansucrase-encoding genes and characterization of the recombinant proteins and fructan (oligosaccharide) products. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and polymers produced by the L. gasseri strains and the recombinant enzymes revealed that, in situ, L. gasseri strains DSM 20604 and 20077 synthesize inulin (and oligosaccharides) and levan products, respectively. L. gasseri DSM 20604 is only the second Lactobacillus strain shown to produce inulin polymer and FOS in situ, and is unique in its distribution of FOS synthesized, ranging from DP2 to DP13. The probiotic bacterium L. gasseri DSM 20243 did not produce any fructan, although we identified a fructansucrase-encoding gene in its genome sequence. Further studies showed that this L. gasseri DSM 20243 gene was prematurely terminated by a stop codon. Exchanging the stop codon for a glutamine codon resulted in a recombinant enzyme producing inulin and FOS. The three recombinant fructansucrase enzymes characterized from three different L. gasseri strains have very similar primary protein structures, yet synthesize different fructan products. An interesting feature of the L. gasseri strains is that they were unable to ferment raffinose, whereas their respective recombinant enzymes converted raffinose into fructan and FOS.
PEMBERIAN PAKAN KOMERSIL DENGAN PENAMBAHAN PROBIOTIK YANG MENGANDUNG Lactobacillus sp. TERHADAP KECERNAAN DAN PERTUMBUHAN IKAN NILA (Oreochromis niloticus (THE ADDITION OF PROBIOTICS CONTAINING Lactobacillus Sp. IN THE COMMERCIAL ON DIGESTIBILITY AND GROWTH OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS
Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek pemberian probiotik yang mengandung Lactobacillus sp. dalam pakan komersial terhadap kualitas pakan, meningkatkan jumlah bakteri dalam mukosa usus dan kecernaan ikan melalui pemberian pakan probiotik yang ramah lingkungan, mengetahui dosis efektif probiotik dalam pakan yang dapat menunjang pertumbuhan ikan nila (Oreocromis niloticus. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan selama 6 (enam bulan, mulai bulan September 2012 sampai Februari 2013. Rancangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 4 (Empat perlakuan dan 3 (Tiga ulangan, yaitu perlakuan A (Kontrol, B (Probiotik 3%, C (Probiotik 5% dan D (Probiotik 7%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pakan dengan penambahan probiotik yang mengandung Lactobacillus sp. menggunakan dosis sebesar 3%, 5% dan 7% mampu meningkatkan kandungan gizi, pakan, dengan nilai protein antara 32,48%-34,19% dan menurunkan serat kasar dengan nilai antara 5,04%-5,70% dibandingkan tanpa pemberian probiotik. Pemberian probiotik dalam pakan dengan persentase 3%, 5%, dan 7% dapat meningkatkan kecernaan ikan nila pakan efektif untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan berat dan panjang ikan nila. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of probiotics in commercial feed on feed quality, enhance increase bactery number in gut mucose and digestibility of nile tilapia (Oreocromis niloticus through the provision of environmental friendly probiotic feed, determine the effective doses of probiotics in feed that can support the growth fish. The research was conducted for 6 (six months, from September 2012 until February 2013. The design used in this study was completely randomized design with 4 (four treatments and 3 (three replicates, were treatment A (control, B (Probiotics 3%, C (Probiotics 5% and D (Probiotic 7%. The results showed that the addition of probiotic containing Lactobacillus sp. feeding with doses of 3%, 5% and 7% were
Predominant genera of fecal microbiota in children with atopic dermatitis are not altered by intake of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.lactis Bi-07
Larsen, Nadejda Nikolajevna; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Gøbel, Rikke Juul
The effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 on the composition of the Lactobacillus group, Bifidobacterium and the total bacterial population in feces from young children with atopic dermatitis was investigated. The study included 50 children...... as Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus oris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, while the bifidobacterial community included Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium catenulatum. The fecal numbers of L. acidophilus and B. lactis increased...... randomized to intake of one of the probiotic strain or placebo. Microbial composition was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR and, in a subset of subjects, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The core population of the Lactobacillus group was identified...
Anwar, Munir A.; Kralj, Slavko; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert
Fructansucrase enzymes polymerize the fructose moiety of sucrose into levan or inulin fructans, with β(2-6) and β(2-1) linkages, respectively. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii strain NCC 533 possesses a single fructansucrase gene (open reading frame AAS08734) annotated as a putative levansucrase precursor. However, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the fructan product synthesized in situ revealed that this is of the inulin type. The ftf gene of L. johnsonii was cloned and expressed to elucidate its exact identity. The purified L. johnsonii protein was characterized as an inulosucrase enzyme, producing inulin from sucrose, as identified by 13C NMR analysis. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the reaction products showed that InuJ synthesized, besides the inulin polymer, a broad range of fructose oligosaccharides. Maximum InuJ enzyme activity was observed in a pH range of 4.5 to 7.0, decreasing sharply at pH 7.5. InuJ exhibited the highest enzyme activity at 55°C, with a drastic decrease at 60°C. Calcium ions were found to have an important effect on enzyme activity and stability. Kinetic analysis showed that the transfructosylation reaction of the InuJ enzyme does not obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The non-Michaelian behavior of InuJ may be attributed to the oligosaccharides that were initially formed in the reaction and which may act as better acceptors than the growing polymer chain. This is only the second example of the isolation and characterization of an inulosucrase enzyme and its inulin (oligosaccharide) product from a Lactobacillus strain. Furthermore, this is the first Lactobacillus strain shown to produce inulin polymer in situ. PMID:18408060
Anwar, Munir A; Kralj, Slavko; van der Maarel, Marc J E C; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert
Fructansucrase enzymes polymerize the fructose moiety of sucrose into levan or inulin fructans, with beta(2-6) and beta(2-1) linkages, respectively. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii strain NCC 533 possesses a single fructansucrase gene (open reading frame AAS08734) annotated as a putative levansucrase precursor. However, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the fructan product synthesized in situ revealed that this is of the inulin type. The ftf gene of L. johnsonii was cloned and expressed to elucidate its exact identity. The purified L. johnsonii protein was characterized as an inulosucrase enzyme, producing inulin from sucrose, as identified by (13)C NMR analysis. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the reaction products showed that InuJ synthesized, besides the inulin polymer, a broad range of fructose oligosaccharides. Maximum InuJ enzyme activity was observed in a pH range of 4.5 to 7.0, decreasing sharply at pH 7.5. InuJ exhibited the highest enzyme activity at 55 degrees C, with a drastic decrease at 60 degrees C. Calcium ions were found to have an important effect on enzyme activity and stability. Kinetic analysis showed that the transfructosylation reaction of the InuJ enzyme does not obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The non-Michaelian behavior of InuJ may be attributed to the oligosaccharides that were initially formed in the reaction and which may act as better acceptors than the growing polymer chain. This is only the second example of the isolation and characterization of an inulosucrase enzyme and its inulin (oligosaccharide) product from a Lactobacillus strain. Furthermore, this is the first Lactobacillus strain shown to produce inulin polymer in situ.
Introduction Alzheimer’s disease is a type of dementia, and till now there is no suitable drug available for the complete cure of this disease. Now-a-days Probiotics, Lactobacillus strains play a therapeutic role in cognitive disorders through Gut-Brain Axis communication. Aim The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-Alzheimer properties of Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC1325 against D-Galactose-induced Alzheimer’s disease in albino rats. Materials and Methods Healthy rats (48) of wistar strain were divided into four groups viz., Group-I: control rats received saline, Group-II: rats received intraperitoneal injection of D-Galactose (120 mg/kg body weight) throughout experiment, Group-III: initially animals were subjected to D-Galactose injection for six weeks, then followed by simultaneously received both D-Galactose and L. plantarum MTCC1325 (12×108 CFU/ml; 10 ml/kg body weight) for 60 days and Group-IV: rats which were orally administered only with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC1325 for 60 days. During the experimentation, both morphometric and behavioural aspects were studied. Later we have examined histopathological changes and estimated cholinergic levels in selected brain regions of all experimental groups of rats including control on selected days. Results Morphometric, behavioural changes, ACh levels were significantly decreased and pathological hallmarks such as amyloid plaques and tangles were also observed in AD model group. Treatment of AD-group with L. plantarum MTCC1325 for 60 days, not only ameliorated cognition deficits but also restored ACh and the histopathological features to control group. However, no significant effects have been observed in the group treated with L. plantarum alone. Conclusion The study revealed that, L. plantarum MTCC1325 might have anti-Alzheimer properties against D-Galactose induced Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:28969160
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-cariogenic effects of Lactobacillus salivarius by reducing pathogenic species and biofilm mass in a double-species biofilm model. Coexistence of S. mutans with C. albicans can cause dental caries progression or recurrence of the disease in the future. Fifty-nine children with diagnosed early childhood caries (ECC were recruited onto the study. The condition of the children’s dentition was defined according to the World Health Organization guidelines. The participants were divided into children with initial enamel demineralization and children showing dentin damage. The study was performed on the S. mutans and C. albicans clinical strains, isolated from dental plaque of patients with ECC. The effect of a probiotic containing Lactobacillus salivarius on the ability of S. mutans and C. albicans to produce a double-species biofilm was investigated in an in vitro model. The biomass of the formed/non-degraded biofilm was analyzed on the basis of its crystal violet staining. The number of colonies of S. mutans and C. albicans (CFU/mL, colony forming units/mL forming the biofilm was determined. Microorganism morphology in the biofilm was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. In vitro analysis demonstrated that the presence of S. mutans increased the number of C. albicans colonies (CFU/mL; the double-species biofilm mass and hyphal forms produced in it by the yeast. L. salivarius inhibited the cariogenic biofilm formation of C. albicans and S. mutans. Under the influence of the probiotic; the biofilm mass and the number of S. mutans; C. albicans and S. mutans with C. albicans colonies in the biofilm was decreased. Moreover; it can be noted that after the addition of the probiotic; fungi did not form hyphae or germ tubes of pathogenic potential. These results suggest that L. salivarius can secrete intermediates capable of inhibiting the formation of cariogenic S. mutans and C. albicans biofilm
Tytgat, Hanne L P; Douillard, François P; Reunanen, Justus; Rasinkangas, Pia; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Laine, Pia K; Paulin, Lars; Satokari, Reetta; de Vos, Willem M
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major nosocomial threat. Enterococcus faecium is of special concern, as it can easily acquire new antibiotic resistances and is an excellent colonizer of the human intestinal tract. Several clinical studies have explored the potential use of beneficial bacteria to weed out opportunistic pathogens. Specifically, the widely studied Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has been applied successfully in the context of VRE infections. Here, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of this model probiotic on VRE decolonization. Both clinical VRE isolates and L. rhamnosus GG express pili on their cell walls, which are the key modulators of their highly efficient colonization of the intestinal mucosa. We found that one of the VRE pilus clusters shares considerable sequence similarity with the SpaCBA-SrtC1 pilus cluster of L. rhamnosus GG. Remarkable immunological and functional similarities were discovered between the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG and those of the clinical E. faecium strain E1165, which was characterized at the genome level. Moreover, E. faecium strain E1165 bound efficiently to mucus, which may be prevented by the presence of the mucus-binding SpaC protein or antibodies against L. rhamnosus GG or SpaC. These results present experimental support for a novel probiotic mechanism, in which the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG prevent the binding of a potential pathogen to the host. Hence, we provide a molecular basis for the further exploitation of L. rhamnosus GG and its pilins for prophylaxis and treatment of VRE infections. Concern about vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium causing nosocomial infections is rising globally. The arsenal of antibiotic strategies to treat these infections is nearly exhausted, and hence, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Here, we provide molecular evidence to underpin reports of the successful clinical application of
Anukam, Kingsley C; Osazuwa, Emanual O; Osadolor, Humphrey B; Bruce, Andrew W; Reid, Gregor
HIV/AIDS is changing the human landscape in sub-Saharan Africa. Relatively few patients receive antiretroviral therapy, and many suffer from debilitating diarrhea that affects their quality of life. Given the track record of probiotics to alleviate diarrhea, conventional yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbruekii var bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus was supplemented with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14. Twenty-four HIV/AIDS adult female patients (18 to 44 y) with clinical signs of moderate diarrhea, CD4 counts over 200, and not receiving antiretrovirals or dietary supplements, consumed either 100 mL supplemented or unsupplemented yogurt per day for 15 days. Hematologic profiles, CD4 cell counts, and quality of life was evaluated at baseline, 15 and 30 days postprobiotic-yogurt feeding. There was no significant alteration in the hematologic parameters of both groups before and after the probiotic-yogurt feeding. The probiotic yogurt group at baseline, 15 and 30 days had a mean WBC count of 5.8+/-0.76 x 10(9)/L, 6.0+/-1.02 x 10(9)/L, and 5.4+/-0.14 x 10(9)/L, respectively. However, the mean CD4 cell count remained the same or increased at 15 and 30 days in 11/12 probiotic-treated subjects compared to 3/12 in the control. Diarrhea, flatulence, and nausea resolved in 12/12 probiotic-treated subjects within 2 days, compared to 2/12 receiving yogurt for 15 days. This is the first study to show the benefits of probiotic yogurt on quality of life of women in Nigeria with HIV/AIDS, and suggests that perhaps a simple fermented food can provide some relief in the management of the AIDS epidemic in Africa.
Sidira, Marianthi; Karapetsas, Athanasios; Galanis, Alex; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis
The aim was the assessment of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat in the production of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and the investigation of the microbial dynamics. For comparison, sausages containing either free L. casei ATCC 393 or no starter culture were also prepared. During ripening, the numbers of lactobacilli exceeded 7 log cfu/g, while a drastic decrease was observed in enterobacteria, staphylococci and pseudomonas counts. Microbial diversity was further studied applying a PCR-DGGE protocol. Members of Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Carnobacterium, Brochothrix, Bacillus and Debaryomyces were the main microbial populations detected. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis confirmed that the levels of L. casei ATCC 393 in the samples after 66 days of ripening were above the minimum concentration for conferring a probiotic effect (≥ 6 log cfu/g). However, after heat treatment, this strain was detected at the above levels, only in sausages containing immobilized cells. © 2013.
Fan, Yu-jing; Chen, Shu-jie; Yu, Ying-cong; Si, Jian-min; Liu, Bin
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Eighty-five patients [male 32, female 53; age (45.31+/-11.72) years] were given live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules 1260 mg/d t.i.d.x4 weeks. Syndrome scales were used to evaluate the efficacy in gastrointestinal syndrome. Fecal flora was also measured before and after the treatment. Six bacteria were cultured and the colony forming units were counted in stool. SPSS was used for data analysis. Seventy-four patients finished the follow-up. No side-effect was found. For treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, the effective rate of live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus capsules was 56.8% in the second week, 74.3% in the fourth week and 73.0% in the sixth week. Single symptom was improved, especially in abdominal pain and stool character. The probiotica containing live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus could increase bifidobacterium count (P0.05). The result of the study indicated that the administration of live combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus improved the symptom of irritable bowel syndrome and that there was a gradual increase of this effect. Thereafter conditions remained stable for 2 weeks. That improvement may be associated with alterations in gastrointestinal flora.
Neumann Elisabeth; Teixeira Santuza MR; Horta Maria F; Mota Rodrigo M; Moreira João; Nicoli Jacques R.; Nunes Álvaro C
Abstract Background The accurate identification of Lactobacillus and other co-isolated bacteria during microbial ecological studies of ecosystems such as the human or animal intestinal tracts and food products is a hard task by phenotypic methods requiring additional tests such as protein and/or lipids profiling. Results Bacteria isolated in different probiotic prospecting studies, using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS), were typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA i...
Kim, Pyoung Il; Jung, Min Young; Chang, Young-Hyo; Kim, Saehun; Kim, Seong-Jae; Park, Yong-Ha
One strain of Lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. Isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric juice at pH 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract. There was a large variation in the survival of the isolates in gastric juice and growth in the medium containing 0.3% (w/v) bile. L. salivarius G11 and L. amylovorus S6 adhered to the HT-29 epithelial cell line. Cell-free supernatant of L. amylovorus S6 showed higher antagonistic activity as effective as the antibiotics such as neomycin, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline against bacterial pathogens including C. perfringens, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Edwardsiella tarda, and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.
Antônio Hamilton Chaves
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito do fornecimento da estirpe LT 516 de Lactobacillus acidophilus, junto ao leite, sobre o desempenho de bezerros de rebanhos leiteiros, do nascimento aos 56 dias de idade. Trinta e seis bezerros recém-nascidos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso de acordo com o sexo, grau de sangue e peso ao nascer. O fornecimento diário de um concentrado com células viáveis (1,9 x 10(10 UFC/anim de Lactobacillusacidophilus (LT 516, do nascimento aos 56 dias de idade (Tratamento 1, o fornecimento diário do mesmo concentrado do nascimento aos 10 dias de idade (Tratamento 2 e o não-fornecimento de Lactobacillus acidophilus (Tratamento 3 foram estudados. Os animais foram alimentados com 4 L de leite integral/anim·d e, a partir da segunda semana de idade, concentrado inicial e capim-elefante (Pennisetumpurpureum Schum picado, à vontade. Não houve diferenças entre tratamentos nos consumos e nas digestibilidades aparentes da matéria seca e proteína bruta, no ganho de peso, na contagem de hematócritos, hemoglobina, glóbulos vermelhos e hemoglobina globular média, na concentração de hemoglobina globular média, no volume globular médio e na contagem global de leucócitos, na capacidade absortiva do intestino (estimada pelo teste de xilose, no pH da digesta do intestino delgado e no número de lactobacilos facultativos e coliformes totais nas fezes. O fornecimento de Lactobacillus acidophilus (LT 516 reduziu a ocorrência de diarréias, sem influir no odor e na consistência das fezes. Os animais que receberam probiótico nos primeiros 10 dias apresentaram maior número de lactobacilos facultativos no intestino delgado. O número de coliformes totais no intestino delgado foi maior nos animais controle e menor nos que receberam probiótico nos primeiros 56 dias.The objective of this work was to verify the effect of the supply LT 516 strain of Lactobacillusacidophilus, adjoining to the milk, on dairy
Effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran on growth and cell viability of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their combination SYNBIO®, in synbiotic fermented milk.
Coman, Maria Magdalena; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Silvi, Stefania; Vasile, Aida; Bahrim, Gabriela Elena; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto
Fermented foods have a great significance since they provide and preserve large quantities of nutritious foods in a wide diversity of flavors, aromas and texture, which enrich the human diet. Originally fermented milks were developed as a means of preserving nutrients and are the most representatives of the category. The first aim of this study was to screen the effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran as prebiotics on the production of probiotic fiber-enriched fermented milks, by investigating the kinetics of acidification of buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented milk fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their 1:1 combination named SYNBIO®. The probiotic strains viability, pH and sensory characteristics of the fermented fiber-enriched milk products, stored at 4 °C for 28 days were also monitored. The results showed that supplementation of whole milk with the tested probiotic strains and the two vegetable substrates results in a significant faster lowering of the pH. Also, the stability of L. rhamnosus IMC 501®, L. paracasei IMC 502® and SYNBIO® during storage at 4 °C for 28 days in buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented samples was remarkably enhanced. The second aim of the study was to develop a new synbiotic product using the best combination of probiotics and prebiotics by promoting better growth and survival and be acceptable to the consumers with high concentration of probiotic strain. This new product was used to conduct a human feeding trial to validate the fermented milk as a carrier for transporting bacterial cells into the human gastrointestinal tract. The probiotic strains were recovered from fecal samples in 40 out of 40 volunteers fed for 4 weeks one portion per day of synbiotic fermented milk carrying about 10(9) viable cells. © 2013.
Marco, M.; Vries, de M.C.; Wels, M.W.W.; Molenaar, D.; Mangell, P.; Ahrne, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Vaughan, E.E.; Kleerebezem, M.
Probiotic bacteria provide unique opportunities to study the global responses and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of gut-associated microorganisms in the human digestive tract. In this study, we show by comparative transcriptome analysis using DNA microarrays that the established
Keller, Mette K; Bardow, Allan; Jensdottir, Thorbjörg
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chewing gums containing probiotic bacteria on oral malodour. The null hypothesis was that no difference would be displayed compared with placebo gums. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy young adults with self-reported malodorous morning breath completed...
Tripathi, P.; Beaussart, A.; Alsteens, D.; Dupres, V.; Claes, I.; Ossowski, von I.; Vos, de W.M.; Palva, A.; Lebeer, S.; Vanderleyden, J.; Dufrene, Y.F.
Knowledge of the mechanisms by which bacterial pili adhere to host cells and withstand external forces is critical to our understanding of their functional roles and offers exciting avenues in biomedicine for controlling the adhesion of bacterial pathogens and probiotics. While much progress has
Flichy-Fernández, A J; Ata-Ali, J; Alegre-Domingo, T; Candel-Martí, E; Ata-Ali, F; Palacio, J R; Peñarrocha-Diago, M
Probiotics create a biofilm and protect the oral tissues against the action of periodontal pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the oral probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Prodentis upon the peri-implant health of edentulous patients with dental implants and peri-implant mucositis, establishing comparisons vs implants without peri-implant disease. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective cross-over study was made. The patients were all edentulous and were divided into two groups, (A) no peri-implant disease, and (B) peri-implant mucositis affecting one or more implants. Patients with peri-implantitis were excluded. The dosage was one tablet every 24 h over 30 d. All patients in both groups initially received the oral probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Prodentis, followed by placebo. Patients started with probiotic treatment during 30 d, followed by a 6 mo washout period and the administration of placebo for the same period. The following parameters were studied: crevicular fluid volume, modified plaque index, probing depth, modified gingival index, and concentrations of interleukin 1β, interleukin 6 and interleukin 8. A total of 77 implants were evaluated in 34 patients. Group A involved 22 patients with 54 implants without peri-implant alterations, and group B, 12 patients with mucositis affecting one or more implants (23 implants). After treatment with the probiotic, both the patients with mucositis and the patients without peri-implant disease showed improvements in the clinical parameters, with reductions in cytokine levels. In contrast, no such changes were observed with placebo. After treatment with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in patients with implants presenting mucositis, the clinical parameters improved, and the cytokine levels decreased - in contraposition to the observations in the placebo group. Probiotic administration may be regarded as a good alternative for both the treatment of peri-implant mucositis
Vries, de M.C.; Vaughan, E.E.; Kleerebezem, M.; Vos, de W.M.
Lactobacillus plantarum is a versatile lactic acid bacterium that is encountered in a range of environmental niches, has a proven ability to survive gastric transit, and can colonize the intestinal tract of human and other mammals. Several studies describe the effects of L. plantarum consumption on
Palomino, Maria Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C; Fina Martin, Joaquina; Waehner, Pablo M; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Sanchez Rivas, Carmen; Ruzal, Sandra M
We present the 1,956,699-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain ATCC 4356. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 99.96% similarity with L. acidophilus NCFM NC_006814.3 and 99.97% with La-14 NC_021181.2 genomes. Copyright © 2015 Palomino et al.
Kumpu, M; Kekkonen, R A; Kautiainen, H; Järvenpää, S; Kristo, A; Huovinen, P; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R; Hatakka, K
To determine whether long-term daily consumption of milk containing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) decreases respiratory illness in children. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 523 children aged 2-6 years attending day care centers in Finland. Subjects received either normal milk or the same milk with GG on three daily meals for 28 weeks. Daily recording of children' symptoms was done by parents. Primary outcome data from 501 subjects were available for analysis, and data from 128 subjects were analyzed as completed cases in terms of recovery of GG in fecal samples. Number of days with at least one respiratory symptom in all subjects was 5.03/month (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.92-5.15) in the GG group and 5.17/month (95% CI: 5.05-5.29) in the placebo group incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-1.00; P=0.098). In the completed cases, the figures were 4.71 days/month (95% CI: 4.52-4.90) in the GG group and 5.67 days/month (95% CI: 5.40-5.94) in the placebo group (IRR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.78-0.88; PGG reduced the occurrence of respiratory illness in children attending day care centers in the completed cases subgroup, but not in the total population. Thus, future clinical trials are warranted to clarify the association between fecal recovery of a probiotic and the symptom prevalence.
Full Text Available Cow lump cheese represents a traditional Slovak cheese. It belongs to fresh types of cheeses. The aim of this study was to test surviving of commercial probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in cow lump cheese experimentally infected with L. innocua; (listeriae are contaminants and to check the suitability of GG strain as additive for this product. The counts of GG strain in cow lump cheeses were well balanced during whole experiment. It was found in the counts from 5.48 ± 0.15 to 7.77 ±1.50 log10 cfu/g. Its maximum in cheese was 7.77 ± 1.30 log10 cfu/g on day 7 with stability up to day 14. The identity of GG strain isolated from cheeses was confirmed by PCR. The counts of other lactic acid bacteria were also well balanced during the whole experiment in the experimental cheeses with stability up to day 14. Only in E1/GG cheese, the highest number of LAB was detected (10.60 ±1.26 log10 cfu/g. The count of L. innocua LMG 13568 was not influenced. The pH and lactic acid values were not negatively influenced. Visually, the GG cheese provided a good structure (consistency.It can be disputed that shelf-life of the product could be maintained by this way and/or the product itself with GG strain can be consumed as afunctional food or to serve as a probiotic strain carrier.
Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Olesen, Sita Vaag; Prehn, Kennie
Adhesion to intestinal mucosa is a crucial property for probiotic bacteria. Adhesion is thought to increase host-bacterial interactions, thus potentially enabling health benefits to the host. Molecular events connected with adhesion and surface proteome changes were investigated for the probiotic......-MS surface proteome analysis showed different proteins in energy metabolism appearing on the surface, suggesting they exert moonlighting functions. Mucin-supplemented bacteria had relative abundance of pyruvate kinase and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase increased by about 2-fold while six spots with 3.......2-2.1 fold reduced relative abundance comprised elongation factor G, phosphoglycerate kinase, BipAEFTU family GTP-binding protein, ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase, adenylosuccinate synthetase, 30S ribosomal protein S1, and manganese-dependent inorganic pyrophosphatase. Surface proteome of cellobiose...
Full Text Available Background: Beta-defensins (BD are antimicrobial peptides that play a role in defense against pathogens. Beta-defensins (BD are expressed by a variety of epithelial cells, including gingival epithelium, salivary glands, saliva and salivary duct. BD-1 is expressed constitutively, while BD-2 and BD-3 expressions can be induced by commensal bacteria. Probiotics are commensal bacteria, thus L. reuteri as probiotic bacteria may act as “inducer” for BD-2 in epithelial gingiva. S. mutans is the main bacteria causing dental caries and sensitive to BD-2. Purpose: This study was aimed to prove that the administration of probiotic L. reuteri may improve BD-2 expressions in the gingiva epithelium. Method: This study was conducted in vivo using twenty-four male Rattus norvegicus Wistar strains aged 10-12 weeks and weighed 120-150 g. Those rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely negative control group (not induced with L. reuteri or S. mutans, positive control group (induced with S. mutans for 14 days, treatment group 1 (induced with L. reuteri for 14 days and S. mutans for 7 days, and treatment group 2 (induced with L. reuteri and S. mutans for 14 days concurrently. The concentration of L. reuteri used was 4x108cfu/ml, while the concentration of S. mutans was 1x 1010cfu/ml. 0.1 ml of each was dropped in the region of the mandibular incisors. BD-2 expression was calculated using immunohistochemical method. The difference of BD-2 expressions in gingival epithelial cells in the respective groups was analyzed by Anova/SPSS. Results: There were significant differences in BD-2 expressions in gingival epithelial cells in each group based on the results of Anova test (p=0.001. Conclusion: The administration of probiotic L. reuteri is able to increase BD-2 expressions in gingival epithelial cells.
Saarela, Maria; Maukonen, Johanna; von Wright, Atte; Vilpponen-Salmela, Terttu; Patterson, Andrea J; Scott, Karen P; Hämynen, Heikki; Mättö, Jaana
We investigated the effects of oral therapy with doxycycline, a tetracycline group antibiotic, on the gastrointestinal (GI) survival and tetracycline susceptibility of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus LaCH-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12. In addition, the influence of doxycycline therapy on the diversity of the predominant faecal microbiota was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Faecal samples from the antibiotic group (receiving antibiotics and probiotics) and the control group (receiving probiotics only) were analysed for anaerobically and aerobically growing bacteria, bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria as well as for the dominant microbiota. Although doxycycline consumption did not have a large impact on GI survival of the probiotics, it had a detrimental effect on the bifidobacteria and on the diversity of the dominant faecal microbiota. A higher proportion of tetracycline-resistant anaerobically growing bacteria and bifidobacteria was detected in the antibiotic group than in the control group. Several antibiotic group subjects had faecal B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12-like isolates with reduced tetracycline susceptibility. This was unlikely to be due to the acquisition of novel tetracycline resistance determinants, since only tet(W), which is also present in the ingested B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, was found in the resistant isolates. Thus, concomitant ingestion of probiotic L. acidophilus LaCH-5 and B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 with the antibiotic did not generate a safety risk regarding the possible GI transfer of tetracycline resistance genes to the ingested strains.
Ringel-Kulka, Tamar; Palsson, Olafur S; Maier, Danielle; Carroll, Ian; Galanko, Joseph A; Leyer, Gregory; Ringel, Yehuda
Recent data suggest a role for the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of functional bowel disorders (FBDs). Probiotic studies in FBDs generated inconsistent results suggesting a strain-specific and product-specific effect. To investigate the clinical efficacy of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (L-NCFM) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 (B-LBi07) in nonconstipation FBDs. A double-blind, placebo-control clinical trial of the probiotic bacterias L-NCFM and B-LBi07 twice a day (2×10(11) CFU/d) versus placebo over 8 weeks. Primary endpoints were global relief of gastrointestinal symptoms and satisfaction with treatment. Secondary endpoints were change in symptoms severity, well-being, and quality of life. Microbiological effect was assessed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction on fecal samples. Sixty patients (probiotic, n=31; placebo, n=29), 72% females, 84% whites, mean age 37 years. Abdominal bloating improved in the probiotics compared with the placebo group at 4 weeks (4.10 vs 6.17, P=0.009; change in bloating severity P=0.02) and 8 weeks (4.26 vs 5.84, P=0.06; change in bloating severity Pbacteria in the pathophysiology of FBD and the role for probiotic bacteria in the management of these disorders.
Steinberg, Raphael S; Silva, Lilian C S; Souza, Tássia C; Lima, Maurício T; de Oliveira, Nayara L G; Vieira, Leda Q; Arantes, Rosa M E; Miyoshi, Anderson; Nicoli, Jacques R; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nunes, Alvaro C
Two strains of Lactobacillus, previously isolated from bovine faeces and tested in vitro for properties desired in probiotics, were evaluated for their in vivo effectiveness in protecting against experimental salmonellosis. L. salivarius L38 and L. acidophilus L36 previously demonstrated the ability to successfully colonize the gastrointestinal tract of germ-free mice and stimulate the immune system associated with the intestinal mucosa. L38- or L36-feeding showed no detrimental effect on the general health indicators and did not induce changes in normal architecture of liver and small intestine, indicating that the use of these strains is apparently safe. In control animals fed L38 strain, several cytokines had augmented mRNA levels that can be associated with a homeostatic state of intestinal mucosa, while L36 had less diverse regulation. IgA production and secretion in the intestinal lumen induced by infection was abrogated by pretreating with both lactobacilli. In addition, liver and small intestine histological scores and, translocation of Salmonella cells to liver and spleen, indicated that these strains did not confer protection against the infection. So, the IL-12:IL-18àIFN-g axis, essential for an effective immune response against Salmonella, was not favored with L38 or L36 strains. However, increased expression of IL-10 in different portions of the gastrointestinal tract of L38-fed animals is indicative of anti-inflammatory effect to be explored furthermore.
Raphael S. Steinberg
Full Text Available Two strains of Lactobacillus, previously isolated from bovine faeces and tested in vitro for properties desired in probiotics, were evaluated for their in vivo effectiveness in protecting against experimental salmonellosis. L. salivarius L38 and L. acidophilus L36 previously demonstrated the ability to successfully colonize the gastrointestinal tract of germ-free mice and stimulate the immune system associated with the intestinal mucosa. L38- or L36-feeding showed no detrimental effect on the general health indicators and did not induce changes in normal architecture of liver and small intestine, indicating that the use of these strains is apparently safe. In control animals fed L38 strain, several cytokines had augmented mRNA levels that can be associated with a homeostatic state of intestinal mucosa, while L36 had less diverse regulation. IgA production and secretion in the intestinal lumen induced by infection was abrogated by pretreating with both lactobacilli. In addition, liver and small intestine histological scores and, translocation of Salmonella cells to liver and spleen, indicated that these strains did not confer protection against the infection. So, the IL-12:IL-18àIFN-g axis, essential for an effective immune response against Salmonella, was not favored with L38 or L36 strains. However, increased expression of IL-10 in different portions of the gastrointestinal tract of L38-fed animals is indicative of anti-inflammatory effect to be explored furthermore.
Full Text Available The fermented herbal juices are capable of curing and preventing diseases and reducing the aging progress. The present study was performed to investigate the fermentation of Phyllanthus emblica fruit by Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 with respect to carbon sources, polyphenols, and antioxidant properties. The physical changes, for instance, color, odor, taste, turbidity and gas formation, throughout the fermentation process was manually monitored. The fermented product was rich in polyphenolic content. The acid content and pH of the product were under the norms of Thai community product standards. Antioxidant properties of the fermented product were proved using ABTS, and FRAP assays. Chelation based study suggested that fermented P. emblica fruit juices are healthy enough to stabilize the oxidized form of the metal ion. The optimum fermentation period was 15 days. All the results supported that studied carbon sources did not interfere with the quality of the product. This report is the prelude study on the use of probiotic starter culture for the production of P. emblica fruit based lactic acid bacteria fermented beverages (LAFB enriched with bioactive compounds. Further research on the impact of different carbon sources and upstream processes on the quality of LAFB is currently in progress.
Full Text Available We determined the complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus brevis KB290, a probiotic lactic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fermented vegetable. The genome contained a 2,395,134-bp chromosome that housed 2,391 protein-coding genes and nine plasmids that together accounted for 191 protein-coding genes. KB290 contained no virulence factor genes, and several genes related to presumptive cell wall-associated polysaccharide biosynthesis and the stress response were present in L. brevis KB290 but not in the closely related L. brevis ATCC 367. Plasmid-curing experiments revealed that the presence of plasmid pKB290-1 was essential for the strain's gastrointestinal tract tolerance and tendency to aggregate. Using next-generation deep sequencing of current and 18-year-old stock strains to detect low frequency variants, we evaluated genome stability. Deep sequencing of four periodic KB290 culture stocks with more than 1,000-fold coverage revealed 3 mutation sites and 37 minority variation sites, indicating long-term stability and providing a useful method for assessing the stability of industrial bacteria at the nucleotide level.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Short term illnesses, usually caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases are disruptive to productivity and there is relatively little focus on preventative measures. This study examined the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri protectis (ATCC55730 on its ability to improve work-place healthiness by reducing short term sick-leave caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal infections. Methods 262 employees at TetraPak in Sweden (day-workers and three-shift-workers that were healthy at study start were randomised in a double-blind fashion to receive either a daily dose of 108 Colony Forming Units of L. reuteri or placebo for 80 days. The study products were administered with a drinking straw. 181 subjects complied with the study protocol, 94 were randomised to receive L. reuteri and 87 received placebo. Results In the placebo group 26.4% reported sick-leave for the defined causes during the study as compared with 10.6% in the L. reuteri group (p L. reuteri group (p L. reuteri group(p
Luongo, Diomira; Miyamoto, Junki; Bergamo, Paolo; Nazzaro, Filomena; Baruzzi, Federico; Sashihara, Toshihiro; Tanabe, Soichi; Rossi, Mauro
Probiotics species appear to differentially regulate the intestinal immune response. Moreover, we have shown that different immune-modulatory abilities can be found among probiotic strains belonging to the same species. In this study, we further addressed this issue while studying L. gasseri, a species that induces relevant immune activities in human patients. We determined the ability of two strains of L. gasseri, OLL2809 and L13-Ia, to alter cell surface antigen expression, cytokine production and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated cytoprotection in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and MODE-K cells, which represent an enterocyte model. Differential effects of L. gasseri strains were observed on the expression of surface markers in mature DCs; nevertheless, both strains dramatically induced production of IL-12, TNF-α and IL-10. Distinctive responses to OLL2809 and L13-Ia were also shown in MODE-K cells by analyzing the expression of MHC II molecules and the secretion of IL-6; however, both L. gasseri strains raised intracellular glutathione. Treatment of immature DCs with culture medium from MODE-K monolayers improved cytoprotection and modified the process of DC maturation by down-regulating the expression of co-stimulatory markers and by altering the cytokine profile. Notably, bacteria-conditioned MODE-K cell medium suppressed the expression of the examined cytokines, whereas cytoprotective defenses were significantly enhanced only in DCs exposed to OLL2809-conditioned medium. These effects were essentially mediated by secreted bacterial metabolites. We have demonstrated that L. gasseri strains possess distinctive abilities to modulate in vitro DCs and enterocytes. In particular, our results highlight the potential of metabolites secreted by L. gasseri to influence enterocyte-DC crosstalk. Regulation of cellular mechanisms of innate immunity by selected probiotic strains may contribute to the beneficial effects of these
Full Text Available This work characterizes a set of lactobacilli strains isolated from the stomach of healthy humans that might serve as probiotic cultures. Ten different strains were recognized by rep-PCR and PFGE fingerprinting among 19 isolates from gastric biopsies and stomach juice samples. These strains belonged to five species, Lactobacillus gasseri (3, Lactobacillus reuteri (2, Lactobacillus vaginalis (2, Lactobacillus fermentum (2 and Lactobacillus casei (1. All ten strains were subjected to a series of in vitro tests to assess their functional and technological properties, including acid resistance, bile tolerance, adhesion to epithelial gastric cells, production of antimicrobial compounds, inhibition of Helicobacter pylori, antioxidative activity, antibiotic resistance, carbohydrate fermentation, glycosidic activities, and ability to grow in milk. As expected, given their origin, all strains showed good resistance to low pH (3.0, with small reductions in counts after 90 min exposition to this pH. Species- and strain-specific differences were detected in terms of the production of antimicrobials, antagonistic effects towards H. pylori, antioxidative activity and adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. None of the strains showed atypical resistance to a series of 16 antibiotics of clinical and veterinary importance. Two L. reuteri strains were deemed as the most appropriate candidates to be used as potential probiotics against microbial gastric disorders; these showed good survival under gastrointestinal conditions reproduced in vitro, along with strong anti-Helicobacter and antioxidative activities. The two L. reuteri strains further displayed appropriated technological traits for their inclusion as adjunct functional cultures in fermented dairy products.
Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Uchida, Masayuki; Narama, Isao; Ozaki, Kiyokazu
Oral and esophageal candidiasis sometimes leads to mucosal hyperplasia, and progresses to carcinoma. We have produced an animal model for hyperplastic mucosal candidiasis in the forestomach that has a proliferative lesion of the squamous epithelium with chronic inflammation and C. albicans infection, some of which advanced to squamous cell carcinoma. There are many reports of the antibacterial effects of probiotics, but consensus about their antifungal effect has not been reached. In the present study, we investigate whether probiotic (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 (LG21 yogurt) can prevent proliferative and inflammatory changes caused by C. albicans in this mucosal candidiasis animal model. Diabetes was induced in 8-week-old WBN/Kob rats by intravenous administration of alloxan. One group of diabetic rats received a saline containing C. albicans and LG21 yogurt orally (DC+LG21 group) for 30 weeks, and another group received only C. albicans (DC group) for 30 weeks. They were sacrificed at 40 weeks of age, and analyzed histopathologically. In the DC+LG21 group, squamous hyperplasia at the greater curvature was significantly milder, and the Ki-67 positive index was significantly lower compared with the DC group. Suppurative inflammation with C. albicans also tended to be suppressed at the greater curvature. These findings suggest that probiotic (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 can suppress squamous hyperplastic change and inflammation associated with C. albicans infection in the forestomach.
Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Machado, Marcio; Zhu, Xu; Chen, Xin; Koren, Gideon; Einarson, Thomas R
Our objective in this study was to review systematically the evidence for safety of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Saccharomyces spp. during pregnancy and to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Eleven databases were searched from inception to September 2007 for RCTs of probiotic use during pregnancy. Two independent reviewers searched databases. Random-effects models combined data. Eleven studies on Lactobacillus and/or Bifidobacterium examined 1505 patients for four outcomes with no data heterogeneity; no miscarriage data were reported. Five studies reported Caesarean section outcomes (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.65 to 1.19). Six studies reported birth weight (weighted difference 45 g; 95% CI -181 to 271). Three studies reported gestational age (weighted difference 0.4 weeks; 95%CI -0.4 to 1.2). No malformations were reported in the probiotic group. No RCTs were available for Saccharomyces during pregnancy. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium had no effect on the incidence of Caesarean section, birth weight, or gestational age. The safety of Saccharomyces during pregnancy is unknown.
Chalova, V I; Lingbeck, J M; Kwon, Y M; Ricke, S C
The capabilities of selected strains from genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium to produce extracellular bioactive compounds with antimutagenic properties against benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and sodium azide (SA) were tested as a function of growth phase. The bacterial supernatants from exponential and stationary phases were characterized with different patterns of antimutagenic activity against the two mutagens. All lactobacilli exhibited either no effect or low antimutagenicity against BaP during exponential growth. Higher antimutagenic activities of lactobacilli supernatants were observed in the stationary phase against SA as well. An exception was Lactobacillus sakei 23K which expressed a relatively low percent of inhibition of mutagenesis (PI = 28.14 +/- 7.41) in the exponential phase and no antimutagenic activity in the stationary phase. Of the bifidobacteria, only Bifidobacterium adoleascentis ATCC 15703 exhibited higher antimutagenecity against BaP in the exponential phase. The same bacterial supernatants however, did not possess any antimutagenicity against SA in either the exponential or stationary phases. B. bifidum ATCC 11863 did not express any significant differences in its activity against either BaP or SA in the exponential or stationary phases. Only B. breve ATCC 15700 expressed a high antimutagenic effect against SA in the stationary phase but exhibited no effect during exponential growth. Overall, bacterial antimutagenic responses were associated with growth phase and type of mutagen.
Darbaky, Y; Evrard, B; Patrier, S; Falenta, J; Garcin, S; Tridon, A; Dapoigny, M; Silberberg, C; Nivoliez, A; Diop, L
This study evaluated the efficacy of a repeated oral treatment with two active pharmaceutical ingredients (Lcr Lenio® and Lcr Restituo® ) derivated from the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35® in two animal models mimicking different features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS is characterized by visceral pain associated with alteration of bowel transit. IBS patients present visceral hypersensitivity with peripheral and central origins. The injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) into the proximal colon as well as an acute partial restraint stress (PRS) produces colonic hypersensitivity measured in conscious rats by a decrease in pain threshold in response to distal colonic distension. Visceral hypersensitivity was produced by injection of TNBS 7 days before colonic distension or by acute PRS on testing day. Treatments were performed once a day during eight consecutive days. This study indicates that an 8-day probiotic treatment (Lcr Lenio and Lcr Restituo) produces an antihypersensitivity activity in both TNBS and PRS visceral pain models. As this probiotic strain attenuates peripherally and centrally induced visceral hypersensitivity in rats, it may be active in treatment of IBS symptoms. An immunomodulatory effect of the probiotics was highlighted in the TNBS model on the IL-23 secretion, suggesting a mechanism of action involving a regulation of the local IL-23/Th17 immune activation. Two formulas of Lcr35® probiotic strain show very encouraging results for the treatment of IBS patients. Further studies are needed to better understand the role and mechanisms of probiotics on the pathogenesis of IBS. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Braathen, G; Ingildsen, V; Twetman, S; Ericson, D; Jørgensen, M R
The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the selected interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in young individuals with presence and non-presence of Lactobacillus reuteri in saliva after a three-week intervention with probiotic lozenges. The study group consisted of 47 healthy individuals aged 18-32 years with no clinical signs of oral inflammation. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial participants ingested two lozenges per day containing two strains of the probiotic bacterium L. reuteri or placebo lozenges. The intervention and wash-out periods were three weeks. Stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva was collected at baseline and immediately after termination of the intervention periods. The samples were analysed for total protein, salivary IgA and selected cytokines. In this extended analysis, data were collected by analysing baseline and follow-up saliva samples related to ingestion of the probiotic lozenges for the presence of L. reuteri through DNA-extraction, PCR-amplification and gel-electrophoresis. At baseline, 27% of the individuals displayed presence of L. reuteri and 42% were positive immediately after the three-week probiotic intervention. Individuals with presence of L. reuteri in saliva had significantly higher (Psaliva coincided with higher concentrations of salivary IgA and %IgA/protein in stimulated whole saliva after the three-week daily intake of probiotic lozenges. Our findings suggest that monitoring the presence of probiotic candidates in the oral environment is important to interpret and understand their possible immune-modulating role in maintaining oral health.
[Influence of a low-calorie diet with inclusion of probiotic product containing bacterias Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia DSM 21380 on clinical and metabolic characteristics in patients with obesity and arterial hypertension].
Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Alekseeva, R I; Sentsova, T B; Kaganov, B S
In a number of studies it is shown that regular use of the probiotic products containing Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia DSM 21380 in complex dietary treatment, not only modulates intestinal microflora, but also has a positive influence on a functional condition of cardiovascular system including levelels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The aim of this research was to study the influence of dietotherapy with inclusion of the probiotic product containing Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia DSM 21380, on clinical and metabolic characteristics in patients with obesity and accompanying arterial hypertension (AH).
Ingemar von Ossowski
Full Text Available Primarily arising from their well understood beneficial health effects, many lactobacilli strains are considered good candidates for use as probiotics in humans and animals. Lactobacillar probiosis can itself be best typified by the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain, which, with its well-documented clinical benefits, has emerged as one of the most widely used probiotics in the food and health-supplement industries. Even so, many facets of its molecular mechanisms and limitations as a beneficial commensal bacterium still remain to be thoroughly explored and dissected. Because L. rhamnosus GG is one of only a few such strains exhibiting surface piliation (called SpaCBA, we sought to examine whether this particular type of cell-surface appendage has a discernible immunomodulating capacity and is able to trigger targeted responses in human immune-related cells. Thus, presented herein for this study, we recombinantly engineered Lactococcus lactis to produce native (and pilin-deleted SpaCBA pili that were assembled in a structurally authentic form and anchored to the cell surface, and which had retained mucus-binding functionality. By using these recombinant lactococcal constructs, we were able to demonstrate that the SpaCBA pilus can be a contributory factor in the activation of Toll-like receptor 2-dependent signaling in HEK cells as well as in the modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. From these data, we suggest that the recombinant-expressed and surface-anchored SpaCBA pilus, given its projected functioning in the gut environment, might be viewed as a new microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP-like modulator of innate immunity. Accordingly, our study has brought some new insight to the molecular immunogenicity of the SpaCBA pilus, thus opening the way to a better understanding of its possible role in the multifaceted nature of L. rhamnosus GG
Møller, Marie Sofie; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek
Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode α-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside...... from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO...... or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of α-1,6- and α-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-α...
Jia, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Lu-Ji; Pang, Xue-Hui; Gu, Xin-Xi; Abdelazez, Amro; Liang, Yu; Sun, Si-Rui; Meng, Xiang-Chen
Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0391 is a probiotic strain isolated from the traditional fermented dairy products and identified to produce bacteriocin against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Previous studies showed that the strain has a high resistance to gastrointestinal stress and has a high adhesion ability to the intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). We reported the entire genome sequence of this strain, which contains a circular 2,886,607-bp chromosome and three circular plasmids. Genes, which are related to the biosynthesis of bacteriocins, the stress resistance to gastrointestinal tract environment and adhesive performance, were identified. Whole genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0391 will be helpful for its applications in food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to increase viability and activity of L. acidophilus encapsulated with alginate and whey protein hydrolyzed for cell release and microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus viability in probiotic ice cream. The methods used were factorial experiment using Completely Randomized Design. Data was analysed with Variance Analysis. The results showed that the interaction between alginate and whey protein hydrolyzed supplemented could be increased the function of CaCl2 and also encapsulated L. acidophilus viability. The used alginate of 1% and whey protein hydrolyzed supplemented of 0,5% produced encapsulated L. acidophilus viability higher than before, but however, the utilization of alginate of 1% and whey protein hydrolyzed supplemented of 0% could release a few cell. Therefore, the utilization of alginate 1% and whey protein hydrolyzed supplemented 0,5% in ice cream produced L. acidophilus highest than other. Keywords : Lactobacillus acidophilus, microencapsulation, alginate, whey protein hydrolyzed, cell release, ice cream
Juárez Tomás, María Silvina; De Gregorio, Priscilla Romina; Leccese Terraf, María Cecilia; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima
Probiotic formulations must include a high number of viable and active microorganisms. In this work, the survival of human vaginal Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1324 during encapsulation, lyophilization and storage, and the activity of encapsulated and/or freeze-dried bacterial cells were evaluated. Extrusion-ionic gelation technique was applied to encapsulate L. reuteri CRL 1324, using xanthan and gellan. Encapsulated and free bacterial cells were freeze-dried with or without lactose and skim milk as lyoprotectors. The different systems obtained were stored at room temperature and at 4°C for 150days. The following determinations were performed: L. reuteri CRL 1324 viability, microorganism released from capsules, survival in a medium simulating the vaginal fluid and maintenance of beneficial properties (growth inhibition of opportunistic pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae NH 17 and biofilm formation). L. reuteri CRL 1324 encapsulation was efficient, allowing the recovery of a high number of entrapped lactobacilli. The survival of encapsulated L. reuteri during lyophilization and storage was significantly higher in the presence of lyoprotectors. At the end of storage, the highest numbers of viable cells were obtained in free or encapsulated cells freeze-dried with lyoprotectors, stored at 4°C. Encapsulated and/or lyophilized L. reuteri cells maintained their viability in simulated vaginal fluid as well as the ability to inhibit S. agalactiae NH 17 growth and to form biofilm. Encapsulated and freeze-dried L. reuteri CRL 1324 can be included in a suitable pharmaceutical form for vaginal application to prevent or treat urogenital infections in women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Becerra, Jimmy E; Yebra, María J; Monedero, Vicente
L-Fucose is a sugar present in human secretions as part of human milk oligosaccharides, mucins, and other glycoconjugates in the intestinal epithelium. The genome of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) carries a gene cluster encoding a putative L-fucose permease (fucP), L-fucose catabolic pathway (fucI, fucK, fucU, and fucA), and a transcriptional regulator (fucR). The metabolism of L-fucose in LGG results in 1,2-propanediol production, and their fucI and fucP mutants displayed a severe and mild growth defect on L-fucose, respectively. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the fuc genes are induced by L-fucose and subject to a strong carbon catabolite repression effect. This induction was triggered by FucR, which acted as a transcriptional activator necessary for growth on L-fucose. LGG utilized fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine and contrarily to other lactobacilli, the presence of fuc genes allowed this strain to use the L-fucose moiety. In fucI and fucR mutants, but not in fucP mutant, L-fucose was not metabolized and it was excreted to the medium during growth on fucosyl-α1,3-N-acetylglucosamine. The fuc genes were induced by this fucosyl-disaccharide in the wild type and the fucP mutant but not in a fucI mutant, showing that FucP does not participate in the regulation of fuc genes and that L-fucose metabolism is needed for FucR activation. The l-fucose operon characterized here constitutes a new example of the many factors found in LGG that allow this strain to adapt to the gastrointestinal conditions. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Full Text Available Based on the preliminary screening of eight indigenous putative probiotic Lactobacilli, Lactobacillus fermentum Lf1 was selected for assessing its antioxidative efficacy in DSS colitis mouse model based on its ability to enhance the expression of “Nrf2” by 6.43-fold and malondialdehyde (MDA inhibition by 78.1 ± 0.24% in HT-29 cells under H2O2 stress. The Disease Activity Index and histological scores of Lf1-treated mice were lower than the control group. However, expression of “Nrf2” was not observed in Lf1-treated mice. A significant increase in the expression of antioxidative enzymes such as SOD2 and TrxR-1 was recorded in both of the groups. The expression of SOD2 was significantly downregulated in colitis-induced mice by −100.00-fold relative to control group, and the downregulation was considerably reduced to −37.04-fold in colitis Lf1 treatment group. Almost, a similar trend was recorded in case of “thioredoxin” expression, though “CAT” was refractile to expression. The Lf1-treated group had decreased malondialdehyde level as compared to colitis control (37.92 ± 6.31 versus 91.13 ± 5.76 μM/g. These results point towards Lf1-induced activation of the antioxidant enzyme system in the mouse model and its prospects to be explored as a new strategy for IBD management.
Full Text Available Previous in vitro and in vivo studies showed that two human isolates of Lactobacillus gasseri, LF221 and K7 are able to survive the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to colonise intestines of pigs at least temporarily. The aim of this study was to examine the adhesion ability of LF221 and K7 strains to Caco-2 cells. Adhesion of lactobacilli from early stationary growth phase was examined at two pH values of DMEM buffer (4.5 and 7. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a widely used strain with clinical evidences of its efficiency, served as a positive control. The number of lactobacilli added to each well was found to be crucial in the adhesion assay. When added, lactobacilli were in range of 2.5 · 106 to 2.5 · 108 cfu/well, the linear correlation between the number of adhered cells (log cfu and the number of added cells (log cfu was found for all three strains (R2 > 0.99 at both pH values (4.5 and 7. At the highest concentration of added K7 and GG cells tested (app. 109 cfu/well, the efficiency of adhesion was reduced. pH value of the medium strongly affected the adhesion, which was promoted in acidic conditions (pH=4.5. The adhesion of K7 strain was slightly weaker compared to GG strain at both pH values, while at pH=4.5 the adhesion of LF221 strain was even better than GG adhesion, at least at lower concentration of lactobacilli. The direct comparison of these strains was possible by regression analysis. At lower concentration of lactobacilli (2.5 · 106, the best efficiency of adhesion (% of adhered bacteria was observed for the strain LF221, reaching the values of 7.8 and 1.9 % at pH=4.5 and 7, respectively, while at higher lactobacilli concentration the ration of adhesion was higher for GG strain (3.3 % at pH=4.5. In conclusion, strains LF221 and K7 were demonstrated to be adhesive, especially in acidic conditions. The level of adhesion of K7 and GG strains positively correlates with the number of added lactobacilli only up to the
Kashima, Shin; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Konishi, Hiroaki; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Inaba, Yuhei; Moriichi, Kentaro; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ikuta, Katsuya; Ohtake, Takaaki; Kohgo, Yutaka
Inflammatory bowel disease frequently causes intestinal obstruction because of extensive fibrosis. This study investigated whether polyphosphate (poly P), an active molecule derived from Lactobacillus brevis, could improve the fibrosis in a model of chronic colitis. In this study, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced chronic colitis models and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis models were used as models of fibrosis. To clarify the mechanism responsible for the observed effects, Caco-2/brush border epithelial (BBE) and naive T helper lymphocyte (THP)-1 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation. Non-cancer human colon fibroblast (CCD-18) cells were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) to induce fibrosis. The expression levels of fibrosis- and inflammation-associated molecules were evaluated by both a Western blotting analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The histologic inflammation and fibrosis were significantly improved in the group administered poly P in both the DSS and TNBS colitis models. The levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were significantly decreased by poly P treatment. The expression levels of TGF-β1 and collagens in the colitis mice were decreased by poly P. The LPS-induced expressions of IL-1β and TGF-β1 in Caco-2/BBE cells and of TNF-α in THP-1 cells were reduced by poly P treatment. Poly P did not affect the expression of collagens and connective tissue growth factor in the CCD-18 cells. In conclusion, poly P suppresses intestinal inflammation and fibrosis by downregulating the expression of inflammation- and fibrosis-associated molecules in the intestinal epithelium. The administration of poly P is therefore a novel option to treat fibrosis because of chronic intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrheal infections caused by Salmonella, are one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Salmonella causes various diseases that range from mild gastroenteritis to enteric fever, depending on the serovar involved, infective dose, species, age and immune status of the host. Probiotics are proposed as an attractive alternative possibility in the prevention against this pathogen infection. Previously we demonstrated that continuous Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 administration to BALB/c mice before and after challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium decreased the severity of Salmonella infection. The aim of the present work was to deep into the knowledge about how this probiotic bacterium exerts its effect, by assessing its impact on the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory (TNFα, IFNγ and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokines in the inductor and effector sites of the gut immune response, and analyzing toll-like receptor (TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9 expressions in both healthy and infected mice. Results Probiotic administration to healthy mice increased the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and improved the production and secretion of TNFα, IFNγ and IL-10 in the inductor sites of the gut immune response (Peyer's patches. Post infection, the continuous probiotic administration, before and after Salmonella challenge, protected the host by modulating the inflammatory response, mainly in the immune effector site of the gut, decreasing TNFα and increasing IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-10 production in the lamina propria of the small intestine. Conclusions The oral administration of L. casei CRL 431 induces variations in the cytokine profile and in the TLRs expression previous and also after the challenge with S. Typhimurium. These changes show some of the immune mechanisms implicated in the protective effect of this probiotic strain against S. Typhimurium, providing
Kumpu, Minna; Swanljung, Elisa; Tynkkynen, Soile; Hatakka, Katja; Kekkonen, Riina A; Järvenpää, Salme; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne
The present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine whether consumption of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) would lead to the recovery of GG in tonsil tissue. After 3 weeks’ daily consumption of GG as a single strain (n 20), GG as a part of a multispecies combination (n 17) or placebo (n 20), tonsil tissue samples were collected from fifty-seven young adults during tonsillectomy due to chronic or recurrent tonsillitis. Strain-specific real-time PCR was used to detect GG in the tonsil tissue. GG was recovered in the tonsil sample of 40% of the subjects in the GG group, 41% in the multispecies group and 30% in the placebo group (P value between groups 0.79). In all subjects with positive recovery of GG in the tonsil tissue, GG was also recovered in the faecal sample taken at the start of the intervention and at the time of the tissue sample collection, which indicates more persistent adherence of the probiotic. To conclude, GG can be recovered from tonsil tissue after oral administration as a singlestrain probiotic or as a part of a multispecies probiotic combination. The present results suggest that individual variation exists in the ability of GG to adhere to tonsil tissue. Persistence of GG appears to be high in tonsil tissue as well, in addition to persistence in faecal samples, which has been demonstrated previously. Further clinical trials are warranted to evaluate whether probiotic adherence in the tonsil tissue could have a role in respiratory symptom prevalence.
Bengtsson, J; Adlerberth, I; Östblom, A; Saksena, P; Öresland, T; Börjesson, L
Poor pouch function after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis is a considerable problem. Pouchitis and functional disorders are the most common reasons. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial effect in pouchitis but have not been assessed in functional pouch disorders. The aim was to analyse the effects of probiotics in patients with poor pouch function. Thirty-three patients were randomized to probiotics (Lactobacillus plantarum 299 and Bifidobacterium infantis Cure 21) or placebo in a double blinded, 1:1 fashion. The treatment effect was assessed by the pouch functional score (PFS; 0-15, 15 worst), pouchitis disease activity index (PDAI; 0-18, 18 worst), and levels of four faecal biomarkers of inflammation (calprotectin, lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase [MPO] and eosinophilic cationic protein [ECP]). Thirty-two patients were included (probiotics = 17, placebo = 16). There was no difference in change in the PFS from before to after treatment between the groups (median difference: -1.00, 95% C.I. -3.00 to 0.00, p = 0.119). Furthermore, probiotics had no effect on PDAI (median difference: 0.00, 95% C.I. 0.00-1.00, p = 0.786), or on faecal biomarkers. Significant correlations were observed between PDAI and each of the faecal biomarkers at study start. There were no correlations between PFS or PDAI symptom subscore and the biomarkers. PDAI endoscopic and histologic subscores correlated significantly to each of the biomarkers. The hypothesis that probiotics improves pouch-related dysfunction was not confirmed. Faecal biomarkers could play a future role in the management of pouch patients.
Xu, Xinhui; Hicks, Caitlin; Li, Yan; Su, Junwu; Shiloach, Joseph; Kaufman, Jeanne B; Fitz, Yvonne; Eichacker, Peter Q; Cui, Xizhong
One proposed benefit of probiotic therapy is that probiotic bacterial cell-wall binding to intestinal cell pathogen-recognition receptors activates protective innate immunity. However, in critically ill patients, intestinal epithelium disruption by shock or other insults may compromise this compartmentalized response and cause systemic bacteria and cell-wall translocation. The effects of intravascular introduction of probiotic bacterial cell wall are unclear. We investigated 24-hour infusions of purified cell wall from Lactobacillus gasseri ATC33323 (L. gasseri), a probiotic bacterium, in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 49). Increasing cell-wall doses (0 (control), 10, 20, 40, 80, or 160 mg/kg over 24 hours) produced dose-ordered decreases in survival measured after 168 hours (11 survivors/11 total (100%), seven of seven (100%), seven of seven (100%), six of eight (75%), five of eight (63%), and one of nine (11%), respectively, P gasseri cell wall was equally or more lethal than Staphylococcus aureus cell wall, which was previously studied (100% to 88% survival with the same increasing doses). During challenge, compared with controls, L. gasseri cell wall produced increases in blood IL-1β, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, migratory inhibitory protein-1α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and nitric oxide, and decreases in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets that were greater with higher versus lower doses (P ≤ 0.05). Medium-dose cell wall (40 and 80 mg/kg combined) progressively decreased blood pressure and increased heart rate, and all doses increased lactate, hepatic transaminases, and creatinine phosphokinase (P ≤ 0.05). Although L. gasseri, like other probiotic bacteria, is considered safe, its cell wall can stimulate the maladaptive inflammatory response associated with pathogenic bacteria. Such effects deserve study, especially regarding critically ill patients.
Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. intestinalis is the protozoan parasite responsible for giardiasis, the most common and widely spread intestinal parasitic disease worldwide, affecting both humans and animals. After cysts ingestion (through either contaminated food or water, Giardia excysts in the upper intestinal tract to release replicating trophozoites that are responsible for the production of symptoms. In the gut, Giardia cohabits with the host's microbiota, and several studies have revealed the importance of this gut ecosystem and/or some probiotic bacteria in providing protection against G. duodenalis infection through mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. Recent findings suggest that Bile-Salt-Hydrolase (BSH-like activities from the probiotic strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 may contribute to the anti-giardial activity displayed by this strain. Here, we cloned and expressed each of the three bsh genes present in the L. johnsonii La1 genome to study their enzymatic and biological properties. While BSH47 and BSH56 were expressed as recombinant active enzymes, no significant enzymatic activity was detected with BSH12. In vitro assays allowed determining the substrate specificities of both BSH47 and BSH56, which were different. Modeling of these BSHs indicated a strong conservation of their 3-D structures despite low conservation of their primary structures. Both recombinant enzymes were able to mediate anti-giardial biological activity against Giardia trophozoites in vitro. Moreover, BSH47 exerted significant anti-giardial effects when tested in a murine model of giardiasis. These results shed new light on the mechanism, whereby active BSH derived from the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 may yield anti-giardial effects in vitro and in vivo. These findings pave the way toward novel approaches for the treatment of this widely spread but neglected infectious disease, both in human and in veterinary medicine.
Full Text Available Background Finding alternatives to antibiotics for poultry production is very important because there are increasing concerns about antibiotic resistance. So, researchers have been directed to the research back to natural antimicrobial products. Some researchers stated that probiotics can stimulate the immune system and play an important role in shaping the immune system. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a commercial probiotic mixture (Aquablend Avian® supplementation to the drinking water of broiler chickens on the immune response against Newcastle and influenza diseases vaccines. Materials and Methods In this study, 180 one-day-old broiler chickens were purchased and divided randomly into 3 groups (n = 60 for each group. Chickens in groups A and B received 300 mg of the probiotic in drinking water for first 3 days and first 7 days, respectively. Chickens in group C were kept as a control group and did not receive probiotic. All groups were vaccinated with live Newcastle vaccine (B1 strain intraocularly on 8th day, and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2 subcutaneously at the back of the neck on 8th day. Two mL of blood samples were collected before vaccination as well as on days 14, 28 and 35 postimmunization. Ten chickens of each group were bled randomly and an antibody titer against Newcastle disease vaccine and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2 was determined by the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Results The results of the present study showed that oral administration of the probiotic for 7 days significantly increased the specific antibody response to Newcastle vaccine compared to the control group (0.75 - 1.6 log, based on log2, while the probiotic administration had no significant effect on antibody productions against avian influenza vaccine as compared to the control group. Conclusions Oral administration of Aquablend Avian® probiotic strains including Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium
Hong, Meegun; Kim, Seung Woo; Han, Sang Hak; Kim, Dong Joon; Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Myong Jo; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo; Ham, Young Lim
Objective The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4) in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been widely established. We evaluated the biological effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and acidophilus R0052), KRG (Korea red ginseng), and urushiol (Rhus verniciflua Stokes) on ALD, including their effects on normal and high-fat diet in mice. Methods One hundred C57BL/6 mice were classified into normal (N) and high-fat diet (H) groups. Each group was divided into 5 sub-groups: control, alcohol, alcohol+probiotics, alcohol+KRG, and alcohol+urushiol. A liver function test, histology, electron-microscopy, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, and IL-10, and TLR 4 were evaluated and compared. Results In the N group, probiotics, KRG, and urushiol significantly reduced levels of TNF-α (12.3±5.1, 13.4±3.9, and 12.1±4.3 vs. 27.9±15.2 pg/mL) and IL-1β (108.4±39.4, 75.0±51.0, and 101.1±26.8 vs. 162.4±37.5 pg/mL), which were increased by alcohol. Alcohol-induced TLR 4 expression was reduced by probiotics and urushiol (0.7±0.2, and 0.8±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.3, pprobiotics and KRG, compared with alcohol (25.3±15.6 and 20.4±6.2 vs. 7.6±5.6 pg/mL) and TLR 4 expression was reduced by probiotics (0.8±0.2 vs. 1.0±0.3, p = 0.007). Conclusions Alcohol-induced TLR 4 expression was down-regulated by probiotics in the normal and high-fat diet groups. Probiotics, KRG, and urushiol might be effective in the treatment of ALD by regulating the gut-liver axis. PMID:25692549
Nikolic, Milica; López, Patricia; Strahinic, Ivana; Suárez, Ana; Kojic, Milan; Fernández-García, María; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Golic, Natasa; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia
Traditional fermented foods are the best source for the isolation of strains with specific traits to act as functional starters and to keep the biodiversity of the culture collections. Besides, these strains could be used in the formulation of foods claimed to promote health benefits, i.e. those containing probiotic microorganisms. For the rational selection of strains acting as probiotics, several in vitro tests have been proposed. In the current study, we have characterized the probiotic potential of the strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11, isolated from a Serbian soft, white, homemade cheese, which is able to produce a "ropy" exopolysaccharide (EPS). Three novobiocin derivative strains, which have lost the ropy phenotype, were characterized as well in order to determine the putative role of the EPS in the probiotic potential. Under chemically gastrointestinal conditions, all strains were able to survive around 1-2% (10(6)-10(7)cfu/ml cultivable bacteria) only when they were included in a food matrix (1% skimmed milk). The strains were more resistant to acid conditions than to bile salts and gastric or pancreatic enzymes, which could be due to a pre-adaptation of the parental strain to acidic conditions in the cheese habitat. The ropy EPS did not improve the survival of the producing strain. On the contrary, the presence of an EPS layer surrounding the strain BGCG11 hindered its adhesion to the three epithelial intestinal cell lines tested, since the adhesion of the three non-ropy derivatives was higher than the parental one and also than that of the reference strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Aiming to propose a potential target application of these strains as probiotics, the cytokine production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analyzed. The EPS-producing L. paraplantarum BGCG11 strain showed an anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressor profile whereas the non-ropy derivative strains induced higher pro-inflammatory response. In addition, when
Full Text Available Mary Ann VT Dimaguila,1,2 Peter Gal,1,3,4 Tiffany Wilson,1 John E Wimmer Jr,1,2 McCrae Smith,1,2 Rita Q Carlos,1,2 Christie C Davanzo,1,2 J Laurence Ransom1,2 1Women's Hospital of Greensboro, Cone Health, Greensboro, NC, USA; 2Piedmont Neonatology, Greensboro, NC, USA; 3Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Greensboro Area Health Education Center, Greensboro, NC, USA Background: A recent study showed that use of Lactobacillus reuteri as probiotic prophylaxis decreased the necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC rate from 15.1% to 2.5% in neonates with birth weight below 1000 g. Given the controversies surrounding use of probiotics in neonatal intensive care units, we address one additional aspect of routine implementation of probiotics for NEC prophylaxis – the pharmacoeconomic impact. Methods: Using data from our initial published experience, and continuing data collection after instituting a higher dose of L. reuteri, we measured the reduction in NEC in neonates with birth weight below 1000 g. Cost savings from prior studies examining the cost and outcomes of medical and surgical NEC were used to calculate the financial impact of routine L. reuteri DSM 17938 prophylaxis. Results: Medical records for 354 neonates were reviewed, 232 in the years before introduction of L. reuteri prophylaxis and 79 who received L. reuteri prophylaxis dosed at 0.1 mL daily and 43 neonates given a total daily dose of 0.2 mL as one or two doses. The incidence of NEC was significantly lower in the neonates who received L. reuteri (two of 122 neonates [1.6%] versus 35 of 232 neonates [15.1%]. The expected benefits for our neonatal intensive care unit per 100 extremely low-birth-weight neonates treated were four fewer deaths, five fewer cases of medical NEC, eight fewer cases of surgical NEC, one less patient with short-bowel syndrome, and a cost saving of approximately $2.2 million. Conclusion: Prophylactic
Maria Carolina de Oliveira Ribeiro
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the probiotic properties of Pediococcus acidilactici B14 and to study its resistance in the gastrointestinal system when combined with Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 and used in a potentially symbiotic aerated soy based dessert. P. acidilactici B14 showed some important probiotic characteristics such as survival rate of 45.9% at pH 2.5; 72.4% in 0.3% bile salts and 95.8% after gastrointestinal transit at pH 4.0. Tolerance against the antibiotics cephalexin, neomycin, vancomycin, cefotaxime and penicillin G was also observed. The strain inhibited antagonism against the following cultures: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus cereus ATCC 33018, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P and Salmonella sp. The mixed culture of P. acidilactici B14 with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 showed a survival rate of 92.4% after the passage through the gastrointestinal system at pH 4.0. Furthermore, in the presence of the food matrix, an average increase in cell viability, after being subjected to the gastrointestinal system of 9.9% at pH 2.0 and 6.1% at pH 4.0, was observed. This characterized the adequacy of the associated culture as probiotic in the development of a functional food such as soy based aerated symbiotic dessert.
Singh, Richa Polka; Damle, Satyawan Gangaram; Chawla, Amrita
To compare the levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in saliva of school children, before and after consumption of probiotic and control ice-cream. A double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial was carried out in forty, 12-14 year-old children, with no clinically detectable caries. The selected children were randomized equally into two groups I and II. Following an initial run-in period of 1 week, children in group I and II were given ice-creams 'A' and 'B', respectively, for 10 days. Being a cross-over study, the ice-creams were interchanged in the two groups after a 2-week wash-out period. Saliva samples at baseline and follow-up were assessed using Dentocult SM and Dentocult LB kits. On statistical evaluation, it was seen that probiotic ice-cream brought about a statistically significant reduction (p-value = 0.003) in salivary mutans streptococci levels with no significant effect on lactobacilli levels. In conclusion, probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 ATCC27536 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 can reduce the levels of certain caries-associated micro-organisms in saliva.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to detect whether in experimental Salmonella enterica Typhimurium infection the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 in combination with fluoroquinolone therapy would eradicate S. Typhimurium, prevent the development of liver and spleen granulomas and improve the indices of oxidative stress in the ileum mucosa. The selected bacteriological, histological and biochemical methods were applied. Results Combined treatment with L. fermentum ME-3 and ofloxacin eradicated Salmonella Typhimurium from blood, ileum and liver, decreased the number of animals with liver and spleen granulomas and reduced the value of lipid peroxides in the ileum mucosa. Higher total counts of intestinal lactobacilli in all experimental groups were associated with the absence of liver granulomas. Conclusion The antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic L. fermentum ME-3 combined with ofloxacin enhances the eradication of experimental S. Typhimurium infection. These observations on probiotic and antimicrobial co-action may serve as basis to develop new strategies for treatment of invasive bacterial infections of the gut.
Vesterlund, Satu; Salminen, Kari; Salminen, Seppo
This study evaluated the effect of water activity on the long-term storage stability of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in a dry food matrix. Viability of LGG was further studied in a crushed flaxseed matrix - a new possible product matrix to deliver probiotics - as well as in reference matrices as maltodextrin. Three different water activities (a(w)=0.11, 0.22 and 0.43) were used, and preparations were stored at room temperature for up to 14months. The viability of LGG was less dependent on the matrix used, but strongly dependent on the water activity. Viability in flaxseed was lost rapidly with a(w) 0.43: with a(w) 0.22 the reduction was 2.4 log(10) units and with a(w) 0.11 the reduction of viability was only 0.29 log(10) units during the entire storage time. Taken together, regulating water activity to a low value may offer possibilities for extending the shelf life of dry probiotic products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Blugeon, Sébastien; Bertho, Nicolas; Chevalier, Christophe; Le Goffic, Ronan; Courau, Stéphanie; Molimard, Pascal; Chatel, Jean Marc; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G
In this study, we developed a large-scale screening of bacterial strains in order to identify novel candidate probiotics with immunomodulatory properties. For this, 158 strains, including a majority of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), were screened by two different cellular models: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-activated HT-29 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Different strains responsive to both models (pro- and anti-inflammatory strains) were selected, and their protective effects were tested in vivo in a murine model of influenza virus infection. Daily intragastric administrations during 10 days before and 10 days after viral challenge (100 PFU of influenza virus H1N1 strain A Puerto Rico/8/1934 [A/PR8/34]/mouse) of Lactobacillus plantarum CNRZ1997, one potentially proinflammatory probiotic strain, led to a significant improvement in mouse health by reducing weight loss, alleviating clinical symptoms, and inhibiting significantly virus proliferation in lungs. In conclusion, in this study, we have combined two cellular models to allow the screening of a large number of LAB for their immunomodulatory properties. Moreover, we identified a novel candidate probiotic strain, L. plantarum CNRZ1997, active against influenza virus infection in mice.
Meriem, Kaid Harche
Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum strains previously isolated from the traditional butter made from camel milk (shmen were evaluated for some probiotic criteria. Among 38 strains investigated for bile resistance, 14 were tolerant to 2% oxgall with survival percentages ranging from 69 to 75%. Out of these, only 4 strains (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 were sufficiently resistant to pH 2.0 for 2 to 6 h incubation periods. Only crude extracts of L. plantarum SH12 and L. plantarum SH24 were inhibitory against Lactococcus lactis B8, the strain used as indicator. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts was completely lost after treatment with Î±-chymotrypsin and proteinase K. L. plantarum SH12 and SH24 strains were susceptible to penicillin G, oxacillin, vancomycin and clindamycin, but resistant to tetracycline and kanamycin. These strains showed rapid acidification activity (0.921 and 1.075 mmol/l of lactic acid, respectively, a good proteolytic activity (5.45 and 3.49 mg/l tyrosine at 72 h, respectively and high survival percentage after freeze-drying. None of the strains produced polysaccharides or haemolysin in sheep blood.Se evalúan algunas características probióticas de cepas de Lactobacillus plantarum aisladas de la mantequilla tradicional elaborada a partir de leche de camello (shmen. De 38 cepas investigadas para resistencia biliar, 14 fueron tolerantes a un 2% oxgall con porcentajes de supervivencia entre 69 y 75%. De éstas, sólo 4 cepas (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 fueron suficientemente resistentes a pH 2 con periodos de incubación entre 2 y 6 h. Únicamente los extractos crudos de L. plantarum SH12 y L. plantarum SH24 fueron inhibitorios frente a Lactococcus lactis B8, la cepa utilizada como indicador. La actividad antibacteriana de los extractos crudos se perdió completamente después de tratamiento con Î±-quimotripsina y proteinasa K. Las cepas SH12 y SH24 fueron susceptibles a la penicilina G, oxacilina
Mansour, Nahla M; Heine, Holger; Abdou, Sania M; Shenana, Mohamed E; Zakaria, Mohamed K; El-Diwany, Ahmed
Probiotics, defined as living bacteria that are beneficial for human health, mainly function through their immunomodulatory abilities. Hence, these microorganisms have proven successful for treating diseases resulting from immune deregulation. The aim of this study was to find novel candidates to improve on and complement current probiotic treatment strategies. Of 60 lactic acid bacterial strains that were isolated from fecal samples of healthy, full-term, breast-fed infants, three were chosen because of their ability to activate human immune cells. These candidates were then tested with regard to immunomodulatory properties, antimicrobial effects on pathogens, required pharmacological properties and their safety profiles. To identify the immunomodulatory structures of the selected isolates, activation of specific innate immune receptors was studied. The three candidates for probiotic treatment were assigned Enterococcus faecium NM113, Enterococcus faecium NM213 and Lactobacillus casei NM512. Compared with the established allergy-protective strain Lactococcus lactis G121, these isolates induced release of similar amounts of IL-12, a potent inducer of T helper 1 cells. In addition, all three neonatal isolates had antimicrobial activity against pathogens. Analysis of pharmacological suitability showed high tolerance of low pH, bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. In terms of safe application in humans, the isolates were sensitive to three antibiotics (chloramphenicol, tetracycline and erythromycin). In addition, the Enterococcus isolates were free from the four major virulence genes (cylA, agg, efaAfs and ccf). Moreover, the isolates strongly activated Toll-like receptor 2, which suggests lipopeptides as their active immunomodulatory structure. Thus, three novel bacterial strains with great potential as probiotic candidates and promising immunomodulatory properties have here been identified and characterized. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The accurate identification of Lactobacillus and other co-isolated bacteria during microbial ecological studies of ecosystems such as the human or animal intestinal tracts and food products is a hard task by phenotypic methods requiring additional tests such as protein and/or lipids profiling. Results Bacteria isolated in different probiotic prospecting studies, using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS, were typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers using universal primers that anneal within 16S and 23S genes, followed by restriction digestion analyses of PCR products. The set of enzymes chosen differentiates most species of Lactobacillus genus and also co-isolated bacteria such as Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Weissella, Staphylococcus, and Escherichia species. The in silico predictions of restriction patterns generated by the Lactobacillus shorter spacers digested with 11 restriction enzymes with 6 bp specificities allowed us to distinguish almost all isolates at the species level but not at the subspecies one. Simultaneous theoretical digestions of the three spacers (long, medium and short with the same set of enzymes provided more complex patterns and allowed us to distinguish the species without purifying and cloning of PCR products. Conclusion Lactobacillus isolates and several other strains of bacteria co-isolated on MRS medium from gastrointestinal ecosystem and fermented food products could be identified using DNA fingerprints generated by restriction endonucleases. The methodology based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA is easier, faster and more accurate than the current methodologies based on fermentation profiles, used in most laboratories for the purpose of identification of these bacteria in different prospecting studies.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile-related infections in hospitalized children in a Bulgarian hospital. Study design: Children (n=100, aged 3 to 12 years admitted to the hospital for acute infections were enrolled in a randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled trial. They were assigned to receive either a probiotic supplement containing 1 x 108 CFU Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in the form of one chewable tablet once per day (n=49 (BioGaia AB, Stockholm, Sweden or placebo (n=48. The probiotic or placebo was taken 2 hours after lunch each day, during the entire period of antibiotic treatment at the hospital and for additional 7 days. Results: Data from 97 children were included in the final analysis. The incidence of diarrhoea (defined as at least 3 loose or watery stools per day in a 48-hour period that occurred during or up to 21 days after cessation of antibiotic treatment was unexpectedly low in both groups - L. reuteri (n=1 versus placebo (n=1: 2,04 vs. 2,1 per 100 (p>0,05, risk ratio 1,02, 95% CI 0,7-1,4. L reuteri DSM 17938 did not significantly affect the incidence or severity of AAD diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile infection. We found unusually high colonisation rate of non-symptomatic C. difficile measured by toxin-specific ELISA. There was no difference between the probiotic and placebo groups for any of the other secondary outcomes (i.e., incidence of mild diarrhoea, frequency of stool samples positive for C. difficile toxin A and B at the beginning and at the end of study period, frequencies of other gastrointestinal symptoms in the same study period (p<0,05. No adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Due to the low incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in both groups, no conclusion can be made on the efficacy of L. reuteri DSM 17938 on AAD in hospitalized Bulgarian children. The probiotic did not
Isolation, identification and characterisation of three novel probiotic strains (Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036) from the faeces of exclusively breast-fed infants.
Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Chenoll, Empar; Vieites, José María; Genovés, Salvador; Maldonado, José; Bermúdez-Brito, Miriam; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Matencio, Esther; Bernal, María José; Romero, Fernando; Suárez, Antonio; Ramón, Daniel; Gil, Angel
The aim of the present study was to isolate, identify and characterise novel strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria with probiotic properties from the faeces of exclusively breast-fed infants. Of the 4680 isolated colonies, 758 exhibited resistance to low pH and tolerance to high concentrations of bile salts; of these, only forty-two exhibited a strong ability to adhere to enterocytes in vitro. The identities of the isolates were confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing, which permitted the grouping of the forty-two bacteria into three different strains that showed more than 99 % sequence identity with Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium breve, respectively. The strain identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions. Strains were assayed for enzymatic activity and carbohydrate utilisation, and they were deposited in the Collection Nationale de Cultures de Microorganismes (CNCM) of the Institute Pasteur and named L. paracasei CNCM I-4034, B. breve CNCM I-4035 and L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. The strains were susceptible to antibiotics and did not produce undesirable metabolites, and their safety was assessed by acute ingestion in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mouse models. The three novel strains inhibited in vitro the meningitis aetiological agent Listeria monocytogenes and human rotavirus infections. B. breve CNCM I-4035 led to a higher IgA concentration in faeces and plasma of mice. Overall, these results suggest that L. paracasei CNCM I-4034, B. breve CNCM I-4035 and L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 should be considered as probiotic strains, and their human health benefits should be further evaluated.
Larsen, Nadejda Nikolajevna; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Pærregaard, Anders
Adhesion of the new Lactobacillus isolates, L. casei D12, L. casei Q85, L. casei Z11 and L. plantarum Q47, to the porcine intestinal cell line IPEC-J2 was investigated and compared to the recovery of the same bacterial strains from colon biopsies and faeces obtained from human intervention studies....... Probiotic bacteria L. rhamnosus 19070, L. reuteri 12246 and L. casei F19 were used as reference strains. The new isolates exhibited low to moderate adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells in the range of 7-26%. A large variation in the recovery of strains was observed between the persons, suggesting host specificity...... of intestinal colonization. High correlation was shown between recovery from the different sections of the colon of the same subject, indicating consistency of bacterial colonization of the epithelium. The recovery of L. casei Z11 and L. casei Q85 was highest and comparable to the reference strains of L...
A. A. Novokshonov
Full Text Available The results of studies showing the effectiveness of the use of the domestic probiotic Acipol containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and the kefiric fungal polysaccharide are summarized in a wide range of diseases in children, such as acute intestinal infections of bacterial, viral (rotavirus and mixed etiology, for the prevention of the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, for the normalization of the intestinal microflora in various conditions (acute respiratory diseases, atopic dermatitis, often ill children, etc.. The appointment of Acipol contributed to a reduction in the duration of clinical manifestations, restoration of normoflora, rapid elimination of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, and reduced the risk of developing of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
Lee, Joon; Yang, Woo; Hostetler, Andrew; Schultz, Nathan; Suckow, Mark A; Stewart, Kay L; Kim, Daniel D; Kim, Hyung Soo
.... Since many benefits of microbes are highly strain-specific and their mechanistic details remain largely elusive, further identification of new probiotic bacteria with immunoregulatory potentials is of great interest...
Wang, Yuzhen; Xie, Jiming; Li, Yunxu; Dong, Shichao; Liu, Huan; Chen, Junna; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Shimin; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Heping
In this study, we sought to find the effects and mechanisms of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang (L. casei Zhang) on the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and hepatic inflammatory response in a rat model of acute liver failure induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and d-galactosamine (GalN). Male Wistar rats were orally administrated with or without L. casei Zhang for 30 days prior to challenge with LPS and GalN. Dexamethasone administrated group serving as a positive anti-inflammation control. Serum, intestinal and liver samples were collected 8 h after LPS/GalN challenge for histological, molecular and biochemical analysis. LPS/GalN challenge alone resulted in significantly increased production of endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and nitric oxide as compared to the normal control rats. Pretreatment with L. casei Zhang not only reduced these changes, but also attenuated hepatic inflammation as shown by improved histological assessment, decreased myeloperoxidase activity and reduced expression of IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the liver. L. casei Zhang supplementation significantly inhibited LPS/GalN-triggered phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p-38 MAPK, but increased the expression of TLR2, TLR9 and PPAR-γ. Moreover, L. casei Zhang treatment prevented intestinal injury and modulated the intestinal ecology by increasing the fecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium levels. Probiotic L. casei Zhang reduces LPS/GalN-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and hepatic inflammation through modulating the TLR-MAPK-PPAR-γ signaling pathways and intestinal microbiota.
Wirginia Krzyściak; Dorota Kościelniak; Monika Papież; Palina Vyhouskaya; Katarzyna Zagórska-Świeży; Iwona Kołodziej; Beata Bystrowska; Anna Jurczak
The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-cariogenic effects of Lactobacillus salivarius by reducing pathogenic species and biofilm mass in a double-species biofilm model. Coexistence of S. mutans with C...
Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun
A novel isolate DM5 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum displayed in vitro probiotic properties as well as antimicrobial activity. It showed adequate level of survival to the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and survived low acidic pH 2.5 for 5 h. Artificial gastric juice and intestinal fluidic environment decreased the initial viable cell population of isolate DM5 only by 7% and 13%, respectively, while lysozyme (200 µg/ml) and bile salt (0.5%) enhanced its growth. It was found to deconjugate taurodeoxycholic acid, indicating its potential to reduce hypercholesterolemia. Isolate DM5 demonstrated cell surface hydrophobicity of 53% and autoaggregation of 54% which are the prerequisite for adhesion to epithelial cells and colonization to host. Bacteriocin activity of isolate was found to be 6400 AU/ml as it inhibited the growth of food borne pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Alcaligenes faecalis. The bactericidal action of bacteriocin from isolate was analyzed by flow cytometry, rendering its use as prospective probiotic and starter culture in food industry.
Foye, Ondulla T.; Huang, I-Fei; Chiou, Christine C.; Walker, W. Allan; Shi, Hai Ning
Immaturity of gut-associated immunity may contribute to pediatric mortality associated with enteric infections. A murine model to parallel infantile enteric disease was used to determine the effects of probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), prebiotic, inulin, or both (synbiotic, syn) on pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, NF-κB, and Smad 7 signaling. Newborn mice were inoculated bi-weekly for 4 weeks with La, inulin, or syn and challenged with Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) at 5 weeks. Mouse intestinal epithelial cells (CMT93) were exposed to Cr to determine temporal alterations in NF-Kappa B and Smad 7 levels. Mice with pretreatment of La, inulin, and syn show reduced intestinal inflammation following Cr infection compared with controls, which is associated with significantly reduced bacterial colonization in La, inulin, and syn animals. Our results further show that host defense against Cr infection correlated with enhanced colonic IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β expression and inhibition of NF-κB in syn-treated mice, whereas mice pretreated with syn, La, or inulin had attenuation of Cr-induced Smad 7 expression. There was a temporal Smad 7 and NF-κB intracellular accumulation post-Cr infection and post-tumor necrosis factor stimulation in CMT93 cells. These results, therefore, suggest that probiotic, La, prebiotic inulin, or synbiotic may promote host-protective immunity and attenuate Cr-induced intestinal inflammation through mechanisms affecting NF-κB and Smad 7 signaling. PMID:22524476
Larsen, C.N.; Nielsen, S.; Kaestel, P.
Objective: This study was performed to investigate the dose-response effects of supplementation with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei (CRL-431) on blood lipids, recovery from feces and bowel habits. Changes of the fecal microflora was analy......Objective: This study was performed to investigate the dose-response effects of supplementation with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei (CRL-431) on blood lipids, recovery from feces and bowel habits. Changes of the fecal microflora...... weeks intervention and 2 weeks wash-out. Diary reporting bowel habits and well being (abdominal bloating, flatulence and headache) was kept for all 7 weeks and blood lipids, fecal recovery of BB-12 and CRL-431, as well as fecal microflora was tested before, immediately and 2 weeks after intervention....... Results: The fecal recovery of BB-12 increased significantly (P BB-12 was recovered from 13 out of 15 volunteers. CRL-431 was not recovered in any of the fecal samples. Supplementation with probiotics did not change the fecal bacterial...
Flynn, Sarah; van Sinderen, Douwe; Thornton, Gerardine M; Holo, Helge; Nes, Ingolf F; Collins, J Kevin
ABP-118, a small heat-stable bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC118, a strain isolated from the ileal-caecal region of the human gastrointestinal tract, was purified to homogeneity. Using reverse genetics, a DNA fragment specifying part of ABP-118 was identified on a 10769 bp chromosomal region. Analysis of this region revealed that ABP-118 was a Class IIb two-peptide bacteriocin composed of Abp118alpha, which exhibited the antimicrobial activity, and Abp118beta, which enhanced the antimicrobial activity. The gene conferring strain UCC118 immunity to the action of ABP-118, abpIM, was identified downstream of the abp118beta gene. Located further downstream of abp118beta, several ORFs were identified whose deduced proteins resembled those of proteins involved in bacteriocin regulation and secretion. Heterologous expression of ABP-118 was achieved in Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis and Bacillus cereus. In addition, the abp118 locus encoded an inducing peptide, AbpIP, which was shown to play a role in the regulation of ABP-118 production. This novel bacteriocin is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be isolated from a known human probiotic bacterium and to be characterized at the genetic level.
Russo, Pasquale; de Chiara, Maria Lucia Valeria; Vernile, Anna; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Arena, Mattia Pia; Capozzi, Vittorio; Massa, Salvatore; Spano, Giuseppe
.... With this aim, the survival of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum species, was monitored on artificially inoculated pineapple pieces throughout storage...
One potential mechanism by which probiotic microorganisms may exert beneficial health effects to the host is the inhibition of intestinal infections by competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria. This concept may also be applicable for mannose-specific adhesion to the epithelial surface, which has
Jabłońska-Ryś, Ewa; Sławińska, Aneta; Radzki, Wojciech; Gustaw, Waldemar
The available literature does not provide data on the application of probiotic strains in mushroom processing. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential to use the L. plantarum 299v strain with documented probiotic properties in the process of lactic fermentation of button mushroom fruiting bodies (Agaricus bisporus). Fresh button mushroom fruiting bodies and cultures of lactic acid bacteria L. plantarum Ib and a probiotic strain L. plantarum 299v were the material analysed. Sensory evaluation was performed with a 5-point scale, an instrumental method of colour measurement based on the CIA L*a*b* scale, total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin method, antioxidant properties were assayed with the DPPH radical test, and reducing power was determined using the FRAP method. After a week-long lactic fermentation, the pH value in the samples declined to a level of 3.6 (L. plantarum Ib) and 3.75 (L. plantarum 299v); these values persisted or decreased slightly during the period of maturation of the fermented samples under refrigeration. Fermented mushrooms were assigned high grades in the organoleptic evaluation. The colour analysis revealed significant changes in the values of the L*a*b* parameters in the fermented product, in comparison with fresh mushrooms. Blanching contributed to a significant decrease in the content of total phenolic compounds in the mushroom fruiting bodies and to a decline in antioxidant activity. Mushrooms fermented with the probiotic strain were characterised by higher phenolic compound content and higher antioxidant activity. L. plantarum 299v strain with documented probiotic properties can be applied in fermentation of button mushroom fruiting bodies. Products obtained with the use of both strains were characterised by good sensory properties. The type of strain used in the lactic fermentation of mushroom fruiting bodies had an effect on the phenolic compound content and antioxidant properties of the final product.
Saulnier, D.M.; santos, F.; Roos, S.; Mistretta, T.A.; Spinler, J.K.; Molenaar, D.; Teusink, B.; Versalovic, J.
The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to
Anwar, Munir A.; Kralj, Slavko; Pique, Anna Villar; Leemhuis, Hans; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert
Fructansucrase enzymes polymerize the fructose moiety of sucrose into levan or inulin fructans, with beta(2-6) and beta(2-1) linkages, respectively. Here, we report an evaluation of fructan synthesis in three Lactobacillus gasseri strains, identification of the fructansucrase-encoding genes and
Saulnier, D.M.; Santos, F.; Roos, S.; Mistretta, T.A.; Spinler, J.K.; Molenaar, D.; Teusink, B.; Versalovic, J.
The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to
In vitro characterization of aggregation and adhesion properties of viable and heat-killed forms of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains and interaction with foodborne zoonotic bacteria, especially Campylobacter jejuni.
Tareb, Raouf; Bernardeau, Marion; Gueguen, Marielle; Vernoux, Jean-Paul
Bacterial aggregation and/or adhesion are key factors for colonization of the digestive ecosystem and the ability of probiotic strains to exclude pathogens. In the present study, two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM-I-3699, were evaluated as viable or heat-killed forms and compared with probiotic reference Lactobacillus strains (Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. farciminis CIP 103136). The autoaggregation potential of both forms was higher than that of reference strains and twice that of pathogenic strains. The coaggregation potential of these two beneficial micro-organisms was evaluated against several pathogenic agents that threaten the global safety of the feed/food chain: Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The strongest coaggregative interactions were demonstrated with Campylobacter spp. by a coaggregation test, confirmed by electron microscopic examination for the two forms. Viable forms were investigated for the nature of the bacterial cell-surface molecules involved, by sugar reversal tests and chemical and enzymic pretreatments. The results suggest that the coaggregation between both probiotic strains and C. jejuni CIP 70.2(T) is mediated by a carbohydrate-lectin interaction. The autoaggregation potential of the two probiotics decreased upon exposure to proteinase, SDS or LiCl, showing that proteinaceous components on the surface of the two lactobacilli play an important role in this interaction. Adhesion abilities of both Lactobacillus strains were also demonstrated at significant levels on Caco-2 cells, mucin and extracellular matrix material. Both viable and heat-killed forms of the two probiotic lactobacilli inhibited the attachment of C. jejuni CIP 70.2(T) to mucin. In conclusion, in vitro assays showed that Lb. rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and Lb. farciminis CNCM-I-3699, as viable or heat-killed forms, are adherent to different intestinal matrix models and are
Tulini, Fabrício Luiz; Winkelströter, Lizziane Kretli; De Martinis, Elaine C P
This study aimed to identify a bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus isolate (FT259) obtained from Brazilian semi-hard Minas type cheese and to evaluate its probiotic and antimicrobial potentials. The strain was identified by biochemical tests (at genus level), and by 16S rDNA sequencing combined with recA gene amplification (for species). To determine the inhibitory spectrum towards food borne pathogens and lactic acid bacteria, the spot-on-the-lawn assay was carried out. Moreover, the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial compound produced was evaluated by susceptibility to degradation by proteolytic enzymes. The isolated strain was tested for survival in acidified culture media (pH 2.0, 2.5 and 3.5), in vitro tolerance to bile salts and viability under gastric conditions. Adhesion of Lactobacillus paraplantarum FT259 to Caco-2 cells was evaluated by surface plate count on De Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) agar and also by FISH method (fluorescent in situ hybridization) with the aid of Eub338 probe for fluorescence microscopy analysis. The isolate was identified as L. paraplantarum FT259 and it produced bacteriocins that inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and several lactic acid bacteria. It was also observed that L. paraplantarum FT259 tolerated exposure to pH 3.5, and bile salts 0.3% for up to 180 min. In experiments with simulated gastric juice, viable cells of L. paraplantarum FT259 decreased from 8.6 log CFU/mL to 3.5 log CFU/mL after 180 min. For the same strain, in studies with Caco-2 cells, 74% of adhesion was observed through plate count and FISH assays. It was also demonstrated isolated FT259 was susceptible to the majority the antibiotics tested. Overall, the results indicated L. paraplantarum FT259 is a potential probiotic and the production of bacteriocin may be an interesting feature for food applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Costa, D J; Marteau, P; Amouyal, M; Poulsen, L K; Hamelmann, E; Cazaubiel, M; Housez, B; Leuillet, S; Stavnsbjerg, M; Molimard, P; Courau, S; Bousquet, J
An imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cells is involved in allergic rhinitis (AR) that may be improved by probiotics. To test the efficacy of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei LP-33, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was carried out in patients with AR to grass pollen treated with loratadine and presenting altered quality of life. Subjects with persistent AR, symptomatic during the grass pollen season, and a positive skin test or specific immunoglobulin E to grass pollens were included by general practitioners (GPs). All received loratadine for 5 weeks. The primary end point was the improvement in Rhinitis Quality of Life (RQLQ) global score at the fifth week of LP-33 consumption compared with placebo (in addition to loratadine). Secondary end points included nasal and ocular symptoms (individual and total symptom scores), visual analogue scale and time of first exacerbation of the symptoms when loratadine was stopped. A total of 425 subjects were included. Using intent-to-treat analysis, the RQLQ global score decreased significantly more in the LP-33 group than in the placebo group (P=0.0255, difference=-0.286 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.536; -0.035)). No significant differences were noted for the change of the rhinitis total symptom score 5 global score between groups (P=0.1288, difference=-0.452 (95% CI: -1.036; 0.132)). Significant differences in ocular symptoms (RQLQ) were observed between groups (P=0.0029, difference=-0.4087 (95% CI: -0.6768; -0.1407)). This study performed by GPs shows that LP-33 improves the quality of life of subjects with persistent AR who are currently being treated with an oral H1-antihistamine. Whereas nasal symptoms had not changed, ocular symptoms had consistently improved.
Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Mascuñan Díaz, J Ignacio; Díaz, Juan J; Ojeda, Pedro Manuel; Ferrer-González, J Pablo; Gil, David; Onrubia, Isabel; Rincón Victor, Pedro
To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as a first-line management for cow's milk allergy compared with eHCF alone, and amino acid formulae in Spain, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (SNS). Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and non-IgE-mediated allergic infants developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months. The models also estimated the SNS cost (at 2012/2013 prices) of managing infants over 18 months after starting a formula as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. The probability of developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared with those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to the SNS for managing both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or amino acid formulae for first-line management of newly-diagnosed infants with cow's milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources because it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized controlled study showing faster tolerance development in children receiving a probiotic-containing formula is required before this conclusion can be confirmed.
Møller, Marie S; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte; Abou Hachem, Maher
Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode α-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and α-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of α-1,6- and α-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of lactic acid bacteria as vehicles to delivery antigens to immunize animals is a promising issue. When genetically modified, these bacteria can induce a specific local and systemic immune response against selected pathogens. Gastric acid and bile salts tolerance, production of antagonistic substances against pathogenic microorganisms, and adhesive ability to gut epithelium are other important characteristics that make these bacteria useful for oral immunization. Results Bacteria isolated on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS from different gastrointestinal portions of broiler chicks were evaluated for their resistance to artificial gastric acid and bile salts, production of hydrogen peroxide, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Thirty-eight isolates were first typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers using universal primers that anneal within 16S and 23S genes, followed by restriction digestion analyses of PCR amplicons (PCR-ARDRA. An expression cassette was assembled onto the pCR2.1-Topo vector by cloning the promoter, leader peptide, cell wall anchor and terminator sequences derived from the laminin binding S-layer protein gene of L. crispatus strain F5.7 (lbs gene. A sequence encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP was inserted as reporter gene, and an erythromycin resistance gene was added as selective marker. All constructs were able to express GFP in the cloning host E. coli XL1-Blue and different Lactobacillus strains as verified by FACS and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Conclusion Lactobacillus isolated from gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens and selected for probiotic characteristics can be genetically modified by introducing an expression cassette into the lbs locus. The transformed bacteria expressed on its cell wall surface different fluorescent proteins used as reporters of promoter function. It is possible then that similar bacterial model
The results obtained in the first test showed that the L. rhamnosus was able to survive in seawater during the whole experiment (30h, maintaining densities of 10e7 CFU/ml during the first 6h although decreasing progressively afterwards (10e3 CFU/ml at 30h. This allows adequate levels at sufficient time for Artemia to incorporate the probiotic. In fact, bioencapsulation test demonstrated that Artemia metanauplii were able to bioencapsulate the probiotic, reaching the highest concentration in Artemia after 30 min of bioencapsulation (10e4 CFU/Artemia. A slight further decrease (10e3 CFU/Artemia was observed after 24h. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus reduced in 1Log total Vibrionaceae bacteria in Artemia during the 3 first hours. Therefore, 3 hours was the time established for the bioencapsulation protocol and further studies are in progress to determine the ability of Artemia metanauplii to maintain bioencapsulated L. rhamnosus once transferred to rearing tanks. Also, the capability of the probiotic to inhibit potential pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria will be assessed.
Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; de Alvarenga, Janaina Araújo; Ribeiro, Felipe de Camargo; Velloso, Marisol Dos Santos; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos
This study isolated Lactobacillus strains from caries-free subjects and evaluated the inhibitory effects directly on three strains of C. albicans, two clinical strains and one reference strain. Thirty Lactobacillus strains were isolated and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against in vitro C. albicans biofilms. L. paracasei 28.4, L. rhamnosus 5.2 and L. fermentum 20.4 isolates exhibited the most significant inhibitory activity against C. albicans. Co-incubation between these microorganisms resulted in deterrence of biofilm development and retardation of hyphal formation. The hindrance of biofilm development was characterized by the downregulated expression of C. albicans biofilm-specific genes (ALS3, HWP1, EFG1 and CPH1). L. paracasei 28.4, L. rhamnosus 5.2 and L. fermentum 20.4 demonstrated the ability to exert antifungal activity through the inhibition of C. albicans biofilms.
Anwar, Munir A.; Kralj, Slavko; Pique, Anna Villar; Leemhuis, Hans; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert
Fructansucrase enzymes polymerize the fructose moiety of sucrose into levan or inulin fructans, with beta(2-6) and beta(2-1) linkages, respectively. Here, we report an evaluation of fructan synthesis in three Lactobacillus gasseri strains, identification of the fructansucrase-encoding genes and characterization of the recombinant proteins and fructan (oligosaccharide) products. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the fructo-oligosaccharide...
Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Wan, Cuixiang; Li, Shengjie; Xu, Hengyi; Xu, Feng; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua
Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013, a novel strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented acid beans, was systematically evaluated for its survival capacity under stress conditions (pH, bile salt, simulated gastrointestinal tract, and antibiotics), production of exopolysaccharide and antagonism against 8 pathogens. Its effect on mice gut microbiota was also investigated by quantitative PCR and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results showed that ZDY 2013 can grow at pH 3.5 and survive at pH 2.0 for 6 h and at 0.45% bile salt for 3 h. The exopolysaccharide yield was up to 204±7.68 mg/L. The survival rate of ZDY 2013 in a simulated gastrointestinal tract was as high as 65.84%. Antagonism test with a supernatant of ZDY 2013 showed maximum halo of 28 mm against Listeria monocytogenes. The inhibition order was as follows: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Staphylococcus aureus. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 was sensitive to some antibiotics (e.g., macrolide, sulfonamides, aminoglycoside, tetracyclines and β-lactams), whereas it was resistant to glycopeptides, quinolones, and cephalosporins antibiotics. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile demonstrated that ZDY 2013 administration altered the composition of the microbiota at various intestinal loci of the mice. Moreover, the quantitative PCR test showed that the administration of ZDY 2013 enhanced the populations of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in either the colon or cecum, and reduced the potential enteropathogenic bacteria (e.g., Enterococcus, Enterobacterium, and Clostridium perfringens). Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 exhibited high resistance against low pH, bile salt, and gastrointestinal fluid, and possessed antibacterial and gut microbiota modulation properties with a potential application in the development of dairy food and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2015 American
Chen, Ming-Ju; Tang, Hsin-Yu; Chiang, Ming-Lun
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a probiotic strain isolated from Taiwanese kefir grains. The present study evaluated the effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance of L. kefiranofaciens M1. The regulation of protein expression of L. kefiranofaciens M1 under these adaptation conditions was also investigated. The results showed that adaptation of L. kefiranofaciens M1 to heat, cold, acid and bile salts induced homologous tolerance and cross-protection against heterologous challenge. The extent of induced tolerance varied depending on the type and condition of stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that 27 proteins exhibited differences in expression between non-adapted and stress-adapted L. kefiranofaciens M1 cells. Among these proteins, three proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism (triosephosphate isomerase, enolase and NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), two proteins involved in pH homeostasis (ATP synthase subunits AtpA and AtpB), two stress response proteins (chaperones DnaK and GroEL) and one translation-related protein (30S ribosomal protein S2) were up-regulated by three of the four adaptation treatments examined. The increased synthesis of these stress proteins might play a critical protective role in the cellular defense against heat, cold, acid and bile salt stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Twetman, Svante; Derawi, Bilal; Keller, Mette
reuteri: ATCC 55730 and ATCC PTA 5289 (1 x 10(8) CFU/gum, respectively). The subjects were instructed to chew the gums for 10 min over the course of 2 weeks. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and GCF sampling were conducted at baseline and after 1, 2 and 4 weeks. The levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a chewing gum containing probiotic bacteria on gingival inflammation and the levels of selected inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy adults with moderate levels of gingival inflammation entered...... a double-blind placebo-controlled study design. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three parallel arms: Group A/P was given one active and one placebo gum daily, Group A/A received two active chewing gums, and Group P/P two placebo gums. The chewing gums contained two strains of Lactobacillus...
Ali. M. Kane
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum on serum biochemical and some immune parameters of immunized rainbow trout weighting 29.6±1.84 g, with streptococcosis/lactococosis vaccine at 16±1.5°C, for 60 days. A commercial diet was used as the control. Fish in the first treatment were immunized with streptococcosis/lactococosis vaccine in bathing route for 1 min. In the second group, the vaccinated trout were also fed diet containing L. plantarum (108 CFU g-1. In the third treatment, fish were only fed the diet supplemented with L. plantarum (108 CFU g-1. The results showed that vaccinated trout with or without L. plantarum feeding diets significantly decreased heterophils. Meanwhile it enhances serum lysozyme, alternative complement activities, antibody titer, total leukocytes, lymphocytes, and serum biochemical parameters, including ALP, IgM, and total protein levels compared to control groups. Moreover, the highest levels of above mentioned parameters were found in vaccinated fish that fed L. plantarum. In addition, the vaccinated fish that fed L. plantarum showed significantly elevated cholesterol levels compared to the control group. The results showed that the dietary L. plantarum improved the immunity of immunized trout with streptococcosis/lactococosis vaccine.
Probiotic “requeijão cremoso”: evaluation of Lactobacillus casei viability, physical-chemical composition and sensory acceptance Requeijão cremoso probiótico: avaliação da viabilidade de Lactobacillus casei, da composição físico-química e aceitação sensorial
Priscila Cristina Bizam Vianna
Full Text Available The objective of this work was the production of probiotic “requeijão cremoso” that keeps the physicalchemical and sensorial characteristics of the tradicional product, linked to the functional properties. Control (without probiotic addition and probiotic “requeijão cremoso” added with Lactobacillus casei after fusion, at 50±1ºC, were produced, packed and stored at 4±1ºC. Control and probiotic “requeijão cremoso” were evaluated to physical-chemical composition 1 day after processing. After 1, 7, 14 and 28 days of storage, the pH were evaluated for both products and Lactobacillus casei count only for probiotic “requeijão cremoso”. Sensory evaluation was accomplished on the 4th day of storage for appearance, taste, flavor, texture, general acceptance and purchasing intention. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukey’s test. There was no difference on physical-chemical composition of control and probiotic “requeijão cremoso”. Lactobacillus casei count was 2,2x107 UFC/g after 1 day of processing and not showed significant variations during the 28 days of storage. The probiotic “requeijão cremoso” presented good sensory acceptance and 82% of the consumers certainly or probably buy the probiotic product. The results showed that “requeijão cremoso” may regard as a good alternative of probiotic product.O objetivo deste trabalho foi a elaboração de um requeijão cremoso probiótico, que mantenha as características físico-químicas e sensoriais do produto tradicional, agregando propriedades funcionais. Foi produzido um requeijão cremoso controle (sem a adição de probiótico e outro adicionado de Lactobacillus casei, após a fusão da massa, à temperatura de 50±1ºC. Os requeijões controle e probiótico foram envasados, armazenados a 4±1ºC e submetidos às análises de composição centesimal após 1 dia de processamento. O pH dos requeijões, assim como a contagem de Lactobacillus
Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fish and evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-producing abilities. Out of thirty-two isolates, Lactobacillus brevis RK03 showed the highest GABA production ability. The effects of various fermentation parameters including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH, and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a singleparameter optimization strategy. For industrial large-scale production, a low-cost GABA producing medium (GM broth was developed for fermentation with L. brevis RK03. We found that an optimized GM broth recipe of 1% glucose; 2.5% yeast extract; 2 ppm each of CaCO3, MnSO4, and Tween 80; and 10 μM pyridoxal phosphate (PLP resulted in a maximum GABA yield of 62,523 mg/L after 88 h following the addition of 650 mM monosodium glutamate (MSG, for a conversion rate of 93.28%. Our data provide a practical approach for the highly efficient and economic production of GABA. In addition, L. brevis RK03 is highly resistant to gastric acid and bovine bile salt. Thus, the discovery of Lactobacillus strains with the ability to synthesize GABA may offer new opportunities in the design of improved health-promoting functional foods.
Full Text Available Julian F Guest,1,2 Monica Panca,1 Olga Ovcinnikova,1 Rita Nocerino3 1CATALYST Health Economics Consultants, Northwood, Middlesex, UK; 2Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College, London, UK; 3Department of Translational Medical Science, Pediatric Section, University of Naples 'Federico II', Naples, Italy Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG as first-line management for cow's milk allergy (CMA compared with eHCF alone, soy-based formulae (SBF, hydrolyzed rice formulae (HRF, and amino acid formulae (AAF in Italy, from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (INHS and parents. Methods: Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of infants developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months, based on an observational study dataset. The model also estimated the cost (at 2012/2013 prices of health care resource use funded by the INHS and formulae paid for by parents over 18 months after starting a formula, as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results: The probability of developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared to those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to both the INHS and parents of infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated CMA. Conclusion: Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF, SBF, HRF, or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with CMA in Italy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources, and is cost-effective from the parents' perspective, since it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized
Charteris, W P; Kelly, P M; Morelli, L; Collins, J K
An in vitro methodology which mimics in vivo human upper gastrointestinal transit was developed. The transit tolerance of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species was determined by exposing washed cell suspensions at 37 degrees C to a simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0), containing pepsin (0.3% w/v) and sodium chloride (0.5% w/v), and a simulated small intestinal juice (pH 8.0), containing pancreatin USP (1 g l-1) and sodium chloride (5 g l-1), and monitoring changes in total viable count periodically. The methodology was also employed to determine the effect of adding milk proteins (1 g l-1), hog gastric mucin (1 g l-1) and soyabean trypsinchymotrypsin inhibitor [SBTCI] (1 g l-1) on transit tolerance. The majority (14 of 15) of isolates lost > 90% viability during simulated gastric transit. Only one isolate, Lactobacillus fermentum KLD, was considered intrinsically resistant. The addition of milk proteins, singly and in combination, generally improved gastric transit tolerance. In this regard, two isolates, Lact. casei 212.3 and Bifidobacterium infantis 25962, exhibited 100% gastric transit tolerance in the presence of milk proteins. In general, the addition of hog gastric mucin did not influence simulated gastric transit tolerance of lactobacilli but tended to increase that of bifidobacteria. However, it increased that of Lact. casei 242 and Lact. salivarius 43338 but diminished that of B. bifidum 2715 and B. animalis Bo. Selected bile salts-resistant isolates were intrinsically tolerant to simulated small intestinal transit. Only Lact. casei F19 and B. adolescentis 15703T showed significant reduction in viability after 240 min. In general, the addition of milk proteins and SBTCI did not affect simulated small intestinal transit tolerance. However, they significantly improved the intrinsic resistance of Lact. casei F19 but diminished that of B. breve 15700T. It is concluded that, whereas the majority of bile salts-resistant lactobacilli and
Selective method for identification and quantification of Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis BB-12 (BB-12) from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy volunteers ingesting a combination probiotic of BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.
Poutsiaka, D D; Mahoney, I J; McDermott, L A; Stern, L L; Thorpe, C M; Kane, A V; Baez-Giangreco, C; McKinney, J; Davidson, L E; Leyva, R; Goldin, B; Snydman, D R
To develop a novel validated method for the isolation of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (BB-12) from faecal specimens and apply it to studies of BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) recovered from the healthy human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A novel method for isolating and enumerating BB-12 was developed based on its morphologic features of growth on tetracycline-containing agar. The method identified BB-12 correctly from spiked stool close to 100% of the time as validated by PCR confirmation of identity, and resulted in 97-104% recovery of BB-12. The method was then applied in a study of the recovery of BB-12 and LGG from the GI tract of healthy humans consuming ProNutrients ® Probiotic powder sachet containing BB-12 and LGG. Viable BB-12 and LGG were recovered from stool after 21 days of probiotic ingestion compared to baseline. In contrast, no organisms were recovered 21 days after baseline in the nonsupplemented control group. We demonstrated recovery of viable BB-12, using a validated novel method specific for the isolation of BB-12, and LGG from the GI tract of healthy humans who consumed the probiotic supplement. This method will enable more detailed and specific studies of BB-12 in probiotic supplements, including when in combination with LGG. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Conclusion: Treatment of E. coli with probiotic suspension was not effective on inhibition of the plasmid carrying hypothetical ampicillin resistant gene. Moreover, the plasmid profiles obtained from probiotic-treated isolates were identical to untreated isolates.
Impact of inulin and okara on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product and probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions
Bedani, Raquel [UNESP; Rossi, Elizeu Antonio [UNESP; Isay Saad, Susana Marta
The effect of inulin and/or okara flour on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product (FSP) and on probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions were investigated throughout 28 days of storage at 4 °C. Employing a 22 design, four FSP trials were produced from soymilk fermented with ABT-4 culture (La-5, Bb-12, and Streptococcus thermophilus): FSP (control); FSP-I (with inulin, 3 g/100 mL of soymilk); FSP-O (w...
Full Text Available Julian F Guest,1,2 Diana Weidlich,1 J Ignacio Mascuñan Díaz,3 Juan J Díaz,4 Pedro Manuel Ojeda,5 J Pablo Ferrer-González,6 David Gil,7 Isabel Onrubia Vaquero,8 Pedro Rincón Victor9 1Catalyst Health Economics Consultants, Northwood, Middlesex, 2Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College, London, UK; 3Centro de Salud de Paterna, Valencia, Spain; 4Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, 5Clínica de Asma y Alergia Doctores Ojeda, 6Hospital General de Requena, Valencia, 7Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia, 8Centro de Salud Valle de la Oliva, Majadahonda, 9Centro de Salud la Chopera, Alcobendas, Spain Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG as a first-line management for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone, and amino acid formulae in Spain, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (SNS.Methods: Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated and non–IgE-mediated allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The models also estimated the SNS cost (at 2012/2013 prices of managing infants over 18 months after starting a formula as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae.Results: The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non–IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared with those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to the SNS for managing both IgE-mediated and non–IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy.Conclusion: Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or amino acid formulae for
Elmer, G W
The uses, mechanisms of action, and safety of probiotics are discussed. Probiotics are live microorganisms or microbial mixtures administered to improve the patient's microbial balance, particularly the environment of the gastrointestinal tract and the vagina. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and the bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus, strain GG, have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the prevention of antimicrobial-associated diarrhea. Other probiotics that have demonstrated at least some promise as prophylaxis for this type of diarrhea are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium. The use of S. boulardii as an adjunctive treatment to therapy with metronidazole or vancomycin has been found in controlled studies to decrease further recurrences of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Other gastrointestinal disorders for which probiotics have been studied include traveler's diarrhea, acute infantile diarrhea, and acute diarrhea in adults. Several Lactobacillus species given in yogurt or in tablet or suppository form have shown clinical efficacy as a treatment for vaginal infections. Lactobacillus strains have also been examined as a treatment for urinary-tract infections. Putative mechanisms of action of probiotics include production of pathogen-inhibitory substances, inhibition of pathogen attachment, inhibition of the action of microbial toxins, stimulation of immunoglobulin A, and trophic effects on intestinal mucosa. The available probiotics are considered nonpathogenic, but even benign microorganisms can be infective when a patient is severely debilitated or immunosuppressed. Probiotics have demonstrated an ability to prevent and treat some infections. Effective use of probiotics could decrease patients' exposure to antimicrobials. Additional controlled studies are needed to clearly define the safety and efficacy of these agents.
Izquierdo, Esther; Horvatovich, Peter; Marchioni, Eric; Aoude-Werner, Dalal; Sanz, Yolanda; Ennahar, Saied
The identification of cell components involved in probiotic activities is a challenge in current probiotic research. In this work, a new approach based on proteomics as an analytical tool for the identification of characteristic protein profiles related to adhesion to mucin as a model probiotic
Jadhav, Sagar R; Shandilya, Umesh Kr; Kansal, Vinod K
Conventional medical therapies for ulcerative colitis (UC) are still limited due to the adverse side effects like dose-dependent diarrhoea and insufficient potency to keep in remission for long-term periods. So, new alternatives that provide more effective and safe therapies for ulcerative colitis are constantly being sought. In the present study, probiotic LaBb Dahi was selected for investigation of its therapeutic effect on DSS-induced colitis model in mice. LaBb Dahi was prepared by co-culturing Dahi culture of Lactococci along with selected strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus LaVK2 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BbVK3 in buffalo milk. Four groups of mice (12 each) were fed for 17 d with buffalo milk (normal control), buffalo milk plus DSS (Colitis control), Dahi plus DSS, and LaBb Dahi plus DSS, respectively, with basal diet. The disease activity scores, weight loss, organ weight, colon length, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and β-glucoronidase activity was assessed, and the histopathological picture of the colon of mice was studied. All colitis control mice evidenced significant increase in MPO, β-glucoronidase activity and showed high disease activity scores along with histological damage to colonic tissue. Feeding with LaBb Dahi offered significant reduction in MPO activity, β-glucoronidase activity and improved disease activity scores. We found significant decline in length of colon, organ weight and body weight in colitis induced controls which were improved significantly by feeding LaBb Dahi. The present study suggests that LaBb Dahi can be used as a potential nutraceutical intervention to combat UC related changes and may offer effective adjunctive treatment for management of UC.
Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya
Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour.
The probiotic potentials of lactic acid bacteria species isolated from various food sources (nono, ugba, ogiri, kunun-zaki and ogi) were studied. The predominant species among the isolated strains were Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Streptococcus ...
Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS supplementation on intestinal and systemic markers of inflammation in ApoE*3Leiden mice consuming a high-fat diet.
Oksaharju, Anna; Kooistra, Teake; Kleemann, Robert; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Miettinen, Minja; Lappalainen, Jani; Lindstedt, Ken A; Kovanen, Petri T; Korpela, Riitta; Kekkonen, Riina A
A high-fat diet disturbs the composition and function of the gut microbiota and generates local gut-associated and also systemic responses. Intestinal mast cells, for their part, secrete mediators which play a role in the orchestration of physiological and immunological functions of the intestine. Probiotic bacteria, again, help to maintain the homeostasis of the gut microbiota by protecting the gut epithelium and regulating the local immune system. In the present study, we explored the effects of two probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii spp. shermanii JS (PJS), on high fat-fed ApoE*3Leiden mice by estimating the mast cell numbers and the immunoreactivity of TNF-α and IL-10 in the intestine, as well as plasma levels of several markers of inflammation and parameters of lipid metabolism. We found that mice that received GG and PJS exhibited significantly lower numbers of intestinal mast cells compared with control mice. PJS lowered intestinal immunoreactivity of TNF-α, while GG increased intestinal IL-10. PJS was also observed to lower the plasma levels of markers of inflammation including vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and also the amount of gonadal adipose tissue. GG lowered alanine aminotransferase, a marker of hepatocellular activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that probiotic GG and PJS tend to down-regulate both intestinal and systemic pro-inflammatory changes induced by a high-fat diet in this humanised mouse model.
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of multi-strain probiotic inclusion levels on performance, intestinal morphology, gut microflora and hematological changes in Salmonella typhimurium (ST infected broiler chickens. A total of 120 day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were distributed into 20 floor pens and reared for 10 days under 5 experimental treatments including a corn-soy basal diet with no probiotic (Control, or 0.5 g (0.05%, 1 g (0.1%, 1.5 g (0.15% and 2 g (0.2% probiotic/kg diet. Chickens were infected orally with ST at second day of experiment. Broilers under 0.15% of probiotic had higher body weight gain compared to other treatments. Probiotic supplementation, except at 0.05%, significantly improved feed conversion ratio. The use of 0.1 and 0.15% of probiotic reduced the population of Salmonella in ileum. The lowest heterophil:lymphocyte ratio was observed in 0.15% of probiotic, although 0.1 and 0.2% of probiotic significantly reduced this ratio compared to control group. Adding 0.15% of probiotic to the basal diet increased (P
Fereshteh Dardmeh; Hans Ingolf Nielsen; Hiva Alipour; Benedict Kjærgaard; Erik Brandsborg; Parisa Gazerani
.... Intestinal microbiota, as an endogenous factor, influences obesity and pain sensitivity but the effect of oral probiotic supplementation on musculoskeletal pain perception has not been studied systematically...
Full Text Available Julian F Guest,1,2 Diana Weidlich,1 Maciej Kaczmarski,3 Elzbieta Jarocka-Cyrta,4 Natalia Kobelska-Dubiel,5 Agnieszka Krauze,6 Iwona Sakowska-Maliszewska,7 Anna Zawadzka-Krajewska8 1Catalyst Health Economics Consultants, Northwood, Middlesex, 2Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College, London, UK; 3Department of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology, and Allergology, Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, 4Uniwersytet Warmińsko‑Mazurski, Wydział Nauk Medycznych, Katedra Pediatrii Klinicznej, Olsztyn, 5Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, 6Klinika Pneumonologii i Alergologii Wieku Dziecięcego, Warsaw, 7Poradnia Gastroenterologiczna Centrum Pediatrii, Sosnowiec, 8Department of Pediatric Pneumonology and Allergology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG as an initial treatment for cow’s milk allergy compared with eHCF alone and amino acid formulas (AAF in Poland from the perspective of the Polish National Health Fund (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia [NFZ] and parents. Methods: Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of cow’s milk allergic infants developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months. The model also estimated the cost to the NFZ and parents (Polish Zloty [PLN] at 2013–2014 prices for managing infants over 18 months after starting one of the formulas as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulas. Results: The probability of developing tolerance to cow’s milk by 18 months was higher among infants who were fed eHCF + LGG (0.82 compared with those fed eHCF alone (0.53 or an AAF (0.22. An infant who is initially managed with eHCF + LGG is expected to consume fewer health care resources than infants managed with the other
Rapid enteric testing to permit targeted antimicrobial therapy, with and without Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics, for paediatric acute diarrhoeal disease in Botswana: A pilot, randomized, factorial, controlled trial.
Jeffrey M Pernica
Full Text Available Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resource-limited settings, infections with treatable enteric bacterial and protozoan pathogens are common. Probiotics have shown promise as an adjunct treatment for diarrhoea but have not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a pilot, factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children aged 2-60 months hospitalized in Botswana for acute non-bloody diarrhoea. A rapid test-and-treat intervention, consisting of multiplex PCR testing of rectal swabs taken at enrolment, accompanied by targeted antimicrobial therapy if treatable pathogens were detected, was compared to the reference standard of no stool testing. Additionally, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 x 60 days was compared to placebo treatment. The main objective of this pilot study was to assess feasibility. The primary clinical outcome was the increase in age-standardized height (HAZ at 60 days adjusted for baseline HAZ.Seventy-six patients were enrolled over a seven-month study period. We judged that the recruitment rate, lab processing times, communication protocols, provision of specific antimicrobials, and follow-up rates were acceptable. Compared to the reference arm (no stool testing and placebo treatment, the combination of the rapid test-and-treat strategy plus L. reuteri DSM 17938 was associated with an increase of 0.61 HAZ (95% CI 0.09-1.13 and 93% lower odds of recurrent diarrhoea (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.01-0.61 at 60 days.We demonstrated that it was feasible to evaluate the study interventions in Botswana. Despite the small sample size, we observed a statistically significant increase in HAZ at 60 days and significantly lower odds of recurrent diarrhoea in children receiving both rapid test-and-treat and L. reuteri. There is sufficient
Rapid enteric testing to permit targeted antimicrobial therapy, with and without Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics, for paediatric acute diarrhoeal disease in Botswana: A pilot, randomized, factorial, controlled trial.
Pernica, Jeffrey M; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Mokomane, Margaret; Moorad, Banno; Lechiile, Kwana; Smieja, Marek; Mazhani, Loeto; Cheng, Ji; Kelly, Matthew S; Loeb, Mark; Stordal, Ketil; Goldfarb, David M
Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resource-limited settings, infections with treatable enteric bacterial and protozoan pathogens are common. Probiotics have shown promise as an adjunct treatment for diarrhoea but have not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a pilot, factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children aged 2-60 months hospitalized in Botswana for acute non-bloody diarrhoea. A rapid test-and-treat intervention, consisting of multiplex PCR testing of rectal swabs taken at enrolment, accompanied by targeted antimicrobial therapy if treatable pathogens were detected, was compared to the reference standard of no stool testing. Additionally, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 x 60 days was compared to placebo treatment. The main objective of this pilot study was to assess feasibility. The primary clinical outcome was the increase in age-standardized height (HAZ) at 60 days adjusted for baseline HAZ. Seventy-six patients were enrolled over a seven-month study period. We judged that the recruitment rate, lab processing times, communication protocols, provision of specific antimicrobials, and follow-up rates were acceptable. Compared to the reference arm (no stool testing and placebo treatment), the combination of the rapid test-and-treat strategy plus L. reuteri DSM 17938 was associated with an increase of 0.61 HAZ (95% CI 0.09-1.13) and 93% lower odds of recurrent diarrhoea (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.01-0.61) at 60 days. We demonstrated that it was feasible to evaluate the study interventions in Botswana. Despite the small sample size, we observed a statistically significant increase in HAZ at 60 days and significantly lower odds of recurrent diarrhoea in children receiving both rapid test-and-treat and L. reuteri. There is sufficient evidence to
Guest, Julian F; Weidlich, Diana; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Jarocka-Cyrta, Elzbieta; Kobelska-Dubiel, Natalia; Krauze, Agnieszka; Sakowska-Maliszewska, Iwona; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna
To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF) containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG) as an initial treatment for cow's milk allergy compared with eHCF alone and amino acid formulas (AAF) in Poland from the perspective of the Polish National Health Fund (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia [NFZ]) and parents. Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of cow's milk allergic infants developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months. The model also estimated the cost to the NFZ and parents (Polish Zloty [PLN] at 2013-2014 prices) for managing infants over 18 months after starting one of the formulas as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulas. The probability of developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months was higher among infants who were fed eHCF + LGG (0.82) compared with those fed eHCF alone (0.53) or an AAF (0.22). An infant who is initially managed with eHCF + LGG is expected to consume fewer health care resources than infants managed with the other formulas. Hence, the estimated total health care cost incurred by the NFZ for initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG (PLN 5,693) was less than that of feeding infants with eHCF alone (PLN 7,749) or an AAF (PLN 24,333). However, the total cost incurred by parents for initially feeding infants with an AAF (PLN 815) was marginally less than that of feeding with eHCF + LGG (PLN 993), which was less than that of feeding with eHCF alone (PLN 1,226). Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF alone or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with cow's milk allergy affords a cost-effective use of NFZ-funded resources, since it improves outcome for less cost. Whether eHCF + LGG would be viewed as being cost-effective by parents is dependent on their willingness to pay an additional cost for additional tolerance acquisition to cow's milk.
Gore, C; Custovic, A; Tannock, G W; Munro, K; Kerry, G; Johnson, K; Peterson, C; Morris, J; Chaloner, C; Murray, C S; Woodcock, A
Allergic disease has been associated with altered intestinal microbiota. Therefore, probiotics have been suggested as a potential treatment for eczema. We investigated whether dietary supplementation of infants with eczema at age 3-6 months with Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-2116 or Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-3446 had a treatment effect or altered allergic disease progression. Primary outcome included eczema severity (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis, SCORAD) 3 months post-randomization. Secondary: SCORAD (other visits); infant dermatitis quality of life (IDQoL); gastrointestinal permeability; urinary eosinophilic protein X; allergen-sensitization; allergic symptoms (age 12, 18, 36 months). A total of 208 infants aged 3-6 months with physician-diagnosed eczema were recruited; 137/208 (SCORAD ≥ 10, consuming ≥ 200 mL standard formula/day) were randomized to daily supplements containing L. paracasei or B. lactis or placebo for a 3-month period, while receiving extensively hydrolysed whey-formula (dairy-free diet). There were two open observational groups, one group exclusively breastfed (n = 22) and the other, standard formula-fed (n = 49). ISRCTN41490500. Eczema severity decreased significantly over time in all groups. No significant difference was observed between randomized groups after 12-week treatment-period (SCORAD-score pre-/post-intervention: B. lactis 25.9 [95% CI: 22.8-29.2] to 12.8 [9.4-16.6]; L. paracasei 25.4 [22.1-29] to 12.5 [9.2-16.4]; placebo 26.9 [23.4-30.6] to 11.8 [9.6-14.3]; P = 0.7). Results were similar when analysis was controlled for allergen-sensitization, or when only sensitized infants were analysed. No differences were found for secondary outcomes. No difference was observed in SCORAD-score between randomized and observational groups. We found no benefit from supplementation with B. lactis or L. paracasei in the treatment of eczema, when given as an adjunct to basic topical treatment, and no effect on the progression of allergic disease
Wickens, Kristin L; Barthow, Christine A; Murphy, Rinki; Abels, Peter R; Maude, Robyn M; Stone, Peter R; Mitchell, Edwin A; Stanley, Thorsten V; Purdie, Gordon L; Kang, Janice M; Hood, Fiona E; Rowden, Judy L; Barnes, Phillipa K; Fitzharris, Penny F; Crane, Julian
The study aims to assess whether supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) can reduce the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel trial was conducted in New Zealand (NZ) (Wellington and Auckland). Pregnant women with a personal or partner history of atopic disease were randomised at 14-16 weeks' gestation to receive HN001 (6×109 colony-forming units) (n 212) or placebo (n 211) daily. GDM at 24-30 weeks was assessed using the definition of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) (fasting plasma glucose ≥5·1 mmol/l, or 1 h post 75 g glucose level at ≥10 mmol/l or at 2 h ≥8·5 mmol/l) and NZ definition (fasting plasma glucose ≥5·5 mmol/l or 2 h post 75 g glucose at ≥9 mmol/l). All analyses were intention-to-treat. A total of 184 (87 %) women took HN001 and 189 (90 %) women took placebo. There was a trend towards lower relative rates (RR) of GDM (IADPSG definition) in the HN001 group, 0·59 (95 % CI 0·32, 1·08) (P=0·08). HN001 was associated with lower rates of GDM in women aged ≥35 years (RR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·81, P=0·009) and women with a history of GDM (RR 0·00; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·66, P=0·004). These rates did not differ significantly from those of women without these characteristics. Using the NZ definition, GDM prevalence was significantly lower in the HN001 group, 2·1 % (95 % CI 0·6, 5·2), v. 6·5 % (95 % CI 3·5, 10·9) in the placebo group (P=0·03). HN001 supplementation from 14 to 16 weeks' gestation may reduce GDM prevalence, particularly among older women and those with previous GDM.
Wildt, Signe; Munck, Lars K; Vinter-Jensen, Lars
Probiotic treatment may be effective in diseases involving gut microflora and intestinal inflammation. In collagenous colitis (CC), a potential pathogenic role of the gut microflora has been proposed. The effect of probiotic treatment in CC is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the clinical effect...
Impact of inulin and okara on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product and probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.
Bedani, Raquel; Rossi, Elizeu Antonio; Isay Saad, Susana Marta
The effect of inulin and/or okara flour on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product (FSP) and on probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions were investigated throughout 28 days of storage at 4 °C. Employing a 2(2) design, four FSP trials were produced from soymilk fermented with ABT-4 culture (La-5, Bb-12, and Streptococcus thermophilus): FSP (control); FSP-I (with inulin, 3 g/100 mL of soymilk); FSP-O (with okara, 5 g/100 mL); FSP-IO (with inulin + okara, ratio 3:5 g/100 mL). Probiotic viabilities ranged from 8 to 9 log cfu/g during the 28 days of storage, and inulin and/or okara flour did not affect the viability of La-5 and Bb-12. Bb-12 resistance to the artificial gastrointestinal juices was higher than for La-5, since the Bb-12 and La-5 populations decreased approximately 0.6 log cfu/g and 3.8 log cfu/g, respectively, throughout storage period. Even though the protective effect of inulin and/or okara flour on probiotic microorganisms was not significant, when compared to a fresh culture, the FSP matrix improved Bb-12 survival on day 1 of storage and may be considered a good vehicle for Bb-12 and could play an important role in probiotic protection against gastrointestinal juices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maldonado Galdeano, Carolina; Novotny Nuñez, Ivanna; Carmuega, Esteban; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Perdigón, Gabriela
There are numerous reports that show the benefits on the health attributed to the probiotic consumptions. Most of the studies were performed using animal models and only some of them were validated in controlled human trials. The present review is divided in two sections. In the first section we describe how the probiotic microorganisms can interact with the intestinal epithelial cells that are the first line of cell in the mucosal site, focusing in the studies of two probiotic strains: Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 (actually Lactobacillus paracasei CNCMI-1518) and Lactobacillus casei CRL 431. Then we describe same beneficial effects attributed to probiotic administration and the administration of fermented milks containing these microorganisms or potential probiotic yoghurt, principally on the immune system and on the intestinal barrier in different experimental mouse models like enteropathogenic infection, malnutrition, cancer and intestinal inflammation.
Ozyurt, V Hazal; Ötles, Semih
Probiotics are microorganisms which confer health benefits upon application in sufficiently-high viable cell amounts. Probiotics are typically members of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species commonly associated with human gastrointestinal tracts. In the recent past, there has been a rising interest in producing functional foods containing encapsulated probiotic bacteria. Recent studies have been reported using dairy products like cheese, yogurt and ice cream as food carrier, and non-dairy products like meat, fruits, cereals, chocolate, etc. However, the industrial sector contains only few encapsulated probiotic products. Probiotics have been developed by several companies in a capsule or a tablet form. The review compiles probiotics, encapsulation technology and cell life in the food matrices.
Bjerg, Anne Toksvig
resistance and blood lipid profile among others. Probiotics which are health promoting bacteria can potentially be used to affect the GM and thereby change metabolic outcomes of the host. Animal studies have shown associations between intake of probiotics and appetite regulation, but currently no human...... studies have investigated this effect. Supplementation with different probiotic strains have been shown to have an effect on blood lipid profiles in both animals and humans and the mechanisms behind have been studied in vitro and in rodents. The aim of the present thesis was to examine in an ex vivo...... intestine, in an animal study and in two human studies the effect of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8 (W8) on appetite regulation, blood lipids and blood fatty acids. In addition, it was investigated if W8 had an effect on the fecal microbiota of the human...
Amir, Lisa H.; Griffin, Laura; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M.
Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Scientists have isolated various strains of Lactobacilli from human milk (such as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius), and the presence of these organisms is thought to be protective against breast infections, or mastitis. Trials of probiotics for treating mastitis in dairy cows have had mixed results: some successful and others unsuccessful. To da...
Lavermicocca, P.; Dekker, Matthijs; Russo, F.; Valerio, F.; Venere, Di D.; Sisto, A.
Broadening the range of probiotic foods is an interest of both consumers and enterprises because probiotic products available on the market are mainly limited to milk-based foods or dietary supplements. Here we describe the efficient association of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain with
Casado Muñoz, María del Carmen; Benomar, Nabil; Ennahar, Saïd; Horvatovich, Peter; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Knapp, Charles W.; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate
Probiotic bacterial cultures require resistance mechanisms to avoid stress-related responses under challenging environmental conditions; however, understanding these traits is required to discern their utility in fermentative food preparations, versus clinical and agricultural risk. Here, we
Full Text Available Background: A previous study revealed Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, a probiotic strain, could reduce mutans streptococci (MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of L. paracasei SD1 on the colonization of MS, and whether caries lesions developed. Methods: After informed consent, 122 children were recruited and randomly assigned to the probiotic or control groups. The probiotic group received milk-powder containing L. paracasei SD1 and the control group received standard milk-powder once daily for six months. Salivary MS and lactobacilli were enumerated using differential culture at baseline and at three-month intervals for 12 months. The persistence of L. paracasei SD1 was investigated using AP-PCR for DNA-fingerprinting. Oral health was examined at baseline and at the end of the study according to WHO criteria. Results: The long-term consumption could prolong colonization of L. paracasei SD1. Significantly reduced MS counts and increased lactobacilli levels were found among children in the probiotic group. There were less caries lesions in the probiotic group at the end of the study. A significant reduction of the development of new caries lesions (4.5 times was observed in the high caries risk group but not in the low caries risk group. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that the long-term daily ingestion of the human-derived probiotic L. paracasei SD1 significantly reduces the number of MS and caries risk in the high caries group.
Probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and Bifidobacterium longum MM-2) improve rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life in individuals with seasonal allergies: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.
Dennis-Wall, Jennifer C; Culpepper, Tyler; Nieves, Carmelo; Rowe, Cassie C; Burns, Alyssa M; Rusch, Carley T; Federico, Ashton; Ukhanova, Maria; Waugh, Sheldon; Mai, Volker; Christman, Mary C; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi
Background: Rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life is often reduced during seasonal allergies. The Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MRQLQ) is a validated tool used to measure quality of life in people experiencing allergies (0 = not troubled to 6 = extremely troubled). Probiotics may improve quality of life during allergy season by increasing the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and inducing tolerance.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether consuming Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and B. longum MM-2 compared with placebo would result in beneficial effects on MRQLQ scores throughout allergy season in individuals who typically experience seasonal allergies. Secondary outcomes included changes in immune markers as part of a potential mechanism for changes in MRQLQ scores.Design: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, randomized clinical trial, 173 participants (mean ± SEM: age 27 ± 1 y) who self-identified as having seasonal allergies received either a probiotic (2 capsules/d, 1.5 billion colony-forming units/capsule) or placebo during spring allergy season for 8 wk. MRQLQ scores were collected weekly throughout the study. Fasting blood samples were taken from a subgroup (placebo, n = 37; probiotic, n = 35) at baseline and week 6 (predicted peak of pollen) to determine serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E concentrations and Treg percentages.Results: The probiotic group reported an improvement in the MRQLQ global score from baseline to pollen peak (-0.68 ± 0.13) when compared with the placebo group (-0.19 ± 0.14; P = 0.0092). Both serum total IgE and the percentage of Tregs increased from baseline to week 6, but changes were not different between groups.Conclusions: This combination probiotic improved rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life during allergy season for healthy individuals with self-reported seasonal allergies; however, the associated mechanism is still
Feeding of probiotics determined a decrease in faecal NH3-N (+15.5%) and butyric acid concentrations, whereas no effects were observed on faecal acetic acid and propionic acid. An increased faecal Lactobacillus concentration was found when pigs fed probiotic blend. Based on our findings, feeding probiotic blend ...
In silico genomic insights into aspects of food safety and defense mechanisms of a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives.
Full Text Available Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10, isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives, exhibited high probiotic potential. The genome sequence of L. pentosus MP-10 is currently considered the largest genome among lactobacilli, highlighting the microorganism's ecological flexibility and adaptability. Here, we analyzed the complete genome sequence for the presence of acquired antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants to understand their defense mechanisms and explore its putative safety in food. The annotated genome sequence revealed evidence of diverse mobile genetic elements, such as prophages, transposases and transposons involved in their adaptation to brine-associated niches. In-silico analysis of L. pentosus MP-10 genome sequence identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes as an immune system against foreign genetic elements, which consisted of six arrays (4-12 repeats and eleven predicted cas genes [CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 consisted of 3 (Type II-C and 8 (Type I genes] with high similarity to L. pentosus KCA1. Bioinformatic analyses revealed L. pentosus MP-10 to be absent of acquired antibiotic resistance genes, and most resistance genes were related to efflux mechanisms; no virulence determinants were found in the genome. This suggests that L. pentosus MP-10 could be considered safe and with high-adaptation potential, which could facilitate its application as a starter culture and probiotic in food preparations.
In silico genomic insights into aspects of food safety and defense mechanisms of a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives.
Abriouel, Hikmate; Pérez Montoro, Beatriz; Casado Muñoz, María Del Carmen; Knapp, Charles W; Gálvez, Antonio; Benomar, Nabil
Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10, isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives, exhibited high probiotic potential. The genome sequence of L. pentosus MP-10 is currently considered the largest genome among lactobacilli, highlighting the microorganism's ecological flexibility and adaptability. Here, we analyzed the complete genome sequence for the presence of acquired antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants to understand their defense mechanisms and explore its putative safety in food. The annotated genome sequence revealed evidence of diverse mobile genetic elements, such as prophages, transposases and transposons involved in their adaptation to brine-associated niches. In-silico analysis of L. pentosus MP-10 genome sequence identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes) as an immune system against foreign genetic elements, which consisted of six arrays (4-12 repeats) and eleven predicted cas genes [CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 consisted of 3 (Type II-C) and 8 (Type I) genes] with high similarity to L. pentosus KCA1. Bioinformatic analyses revealed L. pentosus MP-10 to be absent of acquired antibiotic resistance genes, and most resistance genes were related to efflux mechanisms; no virulence determinants were found in the genome. This suggests that L. pentosus MP-10 could be considered safe and with high-adaptation potential, which could facilitate its application as a starter culture and probiotic in food preparations.
Full Text Available Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 had advantages as probiotic digestive system cholesterol lowering Lactobacillus. Applying in industry, particular processing technique is necessary for gaining product that ready for marketing and consuming. Spray drying is common technique using in various food processing. High processing temperature, 100-200oC, for 3-10 second become the barrier because cells were under extreme temperature stress. Therefore, encapsulate was needed to protect the cells from those extreme conditions. Viability and survival rate of encapsulated Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 have been investigated. The result showed that Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 that was encapsulated by 10% skim milk has higher viability than those by 5% skim milk, namely 72.37% and 51.69% respectively. Survival rate of encapsulated Lactobacillus cells will come to zero in 41.28 years. Therefore, encapsulated Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 may use as probiotic agent.
Probiotics have shown beneficial effects on human health. To increase the efficacy of probiotic applications, we used Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as a probiotic model to investigate approaches to enhance the bioavailability of probiotics. LGG was encapsulated in hydrogel beads containing pectin...
The hsp 16 Gene of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus Is Differently Regulated by Salt, High Temperature and Acidic Stresses, as Revealed by Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR Analysis
Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (sHsps are ubiquitous conserved chaperone-like proteins involved in cellular proteins protection under stressful conditions. In this study, a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR procedure was developed and used to quantify the transcript level of a small heat shock gene (shs in the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, under stress conditions such as heat (45 °C and 53 °C, bile (0.3% w/v, hyperosmosis (1 M and 2.5 M NaCl, and low pH value (pH 4. The shs gene of L. acidophilus NCFM was induced by salt, high temperature and acidic stress, while repression was observed upon bile stress. Analysis of the 5' noncoding region of the hsp16 gene reveals the presence of an inverted repeat (IR sequence (TTAGCACTC-N9-GAGTGCTAA homologue to the controlling IR of chaperone expression (CIRCE elements found in the upstream regulatory region of Gram-positive heat shock operons, suggesting that the hsp16 gene of L. acidophilus might be transcriptionally controlled by HrcA. In addition, the alignment of several small heat shock proteins identified so far in lactic acid bacteria, reveals that the Hsp16 of L. acidophilus exhibits a strong evolutionary relationship with members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group.
Junko Sato; Akio Kanazawa; Kosuke Azuma; Fuki Ikeda; Hiromasa Goto; Koji Komiya; Rei Kanno; Yoshifumi Tamura; Takashi Asahara; Takuya Takahashi; Koji Nomoto; Yuichiro Yamashiro; Hirotaka Watada
.... Seventy Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were randomised to two groups: the probiotic group drank Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota-fermented milk, while the control group ingested no probiotics...
Singhi, Sunit C.; Kumar, Suresh
Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens
O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.
Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.
Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) has been consumed since the mid 1990s by between 2 and 5 million people daily, the scientific literature lacks rigorous clinical trials that describe the potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. The primary objective of this open label...
Kant, Ravi; Blom, Jochen; Palva, Airi; Siezen, Roland J.; de Vos, Willem M.
Summary The genus Lactobacillus includes a diverse group of bacteria consisting of many species that are associated with fermentations of plants, meat or milk. In addition, various lactobacilli are natural inhabitants of the intestinal tract of humans and other animals. Finally, several Lactobacillus strains are marketed as probiotics as their consumption can confer a health benefit to host. Presently, 154 Lactobacillus species are known and a growing fraction of these are subject to draft genome sequencing. However, complete genome sequences are needed to provide a platform for detailed genomic comparisons. Therefore, we selected a total of 20 genomes of various Lactobacillus strains for which complete genomic sequences have been reported. These genomes had sizes varying from 1.8 to 3.3 Mb and other characteristic features, such as G+C content that ranged from 33% to 51%. The Lactobacillus pan genome was found to consist of approximately 14 000 protein‐encoding genes while all 20 genomes shared a total of 383 sets of orthologous genes that defined the Lactobacillus core genome (LCG). Based on advanced phylogeny of the proteins encoded by this LCG, we grouped the 20 strains into three main groups and defined core group genes present in all genomes of a single group, signature group genes shared in all genomes of one group but absent in all other Lactobacillus genomes, and Group‐specific ORFans present in core group genes of one group and absent in all other complete genomes. The latter are of specific value in defining the different groups of genomes. The study provides a platform for present individual comparisons as well as future analysis of new Lactobacillus genomes. PMID:21375712
Bond, Diana M; Morris, Jonathan M; Nassar, Natasha
Mastitis and accompanying pain have been associated with the cessation of breastfeeding. Mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast and may be a result of decreased immunity and a lowered resistance to infection. Mastitis affects up to one in five breastfeeding women with most episodes occurring in the first 6-8 weeks postpartum. Antibiotics are often used in the treatment of mastitis, but have not been popular or proven effective as a preventative agent. The WHO has highlighted significant concerns relating to adverse harms of antibiotic use with the production of antibiotic-resistant strains of disease organisms. Increasing research suggests that specific probiotic bacteria possess significant anti-inflammatory properties and supports their potential use as immunomodulatory agents. While animal studies have shown promising results in the use of probiotics for preventing mastitis, their use in human trials has had limited investigation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of oral probiotics for the prevention of mastitis in breastfeeding women. APProve (CAn Probiotics ImProve Breastfeeding Outcomes?) is a double-blind randomised controlled trial designed to assess outcomes between breastfeeding women ingesting a probiotic versus a placebo daily for 8 weeks following birth. A total of 600 women (300 to each arm) who intend to breastfeed will be randomised after the birth of a term, healthy infant. Daily and weekly surveys for 8 weeks and follow-up surveys at 2, 6 and 12 months after birth will assess the primary outcome of mastitis in the first 8 weeks following birth as well as secondary maternal outcomes of breastfeeding duration (total/partial), antibiotic use, maternal health and well-being, and treatment compliance; and infant outcomes including gastroenteritis, infant health and well-being and growth and development. The acceptability and compliance using a novel mobile phone application system will also be evaluated. There is
Gøbel, Rikke Juul; Larsen, Nadja; Jakobsen, Mogens
The connections between gut microbiota, energy homeostasis, and inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders are increasingly recognized. We aimed to investigate the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 on a series of biomarkers related...... to inflammation and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescents with obesity....
Bailiang Li; Da Jin; Smith Etareri Evivie; Na Li; Fenfen Yan; Li Zhao; Fei Liu; Guicheng Huo
Lactobacillus helveticus KLDS1.8701 isolated from Chinese traditional fermented dairy product has been shown earlier to possess probiotic potentials but it is important to evaluate its safety in view of its possible use as a probiotic...
Carlos Ricardo Soccol
Full Text Available Probiotics, live cells with different beneficiary characteristics, have been extensivelly studied and explored commercially in many different products in the world. Their benefits to human and animal health have been proven in hundreds of scientific research. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are the main probiotic groups; however, there are reports on the probiotic potential of Pediococcus, Lactococcus, Bacillus and yeasts. Some of the identified probiotic strains exhibit powerful anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and other important properties. Apart from that, the consumption of dairy and non-dairy products stimulates the immunity in different ways. Various food matrices have been used with probiotics, which are briefly documented. In this review, the history of probiotics, their application in the health and food areas and new trends in probiotic products and processes are presented.
Amir, Lisa H; Griffin, Laura; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M
Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Scientists have isolated various strains of Lactobacilli from human milk (such as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius), and the presence of these organisms is thought to be protective against breast infections, or mastitis. Trials of probiotics for treating mastitis in dairy cows have had mixed results: some successful and others unsuccessful. To date, only one trial of probiotics to treat mastitis in women and one trial to prevent mastitis have been published. Although trials of probiotics to prevent mastitis in breastfeeding women are still in progress, health professionals in Australia are receiving marketing of these products. High quality randomised controlled trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of probiotics for the prevention and/or treatment of mastitis.
Health benefits associated with the ingestion of certain lactobacilli known as probiotics have increased the research and incorporation of these bacteria into food products. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a well-known and studied probiotic organism. Upon ingestion, probiotics survive acid and bile stress and then adhere to the epithelial cell walls to elicit health benefits. Adhesion promotes interaction between probiotic cells and epithelial cells which is necessary for probiotics to confer h...
Xu, Man; Wang, Jiao; Wang, Ning; Sun, Fei; Wang, Lin; Liu, Xiao-Hong
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for treating infantile colic. A systematic literature retrieval was carried out to obtain randomized controlled trials of L. reuteri DSM 17938 for infantile colic. Trials were performed before May 2015 and retrieved from the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CNKI, WanFang, VIP, and CBM databases. Data extraction and quality evaluation of the trials were performed independently by two investigators. A meta-analysis was performed using STATA version 12.0. Six randomized controlled trials of 423 infants with colic were included. Of these subjects, 213 were in the L. reuteri group, and 210 were in the placebo group. Lactobacillus reuteri increased colic treatment effectiveness at two weeks (RR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.24-6.50; p = 0.014) and three weeks (relative risk [RR] = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.38-3.93; P = 0.002) but not at four weeks (RR = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.52-3.82; P = 0.498). Lactobacillus reuteri decreased crying time (min/d) at two weeks (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -42.89; 95% CI: -60.50 to -25.29; P = 0.000) and three weeks (WMD = -45.83; 95% CI: -59.45 to -32.21; P = 0.000). In addition, L. reuteri did not influence infants' weight, length or head circumference and was not associated with serious adverse events. Lactobacillus reuteri possibly increased the effectiveness of treatment for infantile colic and decreased crying time at two to three weeks without causing adverse events. However, these protective roles are usurped by gradual physiological improvements. The study is limited by the heterogeneity of the trials and should be considered with caution. Higher quality, multicenter randomized controlled trials with larger samples are needed.
Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for treating infantile colic.A systematic literature retrieval was carried out to obtain randomized controlled trials of L. reuteri DSM 17938 for infantile colic. Trials were performed before May 2015 and retrieved from the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CNKI, WanFang, VIP, and CBM databases. Data extraction and quality evaluation of the trials were performed independently by two investigators. A meta-analysis was performed using STATA version 12.0.Six randomized controlled trials of 423 infants with colic were included. Of these subjects, 213 were in the L. reuteri group, and 210 were in the placebo group. Lactobacillus reuteri increased colic treatment effectiveness at two weeks (RR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.24-6.50; p = 0.014 and three weeks (relative risk [RR] = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.38-3.93; P = 0.002 but not at four weeks (RR = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.52-3.82; P = 0.498. Lactobacillus reuteri decreased crying time (min/d at two weeks (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -42.89; 95% CI: -60.50 to -25.29; P = 0.000 and three weeks (WMD = -45.83; 95% CI: -59.45 to -32.21; P = 0.000. In addition, L. reuteri did not influence infants' weight, length or head circumference and was not associated with serious adverse events.Lactobacillus reuteri possibly increased the effectiveness of treatment for infantile colic and decreased crying time at two to three weeks without causing adverse events. However, these protective roles are usurped by gradual physiological improvements. The study is limited by the heterogeneity of the trials and should be considered with caution. Higher quality, multicenter randomized controlled trials with larger samples are needed.
Karen L Madsen
Full Text Available Probiotics are living microorganisms that can affect the host in a beneficial manner. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and activity of probiotic bacteria already established in the colon. Efficacy of probiotic compounds has been shown in a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. Lactobacillus GG alone, or the combination of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus, is effective in the treatment of Clostridium difficile, as well as in preventing the frequency and severity of infectious acute diarrhea in children. Prevention of antibiotic-induced diarrhea with the concomitant administration of either Lactobacillus GG or Saccharomyces boulardii has been demonstrated. The most successful studies involve the use of Lactobacillus GG at a dose of 1×1010 viable organisms per day and the yeast boulardii at a dose of 1 g/day. A probiotic preparation (VSL#3 - 6 g/day that uses a combination of three species of Bifidobacterium, four strains of Lactobacillus and one strain of Streptocccus has shown promise in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis and pouchitis, as well as in preventing the postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease. The mechanism of action of probiotics may include receptor competition, effects on mucin secretion or probiotic immunomodulation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Oral administration of probiotic compounds has been demonstrated to be well tolerated and safe. However, while probiotics have the potential to improve human health and to prevent and treat some diseases, major improvements are needed in labelling and quality assurance procedures for probiotic compounds. In addition, well planned and controlled clinical studies are necessary to delineate fully the potential for probiotic compounds.
Shah, N P
A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and Lactobacillus casei. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. However, studies have shown low viability of probiotics in market preparations. In order to assess viability of probiotic bacteria, it is important to have a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria. Viability of probiotic bacteria is important in order to provide health benefits. Viability of probiotic bacteria can be improved by appropriate selection of acid and bile resistant strains, use of oxygen impermeable containers, two-step fermentation, micro-encapsulation, stress adaptation, incorporation of micronutrients such as peptides and amino acids and by sonication of yogurt bacteria. This review will cover selective enumeration and survival of probiotic bacteria in dairy foods.
Modulación de la fisiología gastrointestinal mediante cepas probióticas de Lactobacillus casei y Bifidobacterium bifidum Modulation of gastrointestinal physiology through probiotic strains of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum
J. Barrenetxe; P. Aranguren; A. Grijalba; J.M. Martínez-Peñuela; F. Marzo; E Urdaneta
En el contexto de la alimentación y la promoción de la salud se sitúan los productos denominados alimentos funcionales que tienen diversos efectos beneficiosos en el organismo, además de los meramente nutricionales. Dentro de estos alimentos funcionales, entre otros, podemos distinguir entre compuestos probióticos y prebióticos. Los microorganismos más utilizados en alimentos probióticos pertenecen a los géneros Lactobacillus y Bifidobacterium. En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado el efecto...
Abstract Lactobacillus plantarum is found in various environmental habitats, including fermentation products and the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, and specific strains are marketed as probiotics, which are defined as ‘live microorganisms which when administered in adequate
Lactobacilli are normal residents of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Many species belonging to the genera Lactobacillus with health beneficial properties have been introduced as probiotics. Genetic engineering of Lactobacillus could potentially combine the colonizing ability and probiotic effect with an engineered therapeutic function. The aim of this thesis was to explore the possibility of using lactobacilli as vectors for delivery of peptides in the GI tract for thera...
Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Martín, Alberto; Benito, María José; Aranda, Emilio; Casquete, Rocío; Córdoba, María de Guia
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of incorporating the probiotic L. reuteri PL519 into the manufacturing of Iberian dry fermented sausages, and to observe its effect on the sensory properties of these meat products. Specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to detect the presence of probiotic strain at high counts in the inoculated sausages. Changes due to probiotic inoculation on physicochemical parameters were determined and the impact on sensory quality evaluated. Dry fermented sausages inoculated with L. reuteri PL519 may be considered as functional products according to the counts of this strain found at the end of processing. Inoculation with L. reuteri PL519 increased the amount of acetic acid, protein, and lipid degradation products in dry fermented sausages. The differences observed in the descriptive sensorial analysis corresponded, however, to a little impact on overall acceptability since no significant changes were found between the control and L. reuteri PL519 batch in the hedonic test. Processing and marketing of Iberian dry fermented sausages with functional characteristics. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P
Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. This review is presented to provide detailed informations about how probiotics stimulate our immune system. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, Bifidobacterium lactis DR10, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii are the most investigated probiotic cultures for their immunomodulation properties. Probiotics can enhance nonspecific cellular immune response characterized by activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in strain-specific and dose-dependent manner. Mixture and type (gram-positive and gram-negative) of probiotic organisms may induce different cytokine responses. Supplementation of probiotic organisms in infancy could help prevent immune-mediated diseases in childhood, whereas their intervention in pregnancy could affect fetal immune parameters, such as cord blood interferon (IFN)-γ levels, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels, and breast milk immunoglobulin (Ig)A. Probiotics that can be delivered via fermented milk or yogurt could improve the gut mucosal immune system by increasing the number of IgA(+) cells and cytokine-producing cells in the effector site of the intestine.
Full Text Available The modern diet doesn't provide the required amount of beneficial bacteria. Maintenance of a proper microbial ecology in the host is the main criteria to be met for a healthy growth. Probiotics are one such alternative that are supplemented to the host where by and large species of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Saccharomyces are considered as main probiotics. The field of probiotics has made stupendous strides though there is no major break through in the identification of their mechanism of action. They exert their activity primarily by strengthening the intestinal barrier and immunomodulation. The main objective of the study was to provide a deep insight into the effect of probiotics against the diseases, their applications and proposed mechanism of action.
Spinler, Jennifer K; Auchtung, Jennifer; Brown, Aaron; Boonma, Prapaporn; Oezguen, Numan; Ross, Caná L; Luna, Ruth Ann; Runge, Jessica; Versalovic, James; Peniche, Alex; Dann, Sara M; Britton, Robert A; Haag, Anthony; Savidge, Tor C
Integration of antibiotic and probiotic therapy has the potential to lessen the public health burden of antimicrobial-associated diseases. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents an important example where the rational design of next-generation probiotics is being actively pursued to prevent disease recurrence. Because intrinsic resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics used to treat CDI (vancomycin, metronidazole, and fidaxomicin) is a desired trait in such probiotic species, we screened several bacteria and identified Lactobacillus reuteri to be a promising candidate for adjunct therapy. Human-derived L. reuteri bacteria convert glycerol to the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound reuterin. When supplemented with glycerol, strains carrying the pocR gene locus were potent reuterin producers, with L. reuteri 17938 inhibiting C. difficile growth at a level on par with the level of growth inhibition by vancomycin. Targeted pocR mutations and complementation studies identified reuterin to be the precursor-induced antimicrobial agent. Pathophysiological relevance was demonstrated when the codelivery of L. reuteri with glycerol was effective against C. difficile colonization in complex human fecal microbial communities, whereas treatment with either glycerol or L. reuteri alone was ineffective. A global unbiased microbiome and metabolomics analysis independently confirmed that glycerol precursor delivery with L. reuteri elicited changes in the composition and function of the human microbial community that preferentially targets C. difficile outgrowth and toxicity, a finding consistent with glycerol fermentation and reuterin production. Antimicrobial resistance has thus been successfully exploited in the natural design of human microbiome evasion of C. difficile, and this method may provide a prototypic precursor-directed probiotic approach. Antibiotic resistance and substrate bioavailability may therefore represent critical new determinants of probiotic
Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The objective of this study was to screen eight potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains from fermented idli batter using in vitro assays such as bile tolerance, acid tolerance, transit ...
Hibberd, Patricia L; Kleimola, Lauren; Fiorino, Anne-Maria; Botelho, Christine; Haverkamp, Miriam; Andreyeva, Irina; Poutsiaka, Debra; Fraser, Claire; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Snydman, David R
Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) has been consumed by 2 to 5 million people daily since the mid 1990s, there are few clinical trials describing potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. The primary objective of this open label clinical trial is to assess the safety and tolerability of 1×1010 colony forming units (CFU) of LGG administered orally twice daily to elderly volunteers for 28 days. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of LGG on the gastrointestinal microbiome, host immune response and plasma cytokines. Fifteen elderly volunteers, aged 66-80 years received LGG capsules containing 1×1010 CFU, twice daily for 28 days and were followed through day 56. Volunteers completed a daily diary, a telephone call on study days 3, 7 and 14 and study visits in the Clinical Research Center at baseline, day 28 and day 56 to determine whether adverse events had occurred. Assessments included prompted and open-ended questions. There were no serious adverse events. The 15 volunteers had a total of 47 events (range 1-7 per volunteer), 39 (83%) of which were rated as mild and 40% of which were considered related to consuming LGG. Thirty-one (70%) of the events were expected, prompted symptoms while 16 were unexpected events. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal (bloating, gas, and nausea), 27 rated as mild and 3 rated as moderate. In the exploratory analysis, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 decreased during LGG consumption, returning towards baseline one month after discontinuing LGG (p = 0.038) while there was no difference in other pro- or anti-inflammatory plasma cytokines. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 is safe and well tolerated in healthy adults aged 65 years and older. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01274598.
Patricia L Hibberd
Full Text Available Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG has been consumed by 2 to 5 million people daily since the mid 1990s, there are few clinical trials describing potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly.The primary objective of this open label clinical trial is to assess the safety and tolerability of 1×1010 colony forming units (CFU of LGG administered orally twice daily to elderly volunteers for 28 days. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of LGG on the gastrointestinal microbiome, host immune response and plasma cytokines.Fifteen elderly volunteers, aged 66-80 years received LGG capsules containing 1×1010 CFU, twice daily for 28 days and were followed through day 56. Volunteers completed a daily diary, a telephone call on study days 3, 7 and 14 and study visits in the Clinical Research Center at baseline, day 28 and day 56 to determine whether adverse events had occurred. Assessments included prompted and open-ended questions.There were no serious adverse events. The 15 volunteers had a total of 47 events (range 1-7 per volunteer, 39 (83% of which were rated as mild and 40% of which were considered related to consuming LGG. Thirty-one (70% of the events were expected, prompted symptoms while 16 were unexpected events. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal (bloating, gas, and nausea, 27 rated as mild and 3 rated as moderate. In the exploratory analysis, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 decreased during LGG consumption, returning towards baseline one month after discontinuing LGG (p = 0.038 while there was no difference in other pro- or anti-inflammatory plasma cytokines.Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 is safe and well tolerated in healthy adults aged 65 years and older.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01274598.
Sharma, Monika; Devi, Mridula
Food products containing probiotics and prebiotics are an important development in Health foods, which enhance health promoting microbial flora in the intestine. Probiotic refers to viable microorganism that promotes or support a beneficial balance of the autochthonous microbial population of the gastrointestinal tract. A number of genera of bacteria (and yeast) are used as probiotics, including Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, and Enterococcus, but the main species believed to have probiotic characteristics are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and L. casei. Probiotics can reduce diarrheal incidence, lactose intolerance, lower serum cholesterol, stimulate the immune system, control infections, act as antibiotics, suppress tumors, and protect against colon or bladder cancer by maintaining a healthy intestinal microflora balance. Lactic acid bacteria produce biopreservatives such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocins that are used to retard both spoilage and the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Food, particularly dairy products are considered as an ideal vehicle for delivering probiotic bacteria to the human gastrointestinal tract. Cereals being rich source of prebiotics such as β-glucan and arabinoxylan, galacto-, and fructooligosaccharides are considered for development of probiotic foods. Good manufacturing practices must be applied in the manufacture of probiotic foods with quality assurance, and shelf-life conditions established.
Full Text Available Arthur C Ouwehand Active Nutrition, DuPont Nutrition and Health, Kantvik, Finland Abstract: Although probiotics have documented health benefits outside the gastrointestinal tract, digestive health remains the key benefit for probiotics. Advances in technology have made even more in-depth analyses of the intestinal microbiota possible. Nevertheless, a healthy microbiota cannot be defined due to individual differences and changes with age. Probiotics, in general, will not cure or prevent disease, but will aim at maintaining health and reducing risk for disease; although probiotic pharmaceuticals are possible. Meta-analyses have indicated several areas where probiotics can exert health benefits such as certain types of diarrhea, constipation, and inflammatory diseases of the intestine. There is also an ever-increasing understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic action. However, it remains challenging to pinpoint specific strain (combinations for explicit health benefits. The increased understanding of the intestinal microbiota composition and activity will make it likely that in the future we will see new probiotics from genera other than Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, or Saccharomyces; these may focus on new or existing health targets. Keywords: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, intestinal microbiota, health, novel probiotics
Survivability of freeze-dried probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus strains GS4, GS17 and Lactobacillus gasseri (ATCC 19992 during storage with commonly used pharmaceutical excipients within a period of 120 days
Conclusions: Commonly used excipients can be considered as a vehicle for delivering active principle in probiotic formulation and for sustaining the viability and stability of probiotic strains for a period of 120 d.
Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of use of various Probiotic products including curd. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of short‑term consumption of probiotic curd containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and normal curd on salivary Streptococcus Mutans counts, as well as salivary pH.
The suitability of (a fermented non-alcoholic maize beverage) as a probiotic vehicle was previously demonstrated using a range of organisms (Nyanzi, 2007). In that study also, lactobacillus spp.- dependent differences in the sensory properties of the probiotic were recorded. The present study was conducted to underpin ...
Vandenplas, Yvan; Huys, Geert; Daube, Georges
Triggered by the growing knowledge on the link between the intestinal microbiome and human health, the interest in probiotics is ever increasing. The authors aimed to review the recent literature on probiotics, from definitions to clinical benefits, with emphasis on children. Relevant literature from searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and recent consensus statements were reviewed. While a balanced microbiome is related to health, an imbalanced microbiome or dysbiosis is related to many health problems both within the gastro-intestinal tract, such as diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease, and outside the gastro-intestinal tract such as obesity and allergy. In this context, a strict regulation of probiotics with health claims is urgent, because the vast majority of these products are commercialized as food (supplements), claiming health benefits that are often not substantiated with clinically relevant evidence. The major indications of probiotics are in the area of the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal related disorders, but more data has become available on extra-intestinal indications. At least two published randomized controlled trials with the commercialized probiotic product in the claimed indication are a minimal condition before a claim can be sustained. Today, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii are the best-studied strains. Although adverse effects have sporadically been reported, these probiotics can be considered as safe. Although regulation is improving, more stringent definitions are still required. Evidence of clinical benefit is accumulating, although still missing in many areas. Misuse and use of products that have not been validated constitute potential drawbacks. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Triggered by the growing knowledge on the link between the intestinal microbiome and human health, the interest in probiotics is ever increasing. The authors aimed to review the recent literature on probiotics, from definitions to clinical benefits, with emphasis on children. SOURCES: Relevant literature from searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and recent consensus statements were reviewed. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: While a balanced microbiome is related to health, an imbalanced microbiome or dysbiosis is related to many health problems both within the gastro-intestinal tract, such as diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease, and outside the gastro-intestinal tract such as obesity and allergy. In this context, a strict regulation of probiotics with health claims is urgent, because the vast majority of these products are commercialized as food (supplements, claiming health benefits that are often not substantiated with clinically relevant evidence. The major indications of probiotics are in the area of the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal related disorders, but more data has become available on extra-intestinal indications. At least two published randomized controlled trials with the commercialized probiotic product in the claimed indication are a minimal condition before a claim can be sustained. Today, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii are the best-studied strains. Although adverse effects have sporadically been reported, these probiotics can be considered as safe. CONCLUSIONS: Although regulation is improving, more stringent definitions are still required. Evidence of clinical benefit is accumulating, although still missing in many areas. Misuse and use of products that have not been validated constitute potential drawbacks.
Guarner, Francisco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Corthier, Gérard; Salminen, Seppo; Koletzko, Berthold; Morelli, Lorenzo
Probiotics are live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Consumption of yoghurt has been shown to induce measurable health benefits linked to the presence of live bacteria. A number of human studies have clearly demonstrated that yoghurt containing viable bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus) improves lactose digestion and eliminates symptoms of lactose intolerance. Thus, these cultures clearly fulfil the current concept of probiotics.
Chatterjee, Suparna; Kar, Premashish; Das, Tapas; Ray, Sayantan; Gangulyt, Satyabrata; Rajendiran, Chinnaswamy; Mitra, Monjori
To evaluate the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of a probiotic formulation containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 in the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea (AAD...
Dongarrà, Maria Luisa; Rizzello, Valeria; Muccio, Letizia; Fries, Walter; Cascio, Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Ferlazzo, Guido
The cross-talk between the mucosa-associated immune system and microbiota is critical in mucosal tissue homeostasis as well as in protection against infectious and inflammatory diseases occurring at mucosal sites. This recent evidence has paved the way to therapeutic approaches aimed at modulating the mucosa-associated immune system using probiotics. Different strains of probiotics possess the ability to finely regulate dendritic cell (DC) activation, polarizing the subsequent T cell activity toward Th1 (e.g. Lactobacillus (Lb) acidophilus), Th2 (Lb.reuteri and Bifidobacterium bifidum) or, as more recently demonstrated, Th17 responses induced by specific strains such as Lb.rhamnosus GG and Lac23a, the latter isolated in our laboratory. Here, we review some recent advances in our understanding of probiotics effects on mucosal immunology, particularly on cells of the innate immunity such as DCs. We also highlight our own experiences in modulating DC functions by commensal bacteria and discuss the relevance of probiotics administration in the treatment of human immunopathologies.
Probiotics have been extensively studied over the past several years in the prevention and, to a larger extent, in the treatment of diarrheal diseases, especially in pediatric populations. Diarrhea is a symptom, and not a disease. This review will not address chronic disorders associated with diarrhea, or Clostridium difficile-induced diarrhea. Rather it will focus on published clinical trials performed on acute-onset, likely infectious diarrhea occurring in the settings of day-care centers, in the community, acquired in the hospital, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and treatment of acute infectious diarrhea. For prevention of diarrhea acquired in day-care centers, 9 randomized and placebo-controlled trials have been published, conducted in different parts of the world. Probiotics tested were Lactobacillus GG, Bifidobacterium lactis (alone or in combination with Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (not GG), and Lactobacillus acidophilus, in various trials either alone or in comparison with each other. The evidence of their efficacy in these settings is only modest for the prevention of diarrhea, although somewhat better for prevention of upper respiratory infections. In the community, new trails conducted in underprivileged areas of India, again with modest efficacy. Previous trials that examined the potential role of probiotics in preventing the spreading of diarrhea in hospitalized children had yielded conflicting results. More recently, a large trial in Poland showed, however, rather good evidence of efficacy for Lactobacillus GG. The prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea has been the subject of many investigations, both in children and in adults. Most commonly used probiotics were Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium ssp, Streptococcus ssp, and the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii. In general, most of these trials do show clear evidence of efficacy, with the 2 most
Nayak, S K
Probiotics are usually live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefits on host. Nowadays, probiotics are also becoming an integral part of the aquaculture practices to obtain high production. The common probiotics that are used for aquaculture practices include Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, Carnobacterium, Shewanella, Bacillus, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, and Saccharomyces species. The involvement of probiotics in nutrition, disease resistance and other beneficial activities in fish has proven beyond any doubt. Among the numerous health benefits attributed to probiotics, modulation of immune system is one of the most commonly purported benefits of the probiotics and their potency to stimulate the systemic and local immunity under in vitro and in vivo conditions is noteworthy. Different probiotics either monospecies or multispecies supplementation can eventually elevate phagocytic, lysozyme, complement, respiratory burst activity as well as expression of various cytokines in fish. Similarly, probiotics can stimulate the gut immune system of fish with marked increase in the number of Ig(+) cells and acidophilic granulocytes. Furthermore, mono-bacterial association studies (with non-probiotic bacterial strains) in gnotobiotic fish also indicate the up-regulation of various immune related genes. Though the exact mode of action of probiotics is yet to be established in any animal including fish, probiotics often exert host specific and strain specific differences in their activities. Various factors like source, type, dose and duration of supplementation of probiotics can significantly affect the immunomodulatory activity of probiotics. The review is therefore, aiming to highlight the immunomodulatory activity of probiotics and also to evaluate the factors that regulate for the optimum induction of immune responses in fish. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ito, Masahiro; Kim, Yun-Gi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Kiwaki, Mayumi; Nomoto, Koji; Danbara, Hirofumi; Okada, Nobuhiko
Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27139 enhances host innate immunity, and the J1 phage-resistant mutants of this strain lose the activity. A transposon insertion mutant library of L. casei ATCC 27139 was constructed, and nine J1 phage-resistant mutants out of them were obtained. Cloning and sequencing analyses identified three independent genes that were disrupted by insertion of the transposon element: asnH, encoding asparagine synthetase, and dnaJ and dnaK, encoding the molecular chaperones DnaJ and DnaK, respectively. Using an in vivo mouse model of Listeria infection, only asnH mutant showed deficiency in their ability to enhance host innate immunity, and complementation of the mutation by introduction of the wild-type asnH in the mutant strain recovered the immuno-augmenting activity. AsnH protein exhibited asparagine synthetase activity when the lysozyme-treated cell wall extracts of L. casei ATCC 27139 was added as substrate. The asnH mutants lost the thick and rigid peptidoglycan features that are characteristic to the wild-type cells, indicating that AsnH of L. casei is involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. These results indicate that asnH is required for the construction of the peptidoglycan composition involved in the immune-activating capacity of L. casei ATCC 27139.
Lacombe, Alison; Wu, Vivian C H; White, Jennifer; Tadepalli, Shravaini; Andre, Enroe E
The antimicrobial properties of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) were studied against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus to determine which fractional components have antimicrobial effects and which microorganisms are most susceptible to these antimicrobial properties. Lowbush blueberry extract (F1) was separated using a C-18 Sep-Pak cartridge into monomeric phenolics (F2) and anthocyanins plus proanthocyanidins (F3). Fraction 3 was further separated into anthocyanins (F4) and proanthocyanidins (F5) using a LH-20 Sephadex column. Each fraction was initially screened for antimicrobial properties using agar diffusion assay. Treatments that demonstrated inhibition were further analyzed for inhibition in liquid culture. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using a two-fold dilution series and viable cell counts taken at 0 and 24 h to examine growth reduction. Fraction 3 demonstrated the lowest MICs/MBCs followed by F1, F2, F4, and F5. L. monocytogenes was the most susceptible to blueberry fraction treatment, followed by E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium. L. rhamnosus was the least susceptible to each fraction treatment. The results can be applied to the field of preventive medicine, food safety, and enrich the understanding of the health benefits of lowbush blueberries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Acute inflammatory response in Nile tilapia fed probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in the diet - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.8011 Acute inflammatory response in Nile tilapia fed probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in the diet - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.8011
Full Text Available The present study evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenin (500 µg injected in the swim bladder of Nile tilapia, after fed or not probiotic supplemented diet. Fifty four fish were distributed in six treatments and three replicates: Group A: Fish fed unsupplemented diet: 0.5 mL saline-injected fish; fish injected with 500 µg carrageenin diluted in 0.5 mL saline; Non-injected. Group B: Fish fed probiotic supplemented diet: saline-injected fish; carrageenin-injected fish; Non-injected. Fifteen days after feeding the fish were injected with carrageenin or saline. After six hours, inflammatory exudate was collected, as well as the blood for hematocrit, red blood cell (RBC and white blood cell (WBC counts, differential count of leucocytes and phagocytic activity in the blood. Supplementation with probiotic did not influence the RBC, hematocrit and the numbers of lymphocytes and basophils in the blood. The number of neutrophils was significantly higher in supplemented fish injected with carrageenin. Glucose concentration in supplemented and non-injected fish was higher than that observed in the saline injected ones. Probiotic potentialized the migration of cells to the inflammatory focus in the animals injected with the carrageenin irritant. In fish injected with saline and carrageenin occurred the greatest phagocytic activity in the blood in relation to those treatments.The present study evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenin (500 µg injected in the swim bladder of Nile tilapia, after fed or not probiotic supplemented diet. Fifty four fish were distributed in six treatments and three replicates: Group A: Fish fed unsupplemented diet: 0.5 mL saline-injected fish; fish injected with 500 µg carrageenin diluted in 0.5 mL saline; Non-injected. Group B: Fish fed probiotic supplemented diet: saline-injected fish; carrageenin-injected fish; Non-injected. Fifteen days after feeding the fish were injected
Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Sharifi Yazdi, Mohammad Kazem; Amin Harati, Farzaneh
Lactobacilli are normal microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are a heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus strains with Probiotic activity may have health Benefits for human. This study investigates the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains obtained from the feces of healthy infants and also explores antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential against enteropathogenic bacteria. Fecal samples were collected from 95 healthy infants younger than 18 months. Two hundred and ninety Lactobacillus strains were isolated and assessed for probiotic potential properties including ability to survive in gastrointestinal conditions (pH 2.0, 0.3% oxgall), adherence to HT-29 cells and antibiotic resistance. Six strains including Lactobacillus fermentum (4 strains), Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum showed good probiotic potential and inhibited the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria including ETEC H10407, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Shigella sonnei ATCC 9290, Salmonella enteritidis H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 23715. These Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential may be useful for prevention or treatment of diarrhea, but further in vitro and in vivo studies on these strains are still required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Takada, M; Nishida, K; Kataoka-Kato, A; Gondo, Y; Ishikawa, H; Suda, K; Kawai, M; Hoshi, R; Watanabe, O; Igarashi, T; Kuwano, Y; Miyazaki, K; Rokutan, K
This study aimed to examine the effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on gut-brain interactions under stressful conditions. Three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were conducted to examine the effects of LcS on psychological and physiological stress responses in healthy medical students under academic examination stress. Subjects received LcS-fermented milk or placebo daily for 8 weeks prior to taking a national standardized examination. Subjective anxiety scores, salivary cortisol levels, and the presence of physical symptoms during the intervention were pooled and analyzed. In the animal study, rats were given feed with or without LcS for 2 weeks, then submitted to water avoidance stress (WAS). Plasma corticosterone concentration and the expression of cFos and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured immediately after WAS. In an electrophysiological study, gastric vagal afferent nerve activity was monitored after intragastric administration of LcS to urethane-anesthetized rats. Academic stress-induced increases in salivary cortisol levels and the incidence rate of physical symptoms were significantly suppressed in the LcS group compared with the placebo group. In rats pretreated with LcS, WAS-induced increases in plasma corticosterone were significantly suppressed, and the number of CRF-expressing cells in the PVN was reduced. Intragastric administration of LcS stimulated gastric vagal afferent activity in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that LcS may prevent hypersecretion of cortisol and physical symptoms under stressful conditions, possibly through vagal afferent signaling to the brain and reduced stress reactivity in the PVN. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhi Liu; Wenshu Liu; Chao Ran; Jun Hu; Zhigang Zhou
In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A...
Martínez Cruz, Patricia; Ibáñez, Ana L.; Monroy Hermosillo, Oscar A.; Ramírez Saad, Hugo C.
The growth of aquaculture as an industry has accelerated over the past decades; this has resulted in environmental damages and low productivity of various crops. The need for increased disease resistance, growth of aquatic organisms, and feed efficiency has brought about the use of probiotics in aquaculture practices. The first application of probiotics occurred in 1986, to test their ability to increase growth of hydrobionts (organisms that live in water). Later, probiotics were used to improve water quality and control of bacterial infections. Nowadays, there is documented evidence that probiotics can improve the digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress, and encourage reproduction. Currently, there are commercial probiotic products prepared from various bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others, and their use is regulated by careful management recommendations. The present paper shows the current knowledge of the use of probiotics in aquaculture, its antecedents, and safety measures to be carried out and discusses the prospects for study in this field. PMID:23762761
Stanton, C; Gardiner, G; Meehan, H; Collins, K; Fitzgerald, G; Lynch, P B; Ross, R P
"Functional foods" as a marketing term was initiated in Japan in the late 1980s and is used to describe foods fortified with ingredients capable of producing health benefits. This concept is becoming increasingly popular with consumers because of a heightened awareness of the link between health, nutrition, and diet. Food manufacturers are enthusiastic about developing such products because the added ingredients give increased value to food. The global market for functional foods in the coming years is predicted to grow rapidly. Although Japan currently accounts for about one-half of this market, the fastest rate of growth is expected to be in the United States. Probiotic products represent a strong growth area within the functional foods group and intense research efforts are under way to develop dairy products into which probiotic organisms such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are incorporated. Such probiotic foods may modulate gut microbial composition, thereby leading to improved gut health, for example, through improved tolerance to lactose in lactose-intolerant individuals or improved resistance to pathogenic bacteria. Large numbers of viable microorganisms are likely to be required in the food product, which should be consumed regularly to experience the health effect. The probiotic market, especially dairy products such as yogurts and fermented milks, has experienced rapid growth in Europe. The long-term exploitation of probiotics as health promoters is dependent on several factors, including sound, scientifically proven clinical evidence of health-promoting activity; accurate consumer information; effective marketing strategies; and, above all, a quality product that fulfills consumer expectations.
Wang, Hesong; Ni, Xueqin; Liu, Lei; Zeng, Dong; Lai, Jing; Qing, Xiaodan; Li, Guangyao; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo
Meat is considered as a major source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) which is essential for humans, therefore its lipid level and fatty acid composition have drawn great attention. As no clinical sign can be found in chicks subclinically infected by Clostridium perfringens (CP), the meat may be purchased and eaten. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ) can control the CP-caused impact on growth, lipid levels, fatty acid composition and other flavor or nutritional quality in the meat. 480 one-day-old chicks were divided into four groups and fed with basal diet (control and CP group). Supplemented with 1 × 10 5 (L-LJ) and 1 × 10 6 (H-LJ) colony-forming unit (cfu), CP diet was fed for 42 days. From day 19 to 22, birds of CP and LJ groups were administered with CP twice per day and the control was administered with liver broth. LJ-treated chickens were free from negative influences on growth performance and significant decrease of abdominal fat deposit., LJ inhibited CP-caused shearing force and drip loss increase and pH 40 min and 24 h decrease after sacrifice. In addition, LJ exhibited a positive effect on muscle lipid peroxidation by significantly increasing SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activity and decreasing MDA level. Besides, LJ attenuated the decrease of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and triglyceride contents caused by CP infection. However, levels of total protein and most of amino acids were not changed. CP infection decreased C18:3n-3 (α-LA), C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3(EPA), C22:4n-6, C22:5n-3, C22:6n-3(DHA), total PUFA, n-3 PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio and increased C14:0, total SFA and n-6:n-3 ratio. LJ was found to protect the muscle from these changes. Meanwhile, the 28-day gut permeability level was higher in CP group. These findings suggest that CP may affect the growth performance of chicks and negatively influence lipid content and fatty acid composition in chicken meat. Meanwhile, LJ treatment
Adawi, D; Ahrné, S; Molin, G
Septic complications represent frequent causes of morbidity in liver diseases and following hepatic operations. Most infections are caused by the individual own intestinal microflora. The intestinal microflora composition is important in physiological and pathophysiological processes in the human gastrointestinal tract, but their influence on liver in different situations is unclear. We therefore studied the effect of different Lactobacillus strains and a Bifidobacterium strain on the extent of liver injury, bacterial translocation and intestinal microflora in an acute liver injury model. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: acute liver injury control, acute liver injury + B. animalis NM2, acute liver injury + L. acidophilus NMI, acute liver injury + L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103, and acute liver injury + L. rhamnosus DSM 6594 and L. plantarum DSM 9843. The bacteria were administered rectally daily for 8 days. Liver injury was induced on the 8th day by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (1.1 g/kg BW). Samples were collected 24 h after the liver injury. Liver enzymes and bilirubin serum levels, bacterial translocation (to arterial and portal blood, liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs)), and intestinal microflora were evaluated. L. acidophilus NM1; L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103, and L. rhamnosus DSM 6594 + L. plantarum DSM 9843 decreased bacterial translocation compared to the liver injury control group. B. animalis NM2 increased bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) were significantly lower in the L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103, L. rhamnosus DSM 6594 + L. plantarum DSM 9843 groups compared to the liver injury group. The L. rhamnosus and L. rhamnosus + L. plantarum groups significantly reduced ALAT levels compared to the B. animalis group. All administered bacteria decreased the Enterobacteriaceae count in the cecum and colon. Administration of different lactobacilli and a
Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue.
Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-type lactobacilli cannot synthesize folate, generally require it for growth, and provide a negative contribution to folate levels in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes an exception among lactobacilli, since it is capable of folate production in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA and deserves to be used in animal trials to validate its ability to produce the vitamin in vivo. On the other hand, several folate-producing strains have been selected within the genus Bifidobacterium, with a great variability in the extent of vitamin released in the medium. Most of them belong to the species B. adolescentis and B. pseudocatenulatum, but few folate producing strains are found in the other species as well. Rats fed a probiotic formulation of folate-producing bifidobacteria exhibited increased plasma folate level, confirming that the vitamin is produced in vivo and absorbed. In a human trial, the same supplement raised folate concentration in feces. The use of folate-producing probiotic strains can be regarded as a new perspective in the specific use of probiotics. They could more efficiently confer protection against inflammation and cancer, both exerting the beneficial effects of probiotics and preventing the folate deficiency that is associated with premalignant changes in the colonic epithelia.
Dunlap, Brian S; Yu, Hongwei; Elitsur, Yoram
Probiotics are live microorganisms that can confer health benefits. Current recommendations for probiotic dosing in pediatrics for acute gastroenteritis range from 109 to 1011 colony forming units (CFUs)/day. In the present study, commercial yogurts were investigated for probiotic content and concentration. A total of 10 yogurts and 1 probiotic supplement were tested. Culture and enumeration were performed on Lactobacillus specific agar, and presence of gram positive rods were confirmed with gram staining. Various PCR techniques were also used to identify different Lactobacillus species. Good colony growth was noted on all cultures, with enumeration results ranging from 4.8 x 109 to 9.5 x 1010 CFU in a single 100mL serving. A wide variety of bacterial species was noted, including unidentified bacteria. All yogurt samples had enough probiotic content to meet current recommendations for treatment of acute gastroenteritis. Physicians should use yogurts with caution in this setting until full bacterial repertoires are available for commercial yogurts.
Di Criscio, T; Fratianni, A; Mignogna, R; Cinquanta, L; Coppola, R; Sorrentino, E; Panfili, G
In this work, 3 types of ice cream were produced: a probiotic ice cream produced by adding potentially probiotic microorganisms such as Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus; a prebiotic ice cream produced by adding inulin, a prebiotic substrate; and a synbiotic ice cream produced by adding probiotic microorganisms and inulin in combination. In addition to microbial counts, pH, acidity, and physical and functional properties of the ice creams were evaluated. The experimental ice creams preserved the probiotic bacteria and had counts of viable lactic acid bacteria after frozen storage that met the minimum required to achieve probiotic effects. Moreover, most of the ice creams showed good nutritional and sensory properties, with the best results obtained with Lb. casei and 2.5% inulin. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia; Hibberd, Ashley A; Lyra, Anna; Stahl, Buffy
Probiotics are live microorganisms, mainly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although also strain of other species are commercialized, that have a beneficial effect on the host. From the perspective of antibiotic use, probiotics have been observed to reduce the risk of certain infectious disease such as certain types of diarrhea and respiratory tract infection. This may be accompanied with a reduced need of antibiotics for secondary infections. Antibiotics tend to be effective against most common diseases, but increasingly resistance is being observed among pathogens. Probiotics are specifically selected to not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and not carry transferable antibiotic resistance. Concomitant use of probiotics with antibiotics has been observed to reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This contributes to better adherence to the antibiotic prescription and thereby reduces the evolution of resistance. To what extent probiotics directly reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance is still much under investigation; but maintaining a balanced microbiota during antibiotic use may certainly provide opportunities for reducing the spread of resistances. Key messages Probiotics may reduce the risk for certain infectious diseases and thereby reduce the need for antibiotics. Probiotics may reduce the risk for antibiotic-associated diarrhea Probiotics do not contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance and may even reduce it.
Full Text Available A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. However, to reach health benefits, the concentration of probiotics have to be 106 CFU/g of a product. For assessing of required probiotic bacteria quantity, it is important to have a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria. Five bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar and BSM (Bifidus selective medium agar under different culture conditions.Seven selected fermented milk products with probiotic culture were analyzed for their bacterial populations using the described selective bacteriological media and culture conditions. All milk products contained probiotic microorganisms claimed to be present in declared quantity (106–107/g.
Schmidt, Esben Gjerløff Wedebye; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Jensen, Simon Skjøde
BACKGROUND:: The effect in vitro of six different probiotic strains including Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei YS8866441, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp-115, Bifidobacterium bifidum BI-504 and BI-98 was studied on splenic....... acidophilus NCFM consistently reduced the suppressive activity of Tregs. The suppressive activity was analyzed using fractionated components of the probiotics, and showed that a component of the cell wall is responsible for the decreased Treg activity in the system. The probiotic-induced suppression of Treg...
Sah, B N. P; Vasiljevic, T; McKechnie, S; Donkor, O N
.... This research was aimed at establishing the prebiotic effect of pineapple wastes on probiotics including Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus (ATCC® 4356™), L. casei (ATCC® 393™) and L. paracasei spp. paracasei (ATCC® BAA52...
Kajander, K.; Myllyluoma, E.; Rajlic-Stojanovic, M.; Kyronpalo, S.S.; Rasmussen, M.; Jarvenpaa, S.S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.; Vapaatalo, H.; Korpela, R.
Aim To investigate the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12) on abdominal symptoms, quality of life, intestinal microbiota and inflammatory
Muzammil, Hafiz Shehzad; Rasco, Barbara; Sablani, Shyam
ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate the effects of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt. Frozen yogurt was prepared with different types of probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis) along with yogurt starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus). The frozen yogurt mixture was supplemented with inulin (2%, 4%, and 6%) and glycerol (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). The results showe...
Full Text Available Juvenile captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus often present with diarrhoea that is commonly associated with bacterial infections. A species-specific probiotic containing Lactobacillus Group 2 and Enterococcus faecium was prepared from healthy adult cheetahs. Juvenile cheetahs (n = 27 between 8 and 13 months of age were included in the probiotic trial. The animals were observed prior to and after feeding of the probiotic which was made available for 28 days. Feeding of the probiotic resulted in a significantly increased body weight in the treatment group (P = 0.026, while there was no increase in the control group. A relative improvement in the faecal quality in the probiotic group during the treatment period compared with the pre-treatment (P = 0.0363 and post-treatment (P = 0.004 period was observed. This was accompanied by an absence of blood and mucus in the faeces during the treatment period in the probiotic group.
Grześkowiak, Ł; Endo, A; Collado, M C; Pelliniemi, L J; Beasley, S; Salminen, S
The manufacturing processes have been reported to influence the properties of probiotics with potential impact on health properties. The aim was to investigate the effect of different growth media and inactivation methods on the properties of canine-originated probiotic bacteria alone and in combination mixture. Three established dog probiotics, Lactobacillus fermentum VET9A, Lactobacillus plantarum VET14A and Lactobacillus rhamnosus VET16A, and their combination mixture were evaluated for their adhesion to dog mucus. The effect of different growth media, one reflecting laboratory and the other manufacturing conditions, and inactivation methods (95°C, 80°C and UV irradiation) on the mucus adhesion of the probiotic strains was characterized. Evaluation of dog probiotics was supported by cell visualization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Higher adhesion percentage was reported for probiotic strains growing in laboratory rather than in manufacturing conditions (P probiotic strains as compared with their viable forms. Manufacturing process conditions such as growth media and pretreatment methods may significantly affect the adhesive ability of the tested strains. Growth conditions, growth media, pretreatment methods and different probiotic combinations should be carefully considered for quality control of existing probiotics and for identification of new probiotics for dogs. These may also have an impact on health benefits for the host. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni
Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous...... gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults. Therefore, potential effects of probiotic...... intervention on gut microbiota may be easier detectable in early life. We thus investigated the effects of a 6 month placebo-controlled probiotic intervention with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG®) on gut microbiota composition and diversity in more than 200...
Martinez, Raquel M.; Hulten, Kristina G.; Bui, Uyen
Lactobacillus spp. are part of the normal human flora and are generally assumed to be nonpathogenic. We determined the genotypic identification of >100 Lactobacillus isolates from clinical specimens in the context of presumed pathogenic potential (e.g., recovered as the single/predominant isolate from a sterile site or at ≥105 CFU/ml from urine). This study assessed the clinical significance and the frequency of occurrence of each Lactobacillus sp. We identified 16 species of Lactobacillus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 10 of which could not be associated with disease. While Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus paracasei were associated with infections, L. gasseri was also a common colonizing/contaminating species. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii were associated with at least one infection. Species commonly used in probiotic products (e.g., L. rhamnosus and L. casei) were identical, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, to our isolates associated with disease. Human isolates of Lactobacillus spp. have differing site associations and levels of clinical significance. Knowing the niche and pathogenic potential of each Lactobacillus sp. can be of importance to both clinical microbiology and the food and probiotic supplement industry. PMID:24131686
The probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), has shown beneficial effects on human health, and is accepted by increasing populations for the prevention and treatment of irritable bowel diseases. To increase the bioavailability and efficacy of LGG, the probiotic was encapsulated in hydro...
Hamon, Erwann; Horvatovich, Peter; Bisch, Magali; Bringel, Francoise; Marchioni, Eric; Aoude-Werner, Dalal; Ennahar, Said
The identification of cell determinants involved in probiotic features is a challenge in current probiotic research. In this work, markers of bile tolerance in Lactobacillus casei were investigated using comparative proteomics. Six L. casei strains were classified on the basis of their ability to
Koponen, J.; Laakso, K.; Koskenniemi, K.; Kankainen, M.; Savijoki, K.; Nyman, T.A.; Vos, de W.M.; Tynkkynen, S.; Kalkkinen, N.; Varmanen, P.
Acidic environments encountered in food products and during gastrointestinal tract passage affect the survival of bacteria that are marketed as probiotics. In this study, the global proteome responses of the probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG to two physiologically relevant
Hansen, Marie-Louise Rittermann W; Clausen, Anders; Ejsing, Christer S.
Probiotics are bacteria used in the food industry due to their potential health benefits. In this study, the plasma membrane of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 was investigated using state-of-the-art high-resolution shotgun lipidomics. Comparisons of the lipidome of the plasma membrane...
Veen, H. in 't; Smelt, M.J.; Wels, M.; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Vos, P.; Kleerebezem, M.; Bron, P.A.
Probiotic bacteria harbor effector molecules that confer health benefits, but also adaptation factors that enable them to persist in the gastrointestinal tract of the consumer. To study these adaptation factors, an antibiotic-resistant derivative of the probiotic model organism Lactobacillus
Full Text Available Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that colonize and replicate in the human intestinal tract providing a positive benefit to the host. Several clinical trials support the efficacy of certain probiotics in the prevention and treatment of various diarrheal illnesses. This paper reviews published clinical trials assessing the efficacy of various probiotic species and strains in preventing and treating acute diarrhea in children. The available evidence shows that few probiotic species (mostly Lactobacillus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii are efficacious in decreasing the duration and the severity of acute gastroenteritis, with the most prominent of the reported benefits, the reduction of the duration of diarrhea by approximately 1 day. With regard to the prevention of acute diarrhea in the community and the hospital, there is modest evidence that some probiotic species may be efficacious in preventing community acquired diarrhea (Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus GG, nosocomial acquired diarrhea (Lactobacillus GG and Clostridium difficile diarrhea (Lactobacillus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii. In conclusion, the available evidence suggests that probiotics are safe when used in healthy children and effective in reducing the duration of acute infectious diarrhea. Further studies are required to assess the efficacy of selected probiotic species and strains at different dosages for different clinical indications and patient groups.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the effect of different probiotic strains applied through a drinking water source to fattening and carcass parameters of broiler ducks. Fattening experiment was realised in half-operating conditions of experimental basis of Department of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry in three-floor cage technology. Totally 90 broiler duck were divided to three groups. Experimental group 1 (n=30 received probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7158 with concentration of 1x109 colony forming units (CFU in drinking water daily addition of 0.90 g day 1 to day 56 of fattening. Experimental group