WorldWideScience

Sample records for human-computer interface concepts

  1. Human-Computer Interface Development: Concepts and Systems for its Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hartson, H. Rex; Hix, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    Human-computer interface management, from a computer science viewpoint, focuses on the process of developing quality human computer interfaces, including their representation, design, implementation, execution, evaluation, and maintenance. This survey presents important concepts of interface management: dialogue independence, structural modeling, specification, rapid prototyping, holistic software engineering, control structures, and support environments, including User Interface Management S...

  2. New Human-Computer Interface Concepts for Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeffrey A.; Hoxie, Mary Sue; Gillen, Dave; Parkinson, Christopher; Breed, Julie; Nickens, Stephanie; Baitinger, Mick

    2000-01-01

    The current climate of budget cuts has forced the space mission operations community to reconsider how it does business. Gone are the days of building one-of-kind control centers with teams of controllers working in shifts 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Increasingly, automation is used to significantly reduce staffing needs. In some cases, missions are moving towards lights-out operations where the ground system is run semi-autonomously. On-call operators are brought in only to resolve anomalies. Some operations concepts also call for smaller operations teams to manage an entire family of spacecraft. In the not too distant future, a skeleton crew of full-time general knowledge operators will oversee the operations of large constellations of small spacecraft, while geographically distributed specialists will be assigned to emergency response teams based on their expertise. As the operations paradigms change, so too must the tools to support the mission operations team's tasks. Tools need to be built not only to automate routine tasks, but also to communicate varying types of information to the part-time, generalist, or on-call operators and specialists more effectively. Thus, the proper design of a system's user-system interface (USI) becomes even more importance than before. Also, because the users will be accessing these systems from various locations (e.g., control center, home, on the road) via different devices with varying display capabilities (e.g., workstations, home PCs, PDAS, pagers) over connections with various bandwidths (e.g., dial-up 56k, wireless 9.6k), the same software must have different USIs to support the different types of users, their equipment, and their environments. In other words, the software must now adapt to the needs of the users! This paper will focus on the needs and the challenges of designing USIs for mission operations. After providing a general discussion of these challenges, the paper will focus on the current efforts of

  3. Human-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-12-21

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing. Force feedback allows intuitive navigation and control near a boundary between regions in a computer-represented space. For example, the method allows a user to interact with a virtual craft, then push through the windshield of the craft to interact with the virtual world surrounding the craft. As another example, the method allows a user to feel transitions between different control domains of a computer representation of a space. The method can provide for force feedback that increases as a user's locus of interaction moves near a boundary, then perceptibly changes (e.g., abruptly drops or changes direction) when the boundary is traversed.

  4. Formal specification of human-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auernheimer, Brent

    1990-01-01

    A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.

  5. Human computer interface guide, revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Human Computer Interface Guide, SSP 30540, is a reference document for the information systems within the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP). The Human Computer Interface Guide (HCIG) provides guidelines for the design of computer software that affects human performance, specifically, the human-computer interface. This document contains an introduction and subparagraphs on SSFP computer systems, users, and tasks; guidelines for interactions between users and the SSFP computer systems; human factors evaluation and testing of the user interface system; and example specifications. The contents of this document are intended to be consistent with the tasks and products to be prepared by NASA Work Package Centers and SSFP participants as defined in SSP 30000, Space Station Program Definition and Requirements Document. The Human Computer Interface Guide shall be implemented on all new SSFP contractual and internal activities and shall be included in any existing contracts through contract changes. This document is under the control of the Space Station Control Board, and any changes or revisions will be approved by the deputy director.

  6. Designers' models of the human-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Douglas J.; Breedin, Sarah D.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding design models of the human-computer interface (HCI) may produce two types of benefits. First, interface development often requires input from two different types of experts: human factors specialists and software developers. Given the differences in their backgrounds and roles, human factors specialists and software developers may have different cognitive models of the HCI. Yet, they have to communicate about the interface as part of the design process. If they have different models, their interactions are likely to involve a certain amount of miscommunication. Second, the design process in general is likely to be guided by designers' cognitive models of the HCI, as well as by their knowledge of the user, tasks, and system. Designers do not start with a blank slate; rather they begin with a general model of the object they are designing. The author's approach to a design model of the HCI was to have three groups make judgments of categorical similarity about the components of an interface: human factors specialists with HCI design experience, software developers with HCI design experience, and a baseline group of computer users with no experience in HCI design. The components of the user interface included both display components such as windows, text, and graphics, and user interaction concepts, such as command language, editing, and help. The judgments of the three groups were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis and Pathfinder. These methods indicated, respectively, how the groups categorized the concepts, and network representations of the concepts for each group. The Pathfinder analysis provides greater information about local, pairwise relations among concepts, whereas the cluster analysis shows global, categorical relations to a greater extent.

  7. High Performance Human-Computer Interfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Despain, a

    1997-01-01

    Human interfaces to the computer have remained fairly crude since the use of teletypes despite the fact that computer, storage and communication performance have continued to improve by many orders of magnitude...

  8. The Human-Computer Interface for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Debora

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the human-computer interface as it relates to information technology and retrieval. Principles of interface design are examined, including visual display features and help messages; information retrieval applications are described, including online searching, CD-ROM, online public access catalogs (OPACs), and full-text databases; and…

  9. Human-Computer Interfaces and OPACs: Introductory Thoughts Related to INNOPAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Helen K.

    1991-01-01

    Human-computer interface design concepts are used as the criteria for evaluating the benefits and shortcomings of San Diego State University Library's online catalog, INNOPAC (the PAC). Features discussed include integrated files, search capabilities, system availability, user interface, record-to-record links, boolean operations, subject access,…

  10. Perspectives on Human-Computer Interface: Introduction and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Donna; Lunin, Lois F.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses human-computer interfaces in information seeking that focus on end users, and provides an overview of articles in this section that (1) provide librarians and information specialists with guidelines for selecting information-seeking systems; (2) provide producers of information systems with directions for production or research; and (3)…

  11. The Emotiv EPOC interface paradigm in Human-Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancău Dorina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have suggested the use of decoded error potentials in the brain to improve human-computer communication. Together with state-of-the-art scientific equipment, experiments have also tested instruments with more limited performance for the time being, such as Emotiv EPOC. This study presents a review of these trials and a summary of the results obtained. However, the level of these results indicates a promising prospect for using this headset as a human-computer interface for error decoding.

  12. Assessment of a human computer interface prototyping environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Loretta A.

    1993-01-01

    A Human Computer Interface (HCI) prototyping environment with embedded evaluation capability has been successfully assessed which will be valuable in developing and refining HCI standards and evaluating program/project interface development, especially Space Station Freedom on-board displays for payload operations. The HCI prototyping environment is designed to include four components: (1) a HCI format development tool, (2) a test and evaluation simulator development tool, (3) a dynamic, interactive interface between the HCI prototype and simulator, and (4) an embedded evaluation capability to evaluate the adequacy of an HCI based on a user's performance.

  13. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-03-29

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  14. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-04-20

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  15. Human-computer interface including haptically controlled interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2005-10-11

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing that provides haptic feedback to control interface interactions such as scrolling or zooming within an application. Haptic feedback in the present method allows the user more intuitive control of the interface interactions, and allows the user's visual focus to remain on the application. The method comprises providing a control domain within which the user can control interactions. For example, a haptic boundary can be provided corresponding to scrollable or scalable portions of the application domain. The user can position a cursor near such a boundary, feeling its presence haptically (reducing the requirement for visual attention for control of scrolling of the display). The user can then apply force relative to the boundary, causing the interface to scroll the domain. The rate of scrolling can be related to the magnitude of applied force, providing the user with additional intuitive, non-visual control of scrolling.

  16. Human-computer interface controlled by the lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Marcelo Archajo; de Deus Lopes, Roseli

    2015-01-01

    Lip control system is an innovative human-computer interface specially designed for people with tetraplegia. This paper presents an evaluation of the lower lip potential to control an input device, according to Fitts' law (ISO/TS 9241-411:2012 standard). The results show that the lower lip throughput is comparable with the thumb throughput using the same input device under the same conditions. These results establish the baseline for future research studies about the lower lip capacity to operate a computer input device.

  17. Human-computer interface glove using flexible piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Youngsu; Seo, Jeonggyu; Kim, Jun-Sik; Park, Jung-Min

    2017-05-01

    In this note, we propose a human-computer interface glove based on flexible piezoelectric sensors. We select polyvinylidene fluoride as the piezoelectric material for the sensors because of advantages such as a steady piezoelectric characteristic and good flexibility. The sensors are installed in a fabric glove by means of pockets and Velcro bands. We detect changes in the angles of the finger joints from the outputs of the sensors, and use them for controlling a virtual hand that is utilized in virtual object manipulation. To assess the sensing ability of the piezoelectric sensors, we compare the processed angles from the sensor outputs with the real angles from a camera recoding. With good agreement between the processed and real angles, we successfully demonstrate the user interaction system with the virtual hand and interface glove based on the flexible piezoelectric sensors, for four hand motions: fist clenching, pinching, touching, and grasping.

  18. The Human-Computer Interface and Information Literacy: Some Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses human/computer interaction research, human/computer interface, and their relationships to information literacy. Highlights include communication models; cognitive perspectives; task analysis; theory of action; problem solving; instructional design considerations; and a suggestion that human/information interface may be a more appropriate…

  19. Developing the human-computer interface for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina L.

    1991-01-01

    For the past two years, the Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) at the Johnson Space Center has been involved in prototyping and prototype reviews of in support of the definition phase of the Space Station Freedom program. On the Space Station, crew members will be interacting with multi-monitor workstations where interaction with several displays at one time will be common. The HCIL has conducted several experiments to begin to address design issues for this complex system. Experiments have dealt with design of ON/OFF indicators, the movement of the cursor across multiple monitors, and the importance of various windowing capabilities for users performing multiple tasks simultaneously.

  20. User interface issues in supporting human-computer integrated scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Biefeld, Eric W.

    1991-01-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: characteristics of Operations Mission Planner (OMP) schedule domain; OMP architecture; definition of a schedule; user interface dimensions; functional distribution; types of users; interpreting user interaction; dynamic overlays; reactive scheduling; and transitioning the interface.

  1. APPLYING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES TO HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERFACES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of UIMS (User Interface Management System), a system using a variety of artificial intelligence techniques to build knowledge-based user interfaces combining functionality and information from a variety of computer systems that maintain, test, and configure customer telephone...

  2. A Framework and Implementation of User Interface and Human-Computer Interaction Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslak, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that up to 50 % of the effort in development of information systems is devoted to user interface development (Douglas, Tremaine, Leventhal, Wills, & Manaris, 2002; Myers & Rosson, 1992). Yet little study has been performed on the inclusion of important interface and human-computer interaction topics into a current…

  3. Competence of People with Intellectual Disabilities on Using Human-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alex W. K.; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.; Lam, Chow S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the task processes which hinder people with intellectual disabilities (ID) when using the human-computer interface. This involved testing performance on specific computer tasks and conducting detailed analyses of the task demands imposed on the participants. The interface used by Internet Explorer (IE) was standardized into 16…

  4. Gesture controlled human-computer interface for the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Oskar M; Sawicki, Dariusz J

    2017-02-28

    The possibility of using a computer by a disabled person is one of the difficult problems of the human-computer interaction (HCI), while the professional activity (employment) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of life, especially for disabled people. The aim of the project has been to propose a new HCI system that would allow for resuming employment for people who have lost the possibility of a standard computer operation. The basic requirement was to replace all functions of a standard mouse without the need of performing precise hand movements and using fingers. The Microsoft's Kinect motion controller had been selected as a device which would recognize hand movements. Several tests were made in order to create optimal working environment with the new device. The new communication system consisted of the Kinect device and the proper software had been built. The proposed system was tested by means of the standard subjective evaluations and objective metrics according to the standard ISO 9241-411:2012. The overall rating of the new HCI system shows the acceptance of the solution. The objective tests show that although the new system is a bit slower, it may effectively replace the computer mouse. The new HCI system fulfilled its task for a specific disabled person. This resulted in the ability to return to work. Additionally, the project confirmed the possibility of effective but nonstandard use of the Kinect device. Med Pr 2017;68(1):1-21.

  5. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to provide us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that can monitor some of the physical processes that occur within the brain that

  6. Brain-Computer Interfaces Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes a direct output channel between the human brain and external devices. BCIs infer user intent via direct measures of brain activity and thus enable communication and control without movement. This book, authored by experts in the field, provides an accessible introduction to the neurophysiological and signal-processing background required for BCI, presents state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive approaches, gives an overview of current hardware and software solutions, and reviews the most interesting as well as new, emerging BCI applications. The book is intended not only for students and young researchers, but also for newcomers and other readers from diverse backgrounds keen to learn about this vital scientific endeavour.

  7. Human-computer interfaces applied to numerical solution of the Plateau problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias Fabris, Antonio; Soares Bandeira, Ivana; Ramos Batista, Valério

    2015-09-01

    In this work we present a code in Matlab to solve the Problem of Plateau numerically, and the code will include human-computer interface. The Problem of Plateau has applications in areas of knowledge like, for instance, Computer Graphics. The solution method will be the same one of the Surface Evolver, but the difference will be a complete graphical interface with the user. This will enable us to implement other kinds of interface like ocular mouse, voice, touch, etc. To date, Evolver does not include any graphical interface, which restricts its use by the scientific community. Specially, its use is practically impossible for most of the Physically Challenged People.

  8. Sensory system for implementing a human-computer interface based on electrooculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barea, Rafael; Boquete, Luciano; Rodriguez-Ascariz, Jose Manuel; Ortega, Sergio; López, Elena

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a sensory system for implementing a human-computer interface based on electrooculography. An acquisition system captures electrooculograms and transmits them via the ZigBee protocol. The data acquired are analysed in real time using a microcontroller-based platform running the Linux operating system. The continuous wavelet transform and neural network are used to process and analyse the signals to obtain highly reliable results in real time. To enhance system usability, the graphical interface is projected onto special eyewear, which is also used to position the signal-capturing electrodes.

  9. The use of analytical models in human-computer interface design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugerty, Leo

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a large number of human-computer interface (HCI) researchers have investigated building analytical models of the user, which are often implemented as computer models. These models simulate the cognitive processes and task knowledge of the user in ways that allow a researcher or designer to estimate various aspects of an interface's usability, such as when user errors are likely to occur. This information can lead to design improvements. Analytical models can supplement design guidelines by providing designers rigorous ways of analyzing the information-processing requirements of specific tasks (i.e., task analysis). These models offer the potential of improving early designs and replacing some of the early phases of usability testing, thus reducing the cost of interface design. This paper describes some of the many analytical models that are currently being developed and evaluates the usefulness of analytical models for human-computer interface design. This paper will focus on computational, analytical models, such as the GOMS model, rather than less formal, verbal models, because the more exact predictions and task descriptions of computational models may be useful to designers. The paper also discusses some of the practical requirements for using analytical models in complex design organizations such as NASA.

  10. Integrating Usability Engineering in the Iterative Design Process of the Land Attack Combat System (LACS) Human Computer Interface (HCI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borja, Ana T

    2004-01-01

    ...) for its intended purposes. This paper presents our approach of the usability engineering activities and the results from a 1-year Fiscal Year 2003 effort for the development of the LACS Human Computer Interface (HCI...

  11. Effects of muscle fatigue on the usability of a myoelectric human-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszap, Alexander G; Skavhaug, Ida-Maria; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2016-10-01

    Electromyography-based human-computer interface development is an active field of research. However, knowledge on the effects of muscle fatigue for specific devices is limited. We have developed a novel myoelectric human-computer interface in which subjects continuously navigate a cursor to targets by manipulating a single surface electromyography (sEMG) signal. Two-dimensional control is achieved through simultaneous adjustments of power in two frequency bands through a series of dynamic low-level muscle contractions. Here, we investigate the potential effects of muscle fatigue during the use of our interface. In the first session, eight subjects completed 300 cursor-to-target trials without breaks; four using a wrist muscle and four using a head muscle. The wrist subjects returned for a second session in which a static fatiguing exercise took place at regular intervals in-between cursor-to-target trials. In the first session we observed no declines in performance as a function of use, even after the long period of use. In the second session, we observed clear changes in cursor trajectories, paired with a target-specific decrease in hit rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction: Graphics and Animation Components for Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.; Nicol, Emma; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel; Richardson, Lucy

    We present an analysis of communicability methodology in graphics and animation components for interface design, called CAN (Communicability, Acceptability and Novelty). This methodology has been under development between 2005 and 2010, obtaining excellent results in cultural heritage, education and microcomputing contexts. In studies where there is a bi-directional interrelation between ergonomics, usability, user-centered design, software quality and the human-computer interaction. We also present the heuristic results about iconography and layout design in blogs and websites of the following countries: Spain, Italy, Portugal and France.

  13. Computational Virtual Reality (VR) as a human-computer interface in the operation of telerobotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the application of computer graphics or 'virtual reality' (VR) techniques as a human-computer interface tool in the operation of telerobotic systems. VR techniques offer very valuable task realization aids for planning, previewing and predicting robotic actions, operator training, and for visual perception of non-visible events like contact forces in robotic tasks. The utility of computer graphics in telerobotic operation can be significantly enhanced by high-fidelity calibration of virtual reality images to actual TV camera images. This calibration will even permit the creation of artificial (synthetic) views of task scenes for which no TV camera views are available.

  14. A Conceptual Architecture for Adaptive Human-Computer Interface of a PT Operation Platform Based on Context-Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a conceptual architecture for adaptive human-computer interface of a PT operation platform based on context-awareness. This architecture will form the basis of design for such an interface. This paper describes components, key technologies, and working principles of the architecture. The critical contents covered context information modeling, processing, relationship establishing between contexts and interface design knowledge by use of adaptive knowledge reasoning, and visualization implementing of adaptive interface with the aid of interface tools technology.

  15. US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) style guide, Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.

    1996-09-30

    A stated goal of the U.S. Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIS) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of style guides. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide. This document, the U.S. Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide, represents the first version of that style guide. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for RT/NRT Army systems across the weapon systems domains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each domain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their domains.

  16. The design of an intelligent human-computer interface for the test, control and monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaff, William D.

    1988-01-01

    The graphical intelligence and assistance capabilities of a human-computer interface for the Test, Control, and Monitor System at Kennedy Space Center are explored. The report focuses on how a particular commercial off-the-shelf graphical software package, Data Views, can be used to produce tools that build widgets such as menus, text panels, graphs, icons, windows, and ultimately complete interfaces for monitoring data from an application; controlling an application by providing input data to it; and testing an application by both monitoring and controlling it. A complete set of tools for building interfaces is described in a manual for the TCMS toolkit. Simple tools create primitive widgets such as lines, rectangles and text strings. Intermediate level tools create pictographs from primitive widgets, and connect processes to either text strings or pictographs. Other tools create input objects; Data Views supports output objects directly, thus output objects are not considered. Finally, a set of utilities for executing, monitoring use, editing, and displaying the content of interfaces is included in the toolkit.

  17. Effect of age on human-computer-interface control via neck electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Gabrielle L; Stepp, Cara E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age on visuomotor tracking using submental and anterior neck surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess feasibility of computer control via neck musculature, which allows people with little remaining motor function to interact with computers. Thirty-two healthy adults participated: sixteen younger adults aged 18 - 29 years and sixteen older adults aged 69 - 85 years. Participants modulated sEMG to achieve targets presented at different amplitudes using real-time visual feedback. Root-mean-squared (RMS) error was used to quantify tracking performance. RMS error was increased for older adults relative to younger adults. Older adults demonstrated more RMS error than younger adults as a function of increasing target amplitude. The differential effects of age found on static tracking performance in anterior neck musculature suggest more difficult translation of human-computer-interfaces controlled using anterior neck musculature for static tasks to older populations.

  18. Facial Position and Expression-Based Human-Computer Interface for Persons With Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhen-Peng; Hou, Junhui; Chau, Lap-Pui; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    2016-05-01

    A human-computer interface (namely Facial position and expression Mouse system, FM) for the persons with tetraplegia based on a monocular infrared depth camera is presented in this paper. The nose position along with the mouth status (close/open) is detected by the proposed algorithm to control and navigate the cursor as computer user input. The algorithm is based on an improved Randomized Decision Tree, which is capable of detecting the facial information efficiently and accurately. A more comfortable user experience is achieved by mapping the nose motion to the cursor motion via a nonlinear function. The infrared depth camera enables the system to be independent of illumination and color changes both from the background and on human face, which is a critical advantage over RGB camera-based options. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms existing assistive technologies in terms of quantitative and qualitative assessments.

  19. U.S. Army weapon systems human-computer interface style guide. Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.; Donohoo, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    A stated goal of the US Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIs) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of HCI design guidance documents. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA), now termed the Joint Technical Architecture-Army (JTA-A). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide, which resulted in the US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide Version 1. Based on feedback from the user community, DISC4 further tasked PNNL to revise Version 1 and publish Version 2. The intent was to update some of the research and incorporate some enhancements. This document provides that revision. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for the RT/NRT Army system domain across the weapon systems subdomains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each subdomain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their subdomains.

  20. A Novel Wearable Forehead EOG Measurement System for Human Computer Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jeong; Yoon, Heenam; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-06-23

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients whose voluntary muscles are paralyzed commonly communicate with the outside world using eye movement. There have been many efforts to support this method of communication by tracking or detecting eye movement. An electrooculogram (EOG), an electro-physiological signal, is generated by eye movements and can be measured with electrodes placed around the eye. In this study, we proposed a new practical electrode position on the forehead to measure EOG signals, and we developed a wearable forehead EOG measurement system for use in Human Computer/Machine interfaces (HCIs/HMIs). Four electrodes, including the ground electrode, were placed on the forehead. The two channels were arranged vertically and horizontally, sharing a positive electrode. Additionally, a real-time eye movement classification algorithm was developed based on the characteristics of the forehead EOG. Three applications were employed to evaluate the proposed system: a virtual keyboard using a modified Bremen BCI speller and an automatic sequential row-column scanner, and a drivable power wheelchair. The mean typing speeds of the modified Bremen brain-computer interface (BCI) speller and automatic row-column scanner were 10.81 and 7.74 letters per minute, and the mean classification accuracies were 91.25% and 95.12%, respectively. In the power wheelchair demonstration, the user drove the wheelchair through an 8-shape course without collision with obstacles.

  1. Integrated multimodal human-computer interface and augmented reality for interactive display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Marius S.; Sundareswaran, Venkataraman; Chen, S.; Behringer, Reinhold; Tam, Clement K.; Chan, M.; Bangayan, Phil T.; McGee, Joshua H.

    2000-08-01

    We describe new systems for improved integrated multimodal human-computer interaction and augmented reality for a diverse array of applications, including future advanced cockpits, tactical operations centers, and others. We have developed an integrated display system featuring: speech recognition of multiple concurrent users equipped with both standard air- coupled microphones and novel throat-coupled sensors (developed at Army Research Labs for increased noise immunity); lip reading for improving speech recognition accuracy in noisy environments, three-dimensional spatialized audio for improved display of warnings, alerts, and other information; wireless, coordinated handheld-PC control of a large display; real-time display of data and inferences from wireless integrated networked sensors with on-board signal processing and discrimination; gesture control with disambiguated point-and-speak capability; head- and eye- tracking coupled with speech recognition for 'look-and-speak' interaction; and integrated tetherless augmented reality on a wearable computer. The various interaction modalities (speech recognition, 3D audio, eyetracking, etc.) are implemented a 'modality servers' in an Internet-based client-server architecture. Each modality server encapsulates and exposes commercial and research software packages, presenting a socket network interface that is abstracted to a high-level interface, minimizing both vendor dependencies and required changes on the client side as the server's technology improves.

  2. User participation in the development of the human/computer interface for control centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Richard; Quick-Campbell, Marlene; Creegan, James; Dutilly, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Technological advances coupled with the requirements to reduce operations staffing costs led to the demand for efficient, technologically-sophisticated mission operations control centers. The control center under development for the earth observing system (EOS) is considered. The users are involved in the development of a control center in order to ensure that it is cost-efficient and flexible. A number of measures were implemented in the EOS program in order to encourage user involvement in the area of human-computer interface development. The following user participation exercises carried out in relation to the system analysis and design are described: the shadow participation of the programmers during a day of operations; the flight operations personnel interviews; and the analysis of the flight operations team tasks. The user participation in the interface prototype development, the prototype evaluation, and the system implementation are reported on. The involvement of the users early in the development process enables the requirements to be better understood and the cost to be reduced.

  3. Design and development of data glove based on printed polymeric sensors and Zigbee networks for Human-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongrod, Nattapong; Lokavee, Shongpun; Watthanawisuth, Natthapol; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2013-03-01

    Current trends in Human-Computer Interface (HCI) have brought on a wave of new consumer devices that can track the motion of our hands. These devices have enabled more natural interfaces with computer applications. Data gloves are commonly used as input devices, equipped with sensors that detect the movements of hands and communication unit that interfaces those movements with a computer. Unfortunately, the high cost of sensor technology inevitably puts some burden to most general users. In this research, we have proposed a low-cost data glove concept based on printed polymeric sensor to make pressure and bending sensors fabricated by a consumer ink-jet printer. These sensors were realized using a conductive polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS]) thin film printed on glossy photo paper. Performance of these sensors can be enhanced by addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into the aqueous dispersion of PEDOT:PSS. The concept of surface resistance was successfully adopted for the design and fabrication of sensors. To demonstrate the printed sensors, we constructed a data glove using such sensors and developed software for real time hand tracking. Wireless networks based on low-cost Zigbee technology were used to transfer data from the glove to a computer. To our knowledge, this is the first report on low cost data glove based on paper pressure sensors. This low cost implementation of both sensors and communication network as proposed in this paper should pave the way toward a widespread implementation of data glove for real-time hand tracking applications.

  4. The mind-writing pupil : A human-computer interface based on decoding of covert attention through pupillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Melmi, Jean Baptiste; Van Der Linden, Lotje; Van Der Stigchel, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29880977X

    2016-01-01

    We present a new human-computer interface that is based on decoding of attention through pupillometry. Our method builds on the recent finding that covert visual attention affects the pupillary light response: Your pupil constricts when you covertly (without looking at it) attend to a bright,

  5. Telepresence: A "Real" Component in a Model to Make Human-Computer Interface Factors Meaningful in the Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selverian, Melissa E. Markaridian; Lombard, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    A thorough review of the research relating to Human-Computer Interface (HCI) form and content factors in the education, communication and computer science disciplines reveals strong associations of meaningful perceptual "illusions" with enhanced learning and satisfaction in the evolving classroom. Specifically, associations emerge…

  6. A naïve and fast human computer interface controllable for the inexperienced - a performance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Thilo B; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We present a Human Computer Interface (HCI) which can be prepared in less than five minutes and reaches a high accuracy with naïve users. With additional learning the success rate increases drastically. Using the EOG for control of a cursor we show how the interface between man and machine can be established quickly. Off the shelf hardware components were used for the setup, including an already approved amplifier for human use. The graphical user interface with optical and acoustical feedback consisted of self developed software. With the proposed interface we reached a maximum bit rate of 57.7 bit/min with untrained users.

  7. Impact of familiarity on information complexity in human-computer interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakaev Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative measure of information complexity remains very much desirable in HCI field, since it may aid in optimization of user interfaces, especially in human-computer systems for controlling complex objects. Our paper is dedicated to exploration of subjective (subject-depended aspect of the complexity, conceptualized as information familiarity. Although research of familiarity in human cognition and behaviour is done in several fields, the accepted models in HCI, such as Human Processor or Hick-Hyman’s law do not generally consider this issue. In our experimental study the subjects performed search and selection of digits and letters, whose familiarity was conceptualized as frequency of occurrence in numbers and texts. The analysis showed significant effect of information familiarity on selection time and throughput in regression models, although the R2 values were somehow low. Still, we hope that our results might aid in quantification of information complexity and its further application for optimizing interaction in human-machine systems.

  8. Enrichment of Human-Computer Interaction in Brain-Computer Interfaces via Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Valerdi Luz María

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tridimensional representations stimulate cognitive processes that are the core and foundation of human-computer interaction (HCI. Those cognitive processes take place while a user navigates and explores a virtual environment (VE and are mainly related to spatial memory storage, attention, and perception. VEs have many distinctive features (e.g., involvement, immersion, and presence that can significantly improve HCI in highly demanding and interactive systems such as brain-computer interfaces (BCI. BCI is as a nonmuscular communication channel that attempts to reestablish the interaction between an individual and his/her environment. Although BCI research started in the sixties, this technology is not efficient or reliable yet for everyone at any time. Over the past few years, researchers have argued that main BCI flaws could be associated with HCI issues. The evidence presented thus far shows that VEs can (1 set out working environmental conditions, (2 maximize the efficiency of BCI control panels, (3 implement navigation systems based not only on user intentions but also on user emotions, and (4 regulate user mental state to increase the differentiation between control and noncontrol modalities.

  9. Using minimal human-computer interfaces for studying the interactive development of social awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Iizuka, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    According to the enactive approach to cognitive science, perception is essentially a skillful engagement with the world. Learning how to engage via a human-computer interface (HCI) can therefore be taken as an instance of developing a new mode of experiencing. Similarly, social perception is theorized to be primarily constituted by skillful engagement between people, which implies that it is possible to investigate the origins and development of social awareness using multi-user HCIs. We analyzed the trial-by-trial objective and subjective changes in sociality that took place during a perceptual crossing experiment in which embodied interaction between pairs of adults was mediated over a minimalist haptic HCI. Since that study required participants to implicitly relearn how to mutually engage so as to perceive each other's presence, we hypothesized that there would be indications that the initial developmental stages of social awareness were recapitulated. Preliminary results reveal that, despite the lack of explicit feedback about task performance, there was a trend for the clarity of social awareness to increase over time. We discuss the methodological challenges involved in evaluating whether this trend was characterized by distinct developmental stages of objective behavior and subjective experience.

  10. Using minimal human-computer interfaces for studying the interactive development of social awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eFroese

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the enactive approach to cognitive science, perception is essentially a skillful engagement with the world. Learning how to engage via a human-computer interface (HCI can therefore be taken as an instance of developing a new mode of experiencing. Similarly, social perception is theorized to be primarily constituted by skillful engagement between people, which implies that it is possible to investigate the origins and development of social awareness using multi-user HCIs. We analyzed the trial-by-trial objective and subjective changes in sociality that took place during a perceptual crossing experiment in which embodied interaction between pairs of adults was mediated over a minimalist haptic HCI. Since that study required participants to implicitly relearn how to mutually engage so as to perceive each other’s presence, we hypothesized that there would be indications that the initial developmental stages of social awareness were recapitulated. Preliminary results reveal that, despite the lack of explicit feedback about task performance, there was a trend for the clarity of social awareness to increase over time. We discuss the methodological challenges involved in evaluating whether this trend was characterized by distinct developmental stages of objective behavior and subjective experience.

  11. Using minimal human-computer interfaces for studying the interactive development of social awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Iizuka, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    According to the enactive approach to cognitive science, perception is essentially a skillful engagement with the world. Learning how to engage via a human-computer interface (HCI) can therefore be taken as an instance of developing a new mode of experiencing. Similarly, social perception is theorized to be primarily constituted by skillful engagement between people, which implies that it is possible to investigate the origins and development of social awareness using multi-user HCIs. We analyzed the trial-by-trial objective and subjective changes in sociality that took place during a perceptual crossing experiment in which embodied interaction between pairs of adults was mediated over a minimalist haptic HCI. Since that study required participants to implicitly relearn how to mutually engage so as to perceive each other's presence, we hypothesized that there would be indications that the initial developmental stages of social awareness were recapitulated. Preliminary results reveal that, despite the lack of explicit feedback about task performance, there was a trend for the clarity of social awareness to increase over time. We discuss the methodological challenges involved in evaluating whether this trend was characterized by distinct developmental stages of objective behavior and subjective experience. PMID:25309490

  12. Selection of suitable hand gestures for reliable myoelectric human computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Claudia F; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2015-04-09

    Myoelectric controlled prosthetic hand requires machine based identification of hand gestures using surface electromyogram (sEMG) recorded from the forearm muscles. This study has observed that a sub-set of the hand gestures have to be selected for an accurate automated hand gesture recognition, and reports a method to select these gestures to maximize the sensitivity and specificity. Experiments were conducted where sEMG was recorded from the muscles of the forearm while subjects performed hand gestures and then was classified off-line. The performances of ten gestures were ranked using the proposed Positive-Negative Performance Measurement Index (PNM), generated by a series of confusion matrices. When using all the ten gestures, the sensitivity and specificity was 80.0% and 97.8%. After ranking the gestures using the PNM, six gestures were selected and these gave sensitivity and specificity greater than 95% (96.5% and 99.3%); Hand open, Hand close, Little finger flexion, Ring finger flexion, Middle finger flexion and Thumb flexion. This work has shown that reliable myoelectric based human computer interface systems require careful selection of the gestures that have to be recognized and without such selection, the reliability is poor.

  13. A practical efficient human computer interface based on saccadic eye movements for people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Sima; Mahnam, Amin

    2016-03-01

    Human computer interfaces (HCI) provide new channels of communication for people with severe motor disabilities to state their needs, and control their environment. Some HCI systems are based on eye movements detected from the electrooculogram. In this study, a wearable HCI, which implements a novel adaptive algorithm for detection of saccadic eye movements in eight directions, was developed, considering the limitations that people with disabilities have. The adaptive algorithm eliminated the need for calibration of the system for different users and in different environments. A two-stage typing environment and a simple game for training people with disabilities to work with the system were also developed. Performance of the system was evaluated in experiments with the typing environment performed by six participants without disabilities. The average accuracy of the system in detecting eye movements and blinking was 82.9% at first tries with an average typing rate of 4.5cpm. However an experienced user could achieve 96% accuracy and 7.2cpm typing rate. Moreover, the functionality of the system for people with movement disabilities was evaluated by performing experiments with the game environment. Six people with tetraplegia and significant levels of speech impairment played with the computer game several times. The average success rate in performing the necessary eye movements was 61.5%, which increased significantly with practice up to 83% for one participant. The developed system is 2.6×4.5cm in size and weighs only 15g, assuring high level of comfort for the users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative evaluation plan for the Maintenance, Inventory, and Logistics Planning (MILP) System Human-Computer Interface (HCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmyer, Scott P.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to develop a tailored and effective approach to the design and evaluation of the human-computer interface (HCI) to the Maintenance, Inventory and Logistics Planning (MILP) System in support of the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD). An additional task that was undertaken was to assist in the review of Ground Displays for Space Station Freedom (SSF) by attending the Ground Displays Interface Group (GDIG), and commenting on the preliminary design for these displays. Based upon data gathered over the 10 week period, this project has hypothesized that the proper HCI concept for navigating through maintenance databases for large space vehicles is one based upon a spatial, direct manipulation approach. This dialogue style can be then coupled with a traditional text-based DBMS, after the user has determined the general nature and location of the information needed. This conclusion is in contrast with the currently planned HCI for MILP which uses a traditional form-fill-in dialogue style for all data access and retrieval. In order to resolve this difference in HCI and dialogue styles, it is recommended that comparative evaluation be performed which combines the use of both subjective and objective metrics to determine the optimal (performance-wise) and preferred approach for end users. The proposed plan has been outlined in the previous paragraphs and is available in its entirety in the Technical Report associated with this project. Further, it is suggested that several of the more useful features of the Maintenance Operations Management System (MOMS), especially those developed by the end-users, be incorporated into MILP to save development time and money.

  15. South African sign language human-computer interface in the context of the national accessibility portal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available will be built by adapting and building on existing technologies. The potential breakthrough is to find the underlying grammar of SASL which has never been standardised. The research is conducted at different levels: • Sign Language Processing: Study... the computational aspects of sign language grammar production with a combination of linguistics rules [1], animation scripts generation [2,3] and prosody [4]. • Human Computer Interaction: Research alternative ways of capturing sign language users’ queries...

  16. Design of an efficient framework for fast prototyping of customized human-computer interfaces and virtual environments for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avola, Danilo; Spezialetti, Matteo; Placidi, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    Rehabilitation is often required after stroke, surgery, or degenerative diseases. It has to be specific for each patient and can be easily calibrated if assisted by human-computer interfaces and virtual reality. Recognition and tracking of different human body landmarks represent the basic features for the design of the next generation of human-computer interfaces. The most advanced systems for capturing human gestures are focused on vision-based techniques which, on the one hand, may require compromises from real-time and spatial precision and, on the other hand, ensure natural interaction experience. The integration of vision-based interfaces with thematic virtual environments encourages the development of novel applications and services regarding rehabilitation activities. The algorithmic processes involved during gesture recognition activity, as well as the characteristics of the virtual environments, can be developed with different levels of accuracy. This paper describes the architectural aspects of a framework supporting real-time vision-based gesture recognition and virtual environments for fast prototyping of customized exercises for rehabilitation purposes. The goal is to provide the therapist with a tool for fast implementation and modification of specific rehabilitation exercises for specific patients, during functional recovery. Pilot examples of designed applications and preliminary system evaluation are reported and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preface (to: Brain-Computer Interfaces. Applying our Minds to Human-Computer Interaction)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    The advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies provide us with the increasing ability to interface directly with activity in the brain. Researchers have begun to use these technologies to build brain-computer interfaces. Originally, these interfaces were meant to allow

  18. A Real-Time Model-Based Human Motion Tracking and Analysis for Human-Computer Interface Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lin Huang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a real-time model-based human motion tracking and analysis method for human computer interface (HCI. This method tracks and analyzes the human motion from two orthogonal views without using any markers. The motion parameters are estimated by pattern matching between the extracted human silhouette and the human model. First, the human silhouette is extracted and then the body definition parameters (BDPs can be obtained. Second, the body animation parameters (BAPs are estimated by a hierarchical tritree overlapping searching algorithm. To verify the performance of our method, we demonstrate different human posture sequences and use hidden Markov model (HMM for posture recognition testing.

  19. Risk Issues in Developing Novel User Interfaces for Human-Computer Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Klinker, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. All rights are reserved. When new user interfaces or information visualization schemes are developed for complex information processing systems, it is not readily clear how much they do, in fact, support and improve users\\' understanding and use of such systems. Is a new interface better than an older one? In what respect, and in which situations? To provide answers to such questions, user testing schemes are employed. This chapter reports on a range of risks pertaining to the design and implementation of user interfaces in general, and to newly emerging interfaces (3-dimensionally, immersive, mobile) in particular.

  20. Brain computer interfaces as intelligent sensors for enhancing human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, M.; Nijboer, F.; Broek, E.L. van den; Fairclough, S.; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    BCIs are traditionally conceived as a way to control apparatus, an interface that allows you to act on" external devices as a form of input control. We propose an alternative use of BCIs, that of monitoring users as an additional intelligent sensor to enrich traditional means of interaction. This

  1. A dual-mode human computer interface combining speech and tongue motion for people with severe disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xueliang; Park, Hangue; Kim, Jeonghee; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-11-01

    We are presenting a new wireless and wearable human computer interface called the dual-mode Tongue Drive System (dTDS), which is designed to allow people with severe disabilities to use computers more effectively with increased speed, flexibility, usability, and independence through their tongue motion and speech. The dTDS detects users' tongue motion using a magnetic tracer and an array of magnetic sensors embedded in a compact and ergonomic wireless headset. It also captures the users' voice wirelessly using a small microphone embedded in the same headset. Preliminary evaluation results based on 14 able-bodied subjects and three individuals with high level spinal cord injuries at level C3-C5 indicated that the dTDS headset, combined with a commercially available speech recognition (SR) software, can provide end users with significantly higher performance than either unimodal forms based on the tongue motion or speech alone, particularly in completing tasks that require both pointing and text entry.

  2. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99 in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text chat communications, manipulation of procedureschecklists, cataloguingannotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit andor other EVA systems.

  3. A Comparison of Human-Computer Interfaces in Air Force Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    teams should incorporate the following roles: applied cognitive psychologist, linguist , educator, cartographer, and consumer marketing consultant (5:19...gather data from a large number of individuals, Ehe researcher . elt that external validity was enhanced over other potential methodologies for this...were developed around the same fundamental practices used in each type of interface. Care 31 was taken to insure that the questions used in this

  4. Foundations of an Age-Differentiated Adaptation of the Human-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N.; Schreiber, S.; Wilkes, J.; Grandt, M.; Schlick, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    An important issue of the demographic change in the German population is the maintenance and promotion of the employability of aging workforces. However, there are hardly any suitable concepts or usable tools available to realize this goal. Possible approaches should push the individual strengths of the aging workers to the foreground and…

  5. Brain-Computer Interfaces Applying Our Minds to Human-computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Desney S

    2010-01-01

    For generations, humans have fantasized about the ability to create devices that can see into a person's mind and thoughts, or to communicate and interact with machines through thought alone. Such ideas have long captured the imagination of humankind in the form of ancient myths and modern science fiction stories. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to turn these myths into a reality, and are providing us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that monitor physical p

  6. Certification for civil flight decks and the human-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclumpha, Andrew J.; Rudisill, Marianne

    1994-01-01

    This paper will address the issue of human factor aspects of civil flight deck certification, with emphasis on the pilot's interface with automation. In particular, three questions will be asked that relate to this certification process: (1) are the methods, data, and guidelines available from human factors to adequately address the problems of certifying as safe and error tolerant the complex automated systems of modern civil transport aircraft; (2) do aircraft manufacturers effectively apply human factors information during the aircraft flight deck design process; and (3) do regulatory authorities effectively apply human factors information during the aircraft certification process?

  7. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  8. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  9. Designing for Performance: A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach to Modifying an AWACS Human Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Subjective Workload Dominance TD Tabular Display WD Weapons Director V TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION...relationships among concepts. Originally devised as an instructional and evaluation tool for use in academic settings (e.g., Gowin & Novak, 1984...Co QP w in 0 m t’d, 0 U)u a >.w = M M-.0 m ’ V U) M 4)4) 1 .> L- M- tn w- m 40Ct ý 4- M FE E t: cn c CS in in - C = cc :6 L) 04)m > 4,i Tn U, LWwtn Em

  10. The Mind-Writing Pupil: A Human-Computer Interface Based on Decoding of Covert Attention through Pupillometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Mathôt

    Full Text Available We present a new human-computer interface that is based on decoding of attention through pupillometry. Our method builds on the recent finding that covert visual attention affects the pupillary light response: Your pupil constricts when you covertly (without looking at it attend to a bright, compared to a dark, stimulus. In our method, participants covertly attend to one of several letters with oscillating brightness. Pupil size reflects the brightness of the selected letter, which allows us-with high accuracy and in real time-to determine which letter the participant intends to select. The performance of our method is comparable to the best covert-attention brain-computer interfaces to date, and has several advantages: no movement other than pupil-size change is required; no physical contact is required (i.e. no electrodes; it is easy to use; and it is reliable. Potential applications include: communication with totally locked-in patients, training of sustained attention, and ultra-secure password input.

  11. The Mind-Writing Pupil: A Human-Computer Interface Based on Decoding of Covert Attention through Pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Melmi, Jean-Baptiste; van der Linden, Lotje; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present a new human-computer interface that is based on decoding of attention through pupillometry. Our method builds on the recent finding that covert visual attention affects the pupillary light response: Your pupil constricts when you covertly (without looking at it) attend to a bright, compared to a dark, stimulus. In our method, participants covertly attend to one of several letters with oscillating brightness. Pupil size reflects the brightness of the selected letter, which allows us-with high accuracy and in real time-to determine which letter the participant intends to select. The performance of our method is comparable to the best covert-attention brain-computer interfaces to date, and has several advantages: no movement other than pupil-size change is required; no physical contact is required (i.e. no electrodes); it is easy to use; and it is reliable. Potential applications include: communication with totally locked-in patients, training of sustained attention, and ultra-secure password input.

  12. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy for adaptive human-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Beste F.; Peck, Evan M.; Afergan, Daniel; Hincks, Samuel W.; Shibata, Tomoki; Kainerstorfer, Jana; Tgavalekos, Kristen; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio; Jacob, Robert J. K.

    2015-03-01

    We present a brain-computer interface (BCI) that detects, analyzes and responds to user cognitive state in real-time using machine learning classifications of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data. Our work is aimed at increasing the narrow communication bandwidth between the human and computer by implicitly measuring users' cognitive state without any additional effort on the part of the user. Traditionally, BCIs have been designed to explicitly send signals as the primary input. However, such systems are usually designed for people with severe motor disabilities and are too slow and inaccurate for the general population. In this paper, we demonstrate with previous work1 that a BCI that implicitly measures cognitive workload can improve user performance and awareness compared to a control condition by adapting to user cognitive state in real-time. We also discuss some of the other applications we have used in this field to measure and respond to cognitive states such as cognitive workload, multitasking, and user preference.

  13. Modeling Strategic Use of Human Computer Interfaces with Novel Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jane Mariano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Immersive software tools are virtual environments designed to give their users an augmented view of real-world data and ways of manipulating that data. As virtual environments, every action users make while interacting with these tools can be carefully logged, as can the state of the software and the information it presents to the user, giving these actions context. This data provides a high-resolution lens through which dynamic cognitive and behavioral processes can be viewed. In this report, we describe new methods for the analysis and interpretation of such data, utilizing a novel implementation of the Beta Process Hidden Markov Model (BP-HMM for analysis of software activity logs. We further report the results of a preliminary study designed to establish the validity of our modeling approach. A group of 20 participants were asked to play a simple computer game, instrumented to log every interaction with the interface. Participants had no previous experience with the game’s functionality or rules, so the activity logs collected during their naïve interactions capture patterns of exploratory behavior and skill acquisition as they attempted to learn the rules of the game. Pre- and post-task questionnaires probed for self-reported styles of problem solving, as well as task engagement, difficulty, and workload. We jointly modeled the activity log sequences collected from all participants using the BP-HMM approach, identifying a global library of activity patterns representative of the collective behavior of all the participants. Analyses show systematic relationships between both pre- and post-task questionnaires, self-reported approaches to analytic problem solving, and metrics extracted from the BP-HMM decomposition. Overall, we find that this novel approach to decomposing unstructured behavioral data within software environments provides a sensible means for understanding how users learn to integrate software functionality for strategic

  14. Modeling strategic use of human computer interfaces with novel hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Laura J; Poore, Joshua C; Krum, David M; Schwartz, Jana L; Coskren, William D; Jones, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Immersive software tools are virtual environments designed to give their users an augmented view of real-world data and ways of manipulating that data. As virtual environments, every action users make while interacting with these tools can be carefully logged, as can the state of the software and the information it presents to the user, giving these actions context. This data provides a high-resolution lens through which dynamic cognitive and behavioral processes can be viewed. In this report, we describe new methods for the analysis and interpretation of such data, utilizing a novel implementation of the Beta Process Hidden Markov Model (BP-HMM) for analysis of software activity logs. We further report the results of a preliminary study designed to establish the validity of our modeling approach. A group of 20 participants were asked to play a simple computer game, instrumented to log every interaction with the interface. Participants had no previous experience with the game's functionality or rules, so the activity logs collected during their naïve interactions capture patterns of exploratory behavior and skill acquisition as they attempted to learn the rules of the game. Pre- and post-task questionnaires probed for self-reported styles of problem solving, as well as task engagement, difficulty, and workload. We jointly modeled the activity log sequences collected from all participants using the BP-HMM approach, identifying a global library of activity patterns representative of the collective behavior of all the participants. Analyses show systematic relationships between both pre- and post-task questionnaires, self-reported approaches to analytic problem solving, and metrics extracted from the BP-HMM decomposition. Overall, we find that this novel approach to decomposing unstructured behavioral data within software environments provides a sensible means for understanding how users learn to integrate software functionality for strategic task pursuit.

  15. Interface Concepts for Command & Control Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, J.H. van; Passenier, P.O.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses new interface concepts for information visualisation and manipulation in Command and Control. These concepts focus on the use of multiple views on the tactical situation to enhance situational awareness and to improve situation assessment. Topics covered include the application

  16. Learning an Intermittent Control Strategy for Postural Balancing Using an EMG-Based Human-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yoshiyuki; Tateyama, Shota; Nomura, Taishin

    2013-01-01

    It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off. PMID:23717398

  17. Learning an intermittent control strategy for postural balancing using an EMG-based human-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Asai

    Full Text Available It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off.

  18. Learning an intermittent control strategy for postural balancing using an EMG-based human-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yoshiyuki; Tateyama, Shota; Nomura, Taishin

    2013-01-01

    It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off.

  19. A robust Kalman algorithm to facilitate human-computer interaction for people with cerebral palsy, using a new interface based on inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Rafael; Rocon, Eduardo; Gallego, Juan A; Ceres, Ramón; Pons, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to create an advanced human-computer interface called ENLAZA for people with cerebral palsy (CP). Although there are computer-access solutions for disabled people in general, there are few evidences from motor disabled community (e.g., CP) using these alternative interfaces. The proposed interface is based on inertial sensors in order to characterize involuntary motion in terms of time, frequency and range of motion. This characterization is used to design a filtering technique that reduces the effect of involuntary motion on person-computer interaction. This paper presents a robust Kalman filter (RKF) design to facilitate fine motor control based on the previous characterization. The filter increases mouse pointer directivity and the target acquisition time is reduced by a factor of ten. The interface is validated with CP users who were unable to control the computer using other interfaces. The interface ENLAZA and the RKF enabled them to use the computer.

  20. Learning to modulate the partial powers of a single sEMG power spectrum through a novel human-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skavhaug, Ida-Maria; Lyons, Kenneth R; Nemchuk, Anna; Muroff, Shira D; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2016-06-01

    New human-computer interfaces that use bioelectrical signals as input are allowing study of the flexibility of the human neuromuscular system. We have developed a myoelectric human-computer interface which enables users to navigate a cursor to targets through manipulations of partial powers within a single surface electromyography (sEMG) signal. Users obtain two-dimensional control through simultaneous adjustments of powers in two frequency bands within the sEMG spectrum, creating power profiles corresponding to cursor positions. It is unlikely that these types of bioelectrical manipulations are required during routine muscle contractions. Here, we formally establish the neuromuscular ability to voluntarily modulate single-site sEMG power profiles in a group of naïve subjects under restricted and controlled conditions using a wrist muscle. All subjects used the same pre-selected frequency bands for control and underwent the same training, allowing a description of the average learning progress throughout eight sessions. We show that subjects steadily increased target hit rates from 48% to 71% and exhibited greater control of the cursor's trajectories following practice. Our results point towards an adaptable neuromuscular skill, which may allow humans to utilize single muscle sites as limited general-purpose signal generators. Ultimately, the goal is to translate this neuromuscular ability to practical interfaces for the disabled by using a spared muscle to control external machines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Open-Box Muscle-Computer Interface: Introduction to Human-Computer Interactions in Bioengineering, Physiology, and Neuroscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Jiménez, M. A.; González-Gaspar, P.; Pérez-Estudillo, C.; López-Meraz, M. L.; Morgado-Valle, C.; Beltran-Parrazal, L.

    2016-01-01

    A Muscle-Computer Interface (muCI) is a human-machine system that uses electromyographic (EMG) signals to communicate with a computer. Surface EMG (sEMG) signals are currently used to command robotic devices, such as robotic arms and hands, and mobile robots, such as wheelchairs. These signals reflect the motor intention of a user before the…

  2. Denotation and connotation in the human-computer interface: The ‘Save as...’ command

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, C.(Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA); Perry, M.; O'Keefe, R

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a semiotic technique as a means of exploring meaning and understanding in interface design and use. This is examined through a study of the interaction between the ‘file’ metaphor and ‘save as’ command metaphor. The behaviour of these (from a functional or computational basis) do not exactly match, or map onto, the meaning of the metaphor. We examine both the denotation of a term to the user, i.e. its literal meaning to that person, and the term’s c...

  3. Artifical Intelligence for Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Th.S.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.; Unknown, [Unknown

    2007-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of two events discussing AI for Human Computing: one Special Session during the Eighth International ACM Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI 2006), held in Banff, Canada, in November 2006, and a Workshop organized in conjunction

  4. Display interface concepts for automated fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael T.

    1989-01-01

    An effort which investigated concepts for displaying dynamic system status and fault history (propagation) information to the flight crew is described. This investigation was performed by developing several candidate display formats and then conducting comprehension tests to determine those characteristics that made one format preferable to another for presenting this type of information. Twelve subjects participated. Flash tests, or limited time exposure tests, were used to determine the subjects' comprehension of the information presented in the display formats. It was concluded from the results of the comprehension tests that pictographs were more comprehensible than both block diagrams and text for presenting dynamic system status and fault history information, and that pictographs were preferred over both block diagrams and text. It was also concluded that the addition of this type of information in the cockpit would help the crew remain aware of the status of their aircraft.

  5. Language evolution and human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

  6. Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) Interface Control Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon R.

    2017-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) documents the airspace adaptation and air traffic inputs of NASA's Future ATM Concepts and Evaluation Tool (FACET). Its intended audience is the project manager, project team, development team, and stakeholders interested in interfacing with the system. FACET equips Air Traffic Management (ATM) researchers and service providers with a way to explore, develop and evaluate advanced air transportation concepts before they are field-tested and eventually deployed. FACET is a flexible software tool that is capable of quickly generating and analyzing thousands of aircraft trajectories. It provides researchers with a simulation environment for preliminary testing of advanced ATM concepts. Using aircraft performance profiles, airspace models, weather data, and flight schedules, the tool models trajectories for the climb, cruise, and descent phases of flight for each type of aircraft. An advanced graphical interface displays traffic patterns in two and three dimensions, under various current and projected conditions for specific airspace regions or over the entire continental United States. The system is able to simulate a full day's dynamic national airspace system (NAS) operations, model system uncertainty, measure the impact of different decision-makers in the NAS, and provide analysis of the results in graphical form, including sector, airport, fix, and airway usage statistics. NASA researchers test and analyze the system-wide impact of new traffic flow management algorithms under anticipated air traffic growth projections on the nation's air traffic system. In addition to modeling the airspace system for NASA research, FACET has also successfully transitioned into a valuable tool for operational use. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) traffic flow managers and commercial airline dispatchers have used FACET technology for real-time operations planning. FACET integrates live air traffic data from FAA radar systems and weather data

  7. Evaluation of Head Orientation and Neck Muscle EMG Signals as Command Inputs to a Human-Computer Interface for Individuals with High Tetraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew R.; Kirsch, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the performance of three user interfaces for restoration of cursor control in individuals with tetraplegia: head orientation, EMG from face and neck muscles, and a standard computer mouse (for comparison). Subjects engaged in a 2D, center-out, Fitts’ Law style task and performance was evaluated using several measures. Overall, head orientation commanded motion resembled mouse commanded cursor motion (smooth, accurate movements to all targets), although with somewhat lower performance. EMG commanded movements exhibited a higher average speed, but other performance measures were lower, particularly for diagonal targets. Compared to head orientation, EMG as a cursor command source was less accurate, was more affected by target direction and was more prone to overshoot the target. In particular, EMG commands for diagonal targets were more sequential, moving first in one direction and then the other rather than moving simultaneous in the two directions. While the relative performance of each user interface differs, each has specific advantages depending on the application. PMID:18990652

  8. On the Rhetorical Contract in Human-Computer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    An exploration of the rhetorical contract--i.e., the expectations for appropriate interaction--as it develops in human-computer interaction revealed that direct manipulation interfaces were more likely to establish social expectations. Study results suggest that the social nature of human-computer interactions can be examined with reference to the…

  9. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  10. HCI (human computer interaction): concepto y desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos, Mari-Carmen

    2001-01-01

    The concept of human-computer interaction (HCI) is analysed from a broad, interdisciplinary perspective, including a review of the evolution of HCI from the 1950s up to the present. The author stresses the importance of incorporating HCI studies within the curricula of information science programmes.

  11. Human computation as a new method for evidence-based knowledge transfer in Web-based guideline development groups: proof of concept randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heselmans, Annemie; Aertgeerts, Bert; Donceel, Peter; Van de Velde, Stijn; Vanbrabant, Peter; Ramaekers, Dirk

    2013-01-17

    Guideline developers use different consensus methods to develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Previous research suggests that existing guideline development techniques are subject to methodological problems and are logistically demanding. Guideline developers welcome new methods that facilitate a methodologically sound decision-making process. Systems that aggregate knowledge while participants play a game are one class of human computation applications. Researchers have already proven that these games with a purpose are effective in building common sense knowledge databases. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a new consensus method based on human computation techniques compared to an informal face-to-face consensus method. We set up a randomized design to study 2 different methods for guideline development within a group of advanced students completing a master of nursing and obstetrics. Students who participated in the trial were enrolled in an evidence-based health care course. We compared the Web-based method of human-based computation (HC) with an informal face-to-face consensus method (IC). We used 4 clinical scenarios of lower back pain as the subject of the consensus process. These scenarios concerned the following topics: (1) medical imaging, (2) therapeutic options, (3) drugs use, and (4) sick leave. Outcomes were expressed as the amount of group (dis)agreement and the concordance of answers with clinical evidence. We estimated within-group and between-group effect sizes by calculating Cohen's d. We calculated within-group effect sizes as the absolute difference between the outcome value at round 3 and the baseline outcome value, divided by the pooled standard deviation. We calculated between-group effect sizes as the absolute difference between the mean change in outcome value across rounds in HC and the mean change in outcome value across rounds in IC, divided by the pooled standard deviation. We analyzed statistical significance of

  12. Impact of Cognitive Architectures on Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    and, in so doing, evaluate user interfaces. In this report we will review the influence of several cognitive architectures—specifically, asking what...promises were made, what impacts were realized, and what potential impact can we reasonably expect in the future. human-computer interaction ( HCI ...human-computer interaction ( HCI ), it must harden. Their vision is for psychology to provide engineering style theory that influences the design of

  13. Mechanics of materials and interfaces the disturbed state concept

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, Chandrakant S

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONPreludePhilosophicalMotivationReference StatesEngineering Materials and MatterContinuous , Discontinuous or MixtureTransformation and Self AdjustmentDisturbed Sate ConceptDisturbance and Damage ModelsDSC and Other ModelsScopeTHE DISTURBED STATE CONCEPT: PreliminariesIntroductionEngineering BehaviorMechanismFully Adjusted StateCharacteristic DimensionObserved BehaviorFormulation of DSCAlternative Formulations of DSCMaterial Element Composed of Two MaterialsDSC-Multi -Component SystemDSC

  14. Fundamentals of human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Monk, Andrew F

    1985-01-01

    Fundamentals of Human-Computer Interaction aims to sensitize the systems designer to the problems faced by the user of an interactive system. The book grew out of a course entitled """"The User Interface: Human Factors for Computer-based Systems"""" which has been run annually at the University of York since 1981. This course has been attended primarily by systems managers from the computer industry. The book is organized into three parts. Part One focuses on the user as processor of information with studies on visual perception; extracting information from printed and electronically presented

  15. Graphical user interface concepts for tactical augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenta, Chris; Murphy, Anne; Hinton, Jeremy; Cook, James; Sherrill, Todd; Snarski, Steve

    2010-04-01

    Applied Research Associates and BAE Systems are working together to develop a wearable augmented reality system under the DARPA ULTRA-Vis program†. Our approach to achieve the objectives of ULTRAVis, called iLeader, incorporates a full color 40° field of view (FOV) see-thru holographic waveguide integrated with sensors for full position and head tracking to provide an unobtrusive information system for operational maneuvers. iLeader will enable warfighters to mark-up the 3D battle-space with symbologic identification of graphical control measures, friendly force positions and enemy/target locations. Our augmented reality display provides dynamic real-time painting of symbols on real objects, a pose-sensitive 360° representation of relevant object positions, and visual feedback for a variety of system activities. The iLeader user interface and situational awareness graphical representations are highly intuitive, nondisruptive, and always tactically relevant. We used best human-factors practices, system engineering expertise, and cognitive task analysis to design effective strategies for presenting real-time situational awareness to the military user without distorting their natural senses and perception. We present requirements identified for presenting information within a see-through display in combat environments, challenges in designing suitable visualization capabilities, and solutions that enable us to bring real-time iconic command and control to the tactical user community.

  16. Formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, G.; de Haan, G.; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; van Vliet, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical contribution, elaborating the concept of models as used in Cognitive Ergonomics. A number of formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction will be reviewed and discussed. The analysis focusses on different related concepts of formal modelling techniques in

  17. Minimal mobile human computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Ali, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the widespread adoption of personal, mobile computing devices in everyday life, has allowed entry into a new technological era in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). The constant change of the physical and social context in a user's situation made possible by the portability of

  18. Multimodal Information Presentation for High-Load Human Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation addresses multimodal information presentation in human computer interaction. Information presentation refers to the manner in which computer systems/interfaces present information to human users. More specifically, the focus of our work is not on which information to present, but

  19. A Software Framework for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a software framework we designed and implemented for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface. The proposed framework is based on publish / subscribe architecture, which allows developers and researchers to conveniently configure, test and

  20. Human Computer Interface Design Criteria. Volume 1. User Interface Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    function may require modification when converted to certain European languages. For example, French and Italian replace the terminal vowel in an article...87 8.3.3 Types of Message Windows ........................................................................... 89 9.  User Support ...112 11.4.5 Support for Printing ...................................................................................... 113

  1. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidekazu, Yoshikawa; Ming, Yang; Zhijian, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A new concept is first proposed of distributed human interface system to integrate both operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Then, a method of constructing human interface system is introduced by integrating the plant knowledge database system based on Multilevel Flow Model (MFM......) with the risk monitor to watch Defense-in Depth plant safety functions. The proposed concept is applied for a liquid metal fast reactor Monju and necessary R&D subjects are reviewed to realize human interface system for the maintenance work in Monju plant. Because of using high temperature liquid sodium...... as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipments of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human...

  2. An intelligent multi-media human-computer dialogue system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, J. G.; Bettinger, K. E.; Byoun, J. S.; Dobes, Z.; Thielman, C. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Sophisticated computer systems are being developed to assist in the human decision-making process for very complex tasks performed under stressful conditions. The human-computer interface is a critical factor in these systems. The human-computer interface should be simple and natural to use, require a minimal learning period, assist the user in accomplishing his task(s) with a minimum of distraction, present output in a form that best conveys information to the user, and reduce cognitive load for the user. In pursuit of this ideal, the Intelligent Multi-Media Interfaces project is devoted to the development of interface technology that integrates speech, natural language text, graphics, and pointing gestures for human-computer dialogues. The objective of the project is to develop interface technology that uses the media/modalities intelligently in a flexible, context-sensitive, and highly integrated manner modelled after the manner in which humans converse in simultaneous coordinated multiple modalities. As part of the project, a knowledge-based interface system, called CUBRICON (CUBRC Intelligent CONversationalist) is being developed as a research prototype. The application domain being used to drive the research is that of military tactical air control.

  3. Human computer interaction issues in Clinical Trials Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starren, Justin B; Payne, Philip R O; Kaufman, David R

    2006-01-01

    Clinical trials increasingly rely upon web-based Clinical Trials Management Systems (CTMS). As with clinical care systems, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) issues can greatly affect the usefulness of such systems. Evaluation of the user interface of one web-based CTMS revealed a number of potential human-computer interaction problems, in particular, increased workflow complexity associated with a web application delivery model and potential usability problems resulting from the use of ambiguous icons. Because these design features are shared by a large fraction of current CTMS, the implications extend beyond this individual system.

  4. Human computer interaction using hand gestures

    CERN Document Server

    Premaratne, Prashan

    2014-01-01

    Human computer interaction (HCI) plays a vital role in bridging the 'Digital Divide', bringing people closer to consumer electronics control in the 'lounge'. Keyboards and mouse or remotes do alienate old and new generations alike from control interfaces. Hand Gesture Recognition systems bring hope of connecting people with machines in a natural way. This will lead to consumers being able to use their hands naturally to communicate with any electronic equipment in their 'lounge.' This monograph will include the state of the art hand gesture recognition approaches and how they evolved from their inception. The author would also detail his research in this area for the past 8 years and how the future might turn out to be using HCI. This monograph will serve as a valuable guide for researchers (who would endeavour into) in the world of HCI.

  5. Penerapan Model Human Computer Interaction (HCI Dalam Analisis Sistem Informasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihati Prihati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Information system Analysis is very important to do to produce easy, effective, efficient, and proper use system for the user. This research is meant to design and apply information system analysis model with the concept of Human Computer Interaction (HCI, Jacob Nielsen’s usability criteria which are learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors and satisfaction. The model of information system analysis Human Computer Interaction (HCI with five usability criteria can be used as a standard to analyze how far Human Computer Interaction can be applied into the system so that every weakness will be known and system maintenance can be performed. The application Human Computer Interaction model in analysis of Sistem Administrasi Sekolah (SAS produce a conclusion that only half of Human Computer Interaction concept applied into SAS Dikmenti DKI Jakarta. SAS is easy to be learned and to remember but SAS is not efficient and not yet have the ability to cope the mistake well. Users are satisfied enough with the result achieved through SAS but the facility provided by SAS is considered not enough to accommodate the need of the users.

  6. Interface Realisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article argues for seeing the interface as an important representational and aesthetic form with implications for postmodern culture and digital aesthetics. The interface emphasizes realism due in part to the desire for transparency in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and partly to the devel......This article argues for seeing the interface as an important representational and aesthetic form with implications for postmodern culture and digital aesthetics. The interface emphasizes realism due in part to the desire for transparency in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and partly...

  7. Mixed Reality: Concepts, Tools and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildeberto Aparecido Rodello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mixed Reality proposes scenes combining between virtual and real worlds offering to the user an intuitive way of interaction according to a specific application. This tutorial paper aims at presenting the fundamentals concepts of this emergent kind of human-computer interface.

  8. Within the Interface: Visual Rhetoric, Pedagogy, and Writing Center Website Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation examines the theory and praxis of taking an expanded concept of the human-computer interface (HCI) and working with the resulting concept to foster a more conversational approach for online tutoring sessions and the design of the writing center websites that facilitate online tutoring. For the purposes of my research, I describe…

  9. Multimodal Information Presentation for High-Load Human Computer Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Y

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation addresses multimodal information presentation in human computer interaction. Information presentation refers to the manner in which computer systems/interfaces present information to human users. More specifically, the focus of our work is not on which information to present, but on how to present it, such as which modalities to use, how to spatially distribute items, et cetera. The notion ``computer'' is not limited to personal computers in their various forms. It also incl...

  10. Labview Interface Concepts Used in NASA Scientific Investigations and Virtual Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Parker, Bradford H.; Rapchun, David A.; Jones, Hollis H.; Cao, Wei

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an overview of several software control applications developed for NASA using LabVIEW. The applications covered here include (1) an Ultrasonic Measurement System for nondestructive evaluation of advanced structural materials, an Xray Spectral Mapping System for characterizing the quality and uniformity of developing photon detector materials, (2) a Life Testing System for these same materials, (3) and the instrument panel for an aircraft mounted Cloud Absorption Radiometer that measures the light scattered by clouds in multiple spectral bands. Many of the software interface concepts employed are explained. Panel layout and block diagram (code) strategies for each application are described. In particular, some of the more unique features of the applications' interfaces and source code are highlighted. This article assumes that the reader has a beginner-to-intermediate understanding of LabVIEW methods.

  11. An Application Programming Interface For Developing Distributed Algorithm Along With Proposed Meta Language Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishalay Bairagi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In computer science an application programming interface API is an interface that defines the ways by which an application programming may request services from libraries.7 Libraries of a programming language are the list of all classes and interfaces along with their fields constructors and methods that are part of that language. For example java is an object oriented programming language which has a rich set of built-in classes and interfaces packaged in the API also known as java API7. Therefore a programmer can easily borrow built-in classes or interfaces to use the fields constructors and methods of those classes and interfaces in his or her application and is able to be free from the hazards of thinking the implementation details of those functions and constructors and writing it down to the application he or she is developing. An API 7 also helps a programmer to write a short and compact code to save time of program and application development and to produce a quality code having readability and understandability than the code without having the application of API. Almost all the modern programming languages come up with the rich set of APIs. The basic difference between an API and library lies in the fact that while API reflects the expected behaviour library is an actual implementation of this set of rules. 7 On the other hand the relation with framework is based on several libraries implementing several APIs but instead of normal use of an API the access to the behaviour built into the framework is made possible by extending its contents with new classes and interfaces.7 This paper presents a component of framework4 where the API for the distributed algorithms has been plugged into the framework so that a programmer can get services from the built- in classes and interfaces for easily understandable compact and faster program development. Here a concept of meta language consisting of very simple constructs has been introduced

  12. Human computer interaction using hand gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Silas; Nguyen, Hung T

    2008-01-01

    Hand gesture is a very natural form of human interaction and can be used effectively in human computer interaction (HCI). This project involves the design and implementation of a HCI using a small hand-worn wireless module with a 3-axis accelerometer as the motion sensor. The small stand-alone unit contains an accelerometer and a wireless Zigbee transceiver with microcontroller. To minimize intrusiveness to the user, the module is designed to be small (3cm by 4 cm). A time-delay neural network algorithm is developed to analyze the time series data from the 3-axis accelerometer. Power consumption is reduced by the non-continuous transmission of data and the use of low-power components, efficient algorithm and sleep mode between sampling for the wireless module. A home control interface is designed so that the user can control home appliances by moving through menus. The results demonstrate the feasibility of controlling home appliances using hand gestures and would present an opportunity for a section of the aging population and disabled people to lead a more independent life.

  13. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE: AN INTERFACE CONCEPT BETWEEN THE ECONOMICS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF THE FIRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Cavalcanti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to broadly discuss a subject that intends to be an interface between the economics and the management of the firm: the Enterprise Architecture. This concept is viewed here as the most appropriate means to understand the impact of the information content, of the information systems, and of the information and communication technologies- ICTs on the internal technological and organizational choices of the firm. In support to this argument it relies on three main steps. Initially, a brief review of the main theories (economic and management of the firm is made highlighting their contributions, caveats and convergences. Then the paper bases its analysis on the concept of the firm as an “engine of information” and on a concept from the Computing Science and Engineering, Enterprise Architecture, to point out that these concepts bring up important contributions towards a more consistent interpretation of what the firm is (or how it is organized currently, in which is practically impossible to exist without the modern information tools. Finally, it is presented an innovative methodology, in an analogy to the Structure-Conduct-Performance Paradigm (that is traditionally used on the empirical market analysis, which identifies the firm according to three linear connected approaches: its architecture, its governance, and its growth strategy.

  14. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE: AN INTERFACE CONCEPT BETWEEN THE ECONOMICS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF THE FIRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Cavalcanti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to broadly discuss a subject that intends to be an interface between the economics and the management of the firm: the Enterprise Architecture. This concept is viewed here as the most appropriate means to understand the impact of the information content, of the information systems, and of the information and communication technologies- ICTs on the internal technological and organizational choices of the firm. In support to this argument it relies on three main steps. Initially, a brief review of the main theories (economic and management of the firm is made highlighting their contributions, caveats and convergences. Then the paper bases its analysis on the concept of the firm as an “engine of information” and on a concept from the Computing Science and Engineering, Enterprise Architecture, to point out that these concepts bring up important contributions towards a more consistent interpretation of what the firm is (or how it is organized currently, in which is practically impossible to exist without the modern information tools. Finally, it is presented an innovative methodology, in an analogy to the Structure-Conduct-Performance Paradigm (that is traditionally used on the empirical market analysis, which identifies the firm according to three linear connected approaches: its architecture, its governance, and its growth strategy.

  15. The Quantum Human Computer (QHC) Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to suggest the existence of a human computer called Quantum Human Computer (QHC) on the basis of an analogy between human beings and computers. To date, there are two types of computers: Binary and Quantum. The former operates on the basis of binary logic where an object is said to exist in either of the two states of 1 and…

  16. Enhancing Learning through Human Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Elspeth, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Enhancing Learning Through Human Computer Interaction is an excellent reference source for human computer interaction (HCI) applications and designs. This "Premier Reference Source" provides a complete analysis of online business training programs and e-learning in the higher education sector. It describes a range of positive outcomes for linking…

  17. The Human-Computer Domain Relation in UX Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    This paper argues that the conceptualization of the human, the computer and the domain of use in competing lines of UX research have problematic similarities and superficial differences. The paper qualitatively analyses concepts and models in five research papers that together represent two...... domains, give little details about users, and treat human-computer interaction as perception. The conclusion gives similarities and differences between the approaches to UX. The implications for theory building are indicated....

  18. Quantifying Stream-Aquifer Exchanges Over Scales: the Concept of Nested Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipo, N.; Mouhri, A.; Labarthe, B.; Saleh, F. S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent developments in hydrological modelling are based on a view of the interface being a single continuum through which water flows. These coupled hydrological-hydrogeological models, emphasizing the importance of the stream-aquifer interface (SAI), are more and more used in hydrological sciences for pluri-disciplinary studies aiming at questioning environmental issues. This notion of a single continuum comes from the historical modelling of hydrosystems based on the hypothesis of a homogeneous media that led to the Darcy law. Nowadays, there is a need to first bridge the gap between hydrological and eco-hydrological views of the SAIs, and, second, to rationalize the modelling of SAI within a consistent framework that fully takes into account the multi-dimensionality of the SAIs. We first define the concept of nested SAIs as a key transitional component of continental hydrosystem. We then demonstrate the usefulness of the concept for the multi-dimensional study of the SAI, with a special emphasis on the stream network which is identified as the key component for scaling hydrological processes occurring at the interface. Finally we focus on SAI modelling at various scales with up-to-date methodologies and give some guidance for the multi-dimensional modelling of the interface using the innovative methodology MIM (Measurements-Interpolation-Modelling), which is graphically developed. MIM scales in space three pools of methods needed to fully understand SAIs. The outcome of MIM is the localization in space of the type of SAI that can be studied by a given approach. The efficiency of the method is illustrated from the local (approx. 1m) to the regional scale (> 10 000 km2) with two examples from the Paris basin (France). The first one consists in the implementation of a sampling system of stream-aquifer exchanges, which is coupled with local 2D thermo-hydro models and a pseudo 3D hydro(geo)logical model at the watershed scale (40 km2). The quantification of monthly

  19. Applied human factors research at the NASA Johnson Space Center Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Marianne; Mckay, Timothy D.

    1990-01-01

    The applied human factors research program performed at the NASA Johnson Space Center's Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory is discussed. Research is conducted to advance knowledge in human interaction with computer systems during space crew tasks. In addition, the Laboratory is directly involved in the specification of the human-computer interface (HCI) for space systems in development (e.g., Space Station Freedom) and is providing guidelines and support for HCI design to current and future space missions.

  20. Human-computer interaction in multitask situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Human-computer interaction in multitask decisionmaking situations is considered, and it is proposed that humans and computers have overlapping responsibilities. Queueing theory is employed to model this dynamic approach to the allocation of responsibility between human and computer. Results of simulation experiments are used to illustrate the effects of several system variables including number of tasks, mean time between arrivals of action-evoking events, human-computer speed mismatch, probability of computer error, probability of human error, and the level of feedback between human and computer. Current experimental efforts are discussed and the practical issues involved in designing human-computer systems for multitask situations are considered.

  1. A concept to standardize raw biosignal transmission for brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitwieser, Christian; Neuper, Christa; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2011-01-01

    With this concept we introduced the attempt of a standardized interface called TiA to transmit raw biosignals. TiA is able to deal with multirate and block-oriented data transmission. Data is distinguished by different signal types (e.g., EEG, EOG, NIRS, …), whereby those signals can be acquired at the same time from different acquisition devices. TiA is built as a client-server model. Multiple clients can connect to one server. Information is exchanged via a control- and a separated data connection. Control commands and meta information are transmitted over the control connection. Raw biosignal data is delivered using the data connection in a unidirectional way. For this purpose a standardized handshaking protocol and raw data packet have been developed. Thus, an abstraction layer between hardware devices and data processing was evolved facilitating standardization.

  2. Advancements in Violin-Related Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Finesse is required while performing with many traditional musical instruments, as they are extremely responsive to human inputs. The violin is specifically examined here, as it excels at translating a performer’s gestures into sound in manners that evoke a wide range of affective qualities...... of human intelligence and emotion is at the core of the Musical Interface Technology Design Space, MITDS. This is a framework that endeavors to retain and enhance such traits of traditional instruments in the design of interactive live performance interfaces. Utilizing the MITDS, advanced Human......-Computer Interaction technologies for the violin are developed in order to allow musicians to explore new methods of creating music. Through this process, the aim is to provide musicians with control systems that let them transcend the interface itself, and focus on musically compelling performances....

  3. A new concept of wildland-urban interface based on city clustering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevski, M.; Champendal, A.; Vega Orozco, C.; Tonini, M.; Conedera, M.

    2012-04-01

    Wildland-Urban-Interface (WUI) is a widely used term in the context of wild and forest fires to indicate areas where human infrastructures interact with wildland/forest areas. Many complex problems are associated to the WUI; but the most relevant ones are those related to forest fire hazard and management in dense populated areas where fire regime is dominated by anthropogenic-induced ignition fires. This coexistence enhances both anthropogenic-ignition sources and flammable fuels. Furthermore, the growing trend of the WUI and global change effects may even worsening the situation in the near future. Therefore, many studies are dedicated to the WUI problem, focusing on refinement of its definition, development of mapping methods, implementation of measures into specific fire management plans and the validation of the proposed approaches. The present study introduces a new concept of WUI based on city clustering algorithm (CCA) introduced in Rosenfeld et al., 2008. CCA was proposed as an automatic tool for studying the definition of cities and their distribution. The algorithm uses demographic data - either on a regular or non-regular grid in space - where a city (urban zone) is detected as a cluster of connected populated cells with maximal size. In the present study the CCA is proposed as a tool to develop a new concept of population dynamic analysis crucial to define and to localise WUI. The real case study is based on demographic/census data - organised in a regular grid with a resolution of 100 m and the forest fire ignition points database from canton Ticino, Switzerland. By changing spatial scales of demographic cells the relationships between urban zones (demographic clusters) and forest fire events were statistically analyzed. Corresponding scaling laws were used to understand the interaction between urban zones and forest fires. The first results are good and indicate that the method can be applied to define WUI in an innovative way. Keywords: forest fires

  4. Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments are presented along with a list of attendees. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the state-of-technology and level of maturity of several areas in human-computer interaction and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of these facilities in the design/fabrication and operation of future high-performance engineering systems.

  5. Metaphors for the Nature of Human-Computer Interaction in an Empowering Environment: Interaction Style Influences the Manner of Human Accomplishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Herman G.; Hartson, H. Rex

    1992-01-01

    Describes human-computer interface needs for empowering environments in computer usage in which the machine handles the routine mechanics of problem solving while the user concentrates on its higher order meanings. A closed-loop model of interaction is described, interface as illusion is discussed, and metaphors for human-computer interaction are…

  6. Human-Computer Interaction in Tactical Operations: Designing for Effective Human-Computer Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    editing. fraphical interaction (Report No. CW’-CS-R8718). Human Computer Interaction 1(3), 223-274. Washington, DC National Aeronautics and Space...Co - * r LLcOPY Research Product 90-31 j LL Human- Computer Interaction in Tactical Operations: Designing for Effective Human- Computer Dialogue DTIC...5600 62785A 790 1304 C2 LE (include Security Classification) i- Computer Interaction in Tactical Operations: Designing for Effective i- Computer

  7. Choice of Human-Computer Interaction Mode in Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi Hondori, Hossein; Khademi, Maryam; Dodakian, Lucy; McKenzie, Alison; Lopes, Cristina V; Cramer, Steven C

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology are providing new forms of human-computer interaction. The current study examined one form of human-computer interaction, augmented reality (AR), whereby subjects train in the real-world workspace with virtual objects projected by the computer. Motor performances were compared with those obtained while subjects used a traditional human-computer interaction, that is, a personal computer (PC) with a mouse. Patients used goal-directed arm movements to play AR and PC versions of the Fruit Ninja video game. The 2 versions required the same arm movements to control the game but had different cognitive demands. With AR, the game was projected onto the desktop, where subjects viewed the game plus their arm movements simultaneously, in the same visual coordinate space. In the PC version, subjects used the same arm movements but viewed the game by looking up at a computer monitor. Among 18 patients with chronic hemiparesis after stroke, the AR game was associated with 21% higher game scores (P = .0001), 19% faster reaching times (P = .0001), and 15% less movement variability (P = .0068), as compared to the PC game. Correlations between game score and arm motor status were stronger with the AR version. Motor performances during the AR game were superior to those during the PC game. This result is due in part to the greater cognitive demands imposed by the PC game, a feature problematic for some patients but clinically useful for others. Mode of human-computer interface influences rehabilitation therapy demands and can be individualized for patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. From Human-Computer Interaction to Human-Robot Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Toumi, Tarek; Abdelmadjid ZIDANI

    2014-01-01

    Human-Robot Social Interaction became one of active research fields in which researchers from different areas propose solutions and directives leading robots to improve their interactions with humans. In this paper we propose to introduce works in both human robot interaction and human computer interaction and to make a bridge between them, i.e. to integrate emotions and capabilities concepts of the robot in human computer model to become adequate for human robot interaction and discuss chall...

  9. A simulator application of a 'hands-on throttle and stick' concept to a transport pilot/autopilot interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, A. M.; Parrish, R. V.; Hogge, T. W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the initial experiences garnered in applying a multifunction control strategy, based on the U.S. Air Force's 'Hands-On Throttle-and-Stick' concept for fighter aircraft to a transport aircraft simulator. The multifunction control strategy involves the activation of various flight system/subsystem operations (such as guidance and control, communication, and navigation functions) by use of menu displays and throttle and stick switches. The initial application of this multifunction control (MFC) concept was developed around a pilot/autopilot interface, contrasting a conventional, dedicated autopilot interface to an MFC implementation. The simulator characteristics and autopilot functions, as well as the conventional interface and MFC hardware/software, which were utilized in the application, are described herein. Initial pilot reaction and suggested improvements to this particular implementation are discussed. The paper terminates with a glance at plans for improvements and future applications based on the outcome of this initial study.

  10. Analysis of a display and control system man-machine interface concept. Volume 1: Final technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the feasibility of utilizing a simplified man machine interface concept to manage and control a complex space system involving multiple redundant computers that control multiple redundant subsystems. The concept involves the use of a CRT for display and a simple keyboard for control, with a tree-type control logic for accessing and controlling mission, systems, and subsystem elements. The concept was evaluated in terms of the Phase B space shuttle orbiter, to utilize the wide scope of data management and subsystem control inherent in the central data management subsystem provided by the Phase B design philosophy. Results of these investigations are reported in four volumes.

  11. Human Computer Interaction in the ALMA Control Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, M.; Primet, R.; Pietriga, E.; Schwarz, J.

    2012-09-01

    The article describes the ALMA Operations Monitoring and Control (OMC) software and its next generation user interfaces, used by operators and astronomers to monitor and control the observing facility. These user interfaces bring state-of-the-art Human Computer Interaction (HCI) techniques to the ALMA Control Room: map visualisation, semantic zooming, navigation gestures, multiple coordinated views, and decrease of time-to-point. They enable users to stay in control of dozens of antennas, hundreds of devices, and thousands of baselines. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international radio-astronomy facility, is a partnership of North America, Europe and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. It is located at the Altiplano de Chajnantor and is being operated from the Operations Support Facilities (OSF) near San Pedro de Atacama.

  12. An Application Programming Interface For Developing Distributed Algorithm Along With Proposed Meta Language Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Kishalay Bairagi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In computer science an application programming interface API is an interface that defines the ways by which an application programming may request services from libraries.7 Libraries of a programming language are the list of all classes and interfaces along with their fields constructors and methods that are part of that language. For example java is an object oriented programming language which has a rich set of built-in classes and interfaces packaged in the API also known as java ...

  13. Factors in Human-Computer Interface Design (A Pilot Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    44 vi AFIT/GIR/LAR/94D-6 Abstract The Department of Defense (DoD) has budgeted over $9.8 billion for 1995 for information technology ( Endoso , 1994:1...Background The DoD has budgeted over $9.8 billion for 1995 for information technology ( Endoso , 1994:1), yet many government office workers let their...edition). Boston MA: Richard C. Irwin, Inc., 1991. Endoso , Joyce (1994) "DOD IT budget takes smaller hit from Senate." Government Computer News. Vol 13

  14. User Language Considerations in Military Human-Computer Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    while listening and reading are termed language reception or decoding skills. As detailed by Macnamara (1967), four aspects of language may be... Macnamara , 1967). These techniques include speech simplification and avoidance of hard-to- pronounce words. Even among individuals who learn two...different situations typically require different vocabulary, phraseology, syntax and/or level of literacy, and Macnamara (1967) has said that it is *pointless

  15. Exploring the Human Computer Interface and Photic Driving

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peterman, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... This phenomenon is known as photic driving. The objective of this study is to determine if computer monitors can be used as the presentation medium for photic driving, and to investigate whether any measurable cognitive changes can be caused...

  16. Mobile interface for neuroprosthesis control aiming tetraplegic users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Renato G; Aquino Junior, Plinio T; Ferrari de Castro, Maria Claudia

    2016-08-01

    This article proposes the development of a mobile interface for controlling a Neuroprosthesis, designed to restore grasp patterns, aiming tetraplegics users at C5 and C6 levels. Human Computer Interface paradigms and usability concepts guide its planning and development to garantee the quality of user's interaction with the system and thus, the sucess and controlability of the neuroprostheses. The number of screens and menus were optimized, thus the user may feel the interface as more intuitive, leading to fast learning and increasing the trust on it.

  17. Feedback Loops in Communication and Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, Alex; Nijholt, Antinus; Huang, Thomas S.

    Building systems that are able to analyse communicative behaviours or take part in conversations requires a sound methodology in which the complex organisation of conversations is understood and tested on real-life samples. The data-driven approaches to human computing not only have a value for the

  18. Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…

  19. Deep architectures for Human Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noulas, A.K.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present the application of Conditional Restricted Boltzmann Machines in Human Computer Interaction. These provide a well suited framework to model the complex temporal patterns produced from humans in the audio and video modalities. They can be trained in a semisupervised fashion and

  20. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews literature in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) as it applies to educational environments. Topics include the origin of HCI; human factors; usability; computer interface design; goals, operations, methods, and selection (GOMS) models; command language versus direct manipulation; hypertext; visual perception; interface…

  1. HCI^2 Framework: A software framework for multimodal human-computer interaction systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel software framework for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface (MHCI) systems. The proposed software framework, which is called the HCI∧2 Framework, is built upon publish/subscribe (P/S) architecture. It implements a

  2. Advanced Interface for Tactical Security (AITS) Problem Analysis and Concept Definition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, S

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Interface for Tactical Security (AITS) project was initiated to improve the task performance of security forces through technology and design improvements to information display systems...

  3. Interfaces do corpo: integração da alteridade no conceito de doença Body interfaces: the integration of alterity into the concept of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Czeresnia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura ocidental fragmentou o corpo em redutoras perspectivas teóricas que fizeram aparecer diferentes ordens de realidade: biológica, psíquica e social. Este artigo identifica o limite da biomedicina em integrar a alteridade no conceito de doença, como uma das lacunas importantes para a aproximação entre os conceitos de psiquismo e corpo biológico. Apresenta a proposição de que as interfaces do corpo são centrais para a compreensão da constituição do corpo biológico em seus processos de individuação. Levanta a possibilidade de ocorrer uma transformação epistemológica na medicina, a partir da valorização dos estudos sobre fenômenos biológicos que ocorrem nestas interfaces. Ressalta, mediante análise da literatura médica recente, indícios de uma possível integração da alteridade no conceito de doença. Esta análise se detém na crescente elaboração de um discurso sobre a relação com os microorganismos e sua importância na constituição ontogênica do organismo humano e, por conseqüência, na etiologia das doenças.Western culture has fragmented the body into a restrictive theoretical perspective that gave rise to different reality orders: biological, psychic and social. This article identifies the limits of biomedicine for integrating alterity into the concept of disease, as one of the relevant gaps for the approximation between the concepts of psyche and the biological body. It presents the proposition that the body interfaces are crucial for the understanding of the constitution of the biological body in individuation processes. It raises the possibility that there may be an epistemological transformation in medicine, based on the value that studies place on the biological phenomena that take place in these interfaces. It emphasizes, upon the analysis of recent medical literature, indications of a possible integration of alterity into the concept of disease. This analysis delves into the growing design of

  4. Developing a Framework for Intuitive Human-Computer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Marita A; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D

    2008-09-01

    Many technology marketing materials tout the intuitive nature of products, but current human-computer interaction (HCI) guidelines provide limited methods to help designers create this experience beyond making them easy to use. This paper proposes a definition for intuitive interaction with specific attributes to allow designers to create products that elicit the target experience. Review of relevant literatures provides empirical evidence for the suggested working definition of intuitive HCI: interactions between humans and high technology in lenient learning environments that allow the human to use a combination of prior experience and feedforward methods to achieve an individual's functional and abstract goals. Core concepts supporting this definition were compiled into an organizational framework that includes: seeking user goals, performing well-learned behavior, determining what to do next, metacognition, knowledge in the head, and knowledge in the world. This paper describes these concepts and proposes design approaches that could facilitate intuitive behavior and suggests areas for further research.

  5. Prosodic alignment in human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N.; Katagiri, Y.

    2007-06-01

    Androids that replicate humans in form also need to replicate them in behaviour to achieve a high level of believability or lifelikeness. We explore the minimal social cues that can induce in people the human tendency for social acceptance, or ethopoeia, toward artifacts, including androids. It has been observed that people exhibit a strong tendency to adjust to each other, through a number of speech and language features in human-human conversational interactions, to obtain communication efficiency and emotional engagement. We investigate in this paper the phenomena related to prosodic alignment in human-computer interactions, with particular focus on human-computer alignment of speech characteristics. We found that people exhibit unidirectional and spontaneous short-term alignment of loudness and response latency in their speech in response to computer-generated speech. We believe this phenomenon of prosodic alignment provides one of the key components for building social acceptance of androids.

  6. Feedback Loops in Communication and Human Computing

    OpenAIRE

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, Alex; Nijholt, Antinus; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-01-01

    Building systems that are able to analyse communicative behaviours or take part in conversations requires a sound methodology in which the complex organisation of conversations is understood and tested on real-life samples. The data-driven approaches to human computing not only have a value for the engineering of systems, but can also provide feedback to the study of conversations between humans and between human and machines.

  7. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravati, Gianluca; Gatteschi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  8. Nanoreinforced polymer composites: 3D FEM modeling with effective interface concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.W.; Zhou, H.W.; Peng, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    A computational study of the effect of structures of nanocomposites on their elastic properties is presented. The special program code for the automatic generation of 3D multiparticle unit cells with/without overlapping, effective interface layers around particles is developed for nanocomposite...... modeling. The generalized effective interface model, with two layers of different stiffnesses and the option of overlapping layers is developed here. The effects of the effective interface properties, particle sizes, particle shapes (spherical, cylindrical, ellipsoidal and disc-shaped) and volume fraction...

  9. Prioritizing quality measure concepts at the interface of behavioral and physical healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Harold Alan; Li, Mingjie; Scharf, Deborah M; Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Goldman, Matthew L; Ramanuj, Parashar P; Ferenchick, Erin K

    2017-08-01

    Integrated healthcare models can increase access to care, improve healthcare quality, and reduce cost for individuals with behavioral and general medical healthcare needs, yet there are few instruments for measuring the quality of integrated care. In this study, we identified and prioritized concepts that can represent the quality of integrated behavioral health and general medical care. We conducted a literature review to identify candidate measure concepts. Experts then participated in a modified Delphi process to prioritize the concepts for development into specific quality measures. United States. Expert behavioral health and general medical clinicians, decision-makers (policy, regulatory and administrative professionals) and patient advocates. Panelists rated measure concepts on importance, validity and feasibility. The literature review identified 734 measures of behavioral or general medical care, which were then distilled into 43 measure concepts. Thirty-three measure concepts (including a segmentation strategy) reached a predetermined consensus threshold of importance, while 11 concepts did not. Two measure concepts were 'ready for further development' ('General medical screening and follow-up in behavioral health settings' and 'Mental health screening at general medical healthcare settings'). Among the 31 additional measure concepts that were rated as important, 7 were rated as valid (but not feasible), while the remaining 24 concepts were rated as neither valid nor feasible. This study identified quality measure concepts that capture important aspects of integrated care. Researchers can use the prioritization process described in this study to guide healthcare quality measures development work.

  10. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Pokorný, Jaroslav; Snášel, Václav; Abraham, Ajith

    2013-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction 2011 (IHCI 2011) was held at Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic from August 29 - August 31, 2011. This conference was third in the series, following IHCI 2009 and IHCI 2010 held in January at IIIT Allahabad, India. Human computer interaction is a fast growing research area and an attractive subject of interest for both academia and industry. There are many interesting and challenging topics that need to be researched and discussed. This book aims to provide excellent opportunities for the dissemination of interesting new research and discussion about presented topics. It can be useful for researchers working on various aspects of human computer interaction. Topics covered in this book include user interface and interaction, theoretical background and applications of HCI and also data mining and knowledge discovery as a support of HCI applications.

  11. A mobile Nursing Information System based on human-computer interaction design for improving quality of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuo-Wei; Liu, Cheng-Li

    2012-06-01

    A conventional Nursing Information System (NIS), which supports the role of nurse in some areas, is typically deployed as an immobile system. However, the traditional information system can't response to patients' conditions in real-time, causing delays on the availability of this information. With the advances of information technology, mobile devices are increasingly being used to extend the human mind's limited capacity to recall and process large numbers of relevant variables and to support information management, general administration, and clinical practice. Unfortunately, there have been few studies about the combination of a well-designed small-screen interface with a personal digital assistant (PDA) in clinical nursing. Some researchers found that user interface design is an important factor in determining the usability and potential use of a mobile system. Therefore, this study proposed a systematic approach to the development of a mobile nursing information system (MNIS) based on Mobile Human-Computer Interaction (M-HCI) for use in clinical nursing. The system combines principles of small-screen interface design with user-specified requirements. In addition, the iconic functions were designed with metaphor concept that will help users learn the system more quickly with less working-memory. An experiment involving learnability testing, thinking aloud and a questionnaire investigation was conducted for evaluating the effect of MNIS on PDA. The results show that the proposed MNIS is good on learning and higher satisfaction on symbol investigation, terminology and system information.

  12. Introduction to human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Originally published in 1989 this title provided a comprehensive and authoritative introduction to the burgeoning discipline of human-computer interaction for students, academics, and those from industry who wished to know more about the subject. Assuming very little knowledge, the book provides an overview of the diverse research areas that were at the time only gradually building into a coherent and well-structured field. It aims to explain the underlying causes of the cognitive, social and organizational problems typically encountered when computer systems are introduced. It is clear and co

  13. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Paravati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  14. Task search in a human computation market

    OpenAIRE

    Chilton, Lydia B.; Miller, Robert C.; Horton, John J.; Azenkot, Shiri

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand how a labor market for human computation functions, it is important to know how workers search for tasks. This paper uses two complementary methods to gain insight into how workers search for tasks on Mechanical Turk. First, we perform a high frequency scrape of 36 pages of search results and analyze it by looking at the rate of disappearance of tasks across key ways Mechanical Turk allows workers to sort tasks. Second, we present the results of a survey in which we pai...

  15. Interface Design Concepts in the Development of ELSA, an Intelligent Electronic Library Search Assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Rebecca; Smith, Philip J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes issues and advances in the design of appropriate inference engines and knowledge structures needed by commercially feasible intelligent intermediary systems for information retrieval. Issues associated with the design of interfaces to such functions are discussed in detail. Design principles for guiding implementation of these interfaces…

  16. Concepts of Interface Usability and the Enhancement of Design through Eye Tracking and Psychophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    alternative methods of user interface evaluation, which are psychophysiological in nature, such as biometrics and eyetracking . The biometrics covered...which are psychophysiological in nature, such as biometrics and eyetracking . The biometrics covered include heart rate, heart rate variability, and skin

  17. The Fundamentals Regarding the Usage of the Concept of Interface for the Modeling of the Software Artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Bocu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the conceptual foundations of a software system’s solution modelling activity, which is formally based on two essential concepts: the artefact and the interface. This  modelling activity envisions  two  objectives: the  explicit emphasis on the  interfaces’ importance in the software engineering, and the preparation of the  framework inside which  the  loop structure-behaviour can be formalized considering the inherent benefits for the  modelling activity in  general, and  for  the  modelling activity automation in particular.

  18. Applying systemic-structural activity theory to design of human-computer interaction systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bedny, Gregory Z; Bedny, Inna

    2015-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is an interdisciplinary field that has gained recognition as an important field in ergonomics. HCI draws on ideas and theoretical concepts from computer science, psychology, industrial design, and other fields. Human-Computer Interaction is no longer limited to trained software users. Today people interact with various devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and laptops. How can you make such interaction user friendly, even when user proficiency levels vary? This book explores methods for assessing the psychological complexity of computer-based tasks. It also p

  19. Improving the human-computer dialogue with increased temporal predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Florian; Haering, Carola; Thomaschke, Roland

    2013-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of length and variability of system response time (SRT) on user behavior and user experience (UX) in sequential computing tasks. Length is widely considered to be the most important aspect of SRTs in human-computer interaction. Research on temporal attention shows that humans adjust to temporal structures and that performance substantially improves with temporal predictability. Participants performed a sequential task with simulated office software. Duration and variability, that is, the number of different SRTs, was manipulated. Lower variability came at the expense of on average higher durations. User response times, task execution times, and failure rates were measured to assess user performance. UX was measured with a questionnaire. A reduction in variability improved user performance significantly. Whereas task load and failure rates remained constant, responses were significantly faster. Although a reduction in variability came along with, on average, increased SRTs, no difference in UX was found. Considering SRT variability when designing software can yield considerable performance benefits for the users. Although reduced variability comes at the expense of overall longer SRTs, the interface is not subjectively evaluated to be less satisfactory or demanding. Time design should aim not only at reducing average SRT length but also at finding the optimum balance of length and variability. Our findings can easily be applied in any user interface for sequential tasks. User performance can be improved without loss of satisfaction by selectively prolonging particular SRTs to reduce variability.

  20. User Interface Concepts for Mechanism Modelling in the RaMMS KBE System

    OpenAIRE

    Coward, Thor Christian

    2017-01-01

    By combining the principles of knowledge-based engineering (KBE) and concurrent engineering in the design process, repetitive tasks are reduced and design tasks are conducted simultaneously, enabling the engineer to explore a large design space early in the deign process, when the committed production costs are low. This thesis investigates the principles of KBE, concurrent engineering, mechanisms, the mechanism design process and user interface development. Rapid Mechanism Modelling System (...

  1. Heat and water transport in soils and across the soil-atmosphere interface: 1. Theory and different model concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Fetzer, Thomas; Mosthaf, Klaus; Smits, Kathleen M.; Helmig, Rainer

    2017-02-01

    Evaporation is an important component of the soil water balance. It is composed of water flow and transport processes in a porous medium that are coupled with heat fluxes and free air flow. This work provides a comprehensive review of model concepts used in different research fields to describe evaporation. Concepts range from nonisothermal two-phase flow, two-component transport in the porous medium that is coupled with one-phase flow, two-component transport in the free air flow to isothermal liquid water flow in the porous medium with upper boundary conditions defined by a potential evaporation flux when available energy and transfer to the free airflow are limiting or by a critical threshold water pressure when soil water availability is limiting. The latter approach corresponds with the classical Richards equation with mixed boundary conditions. We compare the different approaches on a theoretical level by identifying the underlying simplifications that are made for the different compartments of the system: porous medium, free flow and their interface, and by discussing how processes not explicitly considered are parameterized. Simplifications can be grouped into three sets depending on whether lateral variations in vertical fluxes are considered, whether flow and transport in the air phase in the porous medium are considered, and depending on how the interaction at the interface between the free flow and the porous medium is represented. The consequences of the simplifications are illustrated by numerical simulations in an accompanying paper.

  2. Early NACA human computers at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    The women of the Computer Department at NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station are shown busy with test flight calculations. The computers under the direction of Roxanah Yancey were responsible for accurate calculations on the research test flights made at the Station. There were no mechanical computers at the station in 1949, but data was reduced by human computers. Shown in this photograph starting at the left are: Geraldine Mayer and Mary (Tut) Hedgepeth with Friden calculators on the their desks; Emily Stephens conferring with engineer John Mayer; Gertrude (Trudy) Valentine is working on an oscillograph recording reducing the data from a flight. Across the desk is Dorothy Clift Hughes using a slide rule to complete data calculations. Roxanah Yancey completes the picture as she fills out engineering requests for further data.

  3. Development of a hand-gesture recognition system for human-computer interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Maqueda Nieto, Ana I.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this Master Thesis is the analysis, design and development of a robust and reliable Human-Computer Interaction interface, based on visual hand-gesture recognition. The implementation of the required functions is oriented to the simulation of a classical hardware interaction device: the mouse, by recognizing a specific hand-gesture vocabulary in color video sequences. For this purpose, a prototype of a hand-gesture recognition system has been designed and implemented, which is c...

  4. Service Design for Developing Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction for Smart Tvs

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Ming Wang; Cheih-Ju Huang

    2015-01-01

    A Smart TV integrates Internet and Web features into a TV, as well convergence between computer and TV and can utilize as a computer. Smart TV devices facilitate the curation of content by combining Internet-based information with content from TV providers. Many techniques, such as those that focus on speech, gestures, and eye movement, have been used to develop various human computer interfaces for Smart TVs. However, as suggested by several researchers, user scenarios and user experiences s...

  5. Global Survey of the Concepts and Understanding of the Interfaces Between Nuclear Safety, Security, and Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacic, Don N.; Stewart, Scott; Erickson, Alexa R.; Ford, Kerrie D.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-15

    There is increasing global discourse on how the elements of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards can be most effectively implemented in nuclear power programs. While each element is separate and unique, they must nevertheless all be addressed in a country’s laws and implemented via regulations and in facility operations. This topic is of particular interest to countries that are currently developing the infrastructure to support nuclear power programs. These countries want to better understand what is required by these elements and how they can manage the interfaces between them and take advantages of any synergies that may exist. They need practical examples and guidance in this area in order to develop better organizational strategies and technical capacities. This could simplify their legal, regulatory, and management structures and avoid inefficient approaches and costly mistakes that may not be apparent to them at this early stage of development. From the perspective of IAEA International Safeguards, supporting Member States in exploring such interfaces and synergies provides a benefit to them because it acknowledges that domestic safeguards in a country do not exist in a vacuum. Instead, it relies on a strong State System of Accounting and Control that is in turn dependent on a capable and independent regulatory body as well as a competent operator and technical staff. These organizations must account for and control nuclear material, communicate effectively, and manage and transmit complete and correct information to the IAEA in a timely manner. This, while in most cases also being responsible for the safety and security of their facilities. Seeking efficiencies in this process benefits international safeguards and nonproliferation. This paper will present the results of a global survey of current and anticipated approaches and practices by countries and organizations with current or future nuclear power programs on how they are implementing, or

  6. Team cohesion in intensive care nursing: at the interface of nurse self-concept and unit structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna; Li-Ying, Jason

    2017-01-01

    their teams as cohesive. A multi-source and multi-level study of approximately 140 nurses employed in 20 ICUs across Denmark demonstrates the critical role of self-concept in easing and enhancing the constraints workplaces impose on team cohesion. Furthermore, the study confirms the positive relationship....... In this study, we focus on the nursing group in intensive care units (ICU). Not researched, yet important for employee attitudes towards their workplaces and workgroups, is the interface between the characteristics of individual care providers and those of the teams and organizations in which they are employed....... This study examines the effects of three levels of self-concept– individual, relational, and collective–and ICU structural characteristics such as size (number of nurses), nurse training profile, and number of beds. These factors are investigated as they jointly shape the degree to which nurses perceive...

  7. Validation of a phase-mass characterization concept and interface for acoustic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, Yeison; García, José V; Jiménez, Yolanda; March, Carmen; Montoya, Angel; Arnau, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic wave resonator techniques are widely used in in-liquid biochemical applications. The main challenges remaining are the improvement of sensitivity and limit of detection, as well as multianalysis capabilities and reliability. The sensitivity improvement issue has been addressed by increasing the sensor frequency, using different techniques such as high fundamental frequency quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs), surface generated acoustic waves (SGAWs) and film bulk acoustic resonators (FBARs). However, this sensitivity improvement has not been completely matched in terms of limit of detection. The decrease on frequency stability due to the increase of the phase noise, particularly in oscillators, has made it impossible to increase the resolution. A new concept of sensor characterization at constant frequency has been recently proposed based on the phase/mass sensitivity equation: Δφ/Δm ≈ -1/m(L), where m(L) is the liquid mass perturbed by the resonator. The validation of the new concept is presented in this article. An immunosensor application for the detection of a low molecular weight pollutant, the insecticide carbaryl, has been chosen as a validation model.

  8. Human-Computer Interaction The Agency Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, José

    2012-01-01

    Agent-centric theories, approaches and technologies are contributing to enrich interactions between users and computers. This book aims at highlighting the influence of the agency perspective in Human-Computer Interaction through a careful selection of research contributions. Split into five sections; Users as Agents, Agents and Accessibility, Agents and Interactions, Agent-centric Paradigms and Approaches, and Collective Agents, the book covers a wealth of novel, original and fully updated material, offering:   ü  To provide a coherent, in depth, and timely material on the agency perspective in HCI ü  To offer an authoritative treatment of the subject matter presented by carefully selected authors ü  To offer a balanced and broad coverage of the subject area, including, human, organizational, social, as well as technological concerns. ü  To offer a hands-on-experience by covering representative case studies and offering essential design guidelines   The book will appeal to a broad audience of resea...

  9. Discoveries and developments in human-computer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes contributions made to the science and practice of human-computer interaction (HCI), primarily through Human Factors and the society's annual proceedings. Research in HCI began to appear in publications associated with the Society around 1980 and has continued through the present. A search of the literature appearing in either the journal or the proceedings was done to identify the specific contributions made by researchers in this area. More than 2,300 papers were identified, some comparing the actual or predicted performance of a new device, display format, or computer-based system with an existing or alternative system. Other work describes methods for evaluating systems performance. This work has had a tremendous impact, particularly the work of Fitts, Smith and Mosier, and Virzi. Work on HCI has contributed to (a) current national and international guidelines, (b) the development of user interface management systems, (c) the provision of guidance as to where best to invest resources when evaluating computing systems, and (d) the prediction of human performance using those systems.

  10. Selective visual attention to drive cognitive brain machine interfaces: from concepts to neurofeedback and rehabilitation applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine eAstrand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI using motor cortical activity to drive an external effector like a screen cursor or a robotic arm have seen enormous success and proven their great rehabilitation potential. An emerging parallel effort is now directed to BMIs controlled by endogenous cognitive activity, also called cognitive BMIs. While more challenging, this approach opens new dimensions to the rehabilitation of cognitive disorders. In the present work, we focus on BMIs driven by visuospatial attention signals and we provide a critical review of these studies in the light of the accumulated knowledge about the psychophysics, anatomy and neurophysiology of visual spatial attention. Importantly, we provide a unique comparative overview of the several studies, ranging from noninvasive to invasive human and non-human primates studies, that decode attention-related information from ongoing neuronal activity. We discuss these studies in the light of the challenges attention-driven cognitive BMIs have to face. In a second part of the review, we discuss past and current attention-based neurofeedback studies, describing both the covert effects of neurofeedback onto neuronal activity and its overt behavioral effects. Importantly, we compare neurofeedback studies based on the amplitude of cortical activity to studies based on the enhancement of cortical information content. Last, we discuss several lines of future research and applications for attention-driven cognitive BCIs, including the rehabilitation of cognitive deficits, restored communication in locked-in patients, and open-field applications for enhanced cognition in normal subjects. The core motivation of this work is the key idea that the improvement of current cognitive BMIs for therapeutic and open field applications needs to be grounded in a proper interdisciplinary understanding of the physiology of the cognitive function of interest, be it spatial attention, working memory or any other

  11. On the need to better specify the concept of control in brain-computer-interfaces/neurofeedback research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eWood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at a better specification of the concept of control in brain-computer-interfaces (BCI and neurofeedback research, we propose to distinguish self-control of brain activity from the broader concept of BCI control, since the first describes a neurocognitive phenomenon and is only one of the many components of BCI control. Based on this distinction, we developed a framework based on dual-processes theory that describes the cognitive determinants of self-control of brain activity as the interplay of automatic vs. controlled information processing. Further, we distinguish between cognitive processes that are necessary and sufficient to achieve a given level of self-control of brain activity and those which are not. We discuss that those cognitive processes which are not necessary for the learning process can hamper self-control because they cannot be completely turned-off at any time. This framework aims at a comprehensive description of the cognitive determinants of the acquisition of self-control of brain activity underlying those classes of BCI which require the user to achieve regulation of brain activity as well as neurofeedback learning.

  12. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...... and early visionaries such as Bush, Engelbart and Kay. With the User Interface being a decisive factor in the proliferation of computers in society and since it has become a cultural phenomenon, it is time to paint a more comprehensive picture of its history. This SIG will investigate the possibilities...... of  launching a concerted effort towards creating a History of User Interfaces. ...

  13. An overview of a decade of journal publications about Culture and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    OpenAIRE

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Roese, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we analyze the concept of human-computer interaction in cultural and national contexts. Building and extending upon the framework for understanding research in usability and culture by Honold [3], we give an overview of publications in culture and HCI between 1998 and 2008, with a narrow focus on high-level journal publications only. The purpose is to review current practice in how cultural HCI issues are studied, and to analyse problems with the measure...

  14. AFFECTIVE AND EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION: Game-Based and Innovative Learning Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Askim GULUMBAY, Anadolu University, TURKEY

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computersupported learning and human-computer interactions.Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cognitive sciences, various aspects of communication and human computer interaction, interface design andcomputer science on one hand and educators and game industry on the other, this should open gates to evolutionary changes of the learning industry. The major topics discussed are emotions, motivation, games and game-experience.

  15. Human Computation An Integrated Approach to Learning from the Crowd

    CERN Document Server

    Law, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Human computation is a new and evolving research area that centers around harnessing human intelligence to solve computational problems that are beyond the scope of existing Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms. With the growth of the Web, human computation systems can now leverage the abilities of an unprecedented number of people via the Web to perform complex computation. There are various genres of human computation applications that exist today. Games with a purpose (e.g., the ESP Game) specifically target online gamers who generate useful data (e.g., image tags) while playing an enjoy

  16. Playful Interfaces: Introduction and History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this short survey we have some historical notes about human-computer interface development with an emphasis on interface technology that has allowed us to design playful interactions with applications. The applications do not necessarily have to be entertainment applications. We can have playful

  17. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  18. Mobile human-computer interaction perspective on mobile learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying a Mobile Human Computer Interaction (MHCI) view to the domain of education using Mobile Learning (Mlearning), the research outlines its understanding of the influences and effects of different interactions on the use of mobile technology...

  19. Interface solutions for interface side effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffregen Thomas A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-computer interfaces often give rise to a variety of side effects, including eyestrain, headache, fatigue, and motion sickness (aka cybersickness, simulator sickness. We might hope that improvements in interface design would tend to reduce these side effects. Unfortunately, history reveals just the opposite: The incidence and severity of motion sickness (for example is positively related to the progressive sophistication of display technology and systems. In this presentation, I enquire about the future of interface technologies in relation to side effects. I review the types of side effects that occur and what is known about the causes of interface side effects. I suggest new ways of understanding relations between interface technologies and side effects, and new ways to approach the problem of interface side effects.

  20. Natural user interface based on gestures recognition using Leap Motion sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. Sousa; J. Monteiro; P.J.S. Cardoso; J.M.F. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Natural User Interface (NUI) is a term used for human-computer interfaces where the interface is invisible or becomes invisible after successive user-immersion levels, it is typically based on the human nature or human natural elements...

  1. Cognitive engineering models: A prerequisite to the design of human-computer interaction in complex dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter examines a class of human-computer interaction applications, specifically the design of human-computer interaction for the operators of complex systems. Such systems include space systems (e.g., manned systems such as the Shuttle or space station, and unmanned systems such as NASA scientific satellites), aviation systems (e.g., the flight deck of 'glass cockpit' airplanes or air traffic control) and industrial systems (e.g., power plants, telephone networks, and sophisticated, e.g., 'lights out,' manufacturing facilities). The main body of human-computer interaction (HCI) research complements but does not directly address the primary issues involved in human-computer interaction design for operators of complex systems. Interfaces to complex systems are somewhat special. The 'user' in such systems - i.e., the human operator responsible for safe and effective system operation - is highly skilled, someone who in human-machine systems engineering is sometimes characterized as 'well trained, well motivated'. The 'job' or task context is paramount and, thus, human-computer interaction is subordinate to human job interaction. The design of human interaction with complex systems, i.e., the design of human job interaction, is sometimes called cognitive engineering.

  2. Advancements in remote physiological measurement and applications in human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Physiological signals are important for tracking health and emotional states. Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is a set of techniques for remotely recovering cardio-pulmonary signals from video of the human body. Advances in iPPG methods over the past decade combined with the ubiquity of digital cameras presents the possibility for many new, lowcost applications of physiological monitoring. This talk will highlight methods for recovering physiological signals, work characterizing the impact of video parameters and hardware on these measurements, and applications of this technology in human-computer interfaces.

  3. Multi-gas interaction modeling on decorated semiconductor interfaces: A novel Fermi distribution-based response isotherm and the inverse hard/soft acid/base concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laminack, William [Department of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Gole, James, E-mail: James.Gole@physics.gatech.edu [Department of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Visual representation of the PS interface interacting with mixed gas configurations. The red dots correspond to nanostructured metal oxides. Each combination of distinct molecules are labeled below the pores, which are oversized in the figure. - Highlights: • First study of mixed gas analytes interacting with a micro-porous silicon substrate. • Responses are represented by a newly developed response absorption isotherm. • This isotherm is modeled on the basis of the Fermi distribution function. • The developing IHSAB concept explains multi-gas analyte–analyte interactions. - Abstract: A unique MEMS/NEMS approach is presented for the modeling of a detection platform for mixed gas interactions. Mixed gas analytes interact with nanostructured decorating metal oxide island sites supported on a microporous silicon substrate. The Inverse Hard/Soft acid/base (IHSAB) concept is used to assess a diversity of conductometric responses for mixed gas interactions as a function of these nanostructured metal oxides. The analyte conductometric responses are well represented using a combination diffusion/absorption-based model for multi-gas interactions where a newly developed response absorption isotherm, based on the Fermi distribution function is applied. A further coupling of this model with the IHSAB concept describes the considerations in modeling of multi-gas mixed analyte–interface, and analyte–analyte interactions. Taking into account the molecular electronic interaction of both the analytes with each other and an extrinsic semiconductor interface we demonstrate how the presence of one gas can enhance or diminish the reversible interaction of a second gas with the extrinsic semiconductor interface. These concepts demonstrate important considerations in the array-based formats for multi-gas sensing and its applications.

  4. Human-computer interaction and management information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Galletta, Dennis F

    2014-01-01

    ""Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems: Applications"" offers state-of-the-art research by a distinguished set of authors who span the MIS and HCI fields. The original chapters provide authoritative commentaries and in-depth descriptions of research programs that will guide 21st century scholars, graduate students, and industry professionals. Human-Computer Interaction (or Human Factors) in MIS is concerned with the ways humans interact with information, technologies, and tasks, especially in business, managerial, organizational, and cultural contexts. It is distinctiv

  5. Making intelligent systems team players: Case studies and design issues. Volume 1: Human-computer interaction design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Woods, David D.; Potter, Scott S.; Johannesen, Leila; Holloway, Matthew; Forbus, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Initial results are reported from a multi-year, interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. The objective is to achieve more effective human-computer interaction (HCI) for systems with real time fault management capabilities. Intelligent fault management systems within the NASA were evaluated for insight into the design of systems with complex HCI. Preliminary results include: (1) a description of real time fault management in aerospace domains; (2) recommendations and examples for improving intelligent systems design and user interface design; (3) identification of issues requiring further research; and (4) recommendations for a development methodology integrating HCI design into intelligent system design.

  6. What Do IT-People Know About the (Nordic) History of Computers and User Interfaces?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2009-01-01

    :  This paper reports a preliminary, empirical exploration of what IT-people know about the history of computers and user interfaces.  The principal motivation for the study is that the younger generations such as students in IT seem to know very little about these topics.  The study employed...... and researchers seems heavily based on personal experience so that the researchers know much more about the earlier days of computing and interfaces.  Thirdly, there is a tendency amongst the students to conceptualize the history of computers in interface features and concepts.  Hence, the interface seems...... to become the designation or even the icon for the computer.  In other words, one of the key focal points in the area of human-computer interaction: to make the computer as such invisible seems to have been successful...

  7. Measuring Multimodal Synchrony for Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    England, D.; Reidsma, Dennis; Sheridan, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Crane, B.; Tschacher, Wolfgang; Ramseyer, Fabian

    Nonverbal synchrony is an important element in human-human interaction. It can also play various roles in human-computer interaction. This paper surveys some of these uses, and presents a quantitative method for measuring the level of nonverbal synchrony in an interaction.

  8. Measuring Multimodal Synchrony for Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Tschacher, Wolfgang; Ramseyer, Fabian; Sourin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nonverbal synchrony is an important and natural element in human-human interaction. It can also play various roles in human-computer interaction. In particular this is the case in the interaction between humans and the virtual humans that inhabit our cyberworlds. Virtual humans need to adapt their

  9. Humans, computers and wizards human (simulated) computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Norman; McGlashan, Scott; Wooffitt, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Using data taken from a major European Union funded project on speech understanding, the SunDial project, this book considers current perspectives on human computer interaction and argues for the value of an approach taken from sociology which is based on conversation analysis.

  10. New Theoretical Approaches for Human-Computer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    Presents a critique of recent theoretical developments in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) together with an overview of HCI practice. This chapter discusses why theoretically based approaches have had little impact on the practice of interaction design and suggests mechanisms to enable designers and researchers to better articulate…

  11. The epistemology and ontology of human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes epistemological and ontological dimensions of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) through an analysis of the functions of computer systems in relation to their users. It is argued that the primary relation between humans and computer systems has historically been epistemic:

  12. Human Computing and Machine Understanding of Human Behavior: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Pentland, Alex; Nijholt, Antinus; Huang, Thomas; Quek, F.; Yang, Yie

    2006-01-01

    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing, which we will call human computing, should

  13. Exploring Dynamic User–Interface in Achieving Software Application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Software applications are explored for any desired operation through their various interfaces. User-interface is a term synonymous with computer ergonomics which is concerned with the human-computer interface. Dynamic user-interface ensures an evolving technology that harmonizes and aligns the links ...

  14. An open and flexible interface proposal and proof of concept implementation to support service orientated architectures and interoperability in the tactical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    The development of SOAs in the tactical domain has been hindered by a lack of interface standards suitable for the environment of unpredictable and low bandwidth communications, low powered computers and dynamic ad-hoc grouping of tactical participants. Existing commercial SOA standards have assumed reliable access to central servers and services and having relatively static participants. The proposal describes an open and published message-oriented interface created to support the aims of the upcoming MOD Generic Base Architecture1 (GBA) Defence Standard and the associated Land Open Systems Architecture2. The aims are; a) to support multiple open transport protocols, such as HTTP, SMTP, DDS and MQTT; b) to be suitable for integrating together low-level utility functions with their controlling systems (such as water, waste and power) and integrating together high-level mission-support functions (such as ISTAR and C2); c) reduce operator burden by using automated discovery and configuration where possible; d) dynamically integrate with MOD Generic Vehicle Architecture3 platforms to link base and vehicle mission and logistics systems over tactical radio links; e) extensible to support features such as security classification; f) to be lightweight in implementation and bandwidth and not dependent on central servers for operation. The paper will present the proposed interface and describe the features required for a military tactical rather than a commercial environment, and will report the outcome of a MOD-funded proof of concept that uses the proposed interface to interoperate several military systems.

  15. Basic concepts and development of an all-purpose computer interface for ROC/FROC observer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Hara, Takeshi; Abe, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we initially investigated various aspects of requirements for a computer interface employed in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and free-response ROC (FROC) observer studies which involve digital images and ratings obtained by observers (radiologists). Secondly, by taking into account these aspects, an all-purpose computer interface utilized for these observer performance studies was developed. Basically, the observer studies can be classified into three paradigms, such as one rating for one case without an identification of a signal location, one rating for one case with an identification of a signal location, and multiple ratings for one case with identification of signal locations. For these paradigms, display modes on the computer interface can be used for single/multiple views of a static image, continuous viewing with cascade images (i.e., CT, MRI), and dynamic viewing of movies (i.e., DSA, ultrasound). Various functions on these display modes, which include windowing (contrast/level), magnifications, and annotations, are needed to be selected by an experimenter corresponding to the purpose of the research. In addition, the rules of judgment for distinguishing between true positives and false positives are an important factor for estimating diagnostic accuracy in an observer study. We developed a computer interface which runs on a Windows operating system by taking into account all aspects required for various observer studies. This computer interface requires experimenters to have sufficient knowledge about ROC/FROC observer studies, but allows its use for any purpose of the observer studies. This computer interface will be distributed publicly in the near future.

  16. Effects on driving performance of interacting with an in-vehicle music player: a comparison of three interface layout concepts for information presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Eve; Trotter, Margaret J; Lenné, Michael G

    2011-05-01

    Interface design is an important factor in assessing the potential effects on safety of interacting with an in-vehicle information system while driving. In the current study, the layout of information on a visual display was manipulated to explore its effect on driving performance in the context of music selection. The comparative effects of an auditory-verbal (cognitive) task were also explored. The driving performance of 30 participants was assessed under both baseline and dual task conditions using the Lane Change Test. Concurrent completion of the music selection task with driving resulted in significant impairment to lateral driving performance (mean lane deviation and percentage of correct lane changes) relative to the baseline, and significantly greater mean lane deviation relative to the combined driving and the cognitive task condition. The magnitude of these effects on driving performance was independent of layout concept, although significant differences in subjective workload estimates and performance on the music selection task across layout concepts highlights that potential uncertainty regarding design use as conveyed through layout concept could be disadvantageous. The implications of these results for interface design and safety are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. After Rigid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troiano, Giovanni Maria

    Deformable and shape-changing interfaces are rapidly emerging in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Deformable interfaces provide users with newer input possibilities such as bending, squeezing, or stretching, which were impossible to achieve with rigid interfaces. Shape...... sensors in the five preferred objects and programmed them for controlling sounds with computer software. Finally, we ran a performance study where six musicians performed music with deformable interfaces at their studios. Results from the performance study show that musicians systematically map......, Transformation, Adaptation and Physicalization. In synthesis, the work presented in this thesis shows (1) implications of usefulness for deformable interfaces and how their new input modalities can redefine the way users interact with computers, and (2) how a systematic understanding of conventional design...

  18. Human-computer interaction requirements for abnormal situation management in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soken, N.; Bullemer, P.; Ramanathan, P.; Reinhart, W. [Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Honeywell Technology Center

    1995-10-01

    Honeywell is leading a multiyear effort to identify the causes of and propose solutions for abnormal situations in industrial processes. The authors define abnormal situations as those that necessitate human intervention because the automated distributed control system (DCS) cannot maintain the plant in an appropriate operating state. These situations are clearly of concern in the process industry because of their impact on revenues, human safety, and the environment. Interactions between the DCS and operating personnel are critical to mitigating abnormal situations in chemical plants. With the collaboration of major petrochemical and oil refining industries, Honeywell conducted on-site evaluations of the operating environments of various types of processes. Through this effort they identified process, equipment, people, and work context factors that contribute to abnormal situations. This paper describes human-computer interaction solution requirements based on the on-site plant evaluations. The results are discussed in terms of improvements to human-computer interactions and user interfaces and enhancements to conventional computer-based DCSs.

  19. Interface design for digital courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, H.; Kester, L.; Hummel, H.; Nadolski, R.; Jochems, W.; Merriënboer, J.; Koper, R.

    2003-01-01

    An important question in web-based education is how to deal with the design of the interface. What will the actual screen look like? Two main issues that are especially relevant for educational purposes are discussed, both from a Human-Computer Interaction and an Educational Psychology perspective.

  20. Speech Dialogue with Facial Displays Multimodal Human-Computer Conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, K; Nagao, Katashi; Takeuchi, Akikazu

    1994-01-01

    Human face-to-face conversation is an ideal model for human-computer dialogue. One of the major features of face-to-face communication is its multiplicity of communication channels that act on multiple modalities. To realize a natural multimodal dialogue, it is necessary to study how humans perceive information and determine the information to which humans are sensitive. A face is an independent communication channel that conveys emotional and conversational signals, encoded as facial expressions. We have developed an experimental system that integrates speech dialogue and facial animation, to investigate the effect of introducing communicative facial expressions as a new modality in human-computer conversation. Our experiments have shown that facial expressions are helpful, especially upon first contact with the system. We have also discovered that featuring facial expressions at an early stage improves subsequent interaction.

  1. An Architectural Experience for Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of human-computer interface design was brought to the foreground with the emergence of the personal computer, the increasing complexity of electronic systems, and the need to accommodate the human operator in these systems. With each new technological generation discovering the interface design problems of its own technologies, initial…

  2. HERITAGE: the concept of a giant flux neutron reflectometer for the exploration of 3-d structure of free-liquid and solid interfaces in thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattauch, S., E-mail: s.mattauch@fz-juelich.de [JCNS at MLZ, Forschungszentrum-Jülich GmbH, 85747 Garching (Germany); Ioffe, A. [JCNS at MLZ, Forschungszentrum-Jülich GmbH, 85747 Garching (Germany); Lott, D. [Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Bottyán, L. [Wigner Research Center for Physics, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Daillant, J. [Synchrotron Soleil L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, BP 48 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Markó, M. [Wigner Research Center for Physics, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Menelle, A. [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin CEA/CNRS, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Sajti, S.; Veres, T. [Wigner Research Center for Physics, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-01-01

    The instrumental concept of HERITAGE – a reflectometer with a horizontal sample geometry – well fitted to the long pulse structure of a neutron source is presented. It is constitutes a new class of reflectometers achieving the unprecedentedly high flux for classical specular reflectometry combined with off-specular reflectometry and grazing incidence small-angle scattering (GISANS), thus resulting in a complete 3-d exploration of lateral and in depth structures in thin films. This is achieved by specially designed neutron guides. In the horizontal direction (perpendicular to the scattering plane) the guide's elliptic shape focusses the neutrons onto the sample. In the vertical direction a multichannel geometry provides a smooth divergence distribution at the sample position while accepting the entire beam from a compact high-brilliance flat moderator. The modular collimation setup of HERITAGE provides extremely high flexibility in respect to sample geometries and environments, including the possibility to study virtually all types of solid and liquid interfaces, statically or kinetically. The use of multiple beam illumination allows for reflectivity and GISANS measurements at liquid interfaces both from above and below without a need to move the sample. This concept assures the delivery of the maximum possible and usable flux to the sample in both reflectivity and GISANS measurement regimes. The presented design outperforms the flux of all present-day and already for the ESS planned reflectometers and GISANS setups in flux and in measuring time for standard samples.

  3. Body-Machine Interface Enables People With Cervical Spinal Cord Injury to Control Devices With Available Body Movements: Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Farnaz; Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Pierella, Camilla; Seáñez-González, Ismael; Thorp, Elias; Lee, Mei-Hua; Ranganathan, Rajiv; Pedersen, Jessica; Chen, David; Roth, Elliot; Casadio, Maura; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando

    2017-05-01

    This study tested the use of a customized body-machine interface (BoMI) for enhancing functional capabilities in persons with cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI). The interface allows people with cSCI to operate external devices by reorganizing their residual movements. This was a proof-of-concept phase 0 interventional nonrandomized clinical trial. Eight cSCI participants wore a custom-made garment with motion sensors placed on the shoulders. Signals derived from the sensors controlled a computer cursor. A standard algorithm extracted the combinations of sensor signals that best captured each participant's capacity for controlling a computer cursor. Participants practiced with the BoMI for 24 sessions over 12 weeks performing 3 tasks: reaching, typing, and game playing. Learning and performance were evaluated by the evolution of movement time, errors, smoothness, and performance metrics specific to each task. Through practice, participants were able to reduce the movement time and the distance from the target at the 1-second mark in the reaching task. They also made straighter and smoother movements while reaching to different targets. All participants became faster in the typing task and more skilled in game playing, as the pong hit rate increased significantly with practice. The results provide proof-of-concept for the customized BoMI as a means for people with absent or severely impaired hand movements to control assistive devices that otherwise would be manually operated.

  4. Prototyping the graphical user interface for the operator of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, I.; Oya, I.; Schwarz, J.; Pietriga, E.

    2016-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a planned gamma-ray observatory. CTA will incorporate about 100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) at a Southern site, and about 20 in the North. Previous IACT experiments have used up to five telescopes. Subsequently, the design of a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operator of CTA involves new challenges. We present a GUI prototype, the concept for which is being developed in collaboration with experts from the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). The prototype is based on Web technology; it incorporates a Python web server, Web Sockets and graphics generated with the d3.js Javascript library.

  5. Heat and water transport in soils and across the soil-atmosphere interface: 1. Theory and different model concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Fetzer, Thomas; Mosthaf, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Evaporation is an important component of the soil water balance. It is composed of water flow and transport processes in a porous medium that are coupled with heat fluxes and free air flow. This work provides a comprehensive review of model concepts used in different research fields to describe...... flux when available energy and transfer to the free airflow are limiting or by a critical threshold water pressure when soil water availability is limiting. The latter approach corresponds with the classical Richards equation with mixed boundary conditions. We compare the different approaches...... evaporation. Concepts range from nonisothermal two-phase flow, two-component transport in the porous medium that is coupled with one-phase flow, two-component transport in the free air flow to isothermal liquid water flow in the porous medium with upper boundary conditions defined by a potential evaporation...

  6. Heat and water transport in soils and across the soil-atmosphere interface: 1. Theory and different model concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Fetzer, Thomas; Mosthaf, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Evaporation is an important component of the soil water balance. It is composed of water flow and transport processes in a porous medium that are coupled with heat fluxes and free air flow. This work provides a comprehensive review of model concepts used in different research fields to describe...... evaporation. Concepts range from nonisothermal two-phase flow, two-component transport in the porous medium that is coupled with one-phase flow, two-component transport in the free air flow to isothermal liquid water flow in the porous medium with upper boundary conditions defined by a potential evaporation...... flux when available energy and transfer to the free airflow are limiting or by a critical threshold water pressure when soil water availability is limiting. The latter approach corresponds with the classical Richards equation with mixed boundary conditions. We compare the different approaches...

  7. Psychological Dimensions of User-Computer Interfaces. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionini, Gary

    This digest highlights several psychological dimensions of user-computer interfaces. First, the psychological theory behind interface design and the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) are discussed. Two psychological models, the information processing model of cognition and the mental model--both of which contribute to interface design--are…

  8. Human-computer systems interaction backgrounds and applications 3

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikowski, Juliusz; Mroczek, Teresa; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    This book contains an interesting and state-of the art collection of papers on the recent progress in Human-Computer System Interaction (H-CSI). It contributes the profound description of the actual status of the H-CSI field and also provides a solid base for further development and research in the discussed area. The contents of the book are divided into the following parts: I. General human-system interaction problems; II. Health monitoring and disabled people helping systems; and III. Various information processing systems. This book is intended for a wide audience of readers who are not necessarily experts in computer science, machine learning or knowledge engineering, but are interested in Human-Computer Systems Interaction. The level of particular papers and specific spreading-out into particular parts is a reason why this volume makes fascinating reading. This gives the reader a much deeper insight than he/she might glean from research papers or talks at conferences. It touches on all deep issues that ...

  9. Safety Metrics for Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy G; Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems.This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  10. An Overview of a Decade of Journal Publications about Culture and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Roese, Kerstin

    In this paper, we analyze the concept of human-computer interaction in cultural and national contexts. Building and extending upon the framework for understanding research in usability and culture by Honold [3], we give an overview of publications in culture and HCI between 1998 and 2008, with a narrow focus on high-level journal publications only. The purpose is to review current practice in how cultural HCI issues are studied, and to analyse problems with the measures and interpretation of this studies. We find that Hofstede's cultural dimensions has been the dominating model of culture, participants have been picked because they could speak English, and most studies have been large scale quantitative studies. In order to balance this situation, we recommend that more researchers and practitioners do qualitative, empirical work studies.

  11. Team cohesion in intensive care nursing: at the interface of nurse self-concept and unit structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna; Li-Ying, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Team cohesion is a critical factor in the provision of high-quality care, yet its antecedents remain understudied, particularly in the context of some healthcare professional groups where structural and individual constraints coexist, and demand for high quality performance is prevailing. In this......Team cohesion is a critical factor in the provision of high-quality care, yet its antecedents remain understudied, particularly in the context of some healthcare professional groups where structural and individual constraints coexist, and demand for high quality performance is prevailing....... In this study, we focus on the nursing group in intensive care units (ICU). Not researched, yet important for employee attitudes towards their workplaces and workgroups, is the interface between the characteristics of individual care providers and those of the teams and organizations in which they are employed....... This study examines the effects of three levels of self-concept– individual, relational, and collective–and ICU structural characteristics such as size (number of nurses), nurse training profile, and number of beds. These factors are investigated as they jointly shape the degree to which nurses perceive...

  12. BEYOND INTEGRATED SYSTEM VALIDATION: USE OF A CONTROL ROOM TRAINING SIMULATOR FOR PROOF-OF-CONCEPT INTERFACE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Boring; Vivek Agarwal

    2012-07-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plants in the US. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  13. Heat and Water Transport in Soils and Across the Soil-Atmosphere Interface: Comparison of Model Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Smits, Kathleen; Mosthaf, Klaus

    Evaporation from the soil surface represents a water flow and transport process in a porous medium that is coupled with free air flow and with heat fluxes in the system. We give an overview of different model concepts that are used to describe this process. These range from non-isothermal two......-phase flow two-component transport in the porous medium that is coupled with one-phase flow two-component transport in the free air to isothermal water flow in the porous with upper boundary conditions defined by a potential evaporation flux when available energy and transfer to the free air flow...... are limiting or by a critical threshold water pressure when soil water availability is limiting. The latter approach corresponds with the classical Richards equation with mixed boundary conditions. We formulated the different equations and identified assumptions behind simplified forms. Conditions for which...

  14. How should Fitts' Law be applied to human-computer interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, D. J.; Holden, K.; Adam, S.; Rudisill, M.; Magee, L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper challenges the notion that any Fitts' Law model can be applied generally to human-computer interaction, and proposes instead that applying Fitts' Law requires knowledge of the users' sequence of movements, direction of movement, and typical movement amplitudes as well as target sizes. Two experiments examined a text selection task with sequences of controlled movements (point-click and point-drag). For the point-click sequence, a Fitts' Law model that used the diagonal across the text object in the direction of pointing (rather than the horizontal extent of the text object) as the target size provided the best fit for the pointing time data, whereas for the point-drag sequence, a Fitts' Law model that used the vertical size of the text object as the target size gave the best fit. Dragging times were fitted well by Fitts' Law models that used either the vertical or horizontal size of the terminal character in the text object. Additional results of note were that pointing in the point-click sequence was consistently faster than in the point-drag sequence, and that pointing in either sequence was consistently faster than dragging. The discussion centres around the need to define task characteristics before applying Fitts' Law to an interface design or analysis, analyses of pointing and of dragging, and implications for interface design.

  15. Designing end-user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, N

    1988-01-01

    Designing End-User Interfaces: State of the Art Report focuses on the field of human/computer interaction (HCI) that reviews the design of end-user interfaces.This compilation is divided into two parts. Part I examines specific aspects of the problem in HCI that range from basic definitions of the problem, evaluation of how to look at the problem domain, and fundamental work aimed at introducing human factors into all aspects of the design cycle. Part II consists of six main topics-definition of the problem, psychological and social factors, principles of interface design, computer intelligenc

  16. Practical speech user interface design

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, James R

    2010-01-01

    Although speech is the most natural form of communication between humans, most people find using speech to communicate with machines anything but natural. Drawing from psychology, human-computer interaction, linguistics, and communication theory, Practical Speech User Interface Design provides a comprehensive yet concise survey of practical speech user interface (SUI) design. It offers practice-based and research-based guidance on how to design effective, efficient, and pleasant speech applications that people can really use. Focusing on the design of speech user interfaces for IVR application

  17. A Review and Reappraisal of Adaptive Human-Computer Interfaces in Complex Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report was...concentrating. ABI was used to operate two brain-actuated devices: a virtual keyboard and a mobile robot (emulating a motorized wheelchair ). The brain

  18. Modeling strategic use of human computer interfaces with novel hidden Markov models

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano, Laura J.; Poore, Joshua C.; Krum, David M.; Schwartz, Jana L.; Coskren, William D.; Jones, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Immersive software tools are virtual environments designed to give their users an augmented view of real-world data and ways of manipulating that data. As virtual environments, every action users make while interacting with these tools can be carefully logged, as can the state of the software and the information it presents to the user, giving these actions context. This data provides a high-resolution lens through which dynamic cognitive and behavioral processes can be viewed. In this repor...

  19. Using minimal human-computer interfaces for studying the interactive development of social awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Froese, Tom; Iizuka, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    .... Similarly, social perception is theorized to be primarily constituted by skillful engagement between people, which implies that it is possible to investigate the origins and development of social...

  20. Brain-Computer Interfaces. Applying our Minds to Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    For generations, humans have fantasized about the ability to create devices that can see into a person’s mind and thoughts, or to communicate and interact with machines through thought alone. Such ideas have long captured the imagination of humankind in the form of ancient myths and modern science

  1. The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Christine

    2011-06-01

    In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections.

  2. The computer graphics interface

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrugge Chauveau, Karla; Niles Reed, Theodore; Shepherd, B

    2014-01-01

    The Computer Graphics Interface provides a concise discussion of computer graphics interface (CGI) standards. The title is comprised of seven chapters that cover the concepts of the CGI standard. Figures and examples are also included. The first chapter provides a general overview of CGI; this chapter covers graphics standards, functional specifications, and syntactic interfaces. Next, the book discusses the basic concepts of CGI, such as inquiry, profiles, and registration. The third chapter covers the CGI concepts and functions, while the fourth chapter deals with the concept of graphic obje

  3. Combining Natural Human-Computer Interaction and Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Gheorghe PENTIUC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present how human-computer interaction can be improved by using wireless communication between devices. Devices that offer a natural user interaction, like the Microsoft Surface Table and tablet PCs, can work together to enhance the experience of an application. Users can use physical objects for a more natural way of handling the virtual world on one hand, and interact with other users wirelessly connected on the other. Physical objects, that interact with the surface table, have a tag attached to them, allowing us to identify them, and take the required action. The TCP/IP protocol was used to handle the wireless communication over the wireless network. A server and a client application were developed for the used devices. To get a wide range of targeted mobile devices, different frameworks for developing cross platform applications were analyzed.

  4. Theater Battle Management (TBM) Human Computer Interaction (HCI) Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    1801 MIL-STD-1801, User/Computer Interface ESD-TR ESD-TR-86-278, Guidelines for Designing User Interface Software MSG Motif™ Style Guide DODHS DODES...the primary means of user-computer interaction. Source: MSG, DODHS , DODSG, JMCIS 2. The keyboard is available for performing most operations...primarily as a backup. Source: MSG, DODHS , DODSG, JMCIS 3. All operations in Table 2-1 except range selection in text are available from keyboard. Source

  5. Through the Interface - a human activity approach to user interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    In providing a theoretical framework for understanding human- computer interaction as well as design of user interfaces, this book combines elements of anthropology, psychology, cognitive science, software engineering, and computer science. The framework examines the everyday work practices...... of users when analyzing and designing computer applications. The text advocates the unique theory that computer application design is fundamentally a collective activity in which the various practices of the participants meet in a process of mutual learning....

  6. The Past, Present and Future of Human Computer Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Churchill, Elizabeth

    2018-01-16

    Human Computer Interaction (HCI) focuses on how people interact with, and are transformed by computation. Our current technology landscape is changing rapidly. Interactive applications, devices and services are increasingly becoming embedded into our environments. From our homes to the urban and rural spaces, we traverse everyday. We are increasingly able toヨoften required toヨmanage and configure multiple, interconnected devices and program their interactions. Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are being used to create dynamic services that learn about us and others, that make conclusions about our intents and affiliations, and that mould our digital interactions based in predictions about our actions and needs, nudging us toward certain behaviors. Computation is also increasingly embedded into our bodies. Understanding human interactions in the everyday digital and physical context. During this lecture, Elizabeth Churchill -Director of User Experience at Google- will talk about how an emerging landscape invites us to revisit old methods and tactics for understanding how people interact with computers and computation, and how it challenges us to think about new methods and frameworks for understanding the future of human-centered computation.

  7. Institutionalizing human-computer interaction for global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliksen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Digitalization is the societal change process in which new ICT-based solutions bring forward completely new ways of doing things, new businesses and new movements in the society. Digitalization also provides completely new ways of addressing issues related to global health. This paper provides an overview of the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and in what way the field has contributed to international development in different regions of the world. Additionally, it outlines the United Nations’ new sustainability goals from December 2015 and what these could contribute to the development of global health and its relationship to digitalization. Finally, it argues why and how HCI could be adopted and adapted to fit the contextual needs, the need for localization and for the development of new digital innovations. The research methodology is mostly qualitative following an action research paradigm in which the actual change process that the digitalization is evoking is equally important as the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. In conclusion, the paper argues that digitalization is fundamentally changing the society through the development and use of digital technologies and may have a profound effect on the digital development of every country in the world. But it needs to be developed based on local practices, it needs international support and to not be limited by any technological constraints. Particularly digitalization to support global health requires a profound understanding of the users and their context, arguing for user-centred systems design methodologies as particularly suitable. PMID:28838309

  8. Institutionalizing human-computer interaction for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliksen, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Digitalization is the societal change process in which new ICT-based solutions bring forward completely new ways of doing things, new businesses and new movements in the society. Digitalization also provides completely new ways of addressing issues related to global health. This paper provides an overview of the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and in what way the field has contributed to international development in different regions of the world. Additionally, it outlines the United Nations' new sustainability goals from December 2015 and what these could contribute to the development of global health and its relationship to digitalization. Finally, it argues why and how HCI could be adopted and adapted to fit the contextual needs, the need for localization and for the development of new digital innovations. The research methodology is mostly qualitative following an action research paradigm in which the actual change process that the digitalization is evoking is equally important as the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. In conclusion, the paper argues that digitalization is fundamentally changing the society through the development and use of digital technologies and may have a profound effect on the digital development of every country in the world. But it needs to be developed based on local practices, it needs international support and to not be limited by any technological constraints. Particularly digitalization to support global health requires a profound understanding of the users and their context, arguing for user-centred systems design methodologies as particularly suitable.

  9. Human-Computer Interaction with Medical Decisions Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf, Jurine A.; Holden, Kritina L.

    1994-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been available to medical diagnosticians for some time, yet their acceptance and use have not increased with advances in technology and availability of DSS tools. Medical DSSs will be necessary on future long duration space missions, because access to medical resources and personnel will be limited. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) experts at NASA's Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory (HFEL) have been working toward understanding how humans use DSSs, with the goal of being able to identify and solve the problems associated with these systems. Work to date consists of identification of HCI research areas, development of a decision making model, and completion of two experiments dealing with 'anchoring'. Anchoring is a phenomenon in which the decision maker latches on to a starting point and does not make sufficient adjustments when new data are presented. HFEL personnel have replicated a well-known anchoring experiment and have investigated the effects of user level of knowledge. Future work includes further experimentation on level of knowledge, confidence in the source of information and sequential decision making.

  10. HCI∧2 framework: a software framework for multimodal human-computer interaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel software framework for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface (MHCI) systems. The proposed software framework, which is called the HCI∧2 Framework, is built upon publish/subscribe (P/S) architecture. It implements a shared-memory-based data transport protocol for message delivery and a TCP-based system management protocol. The latter ensures that the integrity of system structure is maintained at runtime. With the inclusion of bridging modules, the HCI∧2 Framework is interoperable with other software frameworks including Psyclone and ActiveMQ. In addition to the core communication middleware, we also present the integrated development environment (IDE) of the HCI∧2 Framework. It provides a complete graphical environment to support every step in a typical MHCI system development process, including module development, debugging, packaging, and management, as well as the whole system management and testing. The quantitative evaluation indicates that our framework outperforms other similar tools in terms of average message latency and maximum data throughput under a typical single PC scenario. To demonstrate HCI∧2 Framework's capabilities in integrating heterogeneous modules, we present several example modules working with a variety of hardware and software. We also present an example of a full system developed using the proposed HCI∧2 Framework, which is called the CamGame system and represents a computer game based on hand-held marker(s) and low-cost camera(s).

  11. Digitale Arbeitsteilung: Amazon Mechanical Turks sozial konstruierte Designmuster und die Steuerung von Human-Computation-Arbeit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Ellmer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel wird Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT, derzeit eines der größten Online-Verteilungssysteme für Human-Computation-Arbeit, aus einer Social-Construction-of-Technology (SCOT-Perspektive kritisch analysiert. Unter Berücksichtigung der klassischen Labor-Process-Theorie wird gezeigt, dass AMTs Infrastruktur, durchwachsen und geformt von Diskursen zu digitaler Arbeit, beträchtliche Macht- und Informationsasymmetrien zugunsten von ArbeitgeberInnen (RequesterInnen determiniert und einen spezifischen Modus digitaler Arbeitsteilung ermöglicht. Dessen Effekte (Deskilling, Preissetzung, Effizienzsteigerung werden durch den crowdsourcing-basierten Zugriff auf hoch fragmentierte ArbeiterInnen (TurkerInnen verstärkt. Die SCOT-Perspektive zeigt die soziale Konstruktion digitaler Arbeitsteilung und Hierarchien in unterschiedlichen Einflussqualitäten auf die Ausgestaltung der Infrastruktur sowie den Arbeitsprozess. Sie hängt von Kapazitäten einzelner Akteure ab, ihre Bedeutungen und Interpretationen in Technologien zu implementieren. Die Browserextension Turkopticon schwächt diese Hierarchien ab, indem sie ein Requester-Rating-System direkt in das Interface von AMT einbettet.

  12. The experience of agency in human-computer interactions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limerick, Hannah; Coyle, David; Moore, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of agency is the experience of controlling both one’s body and the external environment. Although the sense of agency has been studied extensively, there is a paucity of studies in applied “real-life” situations. One applied domain that seems highly relevant is human-computer-interaction (HCI), as an increasing number of our everyday agentive interactions involve technology. Indeed, HCI has long recognized the feeling of control as a key factor in how people experience interactions with technology. The aim of this review is to summarize and examine the possible links between sense of agency and understanding control in HCI. We explore the overlap between HCI and sense of agency for computer input modalities and system feedback, computer assistance, and joint actions between humans and computers. An overarching consideration is how agency research can inform HCI and vice versa. Finally, we discuss the potential ethical implications of personal responsibility in an ever-increasing society of technology users and intelligent machine interfaces. PMID:25191256

  13. Appearance-based human gesture recognition using multimodal features for human computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Gao, Hua; Ekenel, Hazim Kemal; Ohya, Jun

    2011-03-01

    The use of gesture as a natural interface plays an utmost important role for achieving intelligent Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Human gestures include different components of visual actions such as motion of hands, facial expression, and torso, to convey meaning. So far, in the field of gesture recognition, most previous works have focused on the manual component of gestures. In this paper, we present an appearance-based multimodal gesture recognition framework, which combines the different groups of features such as facial expression features and hand motion features which are extracted from image frames captured by a single web camera. We refer 12 classes of human gestures with facial expression including neutral, negative and positive meanings from American Sign Languages (ASL). We combine the features in two levels by employing two fusion strategies. At the feature level, an early feature combination can be performed by concatenating and weighting different feature groups, and LDA is used to choose the most discriminative elements by projecting the feature on a discriminative expression space. The second strategy is applied on decision level. Weighted decisions from single modalities are fused in a later stage. A condensation-based algorithm is adopted for classification. We collected a data set with three to seven recording sessions and conducted experiments with the combination techniques. Experimental results showed that facial analysis improve hand gesture recognition, decision level fusion performs better than feature level fusion.

  14. Sensators : Active multisensory tangible user interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Willemse, C.J.A.M.; Janssen, J.B.; Toet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Although Tangible User Interfaces are considered an intuitive means of human-computer interaction, they oftentimes lack the option to provide active feedback. We developed ‘Sensators’: generic shaped active tangibles to be used on a multi-touch table. Sensators can represent digital information by

  15. Human computing and machine understanding of human behavior: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pentland, Alex; Huang, Thomas S.; Huang, Th.S.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    2007-01-01

    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing should be about anticipatory user interfaces

  16. [A review of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bang-hua; Yan, Guo-zheng; Yan, Rong-guo

    2005-07-01

    This paper introduces the general constitutions and principle of BCI systems. In addition, some characteristics and limitations of different research methods are discussed and compared. Finally, this paper points out the existing problems and future trends of BCIs. brain-computer interface (BCI), human-computer Interface (HCI), electroencephalography (EEG).

  17. Evidence Report: Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina; Ezer, Neta; Vos, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) encompasses all the methods by which humans and computer-based systems communicate, share information, and accomplish tasks. When HCI is poorly designed, crews have difficulty entering, navigating, accessing, and understanding information. HCI has rarely been studied in an operational spaceflight context, and detailed performance data that would support evaluation of HCI have not been collected; thus, we draw much of our evidence from post-spaceflight crew comments, and from other safety-critical domains like ground-based power plants, and aviation. Additionally, there is a concern that any potential or real issues to date may have been masked by the fact that crews have near constant access to ground controllers, who monitor for errors, correct mistakes, and provide additional information needed to complete tasks. We do not know what types of HCI issues might arise without this "safety net". Exploration missions will test this concern, as crews may be operating autonomously due to communication delays and blackouts. Crew survival will be heavily dependent on available electronic information for just-in-time training, procedure execution, and vehicle or system maintenance; hence, the criticality of the Risk of Inadequate HCI. Future work must focus on identifying the most important contributing risk factors, evaluating their contribution to the overall risk, and developing appropriate mitigations. The Risk of Inadequate HCI includes eight core contributing factors based on the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS): (1) Requirements, policies, and design processes, (2) Information resources and support, (3) Allocation of attention, (4) Cognitive overload, (5) Environmentally induced perceptual changes, (6) Misperception and misinterpretation of displayed information, (7) Spatial disorientation, and (8) Displays and controls.

  18. Hybrid brain-computer interface and functional electrical stimulation for sensorimotor training in participants with tetraplegia: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučković, Aleksandra; Wallace, Leslie; Allan, David B

    2015-01-01

    Impaired hand function decreases quality of life in persons with tetraplegia. We tested functional electrical stimulation (FES) controlled by a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) for improving hand function in participants with tetraplegia. Two participants with subacute tetraplegia (participant 1: C5 Brown-Sequard syndrome, participant 2: complete C5 lesion) took part in this proof-of-concept study. The goal was to determine whether the BCI system could drive the FES device by accurately classifying participants' intent (open or close the hand). Participants 1 and 2 received 10 sessions and 4 sessions of BCI-FES, respectively. A novel time-switch BCI strategy based on motor imagery was used to activate the FES. In one session, we tested a hybrid BCI-FES based on 2 spontaneously generated brain rhythms: a sensory-motor rhythm during motor imagery to activate a stimulator and occipital alpha rhythms to deactivate the stimulator. Participants received BCI-FES therapy 2 to 3 times a week in addition to conventional therapy. Imagery ability and muscle strength were measured before and after treatment. Visual feedback was associated with a 4-fold increase of brain response during motor imagery in both participants. For participant 1, classification accuracy (open/closed) for motor imagery-based BCI was 83.5% (left hand) and 83.8% (right hand); participant 2 had a classification accuracy of 83.8% for the right hand. Participant 1 had moderate improvement in muscle strength, while there was no change for participant 2. We demonstrated feasibility of BCI-FES, using 2 naturally generated brain rhythms. Studies on a larger number of participants are needed to separate the effects of BCI training from effects of conventional therapy.Video Abstract available. (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A84) for more insights from the authors.

  19. Interface Anywhere Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To illustrate the viability of this technology, a prototype Natural User Interface (NUI) was developed as a proof-of-concept for system control.  Gesture and...

  20. Brain-computer interface training combined with transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with chronic severe hemiparesis: Proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashima-Shindo, Yuko; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Ushiba, Junichi; Matsushika, Yayoi; Kamatani, Daiki; Oto, Misa; Ono, Takashi; Nishimoto, Atsuko; Shindo, Keiichiro; Kawakami, Michiyuki; Tsuji, Tetsuya; Liu, Meigen

    2015-04-01

    Brain-computer interface technology has been applied to stroke patients to improve their motor function. Event-related desynchronization during motor imagery, which is used as a brain-computer interface trigger, is sometimes difficult to detect in stroke patients. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is known to increase event-related desynchronization. This study investigated the adjunctive effect of anodal tDCS for brain-computer interface training in patients with severe hemiparesis. Eighteen patients with chronic stroke. A non-randomized controlled study. Subjects were divided between a brain-computer interface group and a tDCS- brain-computer interface group and participated in a 10-day brain-computer interface training. Event-related desynchronization was detected in the affected hemisphere during motor imagery of the affected fingers. The tDCS-brain-computer interface group received anodal tDCS before brain-computer interface training. Event-related desynchronization was evaluated before and after the intervention. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment upper extremity motor score (FM-U) was assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months after, the intervention. Event-related desynchronization was significantly increased in the tDCS- brain-computer interface group. The FM-U was significantly increased in both groups. The FM-U improvement was maintained at 3 months in the tDCS-brain-computer interface group. Anodal tDCS can be a conditioning tool for brain-computer interface training in patients with severe hemiparetic stroke.

  1. Capacitive facial movement detection for human-computer interaction to click by frowning and lifting eyebrows: assistive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Ville; Niemenlehto, Pekka-Henrik; Verho, Jarmo; Lekkala, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    A capacitive facial movement detection method designed for human-computer interaction is presented. Some point-and-click interfaces use facial electromyography for clicking. The presented method provides a contactless alternative. Electrodes with no galvanic coupling to the face are used to form electric fields. Changes in the electric fields due to facial movements are detected by measuring capacitances between the electrodes. A prototype device for measuring a capacitance signal affected by frowning and lifting eyebrows was constructed. A commercial integrated circuit for capacitive touch sensors is used in the measurement. The applied movement detection algorithm uses an adaptive approach to provide operation capability in noisy and dynamic environments. Experimentation with 10 test subjects proved that, under controlled circumstances, the movements are detected with good efficiency, but characterizing the movements into frowns and eyebrow lifts is more problematic. Integration with a two-dimensional (2D) pointing solution and further experiments are still required.

  2. MovExp: A Versatile Visualization Tool for Human-Computer Interaction Studies with 3D Performance and Biomechanical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmas, Gregorio; Bachynskyi, Myroslav; Oulasvirta, Antti; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Weinkauf, Tina

    2014-12-01

    In Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), experts seek to evaluate and compare the performance and ergonomics of user interfaces. Recently, a novel cost-efficient method for estimating physical ergonomics and performance has been introduced to HCI. It is based on optical motion capture and biomechanical simulation. It provides a rich source for analyzing human movements summarized in a multidimensional data set. Existing visualization tools do not sufficiently support the HCI experts in analyzing this data. We identified two shortcomings. First, appropriate visual encodings are missing particularly for the biomechanical aspects of the data. Second, the physical setup of the user interface cannot be incorporated explicitly into existing tools. We present MovExp, a versatile visualization tool that supports the evaluation of user interfaces. In particular, it can be easily adapted by the HCI experts to include the physical setup that is being evaluated, and visualize the data on top of it. Furthermore, it provides a variety of visual encodings to communicate muscular loads, movement directions, and other specifics of HCI studies that employ motion capture and biomechanical simulation. In this design study, we follow a problem-driven research approach. Based on a formalization of the visualization needs and the data structure, we formulate technical requirements for the visualization tool and present novel solutions to the analysis needs of the HCI experts. We show the utility of our tool with four case studies from the daily work of our HCI experts.

  3. The Information Seeking Interface with Spatial Icons for the Children Digital-learning Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳可久、林佳蓉、陳泓均、柯皓仁 Ko-Chiu Wu,Chia-Jung Lin,Hung-Chun Chen,Hao-Ren Ke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this age of information technology, children must develop the ability to search digital databases.However, the information-seeking behavior and cognitive abilities associated with language and images differ substantially between children and adults. Therefore there is an urgent need foran information-searching interface customized for children. Drawing on the design of computer games, we created a three-dimensional (3D human-computer interface (HCI. Children’s experience playing computer games can therefore inform way-finding and information-seeking behavior inthis spatially-oriented interface. Three types of HCI were developed: a 2D graphic hyperlink (GH,a 3D extended survey (ES, and a 3D extended route (ER. These were tested for efficiency, effectiveness, and time of operation by one-way analysis of variance. Our results indicated that children behave differently on the various interfaces. The proposed HCI is a helpful tool offering children a knowledge map that enables them to search for the information they need. Our results demonstrate that information visualization theory and concept association are topics worthy offurther study in the development of a child-oriented information-seeking interface. pp. 51-65

  4. Visualization of hierarchically structured information for human-computer interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Suh Hyun; Lee, J. K.; Choi, I. K.; Kye, S. C.; Lee, N. K. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Visualization techniques can be used to support operator's information navigation tasks on the system especially consisting of an enormous volume of information, such as operating information display system and computerized operating procedure system in advanced control room of nuclear power plants. By offering an easy understanding environment of hierarchically structured information, these techniques can reduce the operator's supplementary navigation task load. As a result of that, operators can pay more attention on the primary tasks and ultimately improve the cognitive task performance. In this report, an interface was designed and implemented using hyperbolic visualization technique, which is expected to be applied as a means of optimizing operator's information navigation tasks. 15 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs. (Author)

  5. Real Time Eye Tracking and Hand Tracking Using Regular Video Cameras for Human Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Expo (ICME 2010), July 2010, Singapore. (15% acceptance rate)  Kaoning Hu, Shaun Canavan , and Lijun Yin, “Hand pointing estimation for human computer...Computing, Dec. 2009. Las Vegas, NV  Shaun Canavan and Lijun Yin, Dynamic face appearance modeling and sight direction estimation based on local...Kaoning Hu, Shaun Canavan , and Lijun Yin, “Hand pointing estimation for human computer interaction based on two orthogonal views”, IEEE/IAPR

  6. Natural user interface based on gestures recognition using Leap Motion sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sousa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural User Interface (NUI is a term used for human-computer interfaces where the interface is invisible or becomes invisible after successive user-immersion levels, it is typically based on the human nature or human natural elements. Currently several three-dimensional (3D sensors and system can be used to interpret specific human gestures, enabling a completely hands-free control of electronic devices, manipulating objects in a virtual world or interacting with augmented reality applications. This paper presents a set of methods to recognize 3D gestures, and some human-computer interfaces applications using a Leap Motion sensor

  7. Human Computer Confluence in Rehabilitation: Digital Media Plasticity and Human Performance Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Digital media plasticity evocative to embodied interaction is presented as a utilitarian tool when mixed and matched to target human performance potentials specific to nuance of development for those with impairment. A distinct intervention strategy trains via alternative channeling of external...... approaches promoting mindsets and activities commonly considered enduring, mundane and boring. The concept focuses on sensor-based interfaces mapped to control tailored-content that acts as direct and immediate feedbacks mirroring input. These flexible, adaptive, and ‘plastic’ options offer facilitators new...

  8. Program Predicts Time Courses of Human/Computer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Alonso; Howes, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    CPM X is a computer program that predicts sequences of, and amounts of time taken by, routine actions performed by a skilled person performing a task. Unlike programs that simulate the interaction of the person with the task environment, CPM X predicts the time course of events as consequences of encoded constraints on human behavior. The constraints determine which cognitive and environmental processes can occur simultaneously and which have sequential dependencies. The input to CPM X comprises (1) a description of a task and strategy in a hierarchical description language and (2) a description of architectural constraints in the form of rules governing interactions of fundamental cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations. The output of CPM X is a Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) chart that presents a schedule of predicted cognitive, motor, and perceptual operators interacting with a task environment. The CPM X program allows direct, a priori prediction of skilled user performance on complex human-machine systems, providing a way to assess critical interfaces before they are deployed in mission contexts.

  9. GT-MSOCC - A domain for research on human-computer interaction and decision aiding in supervisory control systems. [Georgia Tech - Multisatellite Operations Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1987-01-01

    The Georgia Tech-Multisatellite Operations Control Center (GT-MSOCC), a real-time interactive simulation of the operator interface to a NASA ground control system for unmanned earth-orbiting satellites, is described. The GT-MSOCC program for investigating a range of modeling, decision aiding, and workstation design issues related to the human-computer interaction is discussed. A GT-MSOCC operator function model is described in which operator actions, both cognitive and manual, are represented as the lowest level discrete control network nodes, and operator action nodes are linked to information needs or system reconfiguration commands.

  10. ARQUITETURA EMPRESARIAL: UM CONCEITO DE INTERFACE ENTRE A ECONOMIA E A ADMINISTRAÇÃO DA FIRMA/ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE: AN INTERFACE CONCEPT BETWEEN THE ECONOMICS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF THE FIRM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Carlos Cavalcanti

    2009-01-01

    ...: the Enterprise Architecture. This concept is viewed here as the most appropriate means to understand the impact of the information content, of the information systems, and of the information and communication technologies- ICTs...

  11. Enterprise architecture: an interface concept between the economics and the management of the firm/Arquitetura empresarial: um conceito de interface entre a economia e a administracao da firma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavalcanti, Jose Carlos

    2009-01-01

    ...: the Enterprise Architecture. This concept is viewed here as the most appropriate means to understand the impact of the information content, of the information systems, and of the information and communication technologies--ICTs...

  12. Intelligent virtual interfaces for telerobotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstein, Georges G.; Maybury, Mark T.; Mitchell, Richard B.

    1992-11-01

    One promise of telerobotics is the ability to interact in environments that are distant (e.g., deep sea or deep space), dangerous (e.g., nuclear, chemical, or biological environments), or inaccessible by humans for political or legal reasons. A key component to such interactions are sophisticated human-computer interfaces that can replicate sufficient information about a local environment to permit remote navigation and manipulation. This environment replication can, in part, be provided by technologies such as virtual reality. In addition, however, telerobotic interfaces may need to enhance human-machine interaction to assist users in task performance, for example, governing motion or manipulation controls to avoid obstacles or to restrict interaction with certain objects (e.g., avoiding contact with a live mine or a deep sea treasure). Thus, effective interactions within remote environments require intelligent virtual interfaces to telerobotic devices. In part to address this problem, MITRE is investigating virtual reality architectures that will enable enhanced interaction within virtual environments. Key components to intelligent virtual interfaces include spoken language processing, gesture recognition algorithms, and more generally, task recognition. In addition, these interfaces will eventually have to take into account properties of the user, the task, and discourse context to be more adaptive to the current situation at hand. While our work has not yet investigated the connection of virtual interfaces to external robotic devices, we have begun developing the key components for intelligent virtual interfaces for information and training systems.

  13. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  14. Evaluating Distributed Usability: the role of user interfaces in an activity system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Vrazalic

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional definitions of usability localise this fundamental Human Computer Interaction (HCI concept in the user interface and reduce it to a variety of qualitative and quantitative attributes of the computer system. This simplistic view of usability has been used as the basis for developing design and evaluation methods in the discipline. This paper argues that, as a result, HCI methods are ineffective and suffer from various shortcomings. It is proposed that the notion of usability must be extended to include contextual factors, and viewed as being distributed across an activity system. Adopting this notion of distributed usability then requires a review of existing HCI methods. Usability testing, as a complete and self-contained HCI method, was chosen for this purpose, and the result, a distributed usability evaluation method (DUEM, is presented in this paper.

  15. Product Design Improvement Using Human-Computer Interaction Method Based on Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of product design improvement method was proposed, which was mainly based on modal analysis using human-computer interactive way. And it was used in design improvement of an aerospace assembly to verify the effectiveness. The method made full use of the advantages of human and computer in product design and the work was mainly focused on modal analysis by computer and structure modification by human-computer interaction method. The final design got a better solution than the initial design as the results showed that the base frequency increased by 34.7% from 43.2Hz to 58.2Hz after design improvement and the vibration feature improved a lot. Also the experimental results were close to the simulation results with the relative error was 2.5%. The human-computer method can save cost and time and can provide a reference for other design of new products at the same time.

  16. Virtual reality concepts and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    A manual for both designers and users, comprehensively presenting the current state of experts' knowledge on virtual reality (VR) in computer science, mechanics, optics, acoustics, physiology, psychology, ergonomics, ethics, and related area. Designed as a reference book and design guide to help the reader develop a VR project, it presents the reader with the importance of the user's needs and various aspects of the human computer interface (HCI). It further treats technical aspects of VR, hardware and software implementations, and details on the sensory and psycho-sensory interfaces. Providin

  17. Human-computer interaction handbook fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This second edition of The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook provides an updated, comprehensive overview of the most important research in the field, including insights that are directly applicable throughout the process of developing effective interactive information technologies. It features cutting-edge advances to the scientific knowledge base, as well as visionary perspectives and developments that fundamentally transform the way in which researchers and practitioners view the discipline. As the seminal volume of HCI research and practice, The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook feature

  18. Psychosocial and Cultural Modeling in Human Computation Systems: A Gamification Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Haack, Jereme N.; Butner, R. Scott

    2013-11-20

    “Gamification”, the application of gameplay to real-world problems, enables the development of human computation systems that support decision-making through the integration of social and machine intelligence. One of gamification’s major benefits includes the creation of a problem solving environment where the influence of cognitive and cultural biases on human judgment can be curtailed through collaborative and competitive reasoning. By reducing biases on human judgment, gamification allows human computation systems to exploit human creativity relatively unhindered by human error. Operationally, gamification uses simulation to harvest human behavioral data that provide valuable insights for the solution of real-world problems.

  19. Multimodal interfaces : a framework based on modality appropriateness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Kooi, F.L.; Bronkhorst, A.; Leeuwen, D.L. van; Esch, M. van; Wijngaarden, S.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Our sensory modalities are specialized in perceiving different attributes of an object or event. This fact is the basis of the approach towards multimodal interfaces we describe in this paper. We rated the match between 20 possible information attributes (common in human computer interaction) and

  20. Towards emotion modeling based on gaze dynamics in generic interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    Gaze detection can be a useful ingredient in generic human computer interfaces if current technical barriers are overcome. We discuss the feasibility of concurrent posture and eye-tracking in the context of single (low cost) camera imagery. The ingredients in the approach are posture and eye regi...

  1. Perspectives on User Experience Evaluation of Brain-Computer Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, B.L.A.; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Plass - Oude Bos, D.; Nijboer, Femke; Nijholt, Antinus; Stephanidis, Constantine

    2011-01-01

    The research on brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) is pushing hard to bring technologies out of the lab and into society and onto the market. The nascent merge between the field of BCI and human-computer interaction (HCI) is paving the way for new applications such as BCI-controlled gaming. The

  2. HCI^2 Workbench: A Development Tool for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Wenzhe, Shi; Pantic, Maja

    In this paper, we present a novel software tool designed and implemented to simplify the development process of Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction (MHCI) systems. This tool, which is called the HCI^2 Workbench, exploits a Publish / Subscribe (P/S) architecture [13] [14] to facilitate efficient

  3. Implications of Artificial Intelligence Research for Human-Computer Interaction in Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belajthy, Ernest

    Noting that many language arts teachers have rejected tutorial software because of its inability to interact effectively with students, this paper explores implications of artificial intelligence research for human/computer interaction in reading instruction. Limitations of "exact match" curriculum designs in contemporary attempts to provide…

  4. The Human-Computer Interaction of Cross-Cultural Gaming Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Joyram; Norcio, Anthony F.; Van Der Veer, Jacob J.; Andre, Charles F.; Miller, Zachary; Regelsberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the cultural dimensions of the human-computer interaction that underlies gaming strategies. The article is a desktop study of existing literature and is organized into five sections. The first examines the cultural aspects of knowledge processing. The social constructs technology interaction is discussed. Following this, the…

  5. A Project-Based Learning Setting to Human-Computer Interaction for Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Cornelia; Geisler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of fundamentals of human-computer interaction resp. usability engineering is getting more and more important in technical domains. However this interdisciplinary field of work and corresponding degree programs are not broadly known. Therefore at the Hochschule Ruhr West, University of Applied Sciences, a program was developed to give…

  6. Enhancing Human-Computer Interaction Design Education: Teaching Affordance Design for Emerging Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Anthony; Matei, Sorin Adam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of human-computer interaction design (HCID) over the last 20 years suggests that there is a growing need for educational scholars to consider new and more applicable theoretical models of interactive product design. The authors suggest that such paradigms would call for an approach that would equip HCID students with a better…

  7. Integrating HCI into IDT: Charting the Human Computer Interaction Competencies Necessary for Instructional Media Production Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abbie; Sugar, William

    2004-01-01

    A report on the efforts made to describe the range of human-computer interaction skills necessary to complete a program of study in Instructional Design Technology. Educators responsible for instructional media production courses have not yet articulated which among the wide range of possible interactions students must master for instructional…

  8. Implementations of the CC'01 Human-Computer Interaction Guidelines Using Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaris, Bill; Wainer, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Arthur E.; Stalvey, RoxAnn H.; Shannon, Christine; Leventhal, Laura; Barnes, Julie; Wright, John; Schafer, J. Ben; Sanders, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In today's technology-laden society human-computer interaction (HCI) is an important knowledge area for computer scientists and software engineers. This paper surveys existing approaches to incorporate HCI into computer science (CS) and such related issues as the perceived gap between the interests of the HCI community and the needs of CS…

  9. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  10. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...

  11. Development of a Hybrid Hands-Off Human Computer Interface Based on Electromyogram Signals and Eye-Gaze Tracking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyons, E

    2001-01-01

    ...) and Electromyogram (EMG) signals is introduced. This system combines the advantages of both subsystems, providing quick cursor displacement in long excursions and steady, accurate movement in small position adjustments...

  12. Human Computer Interface Design Criteria. Volume 2: Space System Operations Displays -SMC-S-023, Vol 2 (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    Pattern Use neutral colors (unsaturated hues, e.g., pastel colors or light gray) providing sufficient color difference to distinguish between screen...specific function. When used, pastel colors are displayed in the title bar. For example, color coding title bars of windows associated with particular

  13. Design of Web-Based Collaborative Learning Environments. Translating the Pedagogical Learning Principles to Human Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, W.; Emans, B.; Leinonen, T.; Skarmeta, A.G.; Simons, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Seven pedagogical principles guided the development of a collaborative virtual environment, within an international project called ITCOLE. The progressive inquiry model as a theoretical framework had a large impact on describing these principles. Furthermore, this article describes the two web-based software systems - Synergeia and FLE3 - that…

  14. Stereo vision based 3D game interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Chen, Yisong; Dong, Chao

    2009-10-01

    Currently, keyboards, mice, wands and joysticks are still the most popular interactive devices. While these devices are mostly adequate, they are so unnatural that they are unable to give players the feeling of immersiveness. Researchers have begun investigation into natural interfaces that are intuitively simple and unobtrusive to the user. Recent advances in various signal-processing technologies, coupled with an explosion in the available computing power, have given rise to a number of natural human computer interface (HCI) modalities: speech, vision-based gesture recognition, etc. In this paper we propose a natural three dimensional (3D) game interface, which uses the motion of the player fists in 3D space to achieve the control of sixd egree of freedom (DOFs). And we also propose a real-time 3D fist tracking algorithm, which is based on stereo vision and Bayesian network. Finally, a flying game is used to test our interface.

  15. A human activity approach to User Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    the work situations in which computer-based artifacts are used: The framework deals with the role of the user interface in purposeful human work. Human activity theory is used in this analysis. The purpose of this article is to make the reader curious and hopefully open his or her eyes to a somewhat...... different way of thinking about the user interface. The article applies examples of real-life interfaces to support this process, but it does not include a systematic presentation of empirical results. I focus on the role of the computer application in use. Thus, it is necessary to consider human-computer...... interaction and other related work conditions. I deal with human experience and competence as being rooted in the practice of the group that conducts the specific work activity. The main conclusions are: The user interface cannot be seen independently of the use activity (i.e., the professional, socially...

  16. Human-Computer Interaction in a Smart House

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Leiming; Sun, Chunyan

    2012-01-01

    The quality attribute concerning usability is generally of significant importance to systems. The area of Human Computer Interaction, HCI, especially handles several usability aspects. This degree project emphasizes HCI in a context of, so called, Smart House. The report is divided into three main sections: theory, application, and measurement results. In the theory section we will present about the context of HCI and the content of HCI, such as HCI model and goals of HCI design. In the appli...

  17. Computer Aided Design in Digital Human Modeling for Human Computer Interaction in Ergonomic Assessment: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Mukhopadhyay , Sanjib Kumar Das and Tania Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Research in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) hasbeen enormously successful in the area of computeraidedergonomics or human-centric designs. Perfectfit for people has always been a target for productdesign. Designers traditionally used anthropometricdimensions for 3D product design which created a lotof fitting problems when dealing with thecomplexities of the human body shapes. Computeraided design (CAD), also known as Computer aideddesign and drafting (CADD) is the computertechnology used fo...

  18. Review of the Use of Electroencephalography as an Evaluation Method for Human-Computer Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Jeremy; Mühl, C.; Lotte, Fabien; Hachet, Martin

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Evaluating human-computer interaction is essential as a broadening population uses machines, sometimes in sensitive contexts. However, traditional evaluation methods may fail to combine real-time measures, an "objective" approach and data contextualization. In this review we look at how adding neuroimaging techniques can respond to such needs. We focus on electroencephalography (EEG), as it could be handled effectively during a dedicated evaluation phase. We identify w...

  19. The Study on Human-Computer Interaction Design Based on the Users’ Subconscious Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyuan

    2017-09-01

    Human-computer interaction is human-centered. An excellent interaction design should focus on the study of user experience, which greatly comes from the consistence between design and human behavioral habit. However, users’ behavioral habits often result from subconsciousness. Therefore, it is smart to utilize users’ subconscious behavior to achieve design's intention and maximize the value of products’ functions, which gradually becomes a new trend in this field.

  20. Physiological measures as indices of moods during human-computer interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Patrick; Zimmermann, Philippe; Guttormsen-Schär, Sissel; Danuser, Brigitta

    2007-01-01

    Emotions are an important factor in human-computer interaction. One of the challenges in building emotionally intelligent systems is the automatic recognition of affective states. We are developing and evaluating a method for measuring user affect that incorporates psychological, behavioral, and physiological measures. During affective stimulation, breathing parameters, skin conductance level (SCL) and corrugator EMG activity correlate with self-reported levels of valence and arousal. Valence...

  1. To Three or not to Three: Improving Human Computation Game Onboarding with a Three-Star System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Jacqueline; Cooper, Seth

    2017-01-01

    While many popular casual games use three-star systems, which give players up to three stars based on their performance in a level, this technique has seen limited application in human computation games (HCGs). This gives rise to the question of what impact, if any, a three-star system will have on the behavior of players in HCGs. In this work, we examined the impact of a three-star system implemented in the protein folding HCG Foldit. We compared the basic game's introductory levels with two versions using a three-star system, where players were rewarded with more stars for completing levels in fewer moves. In one version, players could continue playing levels for as many moves as they liked, and in the other, players were forced to reset the level if they used more moves than required to achieve at least one star on the level. We observed that the three-star system encouraged players to use fewer moves, take more time per move, and replay completed levels more often. We did not observe an impact on retention. This indicates that three-star systems may be useful for re-enforcing concepts introduced by HCG levels, or as a flexible means to encourage desired behaviors.

  2. Une approche pragmatique cognitive de l'interaction personne/système informatisé A Cognitive Pragmatic Approach of Human/Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Saint-Pierre

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous proposons une approche inférentielle de l'interaction humain/ordinateur. C'est par la prise en compte de l'activité cognitive de l'utilisateur pendant son travail avec un système que nous voulons comprendre ce type d'interaction. Ceci mènera à une véritable évaluation des interfaces/utilisateurs et pourra servir de guide pour des interfaces en développement. Nos analyses décrivent le processus inférentiel impliqué dans le contexte dynamique d'exécution de tâche, grâce à une catégorisation de l'activité cognitive issue des verbalisations recueillies auprès d'utilisateurs qui " pensent à haute voix " en travaillant. Nous présentons des instruments méthodologiques mis au point dans notre recherche pour l'analyses et la catégorisation des protocoles. Les résultats sont interprétés dans le cadre de la théorie de la pertinence de Sperber et Wilson (1995 en termes d'effort cognitif dans le traitement des objets (linguistique, iconique, graphique... apparaissant à l'écran et d'effet cognitif de ces derniers. Cette approche est généralisable à tout autre contexte d'interaction humain/ordinateur comme, par exemple, le télé-apprentissage.This article proposes an inferential approach for the study of human/computer interaction. It is by taking into account the user's cognitive activity while working at a computer that we propose to understand this interaction. This approach leads to a real user/interface evaluation and, hopefully, will serve as guidelines for the design of new interfaces. Our analysis describe the inferential process involved in the dynamics of task performance. The cognitive activity of the user is grasped by the mean of a " thinking aloud " method through which the user is asked to verbalize while working at the computer. Tools developped by our research team for the categorization of the verbal protocols are presented. The results are interpreted within the relevance theory

  3. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two...

  4. Organic interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, W.A.; Tempelman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the consequences for product designers resulting from the replacement of traditional interfaces by responsive materials. Part 1 presents a theoretical framework regarding a new paradigm for man-machine interfacing. Part 2 provides an analysis of the opportunities offered by new

  5. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  6. The phenomenological experience of dementia and user interface development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth; Mitseva, Anelia; Mihovska, Albena D.

    2009-01-01

    This study follows the project ISISEMD through a phenomenological approach of investigating the experience of the Human Computer Interaction (HCI) for someone with dementia. The aim is to accentuate the Assistive Technology (AT) from the end user perspective. It proposes that older adults and those...... with dementia should no longer be an overlooked population, and how the HCI community can learn from their experiences to develop methods and design interfaces which truly benefit these individuals. Guidelines from previous research are incorporated along with eclectic, user-centered strategies as the interface...... design considerations for the adaptation of user interfaces....

  7. One Health proof of concept: Bringing a transdisciplinary approach to surveillance for zoonotic viruses at the human-wild animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terra R; Karesh, William B; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Anthony, Simon J; Goldstein, Tracey; Olson, Sarah H; Machalaba, Catherine; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2017-02-01

    As the world continues to react and respond inefficiently to emerging infectious diseases, such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome and the Ebola and Zika viruses, a growing transdisciplinary community has called for a more proactive and holistic approach to prevention and preparedness - One Health. Such an approach presents important opportunities to reduce the impact of disease emergence events and also to mitigate future emergence through improved cross-sectoral coordination. In an attempt to provide proof of concept of the utility of the One Health approach, the US Agency for International Development's PREDICT project consortium designed and implemented a targeted, risk-based surveillance strategy based not on humans as sentinels of disease but on detecting viruses early, at their source, where intervention strategies can be implemented before there is opportunity for spillover and spread in people or food animals. Here, we share One Health approaches used by consortium members to illustrate the potential for successful One Health outcomes that can be achieved through collaborative, transdisciplinary partnerships. PREDICT's collaboration with partners around the world on strengthening local capacity to detect hundreds of viruses in wild animals, coupled with a series of cutting-edge virological and analytical activities, have significantly improved our baseline knowledge on the zoonotic pool of viruses and the risk of exposure to people. Further testament to the success of the project's One Health approach and the work of its team of dedicated One Health professionals are the resulting 90 peer-reviewed, scientific publications in under 5 years that improve our understanding of zoonoses and the factors influencing their emergence. The findings are assisting in global health improvements, including surveillance science, diagnostic technologies, understanding of viral evolution, and ecological driver identification. Through its One Health leadership and multi

  8. Microprocessor interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2014-01-01

    Microprocessor Interfacing provides the coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NIII unit in Microprocessor Interfacing (syllabus U86/335). Composed of seven chapters, the book explains the foundation in microprocessor interfacing techniques in hardware and software that can be used for problem identification and solving. The book focuses on the 6502, Z80, and 6800/02 microprocessor families. The technique starts with signal conditioning, filtering, and cleaning before the signal can be processed. The signal conversion, from analog to digital or vice versa, is expl

  9. Real-time non-invasive eyetracking and gaze-point determination for human-computer interaction and biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; Morookian, John-Michael; Monacos, S.; Lam, R.; Lebaw, C.; Bond, A.

    2004-01-01

    Eyetracking is one of the latest technologies that has shown potential in several areas including human-computer interaction for people with and without disabilities, and for noninvasive monitoring, detection, and even diagnosis of physiological and neurological problems in individuals.

  10. Engageability: a new sub-principle of the learnability principle in human-computer interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Chimbo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The learnability principle relates to improving the usability of software, as well as users’ performance and productivity. A gap has been identified as the current definition of the principle does not distinguish between users of different ages. To determine the extent of the gap, this article compares the ways in which two user groups, adults and children, learn how to use an unfamiliar software application. In doing this, we bring together the research areas of human-computer interaction (HCI, adult and child learning, learning theories and strategies, usability evaluation and interaction design. A literature survey conducted on learnability and learning processes considered the meaning of learnability of software applications across generations. In an empirical investigation, users aged from 9 to 12 and from 35 to 50 were observed in a usability laboratory while learning to use educational software applications. Insights that emerged from data analysis showed different tactics and approaches that children and adults use when learning unfamiliar software. Eye tracking data was also recorded. Findings indicated that subtle re- interpretation of the learnability principle and its associated sub-principles was required. An additional sub-principle, namely engageability was proposed to incorporate aspects of learnability that are not covered by the existing sub-principles. Our re-interpretation of the learnability principle and the resulting design recommendations should help designers to fulfill the varying needs of different-aged users, and improve the learnability of their designs. Keywords: Child computer interaction, Design principles, Eye tracking, Generational differences, human-computer interaction, Learning theories, Learnability, Engageability, Software applications, Uasability Disciplines: Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Studies, Computer science, Observational Studies

  11. Manufacturing Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper identifies the changing needs and requirements with respect to the interfacing of manufacturing functions. It considers the manufacturing system, its components and their relationships from the technological and logistic point of view, against the background of concurrent engineering.

  12. Cross-cultural human-computer interaction and user experience design a semiotic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Brejcha, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes patterns of language and culture in human-computer interaction (HCI). Through numerous examples, it shows why these patterns matter and how to exploit them to design a better user experience (UX) with computer systems. It provides scientific information on the theoretical and practical areas of the interaction and communication design for research experts and industry practitioners and covers the latest research in semiotics and cultural studies, bringing a set of tools and methods to benefit the process of designing with the cultural background in mind.

  13. Proceedings of the 5th Danish Human-Computer Interaction Research Symposium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School is happy to host the 5th Danish Human Computer Interaction Research Symposium. The aim of the symposium is to stimulate interaction between researchers from academia and industry through oral presentations and a keynote presentation. We received 17 paper contributions...... ORGANISATIONS Olav W. Bertelsen & Pär-Ola Zander PROCESS MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN HIGHER EDUCATION E-LEARNING - A NEWRESEARCH AREA Karin Tweddell Levinsen FROM HANDICRAFT SCHOOL TO DESIGN UNIVERSITY Eva Brandt THE USE PROJECT: BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN USABILITY EVALUATIONAND SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT Als, B., Frøkjær, E...

  14. Human-Computer Interaction Handbook Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jacko, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    The third edition of a groundbreaking reference, The Human--Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications raises the bar for handbooks in this field. It is the largest, most complete compilation of HCI theories, principles, advances, case studies, and more that exist within a single volume. The book captures the current and emerging sub-disciplines within HCI related to research, development, and practice that continue to advance at an astonishing rate. It features cutting-edge advances to the scientific knowledge base as well as visionary perspe

  15. Portable tongue-supported human computer interaction system design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Rohan; Khan, Masood Mehmood

    2014-01-01

    Tongue supported human-computer interaction (TSHCI) systems can help critically ill patients interact with both computers and people. These systems can be particularly useful for patients suffering injuries above C7 on their spinal vertebrae. Despite recent successes in their application, several limitations restrict performance of existing TSHCI systems and discourage their use in real life situations. This paper proposes a low-cost, less-intrusive, portable and easy to use design for implementing a TSHCI system. Two applications of the proposed system are reported. Design considerations and performance of the proposed system are also presented.

  16. Human-Centric Interfaces for Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajan, Hamid; Delgado, Ramon Lopez-Cozar

    2009-01-01

    To create truly effective human-centric ambient intelligence systems both engineering and computing methods are needed. This is the first book to bridge data processing and intelligent reasoning methods for the creation of human-centered ambient intelligence systems. Interdisciplinary in nature, the book covers topics such as multi-modal interfaces, human-computer interaction, smart environments and pervasive computing, addressing principles, paradigms, methods and applications. This book will be an ideal reference for university researchers, R&D engineers, computer engineers, and graduate s

  17. 人機互動設計與網路互動機制之整合論 The Integrated Perspective of Human-computer Interaction Design and Internet Interaction Mechanism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyun Chaucer Liang

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Internet users oftentimes feel frustrated because of the impolitic function or complicated structure design of web sites. On the basis of the study of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI, this paper analyzes the development of Internet interaction mechanism from both perspectives of the front-end user environment and the back-end server programming. By integrating the HCI study with the development of web interaction techniques, the authors find that a good web user interface must not only consider usability and accessibility design, but also a suitable adoption to the information architecture, its graphics, and the technical arrangement of a given system.

  18. A Human-Computer Collaborative Approach to Identifying Common Data Elements in Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhihui; Miotto, Riccardo; Weng, Chunhua

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify Common Data Elements (CDEs) in eligibility criteria of multiple clinical trials studying the same disease using a human-computer collaborative approach. Design A set of free-text eligibility criteria from clinical trials on two representative diseases, breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases, was sampled to identify disease-specific eligibility criteria CDEs. In this proposed approach, a semantic annotator is used to recognize Unified Medical Language Systems (UMLS) terms within the eligibility criteria text. The Apriori algorithm is applied to mine frequent disease-specific UMLS terms, which are then filtered by a list of preferred UMLS semantic types, grouped by similarity based on the Dice coefficient, and, finally, manually reviewed. Measurements Standard precision, recall, and F-score of the CDEs recommended by the proposed approach were measured with respect to manually identified CDEs. Results Average precision and recall of the recommended CDEs for the two diseases were 0.823 and 0.797, respectively, leading to an average F-score of 0.810. In addition, the machine-powered CDEs covered 80% of the cardiovascular CDEs published by The American Heart Association and assigned by human experts. Conclusion It is feasible and effort saving to use a human-computer collaborative approach to augment domain experts for identifying disease-specific CDEs from free-text clinical trial eligibility criteria. PMID:22846169

  19. A Model-based Framework for Risk Assessment in Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems. This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions. Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  20. A Non-Intrusive Alert System for Maritime Anomalies: Literature Review and the Development and Assessment of Interface Design Concepts (Systeme d’Alerte non Intrusive en cas d’Anomalies Maritimes: Examen de la Documentation et Elaboration/Evaluation de Concepts d’Interface)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    projet comprend l’étude des meilleures pratiques applicables à la définition de concepts pour un système d’aide à la ...entraver l’exécution de leurs tâches principales (alerte non intrusive). Le projet visait les objectifs suivants : (i) identifier et analyser la ...l’activation de l’état d’alerte; • la gestion des alertes. Résultats : L’examen de la documentation a révélé l’absence d’une approche de

  1. Hypertext/Prolog user interface for a flexible inspection cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Eric C.; Batchelor, Bruce G.; Daley, Michael W.; Jones, Andrew C.

    1995-10-01

    An inexpensive but versatile human-computer interface (HCI) for a machine vision system is described. Widely available hardware and computing components are controlled by software based on HyperCard and Prolog. While considerable benefit is obtained using just one of these programming tools, it has been found that the combination provides many advantages, including ease of use and great flexibility. Details of what is possible using HyperCard and Prolog individually and both working in harmony are discussed.

  2. Dynamic Analysis of Naive Adaptive Brain-Machine Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalski, Kevin C.; He, Bryan D.; Srinivasan, Lakshminarayan

    2013-01-01

    The closed-loop operation of brain-machine interfaces (BMI) provides a context to discover foundational principles behind human-computer interaction, with emerging clinical applications to stroke, neuromuscular diseases, and trauma. In the canonical BMI, a user controls a prosthetic limb through neural signals that are recorded by electrodes and processed by a decoder into limb movements. In laboratory demonstrations with able-bodied test subjects, parameters of the decoder are commonly tuned...

  3. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  4. The Electronic Mirror: Human-Computer Interaction and Change in Self-Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laere, Kevin H.; Lundgren, David C.; Howe, Steven R.

    1998-01-01

    Compares humanlike versus machinelike interactional styles of computer interfaces, testing hypotheses that evaluative feedback conveyed through a humanlike interface will have greater impact on individuals' self-appraisals. Reflected appraisals were more influenced by computer feedback than were self-appraisals. Humanlike and machinelike interface…

  5. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.

    1999-01-01

    The wide use of solid insulating materials combinations in combinations has introduced problems in the interfaces between components. The most common insulating materials are cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), silicone rubber (SIR) and ethylene-propylene rubbers (EPR). Assemblies of these materials...

  6. Soft Electronics Enabled Ergonomic Human-Computer Interaction for Swallowing Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongkuk; Nicholls, Benjamin; Sup Lee, Dong; Chen, Yanfei; Chun, Youngjae; Siang Ang, Chee; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2017-04-01

    We introduce a skin-friendly electronic system that enables human-computer interaction (HCI) for swallowing training in dysphagia rehabilitation. For an ergonomic HCI, we utilize a soft, highly compliant (“skin-like”) electrode, which addresses critical issues of an existing rigid and planar electrode combined with a problematic conductive electrolyte and adhesive pad. The skin-like electrode offers a highly conformal, user-comfortable interaction with the skin for long-term wearable, high-fidelity recording of swallowing electromyograms on the chin. Mechanics modeling and experimental quantification captures the ultra-elastic mechanical characteristics of an open mesh microstructured sensor, conjugated with an elastomeric membrane. Systematic in vivo studies investigate the functionality of the soft electronics for HCI-enabled swallowing training, which includes the application of a biofeedback system to detect swallowing behavior. The collection of results demonstrates clinical feasibility of the ergonomic electronics in HCI-driven rehabilitation for patients with swallowing disorders.

  7. Adaptive inputs in an interface for people with Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy: Learning and usability

    OpenAIRE

    López Vicente, Mª Amparo; Artacho Perez, Carla Andrea; Jarque Bou, Nestor Jose; Raya, Rafael; Lloria, Mariano; Belda Lois, Juan Manuel; Rocon, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the difficulty in accessing computers faced by people with Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy (DCP). Thus diminishing their opportunities to communicate or learn. This population usually needs an alternative input human-computer interface (HCI). The paper presents an alternative multimodal HCI that incorporates a head-mounted interface and superficial electromyography sensors (sEMG). The aim of the study is to assess the usability and the suitability of these two HCI devices. Six n...

  8. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  9. Artificial photosynthesis at soft interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaming, Delphine; Hatay, Imren; Cortez, Fernando; Olaya, Astrid; Méendez, Manuel A; Ge, Pei Yu; Deng, Haiqiang; Voyame, Patrick; Nazemi, Zahra; Girault, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    The concept of artificial photosynthesis at a polarised liquid membrane is presented. It includes two photosystems, one at each interface for the hydrogen and oxygen evolution respectively. Both reactions involve proton coupled electron transfer reactions, and some ultrafast steps at the photosensitization stage.

  10. 'Interfaces' 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borsa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Issue No. 4 is the first open issue of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures. It contains contributions by Henry Bainton (12th-century historiography, Lucie Doležalová (parabiblical texts and the canon, Máire Ní Mhaonaigh (Irish literary culture in Latin and Irish, Isabel Varillas Sánchez (legends of composition of canonical texts, Septuaginta, Wim Verbaal (letter collections, Bernard of Clairvaux, and Jonas Wellendorf (canons of skaldic poets in the 12th/13th century, preceded by a brief Introduction by the editors.

  11. Human-Computer Interaction and Sociological Insight: A Theoretical Examination and Experiment in Building Affinity in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Michael Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The juxtaposition of classic sociological theory and the, relatively, young discipline of human-computer interaction (HCI) serves as a powerful mechanism for both exploring the theoretical impacts of technology on human interactions as well as the application of technological systems to moderate interactions. It is the intent of this dissertation…

  12. "Don't" Do This--Pitfalls in Using Anti-Patterns in Teaching Human-Computer Interaction Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Paula; Renaud, Karen; van Biljon, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the use of design patterns and anti-patterns in teaching human-computer interaction principles. Patterns are increasingly popular and are seen as an efficient knowledge transfer mechanism in many fields, including software development in the field of software engineering, and more recently in the field of human-computer…

  13. Redesign of a computerized clinical reminder for colorectal cancer screening: a human-computer interaction evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Jason J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on barriers to the use of computerized clinical decision support (CDS learned in an earlier field study, we prototyped design enhancements to the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA's colorectal cancer (CRC screening clinical reminder to compare against the VHA's current CRC reminder. Methods In a controlled simulation experiment, 12 primary care providers (PCPs used prototypes of the current and redesigned CRC screening reminder in a within-subject comparison. Quantitative measurements were based on a usability survey, workload assessment instrument, and workflow integration survey. We also collected qualitative data on both designs. Results Design enhancements to the VHA's existing CRC screening clinical reminder positively impacted aspects of usability and workflow integration but not workload. The qualitative analysis revealed broad support across participants for the design enhancements with specific suggestions for improving the reminder further. Conclusions This study demonstrates the value of a human-computer interaction evaluation in informing the redesign of information tools to foster uptake, integration into workflow, and use in clinical practice.

  14. A User-Developed 3-D Hand Gesture Set for Human-Computer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anna; Wachs, Juan P; Park, Kunwoo; Rempel, David

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a lexicon for 3-D hand gestures for common human-computer interaction (HCI) tasks by considering usability and effort ratings. Recent technologies create an opportunity for developing a free-form 3-D hand gesture lexicon for HCI. Subjects (N = 30) with prior experience using 2-D gestures on touch screens performed 3-D gestures of their choice for 34 common HCI tasks and rated their gestures on preference, match, ease, and effort. Videos of the 1,300 generated gestures were analyzed for gesture popularity, order, and response times. Gesture hand postures were rated by the authors on biomechanical risk and fatigue. A final task gesture set is proposed based primarily on subjective ratings and hand posture risk. The different dimensions used for evaluating task gestures were not highly correlated and, therefore, measured different properties of the task-gesture match. A method is proposed for generating a user-developed 3-D gesture lexicon for common HCIs that involves subjective ratings and a posture risk rating for minimizing arm and hand fatigue. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  15. Use of Human Computer Models to Influence the Design of International Space Station Propulsion Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, George S.; Hall, Meridith L.

    1999-01-01

    The overall design for the International Space Station (ISS) Propulsion (Prop) Module consists of two bell shapes connected by a long tube having a shirt sleeve environment. The tube is to be used by the flight crew to transfer equipment and supplies from the Shuttle to ISS. Due to a desire to use existing space qualified hardware, the tube internal diameter was initially set at 38 inches, while the human engineering specification, NASA-STD-3000, required 50". Human computer modeling using the MannequinPro application was used to help make the case to enlarge the passageway to meet the specification. 3D CAD models of Prop Module were created with 38 inches, 45 inches and 50 inches passageways and human figures in the neutral body posture as well as a fetal posture were inserted into the model and systematically exercised. Results showed that only the 50 inches tube would accommodate a mid tube turn around by a large crew member, 95th percentile American males, by stature.

  16. Eye center localization and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Smith, Melvyn L; Smith, Lyndon N; Farooq, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces an unsupervised modular approach for accurate and real-time eye center localization in images and videos, thus allowing a coarse-to-fine, global-to-regional scheme. The trajectories of eye centers in consecutive frames, i.e., gaze gestures, are further analyzed, recognized, and employed to boost the human-computer interaction (HCI) experience. This modular approach makes use of isophote and gradient features to estimate the eye center locations. A selective oriented gradient filter has been specifically designed to remove strong gradients from eyebrows, eye corners, and shadows, which sabotage most eye center localization methods. A real-world implementation utilizing these algorithms has been designed in the form of an interactive advertising billboard to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for HCI. The eye center localization algorithm has been compared with 10 other algorithms on the BioID database and six other algorithms on the GI4E database. It outperforms all the other algorithms in comparison in terms of localization accuracy. Further tests on the extended Yale Face Database b and self-collected data have proved this algorithm to be robust against moderate head poses and poor illumination conditions. The interactive advertising billboard has manifested outstanding usability and effectiveness in our tests and shows great potential for benefiting a wide range of real-world HCI applications.

  17. Design of a compact low-power human-computer interaction equipment for hand motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianwei; Jin, Wenguang

    2017-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) raises demand of convenience, endurance, responsiveness and naturalness. This paper describes a design of a compact wearable low-power HCI equipment applied to gesture recognition. System combines multi-mode sense signals: the vision sense signal and the motion sense signal, and the equipment is equipped with the depth camera and the motion sensor. The dimension (40 mm × 30 mm) and structure is compact and portable after tight integration. System is built on a module layered framework, which contributes to real-time collection (60 fps), process and transmission via synchronous confusion with asynchronous concurrent collection and wireless Blue 4.0 transmission. To minimize equipment's energy consumption, system makes use of low-power components, managing peripheral state dynamically, switching into idle mode intelligently, pulse-width modulation (PWM) of the NIR LEDs of the depth camera and algorithm optimization by the motion sensor. To test this equipment's function and performance, a gesture recognition algorithm is applied to system. As the result presents, general energy consumption could be as low as 0.5 W.

  18. Human-Centered Software Engineering: Software Engineering Architectures, Patterns, and Sodels for Human Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffah, Ahmed; Vanderdonckt, Jean; Desmarais, Michel C.

    The Computer-Human Interaction and Software Engineering (CHISE) series of edited volumes originated from a number of workshops and discussions over the latest research and developments in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Software Engineering (SE) integration, convergence and cross-pollination. A first volume in this series (CHISE Volume I - Human-Centered Software Engineering: Integrating Usability in the Development Lifecycle) aims at bridging the gap between the field of SE and HCI, and addresses specifically the concerns of integrating usability and user-centered systems design methods and tools into the software development lifecycle and practices. This has been done by defining techniques, tools and practices that can fit into the entire software engineering lifecycle as well as by defining ways of addressing the knowledge and skills needed, and the attitudes and basic values that a user-centered development methodology requires. The first volume has been edited as Vol. 8 in the Springer HCI Series (Seffah, Gulliksen and Desmarais, 2005).

  19. An Human-Computer Interactive Augmented Reality System for Coronary Artery Diagnosis Planning and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiming; Huang, Chen; Lv, Shengqing; Li, Zeyu; Chen, Yimin; Ma, Lizhuang

    2017-09-02

    In order to let the doctor carry on the coronary artery diagnosis and preoperative planning in a more intuitive and more natural way, and to improve the training effect for interns, an augmented reality system for coronary artery diagnosis planning and training (ARS-CADPT) is designed and realized in this paper. At first, a 3D reconstruction algorithm based on computed tomographic (CT) images is proposed to model the coronary artery vessels (CAV). Secondly, the algorithms of static gesture recognition and dynamic gesture spotting and recognition are presented to realize the real-time and friendly human-computer interaction (HCI), which is the characteristic of ARS-CADPT. Thirdly, a Sort-First parallel rendering and splicing display subsystem is developed, which greatly expands the capacity of student users. The experimental results show that, with the use of ARS-CADPT, the reconstruction accuracy of CAV model is high, the HCI is natural and fluent, and the visual effect is good. In a word, the system fully meets the application requirement.

  20. Categorisation of visualisation methods to support the design of Human-Computer Interaction Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Katie; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Alcock, Jeffrey; Bermell-Garcia, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    During the design of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) systems, the creation of visual artefacts forms an important part of design. On one hand producing a visual artefact has a number of advantages: it helps designers to externalise their thought and acts as a common language between different stakeholders. On the other hand, if an inappropriate visualisation method is employed it could hinder the design process. To support the design of HCI systems, this paper reviews the categorisation of visualisation methods used in HCI. A keyword search is conducted to identify a) current HCI design methods, b) approaches of selecting these methods. The resulting design methods are filtered to create a list of just visualisation methods. These are then categorised using the approaches identified in (b). As a result 23 HCI visualisation methods are identified and categorised in 5 selection approaches (The Recipient, Primary Purpose, Visual Archetype, Interaction Type, and The Design Process). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. What is the Value of Embedding Artificial Emotional Prosody in Human-Computer Interactions? Implications for Theory and Design in Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    In computerized technology, artificial speech is becoming increasingly important, and is already used in ATMs, online gaming and healthcare contexts. However, today's artificial speech typically sounds monotonous, a main reason for this being the lack of meaningful prosody. One particularly important function of prosody is to convey different emotions. This is because successful encoding and decoding of emotions is vital for effective social cognition, which is increasingly recognized in human-computer interaction contexts. Current attempts to artificially synthesize emotional prosody are much improved relative to early attempts, but there remains much work to be done due to methodological problems, lack of agreed acoustic correlates, and lack of theoretical grounding. If the addition of synthetic emotional prosody is not of sufficient quality, it may risk alienating users instead of enhancing their experience. So the value of embedding emotion cues in artificial speech may ultimately depend on the quality of the synthetic emotional prosody. However, early evidence on reactions to synthesized non-verbal cues in the facial modality bodes well. Attempts to implement the recognition of emotional prosody into artificial applications and interfaces have perhaps been met with greater success, but the ultimate test of synthetic emotional prosody will be to critically compare how people react to synthetic emotional prosody vs. natural emotional prosody, at the behavioral, socio-cognitive and neural levels.

  2. What is the value of embedding artificial emotional prosody in human computer interactions? Implications for theory and design in psychological science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. C. Mitchell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In computerised technology, artificial speech is becoming increasingly important, and is already used in ATMs, online gaming and healthcare contexts. However, today’s artificial speech typically sounds monotonous, a main reason for this being the lack of meaningful prosody. One particularly important function of prosody is to convey different emotions. This is because successful encoding and decoding of emotions is vital for effective social cognition, which is increasingly recognised in human-computer interaction contexts. Current attempts to artificially synthesise emotional prosody are much improved relative to early attempts, but there remains much work to be done due to methodological problems, lack of agreed acoustic correlates, and lack of theoretical grounding. If the addition of synthetic emotional prosody is not of sufficient quality, it may risk alienating users instead of enhancing their experience. So the value of embedding emotion cues in artificial speech may ultimately depend on the quality of the synthetic emotional prosody. However, early evidence on reactions to synthesised nonverbal cues in the facial modality bodes well. Attempts to implement the recognition of emotional prosody into artificial applications and interfaces have perhaps been met with greater success, but the ultimate test of synthetic emotional prosody will be to critically compare how people react to synthetic emotional prosody vs. natural emotional prosody, at the behavioural, socio-cognitive and neural levels.

  3. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  4. Commentary: Usability – A Sensitizing Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2018-01-01

    In his article “The Usability Construct: A Dead End?”, Tractinsky (in Human-Computer Interaction) contends that for scientific research on usability to progress, the usability construct should be unbundled and replaced by well-defined constructs. This contention is presented as the conclusion...... that follows naturally from taking a scientist’s viewpoint on usability. Similar calls for definitive concepts – constructs in Tractinsky’s terminology – have been made in other scientific fields with concepts as ambiguous as that of usability. But counterarguments have also been presented....

  5. A Computational Model of Active Vision for Visual Search in Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    interfaces. - 5 - This paper describes a computational model of visual search for HCI that integrates a contemporary understanding of visual...such as by associating jewelry with cloth) and provided visual structure to random layouts. Figure 10 shows a layout with semantically-cohesive

  6. Human-Computer Interaction for BCI Games: Usability and User Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plass - Oude Bos, D.; Reuderink, B.; van de Laar, B.L.A.; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Mühl, C.; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Sourin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) come with a lot of issues, such as delays, bad recognition, long training times, and cumbersome hardware. Gamers are a large potential target group for this new interaction modality, but why would healthy subjects want to use it? BCI provides a combination of

  7. Human-Centred Intelligent Human-Computer Interaction (HCI²): how far are we from attaining it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Nijholt, Antinus; Pentland, Alex; Huang, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. To realise this prediction, next-generation computing should develop anticipatory user interfaces that are

  8. More playful user interfaces interfaces that invite social and physical interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the latest advances in playful user interfacesinterfaces that invite social and physical interaction. These new developments include the use of audio, visual, tactile and physiological sensors to monitor, provide feedback and anticipate the behavior of human users. The decreasing cost of sensor and actuator technology makes it possible to integrate physical behavior information in human-computer interactions. This leads to many new entertainment and game applications that allow or require social and physical interaction in sensor- and actuator-equipped smart environments. The topics discussed include: human-nature interaction, human-animal interaction and the interaction with tangibles that are naturally integrated in our smart environments. Digitally supported remote audience participation in artistic or sport events is also discussed. One important theme that emerges throughout the book is the involvement of users in the digital-entertainment design process or even design and implement...

  9. A Theoretical Framework for Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex systems is de-scribed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), suggests a set of principles for designing interfaces in a way that supports the funda-mental properties of human cognition. The basis of EID is the skills...... of the task require. The EID approach extends the concept of direct manipulation inter-faces by taking into account the added complications introduced by complex systems. In this paper, we describe the development of the framework, its theoretical foundations, and examples of its application to various work...

  10. Delays in Human-Computer Interaction and Their Effects on Brain Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Kohrs

    Full Text Available The temporal contingency of feedback is an essential requirement of successful human-computer interactions. The timing of feedback not only affects the behavior of a user but is also accompanied by changes in psychophysiology and neural activity. In three fMRI experiments we systematically studied the impact of delayed feedback on brain activity while subjects performed an auditory categorization task. In the first fMRI experiment, we analyzed the effects of rare and thus unexpected delays of different delay duration on brain activity. In the second experiment, we investigated if users can adapt to frequent delays. Therefore, delays were presented as often as immediate feedback. In a third experiment, the influence of interaction outage was analyzed by measuring the effect of infrequent omissions of feedback on brain activity. The results show that unexpected delays in feedback presentation compared to immediate feedback stronger activate inter alia bilateral the anterior insular cortex, the posterior medial frontal cortex, the left inferior parietal lobule and the right inferior frontal junction. The strength of this activation increases with the duration of the delay. Thus, delays interrupt the course of an interaction and trigger an orienting response that in turn activates brain regions of action control. If delays occur frequently, users can adapt, delays become expectable, and the brain activity in the observed network diminishes over the course of the interaction. However, introducing rare omissions of expected feedback reduces the system's trustworthiness which leads to an increase in brain activity not only in response to such omissions but also following frequently occurring and thus expected delays.

  11. Software Usability: Concepts, Attributes and Associated Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grīnberga Sabīne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies have opened a large set of opportunities for new electronic services (e-commerce, e-health, e-studies etc.. There are many considerations that need to be made when programmers are building new application software or system software. The software needs to be attractive enough that people want to look at it. It also needs to contain all necessary information that developers want to share with their readers (customers, users in order to help them achieve the objective for which they came to their website, use their software, or interact with their teaching packages. The oversupply of e-services products has created a need for usability research and development. “Usability means making products and systems easier to use, and matching them more closely to user needs and requirements”. Usability is a key concept of the human-computer interface and is concerned with making computer systems easy to learn and easy to use through a user-centered design process. The in-depth understanding of usability concepts and processes are critical for large-scale acceptance of new e-services and knowledge productivity. Poorly designed software can be extremely annoying to users. Smith and Mayes state that „usability is now recognised as a vital determining factor in the success of any new computer system or computer-based service”. Studies have shown that the main health problems of computer users are repetitive strain injuries, visual discomfort and stress-related disorders. Beside other risk factors, such as poor workstation design, uncomfortable work postures, long hours of computer use every day, stress, etc., also poor design and usability of the computer systems, as well as computer technical problems, add to the pressure felt by the user, which may in turn cause stress-related disorders.

  12. Combining Brain-Computer Interfaces and Assistive Technologies: State-of-the-Art and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, J D R; Rupp, R; Müller-Putz, G R; Murray-Smith, R; Giugliemma, C; Tangermann, M; Vidaurre, C; Cincotti, F; Kübler, A; Leeb, R; Neuper, C; Müller, K-R; Mattia, D

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, new research has brought the field of electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interfacing (BCI) out of its infancy and into a phase of relative maturity through many demonstrated prototypes such as brain-controlled wheelchairs, keyboards, and computer games. With this proof-of-concept phase in the past, the time is now ripe to focus on the development of practical BCI technologies that can be brought out of the lab and into real-world applications. In particular, we focus on the prospect of improving the lives of countless disabled individuals through a combination of BCI technology with existing assistive technologies (AT). In pursuit of more practical BCIs for use outside of the lab, in this paper, we identify four application areas where disabled individuals could greatly benefit from advancements in BCI technology, namely, "Communication and Control", "Motor Substitution", "Entertainment", and "Motor Recovery". We review the current state of the art and possible future developments, while discussing the main research issues in these four areas. In particular, we expect the most progress in the development of technologies such as hybrid BCI architectures, user-machine adaptation algorithms, the exploitation of users' mental states for BCI reliability and confidence measures, the incorporation of principles in human-computer interaction (HCI) to improve BCI usability, and the development of novel BCI technology including better EEG devices.

  13. Combining Brain-Computer Interfaces and Assistive Technologies: State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José del R. Millán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, new research has brought the field of EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfacing (BCI out of its infancy and into a phase of relative maturity through many demonstrated prototypes such as brain-controlled wheelchairs, keyboards, and computer games. With this proof-of-concept phase in the past, the time is now ripe to focus on the development of practical BCI technologies that can be brought out of the lab and into real-world applications. In particular, we focus on the prospect of improving the lives of countless disabled individuals through a combination of BCI technology with existing assistive technologies (AT. In pursuit of more practical BCIs for use outside of the lab, in this paper, we identify four application areas where disabled individuals could greatly benefit from advancements in BCI technology, namely,“Communication & Control”, “Motor Substitution”, “Entertainment”, and “Motor Recovery”. We review the current state of the art and possible future developments, while discussing the main research issues in these four areas. In particular, we expect the most progress in the development of technologies such as hybrid BCI architectures, user-machine adaptation algorithms, the exploitation of users’ mental states for BCI reliability and confidence measures, the incorporation of principles in human-computer interaction (HCI to improve BCI usability, and the development of novel BCI technology including better EEG devices.

  14. Federating resources of information systems: browsing interface (FRISBI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchanau, A.V.; van der Vet, P.E.; Roosendaal, Hans E.; de Bra, P.M.E.

    2003-01-01

    Designing the user interface of a federated system (what we call a browsing interface) must consider the knowledge gap that exists between desires of the users and the needs the systems are built to support. The concept of Habitable Interfaces aims to bridge the knowledge gap by providing kinds of

  15. Trends in Human-Computer Interaction to Support Future Intelligence Analysis Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Technology Neural Impulse Controller Emotiv EPOC http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~stro m/onr_workshop/pavel.pdf 17 Virtual Assistant / Virtual Advisor IBM’s...Collaboration, Shared Awareness, and Decision Making Denis Gouin* Valérie Lavigne Innovative Interfaces and Interactions Group Defence R&D...located and distributed teams engaged in intense collaborative activities such as analysis, planning and decision making (Phillips, 2008). These

  16. Towards a Conceptual Framework and an Empirical Methodology in Research on Artistic Human-Computer and Human-Robot Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, Uwe; Kim, Jin Hyun

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a new approach to the scientific study of the musical mind, cognitive musicology has to be complemented by research on human-computer and human-robot interaction. Within the computational approach to mind, interactionism or embodied cognitive science using robots for modeling cognitive and behavioral processes provides an adequate framework for modeling internal processes underlying artistic and aesthetic experiences. The computational framework provided by cognitive scien...

  17. Research of Digital Interface Layout Design based on Eye-tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to improve the low service efficiency and unsmooth human-computer interaction caused by currently irrational layouts of digital interfaces for complex systems. Also, three common layout structures for digital interfaces are to be presented and five layout types appropriate for multilevel digital interfaces are to be summarized. Based on the eye tracking technology, an assessment was conducted in advantages and disadvantages of different layout types through subjects’ search efficiency. Based on data and results, this study constructed a matching model which is appropriate for multilevel digital interface layout and verified the fact that the task element is a significant and important aspect of layout design. A scientific experimental model of research on digital interfaces for complex systems is provided. Both data and conclusions of the eye movement experiment provide a reference for layout designs of interfaces for complex systems with different task characteristics.

  18. Oscars and Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Unwin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphical user interfaces (GUIs are gradually becoming more powerful and more accepted. They are the standard way of interacting with the web and play an increasing role in many software applications. Nevertheless, they have not been generally adopted, and critics point to particular weaknesses and disadvantages. Many of these are due more to flaws in design and implementation than to the basic concepts of GUIs. More attention could be paid to what users want to do and how a GUI might be developed to support these goals. Using a dataset about Oscar nominees and winners, this paper considers what analyses statisticians might carry out and what kind of GUI would be appropriate for these tasks. (It also offers some insights into the Oscars dataset.

  19. Beyond the interface: Encountering artifacts in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Bannon, Liam

    1991-01-01

    This paper is written by two people who come form rather different backgrounds, yet who, at the same time, share similar concerns about the human-computer interaction (HCI) area. One of us has a background in computing and cognitive science, coupled with a long-standing interest in helping users...... in their interactions with technology. He became uncomfortable with the gap between current cognitive theories and their utility in designing better interfaces to computer systems. The other person has a background in software engineering and computer systems design. In her search for a deeper understanding of  issues...... did studies in Scandinavia, one primarily in North America. As both of us are concerned with making more useful and usable computer applications we decided to look further for frameworks to help us. In this paper we shall try to expose some of the problems that we encountered in our joint effort...

  20. Understanding Usefulness in Human-Computer Interaction to Enhance User Experience Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Craig Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The concept of usefulness has implicitly played a pivotal role in evaluation research, but the meaning of usefulness has changed over time from system reliability to user performance and learnability/ease of use for non-experts. Despite massive technical and social changes, usability remains the "gold standard" for system evaluation.…

  1. Manager l'interface. Approche par la complexité du processus collaboratif de conception, d'intégration et de réalisation : modèle transactionnel de l'acteur d'interface et dynamique des espaces d'échanges

    CERN Document Server

    Nicquevert, Bertrand

    In large projects such as particle accelerators or detectors, interfaces and boundaries reveal themselves to be both critical and underestimated. The technical manager, an actor among others, finds himself placed at network nodes where he must set up exchanges spaces in order to generate collaborative behaviours. Starting with case studies from the field of CERN, the thesis follows three principles based on the dialogical, the hologramic and the self-eco-organization principles, as expanded in the writings on complexity. It puts forward an original methodological matrix construction leading to a transactional model of the interface actor. The collaborative exchanges spaces builds itself as a place for the dynamic transformation of the interface actor into a boundary actor. Intermediate objects, created during the design / integration process, are simultaneously transformed into boundary objects. They are instrumental in the realization of the product: this takes place in the framework of the project which has...

  2. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  3. Improving the Interplay between Usability Evaluation and User Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, K.; Stage, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of a full-day workshop that was held on October 23 2004 in connection with the Third Nordic Conference on Human Computer Interaction (Nordichi 2004). The proceedings from the workshop are available from http://www.cs.aau.dk/~jans/events.html. The ideas and theme...... of the workshop are motivated and an outline of the contents of the papers that were presented in the workshop is given. In addition we summarize some challenges to the interplay between usability evaluation and user interface design agreed upon at the workshop, as well as some solutions that were debated....

  4. Heat-Exchanger/Heat-Pipe Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, H. J.; Van Hagan, T. H.

    1987-01-01

    Monolithic assembly reliable and light in weight. Heat exchanger and evaporator ends of heat pipes integrated in monolithic halves welded together. Interface assembly connects heat exchanger of furnace, reactor, or other power source with heat pipes carrying heat to radiator or power-consuming system. One of several concepts proposed for nuclear power supplies aboard spacecraft, interface useful on Earth in solar thermal power systems, heat engines, and lightweight cooling systems.

  5. The concept of compartmentalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A; Zepeda, C; Garber, L; Smith, J; Swayne, D; Rhorer, A; Kellar, J; Shimshony, A; Batho, H; Caporale, V; Giovannini, A

    2006-12-01

    The rationale for establishing trade 'regions' and 'zones' is based on principles of epidemiological science and risk analysis that assess and manage animal disease risks so that the safety of trade can be ensured. However, the boundaries of geographical regions and zones may readily be breached through numerous epidemiological pathways. The concept of a 'compartment' extends the application of a 'risk boundary' beyond that of a geographical interface and considers all epidemiological factors that can contribute to the creation of an effective boundary. The fundamental requirement for application of either concept (regions/zones or compartments) is that the population considered for trade is maintained within management or geographical boundaries which allow clear epidemiological differentiation to be made between those animals and surrounding populations of higher risk. Seven factors are presented that an exporting country might use to guide the identification and documentation of a compartment. Additionally, the steps that would be undertaken to implement trade based on the compartmentalisation concept are discussed.

  6. Teaching Task Analysis for User Interface Design: Lessons Learned from Three Pilot Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Marçal de Oliveira, Káthia; Girard, Patrick; Guidini Gonçalves, Taisa; Lepreux, Sophie; Kolski, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Task analysis is recognized by the Human-Computer Interaction community as good practice to improve the understanding of how a user may interact with software interfaces to reach a given goal. During more than one decade, we have taught task analysis in undergraduate and graduate HCI programs for the design of better interactive systems. In this paper, we describe three ways of teaching task analysis and the lessons learned from those practices. We consider this the fi...

  7. MODELOS DIDÁTICOS E MAPAS CONCEITUAIS: BIOLOGIA CELULAR E AS INTERFACES COM A INFORMÁTICA EM CURSOS TÉCNICOS DO IFMS/EDUCATIONAL MODELS AND CONCEPT MAPS: CELL BIOLOGY AND INTERFACES WITH THE COMPUTER IN TECHNICAL COURSES OF IFMS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A J Vinholi; G C Princival

    2014-01-01

      Considering the difficulties concerning to cell biology content, the making and use of didactic models were proposed as a potentially significant means on the learning of cell concepts with students of IFMS/Ponta Pora...

  8. Interface mobility from interface random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautt, Zachary; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Karma, Alain

    2007-03-01

    Computational studies aimed at extracting interface mobilities require driving forces orders of magnitude higher than those occurring experimentally. We present a computational methodology that extracts the absolute interface mobility in the zero driving force limit by monitoring the one-dimensional random walk of the mean interface position along the interface normal. The method exploits a fluctuation-dissipation relation similar to the Stokes-Einstein relation, which relates the diffusion coefficient of this Brownian-like random walk to the interface mobility. Atomic-scale simulations of grain boundaries in model crystalline systems validate the theoretical predictions, and also highlight the profound effect of impurities. The generality of this technique combined with its inherent spatial-temporal efficiency should allow computational studies to effectively complement experiments in understanding interface kinetics in diverse material systems.

  9. Single reaction interface in flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marta F T; Santos, João L M; Lima, José L F C; Dias, Ana C B; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2005-12-15

    The dual or multiple reaction interface concept, commonly associated to the distinct flow techniques, was replaced by a single interface concept, which do not no rely on the utilisation of a well-defined and compelling sample volume but only on mutual penetration of sample and reagent zones at a single reaction interface where both sample and reagent met together prior to detection. In the proposed approach basic principles of flow analysis, such as controlled dispersion and reaction zone formation, are not influenced by sample and reagent volumes but determined exclusively by the extension of the overlap of two adjoining quasi-infinite zones enhanced by multiple flow reversals and the pulsed nature of the flowing streams. The detector is positioned at the core of the flow manifold (not in the conventional terminal position), and repetitive flow reversals enable interface manipulations, including multi-detection of the entire reaction interface or the monitoring of the evolution of a pre-selected interface zone by using suitable reversal cycle times. The implementation of the developed approach was facilitated due to the configuration simplicity and operational versatility of multi-pumping flow systems. Its performance was evaluated by monitoring processes involving two or four-solution reaction interfaces.

  10. A Real-Time Pinch-to-Zoom Motion Detection by Means of a Surface EMG-Based Human-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongin Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a system for inferring the pinch-to-zoom gesture using surface EMG (Electromyography signals in real time. Pinch-to-zoom, which is a common gesture in smart devices such as an iPhone or an Android phone, is used to control the size of images or web pages according to the distance between the thumb and index finger. To infer the finger motion, we recorded EMG signals obtained from the first dorsal interosseous muscle, which is highly related to the pinch-to-zoom gesture, and used a support vector machine for classification between four finger motion distances. The powers which are estimated by Welch’s method were used as feature vectors. In order to solve the multiclass classification problem, we applied a one-versus-one strategy, since a support vector machine is basically a binary classifier. As a result, our system yields 93.38% classification accuracy averaged over six subjects. The classification accuracy was estimated using 10-fold cross validation. Through our system, we expect to not only develop practical prosthetic devices but to also construct a novel user experience (UX for smart devices.

  11. A real-time pinch-to-zoom motion detection by means of a surface EMG-based human-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongin; Cho, Dongrae; Lee, Kwang Jin; Lee, Boreom

    2014-12-29

    In this paper, we propose a system for inferring the pinch-to-zoom gesture using surface EMG (Electromyography) signals in real time. Pinch-to-zoom, which is a common gesture in smart devices such as an iPhone or an Android phone, is used to control the size of images or web pages according to the distance between the thumb and index finger. To infer the finger motion, we recorded EMG signals obtained from the first dorsal interosseous muscle, which is highly related to the pinch-to-zoom gesture, and used a support vector machine for classification between four finger motion distances. The powers which are estimated by Welch's method were used as feature vectors. In order to solve the multiclass classification problem, we applied a one-versus-one strategy, since a support vector machine is basically a binary classifier. As a result, our system yields 93.38% classification accuracy averaged over six subjects. The classification accuracy was estimated using 10-fold cross validation. Through our system, we expect to not only develop practical prosthetic devices but to also construct a novel user experience (UX) for smart devices.

  12. Development and evaluation of a head-controlled human-computer interface with mouse-like functions for physically disabled users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Bolliger Neto, Raul; Reynaldo, Ana Carolina; Luzo, Maria Cândida de Miranda; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a pointing device controlled by head movement that had the same functions as a conventional mouse and to evaluate the performance of the proposed device when operated by quadriplegic users. Ten individuals with cervical spinal cord injury participated in functional evaluations of the developed pointing device. The device consisted of a video camera, computer software, and a target attached to the front part of a cap, which was placed on the user's head. The software captured images of the target coming from the video camera and processed them with the aim of determining the displacement from the center of the target and correlating this with the movement of the computer cursor. Evaluation of the interaction between each user and the proposed device was carried out using 24 multidirectional tests with two degrees of difficulty. According to the parameters of mean throughput and movement time, no statistically significant differences were observed between the repetitions of the tests for either of the studied levels of difficulty. The developed pointing device adequately emulates the movement functions of the computer cursor. It is easy to use and can be learned quickly when operated by quadriplegic individuals.

  13. Welborix, a Novel Approach Towards User-Interface Technology in Well-Performance Simulation WELBORIX, une approche originale de l'interface utilisateur en simulation de tests de puits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overboom G. R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Shell Research has developed an integrated well-performance simulation tool that is widely used throughout the Shell Group. However, users do not fully appreciate its advanced functionality because of the cumbersome way in which relevant input data have to be composed. To alleviate this hindrance, the WELBORIX project was initiated, the aim of which was to build an adaptive human-computer interface for an existing wellbore simulator. The main aim of the research demonstrator WELBORIX, however, was to identify general requirements for a system designed to simplify a complex interaction between human and computer. When an experienced user of the simulator models a problem, he or she draws on an extensive body of knowledge. Applying knowledge-engineering techniques, the WELBORIX interface helps a less experienced user to work with the simulator by dealing with the complexity of the input. The compositon of a valid set of input parameters is described in a knowledge base, and the process of the human-computer interaction is controlled by an inference engine that is based on backward chaining. Moreover, facts derived during the computer's reasoning process determine the composition of the output and the sequence in which it is presented to the user. A special mechanism has been designed to obtain any needed factual information that cannot be derived from rules; it consists of a transparent layer connecting the missing facts with user-interface components. The adaptative human-computer interface of WELBORIX enables occasional users to interact with the wellbore simulator in a natural way, calling objects by their common name. The experienced user, on the other hand, does not have to sacrifice any of the system's flexibility; he or she is free to take short cuts. The user controls a session through a direct-manipulation, graphic user interface, which offers combined text and graphics, context-dependent help and multiple representations of data. Object

  14. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  15. Quality of human-computer interaction--results of a national usability survey of hospital-IT in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Bettina B; Majeed, Raphael W; Bürkle, Thomas; Kuhn, Klaus; Sax, Ulrich; Seggewies, Christof; Vosseler, Cornelia; Röhrig, Rainer

    2011-11-09

    Due to the increasing functionality of medical information systems, it is hard to imagine day to day work in hospitals without IT support. Therefore, the design of dialogues between humans and information systems is one of the most important issues to be addressed in health care. This survey presents an analysis of the current quality level of human-computer interaction of healthcare-IT in German hospitals, focused on the users' point of view. To evaluate the usability of clinical-IT according to the design principles of EN ISO 9241-10 the IsoMetrics Inventory, an assessment tool, was used. The focus of this paper has been put on suitability for task, training effort and conformity with user expectations, differentiated by information systems. Effectiveness has been evaluated with the focus on interoperability and functionality of different IT systems. 4521 persons from 371 hospitals visited the start page of the study, while 1003 persons from 158 hospitals completed the questionnaire. The results show relevant variations between different information systems. Specialised information systems with defined functionality received better assessments than clinical information systems in general. This could be attributed to the improved customisation of these specialised systems for specific working environments. The results can be used as reference data for evaluation and benchmarking of human computer engineering in clinical health IT context for future studies.

  16. HCI and mobile health interventions: How human-computer interaction can contribute to successful mobile health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Erika S

    2013-12-01

    Advances in mobile computing offer the potential to change when, where, and how health interventions are delivered. Rather than relying on occasional in-clinic interactions, mobile health (mHealth) interventions may overcome constraints due to limited clinician time, poor patient adherence, and inability to provide meaningful interventions at the most appropriate time. Technological capability, however, does not equate with user acceptance and adoption. How then can we ensure that mobile technologies for behavior change meet the needs of their target audience? In this paper, we argue that overcoming acceptance and adoption barriers requires interdisciplinary collaborations, bringing together not only technologists and health researchers but also human-computer interaction (HCI) experts. We discuss the value of human-computer interaction research to the nascent field of mHealth and demonstrate how research from HCI can offer complementary insights on the creation of mobile health interventions. We conclude with a discussion of barriers to interdisciplinary collaborations in mobile health and suggest ways to overcome them.

  17. The interface at the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2011-01-01

    In the development of and discourses around interfaces there has always been a strong urge to bypass representation and ‘jack’ directly in to the human brain, consciousness, perceptions and feelings. In her article ”The interface at the skin” Lone Koefoed Hansen looks at how two contemporary...... experimental dresses made by Philips within the field of wearable computing subscribe to the concept of ‘ideal communication’. In her article, she explains how this particular type of communication is linked to the paranormal phenomena of mind reading and telepathy, and argues that sensor-based wearable...... computing is the newest example of a technological development implicitly or explicitly aiming at manifesting two utopian parameters of communication: immediacy and instantaneity. Though utopian, this manifestation has served as a way to brand Philips “as a highly innovative and remarkable company”....

  18. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......). It is also argued that the historicist and pragmatist understandings of concepts are the most fruitful views and that this understanding may be part of a broader paradigm shift that is also beginning to take place in information science.  The importance of historicist and pragmatic theories of concepts...

  19. Brave NUI World Designing Natural User Interfaces for Touch and Gesture

    CERN Document Server

    Wigdor, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Touch and gestural devices have been hailed as next evolutionary step in human-computer interaction. As software companies struggle to catch up with one another in terms of developing the next great touch-based interface, designers are charged with the daunting task of keeping up with the advances in new technology and this new aspect to user experience design. Product and interaction designers, developers and managers are already well versed in UI design, but touch-based interfaces have added a new level of complexity.

  20. Eye gaze in intelligent user interfaces gaze-based analyses, models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Yukiko I; Bader, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress in eye-tracking technologies opened the way to design novel attention-based intelligent user interfaces, and highlighted the importance of better understanding of eye-gaze in human-computer interaction and human-human communication. For instance, a user's focus of attention is useful in interpreting the user's intentions, their understanding of the conversation, and their attitude towards the conversation. In human face-to-face communication, eye gaze plays an important role in floor management, grounding, and engagement in conversation.Eye Gaze in Intelligent User Interfac

  1. EOG-sEMG Human Interface for Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Tamura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present electrooculogram (EOG and surface electromyogram (sEMG signals that can be used as a human-computer interface. Establishing an efficient alternative channel for communication without overt speech and hand movements is important for increasing the quality of life for patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, or other illnesses. In this paper, we propose an EOG-sEMG human-computer interface system for communication using both cross-channels and parallel lines channels on the face with the same electrodes. This system could record EOG and sEMG signals as “dual-modality” for pattern recognition simultaneously. Although as much as 4 patterns could be recognized, dealing with the state of the patients, we only choose two classes (left and right motion of EOG and two classes (left blink and right blink of sEMG which are easily to be realized for simulation and monitoring task. From the simulation results, our system achieved four-pattern classification with an accuracy of 95.1%.

  2. EOG-sEMG Human Interface for Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroki; Yan, Mingmin; Sakurai, Keiko; Tanno, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present electrooculogram (EOG) and surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals that can be used as a human-computer interface. Establishing an efficient alternative channel for communication without overt speech and hand movements is important for increasing the quality of life for patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, or other illnesses. In this paper, we propose an EOG-sEMG human-computer interface system for communication using both cross-channels and parallel lines channels on the face with the same electrodes. This system could record EOG and sEMG signals as "dual-modality" for pattern recognition simultaneously. Although as much as 4 patterns could be recognized, dealing with the state of the patients, we only choose two classes (left and right motion) of EOG and two classes (left blink and right blink) of sEMG which are easily to be realized for simulation and monitoring task. From the simulation results, our system achieved four-pattern classification with an accuracy of 95.1%.

  3. Traitor: associating concepts using the world wide web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, Wanno; Oliver, J.; Oliver, Jundt; Wevers, L.; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    We use Common Crawl's 25TB data set of web pages to construct a database of associated concepts using Hadoop. The database can be queried through a web application with two query interfaces. A textual interface allows searching for similarities and differences between multiple concepts using a query

  4. Instantaneous Liquid Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Willard, Adam P.; Chandler, David

    2009-01-01

    We describe and illustrate a simple procedure for identifying a liquid interface from atomic coordinates. In particular, a coarse grained density field is constructed, and the interface is defined as a constant density surface for this coarse grained field. In applications to a molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water, it is shown that this procedure provides instructive and useful pictures of liquid-vapor interfaces and of liquid-protein interfaces.

  5. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  6. Concepts of combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Paschos, Vangelis Th

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management.  The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aim to cover a wide range  of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization.Concepts of Combinatorial Optimization, is divided into three parts:- On the complexity of combinatorial optimization problems, presenting basics about worst-case and randomi

  7. Total energy calculations and bonding at interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, S.G.

    1984-08-01

    Some of the concepts and theoretical techniques employed in recent ab initio studies of the electronic and structural properties of surfaces and interfaces are discussed. Results of total energy calculations for the 2 x 1 reconstructed diamond (111) surface and for stacking faults in Si are reviewed. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Water at Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Hodgson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives...

  9. INTERFACING INFANT MENTAL HEALTH KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: REFLECTIONS ON THE NARRATIVES OF LAY HOME VISITORS' EXPERIENCES OF LEARNING AND APPLYING RELATIONAL CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT IN A SOUTH AFRICAN INTERVENTION PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradon, Tessa; Bain, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The question of interfacing research and clinically generated knowledge in the field of infant mental health (IMH) with local cultural knowledge and belief systems has provoked extended discussion in recent years. This article explores convergences and divergences between current research-based, relational IMH mental health models and "community" knowledge held by a group of South African lay home visitors from a socioeconomically deprived township. These women were trained in a psychoanalytic and attachment-informed infant mental health program that promotes a relational model of infant development. They provide an intervention that supports high risk mother-infant relationships in the same locality. A two-tiered approach was taken to the analysis of the home visitor interviews and focused on the home visitors' constructed narratives of infant development posttraining as well as the personal impact of the training and work on the home visitors themselves. The study found that psychoanalytic and attachment-informed thinking about development makes sense to those operating within the local South African cultural context, but that the accommodation of this knowledge is a complex and challenging process. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Designing for User Engagment Aesthetic and Attractive User Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Sutcliffe, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    This book explores the design process for user experience and engagement, which expands the traditional concept of usability and utility in design to include aesthetics, fun and excitement. User experience has evolved as a new area of Human Computer Interaction research, motivated by non-work oriented applications such as games, education and emerging interactive Web 2.0. The chapter starts by examining the phenomena of user engagement and experience and setting them in the perspective of cognitive psychology, in particular motivation, emotion and mood. The perspective of aesthetics is expande

  11. User Interface for Volume Rendering in Virtual Reality Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Jonathan; Reuling, Dennis; Grimm, Jan; Pfau, Andreas; Lefloch, Damien; Lambers, Martin; Kolb, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Volume Rendering applications require sophisticated user interaction for the definition and refinement of transfer functions. Traditional 2D desktop user interface elements have been developed to solve this task, but such concepts do not map well to the interaction devices available in Virtual Reality environments. In this paper, we propose an intuitive user interface for Volume Rendering specifically designed for Virtual Reality environments. The proposed interface allows transfer function d...

  12. Consistency in use through model based user interface development

    OpenAIRE

    Trapp, M.; Schmettow, M.

    2006-01-01

    In dynamic environments envisioned under the concept of Ambient Intelligence the consistency of user interfaces is of particular importance. To encounter this, the variability of the environment has to be transformed to a coherent user experience. In this paper we explain several dimension of consistency and present our ideas and recent results on achieving adaptive and consistent user interfaces by exploiting the technology of model driven user interface development.

  13. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  14. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  15. A new therapeutic application of brain-machine interface (BMI) training followed by hybrid assistive neuromuscular dynamic stimulation (HANDS) therapy for patients with severe hemiparetic stroke: A proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Michiyuki; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Ushiba, Junichi; Nishimoto, Atsuko; Abe, Kaoru; Honaga, Kaoru; Nishimura, Atsuko; Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Kodama, Mitsuhiko; Masakado, Yoshihisa; Liu, Meigen

    2016-09-21

    Hybrid assistive neuromuscular dynamic stimulation (HANDS) therapy improved paretic upper extremity motor function in patients with severe to moderate hemiparesis. We hypothesized that brain machine interface (BMI) training would be able to increase paretic finger muscle activity enough to apply HANDS therapy in patients with severe hemiparesis, whose finger extensor was absent. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of BMI training followed by HANDS therapy in patients with severe hemiparesis. Twenty-nine patients with chronic stroke who could not extend their paretic fingers were participated this study. We applied BMI training for 10 days at 40 min per day. The BMI detected the patients' motor imagery of paretic finger extension with event-related desynchronization (ERD) over the affected primary sensorimotor cortex, recorded with electroencephalography. Patients wore a motor-driven orthosis, which extended their paretic fingers and was triggered with ERD. When muscle activity in their paretic fingers was detected with surface electrodes after 10 days of BMI training, we applied HANDS therapy for the following 3 weeks. In HANDS therapy, participants received closed-loop, electromyogram-controlled, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) combined with a wrist-hand splint for 3 weeks at 8 hours a day. Before BMI training, after BMI training, after HANDS therapy and 3month after HANDS therapy, we assessed Fugl-Meyer Assessment upper extremity motor score (FMA) and the Motor Activity Log14-Amount of Use (MAL-AOU) score. After 10 days of BMI training, finger extensor activity had appeared in 21 patients. Eighteen of 21 patients then participated in 3 weeks of HANDS therapy. We found a statistically significant improvement in the FMA and the MAL-AOU scores after the BMI training, and further improvement was seen after the HANDS therapy. Combining BMI training with HANDS therapy could be an effective therapeutic strategy for severe UE paralysis after

  16. Human perceptual deficits as factors in computer interface test and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowser, S.E.

    1992-06-01

    Issues related to testing and evaluating human computer interfaces are usually based on the machine rather than on the human portion of the computer interface. Perceptual characteristics of the expected user are rarely investigated, and interface designers ignore known population perceptual limitations. For these reasons, environmental impacts on the equipment will more likely be defined than will user perceptual characteristics. The investigation of user population characteristics is most often directed toward intellectual abilities and anthropometry. This problem is compounded by the fact that some deficits capabilities tend to be found in higher-than-overall population distribution in some user groups. The test and evaluation community can address the issue from two primary aspects. First, assessing user characteristics should be extended to include tests of perceptual capability. Secondly, interface designs should use multimode information coding.

  17. Determination of Perceptions of the Teacher Candidates Studying in the Computer and Instructional Technology Department towards Human-Computer Interaction and Related Basic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyici, Mubin

    2011-01-01

    HCI is a field which has an increasing popularity by virtue of the spread of the computers and internet and gradually contributes to the production of the user-friendlier software and hardware with the contribution of the scientists from different disciplines. Teacher candidates studying at the computer and instructional technologies department…

  18. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  19. Advanced aerosense display interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Meyer, Frederick M.

    1998-09-01

    High-resolution display technologies are being developed to meet the ever-increasing demand for realistic detail. The requirement for evermore visual information exceeds the capacity of fielded aerospace display interfaces. In this paper we begin an exploration of display interfaces and evolving aerospace requirements. Current and evolving standards for avionics, commercial, and flat panel displays are summarized and compared to near term goals for military and aerospace applications. Aerospace and military applications prior to 2005 up to UXGA and digital HDTV resolution can be met by using commercial interface standard developments. Advanced aerospace requirements require yet higher resolutions (2560 X 2048 color pixels, 5120 X 4096 color pixels at 85 Hz, etc.) and necessitate the initiation of discussion herein of an 'ultra digital interface standard (UDIS)' which includes 'smart interface' features such as large memory and blazingly fast resizing microcomputer. Interface capacity, IT, increased about 105 from 1973 to 1998; 102 more is needed for UDIS.

  20. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  1. Universal computer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dheere, RFBM

    1988-01-01

    Presents a survey of the latest developments in the field of the universal computer interface, resulting from a study of the world patent literature. Illustrating the state of the art today, the book ranges from basic interface structure, through parameters and common characteristics, to the most important industrial bus realizations. Recent technical enhancements are also included, with special emphasis devoted to the universal interface adapter circuit. Comprehensively indexed.

  2. Popeye Project: ROV interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scates, C.R.; Hernandez, D.A.; Hickok, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) interface with the Popeye Project Subsea System. It describes the ROV-related plans, design philosophies, intervention tasks, tooling/equipment requirements, testing activities, and offshore installation experiences. Early identification and continuous consideration of the ROV interfaces significantly improved the overall efficiency of equipment designs and offshore operations. The Popeye Project helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deep water subsea production systems.

  3. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  4. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW) technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS) LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/). PMID:25755929

  5. Concept Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Explains concept mapping as a heuristic device that is helpful in visualizing the relationships between and among ideas. Highlights include how to begin a map; brainstorming; map applications, including document or information summaries and writing composition; and mind mapping to strengthen note-taking. (LRW)

  6. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  7. Interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öner, S.Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with material interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics. Interface properties between the absorbing semiconductor and other employed materials are crucial for an efficient solar cell. While the optical properties are largely unaffected by a few nanometer thin layer, the electronic

  8. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  9. User Interface Technology Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Interface can be manufactured. The user Interface bulder may be provided with tools to enhance the building block set, e.g.. icon and font editor to add...ity and easy extensiblity of the command set. t supports command history , execu- tion of previous commands, and editing of commands. Through the

  10. Interface, a dispersed architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Past and current specification techniques use timing diagrams and written text to describe the phenomenology of an interface. This paper treats an interface as the architecture of a number of processes, which are dispersed over the related system parts and the message path. This approach yields a

  11. Support vector machines to detect physiological patterns for EEG and EMG-based human-computer interaction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, L R; Cavrini, F; Sbernini, L; Riillo, F; Bianchi, L; Seri, S; Saggio, G

    2017-02-01

    Support vector machines (SVMs) are widely used classifiers for detecting physiological patterns in human-computer interaction (HCI). Their success is due to their versatility, robustness and large availability of free dedicated toolboxes. Frequently in the literature, insufficient details about the SVM implementation and/or parameters selection are reported, making it impossible to reproduce study analysis and results. In order to perform an optimized classification and report a proper description of the results, it is necessary to have a comprehensive critical overview of the applications of SVM. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the usage of SVM in the determination of brain and muscle patterns for HCI, by focusing on electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) techniques. In particular, an overview of the basic principles of SVM theory is outlined, together with a description of several relevant literature implementations. Furthermore, details concerning reviewed papers are listed in tables and statistics of SVM use in the literature are presented. Suitability of SVM for HCI is discussed and critical comparisons with other classifiers are reported.

  12. Conversion of IVA Human Computer Model to EVA Use and Evaluation and Comparison of the Result to Existing EVA Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, George S.; Williams, Jermaine C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the methods, rationale, and comparative results of the conversion of an intravehicular (IVA) 3D human computer model (HCM) to extravehicular (EVA) use and compares the converted model to an existing model on another computer platform. The task of accurately modeling a spacesuited human figure in software is daunting: the suit restricts the human's joint range of motion (ROM) and does not have joints collocated with human joints. The modeling of the variety of materials needed to construct a space suit (e. g. metal bearings, rigid fiberglass torso, flexible cloth limbs and rubber coated gloves) attached to a human figure is currently out of reach of desktop computer hardware and software. Therefore a simplified approach was taken. The HCM's body parts were enlarged and the joint ROM was restricted to match the existing spacesuit model. This basic approach could be used to model other restrictive environments in industry such as chemical or fire protective clothing. In summary, the approach provides a moderate fidelity, usable tool which will run on current notebook computers.

  13. Support vector machines to detect physiological patterns for EEG and EMG-based human-computer interaction: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, L. R.; Cavrini, F.; Sbernini, L.; Riillo, F.; Bianchi, L.; Seri, S.; Saggio, G.

    2017-02-01

    Support vector machines (SVMs) are widely used classifiers for detecting physiological patterns in human-computer interaction (HCI). Their success is due to their versatility, robustness and large availability of free dedicated toolboxes. Frequently in the literature, insufficient details about the SVM implementation and/or parameters selection are reported, making it impossible to reproduce study analysis and results. In order to perform an optimized classification and report a proper description of the results, it is necessary to have a comprehensive critical overview of the applications of SVM. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the usage of SVM in the determination of brain and muscle patterns for HCI, by focusing on electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) techniques. In particular, an overview of the basic principles of SVM theory is outlined, together with a description of several relevant literature implementations. Furthermore, details concerning reviewed papers are listed in tables and statistics of SVM use in the literature are presented. Suitability of SVM for HCI is discussed and critical comparisons with other classifiers are reported.

  14. A Design Case Featuring the Graduate Design Studio at Indiana University Bloomington’s Human-Computer Interaction Design Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Callison

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author illustrates the design of a physical space that was created to serve as a performance intervention for graduate students in the Human-Computer Interaction Design (HCId program in the School of Informatics, Indiana University Bloomington. Opened in Fall 2010, the HCId Graduate Design Studio was designed to help facilitate collaboration between students and faculty in the HCId Program. An effort was made to document the Studio and students working in the Studio over an extended period of time. The author visited the Design Studio a minimum of ten times between late January and late April 2011. Visits were conducted on different days of the week (Monday - Friday and at different times of the day to capture a variety of students and activity level in the Studio. In order to gain a perspective on the two distinct groups of students who utilize the Studio, interviews of graduate students from both the HCId Master of Science and Doctoral program were conducted. In addition interviews were conducted of two other important stakeholders, the HCId Program Director and the Director of Facilities for the School of Informatics, both of whom were heavily involved in the design of the Studio. Through faculty and student interviews, text descriptions, photographs, and audio and video recordings this article addresses the design features and their impact, both successful and unsuccessful, on student and faculty collaboration of the HCId Graduate Design Studio.

  15. Using Noninvasive Brain Measurement to Explore the Psychological Effects of Computer Malfunctions on Users during Human-Computer Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne M. Hirshfield

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s technologically driven world, there is a need to better understand the ways that common computer malfunctions affect computer users. These malfunctions may have measurable influences on computer user’s cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses. An experiment was conducted where participants conducted a series of web search tasks while wearing functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and galvanic skin response sensors. Two computer malfunctions were introduced during the sessions which had the potential to influence correlates of user trust and suspicion. Surveys were given after each session to measure user’s perceived emotional state, cognitive load, and perceived trust. Results suggest that fNIRS can be used to measure the different cognitive and emotional responses associated with computer malfunctions. These cognitive and emotional changes were correlated with users’ self-report levels of suspicion and trust, and they in turn suggest future work that further explores the capability of fNIRS for the measurement of user experience during human-computer interactions.

  16. Tertiary Artefactness at the Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter I discuss how an aesthetic approach to computing can contribute to the further development of the branch of computing dealing with human use of interactive technology. It is my hypothesis that human-computer interaction can advance if redefined as an aesthetic discipline. More...... specifically, I look into Wartofsky's account on the history of perception, and the function of art in this. The potential of this account in relation to human-computer interaction is to place experience and culture as first order aspects to be integrated with the traditional foci on cognition and work...

  17. Entanglement and topological interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, E.; Brunner, I.; Jaud, D.; Schmidt-Colinet, C. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper we consider entanglement entropies in two-dimensional conformal field theories in the presence of topological interfaces. Tracing over one side of the interface, the leading term of the entropy remains unchanged. The interface however adds a subleading contribution, which can be interpreted as a relative (Kullback-Leibler) entropy with respect to the situation with no defect inserted. Reinterpreting boundaries as topological interfaces of a chiral half of the full theory, we rederive the left/right entanglement entropy in analogy with the interface case. We discuss WZW models and toroidal bosonic theories as examples. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. A Literature Review on Operator Interface Technologies for Network Enabled Operational Environments Using Complex System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-30

    d’interface fondées sur le comportement et sur la psychologie , ainsi que des méthodes de conception et de mise en œuvre d’interfaces multi-agents. On a mis...réseaucentriques. Ces technologies comprennent des approches de conception d’interface fondées sur le comportement et sur la psychologie , ainsi que des

  19. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  20. Four Principles for User Interface Design of Computerised Clinical Decision Support Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Marion Berg; Nøhr, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract.  The paper presents results from design of a user interface for a Computerised Clinical Decision Support System (CSSS). The ambition has been to design Human-Computer Interaction that can minimise medication errors. Through an iterative design process a digital prototype for prescription...... emphasises a focus on how users interact with the system, a focus on how information is provided by the system, and four principles of interaction. The four principles for design of user interfaces for CDSS are summarised as four A’s: All in one, At a glance, At hand and Attention. It is recommended that all...... four interaction principles are integrated in the design of user interfaces for CDSS, i.e. the model is an integrated model which we suggest as a guide for interaction design when working with preventing medication errors....

  1. Conceptualization and application of an approach for designing healthcare software interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Maskara, Reena; Maskara, Sanjeev; Chiang, I-Jen

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to conceptualize a novel approach, which facilitates us to design prototype interfaces for healthcare software. Concepts and techniques from various disciplines were used to conceptualize an interface design approach named MORTARS (Map Original Rhetorical To Adapted Rhetorical Situation). The concepts and techniques included in this approach are (1) rhetorical situation - a concept of philosophy provided by Bitzer (1968); (2) move analysis - an applied linguistic technique provided by Swales (1990) and Bhatia (1993); (3) interface design guidelines - a cognitive and computer science concept provided by Johnson (2010); (4) usability evaluation instrument - an interface evaluation questionnaire provided by Lund (2001); (5) user modeling via stereotyping - a cognitive and computer science concept provided by Rich (1979). A prototype interface for outpatient clinic software was designed to introduce the underlying concepts of MORTARS. The prototype interface was evaluated by thirty-two medical informaticians. The medical informaticians found the designed prototype interface to be useful (73.3%), easy to use (71.9%), easy to learn (93.1%), and satisfactory (53.2%). MORTARS approach was found to be effective in designing the prototype user interface for the outpatient clinic software. This approach might be further used to design interfaces for various software pertaining to healthcare and other domains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Moebius: An interface to web map services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Procházka

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Our article presents a concept of a geospatial search engine based on a Web Map Service (WMS compliant virtual mapserver. This virtual mapserver is able to index mapservers based on the WMS standard and create an unified interface to all shared map layers. Our presented approach also allows to search the map layers within the virtual mapserver and process the results directly in GIS tools.

  3. A computational method for sharp interface advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Jasak, Hrvoje

    2016-01-01

    We devise a numerical method for passive advection of a surface, such as the interface between two incompressible fluids, across a computational mesh. The method is called isoAdvector, and is developed for general meshes consisting of arbitrary polyhedral cells. The algorithm is based on the volume of fluid (VOF) idea of calculating the volume of one of the fluids transported across the mesh faces during a time step. The novelty of the isoAdvector concept consists of two parts. First, we exploit an isosurface concept for modelling the interface inside cells in a geometric surface reconstruction step. Second, from the reconstructed surface, we model the motion of the face–interface intersection line for a general polygonal face to obtain the time evolution within a time step of the submerged face area. Integrating this submerged area over the time step leads to an accurate estimate for the total volume of fluid transported across the face. The method was tested on simple two-dimensional and three-dimensional interface advection problems on both structured and unstructured meshes. The results are very satisfactory in terms of volume conservation, boundedness, surface sharpness and efficiency. The isoAdvector method was implemented as an OpenFOAM® extension and is published as open source. PMID:28018619

  4. A Computational Method for Sharp Interface Advection

    CERN Document Server

    Roenby, Johan; Jasak, Hrvoje

    2016-01-01

    We devise a numerical method for passive advection of a surface, such as the interface between two incompressible fluids, across a computational mesh. The method is called isoAdvector, and is developed for general meshes consisting of arbitrary polyhedral cells. The algorithm is based on the volume of fluid (VOF) idea of calculating the volume of one of the fluids transported across the mesh faces during a time step. The novelty of the isoAdvector concept consists in two parts: First, we exploit an isosurface concept for modelling the interface inside cells in a geometric surface reconstruction step. Second, from the reconstructed surface, we model the motion of the face-interface intersection line for a general polygonal face to obtain the time evolution within a time step of the submerged face area. Integrating this submerged area over the time step leads to an accurate estimate for the total volume of fluid transported across the face. The method was tested on simple 2D and 3D interface advection problems ...

  5. Operator interface for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  6. Ecological Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex human-machine systems is proposed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), is based on the skills, rules, knowledge taxonomy of cognitive control. The basic goal of EID is twofold: first, not to force processing...... of other approaches to interface design indicates that EID has a unique and significant contribution to make. Third, the results of an initial empirical evaluation also provide some preliminary support for the EID framework. Some issues for future research are outlined....

  7. The interface effect

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    Interfaces are back, or perhaps they never left. The familiar Socratic conceit from the Phaedrus, of communication as the process of writing directly on the soul of the other, has returned to center stage in today's discussions of culture and media. Indeed Western thought has long construed media as a grand choice between two kinds of interfaces. Following the optimistic path, media seamlessly interface self and other in a transparent and immediate connection. But, following the pessimistic path, media are the obstacles to direct communion, disintegrating self and other into misunderstanding

  8. The Java Legacy Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The Java Legacy Interface is designed to use Java for encapsulating native legacy code on small embedded platforms. We discuss why existing technologies for encapsulating legacy code (JNI) is not sufficient for an important range of small embedded platforms, and we show how the Java Legacy...... Interface offers this previously missing functionality. We describe an implementation of the Java Legacy Interface for a particular virtual machine, and how we have used this virtual machine to integrate Java with an existing, commercial, soft real-time, C/C++ legacy platform....

  9. Top ten list of user-hostile interface design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes ten of the most frequent ergonomic problems found in human-computer interfaces (HCIs) associated with complex industrial machines. In contrast with being thought of as ``user friendly,`` many of these machines are seen as exhibiting ``user-hostile`` attributes by the author. The historical lack of consistent application of ergonomic principles in the HCIs has led to a breed of very sophisticated, complex manufacturing equipment that few people can operate without extensive orientation, training, or experience. This design oversight has produced the need for extensive training programs and help documentation, unnecessary machine downtime, and reduced productivity resulting from operator stress and confusion. Ergonomic considerations affect industrial machines in at least three important areas: (1) the physical package including CRT and keyboard, maintenance access areas, and dedicated hardware selection, layout, and labeling; (2) the software by which the user interacts with the computer that controls the equipment; and (3) the supporting documentation.

  10. ChemPreview: an augmented reality-based molecular interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Waller, Mark P

    2017-05-01

    Human computer interfaces make computational science more comprehensible and impactful. Complex 3D structures such as proteins or DNA are magnified by digital representations and displayed on two-dimensional monitors. Augmented reality has recently opened another door to access the virtual three-dimensional world. Herein, we present an augmented reality application called ChemPreview with the potential to manipulate bio-molecular structures at an atomistic level. ChemPreview is available at https://github.com/wallerlab/chem-preview/releases, and is built on top of the Meta 1 platform https://www.metavision.com/. ChemPreview can be used to interact with a protein in an intuitive way using natural hand gestures, thereby making it appealing to computational chemists or structural biologists. The ability to manipulate atoms in real world could eventually provide new and more efficient ways of extracting structural knowledge, or designing new molecules in silico. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards New Interfaces for Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Murphy Martin

    2014-01-01

    Developing technology to help people teach and learn is an important topic in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). In this thesis we present three studies on this topic. In the first study, we demonstrate new games for learning mathematics and discuss the evidence for key design decisions from user studies. In the second study, we develop a real-time…

  12. Introduction to interfaces 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars Boje; Høgel, Christian; Borsa, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The Editors introduce Issue No. 3 of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures, dedicated to "Rediscovery and Canonization: The Roman Classics in the Middle Ages," and offer a general overview of the matter and contents of the contributions....

  13. Pattern formation at interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Giulio; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Applying modern nonlinear stability theory to problems of continuous media mechanics in the presence of interfaces, this text is relevant to materials science, chemical engineering, and heat transfer technologies, as well as to reaction-diffusion systems.

  14. Natural gesture interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubtsev, Illya

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes the implementation of the system of interaction with virtual objects based on gestures. The paper describes the common problems of interaction with virtual objects, specific requirements for the interfaces for virtual and augmented reality.

  15. User interface development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggrawal, Bharat

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the development of user interfaces for OS/2 versions of computer codes for the analysis of seals. Current status, new features, work in progress, and future plans are discussed.

  16. Lectures on random interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Funaki, Tadahisa

    2016-01-01

    Interfaces are created to separate two distinct phases in a situation in which phase coexistence occurs. This book discusses randomly fluctuating interfaces in several different settings and from several points of view: discrete/continuum, microscopic/macroscopic, and static/dynamic theories. The following four topics in particular are dealt with in the book. Assuming that the interface is represented as a height function measured from a fixed-reference discretized hyperplane, the system is governed by the Hamiltonian of gradient of the height functions. This is a kind of effective interface model called ∇φ-interface model. The scaling limits are studied for Gaussian (or non-Gaussian) random fields with a pinning effect under a situation in which the rate functional of the corresponding large deviation principle has non-unique minimizers. Young diagrams determine decreasing interfaces, and their dynamics are introduced. The large-scale behavior of such dynamics is studied from the points of view of the hyd...

  17. Interface-induced phenomena in magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Frances; Hoffmann, Axel; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Leighton, Chris; MacDonald, Allan H.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Arena, Dario A.; Dürr, Hermann A.; Fischer, Peter; Grollier, Julie; Heremans, Joseph P.; Jungwirth, Tomas; Kimel, Alexey V.; Koopmans, Bert; Krivorotov, Ilya N.; May, Steven J.; Petford-Long, Amanda K.; Rondinelli, James M.; Samarth, Nitin; Schuller, Ivan K.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Stiles, Mark D.; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Thiaville, André; Zink, Barry L.

    2017-04-01

    This article reviews static and dynamic interfacial effects in magnetism, focusing on interfacially driven magnetic effects and phenomena associated with spin-orbit coupling and intrinsic symmetry breaking at interfaces. It provides a historical background and literature survey, but focuses on recent progress, identifying the most exciting new scientific results and pointing to promising future research directions. It starts with an introduction and overview of how basic magnetic properties are affected by interfaces, then turns to a discussion of charge and spin transport through and near interfaces and how these can be used to control the properties of the magnetic layer. Important concepts include spin accumulation, spin currents, spin-transfer torque, and spin pumping. An overview is provided to the current state of knowledge and existing review literature on interfacial effects such as exchange bias, exchange-spring magnets, the spin Hall effect, oxide heterostructures, and topological insulators. The article highlights recent discoveries of interface-induced magnetism and noncollinear spin textures, nonlinear dynamics including spin-transfer torque and magnetization reversal induced by interfaces, and interfacial effects in ultrafast magnetization processes.

  18. Interface-Induced Phenomena in Magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Frances; Hoffmann, Axel; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Beach, Geoffrey S D; Fullerton, Eric E; Leighton, Chris; MacDonald, Allan H; Ralph, Daniel C; Arena, Dario A; Dürr, Hermann A; Fischer, Peter; Grollier, Julie; Heremans, Joseph P; Jungwirth, Tomas; Kimel, Alexey V; Koopmans, Bert; Krivorotov, Ilya N; May, Steven J; Petford-Long, Amanda K; Rondinelli, James M; Samarth, Nitin; Schuller, Ivan K; Slavin, Andrei N; Stiles, Mark D; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Thiaville, André; Zink, Barry L

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews static and dynamic interfacial effects in magnetism, focusing on interfacially-driven magnetic effects and phenomena associated with spin-orbit coupling and intrinsic symmetry breaking at interfaces. It provides a historical background and literature survey, but focuses on recent progress, identifying the most exciting new scientific results and pointing to promising future research directions. It starts with an introduction and overview of how basic magnetic properties are affected by interfaces, then turns to a discussion of charge and spin transport through and near interfaces and how these can be used to control the properties of the magnetic layer. Important concepts include spin accumulation, spin currents, spin transfer torque, and spin pumping. An overview is provided to the current state of knowledge and existing review literature on interfacial effects such as exchange bias, exchange spring magnets, spin Hall effect, oxide heterostructures, and topological insulators. The article highlights recent discoveries of interface-induced magnetism and non-collinear spin textures, non-linear dynamics including spin torque transfer and magnetization reversal induced by interfaces, and interfacial effects in ultrafast magnetization processes.

  19. Collaborative Windows – A User Interface Concept for Distributed Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Distributed collaboration is the work arrangement in which people distributed across different locations collaborate on achieving a common goal. One particular domain of work that has embraced distributed collaboration is software development. Global software development is the special kind...... where close collaboration and frequent meetings drive the work. One way to achieve this way of working is to implement the Scrum software development framework. Implementing Scrum in globalized context however, requires transforming the Scrum development methods to a distributed setup and extensive use...... of collaboration technologies. In this dissertation, I explore how novel collaboration technologies can support closely coupled distributed work such as that in distributed Scrum. This research is based on three different studies: an ethnographic field study of distributed Scrum between Danish and Indian software...

  20. Human computer interaction and communication aids for hearing-impaired, deaf and deaf-blind people: Introduction to the special thematic session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothe, Hans-Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives ail overview and extends the Special Thematic Session (STS) oil research and development of technologies for hearing-impaired, deaf, and deaf-blind people. The topics of the session focus oil special equipment or services to improve communication and human computer interaction. T....... The papers are related to visual communication using captions, sign language, speech-reading, to vibro-tactile stimulation, or to general services for hearing-impaired persons.......This paper gives ail overview and extends the Special Thematic Session (STS) oil research and development of technologies for hearing-impaired, deaf, and deaf-blind people. The topics of the session focus oil special equipment or services to improve communication and human computer interaction...

  1. Machine Learning in Proof General: Interfacing Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Komendantskaya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present ML4PG - a machine learning extension for Proof General. It allows users to gather proof statistics related to shapes of goals, sequences of applied tactics, and proof tree structures from the libraries of interactive higher-order proofs written in Coq and SSReflect. The gathered data is clustered using the state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms available in MATLAB and Weka. ML4PG provides automated interfacing between Proof General and MATLAB/Weka. The results of clustering are used by ML4PG to provide proof hints in the process of interactive proof development.

  2. High-level Component Interfaces for Collaborative Development: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.

  3. Diseño de interfaces de usuario como apoyo a las estrategias de aprendizaje User interfaces design to support the learning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leguízamo León Ana Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace referencia a la importancia que tiene el diseño de la interfaz de usuario en el desarrollo de un software educativo, haciendo énfasis en aquellos elementos de la Interacción Humano Computador (IHC que permiten potenciar las estrategias de aprendizaje en estos contextos. Se describen las funciones que debe cumplir una interfaz de usuario en un ambiente de aprendizaje y se definen principios y lineamientos para el diseño de estos ambientes. This paper refers the importance of designing the user interface in the development of educational software, with emphasis on those elements of the Human Computer Interaction (HCI to enhance learning strategies in these contexts. We describe the functions to be fulfilled by a user interface in a learning environment and define principles and guidelines for the design of these environments.

  4. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  5. Examining Trust, Forgiveness and Regret as Computational Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Stephen; Briggs, Pamela

    The study of trust has advanced tremendously in recent years, to the extent that the goal of a more unified formalisation of the concept is becoming feasible. To that end, we have begun to examine the closely related concepts of regret and forgiveness and their relationship to trust and its siblings. The resultant formalisation allows computational tractability in, for instance, artificial agents. Moreover, regret and forgiveness, when allied to trust, are very powerful tools in the Ambient Intelligence (AmI) security area, especially where Human Computer Interaction and concrete human understanding are key. This paper introduces the concepts of regret and forgiveness, exploring them from social psychological as well as a computational viewpoint, and presents an extension to Marsh's original trust formalisation that takes them into account. It discusses and explores work in the AmI environment, and further potential applications.

  6. Interfacing Sensors To Micro Controllers

    KAUST Repository

    Norain, Mohamed

    2018-01-15

    This lecture will cover the most common interface and interface techniques between sensors and microcontrollers. The presentation will introduce the pros and cons of each interface type including analogue, digital and serial output sensors. It will also cover the basic required electronics knowledge to help you in selecting and designing your next sensor to microcontroller interface.

  7. High-bandwidth memory interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chulwoo; Song, Junyoung

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in memory interface design at both the architecture and circuit levels. Coverage includes signal integrity and testing, TSV interface, high-speed serial interface including equalization, ODT, pre-emphasis, wide I/O interface including crosstalk, skew cancellation, and clock generation and distribution. Trends for further bandwidth enhancement are also covered.   • Enables readers with minimal background in memory design to understand the basics of high-bandwidth memory interface design; • Presents state-of-the-art techniques for memory interface design; • Covers memory interface design at both the circuit level and system architecture level.

  8. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  9. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...... history at large have been sparse. However, a small spate of publications appeared recently, so a reasonable number of papers are available. Hence this work-in-progress paints a portrait of the current history of user interfaces at large. The paper first describes a theoretical framework recruited from...... in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations...

  10. Augmented reality as a design tool for mobile interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Nielsen, Christina

    2000-01-01

    applications derived from the classification of augmented reality interfaces. The focus on physical interaction with objects of work and with the mobile device provides us with a range of interaction styles, based on e.g. gestures and manipulation of objects. Furthermore, issues of transparency and directness......This paper challenges user interface paradigms for mobile devices, by using the technical classification of augmented reality interfaces as a thinking tool to develop ideas for interaction with mobile devices. The paper presents future work scenarios from a wastewater treatment plant embodying PDA...... are addressed. The future scenarios indicate that the concepts of augmented reality support solving context problems in mobile design....

  11. Integration of the CMS web interface to a Web page

    OpenAIRE

    Čebašek, Jure

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is the integration of CMS web interface into an existing static HTML page that allows users to edit websites without knowledge of web languages and databases. At first, we present the CMS web interface, basic concepts and functions that enable such systems. We continue with a description of technologies, techniques and tools to achieve the desired solution of a given problem. The core of the thesis is the development of a web page using a CMS web interface. In the ...

  12. Interfaces tangibles pour le cinéma interactif

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Michael

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This article presents basic principles for the conception of an interface dedicated to manipulating the moving image. After a general discussion on human-machine communication and the innovation process, we describe and compare 6 projects realized between 2001 and 2010 in the field of computational cinema.; Cet article présente des principes de base pour la conception d'une interface destinée à manipuler l'image en mouvement. Après une discussion générale sur la commun...

  13. Guidelines for the integration of audio cues into computer user interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumikawa, D.A.

    1985-06-01

    Throughout the history of computers, vision has been the main channel through which information is conveyed to the computer user. As the complexities of man-machine interactions increase, more and more information must be transferred from the computer to the user and then successfully interpreted by the user. A logical next step in the evolution of the computer-user interface is the incorporation of sound and thereby using the sense of ''hearing'' in the computer experience. This allows our visual and auditory capabilities to work naturally together in unison leading to more effective and efficient interpretation of all information received by the user from the computer. This thesis presents an initial set of guidelines to assist interface developers in designing an effective sight and sound user interface. This study is a synthesis of various aspects of sound, human communication, computer-user interfaces, and psychoacoustics. We introduce the notion of an earcon. Earcons are audio cues used in the computer-user interface to provide information and feedback to the user about some computer object, operation, or interaction. A possible construction technique for earcons, the use of earcons in the interface, how earcons are learned and remembered, and the affects of earcons on their users are investigated. This study takes the point of view that earcons are a language and human/computer communication issue and are therefore analyzed according to the three dimensions of linguistics; syntactics, semantics, and pragmatics.

  14. Interface or Interlace?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Wamberg, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Departing from an analysis of the computer's indeterminate location between medium and machine, this paper problematises the idea of a clear-cut interface in complex computing, especially Augmented Reality. The idea and pratice of the interface is derived from the medium as a representational...... surface and thus demands the overview of an autonomous consciouness. Instead we introduce the term interlace, a mingling of representational and physical levels, thus describing the computer's ambiguous blending of imaginary and real. The proposition is demonstrated through analysis of different recent...

  15. UIL -User Interface Language

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, J; CERN. Geneva

    1990-01-01

    Some widget examples, widget categories, the push button widget, menus, the FORM widget, using UIL for an application program, the MOTIF Resource Manager (MRM), execution thread of an application using UIL and MRM, opening hierarchies, binding UIL names to application addresses, fetching widget hierarchies and managing them, changing widget resources using UIL and MRM, fetching literal values from the UID file. Introduction to the User Interface Language, defining a user interface, advantages of using UIL, accessing UID files from the application, UIL Syntax, the UIL module structure, defining a widget instance hierarchy, declaration of literals colors, icons, fonts

  16. Politics at the interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannabiran, Gobinaath; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2010-01-01

    the process of design and into how users interact with the designed product on a day-to-day basis. This paper is an attempt to call to attention the need for a new set of methods, attitudes and approaches, along with the existing, to discuss, analyze and reflect upon the politics at the interface....... By presenting a critical analysis of two design cases, we elicit the importance of such an agenda and the implications for design in doing so. We use the Foucauldian notion of power to analyze the power relationships in these two cases and to articulate the politics at the interface. We conclude by emphasizing...

  17. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  18. Mathematical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: ·         simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure ·         by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics ·         together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective ·         to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...

  19. Does Humanity Matter? Analyzing the Importance of Social Cues and Perceived Agency of a Computer System for the Emergence of Social Reactions during Human-Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Appel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies have repeatedly shown that autonomous artificial entities elicit social behavior on the part of the human interlocutor. Various theoretical approaches have tried to explain this phenomenon. The agency assumption states that the social influence of human interaction partners (represented by avatars will always be higher than the influence of artificial entities (represented by embodied conversational agents. Conversely, the Ethopoeia concept predicts that automatic social reactions are triggered by situations as soon as they include social cues. Both theories have been challenged in a 2×2 between subjects design with two levels of agency (low: agent, high: avatar and two interfaces with different degrees of social cues (low: textchat, high: virtual human. The results show that participants in the virtual human condition reported a stronger sense of mutual awareness, imputed more positive characteristics, and allocated more attention to the virtual human than participants in the text chat conditions. Only one result supports the agency assumption; participants who believed to interact with a human reported a stronger feeling of social presence than participants who believed to interact with an artificial entity. It is discussed to what extent these results support the social cue assumption made in the Ethopoeia approach.

  20. User-Computer Interfaces for Scientific Communication: the Concept of Habitable Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchanau, A.V.

    Developments in computer technology have changed the way we communicate in general and in science in particular. These developments enable the increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of the communication. The actual increase will depend also on the fit between technology and people who are

  1. Physical modelling of interactions between interfaces and turbulence; Modelisation physique des interactions entre interfaces et turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutant, A

    2006-12-15

    The complex interactions between interfaces and turbulence strongly impact the flow properties. Unfortunately, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) have to entail a number of degrees of freedom proportional to the third power of the Reynolds number to correctly describe the flow behaviour. This extremely hard constraint makes it impossible to use DNS for industrial applications. Our strategy consists in using and improving DNS method in order to develop the Interfaces and Sub-grid Scales concept. ISS is a two-phase equivalent to the single-phase Large Eddy Simulation (LES) concept. The challenge of ISS is to integrate the two-way coupling phenomenon into sub-grid models. Applying a space filter, we have exhibited correlations or sub-grid terms that require closures. We have shown that, in two-phase flows, the presence of a discontinuity leads to specific sub-grid terms. Comparing the maximum of the norm of the sub-grid terms with the maximum of the norm of the advection tensor, we have found that sub-grid terms related to interfacial forces and viscous effect are negligible. Consequently, in the momentum balance, only the sub-grid terms related to inertia have to be closed. Thanks to a priori tests performed on several DNS data, we demonstrate that the scale similarity hypothesis, reinterpreted near discontinuity, provides sub-grid models that take into account the two-way coupling phenomenon. These models correspond to the first step of our work. Indeed, in this step, interfaces are smooth and, interactions between interfaces and turbulence occur in a transition zone where each physical variable varies sharply but continuously. The next challenge has been to determine the jump conditions across the sharp equivalent interface corresponding to the sub-grid models of the transition zone. We have used the matched asymptotic expansion method to obtain the jump conditions. The first tests on the velocity of the sharp equivalent interface are very promising (author)

  2. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  3. The Liquid Vapour Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid-vapour interface, i.e. from the bulk density of the liquid to the essentially zero density of the vapour phase. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from...

  4. Source interface for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    This interface is part of the ALICE detector data link (DDL), which transmits data at 100 Mbytes/sec from the detectors to a host computer. A total of 400 DDLs will be installed on ALICE. These silicon devices have been developed especially for use in the high radiation levels produced in detector environments.

  5. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live...

  6. A Thermistor Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Gary D.; Dowden, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of a precalibrated stainless steel thermistor, interfaced with an Apple computer, in chemistry experiments. Discusses the advantages of "instant" temperature readings in experiments requiring that readings be taken at certain intervals. Outlines such an experiment which investigates freezing point depressions. (TW)

  7. Interface transfer of equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashton, I.J.

    1989-04-01

    This article details the interface transfer of heavy-duty face equipment from 5's to 6's face in the Great Row Seam at Silverdale Colliery, British Coal, Western Area. The salvaged face was roofbolted using leg-mounted Wombat drilling rigs. All heavy-duty equipment was transported by FSV's. 5 figs.

  8. Introduction to 'Interfaces' 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Editors introduce Issue No. 3 of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures, dedicated to "Rediscovery and Canonization: The Roman Classics in the Middle Ages," and offer a general overview of the matter and contents of the contributions.

  9. Is the interface OK?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.

    When a peripheral device fails, software methods can be initially resorted to before the usual hardware test procedures are used. A test program is presented here that allows various peripherals, inter-faced to a Norsk Data computer, to be tested...

  10. Workflow User Interfaces Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vanderdonckt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una colección de patrones de diseño de interfaces de usuario para sistemas de información para el flujo de trabajo; la colección incluye cuarenta y tres patrones clasificados en siete categorías identificados a partir de la lógica del ciclo de vida de la tarea sobre la base de la oferta y la asignación de tareas a los responsables de realizarlas (i. e. recursos humanos durante el flujo de trabajo. Cada patrón de la interfaz de usuario de flujo de trabajo (WUIP, por sus siglas en inglés se caracteriza por las propiedades expresadas en el lenguaje PLML para expresar patrones y complementado por otros atributos y modelos que se adjuntan a dicho modelo: la interfaz de usuario abstracta y el modelo de tareas correspondiente. Estos modelos se especifican en un lenguaje de descripción de interfaces de usuario. Todos los WUIPs se almacenan en una biblioteca y se pueden recuperar a través de un editor de flujo de trabajo que vincula a cada patrón de asignación de trabajo a su WUIP correspondiente.A collection of user interface design patterns for workflow information systems is presented that contains forty three resource patterns classified in seven categories. These categories and their corresponding patterns have been logically identified from the task life cycle based on offering and allocation operations. Each Workflow User Interface Pattern (WUIP is characterized by properties expressed in the PLML markup language for expressing patterns and augmented by additional attributes and models attached to the pattern: the abstract user interface and the corresponding task model. These models are specified in a User Interface Description Language. All WUIPs are stored in a library and can be retrieved within a workflow editor that links each workflow pattern to its corresponding WUIP, thus giving rise to a user interface for each workflow pattern.

  11. New Year, new interface for EDMS!

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Some of you may already have made the leap to the new EDMS6 interface and be benefitting from the additional functionality and new design it has to offer. But for those who haven’t, you will be able to do so as of Wednesday 28 January when EDMS6 becomes the default interface.    EDMS is the de facto interface for all engineering related data and more. There are currently more than 1.5 million documents and over 2 million files stored there. What’s new in EDMS6? While we have kept the key concepts, we have introduced more functionality and improved navigation within the interface, allowing for better performance to help you in your daily work. We have also added a personal slant to EDMS6 so that you can now customise your list of favourite objects. Modifying data in EDMS is much simpler, allowing you to view all object data in a single window. For example, files can be added to documents with a simple drag and drop and you can now request access to documents...

  12. Adaptive interface for personalizing information seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S; Koppaka, Lavanya; Edala, Narasimha; Loritz, Don; Daley, Raymond

    2004-12-01

    An adaptive interface autonomously adjusts its display and available actions to current goals and abilities of the user by assessing user status, system task, and the context. Knowledge content adaptability is needed for knowledge acquisition and refinement tasks. In the case of knowledge content adaptability, the requirements of interface design focus on the elicitation of information from the user and the refinement of information based on patterns of interaction. In such cases, the emphasis on adaptability is on facilitating information search and knowledge discovery. In this article, we present research on adaptive interfaces that facilitates personalized information seeking from a large data warehouse. The resulting proof-of-concept system, called source recommendation system (SRS), assists users in locating and navigating data sources in the repository. Based on the initial user query and an analysis of the content of the search results, the SRS system generates a profile of the user tailored to the individual's context during information seeking. The user profiles are refined successively and are used in progressively guiding the user to the appropriate set of sources within the knowledge base. The SRS system is implemented as an Internet browser plug-in to provide a seamless and unobtrusive, personalized experience to the users during the information search process. The rationale behind our approach, system design, empirical evaluation, and implications for research on adaptive interfaces are described in this paper.

  13. Interface Pattern Selection Criterion for Cellular Structures in Directional Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, R.; Tewari, S. N.; Kurtze, D.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to establish key scientific concepts that govern the selection of cellular and dendritic patterns during the directional solidification of alloys. We shall first address scientific concepts that are crucial in the selection of interface patterns. Next, the results of ground-based experimental studies in the Al-4.0 wt % Cu system will be described. Both experimental studies and theoretical calculations will be presented to establish the need for microgravity experiments.

  14. Prototyping of user interfaces for mobile applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bähr, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates processes for the prototyping of user interfaces for mobile apps, and describes the development of new concepts and tools that can improve the prototype driven app development in the early stages. It presents the development and evaluation of a new requirements catalogue for prototyping mobile app tools that identifies the most important criteria such tools should meet at different prototype-development stages. This catalogue is not just a good point of orientation for designing new prototyping approaches, but also provides a set of metrics for a comparing the performance of alternative prototyping tools. In addition, the book discusses the development of Blended Prototyping, a new approach for prototyping user interfaces for mobile applications in the early and middle development stages, and presents the results of an evaluation of its performance, showing that it provides a tool for teamwork-oriented, creative prototyping of mobile apps in the early design stages.

  15. Interface areas complexity characterization of echographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capri, Arnaud [LVR, Orleans University, IUT de Bourges, 63 avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges (France); SINTERS GROUP SAS, 5 rue Paul Mesple, BP 1311, 31106 ToulouseCedex 01 (France)]. E-mail: Arnaud.Capri@bourges.univ-orleans.fr; Vincent, Nicole [CRIP5-SIP, Rene Descartes University-Paris 5, 45 rue des Saints-Peres, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Vieyres, Pierre [LVR, Orleans University, IUT de Bourges, 63 avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges (France); Poisson, Gerard [LVR, Orleans University, IUT de Bourges, 63 avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges (France); Makris, Pascal [LI, University Francois Rabelais of Tours, 64 avenue Jean Portalis, 37200 Tours (France)

    2006-12-20

    The telemedicine concept integrates images, video acquisition and video transfer which are usually managed by using a standard videoconference system. Very often, the initial blur of echography pictures makes it difficult to use standard segmentation techniques such as snakes or Sobel filters which aid the doctor in making his decision. In medical echography practice, contour properties of an organ are often more relevant to decipher the presence of pathologies than the exact lineout of the contour itself. The processing, via the fuzzy approach, enables us to subdivide an image in different classes: one gathering the homogeneous zones (pixels belonging to a medium) and the other gathering more heterogeneous zones (e.g. transition between two media). Complexity measurement of each region can be approximated by the calculation of a fractal dimension. Thus, we can obtain interface complexity without having to extract the interfaces themselves. Finally, the link between fractal dimension and fuzzy rate is carried out.

  16. Reducing wrong patient selection errors: exploring the design space of user interface techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopan, Awalin; Plaisant, Catherine; Powsner, Seth; Shneiderman, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Wrong patient selection errors are a major issue for patient safety; from ordering medication to performing surgery, the stakes are high. Widespread adoption of Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems makes patient selection using a computer screen a frequent task for clinicians. Careful design of the user interface can help mitigate the problem by helping providers recall their patients' identities, accurately select their names, and spot errors before orders are submitted. We propose a catalog of twenty seven distinct user interface techniques, organized according to a task analysis. An associated video demonstrates eighteen of those techniques. EHR designers who consider a wider range of human-computer interaction techniques could reduce selection errors, but verification of efficacy is still needed.

  17. XUIMS the X-Window User Interface Management System at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Eynden, M

    1995-01-01

    The CERN X-Window User Interface Management System (XUIMS) is a modular and highly configurable software development environment allowing the interactive design, prototyping, and production of OSF/Motif Human Computer Interfaces (HCI). Fully compliant with the X11R5 and OSF/Motif industry standards, XUIMS covers complex software areas like the development of schematics, the visualization and on-line interactions with 2D and 3D scientific data, the display of relational database data, and the direct access to CERN SPS and LEP accelerators equipment. The guarantee of consistency across the applications and the encapsulation of complex functionality in re-usable and user-friendly components has also been implemented through the development of home made graphical objects (widgets) and templates. The XUIMS environment is built with commercial software products integrated in the CERN SPS and LEP controls infrastructure with a very limited home-made effort. Productivity and quality have been improved through less co...

  18. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    When designing a user interface for a simulation model there are several important issues to consider: Who is the target user group, and which a priori information can be expected. What questions do the users want answers to and what questions are answered using a specific model?When developing...... and output variables. This feature requires special attention when designing the user interface and a special approach for controlling the user selection of input and output variables are developed. To obtain a consistent system description the different input variables are grouped corresponding...... the consequence that the user does not have to specify any start guesses, etc.The design approach developed have resulted in a number of simulation tools which allow users with limited theoretical knowledge about refrigeration systems, mathematical models and simulation to use them while the expert users still...

  19. Popeye Project: ROV interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scates, C.R. [Shell Oil Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States); Hickok, D.D. [Dvaerner FSSL Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Hernandez, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    The Popeye Project in the Gulf of Mexico helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deepwater subsea production systems. Some of the many successful ROV operations during installation and completion were {open_quotes}first-of-it`s-kind{close_quotes} activities-enabled by many technical advances. The use and reliance upon ROV systems for support of deepwater drilling and installation operations significantly increased in the past 10 years. Shell Offshore Inc.`s (SOI) confidence in this increased capability was an important factor in many of the design decisions which characterized the innovative system. Technology advancements, which depended on effective ROV intervention, were implemented with no significant difficulties. These advancements, in particular the flying leads and seabed position methods, are available to the industry for other deepwater subsea systems. In addition, several Popeye ROV interfaces have helped advance the subsea standardization initiative; e.g., hot stabs, torque-tool end effectors, and paint color.

  20. Embodiment and Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Andreas Lindegaard; Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses – based on neurological and phenomenological theory - how the human embodiment supports and constrains the interaction between players and video games. It analyses embodied interaction with the specific hardware/software configuration of the Nintendo Wii and Wii Tennis as well...... of the player as patient, i.e. being the object of another agent’s actions.  Keywords: Video games, embodiment, interface, agency, action, control, cognition  ...

  1. Noise at the Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The notion of noise occupies a contested territory, in which it is framed as pollution and detritus even as it makes its opposite a possibility - noise is always defined in opposition to something else, even if this ‘other’ is not quite clear. This paper explores noise in the context of ‘the...... interface’ asking what its affordances as an idea may contribute to our understanding of interface. I draw historically on information theory in particular to initiate this exploration....

  2. SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Angel; Raines, Matthew; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Mata, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have very limited diagnostic and no prognostic capabilities, while current smart sensor designs do not have the capability to communicate over Fieldbus networks. The aim is to interface smart sensors with PLCs so that health and status information, such as failure mode identification and measurement tolerance, can be communicated via an industrial Fieldbus such as ControlNet. The SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface (SIFI) is an embedded device that acts as a communication module in a networked smart sensor. The purpose is to enable a smart sensor to communicate health and status information to other devices, such as PLCs, via an industrial Fieldbus networking protocol. The SNE (Smart Network Element) is attached to a commercial off-the-shelf Any bus-S interface module through the SIFI. Numerous Anybus-S modules are available, each one designed to interface with a specific Fieldbus. Development of the SIFI focused on communications using the ControlNet protocol, but any of the Anybus-S modules can be used. The SIFI communicates with the Any-bus module via a data buffer and mailbox system on the Anybus module, and supplies power to the module. The Anybus module transmits and receives data on the Fieldbus using the proper protocol. The SIFI is intended to be connected to other existing SNE modules in order to monitor the health and status of a transducer. The SIFI can also monitor aspects of its own health using an onboard watchdog timer and voltage monitors. The SIFI also has the hardware to drive a touchscreen LCD (liquid crystal display) unit for manual configuration and status monitoring.

  3. Standard interface file handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States))

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  4. Metaphors for Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    00 00 METAPHORS FOR INTERFACE DESIGN Edwin Hutchins April 1987 ICS Report 8703 COGNITIVE SCIENCE IZET INTTT FOR CONTV SCINC UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA...systems. Schneiderman (1982, 1983) coined the term " direct manipulation" to refer to these sys- tems. The technology on which these s)stems are based has...Weitsma., IA press) a reidr nlavigtiom tralnlng yam and a ’ direct manmpulatlon statistical analysis tuftt (Owam 1966) Until ncmady. bewevr we have

  5. Interfaces of Propylene Carbonate

    OpenAIRE

    You, Xinli; Chaudhari, Mangesh I.; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Pesika, Noshir; Aritakula, Kalika M.; Rick, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Propylene carbonate (PC) wets graphite with a contact angle of 31 deg at ambient conditions. Molecular dynamics simulations agree with this contact angle after 40% reduction of the strength of graphite-C atom Lennard-Jones interactions with the solvent, relative to the models used initially. A simulated nano-scale PC droplet on graphite displays a pronounced layering tendency and an Aztex pyramid structure for the droplet. Extrapolation of the computed tensions of PC liquid-vapor interface es...

  6. Interface Microstructures in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, Francisca

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper constitutes a compilation as well as an interpretation of the present state of knowledge about the different microstructures developed in the interface areas of concrete, that is, the cement paste-aggregates, the cement paste-reinforcement, the cement paste-fiber, etc. The Chemical reactions taking place in interface areas, the development and morphology of such areas and their strength ^since interfaces are taken as the weakest points of concrete are the aspects dealt with in some detail in this work.

    El presente trabajo constituye un resumen y también una interpretación del estado actual del conocimiento respecto de las diferentes microestructuras que se desarrollan en las zonas interfaciales de los hormigones, es decir: pasta de cemento-áridos, pasta de cemento-armaduras, pasta de cemento-fibras, etc. Las reacciones químicas que tienen lugar en la zona interfacial, el desarrollo y morfología de dicha zona y su resistencia (las interfases se consideran como uno de los puntos débiles del hormigón son los aspectos que con cierto detalle se tratan en el trabajo.

  7. A Universal Intelligent System-on-Chip Based Sensor Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ferri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for real-time/reliable/low-maintenance distributed monitoring systems, e.g., wireless sensor networks, has been becoming more and more evident in many applications in the environmental, agro-alimentary, medical, and industrial fields. The growing interest in technologies related to sensors is an important indicator of these new needs. The design and the realization of complex and/or distributed monitoring systems is often difficult due to the multitude of different electronic interfaces presented by the sensors available on the market. To address these issues the authors propose the concept of a Universal Intelligent Sensor Interface (UISI, a new low-cost system based on a single commercial chip able to convert a generic transducer into an intelligent sensor with multiple standardized interfaces. The device presented offers a flexible analog and/or digital front-end, able to interface different transducer typologies (such as conditioned, unconditioned, resistive, current output, capacitive and digital transducers. The device also provides enhanced processing and storage capabilities, as well as a configurable multi-standard output interface (including plug-and-play interface based on IEEE 1451.3. In this work the general concept of UISI and the design of reconfigurable hardware are presented, together with experimental test results validating the proposed device.

  8. A universal intelligent system-on-chip based sensor interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoli, Virgilio; Mondini, Alessio; Mazzolai, Barbara; Ferri, Gabriele; Dario, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The need for real-time/reliable/low-maintenance distributed monitoring systems, e.g., wireless sensor networks, has been becoming more and more evident in many applications in the environmental, agro-alimentary, medical, and industrial fields. The growing interest in technologies related to sensors is an important indicator of these new needs. The design and the realization of complex and/or distributed monitoring systems is often difficult due to the multitude of different electronic interfaces presented by the sensors available on the market. To address these issues the authors propose the concept of a Universal Intelligent Sensor Interface (UISI), a new low-cost system based on a single commercial chip able to convert a generic transducer into an intelligent sensor with multiple standardized interfaces. The device presented offers a flexible analog and/or digital front-end, able to interface different transducer typologies (such as conditioned, unconditioned, resistive, current output, capacitive and digital transducers). The device also provides enhanced processing and storage capabilities, as well as a configurable multi-standard output interface (including plug-and-play interface based on IEEE 1451.3). In this work the general concept of UISI and the design of reconfigurable hardware are presented, together with experimental test results validating the proposed device.

  9. The Impact of User Interface on Young Children's Computational Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugnali, Alex; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: Over the past few years, new approaches to introducing young children to computational thinking have grown in popularity. This paper examines the role that user interfaces have on children's mastery of computational thinking concepts and positive interpersonal behaviors. Background: There is a growing pressure to begin teaching…

  10. Automation Interfaces of the Orion GNC Executive Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes Orion mission's automation Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) architecture and interfaces. The contents include: 1) Orion Background; 2) Shuttle/Orion Automation Comparison; 3) Orion Mission Sequencing; 4) Orion Mission Sequencing Display Concept; and 5) Status and Forward Plans.

  11. Taming the plasma-material interface with the snowflake divertor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V A

    2015-04-24

    Experiments in several tokamaks have provided increasing support for the snowflake configuration as a viable tokamak heat exhaust concept. This white paper summarizes the snowflake properties predicted theoretically and studied experimentally, and identifies outstanding issues to be resolved in existing and future facilities before the snowflake divertor can qualify for the reactor interface.

  12. Flexible Transport Network Expansion via Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Skjoldstrup, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a successful test-bed implementation of a multi-vendor transport network interconnection via open WDM interfaces. The concept of applying Alien Wavelengths (AWs) for network expansion was successfully illustrated via deployment of multi-domain/multi-vendor end-to-end OTN...

  13. Human Machine Interface and Usability Issues: Exploring a Preliminary Mission Management System Evaluation Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kardos, Monique

    2001-01-01

    ...) concept demonstrator test during June 2000. The questionnaire was designed to examine usability and interface issues relating to the design of the systems or tools, and to provide suggestions for future iterations of the system...

  14. Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ali Asghar; Revie, Crawford; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of user interfaces to information retrieval systems focuses on interfaces that incorporate thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. Discusses research literature related to information searching behavior, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection, and query expansion; and compares thesaurus…

  15. Computer organization and design the hardware/software interface

    CERN Document Server

    Hennessy, John L

    1994-01-01

    Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface presents the interaction between hardware and software at a variety of levels, which offers a framework for understanding the fundamentals of computing. This book focuses on the concepts that are the basis for computers.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the computer revolution. This text then explains the concepts and algorithms used in modern computer arithmetic. Other chapters consider the abstractions and concepts in memory hierarchies by starting with the simplest possible cache. This book di

  16. Concept similarity and related categories in information retrieval using formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, P.; Ducrou, J.; Dau, F.

    2012-11-01

    The application of formal concept analysis to the problem of information retrieval has been shown useful but has lacked any real analysis of the idea of relevance ranking of search results. SearchSleuth is a program developed to experiment with the automated local analysis of Web search using formal concept analysis. SearchSleuth extends a standard search interface to include a conceptual neighbourhood centred on a formal concept derived from the initial query. This neighbourhood of the concept derived from the search terms is decorated with its upper and lower neighbours representing more general and special concepts, respectively. SearchSleuth is in many ways an archetype of search engines based on formal concept analysis with some novel features. In SearchSleuth, the notion of related categories - which are themselves formal concepts - is also introduced. This allows the retrieval focus to shift to a new formal concept called a sibling. This movement across the concept lattice needs to relate one formal concept to another in a principled way. This paper presents the issues concerning exploring, searching, and ordering the space of related categories. The focus is on understanding the use and meaning of proximity and semantic distance in the context of information retrieval using formal concept analysis.

  17. UMLS-Interface and UMLS-Similarity : Open Source Software for Measuring Paths and Semantic Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    McInnes, Bridget T.; Pedersen, Ted; Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.

    2009-01-01

    A number of computational measures for determining semantic similarity between pairs of biomedical concepts have been developed using various standards and programming platforms. In this paper, we introduce two new open-source frameworks based on the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These frameworks consist of the UMLS-Similarity and UMLS-Interface packages. UMLS-Interface provides path information about UMLS concepts. UMLS-Similarity calculates the semantic similarity between UMLS con...

  18. Productivity issues at organizational interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The need for close interdependence between large numbers of diverse and specialized work groups makes the Space Program extremely vulnerable to loss of productivity at organizational interfaces. Trends within the program also suggest that the number and diversity of interfaces will grow in the near term. Continued maintenance of R&D excellence will require that interface performance issues be included in any future productivity improvement effort. The types and characteristics of organizational interfaces are briefly presented, followed by a review of factors which impact their productivity. Approaches to assessing and improving interface effectiveness are also discussed.

  19. Task Models in the Context of User Interface Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwillus, Gerd

    Task models are widely used in the field of user interface development. They represent a human actor's performance or the co-operation of a group of people on or together with a system. For considerable time, it was an open problem in the field how to switch from the analyzing step of task analysis and modeling to the synthesizing step of user interface design. In the meantime, interesting approaches have shown up dealing with this problem and helping to bridge the gap between task modeling and user interface development. In this chapter, some of these approaches are discussed, together with recent concepts used to improve the usability of user interfaces based upon underlying task models.

  20. Transport processes at fluidic interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Reusken, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    There are several physico-chemical processes that determine the behavior of multiphase fluid systems – e.g., the fluid dynamics in the different phases and the dynamics of the interface(s), mass transport between the fluids, adsorption effects at the interface, and transport of surfactants on the interface – and result in heterogeneous interface properties. In general, these processes are strongly coupled and local properties of the interface play a crucial role. A thorough understanding of the behavior of such complex flow problems must be based on physically sound mathematical models, which especially account for the local processes at the interface. This book presents recent findings on the rigorous derivation and mathematical analysis of such models and on the development of numerical methods for direct numerical simulations. Validation results are based on specifically designed experiments using high-resolution experimental techniques. A special feature of this book is its focus on an interdisciplina...

  1. Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé’s parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms. PMID:25914439

  2. Films of bacteria at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Liana; Molaei, Mehdi; Niepa, Tagbo H R; Lee, Daeyeon; Leheny, Robert L; Stebe, Kathleen J

    2017-09-01

    Bacteria are often discussed as active colloids, self-propelled organisms whose collective motion can be studied in the context of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. In such studies, the behavior of bacteria confined to interfaces or in the proximity of an interface plays an important role. For instance, many studies have probed collective behavior of bacteria in quasi two-dimensional systems such as soap films. Since fluid interfaces can adsorb surfactants and other materials, the stress and velocity boundary conditions at interfaces can alter bacteria motion; hydrodynamic studies of interfaces with differing boundary conditions are reviewed. Also, bacteria in bulk can become trapped at or near fluid interfaces, where they colonize and form structures comprising secretions like exopolysaccharides, surfactants, living and dead bacteria, thereby creating Films of Bacteria at Interfaces (FBI). The formation of FBI is discussed at air-water, oil-water, and water-water interfaces, with an emphasis on film mechanics, and with some allusion to genetic functions guiding bacteria to restructure fluid interfaces. At air-water interfaces, bacteria form pellicles or interfacial biofilms. Studies are reviewed that reveal that pellicle material properties differ for different strains of bacteria, and that pellicle physicochemistry can act as a feedback mechanism to regulate film formation. At oil-water interfaces, a range of FBI form, depending on bacteria strain. Some bacteria-laden interfaces age from an initial active film, with dynamics dominated by motile bacteria, through viscoelastic states, to form an elastic film. Others remain active with no evidence of elastic film formation even at significant interface ages. Finally, bacteria can adhere to and colonize ultra-low surface tension interfaces such as aqueous-aqueous systems common in food industries. Relevant literature is reviewed, and areas of interest for potential application are discussed, ranging from health

  3. SOFC interface studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse; West, Keld

    performance and inductive hysteresis phenomena often observed in SOFC kinetic studies (\\ref{TJ01}). Fig.\\,\\ref{cath_laser} shows the YSZ surface developed below a Pt point electrode polarised at -0.10\\, V at $1000^\\circ$C for a period of 85 days. The structural as well as the compositional changes...... the anode (\\ref{Tine}) as well as the very high capacity contribution at low freqencies \\ref{Lasse97}. Considering the rough surface structure formed on the YSZ-cathode interface it is most likely that the reaction zone is not confined to the perimeter of the contact area. A significant contribution may...

  4. Interfacing with the Night

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Alex; Parkinson, Adam

    2014-01-01

    In  this  paper,  the  authors  consider  the  interfaces  between academia and dance music. Dance music and club culture are, we argue, important to computer music and the live performance of electronic music, but there are many different difficulties encountered when trying to present electronic dance music within academic contexts. The authors draw upon their experiences as promoters, performers, researchers and audience members to discuss these difficulties and how and why we might negoti...

  5. Bubble and drop interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miller

    2011-01-01

    The book aims at describing the most important experimental methods for characterizing liquid interfaces, such as drop profile analysis, bubble pressure and drop volume tensiometry, capillary pressure technique, and oscillating drops and bubbles. Besides the details of experimental set ups, also the underlying theoretical basis is presented in detail. In addition, a number of applications based on drops and bubbles is discussed, such as rising bubbles and the very complex process of flotation. Also wetting, characterized by the dynamics of advancing contact angles is discussed critically. Spec

  6. Space as interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    , social and cultural aspects towards space. As these dimensions are tied to the humans who experience the space, the designer can not directly influence and form the creation of place. This division puts attention to two gaps necessary to bridge. The first is the gap between physical and digital space...... multiple projects spanning over fields such as tangible user interfaces, augmented reality, and mobile computing, a conceptual framework characterizing camera-based mixed interaction spaces is developed. To show the applicability of the framework, it is deployed on one of the presented cases and discussed...

  7. Adhesion at metal interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A basic adhesion process is defined, the theory of the properties influencing metallic adhesion is outlined, and theoretical approaches to the interface problem are presented, with emphasis on first-principle calculations as well as jellium-model calculations. The computation of the energies of adhesion as a function of the interfacial separation is performed; fully three-dimensional calculations are presented, and universality in the shapes of the binding energy curves is considered. An embedded-atom method and equivalent-crystal theory are covered in the framework of issues involved in practical adhesion.

  8. Craft Physics Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This is a masters thesis (20p) in computer science at the University of Linköping. This thesis will give an introduction to what a physics engine is and what it consist of. It will put some engines under the magnifying glass and test them in a couple of runtime tests. Two cutting edge commercial physics engines have been examined, trying to predict the future of physics engines. From the research and test results, an interface for physics engine independency has been implemented for a company...

  9. Brain-computer interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A computer-implemented method of providing an interface between a user and a processing unit, the method comprising : presenting one or more stimuli to a user, each stimulus varying at a respective stimulation frequency, each stimulation frequency being associated with a respective user......-selectable input; receiving at least one signal indicative of brain activity of the user; and determining, from the received signal, which of the one or more stimuli the user attends to and selecting the user-selectable input associated with the stimulation frequency of the determined stimuli as being a user...

  10. Multiple network interface core apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Keith D [Albuquerque, NM; Hemmert, Karl Scott [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-04-26

    A network interface controller and network interface control method comprising providing a single integrated circuit as a network interface controller and employing a plurality of network interface cores on the single integrated circuit.

  11. WAVES VHDL interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, James P.

    1994-06-01

    The Waveform and Vector Exchange Specification (WAVES) is the Industry standard representation for digital stimulus and response for both the design and test communities. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is the Industry standard language for the design, modeling, and simulation of digital electronics. Together VHDL and WAVES provide powerful support for top-down design and test methodologies and concurrent engineering practices. Although the syntax of WAVES is a subset of VHDL, no special support for using WAVES in a VHDL environment is defined within the language. This report will introduce and describe a VHDL package that was developed at Rome Laboratory to provide a software interface to support the use of WAVES in a VHDL environment. This VHDL package is referred to as the WAVES VHDL interface and has been proposed as a standard practice for a top-down design and test methodology using WAVES and VHDL. This report is not intended to provide a tutorial on VHDL or WAVES. It is assumed that the reader has an adequate understanding of the VHDL language and some modeling techniques. Further, it is assumed that the reader has an understanding of the WAVES language and can follow a simple Level 1 dataset description.

  12. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  13. Interface Biology of Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebe, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Implants are widely used in various clinical disciplines to replace or stabilize organs. The challenge for the future is to apply implant materials to specifically control the biology of the surrounding tissue for repair and regeneration. This field of research is highly interdisciplinary and combines scientists from technical and life sciences disciplines. To successfully apply materials for regenerative processes in the body, the understanding of the mechanisms at the interface between cells or tissues and the artificial material is of critical importance. The research focuses on stem cells, design of material surfaces, and mechanisms of cell adhesion. For the third time around 200 scientists met in Rostock, Germany for the international symposium “Interface Biology of Implants.” The aim of the symposium is to promote the interdisciplinary dialogue between the scientists from the different disciplines to develop smart implants for medical use. In addition, researchers from basic sciences, notably cell biology presented new findings concerning mechanisms of cell adhesion to stimulate research in the applied field of implant technology. PMID:19690468

  14. Mysteries at Ice Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Samuel C., Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Michael Faraday noted that ``two pieces of thawing ice, if put together, adhere and become one...the effect will take place in air, or in water, or in vacuo." Why? He proposed that ``a particle of water, which could retain the liquid state whilst touching ice only on one side, could not retain the liquid state if it were touched by ice on both sides."footnote M. Faraday, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 10, 440 (1860) The existence of special properties at interfaces of ice is generally agreed and has important environmental consequences.(J. G. Dash, H. Fu, and J. S. Wettlaufer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 58), 115 (1995) Why do different experiments infer different properties for this layer? Impurities and electric fields at the interfaces may be responsible for some of the variations in experimental results.footnote V. F. Petrenko, U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report 94-22 (1994) Some background on the physical properties of ice will be discussed, including recent force microscopy measurements done at the University of Washington.footnote C.R. Slaughterbeck, E.W. Kukes, B. Pittenger, D.J. Cook, P.C. Williams, V.L. Eden, S.C. Fain, Jr., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (in press) Supported by NSF Grant DMR-91-19701.

  15. A Deported View Concept for Touch Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre; Andersen, Henning Boje; Fogh, Rune

    2013-01-01

    Following the paradigm shift where physical controls are replaced by touch-enabled surfaces, we report on an experimental evaluation of a user interface concept that allows touchscreen-based panels to be manipulated partially blindly (aircrafts, cars). The proposed multi-touch interaction strateg...... – involving visual front-view feedback to the user from a copy of the peripheral panel being manipulated – compares favourably against trackballs or head-down interactions.......Following the paradigm shift where physical controls are replaced by touch-enabled surfaces, we report on an experimental evaluation of a user interface concept that allows touchscreen-based panels to be manipulated partially blindly (aircrafts, cars). The proposed multi-touch interaction strategy...

  16. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-08-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  17. A new LabVIEW interface for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manduchi, G., E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Padova (Italy); De Marchi, E. [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University (Italy); Mandelli, A. [National Instruments (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Integration object oriented data access layer in LabVIEW. ► A new component of the MDSplus data acquisition package. ► A new approach in the graphical presentation of data acquisition systems. -- Abstract: The paper presents a new interface providing full integration of MDSplus in LabVIEW, based on the recent features of MDSplus, in particular, data streaming, multithreading and Object Oriented interface. Data streaming support fits into the data driven concept of LabVIEW and multithreading is a native concept in LabVIEW. The object oriented interface of MDSplus defines a set of classes which map specific functionality, such as Tree and TreeNode to represent pulse files and data items, respectively, and fits naturally into the LabVIEW Object Oriented programming interface (LVOOP) introduced in version 8.2. MDSplus objects have been mapped onto LabVIEW objects, which act as wrappers to the underlying MDSplus object instance. This approach allows exporting the full MDSplus functionality into LabVIEW retaining the language-independent system view provided by the MDSplus object oriented interface.

  18. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Mark G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  19. Porphyrins at interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwärter, Willi; Écija, David; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V.

    2015-02-01

    Porphyrins and other tetrapyrrole macrocycles possess an impressive variety of functional properties that have been exploited in natural and artificial systems. Different metal centres incorporated within the tetradentate ligand are key for achieving and regulating vital processes, including reversible axial ligation of adducts, electron transfer, light-harvesting and catalytic transformations. Tailored substituents optimize their performance, dictating their arrangement in specific environments and mediating the assembly of molecular nanoarchitectures. Here we review the current understanding of these species at well-defined interfaces, disclosing exquisite insights into their structural and chemical properties, and also discussing methods by which to manipulate their intramolecular and organizational features. The distinct characteristics arising from the interfacial confinement offer intriguing prospects for molecular science and advanced materials. We assess the role of surface interactions with respect to electronic and physicochemical characteristics, and describe in situ metallation pathways, molecular magnetism, rotation and switching. The engineering of nanostructures, organized layers, interfacial hybrid and bio-inspired systems is also addressed.

  20. Interfacing Ada and other languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffes, Paul; West, Brian

    1986-01-01

    Interfacing two separately developed compilers is a complex task. The complexity arises because few design standards exist for compiler development. This, coupled with the many complicated design decisions inherent in compiler construction, usually guarantees noncompatibility. The interface subroutine which would link the two different run time environments would resolve as many of the dissimilarities as possible. The differences that could not be resolved would be responsible for the restrictions placed on the interface. Albeit restrictions would exist, the resulting interface may be well worthwhile.