WorldWideScience

Sample records for human-computer interactions artificial

  1. Minimal mobile human computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Ali, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the widespread adoption of personal, mobile computing devices in everyday life, has allowed entry into a new technological era in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). The constant change of the physical and social context in a user's situation made possible by the portability of m

  2. What is the value of embedding artificial emotional prosody in human computer interactions? Implications for theory and design in psychological science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. C. Mitchell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In computerised technology, artificial speech is becoming increasingly important, and is already used in ATMs, online gaming and healthcare contexts. However, today’s artificial speech typically sounds monotonous, a main reason for this being the lack of meaningful prosody. One particularly important function of prosody is to convey different emotions. This is because successful encoding and decoding of emotions is vital for effective social cognition, which is increasingly recognised in human-computer interaction contexts. Current attempts to artificially synthesise emotional prosody are much improved relative to early attempts, but there remains much work to be done due to methodological problems, lack of agreed acoustic correlates, and lack of theoretical grounding. If the addition of synthetic emotional prosody is not of sufficient quality, it may risk alienating users instead of enhancing their experience. So the value of embedding emotion cues in artificial speech may ultimately depend on the quality of the synthetic emotional prosody. However, early evidence on reactions to synthesised nonverbal cues in the facial modality bodes well. Attempts to implement the recognition of emotional prosody into artificial applications and interfaces have perhaps been met with greater success, but the ultimate test of synthetic emotional prosody will be to critically compare how people react to synthetic emotional prosody vs. natural emotional prosody, at the behavioural, socio-cognitive and neural levels.

  3. What is the Value of Embedding Artificial Emotional Prosody in Human-Computer Interactions? Implications for Theory and Design in Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    In computerized technology, artificial speech is becoming increasingly important, and is already used in ATMs, online gaming and healthcare contexts. However, today's artificial speech typically sounds monotonous, a main reason for this being the lack of meaningful prosody. One particularly important function of prosody is to convey different emotions. This is because successful encoding and decoding of emotions is vital for effective social cognition, which is increasingly recognized in human-computer interaction contexts. Current attempts to artificially synthesize emotional prosody are much improved relative to early attempts, but there remains much work to be done due to methodological problems, lack of agreed acoustic correlates, and lack of theoretical grounding. If the addition of synthetic emotional prosody is not of sufficient quality, it may risk alienating users instead of enhancing their experience. So the value of embedding emotion cues in artificial speech may ultimately depend on the quality of the synthetic emotional prosody. However, early evidence on reactions to synthesized non-verbal cues in the facial modality bodes well. Attempts to implement the recognition of emotional prosody into artificial applications and interfaces have perhaps been met with greater success, but the ultimate test of synthetic emotional prosody will be to critically compare how people react to synthetic emotional prosody vs. natural emotional prosody, at the behavioral, socio-cognitive and neural levels.

  4. Language evolution and human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

  5. Language evolution and human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

  6. Deep architectures for Human Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noulas, A.K.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present the application of Conditional Restricted Boltzmann Machines in Human Computer Interaction. These provide a well suited framework to model the complex temporal patterns produced from humans in the audio and video modalities. They can be trained in a semisupervised fashion and

  7. Human Computer Interaction: An intellectual approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Saroha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the research that has been done in thefield of Human Computer Interaction (HCI relating tohuman psychology. Human-computer interaction (HCI isthe study of how people design, implement, and useinteractive computer systems and how computers affectindividuals, organizations, and society. This encompassesnot only ease of use but also new interaction techniques forsupporting user tasks, providing better access toinformation, and creating more powerful forms ofcommunication. It involves input and output devices andthe interaction techniques that use them; how information ispresented and requested; how the computer’s actions arecontrolled and monitored; all forms of help, documentation,and training; the tools used to design, build, test, andevaluate user interfaces; and the processes that developersfollow when creating Interfaces.

  8. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Paravati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  9. Fundamentals of human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Monk, Andrew F

    1985-01-01

    Fundamentals of Human-Computer Interaction aims to sensitize the systems designer to the problems faced by the user of an interactive system. The book grew out of a course entitled """"The User Interface: Human Factors for Computer-based Systems"""" which has been run annually at the University of York since 1981. This course has been attended primarily by systems managers from the computer industry. The book is organized into three parts. Part One focuses on the user as processor of information with studies on visual perception; extracting information from printed and electronically presented

  10. Introduction to human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Originally published in 1989 this title provided a comprehensive and authoritative introduction to the burgeoning discipline of human-computer interaction for students, academics, and those from industry who wished to know more about the subject. Assuming very little knowledge, the book provides an overview of the diverse research areas that were at the time only gradually building into a coherent and well-structured field. It aims to explain the underlying causes of the cognitive, social and organizational problems typically encountered when computer systems are introduced. It is clear and co

  11. A Glance into the Future of Human Computer Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Umer; Nazir, Sohail

    2011-01-01

    Computers have a direct impact on our lives nowadays. Human's interaction with the computer has modified with the passage of time as improvement in technology occurred the better the human computer interaction became. Today we are facilitated by the operating system that has reduced all the complexity of hardware and we undergo our computation in a very convenient way irrespective of the process occurring at the hardware level. Though the human computer interaction has improved but it's not done yet. If we come to the future the computer's role in our lives would be a lot more rather our life would be of the artificial intelligence. In our future the biggest resource would be component of time and wasting time for a key board entry or a mouse input would be unbearable so the need would be of the computer interaction environment that along with the complexity reduction also minimizes the time wastage in the human computer interaction. Accordingly in our future the computation would also be increased it would n...

  12. A Glance into the Future of Human Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Umer; Nazir, Sohail

    2011-01-01

    Computers have a direct impact on our lives nowadays. Human's interaction with the computer has modified with the passage of time as improvement in technology occurred the better the human computer interaction became. Today we are facilitated by the operating system that has reduced all the complexity of hardware and we undergo our computation in a very convenient way irrespective of the process occurring at the hardware level. Though the human computer interaction has improved but it's not done yet. If we come to the future the computer's role in our lives would be a lot more rather our life would be of the artificial intelligence. In our future the biggest resource would be component of time and wasting time for a key board entry or a mouse input would be unbearable so the need would be of the computer interaction environment that along with the complexity reduction also minimizes the time wastage in the human computer interaction. Accordingly in our future the computation would also be increased it would n...

  13. Human computer interaction using hand gestures

    CERN Document Server

    Premaratne, Prashan

    2014-01-01

    Human computer interaction (HCI) plays a vital role in bridging the 'Digital Divide', bringing people closer to consumer electronics control in the 'lounge'. Keyboards and mouse or remotes do alienate old and new generations alike from control interfaces. Hand Gesture Recognition systems bring hope of connecting people with machines in a natural way. This will lead to consumers being able to use their hands naturally to communicate with any electronic equipment in their 'lounge.' This monograph will include the state of the art hand gesture recognition approaches and how they evolved from their inception. The author would also detail his research in this area for the past 8 years and how the future might turn out to be using HCI. This monograph will serve as a valuable guide for researchers (who would endeavour into) in the world of HCI.

  14. Human-Computer Interaction The Agency Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, José

    2012-01-01

    Agent-centric theories, approaches and technologies are contributing to enrich interactions between users and computers. This book aims at highlighting the influence of the agency perspective in Human-Computer Interaction through a careful selection of research contributions. Split into five sections; Users as Agents, Agents and Accessibility, Agents and Interactions, Agent-centric Paradigms and Approaches, and Collective Agents, the book covers a wealth of novel, original and fully updated material, offering:   ü  To provide a coherent, in depth, and timely material on the agency perspective in HCI ü  To offer an authoritative treatment of the subject matter presented by carefully selected authors ü  To offer a balanced and broad coverage of the subject area, including, human, organizational, social, as well as technological concerns. ü  To offer a hands-on-experience by covering representative case studies and offering essential design guidelines   The book will appeal to a broad audience of resea...

  15. On the Rhetorical Contract in Human-Computer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    An exploration of the rhetorical contract--i.e., the expectations for appropriate interaction--as it develops in human-computer interaction revealed that direct manipulation interfaces were more likely to establish social expectations. Study results suggest that the social nature of human-computer interactions can be examined with reference to the…

  16. Human-Computer Interactions and Decision Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    software interfaces. The major components of the reseach program included the Diaiogue Management System. (DMS) operating environment, the role of...specification; and new methods for modeling, designing, and developing human-computer interfaces based on syntactic and semantic specification. The DMS...achieving communication is language. Accordingly, the transaction model employs a linguistic model consisting of parts that relate computer responses

  17. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  18. Human-computer interaction and management information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Galletta, Dennis F

    2014-01-01

    ""Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems: Applications"" offers state-of-the-art research by a distinguished set of authors who span the MIS and HCI fields. The original chapters provide authoritative commentaries and in-depth descriptions of research programs that will guide 21st century scholars, graduate students, and industry professionals. Human-Computer Interaction (or Human Factors) in MIS is concerned with the ways humans interact with information, technologies, and tasks, especially in business, managerial, organizational, and cultural contexts. It is distinctiv

  19. Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design...

  20. Human computer interaction issues in Clinical Trials Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starren, Justin B; Payne, Philip R O; Kaufman, David R

    2006-01-01

    Clinical trials increasingly rely upon web-based Clinical Trials Management Systems (CTMS). As with clinical care systems, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) issues can greatly affect the usefulness of such systems. Evaluation of the user interface of one web-based CTMS revealed a number of potential human-computer interaction problems, in particular, increased workflow complexity associated with a web application delivery model and potential usability problems resulting from the use of ambiguous icons. Because these design features are shared by a large fraction of current CTMS, the implications extend beyond this individual system.

  1. APPLYING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES TO HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERFACES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of UIMS (User Interface Management System), a system using a variety of artificial intelligence techniques to build knowledge-based user interfaces combining functionality and information from a variety of computer systems that maintain, test, and configure customer telephone...... and data networks. Three artificial intelligence (AI) techniques used in UIMS are discussed, namely, frame representation, object-oriented programming languages, and rule-based systems. The UIMS architecture is presented, and the structure of the UIMS is explained in terms of the AI techniques....

  2. APPLYING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES TO HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERFACES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of UIMS (User Interface Management System), a system using a variety of artificial intelligence techniques to build knowledge-based user interfaces combining functionality and information from a variety of computer systems that maintain, test, and configure customer telephone...... and data networks. Three artificial intelligence (AI) techniques used in UIMS are discussed, namely, frame representation, object-oriented programming languages, and rule-based systems. The UIMS architecture is presented, and the structure of the UIMS is explained in terms of the AI techniques....

  3. Formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de G.; Veer, van der G.C.; Vliet, van J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical contribution, elaborating the concept of models as used in Cognitive Ergonomics. A number of formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction will be reviewed and discussed. The analysis focusses on different related concepts of formal modelling techniques in hum

  4. The epistemology and ontology of human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes epistemological and ontological dimensions of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) through an analysis of the functions of computer systems in relation to their users. It is argued that the primary relation between humans and computer systems has historically been epistemic: computer

  5. Humans, computers and wizards human (simulated) computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Norman; McGlashan, Scott; Wooffitt, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Using data taken from a major European Union funded project on speech understanding, the SunDial project, this book considers current perspectives on human computer interaction and argues for the value of an approach taken from sociology which is based on conversation analysis.

  6. Visual Interpretation Of Hand Gestures For Human Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.Sahane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hand gestures provides an attractive alternative to cumbersome interface devices for human-computer interaction (HCI. In particular, visual interpretation of hand gestures can help in achieving the ease and naturalness desired for HCI. This discussion is organized on the basis of the method used for modeling, analyzing, and recognizing gestures. We propose pointing gesture-based large display interaction using a depth camera. A user interacts with applications for large display by using pointing gestures with the barehand. The calibration between large display and depth camera can be automatically performed by using RGB-D camera.. We also discuss implemented gestural systems as well as other potential applications of vision-based gesture recognition. We discuss directions of future research in gesture recognition, including its integration with other natural modes of human computer interaction.

  7. Study on Human-Computer Interaction in Immersive Virtual Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段红; 黄柯棣

    2002-01-01

    Human-computer interaction is one of the most important issues in research of Virtual Environments. This paper introduces interaction software developed for a virtual operating environment for space experiments. Core components of the interaction software are: an object-oriented database for behavior management of virtual objects, a software agent called virtual eye for viewpoint control, and a software agent called virtual hand for object manipulation. Based on the above components, some instance programs for object manipulation have been developed. The user can observe the virtual environment through head-mounted display system, control viewpoint by head tracker and/or keyboard, and select and manipulate virtual objects by 3D mouse.

  8. Human-Computer Interaction, Tourism and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.

    We present a state of the art of the human-computer interaction aimed at tourism and cultural heritage in some cities of the European Mediterranean. In the work an analysis is made of the main problems deriving from training understood as business and which can derail the continuous growth of the HCI, the new technologies and tourism industry. Through a semiotic and epistemological study the current mistakes in the context of the interrelations of the formal and factual sciences will be detected and also the human factors that have an influence on the professionals devoted to the development of interactive systems in order to safeguard and boost cultural heritage.

  9. Combining Natural Human-Computer Interaction and Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Gheorghe PENTIUC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present how human-computer interaction can be improved by using wireless communication between devices. Devices that offer a natural user interaction, like the Microsoft Surface Table and tablet PCs, can work together to enhance the experience of an application. Users can use physical objects for a more natural way of handling the virtual world on one hand, and interact with other users wirelessly connected on the other. Physical objects, that interact with the surface table, have a tag attached to them, allowing us to identify them, and take the required action. The TCP/IP protocol was used to handle the wireless communication over the wireless network. A server and a client application were developed for the used devices. To get a wide range of targeted mobile devices, different frameworks for developing cross platform applications were analyzed.

  10. Human-computer systems interaction backgrounds and applications 3

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikowski, Juliusz; Mroczek, Teresa; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    This book contains an interesting and state-of the art collection of papers on the recent progress in Human-Computer System Interaction (H-CSI). It contributes the profound description of the actual status of the H-CSI field and also provides a solid base for further development and research in the discussed area. The contents of the book are divided into the following parts: I. General human-system interaction problems; II. Health monitoring and disabled people helping systems; and III. Various information processing systems. This book is intended for a wide audience of readers who are not necessarily experts in computer science, machine learning or knowledge engineering, but are interested in Human-Computer Systems Interaction. The level of particular papers and specific spreading-out into particular parts is a reason why this volume makes fascinating reading. This gives the reader a much deeper insight than he/she might glean from research papers or talks at conferences. It touches on all deep issues that ...

  11. Advancements in Violin-Related Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Finesse is required while performing with many traditional musical instruments, as they are extremely responsive to human inputs. The violin is specifically examined here, as it excels at translating a performer’s gestures into sound in manners that evoke a wide range of affective qualities...... of human intelligence and emotion is at the core of the Musical Interface Technology Design Space, MITDS. This is a framework that endeavors to retain and enhance such traits of traditional instruments in the design of interactive live performance interfaces. Utilizing the MITDS, advanced Human......-Computer Interaction technologies for the violin are developed in order to allow musicians to explore new methods of creating music. Through this process, the aim is to provide musicians with control systems that let them transcend the interface itself, and focus on musically compelling performances....

  12. Interaction in Information Systems - Beyond Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and analyze the role of interaction in information systems. Interaction represents dynamic relations between actors and other elements in information systems. We introduce a semi-formal notation that we use to describe a set of interaction patterns and we...... illustrate how the notation can be used to describe mediated interaction. We use the interaction patterns to evaluate a set of modeling languages. No single language supports all relevant aspects of interaction modeling. We use the interaction patterns to identify to general and supplementary forms...... of interaction-interaction based on exchange of objects and interaction based on exchange of commands. None of the modeling languages that we analyze support both forms in a rich way....

  13. Human-computer interaction: psychology as a science of design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J M

    1997-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) study is the region of intersection between psychology and the social sciences, on the one hand, and computer science and technology, on the other. HCI researchers analyze and design specific user interface technologies (e.g. pointing devices). They study and improve the processes of technology development (e.g. task analysis, design rationale). They develop and evaluate new applications of technology (e.g. word processors, digital libraries). Throughout the past two decades, HCI has progressively integrated its scientific concerns with the engineering goal of improving the usability of computer systems and applications, which has resulted in a body of technical knowledge and methodology. HCI continues to provide a challenging test domain for applying and developing psychological and social theory in the context of technology development and use.

  14. Wearable joystick for gloves-on human/computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaewook; Voyles, Richard M.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary work on a novel wearable joystick for gloves-on human/computer interaction in hazardous environments. Interacting with traditional input devices can be clumsy and inconvenient for the operator in hazardous environments due to the bulkiness of multiple system components and troublesome wires. During a collapsed structure search, for example, protective clothing, uneven footing, and "snag" points in the environment can render traditional input devices impractical. Wearable computing has been studied by various researchers to increase the portability of devices and to improve the proprioceptive sense of the wearer's intentions. Specifically, glove-like input devices to recognize hand gestures have been developed for general-purpose applications. But, regardless of their performance, prior gloves have been fragile and cumbersome to use in rough environments. In this paper, we present a new wearable joystick to remove the wires from a simple, two-degree of freedom glove interface. Thus, we develop a wearable joystick that is low cost, durable and robust, and wire-free at the glove. In order to evaluate the wearable joystick, we take into consideration two metrics during operator tests of a commercial robot: task completion time and path tortuosity. We employ fractal analysis to measure path tortuosity. Preliminary user test results are presented that compare the performance of both a wearable joystick and a traditional joystick.

  15. Human Computer Interaction Approach in Developing Customer Relationship Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd H.N.M. Nasir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many published studies have found that more than 50% of Customer Relationship Management (CRM system implementations have failed due to the failure of system usability and does not fulfilled user expectation. This study presented the issues that contributed to the failures of CRM system and proposed a prototype of CRM system developed using Human Computer Interaction approaches in order to resolve the identified issues. Approach: In order to capture the users' requirements, a single in-depth case study of a multinational company was chosen in this research, in which the background, current conditions and environmental interactions were observed, recorded and analyzed for stages of patterns in relation to internal and external influences. Some techniques of blended data gathering which are interviews, naturalistic observation and studying user documentation were employed and then the prototype of CRM system was developed which incorporated User-Centered Design (UCD approach, Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA, metaphor and identification of users' behaviors and characteristics. The implementation of these techniques, were then measured in terms of usability. Results: Based on the usability testing conducted, the results showed that most of the users agreed that the system is comfortable to work with by taking the quality attributes of learnability, memorizeablity, utility, sortability, font, visualization, user metaphor, information easy view and color as measurement parameters. Conclusions/Recommendations: By combining all these techniques, a comfort level for the users that leads to user satisfaction and higher usability degree can be achieved in a proposed CRM system. Thus, it is important that the companies should put usability quality attribute into a consideration before developing or procuring CRM system to ensure the implementation successfulness of the CRM system.

  16. Effective Use of Human Computer Interaction in Digital Academic Supportive Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Thuseethan, S.; Kuhanesan, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, a literature in human-computer interaction is reviewed and the technology aspect of human computer interaction related with digital academic supportive devices is also analyzed. According to all these concerns, recommendations to design good human-computer digital academic supportive devices are analyzed and proposed. Due to improvements in both hardware and software, digital devices have unveiled continuous advances in efficiency and processing capacity. However, many of th...

  17. A Software Framework for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a software framework we designed and implemented for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface. The proposed framework is based on publish / subscribe architecture, which allows developers and researchers to conveniently configure, test and

  18. A Software Framework for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a software framework we designed and implemented for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface. The proposed framework is based on publish / subscribe architecture, which allows developers and researchers to conveniently configure, test and

  19. Design of Food Management Information System Based on Human-computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingkai Cui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Food safety problem is directly related with public health. This study takes the necessity of establishing food management information system as the breakthrough point, through the interpretation of the overview of human-computer interaction technology, as well as the conceptual framework of human-computer interaction, it discusses the construction of food management information system, expecting to promote China's food safety management process so as to guarantee public health guarantee.

  20. The human-computer interaction design of self-operated mobile telemedicine devices

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Shaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) is an important issue in the area of medicine, for example, the operation of surgical simulators, virtual rehabilitation systems, telemedicine treatments, and so on. In this thesis, the human-computer interaction of a self-operated mobile telemedicine device is designed. The mobile telemedicine device (i.e. intelligent Medication Box or iMedBox) is used for remotely monitoring patient health and activity information such as ECG (electrocardiogram) signals, hom...

  1. Human-Computer Interaction Software: Lessons Learned, Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    domain communi- Iatelligent s t s s Me cation. Users familiar with problem Inteligent support systes. High-func- anddomains but inxperienced with comput...8217i. April 1987, pp. 7.3-78. His research interests include artificial intel- Creating better HCI softw-are will have a 8. S.K Catrd. I.P. Moran. arid

  2. Applying systemic-structural activity theory to design of human-computer interaction systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bedny, Gregory Z; Bedny, Inna

    2015-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is an interdisciplinary field that has gained recognition as an important field in ergonomics. HCI draws on ideas and theoretical concepts from computer science, psychology, industrial design, and other fields. Human-Computer Interaction is no longer limited to trained software users. Today people interact with various devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and laptops. How can you make such interaction user friendly, even when user proficiency levels vary? This book explores methods for assessing the psychological complexity of computer-based tasks. It also p

  3. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Pokorný, Jaroslav; Snášel, Václav; Abraham, Ajith

    2013-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction 2011 (IHCI 2011) was held at Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic from August 29 - August 31, 2011. This conference was third in the series, following IHCI 2009 and IHCI 2010 held in January at IIIT Allahabad, India. Human computer interaction is a fast growing research area and an attractive subject of interest for both academia and industry. There are many interesting and challenging topics that need to be researched and discussed. This book aims to provide excellent opportunities for the dissemination of interesting new research and discussion about presented topics. It can be useful for researchers working on various aspects of human computer interaction. Topics covered in this book include user interface and interaction, theoretical background and applications of HCI and also data mining and knowledge discovery as a support of HCI applications.

  4. Human-computer interaction handbook fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This second edition of The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook provides an updated, comprehensive overview of the most important research in the field, including insights that are directly applicable throughout the process of developing effective interactive information technologies. It features cutting-edge advances to the scientific knowledge base, as well as visionary perspectives and developments that fundamentally transform the way in which researchers and practitioners view the discipline. As the seminal volume of HCI research and practice, The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook feature

  5. Situated dialog in speech-based human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Raux, Antoine; Lane, Ian; Misu, Teruhisa

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art in the practical implementation of Spoken Dialog Systems for applications in everyday settings. It includes contributions on key topics in situated dialog interaction from a number of leading researchers and offers a broad spectrum of perspectives on research and development in the area. In particular, it presents applications in robotics, knowledge access and communication and covers the following topics: dialog for interacting with robots; language understanding and generation; dialog architectures and modeling; core technologies; and the analysis of human discourse and interaction. The contributions are adapted and expanded contributions from the 2014 International Workshop on Spoken Dialog Systems (IWSDS 2014), where researchers and developers from industry and academia alike met to discuss and compare their implementation experiences, analyses and empirical findings.

  6. Adaptation of hybrid human-computer interaction systems using EEG error-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Biasiucci, Andrea; Forster, Killian; Roggen, Daniel; Troster, Gerhard; Millan, Jose Del R

    2010-01-01

    Performance improvement in both humans and artificial systems strongly relies in the ability of recognizing erroneous behavior or decisions. This paper, that builds upon previous studies on EEG error-related signals, presents a hybrid approach for human computer interaction that uses human gestures to send commands to a computer and exploits brain activity to provide implicit feedback about the recognition of such commands. Using a simple computer game as a case study, we show that EEG activity evoked by erroneous gesture recognition can be classified in single trials above random levels. Automatic artifact rejection techniques are used, taking into account that subjects are allowed to move during the experiment. Moreover, we present a simple adaptation mechanism that uses the EEG signal to label newly acquired samples and can be used to re-calibrate the gesture recognition system in a supervised manner. Offline analysis show that, although the achieved EEG decoding accuracy is far from being perfect, these signals convey sufficient information to significantly improve the overall system performance.

  7. Transnational HCI: Humans, Computers and Interactions in Global Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertesi, Janet; Lindtner, Silvia; Shklovski, Irina

    2011-01-01

    , but as evolving in relation to global processes, boundary crossings, frictions and hybrid practices. In doing so, we expand upon existing research in HCI to consider the effects, implications for individuals and communities, and design opportunities in times of increased transnational interactions. We hope...

  8. Enhancing Human-Computer Interaction Design Education: Teaching Affordance Design for Emerging Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Anthony; Matei, Sorin Adam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of human-computer interaction design (HCID) over the last 20 years suggests that there is a growing need for educational scholars to consider new and more applicable theoretical models of interactive product design. The authors suggest that such paradigms would call for an approach that would equip HCID students with a better…

  9. The Human-Computer Interaction of Cross-Cultural Gaming Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Joyram; Norcio, Anthony F.; Van Der Veer, Jacob J.; Andre, Charles F.; Miller, Zachary; Regelsberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the cultural dimensions of the human-computer interaction that underlies gaming strategies. The article is a desktop study of existing literature and is organized into five sections. The first examines the cultural aspects of knowledge processing. The social constructs technology interaction is discussed. Following this, the…

  10. A Project-Based Learning Setting to Human-Computer Interaction for Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Cornelia; Geisler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of fundamentals of human-computer interaction resp. usability engineering is getting more and more important in technical domains. However this interdisciplinary field of work and corresponding degree programs are not broadly known. Therefore at the Hochschule Ruhr West, University of Applied Sciences, a program was developed to give…

  11. HCI^2 Workbench: A Development Tool for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Wenzhe, Shi; Pantic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel software tool designed and implemented to simplify the development process of Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction (MHCI) systems. This tool, which is called the HCI^2 Workbench, exploits a Publish / Subscribe (P/S) architecture [13] [14] to facilitate efficient an

  12. A Framework and Implementation of User Interface and Human-Computer Interaction Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslak, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that up to 50 % of the effort in development of information systems is devoted to user interface development (Douglas, Tremaine, Leventhal, Wills, & Manaris, 2002; Myers & Rosson, 1992). Yet little study has been performed on the inclusion of important interface and human-computer interaction topics into a current…

  13. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews literature in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) as it applies to educational environments. Topics include the origin of HCI; human factors; usability; computer interface design; goals, operations, methods, and selection (GOMS) models; command language versus direct manipulation; hypertext; visual perception; interface…

  14. Towards a semio-cognitive theory of human-computer interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Scolari, Carlos Alberto

    2001-01-01

    The research here presented is theoretical and introduces a critical analysis of instrumental approaches in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). From a semiotic point of view interfaces are not "natural" or "neutral" instruments, but rather complex sense production devices. Interaction, in other words, is far from being a "transparent" process.In this abstract we present the fundaments of a theoretical model that combines Semiotics with Cognitive Science approaches.

  15. Real Time Multiple Hand Gesture Recognition System for Human Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth S. Rautaray

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of computing devices in day to day life, the need of user friendly interfaces has lead towards the evolution of different types of interfaces for human computer interaction. Real time vision based hand gesture recognition affords users the ability to interact with computers in more natural and intuitive ways. Direct use of hands as an input device is an attractive method which can communicate much more information by itself in comparison to mice, joysticks etc allowing a greater number of recognition system that can be used in a variety of human computer interaction applications. The gesture recognition system consist of three main modules like hand segmentation, hand tracking and gesture recognition from hand features. The designed system further integrated with different applications like image browser, virtual game etc. possibilities for human computer interaction. Computer Vision based systems has the potential to provide more natural, non-contact solutions. The present research work focuses on to design and develops a practical framework for real time hand gesture.

  16. AFFECTIVE AND EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION: Game-Based and Innovative Learning Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Askim GULUMBAY, Anadolu University, TURKEY

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computersupported learning and human-computer interactions.Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cognitive sciences, various aspects of communication and human computer interaction, interface design andcomputer science on one hand and educators and game industry on the other, this should open gates to evolutionary changes of the learning industry. The major topics discussed are emotions, motivation, games and game-experience.

  17. 08292 Abstracts Collection -- The Study of Visual Aesthetics in Human-Computer Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hassenzahl, Marc; Lindgaard, Gitte; Platz, Axel; Tractinsky, Noam

    2008-01-01

    From 13.07. to 16.07.2008, the Dagstuhl Seminar 08292 ``The Study of Visual Aesthetics in Human-Computer Interaction'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first secti...

  18. AFFECTIVE AND EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION: Game-Based and Innovative Learning Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    A. Askim GULUMBAY, Anadolu University, TURKEY

    2006-01-01

    This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computersupported learning and human-computer interactions.Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cogni...

  19. Cross-cultural human-computer interaction and user experience design a semiotic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Brejcha, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes patterns of language and culture in human-computer interaction (HCI). Through numerous examples, it shows why these patterns matter and how to exploit them to design a better user experience (UX) with computer systems. It provides scientific information on the theoretical and practical areas of the interaction and communication design for research experts and industry practitioners and covers the latest research in semiotics and cultural studies, bringing a set of tools and methods to benefit the process of designing with the cultural background in mind.

  20. Portable tongue-supported human computer interaction system design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Rohan; Khan, Masood Mehmood

    2014-01-01

    Tongue supported human-computer interaction (TSHCI) systems can help critically ill patients interact with both computers and people. These systems can be particularly useful for patients suffering injuries above C7 on their spinal vertebrae. Despite recent successes in their application, several limitations restrict performance of existing TSHCI systems and discourage their use in real life situations. This paper proposes a low-cost, less-intrusive, portable and easy to use design for implementing a TSHCI system. Two applications of the proposed system are reported. Design considerations and performance of the proposed system are also presented.

  1. Real-time non-invasive eyetracking and gaze-point determination for human-computer interaction and biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; Morookian, John-Michael; Monacos, S.; Lam, R.; Lebaw, C.; Bond, A.

    2004-01-01

    Eyetracking is one of the latest technologies that has shown potential in several areas including human-computer interaction for people with and without disabilities, and for noninvasive monitoring, detection, and even diagnosis of physiological and neurological problems in individuals.

  2. Human-Computer Interaction Handbook Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jacko, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    The third edition of a groundbreaking reference, The Human--Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications raises the bar for handbooks in this field. It is the largest, most complete compilation of HCI theories, principles, advances, case studies, and more that exist within a single volume. The book captures the current and emerging sub-disciplines within HCI related to research, development, and practice that continue to advance at an astonishing rate. It features cutting-edge advances to the scientific knowledge base as well as visionary perspe

  3. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction: Graphics and Animation Components for Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.; Nicol, Emma; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel; Richardson, Lucy

    We present an analysis of communicability methodology in graphics and animation components for interface design, called CAN (Communicability, Acceptability and Novelty). This methodology has been under development between 2005 and 2010, obtaining excellent results in cultural heritage, education and microcomputing contexts. In studies where there is a bi-directional interrelation between ergonomics, usability, user-centered design, software quality and the human-computer interaction. We also present the heuristic results about iconography and layout design in blogs and websites of the following countries: Spain, Italy, Portugal and France.

  4. Hand gesture recognition based on motion history images for a simple human-computer interaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timotius, Ivanna K.; Setyawan, Iwan

    2013-03-01

    A human-computer interaction can be developed using several kind of tools. One choice is using images captured using a camera. This paper proposed a simple human-computer interaction system based on hand movement captured by a web camera. The system aims to classify the captured movement into one of three classes. The first two classes contain hand movements to the left and right, respectively. The third class contains non-hand movements or hand movements to other directions. The method used in this paper is based on Motion History Images (MHIs) and nearest neighbor classifier. The resulting MHIs are processed in two manners, namely by summing the pixel values along the vertical axis and reshaping into vectors. We also use two distance criteria in this paper, respectively the Euclidian distance and cross correlation. This paper compared the performance of the combinations of different MHI data processing and distance criteria using 10 runs of 2-fold cross validation. Our experiments show that reshaping the MHI data into vectors combined with a Euclidean distance criterion gives the highest average accuracy, namely 55.67%.

  5. Metaphors for the Nature of Human-Computer Interaction in an Empowering Environment: Interaction Style Influences the Manner of Human Accomplishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Herman G.; Hartson, H. Rex

    1992-01-01

    Describes human-computer interface needs for empowering environments in computer usage in which the machine handles the routine mechanics of problem solving while the user concentrates on its higher order meanings. A closed-loop model of interaction is described, interface as illusion is discussed, and metaphors for human-computer interaction are…

  6. Cognitive engineering models: A prerequisite to the design of human-computer interaction in complex dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter examines a class of human-computer interaction applications, specifically the design of human-computer interaction for the operators of complex systems. Such systems include space systems (e.g., manned systems such as the Shuttle or space station, and unmanned systems such as NASA scientific satellites), aviation systems (e.g., the flight deck of 'glass cockpit' airplanes or air traffic control) and industrial systems (e.g., power plants, telephone networks, and sophisticated, e.g., 'lights out,' manufacturing facilities). The main body of human-computer interaction (HCI) research complements but does not directly address the primary issues involved in human-computer interaction design for operators of complex systems. Interfaces to complex systems are somewhat special. The 'user' in such systems - i.e., the human operator responsible for safe and effective system operation - is highly skilled, someone who in human-machine systems engineering is sometimes characterized as 'well trained, well motivated'. The 'job' or task context is paramount and, thus, human-computer interaction is subordinate to human job interaction. The design of human interaction with complex systems, i.e., the design of human job interaction, is sometimes called cognitive engineering.

  7. Categorisation of visualisation methods to support the design of Human-Computer Interaction Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Katie; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Alcock, Jeffrey; Bermell-Garcia, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    During the design of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) systems, the creation of visual artefacts forms an important part of design. On one hand producing a visual artefact has a number of advantages: it helps designers to externalise their thought and acts as a common language between different stakeholders. On the other hand, if an inappropriate visualisation method is employed it could hinder the design process. To support the design of HCI systems, this paper reviews the categorisation of visualisation methods used in HCI. A keyword search is conducted to identify a) current HCI design methods, b) approaches of selecting these methods. The resulting design methods are filtered to create a list of just visualisation methods. These are then categorised using the approaches identified in (b). As a result 23 HCI visualisation methods are identified and categorised in 5 selection approaches (The Recipient, Primary Purpose, Visual Archetype, Interaction Type, and The Design Process).

  8. Soft Electronics Enabled Ergonomic Human-Computer Interaction for Swallowing Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongkuk; Nicholls, Benjamin; Sup Lee, Dong; Chen, Yanfei; Chun, Youngjae; Siang Ang, Chee; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2017-04-01

    We introduce a skin-friendly electronic system that enables human-computer interaction (HCI) for swallowing training in dysphagia rehabilitation. For an ergonomic HCI, we utilize a soft, highly compliant (“skin-like”) electrode, which addresses critical issues of an existing rigid and planar electrode combined with a problematic conductive electrolyte and adhesive pad. The skin-like electrode offers a highly conformal, user-comfortable interaction with the skin for long-term wearable, high-fidelity recording of swallowing electromyograms on the chin. Mechanics modeling and experimental quantification captures the ultra-elastic mechanical characteristics of an open mesh microstructured sensor, conjugated with an elastomeric membrane. Systematic in vivo studies investigate the functionality of the soft electronics for HCI-enabled swallowing training, which includes the application of a biofeedback system to detect swallowing behavior. The collection of results demonstrates clinical feasibility of the ergonomic electronics in HCI-driven rehabilitation for patients with swallowing disorders.

  9. An Overview of a Decade of Journal Publications about Culture and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Roese, Kerstin

    In this paper, we analyze the concept of human-computer interaction in cultural and national contexts. Building and extending upon the framework for understanding research in usability and culture by Honold [3], we give an overview of publications in culture and HCI between 1998 and 2008, with a narrow focus on high-level journal publications only. The purpose is to review current practice in how cultural HCI issues are studied, and to analyse problems with the measures and interpretation of this studies. We find that Hofstede's cultural dimensions has been the dominating model of culture, participants have been picked because they could speak English, and most studies have been large scale quantitative studies. In order to balance this situation, we recommend that more researchers and practitioners do qualitative, empirical work studies.

  10. The experience of agency in human-computer interactions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limerick, Hannah; Coyle, David; Moore, James W

    2014-01-01

    The sense of agency is the experience of controlling both one's body and the external environment. Although the sense of agency has been studied extensively, there is a paucity of studies in applied "real-life" situations. One applied domain that seems highly relevant is human-computer-interaction (HCI), as an increasing number of our everyday agentive interactions involve technology. Indeed, HCI has long recognized the feeling of control as a key factor in how people experience interactions with technology. The aim of this review is to summarize and examine the possible links between sense of agency and understanding control in HCI. We explore the overlap between HCI and sense of agency for computer input modalities and system feedback, computer assistance, and joint actions between humans and computers. An overarching consideration is how agency research can inform HCI and vice versa. Finally, we discuss the potential ethical implications of personal responsibility in an ever-increasing society of technology users and intelligent machine interfaces.

  11. Human-Centered Software Engineering: Software Engineering Architectures, Patterns, and Sodels for Human Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffah, Ahmed; Vanderdonckt, Jean; Desmarais, Michel C.

    The Computer-Human Interaction and Software Engineering (CHISE) series of edited volumes originated from a number of workshops and discussions over the latest research and developments in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Software Engineering (SE) integration, convergence and cross-pollination. A first volume in this series (CHISE Volume I - Human-Centered Software Engineering: Integrating Usability in the Development Lifecycle) aims at bridging the gap between the field of SE and HCI, and addresses specifically the concerns of integrating usability and user-centered systems design methods and tools into the software development lifecycle and practices. This has been done by defining techniques, tools and practices that can fit into the entire software engineering lifecycle as well as by defining ways of addressing the knowledge and skills needed, and the attitudes and basic values that a user-centered development methodology requires. The first volume has been edited as Vol. 8 in the Springer HCI Series (Seffah, Gulliksen and Desmarais, 2005).

  12. Computer Aided Design in Digital Human Modeling for Human Computer Interaction in Ergonomic Assessment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Mukhopadhyay , Sanjib Kumar Das and Tania Chakraborty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI hasbeen enormously successful in the area of computeraidedergonomics or human-centric designs. Perfectfit for people has always been a target for productdesign. Designers traditionally used anthropometricdimensions for 3D product design which created a lotof fitting problems when dealing with thecomplexities of the human body shapes. Computeraided design (CAD, also known as Computer aideddesign and drafting (CADD is the computertechnology used for the design processing and designdocumentation. CAD has now been used extensivelyin many applications such as automotive,shipbuilding, aerospace industries, architectural andindustrial designs, prosthetics, computer animationfor special effects in movies, advertising andtechnical manuals. As a technology, digital humanmodeling (DHM has rapidly emerged as atechnology that creates, manipulates and controlhuman representations and human-machine systemsscenes on computers for interactive ergonomic designproblem solving. DHM promises to profoundlychange how products or systems are designed, howergonomics analysis is performed, how disorders andimpairments are assessed and how therapies andsurgeries are conducted. The imperative andemerging need for the DHM appears to be consistentwith the fact that the past decade has witnessedsignificant growth in both the software systemsoffering DHM capabilities as well as the corporateadapting the technology.The authors shall dwell atlength and deliberate on how research in DHM hasfinally brought about an enhanced HCI, in thecontext of computer-aided ergonomics or humancentricdesign and discuss about future trends in thiscontext.

  13. Using minimal human-computer interfaces for studying the interactive development of social awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eFroese

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the enactive approach to cognitive science, perception is essentially a skillful engagement with the world. Learning how to engage via a human-computer interface (HCI can therefore be taken as an instance of developing a new mode of experiencing. Similarly, social perception is theorized to be primarily constituted by skillful engagement between people, which implies that it is possible to investigate the origins and development of social awareness using multi-user HCIs. We analyzed the trial-by-trial objective and subjective changes in sociality that took place during a perceptual crossing experiment in which embodied interaction between pairs of adults was mediated over a minimalist haptic HCI. Since that study required participants to implicitly relearn how to mutually engage so as to perceive each other’s presence, we hypothesized that there would be indications that the initial developmental stages of social awareness were recapitulated. Preliminary results reveal that, despite the lack of explicit feedback about task performance, there was a trend for the clarity of social awareness to increase over time. We discuss the methodological challenges involved in evaluating whether this trend was characterized by distinct developmental stages of objective behavior and subjective experience.

  14. Using minimal human-computer interfaces for studying the interactive development of social awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Iizuka, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    According to the enactive approach to cognitive science, perception is essentially a skillful engagement with the world. Learning how to engage via a human-computer interface (HCI) can therefore be taken as an instance of developing a new mode of experiencing. Similarly, social perception is theorized to be primarily constituted by skillful engagement between people, which implies that it is possible to investigate the origins and development of social awareness using multi-user HCIs. We analyzed the trial-by-trial objective and subjective changes in sociality that took place during a perceptual crossing experiment in which embodied interaction between pairs of adults was mediated over a minimalist haptic HCI. Since that study required participants to implicitly relearn how to mutually engage so as to perceive each other's presence, we hypothesized that there would be indications that the initial developmental stages of social awareness were recapitulated. Preliminary results reveal that, despite the lack of explicit feedback about task performance, there was a trend for the clarity of social awareness to increase over time. We discuss the methodological challenges involved in evaluating whether this trend was characterized by distinct developmental stages of objective behavior and subjective experience.

  15. An Human-Computer Interactive Augmented Reality System for Coronary Artery Diagnosis Planning and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiming; Huang, Chen; Lv, Shengqing; Li, Zeyu; Chen, Yimin; Ma, Lizhuang

    2017-09-02

    In order to let the doctor carry on the coronary artery diagnosis and preoperative planning in a more intuitive and more natural way, and to improve the training effect for interns, an augmented reality system for coronary artery diagnosis planning and training (ARS-CADPT) is designed and realized in this paper. At first, a 3D reconstruction algorithm based on computed tomographic (CT) images is proposed to model the coronary artery vessels (CAV). Secondly, the algorithms of static gesture recognition and dynamic gesture spotting and recognition are presented to realize the real-time and friendly human-computer interaction (HCI), which is the characteristic of ARS-CADPT. Thirdly, a Sort-First parallel rendering and splicing display subsystem is developed, which greatly expands the capacity of student users. The experimental results show that, with the use of ARS-CADPT, the reconstruction accuracy of CAV model is high, the HCI is natural and fluent, and the visual effect is good. In a word, the system fully meets the application requirement.

  16. Appearance-based human gesture recognition using multimodal features for human computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Gao, Hua; Ekenel, Hazim Kemal; Ohya, Jun

    2011-03-01

    The use of gesture as a natural interface plays an utmost important role for achieving intelligent Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Human gestures include different components of visual actions such as motion of hands, facial expression, and torso, to convey meaning. So far, in the field of gesture recognition, most previous works have focused on the manual component of gestures. In this paper, we present an appearance-based multimodal gesture recognition framework, which combines the different groups of features such as facial expression features and hand motion features which are extracted from image frames captured by a single web camera. We refer 12 classes of human gestures with facial expression including neutral, negative and positive meanings from American Sign Languages (ASL). We combine the features in two levels by employing two fusion strategies. At the feature level, an early feature combination can be performed by concatenating and weighting different feature groups, and LDA is used to choose the most discriminative elements by projecting the feature on a discriminative expression space. The second strategy is applied on decision level. Weighted decisions from single modalities are fused in a later stage. A condensation-based algorithm is adopted for classification. We collected a data set with three to seven recording sessions and conducted experiments with the combination techniques. Experimental results showed that facial analysis improve hand gesture recognition, decision level fusion performs better than feature level fusion.

  17. Design of a compact low-power human-computer interaction equipment for hand motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianwei; Jin, Wenguang

    2017-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) raises demand of convenience, endurance, responsiveness and naturalness. This paper describes a design of a compact wearable low-power HCI equipment applied to gesture recognition. System combines multi-mode sense signals: the vision sense signal and the motion sense signal, and the equipment is equipped with the depth camera and the motion sensor. The dimension (40 mm × 30 mm) and structure is compact and portable after tight integration. System is built on a module layered framework, which contributes to real-time collection (60 fps), process and transmission via synchronous confusion with asynchronous concurrent collection and wireless Blue 4.0 transmission. To minimize equipment's energy consumption, system makes use of low-power components, managing peripheral state dynamically, switching into idle mode intelligently, pulse-width modulation (PWM) of the NIR LEDs of the depth camera and algorithm optimization by the motion sensor. To test this equipment's function and performance, a gesture recognition algorithm is applied to system. As the result presents, general energy consumption could be as low as 0.5 W.

  18. Redesign of a computerized clinical reminder for colorectal cancer screening: a human-computer interaction evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Jason J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on barriers to the use of computerized clinical decision support (CDS learned in an earlier field study, we prototyped design enhancements to the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA's colorectal cancer (CRC screening clinical reminder to compare against the VHA's current CRC reminder. Methods In a controlled simulation experiment, 12 primary care providers (PCPs used prototypes of the current and redesigned CRC screening reminder in a within-subject comparison. Quantitative measurements were based on a usability survey, workload assessment instrument, and workflow integration survey. We also collected qualitative data on both designs. Results Design enhancements to the VHA's existing CRC screening clinical reminder positively impacted aspects of usability and workflow integration but not workload. The qualitative analysis revealed broad support across participants for the design enhancements with specific suggestions for improving the reminder further. Conclusions This study demonstrates the value of a human-computer interaction evaluation in informing the redesign of information tools to foster uptake, integration into workflow, and use in clinical practice.

  19. Delays and user performance in human-computer-network interaction tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Barrett S; Wang, Enlie

    2009-12-01

    This article describes a series of studies conducted to examine factors affecting user perceptions, responses, and tolerance for network-based computer delays affecting distributed human-computer-network interaction (HCNI) tasks. HCNI tasks, even with increasing computing and network bandwidth capabilities, are still affected by human perceptions of delay and appropriate waiting times for information flow latencies. Conducted were 6 laboratory studies with university participants in China (Preliminary Experiments 1 through 3) and the United States (Experiments 4 through 6) to examine users' perceptions of elapsed time, effect of perceived network task performance partners on delay tolerance, and expectations of appropriate delays based on task, situation, and network conditions. Results across the six experiments indicate that users' delay tolerance and estimated delay were affected by multiple task and expectation factors, including task complexity and importance, situation urgency and time availability, file size, and network bandwidth capacity. Results also suggest a range of user strategies for incorporating delay tolerance in task planning and performance. HCNI user experience is influenced by combinations of task requirements, constraints, and understandings of system performance; tolerance is a nonlinear function of time constraint ratios or decay. Appropriate user interface tools providing delay feedback information can help modify user expectations and delay tolerance. These tools are especially valuable when delay conditions exceed a few seconds or when task constraints and system demands are high. Interface designs for HCNI tasks should consider assistant-style presentations of delay feedback, information freshness, and network characteristics. Assistants should also gather awareness of user time constraints.

  20. Using minimal human-computer interfaces for studying the interactive development of social awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Iizuka, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    According to the enactive approach to cognitive science, perception is essentially a skillful engagement with the world. Learning how to engage via a human-computer interface (HCI) can therefore be taken as an instance of developing a new mode of experiencing. Similarly, social perception is theorized to be primarily constituted by skillful engagement between people, which implies that it is possible to investigate the origins and development of social awareness using multi-user HCIs. We analyzed the trial-by-trial objective and subjective changes in sociality that took place during a perceptual crossing experiment in which embodied interaction between pairs of adults was mediated over a minimalist haptic HCI. Since that study required participants to implicitly relearn how to mutually engage so as to perceive each other's presence, we hypothesized that there would be indications that the initial developmental stages of social awareness were recapitulated. Preliminary results reveal that, despite the lack of explicit feedback about task performance, there was a trend for the clarity of social awareness to increase over time. We discuss the methodological challenges involved in evaluating whether this trend was characterized by distinct developmental stages of objective behavior and subjective experience. PMID:25309490

  1. 人机交互中的语音情感识别研究进展%A survey of speech emotion recognition in human computer interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张石清; 李乐民; 赵知劲

    2013-01-01

    Speech emotion recognition is a current active research topic in the fields of signal processing,pattern recognition,artificial intelligence,human computer interaction,etc.The ultimate purpose of such research is to endow computers with emotion ability and make human computer interaction be genuinely harmonic and natural.This paper reviews the recent advance of several key problems involved in speech emotion recognition,including emotional description theory,emotional speech databases,emotional acoustic analysis as well as emotion recognition methods.In addition,the existing research problems and the future direction are presented.%语音情感识别是当前信号处理、模式识别、人工智能、人机交互等领域的热点研究课题,其研究的最终目的是赋予计算机情感能力,使得人机交互做到真正的和谐和自然.本文综述了语音情感识别所涉及到的几个关键问题,包括情感表示理论、情感语音数据库、情感声学特征分析以及情感识别方法四个方面的最新进展,并指出了研究中存在的问题及下一步发展的方向.

  2. REVIEW: Affective and Emotional Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction: Game-Based and Innovative Learning Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    GULUMBAY, Reviewed By Dr. A. Askim

    2006-01-01

    This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computer-supported learning and human-computer interactions. Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cog...

  3. Ontology for assessment studies of human-computer-interaction in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machno, Andrej; Jannin, Pierre; Dameron, Olivier; Korb, Werner; Scheuermann, Gerik; Meixensberger, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    New technologies improve modern medicine, but may result in unwanted consequences. Some occur due to inadequate human-computer-interactions (HCI). To assess these consequences, an investigation model was developed to facilitate the planning, implementation and documentation of studies for HCI in surgery. The investigation model was formalized in Unified Modeling Language and implemented as an ontology. Four different top-level ontologies were compared: Object-Centered High-level Reference, Basic Formal Ontology, General Formal Ontology (GFO) and Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering, according to the three major requirements of the investigation model: the domain-specific view, the experimental scenario and the representation of fundamental relations. Furthermore, this article emphasizes the distinction of "information model" and "model of meaning" and shows the advantages of implementing the model in an ontology rather than in a database. The results of the comparison show that GFO fits the defined requirements adequately: the domain-specific view and the fundamental relations can be implemented directly, only the representation of the experimental scenario requires minor extensions. The other candidates require wide-ranging extensions, concerning at least one of the major implementation requirements. Therefore, the GFO was selected to realize an appropriate implementation of the developed investigation model. The ensuing development considered the concrete implementation of further model aspects and entities: sub-domains, space and time, processes, properties, relations and functions. The investigation model and its ontological implementation provide a modular guideline for study planning, implementation and documentation within the area of HCI research in surgery. This guideline helps to navigate through the whole study process in the form of a kind of standard or good clinical practice, based on the involved foundational frameworks

  4. Rapid Human-Computer Interactive Conceptual Design of Mobile and Manipulative Robot Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-19

    Learning Comparative User Models for Accelerating Human-Computer Collaborative Search, Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music , Sound, Art and...has been investigated theoretically to some extent ([12]) and successfully applied to artistic tasks ([11, 5]). Our hypothesis is that it is possible...model’s prediction to the sign of the original entry. If the signs coincide for all entries, the network is considered to be successfully trained

  5. Advancements in remote physiological measurement and applications in human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Physiological signals are important for tracking health and emotional states. Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is a set of techniques for remotely recovering cardio-pulmonary signals from video of the human body. Advances in iPPG methods over the past decade combined with the ubiquity of digital cameras presents the possibility for many new, lowcost applications of physiological monitoring. This talk will highlight methods for recovering physiological signals, work characterizing the impact of video parameters and hardware on these measurements, and applications of this technology in human-computer interfaces.

  6. 人机交互的若干关键技术%Some Key Techniques on Human-Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红兵; 瞿裕忠; 徐冬梅; 王; 尧

    2001-01-01

    人机交互(Human-Computer Interaction)是研究人、计算机以及它们相互影响的技术.人机结合以人为主,将是未来计算机系统的特点,实现人机高效合作将是新一代人机界面的主要目的.多通道用户界面、计算机支持的协同工作、三维人机交互等是实现高效自然的人机交互的关键技术.

  7. 人机交互中的场景开发%Scenarios Development in Human-Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向波; 邢朝伟

    2003-01-01

    场景是人机交互HCI(Human-Computer Interaction)中的重要技术.文章针对交互系统设计中通常存在的问题,比较深入地分析了基于模型的人机交互过程,对任务分析中场景的作用、应用、包含内容作了较深入的探讨.结果说明场景开发是交互系统深入研究、成功开发的关键步骤之一.

  8. Perspectives on the Design of Human-Computer Interactions: Issues and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavora, Mark J.; Hannafin, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Considers several perspectives on interaction strategies for computer-aided learning; examines dimensions of interaction; and presents a model for the design of interaction strategies. Topics include pacing; navigation; mental processes; cognitive and physical responses; the role of quality and quantity; a conceptual approach; and suggestions for…

  9. An Investigation of Human-Computer Interaction Approaches Beneficial to Weak Learners in Complex Animation Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Animation is one of the useful contemporary educational technologies in teaching complex subjects. There is a growing interest in proper use of learner-technology interaction to promote learning quality for different groups of learner needs. The purpose of this study is to investigate if an interaction approach supports weak learners, who have…

  10. 计算机人机界面交互的美感体现%Beauty of Human-computer Interface Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高超; 王坤茜

    2014-01-01

    By the angle of the application of aesthetic principles in human-computer interface, the paper explores the application of aesthetics in human-computer interface, and sums up improve the use efficient and use feeling in human-computer interaction by enhancing the beauty of human-computer interface.%本文从美学原则在计算机人机界面中的应用的角度进行分析,探讨美学在计算机人机界面中的应用,从而总结出,如何通过提高计算机人机交互界面的美感来提升用户进行人机交互时的使用效率及使用感受。

  11. Emotion Modelling and Facial Affect Recognition in Human-Computer and Human-Robot Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Malatesta, Lori; Murray, John; Raouzaiou, Amaryllis; Hiolle, Antoine; Ca?amero, Lola; Karpouzis, Kostas

    2009-01-01

    This work is funded by the EU FP6 project Feelix Growing: FEEL, Interact, eXpress: a Global appRoach to develOpment With INterdisciplinary Grounding, Contract FP6 IST-045169 (http://feelix-growing.org).

  12. The Electronic Mirror: Human-Computer Interaction and Change in Self-Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laere, Kevin H.; Lundgren, David C.; Howe, Steven R.

    1998-01-01

    Compares humanlike versus machinelike interactional styles of computer interfaces, testing hypotheses that evaluative feedback conveyed through a humanlike interface will have greater impact on individuals' self-appraisals. Reflected appraisals were more influenced by computer feedback than were self-appraisals. Humanlike and machinelike interface…

  13. Brain-Computer Interfaces. Applying our Minds to Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    For generations, humans have fantasized about the ability to create devices that can see into a person’s mind and thoughts, or to communicate and interact with machines through thought alone. Such ideas have long captured the imagination of humankind in the form of ancient myths and modern science

  14. Design Science in Human-Computer Interaction: A Model and Three Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestopnik, Nathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Humanity has entered an era where computing technology is virtually ubiquitous. From websites and mobile devices to computers embedded in appliances on our kitchen counters and automobiles parked in our driveways, information and communication technologies (ICTs) and IT artifacts are fundamentally changing the ways we interact with our world.…

  15. Brain computer interfaces as intelligent sensors for enhancing human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, M.; Nijboer, F.; Broek, E.L. van den; Fairclough, S.; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    BCIs are traditionally conceived as a way to control apparatus, an interface that allows you to act on" external devices as a form of input control. We propose an alternative use of BCIs, that of monitoring users as an additional intelligent sensor to enrich traditional means of interaction. This vi

  16. Brain-Computer Interfaces: Applying our Minds to Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Anton

    2010-01-01

    For generations, humans have fantasized about the ability to create devices that can see into a person’s mind and thoughts, or to communicate and interact with machines through thought alone. Such ideas have long captured the imagination of humankind in the form of ancient myths and modern science f

  17. The Importance of Human-Computer Interaction in Radiology E-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Harder, Annemarie M; Frijlingh, Marissa; Ravesloot, Cécile J; Oosterbaan, Anne E; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2015-01-01

    With the development of cross-sectional imaging techniques and transformation to digital reading of radiological imaging, e-learning might be a promising tool in undergraduate radiology education. In this systematic review of the literature, we evaluate the emergence of image interaction possibiliti

  18. Human-Computer Interaction for BCI Games: Usability and User Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plass-Oude Bos, Danny; Reuderink, Boris; Laar, van de Bram; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Mühl, Christian; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk; Nijholt, Anton; Sourin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) come with a lot of issues, such as delays, bad recognition, long training times, and cumbersome hardware. Gamers are a large potential target group for this new interaction modality, but why would healthy subjects want to use it? BCI provides a combination of informat

  19. Improving Human-Computer Interaction by Developing Culture-sensitive Applications based on Common Sense Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Anacleto, Junia Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    The advent of Web 3.0, claiming for personalization in interactive systems (Lassila & Hendler, 2007), and the need for systems capable of interacting in a more natural way in the future society flooded with computer systems and devices (Harper et al., 2008) show that great advances in HCI should be done. This chapter presents some contributions of LIA for the future of HCI, defending that using common sense knowledge is a possibility for improving HCI, especially because people assign meaning to their messages based on their common sense and, therefore, the use of this knowledge in developing user interfaces can make them more intuitive to the end-user. Moreover, as common sense knowledge varies from group to group of people, it can be used for developing applications capable of giving different feedback for different target groups, as the applications presented along this chapter illustrate, allowing, in this way, interface personalization taking into account cultural issues. For the purpose of using com...

  20. The Importance of Human-Computer Interaction in Radiology E-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Harder, Annemarie M; Frijlingh, Marissa; Ravesloot, Cécile J; Oosterbaan, Anne E; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2016-04-01

    With the development of cross-sectional imaging techniques and transformation to digital reading of radiological imaging, e-learning might be a promising tool in undergraduate radiology education. In this systematic review of the literature, we evaluate the emergence of image interaction possibilities in radiology e-learning programs and evidence for effects of radiology e-learning on learning outcomes and perspectives of medical students and teachers. A systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, ERIC, and PsycInfo was performed. Articles were screened by two authors and included when they concerned the evaluation of radiological e-learning tools for undergraduate medical students. Nineteen articles were included. Seven studies evaluated e-learning programs with image interaction possibilities. Students perceived e-learning with image interaction possibilities to be a useful addition to learning with hard copy images and to be effective for learning 3D anatomy. Both e-learning programs with and without image interaction possibilities were found to improve radiological knowledge and skills. In general, students found e-learning programs easy to use, rated image quality high, and found the difficulty level of the courses appropriate. Furthermore, they felt that their knowledge and understanding of radiology improved by using e-learning. In conclusion, the addition of radiology e-learning in undergraduate medical education can improve radiological knowledge and image interpretation skills. Differences between the effect of e-learning with and without image interpretation possibilities on learning outcomes are unknown and should be subject to future research.

  1. Brain-Computer Interfaces Applying Our Minds to Human-computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Desney S

    2010-01-01

    For generations, humans have fantasized about the ability to create devices that can see into a person's mind and thoughts, or to communicate and interact with machines through thought alone. Such ideas have long captured the imagination of humankind in the form of ancient myths and modern science fiction stories. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to turn these myths into a reality, and are providing us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that monitor physical p

  2. The effects of syntactic complexity on the human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechile, R. A.; Fleischman, R. N.; Sadoski, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Three divided-attention experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a syntactic analysis of the primary task of editing flight route-way-point information. For all editing conditions, a formal syntactic expression was developed for the operator's interaction with the computer. In terms of the syntactic expression, four measures of syntactic were examined. Increased syntactic complexity did increase the time to train operators, but once the operators were trained, syntactic complexity did not influence the divided-attention performance. However, the number of memory retrievals required of the operator significantly accounted for the variation in the accuracy, workload, and task completion time found on the different editing tasks under attention-sharing conditions.

  3. Composite pattern structured light projection for human computer interaction in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chun; Hassebrook, Laurence G.; Lau, Daniel L.; Yalla, Veera Ganesh

    2005-05-01

    Interacting with computer technology while wearing a space suit is difficult at best. We present a sensor that can interpret body gestures in 3-Dimensions. Having the depth dimension allows simple thresholding to isolate the hands as well as use their positioning and orientation as input controls to digital devices such as computers and/or robotic devices. Structured light pattern projection is a well known method of accurately extracting 3-Dimensional information of a scene. Traditional structured light methods require several different patterns to recover the depth, without ambiguity and albedo sensitivity, and are corrupted by object motion during the projection/capture process. The authors have developed a methodology for combining multiple patterns into a single composite pattern by using 2-Dimensional spatial modulation techniques. A single composite pattern projection does not require synchronization with the camera so the data acquisition rate is only limited by the video rate. We have incorporated dynamic programming to greatly improve the resolution of the scan. Other applications include machine vision, remote controlled robotic interfacing in space, advanced cockpit controls and computer interfacing for the disabled. We will present performance analysis, experimental results and video examples.

  4. Human computer interaction and communication aids for hearing-impaired, deaf and deaf-blind people: Introduction to the special thematic session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothe, Hans-Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives ail overview and extends the Special Thematic Session (STS) oil research and development of technologies for hearing-impaired, deaf, and deaf-blind people. The topics of the session focus oil special equipment or services to improve communication and human computer interaction...

  5. Human computer interaction and communication aids for hearing-impaired, deaf and deaf-blind people: Introduction to the special thematic session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothe, Hans-Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives ail overview and extends the Special Thematic Session (STS) oil research and development of technologies for hearing-impaired, deaf, and deaf-blind people. The topics of the session focus oil special equipment or services to improve communication and human computer interaction...

  6. Support vector machines to detect physiological patterns for EEG and EMG-based human-computer interaction: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, L. R.; Cavrini, F.; Sbernini, L.; Riillo, F.; Bianchi, L.; Seri, S.; Saggio, G.

    2017-02-01

    Support vector machines (SVMs) are widely used classifiers for detecting physiological patterns in human-computer interaction (HCI). Their success is due to their versatility, robustness and large availability of free dedicated toolboxes. Frequently in the literature, insufficient details about the SVM implementation and/or parameters selection are reported, making it impossible to reproduce study analysis and results. In order to perform an optimized classification and report a proper description of the results, it is necessary to have a comprehensive critical overview of the applications of SVM. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the usage of SVM in the determination of brain and muscle patterns for HCI, by focusing on electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) techniques. In particular, an overview of the basic principles of SVM theory is outlined, together with a description of several relevant literature implementations. Furthermore, details concerning reviewed papers are listed in tables and statistics of SVM use in the literature are presented. Suitability of SVM for HCI is discussed and critical comparisons with other classifiers are reported.

  7. A mobile Nursing Information System based on human-computer interaction design for improving quality of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuo-Wei; Liu, Cheng-Li

    2012-06-01

    A conventional Nursing Information System (NIS), which supports the role of nurse in some areas, is typically deployed as an immobile system. However, the traditional information system can't response to patients' conditions in real-time, causing delays on the availability of this information. With the advances of information technology, mobile devices are increasingly being used to extend the human mind's limited capacity to recall and process large numbers of relevant variables and to support information management, general administration, and clinical practice. Unfortunately, there have been few studies about the combination of a well-designed small-screen interface with a personal digital assistant (PDA) in clinical nursing. Some researchers found that user interface design is an important factor in determining the usability and potential use of a mobile system. Therefore, this study proposed a systematic approach to the development of a mobile nursing information system (MNIS) based on Mobile Human-Computer Interaction (M-HCI) for use in clinical nursing. The system combines principles of small-screen interface design with user-specified requirements. In addition, the iconic functions were designed with metaphor concept that will help users learn the system more quickly with less working-memory. An experiment involving learnability testing, thinking aloud and a questionnaire investigation was conducted for evaluating the effect of MNIS on PDA. The results show that the proposed MNIS is good on learning and higher satisfaction on symbol investigation, terminology and system information.

  8. Using Noninvasive Brain Measurement to Explore the Psychological Effects of Computer Malfunctions on Users during Human-Computer Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne M. Hirshfield

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s technologically driven world, there is a need to better understand the ways that common computer malfunctions affect computer users. These malfunctions may have measurable influences on computer user’s cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses. An experiment was conducted where participants conducted a series of web search tasks while wearing functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and galvanic skin response sensors. Two computer malfunctions were introduced during the sessions which had the potential to influence correlates of user trust and suspicion. Surveys were given after each session to measure user’s perceived emotional state, cognitive load, and perceived trust. Results suggest that fNIRS can be used to measure the different cognitive and emotional responses associated with computer malfunctions. These cognitive and emotional changes were correlated with users’ self-report levels of suspicion and trust, and they in turn suggest future work that further explores the capability of fNIRS for the measurement of user experience during human-computer interactions.

  9. Interaction model of artificial fish in virtual environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Xiangsong; Ban Xiaojuan; Yin Yixin

    2008-01-01

    Conventional artificial fish has some shortages on the interaction with environment,other fish,and the animator.This article proposes a multi-tier interaction control model of artificial fish,realizes the interaction model through integration of virtual reality technology and Markov sequence,and provides a virtual marine world to describe the interaction between artificial fish and the virtual environment and the interaction between the artificial fish and the animator.Simulation results show that the interaction model owns not only the basic characteristics of virtual biology,but also has high trueness interaction function.

  10. 人机交互技术在现代展示设计中的应用%Application of Human-computer Interaction in Modern Display Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周波; 杨京玲

    2011-01-01

    Taking the application of human-computer interaction in modem display design as an inspiration, it analyzed the key technologies of human-computer interaction such as multi-channel user interface, computer supported cooperative work, three-dimensional human-computer interaction, etc. And then, it discussed the significance of the interactive modes in multimedia and hypermedia through the history of human-computer interaction. Further on, it analyzed the principles and advantages of the application of human-computer interaction in display design. On this basis, it pointed out that the future of the development in display design should be oriented to human-computer interaction. In order to achieve the desired result of display design, designer should choose the appropriate method base on the correct analysis and understanding of display design.%以人机交互技术在现代展示设计中的应用为启示,分析了多通道用户界面、计算机支持的协同工作、三维人机交互等实现高效自然人机交互的关键技术,并结合人机交互技术的发展历程,论述了多媒体与超媒体的交互方式对展示设计的意义,进而分析了在展示设计中人机交互技术的应用原则和使用优势。在此基础上,提出了人机交互是展示设计的发展方向,会展设计师应该基于对展示主客体的正确分析和理解,遵循相应的设计原则,选择恰当的交互实现方式,以达到预期的展示设计效果。

  11. Une approche pragmatique cognitive de l'interaction personne/système informatisé A Cognitive Pragmatic Approach of Human/Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Saint-Pierre

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous proposons une approche inférentielle de l'interaction humain/ordinateur. C'est par la prise en compte de l'activité cognitive de l'utilisateur pendant son travail avec un système que nous voulons comprendre ce type d'interaction. Ceci mènera à une véritable évaluation des interfaces/utilisateurs et pourra servir de guide pour des interfaces en développement. Nos analyses décrivent le processus inférentiel impliqué dans le contexte dynamique d'exécution de tâche, grâce à une catégorisation de l'activité cognitive issue des verbalisations recueillies auprès d'utilisateurs qui " pensent à haute voix " en travaillant. Nous présentons des instruments méthodologiques mis au point dans notre recherche pour l'analyses et la catégorisation des protocoles. Les résultats sont interprétés dans le cadre de la théorie de la pertinence de Sperber et Wilson (1995 en termes d'effort cognitif dans le traitement des objets (linguistique, iconique, graphique... apparaissant à l'écran et d'effet cognitif de ces derniers. Cette approche est généralisable à tout autre contexte d'interaction humain/ordinateur comme, par exemple, le télé-apprentissage.This article proposes an inferential approach for the study of human/computer interaction. It is by taking into account the user's cognitive activity while working at a computer that we propose to understand this interaction. This approach leads to a real user/interface evaluation and, hopefully, will serve as guidelines for the design of new interfaces. Our analysis describe the inferential process involved in the dynamics of task performance. The cognitive activity of the user is grasped by the mean of a " thinking aloud " method through which the user is asked to verbalize while working at the computer. Tools developped by our research team for the categorization of the verbal protocols are presented. The results are interpreted within the relevance theory

  12. Wearable Computing System with Input-Output Devices Based on Eye-Based Human Computer Interaction Allowing Location Based Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wearable computing with Input-Output devices Base on Eye-Based Human Computer Interaction: EBHCI which allows location based web services including navigation, location/attitude/health condition monitoring is proposed. Through implementation of the proposed wearable computing system, all the functionality is confirmed. It is also found that the system does work well. It can be used easily and also is not expensive. Experimental results for EBHCI show excellent performance in terms of key-in accuracy as well as input speed. It is accessible to internet, obviously, and has search engine capability.

  13. Human-computer Interaction Based on Gaze Tracking and Gesture Recognition%基于视线跟踪和手势识别的人机交互

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志勇; 秦华标

    2009-01-01

    提出一种新的基于视线跟踪和手势识别的交互方式用于远距离操作计算机.系统通过摄像头采集用户的图像,利用图像识别算法检测人眼和手指的位置,由人眼和指尖的连线确定用户指向屏幕的位置,通过判别用户手势的变化实现各种操作,达到人机交互的目的.实验结果表明,该交互方式可以较好地定位屏幕和判断用户的操作,实现自然、友好的远距离人机交互.%This paper presents a novel human-computer interaction for long-distance operation based on gaze tracking and gesture recognition. The system analyzes the image captured by camera and finds the position of eyes and fingers through some recognition algorithms. The position which user points to the screen finds through the line from the eye to the finger. By recognizing user's gestures, the system executes various operations. Experimental results demonstrate that the interaction can locate the position on the screen and recognize user's gesture. This method achieves friendly and natural long-distance human-computer interaction.

  14. Human computer interaction positioning system based on RFID for museum%基于RFID的博物馆人机互动定位系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周祥云; 钱慧; 余轮

    2011-01-01

    Designed a positioning system of human-computer interaction based on RFID for digital museum, bringing about the functions of zone location of people, the monitoring of people-flow's distribution and the track of people's moving trace. It met the management and application requirement of museum. Based on the track of people's moving trace, the paper proposed an application program of human-computer game-interaction combined with the location technology of RFID, and the scheme has been applied in the museum.%设计了一种基于RFID技术的数字博物馆人机互动定位系统。该系统具备人员区域定位、人流量分布监测和人员移动轨迹的追踪功能,满足了博物馆的管理应用需求。在实现人员移动轨迹追踪的基础上提出了一种结合RFID定位技术的人机互动游戏应用方案,并将该方案应用到博物馆中。

  15. Cooperation in human-computer communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenberg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to simulate cooperation in human-computer communication to model the communicative interaction process of agents in natural dialogs in order to provide advanced human-computer interaction in that coherence is maintained between contributions of both agents, i.e. the human user and the computer. This thesis contributes to certain aspects of understanding and generation and their interaction in the German language. In spontaneous dialogs agents cooperate by the pro...

  16. Citation Counting, Citation Ranking, and h-Index of Human-Computer Interaction Researchers: A Comparison between Scopus and Web of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Meho, Lokman I

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the differences between Scopus and Web of Science in the citation counting, citation ranking, and h-index of 22 top human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers from EQUATOR--a large British Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration project. Results indicate that Scopus provides significantly more coverage of HCI literature than Web of Science, primarily due to coverage of relevant ACM and IEEE peer-reviewed conference proceedings. No significant differences exist between the two databases if citations in journals only are compared. Although broader coverage of the literature does not significantly alter the relative citation ranking of individual researchers, Scopus helps distinguish between the researchers in a more nuanced fashion than Web of Science in both citation counting and h-index. Scopus also generates significantly different maps of citation networks of individual scholars than those generated by Web of Science. The study also presents a comparison of h-index scores based on Goo...

  17. Handling emotions in human-computer dialogues

    CERN Document Server

    Pittermann, Johannes; Minker, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book presents novel methods to perform robust speech-based emotion recognition at low complexity. It describes a flexible dialogue model to conveniently integrate emotions and other dialogue-influencing parameters in human-computer interaction.

  18. 感知媒体--机器感知与人机交互%Perceptive Media: Machine Perception and Human Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Computer hardware has always changed rapidly, but input/output devices, interaction techniques, and software for human-computer interaction have not experienced similar growth and improvement. The GUI-based style of interaction has made computers simpler and easier to use, especially for office productivity applications where computers are used as tools to accomplish specific tasks. However, as the way we use computers changes and computing becomes more pervasive and ubiquitous, largely due to advances in bandwidth and mobility, GUIs will not easily support the range of interactions necessary to meet users' needs. In order to accommodate a wider range of scenarios, tasks, users, and preferences, we need to move toward interfaces that are natural, intuitive, adaptive, and unobtrusive. "Perceptive media" is an interdisciplinary initiative to combine multimedia display and machine perception to create useful, adaptive, responsive interfaces between people and technology. This article describes and investigates aspects of perceptive media and gives examples of work in one particular sub-area, Vision Based Interfaces.

  19. Evaluation of mental workload and familiarity in human computer interaction with integrated development environments using single-channel EEG

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    With modern developments in sensing technology it has become possible to detect and classify brain activity into distinct states such as attention and relaxation using commercially avail- able EEG devices. These devices provide a low-cost and minimally intrusive method to observe a subject’s cognitive load whilst interacting with a computer system, thus providing a basis for deter- mining the overall effectiveness of the design of a computer interface. In this paper, a single-channel dry sens...

  20. Ubiquitous Human Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Zittrain, Jonathan L.

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing means network connectivity everywhere, linking devices and systems as small as a thumb tack and as large as a worldwide product distribution chain. What could happen when people are so readily networked? This short essay explores issues arising from two possible emerging models of ubiquitous human computing: fungible networked brainpower and collective personal vital sign monitoring.

  1. Interactive Video and Artificial Intelligence: A Convenient Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midoro, V.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes the theoretical framework of a research project aimed at exploring the new potentials for instructional systems offered by videodisc technology and artificial intelligence. A prototype of an intelligent tutoring system, "Earth," is described, and types of interactions in instructional systems are discussed as they relate to the learning…

  2. 1-B it 人机交互系统%One-Bit human-computer interactive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程煜; 张鸣宇; 陶霖密

    2015-01-01

    通过研制普适的非对称交互系统,解决运动能力障碍人群借助通用计算设备通过互联网进行交流这一问题。虚拟鼠标替代传统鼠标、中文输入法替代传统键盘输入功能、快捷键替代传统键盘快捷操作功能,作为交互系统的基础支持完全根据用户自身意志完成各类操作;配置1-Bit输入设备有效减轻了运动障碍人群的操作负担。基于上述方法,设计并开发实现了1-Bit人机交互系统,该系统能够利用1-Bit输入设备完成对普通计算机的操作。实验测试和分析表明,用户可以基于1-Bit输入设备操作电脑,包括文字输入、网页浏览、音视频播放、日常护理等功能,满足用户的日常电脑使用需求,同时该交互系统具有易于学习、功能方便扩展的特性。%Through developing a universal asymmetric interactive system, the obstacle of communication in the In-ternet among movement disability crowds through general computing equipment is solved.A virtual mouse took the place of the traditional mouse.A Chinese input method and shortcut keys were used instead of the original keyboard input.Users can operate computers according to their own will.The set of the one-Bit input device can further re-duce the burden for the disabled people.Based on the above-mentioned method, a one-Bit interaction system was developed and implemented, which can manipulate computers by the one-Bit input device.The user tests and anal-ysis of the system indicate that users can manipulate computers with multi-functions, including text entry, website browsing, audio and video play, and health care via one-Bit input device.The system is easy to learn and its func-tions can be developed and expanded easily, which meets the daily requirements for a user to operate a computer.

  3. Interactional Motivation in Artificial Systems: Between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeon, Olivier; Marshall, James; Gay, Simon

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper introduces Interactional Motivation (IM) as a way to implement self-motivation in artificial systems. An interactionally motivated agent selects behaviors for the sake of enacting the behavior itself rather than for the value of the behavior’s outcome. IM contrasts with extrinsic motivation by the fact that it defines the agent’s motivation independently from the environment’s state. Because IM does not refer to the environment’s states, we argue that IM is ...

  4. 近距离3D人机交互技术研究实现%Research and implementation of 3D human computer interactive technology in close scenario

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘川; 邬春学

    2015-01-01

    3D human-computer interaction is an amalgamation of computer graphics, virtual reality and pattern recognition, which consists of virtual environment and 3D object recognition. A total solution consisting of virtual environment rendering and 3D object recognition is proposed and applied in the close human-computer interaction scenes, which simulate virtual scenario with the ratio of 1∶1. The research analyses the transformation between virtual environment and reality; three main factors which have influence on stereo display of virtual object have been explored, which include the camera angle, the distance between two cameras in OpenGL and the stereo image pairs generation;3D object recognition is implemented on Intel Perceptual Computing. Experiments show that the solution has excellent 3D effect in simulation virtual scenario with 1∶1 ratio and high gesture recognition rate.%3D人机交互技术是计算机图形学、虚拟现实和模式识别的交叉融合领域,可分为虚拟环境的显示和三维物体识别。该研究将虚拟环境显示和三维物体识别整合成一个完整的解决方案并应用到1∶1模拟虚拟场景的近距离交互。研究了虚拟现实之间的坐标转换;分析了影响虚拟物体立体显示的三个主要因素:OpenGL中摄像机的张角,摄像机间距和立体图像对的产生;并实现了基于Intel Perceptual Computing的三维物体识别。实验结果显示:该方案在1∶1模拟虚拟场景方面具有良好的3D显示效果,同时在手势识别方面有较高的识别率。

  5. 基于人眼注视非穿戴自然人机交互%Gazing Based Non-Wearable and Natural Human-Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳雯; 管业鹏

    2016-01-01

    提出了一种基于人眼注视的非穿戴自然人机交互新方法。基于人体生物结构特征,采用主动形状模型确定人眼轮廓特征点,并根据HSV色彩空间构建人眼特征直方图,采用粒子滤波法,对人眼目标跟踪与定位。基于最大三角化划分人眼轮廓特征,构建人眼几何模型,通过图像帧间均值滤波,确定人眼注视交互目标,实现非穿戴的人机交互,满足用户交互的灵活性、舒适性和自由性等要求。通过实验对比,验证了该方法有效、可行。%A novel non-wearable and natural human-computer interaction(HCI)method has been proposed based on eye gazing. According to human being biological structure characteristics ,an active shape model is employed to locate some feature points in the eye profile. A histogram of eye feature has been built according to the HSV color space. A particle filter method has been adopted to track and locate the eye. A 2D eye geometric model is constructed based on the maximal triangulation of the eye contour features. A temporal median filter strategy has been developed to determine a stable gazing interactive target. Non-wearable and natural HCI modal is realized in which the user can move flexibly both in comfort and freedom interactive ways. Experiment results indicate that the developed approach is efficient and can be used to natural non-wearable HCI.

  6. 多模态人机交互中基于笔输入的手势识别%Pen-Based Gesture Recognition in Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延江; 袁保宗

    2001-01-01

    为研究多模态人机交互系统的理论及构造方法,提出了一种快速的、单笔划手势识别方法.该方法通过提取手势轨迹的关键点及各关键点的运移方向,形成特征码,然后与标准手势符号的各种可能的特征码进行匹配.其中方向特征用于预分类,而关键点位置信息用于细分类.实验结果表明该方法速度快、识别率高.%This paper proposes a fast, one-stroke pen gesture recognition approac h to the studying of multimodal human-computer interaction theory and building method. In the approach, a pen gesture is characterized by a sequence of dominan t points along the gesture trajectory and a sequence of writing directions betwe en consecutive dominant points. The recognition result can be obtained by matchi ng the feature code of the input gesture with the various possible feature codes of each standard gesture. The directional feature is used for gesture pre-class ification and the positional information is used for fine classification. Experi mental results show that this approach is fast and can get a high recognition rate.

  7. Gesture Recognition for Human-computer Interaction by Using Neural Networks%手势语言识别的神经网络方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁景和; 王勇; 常胜江; 张延炘

    2002-01-01

    For the purpose of human-computer interaction(HCI),a visual approach based on gesture recognition is proposed in this paper.The technique essentially includes detection and segmentation,feature extraction,and recognition of a number of gestures which are assigned as some control commands.Each of the processing stages employs a neural network for skin-color detection,principal component analysis(PCA) as well as clustering encoding of the hand-gestures.Details of the approach and experiment results are provided.The experimental recognizing accuracy is 94 %.%提供了一种用于人机交互(HCI)的手势语言可视化识别方法.该方法包括用于几种控制命令的手势的探测、分割、特征提取及识别,每一步的处理都用到了神经网络方法,像肤色探测、主元分析(PCA)以及聚类编码识别.实验结果显示正确识别率高达94 %.

  8. Human Computer Interactions in Next-Generation of Aircraft Smart Navigation Management Systems: Task Analysis and Architecture under an Agent-Oriented Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Canino-Rodríguez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The limited efficiency of current air traffic systems will require a next-generation of Smart Air Traffic System (SATS that relies on current technological advances. This challenge means a transition toward a new navigation and air-traffic procedures paradigm, where pilots and air traffic controllers perform and coordinate their activities according to new roles and technological supports. The design of new Human-Computer Interactions (HCI for performing these activities is a key element of SATS. However efforts for developing such tools need to be inspired on a parallel characterization of hypothetical air traffic scenarios compatible with current ones. This paper is focused on airborne HCI into SATS where cockpit inputs came from aircraft navigation systems, surrounding traffic situation, controllers’ indications, etc. So the HCI is intended to enhance situation awareness and decision-making through pilot cockpit. This work approach considers SATS as a system distributed on a large-scale with uncertainty in a dynamic environment. Therefore, a multi-agent systems based approach is well suited for modeling such an environment. We demonstrate that current methodologies for designing multi-agent systems are a useful tool to characterize HCI. We specifically illustrate how the selected methodological approach provides enough guidelines to obtain a cockpit HCI design that complies with future SATS specifications.

  9. Feature selection for speech emotion recognition in Spanish and Basque: on the use of machine learning to improve human-computer interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andoni Arruti

    Full Text Available Study of emotions in human-computer interaction is a growing research area. This paper shows an attempt to select the most significant features for emotion recognition in spoken Basque and Spanish Languages using different methods for feature selection. RekEmozio database was used as the experimental data set. Several Machine Learning paradigms were used for the emotion classification task. Experiments were executed in three phases, using different sets of features as classification variables in each phase. Moreover, feature subset selection was applied at each phase in order to seek for the most relevant feature subset. The three phases approach was selected to check the validity of the proposed approach. Achieved results show that an instance-based learning algorithm using feature subset selection techniques based on evolutionary algorithms is the best Machine Learning paradigm in automatic emotion recognition, with all different feature sets, obtaining a mean of 80,05% emotion recognition rate in Basque and a 74,82% in Spanish. In order to check the goodness of the proposed process, a greedy searching approach (FSS-Forward has been applied and a comparison between them is provided. Based on achieved results, a set of most relevant non-speaker dependent features is proposed for both languages and new perspectives are suggested.

  10. Feature selection for speech emotion recognition in Spanish and Basque: on the use of machine learning to improve human-computer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, Andoni; Cearreta, Idoia; Alvarez, Aitor; Lazkano, Elena; Sierra, Basilio

    2014-01-01

    Study of emotions in human-computer interaction is a growing research area. This paper shows an attempt to select the most significant features for emotion recognition in spoken Basque and Spanish Languages using different methods for feature selection. RekEmozio database was used as the experimental data set. Several Machine Learning paradigms were used for the emotion classification task. Experiments were executed in three phases, using different sets of features as classification variables in each phase. Moreover, feature subset selection was applied at each phase in order to seek for the most relevant feature subset. The three phases approach was selected to check the validity of the proposed approach. Achieved results show that an instance-based learning algorithm using feature subset selection techniques based on evolutionary algorithms is the best Machine Learning paradigm in automatic emotion recognition, with all different feature sets, obtaining a mean of 80,05% emotion recognition rate in Basque and a 74,82% in Spanish. In order to check the goodness of the proposed process, a greedy searching approach (FSS-Forward) has been applied and a comparison between them is provided. Based on achieved results, a set of most relevant non-speaker dependent features is proposed for both languages and new perspectives are suggested.

  11. Human computer interactions in next-generation of aircraft smart navigation management systems: task analysis and architecture under an agent-oriented methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino-Rodríguez, José M; García-Herrero, Jesús; Besada-Portas, Juan; Ravelo-García, Antonio G; Travieso-González, Carlos; Alonso-Hernández, Jesús B

    2015-03-04

    The limited efficiency of current air traffic systems will require a next-generation of Smart Air Traffic System (SATS) that relies on current technological advances. This challenge means a transition toward a new navigation and air-traffic procedures paradigm, where pilots and air traffic controllers perform and coordinate their activities according to new roles and technological supports. The design of new Human-Computer Interactions (HCI) for performing these activities is a key element of SATS. However efforts for developing such tools need to be inspired on a parallel characterization of hypothetical air traffic scenarios compatible with current ones. This paper is focused on airborne HCI into SATS where cockpit inputs came from aircraft navigation systems, surrounding traffic situation, controllers' indications, etc. So the HCI is intended to enhance situation awareness and decision-making through pilot cockpit. This work approach considers SATS as a system distributed on a large-scale with uncertainty in a dynamic environment. Therefore, a multi-agent systems based approach is well suited for modeling such an environment. We demonstrate that current methodologies for designing multi-agent systems are a useful tool to characterize HCI. We specifically illustrate how the selected methodological approach provides enough guidelines to obtain a cockpit HCI design that complies with future SATS specifications.

  12. Interaction between Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Jain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Software engineering and artificial intelligence is the two field of the computer science. During the last decades, the disciplines of Artificial Intelligence and Software Engineering have developedseparately without the much exchange of research outcomes. However, both fields of computer science have different characteristics, benefits and limitations. This statement opens many possibilities and ideas for research. One idea is that the researcher applies the available methods, tools and techniques of Artificial Intelligence to Software Engineering and Software Engineering to Artificial Intelligence in a manner that good things, feature, characteristic and advantages of the both fields is taken up, and the limitations will reduces. During applicability, an intersection area is found between AI and SE, which forms the relation between AI and SE. The work in this paper discusses the factor that come while communicating between AI and SE such as Communication, objective, Problem and reasons for adopting. This work explores the framework of interaction on which both fields are communicate with each other. This framework has four major classes of interaction such as software support environment, AI tools and techniques in conventional software, Use of conventional software technology and Methodological considerations. This paper introduces the relation between AI and SE, and varioustechniques evolved while merging.

  13. An artificial boundary approach for short-ranged interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David M.

    2016-07-01

    Real physical systems are only understood, experimentally or theoretically, to a finite resolution so in their analysis there is generally an ignorance of possible short-range phenomena. It is also well-known that the boundary conditions of wavefunctions and fields can be used to model short-range interactions when those interactions are expected, a priori. Here, a real-space approach is described wherein an artificial boundary of ignorance is imposed to explicitly exclude from analysis the region of a system wherein short-distance effects may be obscure. The (artificial) boundary conditions encode those short-distance effects by parameterizing the possible UV completions of the wavefunction. Since measurable quantities, such as spectra and cross sections, must be independent of the position of the artificial boundary, the boundary conditions must evolve with the radius of the boundary in a particular way. As examples of this approach, an analysis is performed of the non-relativistic free particle, harmonic oscillator, and Coulomb potential, and some known results for point-like (contact) interactions are recovered, however from a novel perspective. Generically, observables differ from their canonical values and symmetries are anomalously broken compared to those of idealized models. Connections are made to well-studied physical systems, such as the binding of light nuclei and cold atomic systems. This method is arguably more physically transparent and mathematically easier to use than other techniques that require the regularization and renormalization of delta-function potentials, and may offer further generalizations of practical use.

  14. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  15. 载人航天某装置人机交互式结构优化设计%Structural optimization using human-computer interaction for an aerospace assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 刘洪英; 马爱军; 胡清华; 冯雪梅; 石蒙; 董睿; 赵亚雄

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of the structural optimization of a complicated structure under dynamic response constraints, a human-computer interaction method is proposed to take the advantages of human and computer in the structural optimization, and it is used in the structural optimization of an aerospace assembly. The assembly, after the structural optimization, exhibits remarkable performance improvement in that the first integral vibration frequency increases 41.1% and the maximal the frequency response acceleration of cared points drops 24.3% under the sinusoidal vibration test load conditions while the mass remains essentially unchanged. The result satisfies the requirement of the optimal design and proves the effectiveness and feasibility of the method.%为了解决复杂结构在动力学响应约束下优化的难题,综合人工以及计算机在复杂结构优化中的优点,提出一种人机交互式优化方法用于载人航天某复杂装置的优化设计。经过结构优化后的装置,在质量保持基本不变的情况下一阶振动频率提升41.1%,正弦试验条件下关心节点的最大加速度响应值减小24.3%,优化效果明显,满足优化设计要求,验证了该优化设计方法的可行、有效。

  16. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...

  17. 儿童学习型游戏人机交互界面的设计研究%Research on Design of Human Computer Interaction Interface for Childr- en's Learning Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明朗; 郭峰; 刘贺

    2012-01-01

    Taking the rapid appear of children' s learning game as inspiration, it analyzed the general situation of the human computer interaction interface design for children' s learning game at present, and discussed the question of human computer interaction interface design for children' s learning game which didn' t accord with children' s cognitive habits, pay more attention to visual effect and neglected the sound effects, poor of interactive. Based on this, it proposed the design of the children' s learning game human computer interaction interface should proceed with graphical user interface, voice user interface, the entity of user interface, search for a most conforms to the children' s cognitive characteristics of the human computer interaction interface.%摘要:以儿童学习型游戏的大量出现为启示,分析了现阶段儿童学习型游戏人机交互界面设计的概况,进而论述了儿童学习型游戏人机交互界面设计存在的不符合儿童认知习惯、过分注重视觉效果而忽视听觉效果、交互性差的问题。在此基础上,提出了儿童学习型游戏人机交互界面的设计应从图形化用户交互界面、声音用户界面、实体用户界面入手,探寻最符合儿童认知特性的人机交互界面。

  18. Human Computation An Integrated Approach to Learning from the Crowd

    CERN Document Server

    Law, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Human computation is a new and evolving research area that centers around harnessing human intelligence to solve computational problems that are beyond the scope of existing Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms. With the growth of the Web, human computation systems can now leverage the abilities of an unprecedented number of people via the Web to perform complex computation. There are various genres of human computation applications that exist today. Games with a purpose (e.g., the ESP Game) specifically target online gamers who generate useful data (e.g., image tags) while playing an enjoy

  19. 人机交互视角下网民符码传播心理探析%Code Communication P sychology of Internet Users from the P erspective of Human-Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方艳; 明珠; 陈佩

    2016-01-01

    人机交互( Human-Computer Interaction, HCI)是研究人、计算机以及它们之间相互影响的技术。网上的网民符号交流,通过的是技术的平台和技术的手段,同时也是双方心理的“印迹”、传播伦理的表征。本文从人机交互的心理层次对网民使用文字、图像以及图文并茂的符码传播心理进行考察。%Human-Computer Interaction ( HCI) is the technology that studies on people, computer and the relations between them. The Internet users contact each other by codes, through the technology platform and means, which imprints both sides’ psychologies and presents the Internet ethic as well. This paper explores the code communication psychology of the Internet users from Human-Computer Interaction.

  20. Discussion on Technology and Development of Submarine Command and Control System Human-Computer Interaction%潜艇指控系统人机交互技术发展分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程飞

    2013-01-01

      介绍和分析了国外潜艇指控系统人机交互技术的发展情况和技术特点,回顾了国内潜艇指控系统人机交互手段的发展,从满足未来海军潜艇作战需求出发,对潜艇指控人机交互技术的发展进行了前瞻性分析。%In this paper,an introduction and analysis are given for general development situation and technical feature of Human-computer Interaction for foreign submarine C2 system,and then the Human-computer Interaction for domestic submarine C2 systems are reviewed briefly.In the view of satisfying operational requirement of our future submarine,we analyzed the development of Human-computer Interaction for submarine C2 system.

  1. The pH changes of artificial saliva after interaction with oral of artificial saliva after interaction with oral micropathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri A. Gani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgorund: Saliva contains several protein elements, exocrine proteins and antibodies, such as lactoferrin, sIgA, peroxidase, albumin, polypeptides, and oligopeptides that contribute to the defense of oral mucosa and dental pellicle to prevent infection caused by oral micropathogen, such as Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans. Those micropathogens have a role to change salivary pH as an indicator of oral disease activities. Purpose: This study was aimed to analyze the changes of artificial saliva pH after interaction with S. mutans, C. albicans, and A. Actinomycetemcpmitans. Methods: The materials used in this study consist of S. mutans (ATCC 31987, C. albicans (ATCC 10231, A. actinomycetemcomitans (ATTC 702 358, and artificial saliva. To examine the pH changes of artificial saliva, those three microbiotas were cultured and incubated for 24 hours. Results: The results showed that the interactions of S. mutans, C. albicans, and A. actinomycetemcomitans in the artificial saliva can change the salivary on neutral. There were no significant difference with the control treatment salivary pH 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 (p>0.05. Similarly, there was also no significant difference when those three microorganism interacted each other in the artificial saliva (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the biological activity of S. mutans, C. albicans, and A. actinomycetemcomitans in artificial saliva can change the salivary pH into neutral. It indicates that those microbiotas mutually supported and cooperated in influencing the biological cycle of the oral cavity with salivary pH as an indicator.Latar belakang: Saliva merupakan cairan eksokrin yang mengandung unsur protein dan antibodi seperti sIgA laktoferin peroksidase, albumin, polipeptida dan oligopeptida yang berperan pada pertahanan mukosa rongga mulut dan gigi guna mencegah infeksi oral mikropatogen seperti C. albicans, S. mutans, dan

  2. Design of 3D Virtual Manipulatives Supported by Natural Human Computer Interaction%人机自然交互支持的3D虚拟教具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丽一; 张宝运

    2012-01-01

    现有学习软件或虚拟教具存在交互方式不自然、抽象性差、不智能的缺点,应用基于自然的人机交互技术,以物理教学中的平抛运动教具作为实例,设计实现一种3D虚拟教具用以模拟教学过程中的真实教具。这种虚拟教具主要采用手势识别技术实现人和计算机的自然她交互,同时采用虚拟现实技术构建微具实体。应用人机自然交互技术支持的3D虚拟教具,具有交互方式自然、空间感强和抽象表现力强的特点,体现了和谐自然地人机交互方式在教育中的广泛应用前景。%The current learning software or virtual manipulatives have the shortcomings of unnatural interaction, poor abstractness and unintelligent in application. Using natural human computer interaction technology and taking the horizontal projectile motion in physics instruction as an example, a kind of 3D virtual manipulatives was designed which had the ability to simulate the real teaching aids. Gesture recognition technology was used to realize the natural human-computer interaction. The well designed 3D virtual manipulatives has the characteristic of natural interaction, great abstractness and spatial impression which reflects the board application prospects of natural human computer interaction in education.

  3. Quantum Interaction Approach in Cognition, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, Diederik; Sozzo, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics has been successfully employed in the last years to model situations in which the use of classical structures gives rise to problematical situations, and where typically quantum effects, such as 'contextuality' and 'entanglement', have been recognized. This 'Quantum Interaction Approach' is briefly reviewed in this paper focusing, in particular, on the quantum models that have been elaborated to describe how concepts combine in cognitive science, and on the ensuing identification of a quantum structure in human thought. We point out that these results provide interesting insights toward the development of a unified theory for meaning and knowledge formalization and representation. Then, we analyze the technological aspects and implications of our approach, and a particular attention is devoted to the connections with symbolic artificial intelligence, quantum computation and robotics.

  4. Visual anticipatory information modulates multisensory interactions of artificial audiovisual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroomen, Jean; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J

    2010-07-01

    The neural activity of speech sound processing (the N1 component of the auditory ERP) can be suppressed if a speech sound is accompanied by concordant lip movements. Here we demonstrate that this audiovisual interaction is neither speech specific nor linked to humanlike actions but can be observed with artificial stimuli if their timing is made predictable. In Experiment 1, a pure tone synchronized with a deformation of a rectangle induced a smaller auditory N1 than auditory-only presentations if the temporal occurrence of this audiovisual event was made predictable by two moving disks that touched the rectangle. Local autoregressive average source estimation indicated that this audiovisual interaction may be related to integrative processing in auditory areas. When the moving disks did not precede the audiovisual stimulus--making the onset unpredictable--there was no N1 reduction. In Experiment 2, the predictability of the leading visual signal was manipulated by introducing a temporal asynchrony between the audiovisual event and the collision of moving disks. Audiovisual events occurred either at the moment, before (too "early"), or after (too "late") the disks collided on the rectangle. When asynchronies varied from trial to trial--rendering the moving disks unreliable temporal predictors of the audiovisual event--the N1 reduction was abolished. These results demonstrate that the N1 suppression is induced by visual information that both precedes and reliably predicts audiovisual onset, without a necessary link to human action-related neural mechanisms.

  5. Artificial abelian gauge potentials induced by dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Cesa, A

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the influence of dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg atoms on the generation of abelian artificial gauge potentials and fields. When two Rydberg atoms are driven by a uniform laser field, we show that the combined atom-atom and atom-field interactions give rise to new, non-uniform, artificial gauge potentials. We identify the mechanism responsible for the emergence of these gauge potentials. Analytical expressions for the latter indicate that the strongest artificial magnetic fields are reached in the regime intermediate between the dipole blockade regime and the regime in which the atoms are sufficiently far apart such that atom-light interaction dominates over atom-atom interactions. We discuss the differences and similarities of artificial gauge fields originating from resonant dipole-dipole and van der Waals interactions. We also give an estimation of experimentally attainable artificial magnetic fields resulting from this mechanism.

  6. Design of artificial nucleases and studies of their interaction with DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JingJing; SHAO Ying; WEI Li; LI Ying; SHENG Xin; LIU Fang; LU GuoYuan

    2009-01-01

    The design of artificial nucleases and nuclease mimics has attracted extensive attention and made great progress due to their significant scientific meanings and potential application in the field of gene medicine and molecular biology. This paper reviews recent progress in the investigation of artificial nuclease, including "bifunctional cooperative catalysis", "dinuclear synergistic catalysis", "metal-free catalysis", and especially, the studies of aza-crown ethers as artificial nucleases and their interaction with DNA.

  7. Design of artificial nucleases and studies of their interaction with DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The design of artificial nucleases and nuclease mimics has attracted extensive attention and made great progress due to their significant scientific meanings and potential application in the field of gene medicine and molecular biology. This paper reviews recent progress in the investigation of artificial nuclease,including "bifunctional cooperative catalysis","dinuclear synergistic catalysis","metal-free catalysis" ,and especially,the studies of aza-crown ethers as artificial nucleases and their interaction with DNA.

  8. Research on the Human-computer Interaction Design for Children' s Smart Toys%儿童智能玩具中人机交互设计的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国荣; 王微

    2012-01-01

    以人机交互在现实生活中的信息传播、交流为启示,分析了电子时代玩具的功能、造型等信息,并结合日常生活中人对机器的广泛运用,进而分析了近年来在计算机软件及产品设计领域开发的人机界面设计。通过语音识别、肢体触碰、图像交互以及数字交互等新技术研究领域,实现交互式智能玩具在儿童成长阶段发挥的重要作用,让儿童在潜移默化中"寓教于乐、健康成长"。%Inspired by the information dissemination and communication of human-computer interaction in real life, it analyzed the function and modeling of the electronic age toys. Combined with the extensive use of human for machine in the daily life, and then it analyzed the human-computer interface design of software and product man-machine in the recent years. Through the research field of voice recognition, physical touch, image interaction and digital interactive technology, the interactive smart toys play an important role in the child growth which make the children entertaining and grow healthy.

  9. 基于认知耦合态的翻转课堂人机交互设计%Human-Computer Interaction Design for Flipped Classroom Based on Cognitive Coupling States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤燕; 朱旭; 程仁贵; 孟世敏

    2014-01-01

    在无监督环境中,保持学生持续而有效的学习是翻转课堂的难点。翻转课堂无监督学习环境是人机情境。从人机交互角度,学生沉浸在持续学习中,达到有效学习、深度学习状态,也称“人机认知耦合态”。认知耦合态是学生认知结构、个性、能力和教师设计的学习内容、情境、轨道匹配的状态,是学生和机器相互依赖,形成高效学习体。人机耦合态设计理念上需理解学生心理规律及过程,让计算机成为“教助理”引导学生学习;设计形式上需采集人机交互数据、观测学习过程、创意耦合情境、调制认知过程。翻转课堂中人机认知耦合设计重点是教学资源结构、认知思维过程、在线导学互动、学习成像形式、认知大数据处理技术、实证教学实施方法。基于人机认知耦合态的翻转课堂是教育数字化、实证化思想的实践,也是信息技术与教育深度融合的尝试。%The difficult point in the flipped classroom is how to keep persistent and effective learning in unsupervised environment. The unsupervised learning environment in the flipped classroom is human-computer situation. In human-computer interaction, the persistent learning requires that students immerse themselves in interactive situation, so as to achieve the effective learning and deep learning, which is known as Cognitive Coupling State (CCS). The CCS is a match between the cognitive structure, personality, ability of students and the learning content, design situation, track of teachers ’ design. Students and machines rely on each other. When one designs the CCS, he should study the psychology of students and use computers as teaching assistants to guide students’ learning. Collecting the data of the human-computer interaction, observing learning process, creating coupling situation and modulating cognitive process are needed in the design of CCS. The key points of

  10. Human Robotic Swarm Interaction Using an Artificial Physics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    ARTIFICIAL PHYSICS APPROACH Brenton Campbell Lieutenant, United States Navy B.S., California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, 2006 Submitted... xvi Acknowledgments I would like to thank co-advisor Dr. Tim Chung for his guidance and vision. Without his prodding and focus, this thesis would

  11. 基于人机交互的界面设计研究%Research on the Interface Design Based on Human-Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙扬; 浦云明; 黄淑贞

    2012-01-01

    Making the application of interaction design in the computer application software interface as the breakthrough point, analyzes and summarizes the principles and prototype construction of interaction design, and analyses and improves the 91Note interation design scheme, leads the application of interaction design principle in the practice according to its availability and easy using. Discusses some non-technical issues to improve the quality of software products for bet- ter customer service.%以交互设计在计算机应用软件界面上的应用为切入点.分析总结交互设计原则和交互设计中的原型构建M题,并根据可用性与易用性原则,分析改进现有91Note交互设计方案,领会交互设计原则在实践中的应用。从非技术问题上改进软件质量,使软件产品更好地为用户服务。

  12. 人机交互技术在现代展示设计中的应用%Application of Human-Computer Interaction Technology in Modern Exhibition Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳

    2014-01-01

    随着各种新型交互方式充斥着人类的生活空间,使人们得以了解、探知一个全新的感官世界。通过设计各种交互媒体设施,将多种新型的交互方式应用于现代空间陈列之中,让观众通过看、听、触等方式欣赏、品味乃至探讨展品的“外延”与“内涵”,使展览生动有趣,激发观众的新奇感与兴奋感,有效提升其对展品的阅读、理解能力。%New ways for interacting with each other which are iflled in human living space allow us to discover a whole new world of senses. People integrate the “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” exhibition into the environment or atmosphere by their senses such as seeing, hearing, touching etc when a variety of interactive media facilities are applied to this new way of modern interactive exhibition space, which makes the exhibition interesting and inspires novelty and excitement of the audience as well as effectively enhances the audience's ability of understanding the exhibition.

  13. 基于肤色识别的人机交互方法在游戏中的应用研究%Research on Human-Computer Interaction Methods in Game Application Based on Skin Color Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玉宝; 夏露; 侯宪锋

    2012-01-01

    利用计算机视觉技术实现游戏人机交互来提高游戏的娱乐性,是当前国内外应用研究的热点.文中提出了采用肤色检测技术应用于游戏交互的方法.通过摄像头对肤色进行采样,再利用统计方法对皮肤颜色进行分析建立肤色模型;采用背景差分阈值分割法和Camshift算法进行手势跟踪监测,获取手的位置;将手的位置作为信号传递给游戏角色,从而控制游戏.在VC ++6.0下,使用OpenCV和OpenGL开源库,构建了普通摄像头视觉游戏实验平台,通过手势的运动轨迹控制粒子系统喷射方向.实验结果表明,通过肤色进行手势跟踪监测,进而控制游戏角色运动,具有很好的实时性和交互性.%The game human-computer interaction is fulfilled by making use of computer vision technology to improve the game entertainment. It is a current research hotspot at home and abroad. This paper puts forward the method that the skin detection technology is applied to game interaction. Skin detection technology is applied in human-computer interaction in this paper. Skin color is sampled through the camera, and skin color model is established by making use of statistical methods for analysis of skin color. In order to reduce the influence of the background color recognition, the RGB model translates into HSV model. It takes advantage of the background difference threshold segmentation method and Camshaft algorithm for hand tracking monitoring to get the position of the hand. So as to control the game, the position of handle as a signal is transmitted to characters. And in VC+ + 6. 0, it uses open source library OpenCV and gestures OpenGL to build a common experimental platform game camera vision, with gestures trajectory controlling particle system injection. The experimental result shows that making use of the skin color tracking and monitoring gesture to control game character movement has very good real-time and interactivity.

  14. 基于多屏协同的智能电视人机交互系统%SMART TV HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION SYSTEM BASED ON MULTI-SCREEN COLLABORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兴旺; 孙鹏; 韩锐; 刘春梅

    2016-01-01

    基于多屏协同的智能电视人机交互系统定义了移动设备对智能电视的远程操控和文本输入的通信机制,以解决用户对智能电视的操作不灵活的问题,尤其改善用户的文本输入操作体验。该通信机制稳定、可扩展性强,适用于不同平台的远程操控和文本输入需求。该系统基于 UPnP 协议实现了快速连接移动设备和智能电视,并且以 Android 系统广播机制和输入机制为依据,提出了基于虚拟驱动的输入扩展机制,达到了原生鼠标键盘事件的效果,实现了利用移动设备对智能电视进行交互控制的设计。实验证明,该人机交互系统,具有无缝连接、操作简单的优点,尤其适合用户进行文本输入操作。%The smart TV human-computer interaction system based on multi-screen collaboration defines a communication mechanism for mobile devices in regard to remote control and text input on smart TV so as to solve the problem that user’s control on smart TV is not flexible,in particular to improve user’s experience of text inputting operation.This mechanism is stable and has high scalability,and is suitable for the requirement of remote control and text input on different platforms.Based on UPnP protocol the system implements fast connection on mobile devices and smart TV,and presents the virtual drive-based input extension mechanism based on Android system broadcast mechanism and input mechanism,this achieves the effect of the native mouse and keyboard events,thus realises the design of using mobile devices to interactively control smart TV.Experiments show that this human-computer interaction system has the advantages of seamless connectivity and simple operation,and is particularly suitable for users in text input operation.

  15. 体感设备与被动立体相结合的人机交互方法研究%Research on the method of human-computer interaction in combining somatosensory equipment with passive stereo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭剑波; 张光刘; 李琳

    2011-01-01

    The technology of human-computer interaction full of sense of immersion and manipulation is the target of researchers in the area of virtual reality, and three-dimensional display and somatosensory interaction has become the hot topics at present. By means of introducing the Somatosensory equipment into the display environment of passive stereo, this paper designs and develops a three-dimensional tennis game. Taking the advantage of a stereo display of 3D, and through reasonably planning the relationships and mapping links among objects, participants' visual sense and somatosensory equipment in the game, the sense of immersion and manipulation is improved dramatically.%富有沉浸感和操纵感的人机交互技术是虚拟现实学科研究者的追求目标,立体显示与体感交互是当前的热点问题.文章将体感设备引入被动立体的显示环境,设计开发了一个立体网球游戏,利用立体显示的三维视觉特性,通过合理规划游戏中的对象、参与人的视觉感官以及体感设备三者之间的联系和映射关系,使沉浸感和操纵感得到很大的提升.

  16. Analysis of the Trend of Development of Multimedia Human-Computer Interaction Techniques in the Field of Product Design%浅析多媒体人机交互技术在产品设计领域的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋培培

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the development of science and technology is flourishing, international exchange is frequent, global economic and cultural interdependence is enhanced since the 1990s. Multimedia human-computer interaction technology has gotten rapid development. Meanwhile, it also plays a significant role in the field of product design and product display and sales. According to the detailed analysis on the main interactive ways of multimedia human-computer interaction in the product design, including network virtual interactive and multimedia, multi-channel intelligent human-computer interaction, as well as existent problems in these interactions, through the research of existing human-computer interaction technology, the future direction and trend of development of multimedia human-computer interaction technology in the field of product design is proposed.%介绍了自20世纪90年代以来,科学技术蓬勃发展,国际交流频繁,全球经济文化相互依赖增强.多媒体人机交互技术发展迅速.同时,在产品设计领域以及产品展示和销售方面也起到了很大的作用.针对产品设计中的多媒体人机交互的主要交互方式,包括了网络虚拟的交互方式和多媒体、多通道的智能人机交互方式.以及这些交互方式中所存在问题做了详细分析.通过现有的这些人机交互技术的分析研究,提出了多媒体人机交互技术在产品设计领域未来的发展方向及发展趋势.

  17. Unimodal and Multimodal Human Perception of Affective States During Human-computer Interaction%人机交互中情感状态单多模的人类感知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雪婷; 王宇; 田丽迎

    2016-01-01

    情感识别是人机交互领域的重要研究课题之一,随着研究通道的增多,研究成本和工作量也越来越大。本文在7种模式下通过未受训的观察员来检测人机交互过程中人类的基本情感状态(包括:厌恶、恐惧、快乐、悲伤和惊讶)的自然表达,并评估稳定性。用混合效应逻辑回归模型对2个观察员( oo)之间的一致性进行计算和分析,结果显示一致性普遍偏低。除了比较单模态和多模态的整体一致性,还比较了单个情感状态在单个模式下的一致性,而比较结果则用超可加性、可加性、冗余性和抑制性效应进行分类。目前,自动情感检测结果的意义还在研究中。%Emotion perception is one of the most important research topics in the field of human-computer interaction. With the increase of channels, research costs and the workload are also increasing. In this paper, the human’ s basic emotion states were been detected by untrained people in seven conditions during human-computer interaction, and assess stability. It computed and analyzed the agreement between two observers( oo) with mixed-effects logistic regression models. The result is generally low. In addition to the overall consistency of the unimodal and multimodal condition, it also compared the consistency of individual affec-tive states in a single model, and classified the results with the superadditive, additive, redundancy and inhibitory effect. The significance of the results of automatic emotion detection is still been discussed.

  18. Photon-mediated interactions between distant artificial atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, Arjan F; Fedorov, Arkady; Lalumière, Kevin; Sanders, Barry C; Blais, Alexandre; Wallraff, Andreas

    2013-12-20

    Photon-mediated interactions between atoms are of fundamental importance in quantum optics, quantum simulations, and quantum information processing. The exchange of real and virtual photons between atoms gives rise to nontrivial interactions, the strength of which decreases rapidly with distance in three dimensions. Here, we use two superconducting qubits in an open one-dimensional transmission line to study much stronger photon-mediated interactions. Making use of the possibility to tune these qubits by more than a quarter of their transition frequency, we observe both coherent exchange interactions at an effective separation of 3λ/4 and the creation of super- and subradiant states at a separation of one photon wavelength λ. In this system, collective atom-photon interactions and applications in quantum communication may be explored.

  19. Sphericall: A Human/Artificial Intelligence interaction experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frack Gechter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-agent systems are now wide spread in scientific works and in industrial applications. Few applications deal with the Human/Multi-agent system interaction. Multi-agent systems are characterized by individual entities, called agents, in interaction with each other and with their environment. Multi-agent systems are generally classified into complex systems categories since the global emerging phenomenon cannot be predicted even if every component is well known. The systems developed in this paper are named reactive because they behave using simple interaction models. In the reactive approach, the issue of Human/system interaction is hard to cope with and is scarcely exposed in literature. This paper presents Sphericall, an application aimed at studying Human/Complex System interactions and based on two physics inspired multi-agent systems interacting together. The Sphericall device is composed of a tactile screen and a spherical world where agents evolve. This paper presents both the technical background of Sphericall project and a feedback taken from the demonstration performed during OFFF Festival in La Villette (Paris.

  20. Artificial neural networks modeling gene-environment interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Frauke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene-environment interactions play an important role in the etiological pathway of complex diseases. An appropriate statistical method for handling a wide variety of complex situations involving interactions between variables is still lacking, especially when continuous variables are involved. The aim of this paper is to explore the ability of neural networks to model different structures of gene-environment interactions. A simulation study is set up to compare neural networks with standard logistic regression models. Eight different structures of gene-environment interactions are investigated. These structures are characterized by penetrance functions that are based on sigmoid functions or on combinations of linear and non-linear effects of a continuous environmental factor and a genetic factor with main effect or with a masking effect only. Results In our simulation study, neural networks are more successful in modeling gene-environment interactions than logistic regression models. This outperfomance is especially pronounced when modeling sigmoid penetrance functions, when distinguishing between linear and nonlinear components, and when modeling masking effects of the genetic factor. Conclusion Our study shows that neural networks are a promising approach for analyzing gene-environment interactions. Especially, if no prior knowledge of the correct nature of the relationship between co-variables and response variable is present, neural networks provide a valuable alternative to regression methods that are limited to the analysis of linearly separable data.

  1. Applications of artificial intelligence in safe human-robot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmaei, Nima; Kermani, Mehrdad R

    2011-04-01

    The integration of industrial robots into the human workspace presents a set of unique challenges. This paper introduces a new sensory system for modeling, tracking, and predicting human motions within a robot workspace. A reactive control scheme to modify a robot's operations for accommodating the presence of the human within the robot workspace is also presented. To this end, a special class of artificial neural networks, namely, self-organizing maps (SOMs), is employed for obtaining a superquadric-based model of the human. The SOM network receives information of the human's footprints from the sensory system and infers necessary data for rendering the human model. The model is then used in order to assess the danger of the robot operations based on the measured as well as predicted human motions. This is followed by the introduction of a new reactive control scheme that results in the least interferences between the human and robot operations. The approach enables the robot to foresee an upcoming danger and take preventive actions before the danger becomes imminent. Simulation and experimental results are presented in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. The application of 2.5D human-computer interaction inversion to aeromagnetic anomaly interpretation%2.5D人机交互反演在航磁异常解释中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周子阳; 常树帅; 宁媛丽; 陈江源

    2016-01-01

    2.5D joint inversion of gravity and magnetic module in RGIS data processing software uses 2.5D human-computer interaction inversion method of gravity and magnetic anomalies,which has advantages of simple interface,convenient operation,and real-time dis-play of inversional curve. Taking inversion of GanC-2011-0011 aeromagnetic anomaly in the Dunhuang area of Gansu Province as an ex-ample,this paper describes concrete methods of data import,parameter setting and modeling. The inversion result is basically in accord with verification result with drilling. It is shown that the inversion result is reliable.%RGIS软件中2.5D重磁联合反演模块采用2.5D人机交互重磁异常反演方法,具有界面简洁、操作方便、反演曲线实时显示等优点.笔者以甘肃敦煌地区甘C-2011-0011航磁异常反演为例,介绍了该软件数据输入、参数设置及模型建立的具体方法.反演结果与实际钻孔验证结果基本吻合,表明反演结果可靠.

  3. Investigation of Lecture method on Fitts' Law in Human-computer Interaction Courses%人机交互课程中费茨定律的讲授方案探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂华伟

    2016-01-01

    费茨定律(Fitts’Law)是人机交互界面设计中的重要指导理论。因此,费茨定律的讲授是人机交互课堂的重要环节。在本文中,作者以自身教学实践为基础,提出费茨定律的三层次讲解模型(理论层次、应用层次和科研层次),以系统地讲授费茨定律的理论及应用。具体而言,这个模型首先对比香农定理和费茨定律,分析费茨定律起源及其参数含义。其次参考商业操作系统(iOS和Windows)的设计,说明费茨定律的应用场景。最后以发表在人机交互顶级会议CHI上新颖的研究成果为例,阐述费茨定律的理论指导作用。课堂反馈初步说明了该教学模型的有效性。该教学方式不仅为更好地讲解费茨定律提供了借鉴,也为讲授人机交互课程的其他知识给出了思路。%Fitts' law plays an important role in human-computer interface design. Hence, the lecture on Fitts' law is vital in Human-computer Interaction (HCI) courses. In this article, the author proposes a three-level lecture model (theory, application and research levels) based on the author' teaching experience. Specifically, this model first compares Shannon's theorem to Fit-ts' law so as to analyze the origin of Fitts' Law and the meanings of its parameters. Then this model refers to commercial OS design such as iOS and Windows to illustrate application scenarios of Fitts' law. Last, this model demonstrates the function of Fitts' law as a theoretical guidance by taking research outcomes published in the top level HCI conference CHI as examples. The initial feedback demonstrates the effectiveness of the lecture model. The proposed method not only provides references of how to better lecture on Fitts' law, but also offers thoughts to lecture on other HCI knowledge.

  4. Aesthetic Approaches to Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume consists of revised papers from the First International Workshop on Activity Theory Based Practical Methods for IT Design. The workshop took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, September 2-3, 2004. The particular focus of the workshop was the development of methods based on activity theory...... for practical development of IT-based systems....

  5. Measuring Appeal in Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neben, Tillmann; Xiao, Bo Sophia; Lim, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    has relied predominantly on subjective self-rating scales, this research-in-progress paper proposes complementary objective measurement for appeal. We start by reviewing the linkages between the theoretical constructs related to appeal and their neurophysiological correlates. We then review past......Appeal refers to the positive emotional response to an aesthetic, beautiful, or in another way desirable stimulus. It is a recurring topic in information systems (IS) research, and is important for understanding many phenomena of user behavior and decision-making. While past IS research on appeal...

  6. Human-computer interaction fundamentals and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Gerard Jounghyun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction What HCI Is and Why It Is Important Principles of HCI     ""Know Thy User""      Understand the Task      Reduce Memory Load      Strive for Consistency      Remind Users and Refresh Their Memory      Prevent Errors/Reversal of Action      Naturalness SummaryReferences Specific HCI Guidelines Guideline Categories Examples of HCI Guidelines      Visual Display Layout (General HCI Design)      Information Structuring and Navigation (General HCI Design)      Taking User Input (General H

  7. Aesthetic Approaches to Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume consists of revised papers from the First International Workshop on Activity Theory Based Practical Methods for IT Design. The workshop took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, September 2-3, 2004. The particular focus of the workshop was the development of methods based on activity theory ...

  8. Multi-channel virtual reality human-computer interactive terminal design and application%多通道虚拟现实人机交互终端设计及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐守祥; 胡文; 于成龙; 马超

    2015-01-01

    设计了一款多通道虚拟现实人机交互终端,它依据虚拟环境产生真实的环境模拟,为真人带来沉浸式的环境带入体验。给出了利用虚拟环境中的语义对象控制该交互终端,产生三维环境、立体声音、自然气象、碰撞接触和气味仿真等感知功能的方法,为人的大脑依附于虚拟世界的化身上给出了一种新途径,通过虚拟世界环境的变换,实现真人的时空穿越体验。借助Unity虚拟现实开发平台和虚拟现实头盔,给出了该方案的原型系统。%In order to bring immersive environment into reality experience, we propose a multi-channel virtual reality human-computer interactive terminal, which is based on the virtual environment to simulate real environment. In the virtual environment, semantic objects are given as the controller of the interactive terminal. It produces three-dimensional environment, stereo sound, natural calamities, impact and odor perception. The embodiment of human brain attached to the virtual world generates a new way by the transformation of virtual world environment to achieve a real-time travel experience. By means of Unity development platform and virtual reality helmet, the scheme of prototype system is presented.

  9. STUDY ON HUMAN-COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR STABLE VIRTUAL DISASSEMBLY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Qiang; Zhang Shensheng; Liu Jihong; Cao Pengbing; Zhong Yifang

    2003-01-01

    The cooperative work between human being and computer based on virtual reality (VR) is investigated to plan the disassembly sequences more efficiently. A three-layer model of human-computer cooperative virtual disassembly is built, and the corresponding human-computer system for stable virtual disassembly is developed. In this system, an immersive and interactive virtual disassembly environment has been created to provide planners with a more visual working scene. For cooperative disassembly, an intelligent module of stability analysis of disassembly operations is embedded into the human-computer system to assist planners to implement disassembly tasks better. The supporting matrix for stability analysis of disassembly operations is defined and the method of stability analysis is detailed. Based on the approach, the stability of any disassembly operation can be analyzed to instruct the manual virtual disassembly. At last, a disassembly case in the virtual environment is given to prove the validity of above ideas.

  10. Fluid-structure interaction of three-dimensional magnetic artificial cilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaderi, S. N.; Onck, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    A numerical model is developed to analyse the interaction of artificial cilia with the surrounding fluid in a three-dimensional setting in the limit of vanishing fluid inertia forces. The cilia are modelled using finite shell elements and the fluid is modelled using a boundary element approach. The

  11. Multiple Artificial Neural Networks with Interaction Noise for Estimation of Spatial Categorical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multiple artificial neural networks (MANN method with interaction noise for estimating the occurrence probabilities of different classes at any site in space. The MANN consists of several independent artificial neural networks, the number of which is determined by the neighbors around the target location. In the proposed algorithm, the conditional or pre-posterior (multi-point probabilities are viewed as output nodes, which can be estimated by weighted combinations of input nodes: two-point transition probabilities. The occurrence probability of a certain class at a certain location can be easily computed by the product of output probabilities using Bayes’ theorem. Spatial interaction or redundancy information can be measured in the form of interaction noises. Prediction results show that the method of MANN with interaction noise has a higher classification accuracy than the traditional Markov chain random fields (MCRF model and can successfully preserve small-scale features.

  12. Human-computer interface design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowser, S.E.

    1995-04-01

    Modern military forces assume that computer-based information is reliable, timely, available, usable, and shared. The importance of computer-based information is based on the assumption that {open_quotes}shared situation awareness, coupled with the ability to conduct continuous operations, will allow information age armies to observe, decide, and act faster, more correctly and more precisely than their enemies.{close_quotes} (Sullivan and Dubik 1994). Human-Computer Interface (HCI) design standardization is critical to the realization of the previously stated assumptions. Given that a key factor of a high-performance, high-reliability system is an easy-to-use, effective design of the interface between the hardware, software, and the user, it follows logically that the interface between the computer and the military user is critical to the success of the information-age military. The proliferation of computer technology has resulted in the development of an extensive variety of computer-based systems and the implementation of varying HCI styles on these systems. To accommodate the continued growth in computer-based systems, minimize HCI diversity, and improve system performance and reliability, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is continuing to adopt interface standards for developing computer-based systems.

  13. Human Robotic Swarm Interaction Using An Artificial Physics Approach (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Human Robotic Swarm Interaction Using An Artificial Physics Approach LT Brenton Campbell ADVISORS: Asst Professor Dr. Timothy Chung Senior Lecturer...REPORT DATE DEC 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Human Robotic Swarm Interaction Using An...and R. Heil, “Distributed, physics-based control of swarms of vehicles,” Autonomous Robots, pp. 137–162, 2004. [Online]. Available: http

  14. Mathematical morphology based electro-oculography recognition algorithm for human-computer interaction%基于数学形态学的眼电信号识别及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫东; 李昕; 刘俊; 郝耀耀; 廖玉玺; 苏煜; 张韶岷; 郑筱祥

    2011-01-01

    Electro-oculography (EOG) signals can be used for recognizing the directions of eye movements and voluntary eye blinks, which can be used to develop a new human-computer interaction (HCI) system.A mathematical morphology based algorithm was presented to process the EOG signals, which always contain some interference components, such as baseline drift, EMG interference and movement artifacts.The new approach can effectively reduce the artifacts and recognize the directions of eye movements and voluntary eye blinks by using a set of thresholds. A HCI system for disabled using the method was designed and tested by both healthy and disabled people. Experimental results showed that the average correct rate was 96.2%. The system can be employed in clinical HCI fields.%通过分析眼电(EOG)信号可以识别人眼球的运动状态及眨眼情况,进而设计一种新型的人机交互(HCI)系统.眼电信号通常包含一些干扰信息,如漂移、肌电干扰、运动伪迹.为了去除这些干扰信息,提出一种利用数学形态学对眼电信号进行处理的方法;通过阈值检测可以准确识别使用者眼球的运动状态和有意识眨眼.设计一个基于眼电的人机交互系统并通过健康与残疾被试的测试.实验结果显示,眼电信号识别的平均正确率达到96.2%,表明该方法可以应用于临床人机交互领域.

  15. The Quantum Human Computer (QHC) Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to suggest the existence of a human computer called Quantum Human Computer (QHC) on the basis of an analogy between human beings and computers. To date, there are two types of computers: Binary and Quantum. The former operates on the basis of binary logic where an object is said to exist in either of the two states of 1 and…

  16. Multicollinearity may lead to artificial interaction: an example from a cross sectional study of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithisarankul, P; Weaver, V M; Diener-West, M; Strickland, P T

    1997-06-01

    Collinearity is the situation which arises in multiple regression when some or all of the explanatory variables are so highly correlated with one another that it becomes very difficult, if not impossible, to disentangle their influences and obtain a reasonably precise estimate of their effects. Suppressor variable is one of the extreme situations of collinearity that one variable can substantially increase the multiple correlation when combined with a variable that is only modestly correlated with the response variable. In this study, we describe the process by which we disentangled and discovered multicollinearity and its consequences, namely artificial interaction, using the data from cross-sectional quantification of several biomarkers. We showed how the collinearity between one biomarker (blood lead level) and another (urinary trans, trans-muconic acid) and their interaction (blood lead level* urinary trans, trans-muconic acid) can lead to the observed artificial interaction on the third biomarker (urinary 5-aminolevulinic acid).

  17. Study on augmented reality human-computer interactive technology with Vizard and Kinect%基于Vizard和Kinect的增强现实人机交互技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利利; 刘江城; 林晓斌

    2016-01-01

    Natural human-computer interaction technology based on posture and language has largely solved the problem of the traditional game experience, and augmented the user experience. This paper presents a method to develop augmented reality interactive technology with Vizard and Kinect. It uses Kinect to obtain tracking identification points of human skeleton, and gets three-dimensional coordinate values of corresponding bones node by Vizard and FAAST. By space vector processing, the body posture can be converted to a state value and then the corresponding control command output is completed, and the interaction control between user and system is realized. The experimental results show that the method is cost low, development cycle short, integrates the real world information with virtual world information seamlessly, thus augments the game user experience.%基于体态和语言的人机自然交互技术很大程度上解决了传统游戏的体验问题,增强了游戏用户的体验感。提出了一种将Vizard和Kinect相结合开发增强现实人机交互技术的方法,即利用Kinect设备获取人体骨骼跟踪识别点,通过Vizard和FAAST取得对应骨骼节点的三维坐标值,并进行空间向量处理,进而判断肢体信息再转换为状态参数,最后完成相应的控制指令输出,实现用户和系统的交互控制。实验结果表明,这种开发方法成本低,周期短,将真实世界信息和虚拟世界信息“无缝”地融合,增强游戏用户的体验感。

  18. The Human-Computer Interface and Information Literacy: Some Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses human/computer interaction research, human/computer interface, and their relationships to information literacy. Highlights include communication models; cognitive perspectives; task analysis; theory of action; problem solving; instructional design considerations; and a suggestion that human/information interface may be a more appropriate…

  19. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  20. 基于多点手势识别的人机交互技术框架%Framework of human-computer interaction based on multi-point gesture recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文生; 解梅; 邓春健

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种基于机器视觉的多点手势识别方法及其人机交互技术框架.指尖跟踪和手势识别服务程序通过一个普通的摄像机捕获用户手的运动,对多个指尖目标进行实时检测和跟踪,在指尖跟踪结果基础上利用BP神经网络实现多点手势识别,并根据指尖跟踪和手势识别结果构造相应的消息(包括低级指点消息和高级手势消息)发送给客户端应用程序,客户端响应消息并进行相应的处理.该框架可以帮助开发人员的在应用程序中增加类似iPhone多点触摸控制的多点手势识别控制功能,实现更加自然的人机交互,提高用户操作体验.%A framework of human-computer interaction based on multi-point gesture recognition is presented. The server of fingertip tracking and gesture recognition firstly captures the movement of user' s hands by a camera, detects and tracks multiple fingertips in real time, then realizes multi-point gesture recognition by making use of the results of fingertip tracking through BP neural network. Finally,the server constructs messages (including primary fmgertip messages and senior gesture message) according to the result of fingertip tracking and gesture recognition and sends them the client application, the client responds to the messages. The framework can help programmers realize multi-point gesture based control functions just like multi-touch functions of iPhone, achieve a more natural humancomputer interaction and improve the operation experience of user.

  1. Hybrid ecologies: interactions between artificial and natural organisms in telematic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guto Nóbrega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and analyses two projects in telematic art realized in 2011 that had the participation of NANO – Nucleus of Art and New Organisms - School of Fine Arts - UFRJ, research laboratory coordinated by Dr. Carlos (Guto Nobrega and Dr. Maria Luisa Fragoso, as part of the Post Graduate Program in Visual Arts. Both projects involved the creation of artificial systems for interactivity in telematic environments. The text will present relevant points of the two projects, their relations, resonances and unfoldings. The focus of our analysis is the process of invention of artificial interfaces, their hybridizations, complexity and modes of interaction and presence in the context of works of telematic art.

  2. Hybrid ecologies: interactions between artificial and natural organisms in telematic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Guto Nóbrega

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports and analyses two projects in telematic art realized in 2011 that had the participation of NANO – Nucleus of Art and New Organisms - School of Fine Arts - UFRJ, research laboratory coordinated by Dr. Carlos (Guto) Nobrega and Dr. Maria Luisa Fragoso, as part of the Post Graduate Program in Visual Arts. Both projects involved the creation of artificial systems for interactivity in telematic environments. The text will present relevant points of the two projects, their relatio...

  3. Supporting Negotiation Behavior with Haptics-Enabled Human-Computer Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Küçükyılmaz, Ayşe; Sezgin, Tevfik Metin; Başdoğan, Çağatay

    2012-01-01

    An active research goal for human-computer interaction is to allow humans to communicate with computers in an intuitive and natural fashion, especially in real-life interaction scenarios. One approach that has been advocated to achieve this has been to build computer systems with human-like qualities and capabilities. In this paper, we present insight on how human-computer interaction can be enriched by employing the computers with behavioral patterns that naturally appear in human-human nego...

  4. 基于MapX的电力系统GIS人机交互设计%Design of GIS Human-Computer Interaction Based on MapX for Electric Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱作欣; 朱全胜; 马超; 李卫东

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, based on the method geographic information system (GIS) visual development interface, a GIS map is designed and drawn by MapInfo, which includes basic geographic layer, power station layer, substation layer, 220 kV transmission line layer, and 500 kV transmission line layer. Moreover, some basic functions and advanced functions of human-computer interaction of electric power system GIS based on MapX are achieved. The basic functions include space function, search function, display data function, thematic map function, eagle eye map function, contour map function, and 3D Visualization function. The advanced functions include multi-screen display function and associated adaptive regulatory function. According to different usage features and demands, more advanced functions can be developed on this basis. The design as presented in this paper will have significant effects in the management, analysis and maintenance of the power grid data.%应用基于地理信息系统(GIS)的电力系统可视化界面开发方法,使用MapInfo软件,设计绘制包括基础地理层、发电厂层、变电站层、220 kV输电线路层、500 kV输电线路层的GIS图.在此基础上,实现基于MapX的电力系统GIS人机交互基本功能及高级功能,基本功能包括空间功能、查询功能、详细数据展示功能、专题图功能、鹰眼图功能、等高线图功能、3D可视化功能,高级功能包括关联多屏显示功能、自适应调节功能.在整个系统中,基本功能可以较为简单地进行实现;高级功能突破了简单的二次开发限制,针对性更强,且具备了更专业的人机交互功能.依据电力系统中不同的使用特点和需求,还可以在此基础上开发出更多的其他高级功能.在对电网数据进行管理、分析和维护时具有显著的效果.

  5. Employing an interaction picture to remove artificial correlations in multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haobin; Thoss, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method is implemented in the interaction picture to allow a more effective description of correlation effects. It is shown that the artificial correlation present in the original Schrödinger picture can be removed with an appropriate choice of the zeroth-order Hamiltonian. Thereby, operators in the interaction picture are obtained through time-dependent unitary transformations, which have negligible computational cost compared with other parts of the ML-MCTDH algorithm. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by application to a model of vibrationally coupled charge transport in molecular junctions.

  6. Ionospheric Turbulence and the Evolution of Artificial Irregularities Excited by RF Interactions at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Rayyan, N.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The HAARP phased-array HF transmitter at Gakona, AK delivers up to 3.6 GW (ERP) of HF power in the range of 2.8 - 10 MHz to the ionosphere with millisecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. HAARP's unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of nonlinear plasma experiments in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma including stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), artificial aurora, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and telescopes and cameras for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the plasma line, and suprathermal electrons. For a narrow range of HF pointing between Spitze and magnetic zenith, a reduced threshold for AFAI is observed. Applications are made to the study of irregularities relevant to spacecraft communication and navigation systems.

  7. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH FOR HAND GESTURE RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    MISS. SHWETA K. YEWALE,; MR. PANKAJ K. BHARNE

    2011-01-01

    Gesture recognition is an important for developing alternative human-computer interaction modalities. It enables human to interface with machine in a more natural way. For recognizing the gestures, there areseveral algorithms are available. There are several approaches for gesture recognition using MATLAB. Artificial Neural networks are flexible in a changing environment. This research paper gives the overview of ANN for gesture recognition. It also describes the process of gesture recognitio...

  8. Design of human computer interaction system of virtual crops based on Leap Motion%基于Leap Motion的虚拟农作物人机交互系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福理; 丁胤; 丁维龙; 谢涛

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the Somatosensory Technology has been applied in many fields including entertainment, education, automation and medicine etc. But in agriculture, it still has rarely involved. The traditional human-computer interaction system of virtual plant operating at a particular operating system or on a mobile platform, and interactive mode is interactive through the mouse and keyboard, need parameters and commands more cumbersome user input, resulting in the lack of good user interaction experience. In view of the above situation, in this paper, we designed and developed virtual farming object interaction system based on cloud computing and somatosensory interactive technology. The system firstly generated a 3D model of the virtual crop in the cloud, and the model was stored in the cloud. Our virtual crop model included rice and tomato. The cloud-side provided the data calculation ability and responded the browser requesting, the browser-side was responsible for display, caching and a small amount of calculation, and Leap Motion was responsible for interaction on the browser-side. In order to obtain the relevant parameters for rice modeling, we had done experiments in China National Rice Research Institute in Zhejiang, Hangzhou between 2015 and 2016. The selected rice stage was from the jointing stage to the heading stage. For each plant, we measured three blades in different leaf positions, which included blade lengths, blade widths, the changed widths along the blades, and blade growth positions. The 3D data of virtual crops needed to be generated by algorithms on Amazon cloud platform. The topological structures of tomato plants were described by the parametric L-system in our system, and we separated the structures into stems, rachis, blades, fruit branches and flower branches. Using WebGL to render 3D crop models on browser allowed and incorporated users to directly interact with it. In this paper, we defined a 3D virtual crop data exchange protocol

  9. Speech Dialogue with Facial Displays Multimodal Human-Computer Conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, K; Nagao, Katashi; Takeuchi, Akikazu

    1994-01-01

    Human face-to-face conversation is an ideal model for human-computer dialogue. One of the major features of face-to-face communication is its multiplicity of communication channels that act on multiple modalities. To realize a natural multimodal dialogue, it is necessary to study how humans perceive information and determine the information to which humans are sensitive. A face is an independent communication channel that conveys emotional and conversational signals, encoded as facial expressions. We have developed an experimental system that integrates speech dialogue and facial animation, to investigate the effect of introducing communicative facial expressions as a new modality in human-computer conversation. Our experiments have shown that facial expressions are helpful, especially upon first contact with the system. We have also discovered that featuring facial expressions at an early stage improves subsequent interaction.

  10. Engineering interaction between bone marrow derived endothelial cells and electrospun surfaces for artificial vascular graft applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Furqan; Dutta, Naba K; Zannettino, Andrew; Vandyke, Kate; Choudhury, Namita Roy

    2014-04-14

    The aim of this investigation was to understand and engineer the interactions between endothelial cells and the electrospun (ES) polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) nanofiber surfaces and evaluate their potential for endothelialization. Elastomeric PVDF-HFP samples were electrospun to evaluate their potential use as small diameter artificial vascular graft scaffold (SDAVG) and compared with solvent cast (SC) PVDF-HFP films. We examined the consequences of fibrinogen adsorption onto the ES and SC samples for endothelialisation. Bone marrow derived endothelial cells (BMEC) of human origin were incubated with the test and control samples and their attachment, proliferation, and viability were examined. The nature of interaction of fibrinogen with SC and ES samples was investigated in detail using ELISA, XPS, and FTIR techniques. The pristine SC and ES PVDF-HFP samples displayed hydrophobic and ultrahydrophobic behavior and accordingly, exhibited minimal BMEC growth. Fibrinogen adsorbed SC samples did not significantly enhance endothelial cell binding or proliferation. In contrast, the fibrinogen adsorbed electrospun surfaces showed a clear ability to modulate endothelial cell behavior. This system also represents an ideal model system that enables us to understand the natural interaction between cells and their extracellular environment. The research reported shows potential of ES surfaces for artificial vascular graft applications.

  11. Electron-electron interactions, topological phase, and optical properties of a charged artificial benzene ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozfidan, Isil; Vladisavljevic, Milos; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2015-12-01

    We present a theory of the electronic and optical properties of a charged artificial benzene ring (ABR). The ABR is described by the extended Hubbard model solved using exact diagonalization methods in both real and Fourier space as a function of the tunneling matrix element t , Hubbard on-site repulsion U , and interdot interaction V . In the strongly interacting case, we discuss exact analytical results for the spectrum of the hole in a half-filled ABR dressed by the spin excitations of the remaining electrons. The spectrum is interpreted in terms of the appearance of a topological phase associated with an effective gauge field piercing through the ring. We show that the maximally spin-polarized (S =5 /2 ) and maximally spin-depolarized (S =1 /2 ) states are the lowest energy, orbitally nondegenerate, states. We discuss the evolution of the phase diagram and level crossings as interactions are switched off and the ground state becomes spin nondegenerate but orbitally degenerate S =1 /2 . We present a theory of optical absorption spectra and show that the evolution of the ground and excited states, level crossings, and presence of artificial gauge can be detected optically.

  12. Simulation of a pulsatile total artificial heart: Development of a partitioned Fluid Structure Interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Simon J.; Kaufmann, Tim A. S.; Büsen, Martin R.; Laumen, Marco; Linde, Torsten; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Due to a shortage in donor organs artificial hearts can be a bridge to transplantation or even serve as a destination therapy for patients with terminal heart insufficiency. A pusher plate driven pulsatile membrane pump, the Total Artificial Heart (TAH) ReinHeart, is currently under development at the Institute of Applied Medical Engineering of RWTH Aachen University.This paper presents the methodology of a fully coupled three-dimensional time-dependent Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation of the TAH using a commercial partitioned block-Gauss-Seidel coupling package. Partitioned coupling of the incompressible fluid with the slender flexible membrane as well as a high fluid/structure density ratio of about unity led inherently to a deterioration of the stability (‘artificial added mass instability’). The objective was to conduct a stable simulation with high accuracy of the pumping process. In order to achieve stability, a combined resistance and pressure outlet boundary condition as well as the interface artificial compressibility method was applied. An analysis of the contact algorithm and turbulence condition is presented. Independence tests are performed for the structural and the fluid mesh, the time step size and the number of pulse cycles. Because of the large deformation of the fluid domain, a variable mesh stiffness depending on certain mesh properties was specified for the fluid elements. Adaptive remeshing was avoided. Different approaches for the mesh stiffness function are compared with respect to convergence, preservation of mesh topology and mesh quality. The resulting mesh aspect ratios, mesh expansion factors and mesh orthogonalities are evaluated in detail. The membrane motion and flow distribution of the coupled simulations are compared with a top-view recording and stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements, respectively, of the actual pump.

  13. Issues and challenges in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikowski, Juliusz; Mroczek, Teresa; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The importance of human-computer system interaction problems is increasing due to the growing expectations of users on general computer systems capabilities in human work and life facilitation. Users expect system which is not only a passive tool in human hands but rather an active partner equipped with a sort of artificial intelligence, having access to large information resources, being able to adapt its behavior to the human requirements and to collaborate with the human users.   This book collects examples of recent human-computer system solutions. The content of the book is divided into three parts. Part I is devoted to detection, recognition and reasoning in different circumstances and applications. Problems associated with data modeling, acquisition and mining are presented by papers collected in part II and part III is devoted to Optimization.

  14. Interaction prediction between groundwater and quarry extension using discrete choice models and artificial neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Barthélemy, Johan; Collier, Louise; Hallet, Vincent; Moriamé, Marie; Sartenaer, Annick

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater and rock are intensively exploited in the world. When a quarry is deepened the water table of the exploited geological formation might be reached. A dewatering system is therefore installed so that the quarry activities can continue, possibly impacting the nearby water catchments. In order to recommend an adequate feasibility study before deepening a quarry, we propose two interaction indices between extractive activity and groundwater resources based on hazard and vulnerability parameters used in the assessment of natural hazards. The levels of each index (low, medium, high, very high) correspond to the potential impact of the quarry on the regional hydrogeology. The first index is based on a discrete choice modelling methodology while the second is relying on an artificial neural network. It is shown that these two complementary approaches (the former being probabilistic while the latter fully deterministic) are able to predict accurately the level of interaction. Their use is finally illustrate...

  15. Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…

  16. Artificial biofilms establish the role of matrix interactions in staphylococcal biofilm assembly and disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elizabeth J; Ganesan, Mahesh; Younger, John G; Solomon, Michael J

    2015-08-14

    We demonstrate that the microstructural and mechanical properties of bacterial biofilms can be created through colloidal self-assembly of cells and polymers, and thereby link the complex material properties of biofilms to well understood colloidal and polymeric behaviors. This finding is applied to soften and disassemble staphylococcal biofilms through pH changes. Bacterial biofilms are viscoelastic, structured communities of cells encapsulated in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) comprised of polysaccharides, proteins, and DNA. Although the identity and abundance of EPS macromolecules are known, how these matrix materials interact with themselves and bacterial cells to generate biofilm morphology and mechanics is not understood. Here, we find that the colloidal self-assembly of Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A cells and polysaccharides into viscoelastic biofilms is driven by thermodynamic phase instability of EPS. pH conditions that induce phase instability of chitosan produce artificial S. epidermidis biofilms whose mechanics match natural S. epidermidis biofilms. Furthermore, pH-induced solubilization of the matrix triggers disassembly in both artificial and natural S. epidermidis biofilms. This pH-induced disassembly occurs in biofilms formed by five additional staphylococcal strains, including three clinical isolates. Our findings suggest that colloidal self-assembly of cells and matrix polymers produces biofilm viscoelasticity and that biofilm control strategies can exploit this mechanism.

  17. Exploring expressivity and emotion with artificial voice and speech technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletto, Sandra; Balentine, Bruce; Pidcock, Chris; Jones, Kevin; Bottaci, Leonardo; Aretoulaki, Maria; Wells, Jez; Mundy, Darren P; Balentine, James

    2013-10-01

    Emotion in audio-voice signals, as synthesized by text-to-speech (TTS) technologies, was investigated to formulate a theory of expression for user interface design. Emotional parameters were specified with markup tags, and the resulting audio was further modulated with post-processing techniques. Software was then developed to link a selected TTS synthesizer with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) engine, producing a chatbot that could speak and listen. Using these two artificial voice subsystems, investigators explored both artistic and psychological implications of artificial speech emotion. Goals of the investigation were interdisciplinary, with interest in musical composition, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), commercial voice announcement applications, human-computer interaction (HCI), and artificial intelligence (AI). The work-in-progress points towards an emerging interdisciplinary ontology for artificial voices. As one study output, HCI tools are proposed for future collaboration.

  18. Human -Computer Interface using Gestures based on Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Malik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available - Gestures are powerful tools for non-verbal communication. Human computer interface (HCI is a growing field which reduces the complexity of interaction between human and machine in which gestures are used for conveying information or controlling the machine. In the present paper, static hand gestures are utilized for this purpose. The paper presents a novel technique of recognizing hand gestures i.e. A-Z alphabets, 0-9 numbers and 6 additional control signals (for keyboard and mouse control by extracting various features of hand ,creating a feature vector table and training a neural network. The proposed work has a recognition rate of 99%. .

  19. Quantifying sperm egg interaction to assess the breeding efficiency through artificial insemination in guinea fowls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, G H; Omprakash, A V; Premavalli, K; Dhinakar Raj, G

    2017-01-24

    1. Guinea fowl hens were inseminated weekly once with two doses of spermatozoa (75 million and 100 million) in two different diluents, Beltsville poultry semen extender (BPSE), and Instruments for Veterinary Medicine (IMV), each with and without pre-insemination vaginal douching. Per cent fertility, hatchability, dead germ, dead in shells along with data on sperm egg interaction and vaginal microbial counts were recorded. 2. Artificial insemination had significantly improved the per cent fertility and hatchability compared to natural mating. Dose dependent improvement in fertility was noticed with both diluents. 3. There was a beneficial effect of vaginal douching, which was more pronounced at lower insemination doses. 4. For optimum fertility and hatchability in guinea fowl, insemination of 75 million spermatozoa diluted in BPSE once in 4 d and 100 million spermatozoa diluted in BPSE or IMV once in 5 d coupled with vaginal douching is recommended.

  20. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2011-03-29

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  1. Artificial Intelligence Mechanisms on Interactive Modified Simplex Method with Desirability Function for Optimising Surface Lapping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchanun Luangpaiboon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been made to optimise the influential parameters of surface lapping process. Lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure were chosen from the preliminary studies as parameters to determine process performances in terms of material removal, lap width, and clamp force. The desirability functions of the-nominal-the-best were used to compromise multiple responses into the overall desirability function level or D response. The conventional modified simplex or Nelder-Mead simplex method and the interactive desirability function are performed to optimise online the parameter levels in order to maximise the D response. In order to determine the lapping process parameters effectively, this research then applies two powerful artificial intelligence optimisation mechanisms from harmony search and firefly algorithms. The recommended condition of (lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure at (33, 35, 6.0, and 5.0 has been verified by performing confirmation experiments. It showed that the D response level increased to 0.96. When compared with the current operating condition, there is a decrease of the material removal and lap width with the improved process performance indices of 2.01 and 1.14, respectively. Similarly, there is an increase of the clamp force with the improved process performance index of 1.58.

  2. Accelerating progress in Artificial General Intelligence: Choosing a benchmark for natural world interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Brandon

    2010-12-01

    Measuring progress in the field of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) can be difficult without commonly accepted methods of evaluation. An AGI benchmark would allow evaluation and comparison of the many computational intelligence algorithms that have been developed. In this paper I propose that a benchmark for natural world interaction would possess seven key characteristics: fitness, breadth, specificity, low cost, simplicity, range, and task focus. I also outline two benchmark examples that meet most of these criteria. In the first, the direction task, a human coach directs a machine to perform a novel task in an unfamiliar environment. The direction task is extremely broad, but may be idealistic. In the second, the AGI battery, AGI candidates are evaluated based on their performance on a collection of more specific tasks. The AGI battery is designed to be appropriate to the capabilities of currently existing systems. Both the direction task and the AGI battery would require further definition before implementing. The paper concludes with a description of a task that might be included in the AGI battery: the search and retrieve task.

  3. Human-computer interface glove using flexible piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Youngsu; Seo, Jeonggyu; Kim, Jun-Sik; Park, Jung-Min

    2017-05-01

    In this note, we propose a human-computer interface glove based on flexible piezoelectric sensors. We select polyvinylidene fluoride as the piezoelectric material for the sensors because of advantages such as a steady piezoelectric characteristic and good flexibility. The sensors are installed in a fabric glove by means of pockets and Velcro bands. We detect changes in the angles of the finger joints from the outputs of the sensors, and use them for controlling a virtual hand that is utilized in virtual object manipulation. To assess the sensing ability of the piezoelectric sensors, we compare the processed angles from the sensor outputs with the real angles from a camera recoding. With good agreement between the processed and real angles, we successfully demonstrate the user interaction system with the virtual hand and interface glove based on the flexible piezoelectric sensors, for four hand motions: fist clenching, pinching, touching, and grasping.

  4. The Human-Computer Domain Relation in UX Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    This paper argues that the conceptualization of the human, the computer and the domain of use in competing lines of UX research have problematic similarities and superficial differences. The paper qualitatively analyses concepts and models in five research papers that together represent two...... influential lines of UX research: aesthetics and temporal UX, and two use situations: using a website and starting to use a smartphone. The results suggest that the two lines of UX research share a focus on users’ evaluative judgments of technology, both focuses on product qualities rather than activity...... domains, give little details about users, and treat human-computer interaction as perception. The conclusion gives similarities and differences between the approaches to UX. The implications for theory building are indicated....

  5. Molecular aspects of the interaction between MasonPfizer monkey virus matrix protein and artificial phospholipid membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Junková, P.; Prchal, J.; Spiwok, V.; Pleskot, R. (Roman); Kadlec, J.; Krásný, L. (Libor); Hynek, R.; Hrabal, R.; Ruml, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Mason-Pfizer monkey virus is a type D retrovirus, which assembles its immature particles in the cytoplasm prior to their transport to the host cell membrane. The association with the membrane is mediated by the N-terminally myristoylated matrix protein. To reveal the role of particular residues which are involved in the capsid-membrane interaction, covalent labelling of arginine, lysine and tyrosine residues of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus matrix protein bound to artificial liposomes con...

  6. Application Exploration of Techniques of New Type Human-computer Interaction in Games%新型人机互动技术在游戏中的应用探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛凯

    2011-01-01

    随着计算机性能的不断发展,人机交互的瓶颈问题越来越突出.传统的人机交互手段已经远远不能满足现代计算机互动游戏所需要的信息量.因此使用最廉价和最普及的人机交互设备(网络摄像头和麦克风)拓展了人机交互的信息量,从而增强人机交互的效率,实现一个不用鼠标键盘进行游戏控制的新的游戏形态.%At present,the bottle-neck of human-machine interaction is more and more outstanding along with computer performance development.The traditional man-machine interactive technique can't provide enough information to modern computer interactive games.Therefore,the information amount of human-machine interaction is expanded by using the cheapest and popular human-machine equipments(web camera and microphone) to increase the efficiency of human-machine.A new game form can be realized without a mouse and keyboard controlling.

  7. Predicting transcriptional regulatory interactions with artificial neural networks applied to E. coli multidrug resistance efflux pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos Ana Tereza R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about bacterial transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs. In Escherichia coli, which is the organism with the largest wet-lab validated TRN, its set of interactions involves only ~50% of the repertoire of transcription factors currently known, and ~25% of its genes. Of those, only a small proportion describes the regulation of processes that are clinically relevant, such as drug resistance mechanisms. Results We designed feed-forward (FF and bi-fan (BF motif predictors for E. coli using multi-layer perceptron artificial neural networks (ANNs. The motif predictors were trained using a large dataset of gene expression data; the collection of motifs was extracted from the E. coli TRN. Each network motif was mapped to a vector of correlations which were computed using the gene expression profile of the elements in the motif. Thus, by combining network structural information with transcriptome data, FF and BF predictors were able to classify with a high precision of 83% and 96%, respectively, and with a high recall of 86% and 97%, respectively. These results were found when motifs were represented using different types of correlations together, i.e., Pearson, Spearman, Kendall, and partial correlation. We then applied the best predictors to hypothesize new regulations for 16 operons involved with multidrug resistance (MDR efflux pumps, which are considered as a major bacterial mechanism to fight antimicrobial agents. As a result, the motif predictors assigned new transcription factors for these MDR proteins, turning them into high-quality candidates to be experimentally tested. Conclusion The motif predictors presented herein can be used to identify novel regulatory interactions by using microarray data. The presentation of an example motif to predictors will make them categorize whether or not the example motif is a BF, or whether or not it is an FF. This approach is useful to find new "pieces" of the TRN, when

  8. Human-Computer Etiquette Cultural Expectations and the Design Implications They Place on Computers and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, Caroline C

    2010-01-01

    Written by experts from various fields, this edited collection explores a wide range of issues pertaining to how computers evoke human social expectations. The book illustrates how socially acceptable conventions can strongly impact the effectiveness of human-computer interactions and how to consider such norms in the design of human-computer interfaces. Providing a complete introduction to the design of social responses to computers, the text emphasizes the value of social norms in the development of usable and enjoyable technology. It also describes the role of socially correct behavior in t

  9. Different foraging preferences of hummingbirds on artificial and natural flowers reveal mechanisms structuring plant-pollinator interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglianesi, María A; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    In plant-pollinator networks, the floral morphology of food plants is an important determinant of the interaction niche of pollinators. Studies on foraging preferences of pollinators combining experimental and observational approaches may help to understand the mechanisms behind patterns of interactions and niche partitioning within pollinator communities. In this study, we tested whether morphological floral traits were associated with foraging preferences of hummingbirds for artificial and natural flower types in Costa Rica. We performed field experiments with artificial feeders, differing in length and curvature of flower types, to quantify the hummingbirds' interaction niche under unlimited nectar resources. To quantify the interaction niche under real-world conditions of limited nectar resources, we measured foraging preferences of hummingbirds for a total of 34 plant species. Artificial feeders were visited by Eupherusa nigriventris and Phaethornis guy in the pre-montane forest, and Lampornis calolaemus in the lower montane forest. Under experimental conditions, all three hummingbird species overlapped their interaction niches and showed a preference for the short artificial flower type over the long-straight and the long-curved flower types. Under natural conditions, the two co-occurring hummingbird species preferred to feed on plant species with floral traits corresponding to their bill morphology. The short-billed hummingbird E. nigriventris preferred to feed on short and straight flowers, whereas the long- and curved-billed P. guy preferred long and curved natural flowers. The medium-size billed species L. calolaemus preferred to feed on flowers of medium length and did not show preferences for plant species with specific corolla curvature. Our results show that floral morphological traits constrain access by short-billed hummingbird species to nectar resources. Morphological constraints, therefore, represent one important mechanism structuring trophic

  10. Computational Virtual Reality (VR) as a human-computer interface in the operation of telerobotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the application of computer graphics or 'virtual reality' (VR) techniques as a human-computer interface tool in the operation of telerobotic systems. VR techniques offer very valuable task realization aids for planning, previewing and predicting robotic actions, operator training, and for visual perception of non-visible events like contact forces in robotic tasks. The utility of computer graphics in telerobotic operation can be significantly enhanced by high-fidelity calibration of virtual reality images to actual TV camera images. This calibration will even permit the creation of artificial (synthetic) views of task scenes for which no TV camera views are available.

  11. Implementing Artificial Intelligence Behaviors in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisler, Brian; Thome, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will present a look at the current state of the art in human-computer interface technologies, including intelligent interactive agents, natural speech interaction and gestural based interfaces. We describe our use of these technologies to implement a cost effective, immersive experience on a public region in Second Life. We provision our Artificial Agents as a German Shepherd Dog avatar with an external rules engine controlling the behavior and movement. To interact with the avatar, we implemented a natural language and gesture system allowing the human avatars to use speech and physical gestures rather than interacting via a keyboard and mouse. The result is a system that allows multiple humans to interact naturally with AI avatars by playing games such as fetch with a flying disk and even practicing obedience exercises using voice and gesture, a natural seeming day in the park.

  12. The response of the polarized Fermi mixture to an artificial vector potential: The interaction strength and imbalance chemical potential effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, N.; Safiee, Z.

    2017-03-01

    We consider a polarized Fermi mixture (with normal-superfluid phase separation), subjected to artificial vector potential. We concentrate on the BCS regime with various interaction strengths and numerically obtain the polarisability of the system. We obtain the functional dependence of the polarisability of the system on frequency and the relevant physical parameters, namely the interaction strength, the mass ratio, the average and imbalance chemical potentials. Also, we find the special frequency (ωs), for which the rate of the response of system to the potential is changed and the cut-off frequency (ωcutoff), for which the response starts to become infinity. We investigate the behavior of the curves of polarisability versus proper physical parameters for ω physical parameters. Finally, the system's response can be controlled by relevant physical parameters, such as interaction strength.

  13. Individual Difference Effects in Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    evaluated in terns of the amount of sales revenue af -er deducting production costs. nhe time variable was measured in terms of the amount of time a subject...subject acted as an inventory/ production manage:r of a hypothetical firm which was simulated by a computer program. The cubject’s task was to obtain the...34search list" will be examined. Thus, the u3ar w.ll probably match "apple pie" but not "apple cider " or "appl-? butter’ because these items would not

  14. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    35 4.1 NSF’s Digital Libraries and Digital Government Programs and their Joint Workshop with the Library...and retrieval across multiple digital libraries • Efficient management and distribution of large data sets • Approaches for efficiently and...later HCI&IM CG meetings. 4.1 NSF’s Digital Libraries and Digital Government Programs and their Joint Workshop with the Library of Congress on

  15. Questioning Mechanisms During Tutoring, Conversation, and Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    O74W10 I8 Publi I"&ln 0W4 Sft fo ftm colimm" fi Infoowiivi it qnf~ teo *5 to veli iff9 ¶fO’i w~ ’triffi. oftetwist" tft t0w 1 fo~Wr n 7vg mirwIt~ittO...show a positive relationship between question asking and achievement (Fishbein, Eckart, Lauver, van Leeuwen . & Langmeyer, 1990). In summary, the...331-339. Fishbein, H. D., Eckart, T., Lauver, E., Van Leeuwen . R., & Langmeyer. D. (1990). Learners’ questions and comprehension in a tutoring setting

  16. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Nijholt, Anton; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to provide us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that can monitor some of the physical processes that occur within the brain that correspo

  17. Impact of Cognitive Architectures on Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    simulation. In this work they were preparing for the Synthetic Theatre of War-1997 exercise where between 10,000 and 50,000 automated agents would...work with up to 1,000 humans.27 The results of this exercise are documented by Laird et al.28 5. Conclusions and Future Work To assess whether cognitive...RW, MacKenzie IS. Towards a standard for pointing device evaluation, perspectives on 27 years of Fitts’ law research in HCI. International Journal of

  18. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to provide us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that can monitor some of the physical processes that occur within the brain that

  19. Brain-Computer Interfaces Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes a direct output channel between the human brain and external devices. BCIs infer user intent via direct measures of brain activity and thus enable communication and control without movement. This book, authored by experts in the field, provides an accessible introduction to the neurophysiological and signal-processing background required for BCI, presents state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive approaches, gives an overview of current hardware and software solutions, and reviews the most interesting as well as new, emerging BCI applications. The book is intended not only for students and young researchers, but also for newcomers and other readers from diverse backgrounds keen to learn about this vital scientific endeavour.

  20. Mobile human-computer interaction perspective on mobile learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available , will have to be incorporated in some sense, as virtual reality through mobile technology becomes a reality. Elements of context can be naively described as situations where the user’s physical relation to space and time would be significant (high context... mobile technology as an ICT in education. This investigation has led our research to suggest additional insights for MHCI and simultaneously provided a better understanding of the development and implementation of mobiles in teaching and learning...

  1. Questioning Mechanisms during Tutoring, Conversation, and Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Box 519 Monterey, CA 93940-5380 1961 Tuttle Park Place Santa Barbara, CA 93102 Columbus, OH 43210-1102 Dr. Charles E. Davis Margaret Day, Librarian Dr...Rue Andre-Pascal University of British Columbia Cameron Station, Bldg 5 75016 Paris Vancouver, BC CANADA Alexandria, VA 22314 FRANCE V6T IZ4 Dr. Richard... Julia S. Hough Dr. William Howell Dr. Steven Hunka Cambridge University Press Chief Scientist 3-104 Educ. N. 40 West 20th Street AFHRIJCA University

  2. Poly-Lactide/Exfoliated C30B Interactions and Influence on Thermo-Mechanical Properties Due to Artificial Weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Margarita Chávez-Montes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stability as well as enhanced mechanical properties of poly-lactide (PLA can increase PLA applications for short-use products. The conjunction of adequate molecular weight (MW as well as satisfactory thermo-mechanical properties, together, can lead to the achievement of suitable properties. However, PLA is susceptible to thermal degradation and thus an undesired decay of MW and a decrease of its mechanical properties during processing. To avoid this PLA degradation, nanofiller is incorporated as reinforcement to increase its thermo-mechanical properties. There are many papers focusing on filler effects on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of PLA/nanocomposites; however, these investigations lack an explanation of polymer/filler interactions. We propose interactions between PLA and Cloisite30B (C30B as nanofiller. We also study the effects on the thermal and mechanical properties due to molecular weight decay after exposure to artificial weathering. PLA blank and nanocomposites were subjected to three time treatments (0, 176, and 360 h of exposure to artificial weathering in order to achieve comparable materials with different MW. MW was acquired by means of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC. Thermo-mechanical properties were investigated through Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR.

  3. Modelling of multi-nutrient interactions in growth of the dinoflagellate microalga Protoceratium reticulatum using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosales, L; Gallardo-Rodríguez, J J; Sánchez-Mirón, A; Contreras-Gómez, A; García-Camacho, F; Molina-Grima, E

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the use of artificial neural networks as predictive tools for the growth of the dinoflagellate microalga Protoceratium reticulatum. Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks (FBN), using Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation or Bayesian regularization as training functions, offered the best results in terms of representing the nonlinear interactions among all nutrients in a culture medium containing 26 different components. A FBN configuration of 26-14-1 layers was selected. The FBN model was trained using more than 500 culture experiments on a shake flask scale. Garson's algorithm provided a valuable means of evaluating the relative importance of nutrients in terms of microalgal growth. Microelements and vitamins had a significant importance (approximately 70%) in relation to macronutrients (nearly 25%), despite their concentrations in the culture medium being various orders of magnitude smaller. The approach presented here may be useful for modelling multi-nutrient interactions in photobioreactors.

  4. Gesture controlled human-computer interface for the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Oskar M; Sawicki, Dariusz J

    2017-02-28

    The possibility of using a computer by a disabled person is one of the difficult problems of the human-computer interaction (HCI), while the professional activity (employment) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of life, especially for disabled people. The aim of the project has been to propose a new HCI system that would allow for resuming employment for people who have lost the possibility of a standard computer operation. The basic requirement was to replace all functions of a standard mouse without the need of performing precise hand movements and using fingers. The Microsoft's Kinect motion controller had been selected as a device which would recognize hand movements. Several tests were made in order to create optimal working environment with the new device. The new communication system consisted of the Kinect device and the proper software had been built. The proposed system was tested by means of the standard subjective evaluations and objective metrics according to the standard ISO 9241-411:2012. The overall rating of the new HCI system shows the acceptance of the solution. The objective tests show that although the new system is a bit slower, it may effectively replace the computer mouse. The new HCI system fulfilled its task for a specific disabled person. This resulted in the ability to return to work. Additionally, the project confirmed the possibility of effective but nonstandard use of the Kinect device. Med Pr 2017;68(1):1-21.

  5. Secure Human-Computer Identification against Peeping Attacks (SecHCI): A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Li, SJ; Shum, HY

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on human-computer identification systems against peeping attacks, in which adversaries can observe (and even control) interactions between humans (provers) and computers (verifiers). Real cases on peeping attacks were reported by Ross J. Anderson ten years before. Fixed passwords are insecure to peeping attacks since adversaries can simply replay the observed passwords. Some identification techniques can be used to defeat peeping attacks, but auxiliary devices must be used ...

  6. Studies of interaction between a new synthesized minor-groove targeting artificial nuclease and DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Yu-Fen

    2007-04-01

    Nuclease plays an important role in molecular biology, such as DNA sequencing. Synthetic polyamide conjugates can be considered as new tool in the selective inhibition of gene expression and as potential drugs in anticancer or antiviral chemotherapy. In this paper, a new synthesized minor-groove targeting artificial nuclease, oligopyrrol-containing peptide, was reported. It was found that this new compound can bind DNA in AT-riched minor groove with high affinity and site specificity. DNA binding behavior was determined by UV-vis and circular dichroism (CD) methods. It was indicated that compound 6 can enhance the Tm of oligomer DNA from 51.8 to 63.5 °C and possesses large binding constant ( Kb = 8.83 × 10 4 L/mol).

  7. Study on the interaction of a copper(II) complex containing the artificial sweetener aspartame with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh; Filli, Soraya Moradi

    2014-05-01

    A copper(II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied at physiological pH. Binding studies of this complex with HSA are useful for understanding the Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O-HSA interaction mechanism and providing guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient artificial sweeteners drive. The interaction was investigated by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment and circular dichroism. Hyperchromicity observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of HSA to Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O was observed and the binding constant (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (∆H) and entropy change (∆S) were calculated to be -458.67 kJ mol(-1) and -1,339 J mol(-1 )K(-1) respectively. According to the van't Hoff equation, the reaction is predominantly enthalpically driven. In conformity with experimental results, we suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O interacts with HSA. In comparison with previous study, it is found that the Cu(II) complex binds stronger than aspartame.

  8. Molecular aspects of the interaction between Mason-Pfizer monkey virus matrix protein and artificial phospholipid membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junková, P; Prchal, J; Spiwok, V; Pleskot, R; Kadlec, J; Krásný, L; Hynek, R; Hrabal, R; Ruml, T

    2016-11-01

    The Mason-Pfizer monkey virus is a type D retrovirus, which assembles its immature particles in the cytoplasm prior to their transport to the host cell membrane. The association with the membrane is mediated by the N-terminally myristoylated matrix protein. To reveal the role of particular residues which are involved in the capsid-membrane interaction, covalent labelling of arginine, lysine and tyrosine residues of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus matrix protein bound to artificial liposomes containing 95% of phosphatidylcholine and 5% phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2 ) was performed. The experimental results were interpreted by multiscale molecular dynamics simulations. The application of these two complementary approaches helped us to reveal that matrix protein specifically recognizes the PI(4,5)P2 molecule by the residues K20, K25, K27, K74, and Y28, while the residues K92 and K93 stabilizes the matrix protein orientation on the membrane by the interaction with another PI(4,5)P2 molecule. Residues K33, K39, K54, Y66, Y67, and K87 appear to be involved in the matrix protein oligomerization. All arginine residues remained accessible during the interaction with liposomes which indicates that they neither contribute to the interaction with membrane nor are involved in protein oligomerization. Proteins 2016; 84:1717-1727. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Human/computer control of undersea teleoperators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, T. B.; Verplank, W. L.; Brooks, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of supervisory controlled teleoperators for accomplishment of manipulation and sensory tasks in deep ocean environments is discussed. Teleoperators and supervisory control are defined, the current problems of human divers are reviewed, and some assertions are made about why supervisory control has potential use to replace and extend human diver capabilities. The relative roles of man and computer and the variables involved in man-computer interaction are next discussed. Finally, a detailed description of a supervisory controlled teleoperator system, SUPERMAN, is presented.

  10. Interactions between self-channeled optical beams in soft-matter systems with artificial nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardad, Shima; Mills, Matthew S; Zhang, Peng; Man, Weining; Chen, Zhigang; Christodoulides, D N

    2013-09-15

    We demonstrate optical interactions between stable self-trapped optical beams in soft-matter systems with pre-engineered saturable self-focusing optical nonlinearities. Our experiments, carried out in dilute suspensions of particles with negative polarizabilities, show that optical beam interactions can vary from attractive to repulsive, or can display an energy exchange depending on the initial relative phases. The corresponding observations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  11. Rationale awareness for quality assurance in iterative human computation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Human computation refers to the outsourcing of computation tasks to human workers. It offers a new direction for solving a variety of problems and calls for innovative ways of managing human computation processes. The majority of human computation tasks take a parallel approach, whereas the potential of an iterative approach, i.e., having workers iteratively build on each other's work, has not been sufficiently explored. This study investigates whether and how human workers' awareness of previous workers' rationales affects the performance of the iterative approach in a brainstorming task and a rating task. Rather than viewing this work as a conclusive piece, the author believes that this research endeavor is just the beginning of a new research focus that examines and supports meta-cognitive processes in crowdsourcing activities.

  12. Interaction of a copper (II) complex containing an artificial sweetener (aspartame) with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    A copper (II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied at physiological pH. The interaction was studied using different methods: spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosimetric techniques. Hyperchromicity was observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O was observed and the binding constants (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated to be+89.3 kJ mol(-1) and+379.3 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Experimental results from spectroscopic methods were comparable and further supported by viscosity measurements. We suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 8×10+4 M(-1). Binding of this copper complex to DNA was found to be stronger compared to aspartame which was studied recently.

  13. Interaction-driven distinctive electronic states of artificial atoms at the ZnO interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Tapash; Manaselyan, Aram; Barseghyan, Manuk

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated the electronic states of planar quantum dots at the ZnO interface containing a few interacting electrons in an externally applied magnetic field. The electron-electron interaction effects are expected to be much stronger in this case than in traditional semiconductor quantum systems, such as in GaAs or InAs quantum dots. In order to highlight that stronger Coulomb effects in the ZnO quantum dots, we have compared the energy spectra and the magnetization in this system to those of the InAs quantum dots. We have found that in the ZnO quantum dots the signatures of stronger Coulomb interaction manifests in an unique ground state that has very different properties than the corresponding ones in the InAs dot. Our results for the magnetization also exhibits behaviors never before observed in a quantum dot for a realistic set of parameters. We have found a stronger temperature dependence and other unexpected features, such as paramagnetic-like behavior at high temperatures for a quantum-dot helium.

  14. Oil biodegradation: Interactions of artificial marine snow, clay particles, oil and Corexit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahsepar, Shokouh; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Smit, Martijn P J; van Eenennaam, Justine S; Murk, Albertinka J; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2017-08-16

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of these interactions on biodegradation of oil in the water. Laboratory experiments were performed, analyzing respiration and n-alkane and BTEX biodegradation in multiple conditions containing Corexit, alginate particles as marine snow, and kaolin clay. Two oil degrading bacterial pure cultures were added, Pseudomonas putida F1 and Rhodococcus qingshengii TUHH-12. Results show that the presence of alginate particles enhances oil biodegradation. The presence of Corexit alone or in combination with alginate particles and/or kaolin clay, hampers oil biodegradation. Kaolin clay and Corexit have a synergistic effect in increasing BTEX concentrations in the water and cause delay in oil biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine artificial sweeteners in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Daniela; Borrull, Francesc; Fontanals, Núria; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2015-06-01

    Artificial sweeteners are food additives employed as sugar substitutes which are now considered to be emerging organic contaminants. In the present study, a method is developed for the determination of a group of artificial sweeteners in environmental waters. Considering the polar and hydrophilic character of these compounds, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is proposed for their separation as an alternative to traditional reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Two stationary phases with different chemistry were compared for this purpose. For the detection of the analytes, high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) was employed to take advantage of its benefits in terms of reliable quantification and confirmation for the measurement of accurate masses. Solid-phase extraction was chosen as the sample treatment, in which the extract in a mixture of NH4OH:MeOH:ACN (1:4:15) was directly injected into the chromatographic system, simplifying the analytical procedure. The optimized method was validated on river and waste water samples. For example, in the case of effluent water samples, limits of detection ranged from 0.002 to 0.7 μg/L and limits of quantification ranged from 0.004 to 1.5 μg/L. Apparent (whole method) recoveries ranged from 57 to 74% with intra-day precision (%RSD, n = 5) ranging from 6 to 25%. The method was successfully applied to water samples from different rivers in Catalonia and different waste water treatment plants in Tarragona. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharine and sucralose were found in several samples.

  16. Reversible Interactions of Proteins with Mixed Shell Polymeric Micelles: Tuning the Surface Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Balance toward Efficient Artificial Chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzu; Song, Yiqing; Sun, Pingchuan; An, Yingli; Zhang, Zhenkun; Shi, Linqi

    2016-03-22

    Molecular chaperones can elegantly fine-tune its hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance to assist a broad spectrum of nascent polypeptide chains to fold properly. Such precious property is difficult to be achieved by chaperone mimicking materials due to limited control of their surface characteristics that dictate interactions with unfolded protein intermediates. Mixed shell polymeric micelles (MSPMs), which consist of two kinds of dissimilar polymeric chains in the micellar shell, offer a convenient way to fine-tune surface properties of polymeric nanoparticles. In the current work, we have fabricated ca. 30 kinds of MSPMs with finely tunable hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface properties. We investigated the respective roles of thermosensitive and hydrophilic polymeric chains in the thermodenaturation protection of proteins down to the molecular structure. Although the three kinds of thermosensitive polymers investigated herein can form collapsed hydrophobic domains on the micellar surface, we found distinct capability to capture and release unfolded protein intermediates, due to their respective affinity for proteins. Meanwhile, in terms of the hydrophilic polymeric chains in the micellar shell, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) excels in assisting unfolded protein intermediates to refold properly via interacting with the refolding intermediates, resulting in enhanced chaperone efficiency. However, another hydrophilic polymer-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) severely deteriorates the chaperone efficiency of MSPMs, due to its protein-resistant properties. Judicious combination of thermosensitive and hydrophilic chains in the micellar shell lead to MSPM-based artificial chaperones with optimal efficacy.

  17. Supporting Negotiation Behavior with Haptics-Enabled Human-Computer Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, S O; Kucukyilmaz, A; Sezgin, Tevfik Metin; Basdogan, C

    2012-01-01

    An active research goal for human-computer interaction is to allow humans to communicate with computers in an intuitive and natural fashion, especially in real-life interaction scenarios. One approach that has been advocated to achieve this has been to build computer systems with human-like qualities and capabilities. In this paper, we present insight on how human-computer interaction can be enriched by employing the computers with behavioral patterns that naturally appear in human-human negotiation scenarios. For this purpose, we introduce a two-party negotiation game specifically built for studying the effectiveness of haptic and audio-visual cues in conveying negotiation related behaviors. The game is centered around a real-time continuous two-party negotiation scenario based on the existing game-theory and negotiation literature. During the game, humans are confronted with a computer opponent, which can display different behaviors, such as concession, competition, and negotiation. Through a user study, we show that the behaviors that are associated with human negotiation can be incorporated into human-computer interaction, and the addition of haptic cues provides a statistically significant increase in the human-recognition accuracy of machine-displayed behaviors. In addition to aspects of conveying these negotiation-related behaviors, we also focus on and report game-theoretical aspects of the overall interaction experience. In particular, we show that, as reported in the game-theory literature, certain negotiation strategies such as tit-for-tat may generate maximum combined utility for the negotiating parties, providing an excellent balance between the energy spent by the user and the combined utility of the negotiating parties.

  18. A novel machine fault diagnosis method based on multivariate graph visualization analysis and human-computer interaction (HCI)%基于多元图可视化分析和人机交互的设备故障诊断方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建新; 洪文学; 高海波

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the limitations of the data-oriented fault dignosis method, this paper presents a novel fault diagnosis technology which is based on the visualization analysis of empirical samples' fault patterns expressed by multivariate graphs and the human-computer interaction (HCI) according to the basic theories of multivariate graph expression. It realizes the combination of the data-oriented machine fault diagnosis and the object-oriented fault diagnosis by experts' participation in the fault dignosis process, thus overcoming the obstacles in single mechine learning. The fault diagnosis technology based on multivariate graphical visual analysis and HCI was tested by the experiments using the fault database of the machine learning repository, Irvine, University of California (UCI). The experimental results show the process of the visual analysis and HCI can improve the aecuracy of the data-oriented prosing fault diagnosis.%针对面向数据的故障诊断方法的局限性,根据多元图表示基本理论,提出了基于多元图表达的经验样本故障模式可视化分析和人机交互(HCI)的故障诊断技术,该技术通过专家参与机器自动识别诊断过程实现了面向对象领域的故障诊断方法和面向数据的故障诊断方法的有效结合,克服了单一机器学习的局限性.采用国际标准UCI数据库中的故障数据库进行了数据实验,实验结果显示,信息可视化人机交互过程有利于提高面向数据的故障诊断研究的分类正确率.

  19. Fumed silica nanoparticle mediated biomimicry for optimal cell-material interactions for artificial organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mel, Achala; Ramesh, Bala; Scurr, David J; Alexander, Morgan R; Hamilton, George; Birchall, Martin; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-03-01

    Replacement of irreversibly damaged organs due to chronic disease, with suitable tissue engineered implants is now a familiar area of interest to clinicians and multidisciplinary scientists. Ideal tissue engineering approaches require scaffolds to be tailor made to mimic physiological environments of interest with specific surface topographical and biological properties for optimal cell-material interactions. This study demonstrates a single-step procedure for inducing biomimicry in a novel nanocomposite base material scaffold, to re-create the extracellular matrix, which is required for stem cell integration and differentiation to mature cells. Fumed silica nanoparticle mediated procedure of scaffold functionalization, can be potentially adapted with multiple bioactive molecules to induce cellular biomimicry, in the development human organs. The proposed nanocomposite materials already in patients for number of implants, including world first synthetic trachea, tear ducts and vascular bypass graft.

  20. Different foraging preferences of hummingbirds on artificial and natural flowers reveal mechanisms structuring plant–pollinator interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maglianesi, María A; Böhning‐Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias; Ings, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ... pollinator communities. In this study, we tested whether morphological floral traits were associated with foraging preferences of hummingbirds for artificial and natural flower types in Costa Rica...

  1. In-situ electrochemical study of interaction of tribology and corrosion in artificial hip prosthesis simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Dowson, Duncan; Neville, Anne

    2013-02-01

    The second generation Metal-on-Metal (MoM) hip replacements have been considered as an alternative to commonly used Polyethylene-on-Metal (PoM) joint prostheses due to polyethylene wear debris induced osteolysis. However, the role of corrosion and the biofilm formed under tribological contact are still not fully understood. Enhanced metal ion concentrations have been reported widely from hair, blood and urine samples of patients who received metal hip replacements and in isolated cases when abnormally high levels have caused adverse local tissue reactions. An understanding of the origin of metal ions is really important in order to design alloys for reduced ion release. Reciprocating pin-on-plate wear tester is a standard instrument to assess the interaction of corrosion and wear. However, more realistic hip simulator can provide a better understanding of tribocorrosion process for hip implants. It is very important to instrument the conventional hip simulator to enable electrochemical measurements. In this study, simple reciprocating pin-on-plate wear tests and hip simulator tests were compared. It was found that metal ions originated from two sources: (a) a depassivation of the contacting surfaces due to tribology (rubbing) and (b) corrosion of nano-sized wear particles generated from the contacting surfaces.

  2. Changes in albumin/platelet interaction with an artificial surface--due to a antibiotics, pyridoxal phosphate, and lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandy, T.; Sharma, C.P.

    1988-04-01

    Protein adsorption and platelet adhesion are two important biological processes arising at the blood prosthetic interface. The effect of certain antibiotics, namely, neomycin, gentamicin, ampicillin, penicillin-G, and streptomycin to modulate the albumin polycarbonate surface interaction was investigated using /sup 125/I albumin from a protein mixture in the presence and absence of isolated calf lymphocytes. This study also demonstrated the changes in platelet-surface adhesion with these antibiotics. The effect of pyridoxal phosphate to modulate the red blood cell-mediated platelet-surface attachment was also attempted. It appears from pyridoxal phosphate studies that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) could modify the surface-platelet attachment. It also inhibited the fibrinogen-induced platelet adhesion. It seems, the addition of antibiotics to the polymerprotein system increased the level of surface-bound albumin variably whereas lymphocytes incubated in the medium did not affect the surface-albumin concentration with time course. These antibiotics also inhibited the surface-induced platelet adhesion to variable degrees. Our earlier studies have indicated that certain antibiotics or antiplatelet drugs can inhibit the fibrinogen binding to an artificial surface. Therefore, it may be possible that the enhanced albumin-surface concentration or reduced fibrinogen-surface binding, in the presence of these antibiotics, may itself be one of the parameter for a reduced platelet-surface attachment, which may also improve the blood compatibility of the substrate. A better understanding of the mechanism of antibiotics is needed in in vivo conditions to correlate these findings.

  3. Artificial Human Phantoms: Human proxy in testing microwave apparatus that have electromagnetic interaction with the human body

    CERN Document Server

    Mobashsher, A T

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, an effort is made in this review to address different state-of-the-art artificial tissue emulating (ATE) materials and phantom types for various operating frequencies, and fabrication procedures in order to have a better understanding of the pros and cons of various ATE phantoms which leads us to develop superior version of artificial human body substitute for various applications.

  4. Human Computer Interface Design Criteria. Volume 1. User Interface Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    2 entitled Human Computer Interface ( HCI )Design Criteria Volume 1: User Interlace Requirements which contains the following major changes from...MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER Air Force Space Command 483 N. Aviation Blvd. El Segundo, CA 90245 4. This standard has been approved for use on all Space and...and efficient model of how the system works and can generalize this knowledge to other systems. According to Mayhew in Principles and Guidelines in

  5. Unmanned Surface Vehicle Human-Computer Interface for Amphibious Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    FIGURES Figure 1. MOCU Baseline HCI using Both Aerial Photo and Digital Nautical Chart ( DNC ) Maps to Control and Monitor Land, Sea, and Air...Action DNC Digital Nautical Chart FNC Future Naval Capability HCI Human-Computer Interface HRI Human-Robot Interface HSI Human-Systems Integration...Digital Nautical Chart ( DNC ) Maps to Control and Monitor Land, Sea, and Air Vehicles. 3.2 BASELINE MOCU HCI The Baseline MOCU interface is a tiled

  6. A computational fluid-structure interaction model to predict the biomechanical properties of the artificial functionally graded aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Arezoo; Bani, Milad Salimi; Bahreinizade, Hossein; Karimi, Alireza

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, three layers of the ascending aorta in respect to the time and space at various blood pressures have been simulated. Two well-known commercial finite element (FE) software have used to be able to provide a range of reliable numerical results while independent on the software type. The radial displacement compared with the time as well as the peripheral stress and von Mises stress of the aorta have calculated. The aorta model was validated using the differential quadrature method (DQM) solution and, then, in order to design functionally graded materials (FGMs) with different heterogeneous indexes for the artificial vessel, two different materials have been employed. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation has been carried out on the FGM and a natural vessel of the human body. The heterogeneous index defines the variation of the length in a function. The blood pressure was considered to be a function of both the time and location. Finally, the response characteristics of functionally graded biomaterials (FGBMs) models with different values of heterogeneous material parameters were determined and compared with the behaviour of a natural vessel. The results showed a very good agreement between the numerical findings of the FGM materials and that of the natural vessel. The findings of the present study may have implications not only to understand the performance of different FGMs in bearing the stress and deformation in comparison with the natural human vessels, but also to provide information for the biomaterials expert to be able to select a suitable material as an implant for the aorta.

  7. A computational fluid–structure interaction model to predict the biomechanical properties of the artificial functionally graded aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Arezoo; Bani, Milad Salimi; Bahreinizade, Hossein; Karimi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, three layers of the ascending aorta in respect to the time and space at various blood pressures have been simulated. Two well-known commercial finite element (FE) software have used to be able to provide a range of reliable numerical results while independent on the software type. The radial displacement compared with the time as well as the peripheral stress and von Mises stress of the aorta have calculated. The aorta model was validated using the differential quadrature method (DQM) solution and, then, in order to design functionally graded materials (FGMs) with different heterogeneous indexes for the artificial vessel, two different materials have been employed. Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) simulation has been carried out on the FGM and a natural vessel of the human body. The heterogeneous index defines the variation of the length in a function. The blood pressure was considered to be a function of both the time and location. Finally, the response characteristics of functionally graded biomaterials (FGBMs) models with different values of heterogeneous material parameters were determined and compared with the behaviour of a natural vessel. The results showed a very good agreement between the numerical findings of the FGM materials and that of the natural vessel. The findings of the present study may have implications not only to understand the performance of different FGMs in bearing the stress and deformation in comparison with the natural human vessels, but also to provide information for the biomaterials expert to be able to select a suitable material as an implant for the aorta. PMID:27836981

  8. Artificial septal targeting of Bacillus subtilis cell division proteins in Escherichia coli: an interspecies approach to the study of protein-protein interactions in multiprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichon, Carine; King, Glenn F; Goehring, Nathan W; Beckwith, Jon

    2008-09-01

    Bacterial cell division is mediated by a set of proteins that assemble to form a large multiprotein complex called the divisome. Recent studies in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli indicate that cell division proteins are involved in multiple cooperative binding interactions, thus presenting a technical challenge to the analysis of these interactions. We report here the use of an E. coli artificial septal targeting system for examining the interactions between the B. subtilis cell division proteins DivIB, FtsL, DivIC, and PBP 2B. This technique involves the fusion of one of the proteins (the "bait") to ZapA, an E. coli protein targeted to mid-cell, and the fusion of a second potentially interacting partner (the "prey") to green fluorescent protein (GFP). A positive interaction between two test proteins in E. coli leads to septal localization of the GFP fusion construct, which can be detected by fluorescence microscopy. Using this system, we present evidence for two sets of strong protein-protein interactions between B. subtilis divisomal proteins in E. coli, namely, DivIC with FtsL and DivIB with PBP 2B, that are independent of other B. subtilis cell division proteins and that do not disturb the cytokinesis process in the host cell. Our studies based on the coexpression of three or four of these B. subtilis cell division proteins suggest that interactions among these four proteins are not strong enough to allow the formation of a stable four-protein complex in E. coli in contrast to previous suggestions. Finally, our results demonstrate that E. coli artificial septal targeting is an efficient and alternative approach for detecting and characterizing stable protein-protein interactions within multiprotein complexes from other microorganisms. A salient feature of our approach is that it probably only detects the strongest interactions, thus giving an indication of whether some interactions suggested by other techniques may either be considerably weaker or due to

  9. Kansei Colour Concepts to Improve Effective Colour Selection in Designing Human Computer Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharangie K G D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Colours have a major impact on Human Computer Interaction. Although there is a very thin line between appropriate and inappropriate use of colours, if used properly, colours can be a powerful tool to improve the usefulness of a computer interface in a wide variety of areas. Many designers mostly consider the physical aspect of the colour and tend to forget that psychological aspect of colour exists. However the findings of this study confirm that the psychological aspect or the affective dimension of colour also plays an important role in colour Interface design towards user satisfaction. Using Kansei Engineering principles the study explores the affective variability of colours and how it can be manipulated to provide better design guidance and solutions. A group of twenty adults from Sri Lanka, age ranging from 30 to 40 took part in the study. Survey was conducted using a Kansei colour questionnaire in normal atmospheric conditions. The results reveal that the affective variability of colours plays an important role in human computer interaction as an influential factor in drawing the user towards or withdrawing from the Interface. Thereby improving or degrading the user satisfaction.

  10. Study on the interaction of artificial and natural food colorants with human serum albumin: A computational point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masone, Diego; Chanforan, Céline

    2015-06-01

    Due to the high amount of artificial food colorants present in infants' diets, their adverse effects have been of major concern among the literature. Artificial food colorants have been suggested to affect children's behavior, being hyperactivity the most common disorder. In this study we compare binding affinities of a group of artificial colorants (sunset yellow, quinoline yellow, carmoisine, allura red and tartrazine) and their natural industrial equivalents (carminic acid, curcumin, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside) to human serum albumin (HSA) by a docking approach and further refinement through atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Due to the protein-ligand conformational interface complexity, we used collective variable driven molecular dynamics to refine docking predictions and to score them according to a hydrogen-bond criterion. With this protocol, we were able to rank ligand affinities to HSA and to compare between the studied natural and artificial food additives. Our results show that the five artificial colorants studied bind better to HSA than their equivalent natural options, in terms of their H-bonding network, supporting the hypothesis of their potential risk to human health.

  11. Safety Metrics for Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy G; Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems.This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  12. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  13. Arduino Tool: For Interactive Artwork Installations

    CERN Document Server

    Shaikh, Murtaza Hussain

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the digital media and computational tools has widened the doors for creativity. The cutting edge in the digital arts and role of new technologies can be explored for the possible creativity. This gives an opportunity to involve arts with technologies to make creative works. The interactive artworks are often installed in the places where multiple people can interact with the installation, which allows the art to achieve its purpose by allowing the people to observe and involve with the installation. The level of engagement of the audience depends on the various factors such as aesthetic satisfaction, how the audience constructs meaning, pleasure and enjoyment. The method to evaluate these experiences is challenging as it depends on integration between the artificial life and real life by means of human computer interaction. This research investigates "How Adriano fits for creative and interactive artwork installations?" using an artwork installation in the campus of NTNU (Norwegian University...

  14. Hand Gesture and Neural Network Based Human Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aekta Patel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer is used by every people either at their work or at home. Our aim is to make computers that can understand human language and can develop a user friendly human computer interfaces (HCI. Human gestures are perceived by vision. The research is for determining human gestures to create an HCI. Coding of these gestures into machine language demands a complex programming algorithm. In this project, We have first detected, recognized and pre-processing the hand gestures by using General Method of recognition. Then We have found the recognized image’s properties and using this, mouse movement, click and VLC Media player controlling are done. After that we have done all these functions thing using neural network technique and compared with General recognition method. From this we can conclude that neural network technique is better than General Method of recognition. In this, I have shown the results based on neural network technique and comparison between neural network method & general method.

  15. Autonomous oscillation/separation of cell density artificially induced by optical interlink feedback as designed interaction between two isolated microalgae chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Won, June; Song, Simon; Maeda, Mizuo

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a designed interaction between two isolated cell populations of Euglena gracilis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, separately confined in two 25-square micro-aquariums of lab-on-chip size. The interaction was realized by interlinking two identical optical feedback systems, which measured the cell distribution. To analyze the cell populations, we measured the cell distribution in the 25 squares and irradiated the cells with a blue light pattern as an external stimulus. The cell distribution dataset was exchanged between the two systems. Governed by a designed interaction algorithm, the feedback systems produced a dynamic blue light illumination pattern that evoked the photophobic responses of both species. We also induced autonomous cell density oscillation and cell distribution separation and clustering, and analyzed how the types and diversities of the photophobic responses affected the oscillation period and separation and clustering. We conclude that artificial interlink feedback is a promising method for investigating diverse cell-cell interactions in ecological communities, and for developing soft-computing applications with living cells.

  16. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  17. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  18. Homo ludens in the loop playful human computation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The human mind is incredible. It solves problems with ease that will elude machines even for the next decades. This book explores what happens when humans and machines work together to solve problems machines cannot yet solve alone. It explains how machines and computers can work together and how humans can have fun helping to face some of the most challenging problems of artificial intelligence. In this book, you will find designs for games that are entertaining and yet able to collect data to train machines for complex tasks such as natural language processing or image understanding. You wil

  19. Interactive effects of MnO2, organic matter and pH on abiotic formation of N2O from hydroxylamine in artificial soil mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shurong; Berns, Anne E.; Vereecken, Harry; Wu, Di; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Abiotic conversion of the reactive nitrification intermediate hydroxylamine (NH2OH) to nitrous oxide (N2O) is a possible mechanism of N2O formation during nitrification. Previous research has demonstrated that manganese dioxide (MnO2) and organic matter (OM) content of soil as well as soil pH are important control variables of N2O formation in the soil. But until now, their combined effect on abiotic N2O formation from NH2OH has not been quantified. Here, we present results from a full-factorial experiment with artificial soil mixtures at five different levels of pH, MnO2 and OM, respectively, and quantified the interactive effects of the three variables on the NH2OH-to-N2O conversion ratio (RNH2OH-to-N2O). Furthermore, the effect of OM quality on RNH2OH-to-N2O was determined by the addition of four different organic materials with different C/N ratios to the artificial soil mixtures. The experiments revealed a strong interactive effect of soil pH, MnO2 and OM on RNH2OH-to-N2O. In general, increasing MnO2 and decreasing pH increased RNH2OH-to-N2O, while increasing OM content was associated with a decrease in RNH2OH-to-N2O. Organic matter quality also affected RNH2OH-to-N2O. However, this effect was not a function of C/N ratio, but was rather related to differences in the dominating functional groups between the different organic materials.

  20. Nutrients interaction investigation to improve Monascus purpureus FTC5391 growth rate using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Two vital factors, certain environmental conditions and nutrients as a source of energy are entailed for successful growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Manipulation of nutritional requirement is the simplest and most effectual strategy to stimulate and enhance the activity of microorganisms. Methodology and Results: In this study, response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN were employed to optimize the carbon and nitrogen sources in order to improve growth rate of Monascus purpureus FTC5391,a new local isolate. The best models for optimization of growth rate were a multilayer full feed-forward incremental back propagation network, and a modified response surface model using backward elimination. The optimum condition for cell mass production was: sucrose 2.5%, yeast extract 0.045%, casamino acid 0.275%, sodium nitrate 0.48%, potato starch 0.045%, dextrose 1%, potassium nitrate 0.57%. The experimental cell mass production using this optimal condition was 21 mg/plate/12days, which was 2.2-fold higher than the standard condition (sucrose 5%, yeast extract 0.15%, casamino acid 0.25%, sodium nitrate 0.3%, potato starch 0.2%, dextrose 1%, potassium nitrate 0.3%. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The results of RSM and ANN showed that all carbon and nitrogen sources tested had significant effect on growth rate (P-value < 0.05. In addition the use of RSM and ANN alongside each other provided a proper growth prediction model.

  1. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity.

  2. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  3. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  4. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes. They may cause you to need an amputation. Traumatic injuries, including from traffic accidents and military combat Cancer Birth defects If you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ...

  5. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  6. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie......-containing sweeteners. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the effect of artificial sweeteners on body weight, appetite, and risk markers for diabetes and CVD in humans....

  7. A Study of Electromyogram Based on Human-Computer Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Ru Ren; Tie-Jun Liu; Yu Huang; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,a new control system based on forearm electromyogram (EMG) is proposed for computer peripheral control and artificial prosthesis control.This control system intends to realize the commands of six pre-defined hand poses:up,down,left,right,yes,and no.In order to research the possibility of using a unified amplifier for both electro-encephalogram (EEG) and EMG,the surface forearm EMG data is acquired by a 4-channel EEG measure-ment system.The Bayesian classifier is used to classify the power spectral density (PSD) of the signal.The experiment result verifies that this control system can supply a high command recognition rate (average 48%) even the EMG data is collected with an EEG system just with single electrode measurement.

  8. Artificial neural network-based exploration of gene-nutrient interactions in folate and xenobiotic metabolic pathways that modulate susceptibility to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Pavithrakumari, Manickam; Jayapriya, Jaganathan; Hussain, Tajamul; Alrokayan, Salman A; Gottumukkala, Suryanarayana Raju; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-15

    In the current study, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based breast cancer prediction model was developed from the data of folate and xenobiotic pathway genetic polymorphisms along with the nutritional and demographic variables to investigate how micronutrients modulate susceptibility to breast cancer. The developed ANN model explained 94.2% variability in breast cancer prediction. Fixed effect models of folate (400 μg/day) and B12 (6 μg/day) showed 33.3% and 11.3% risk reduction, respectively. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed the following interactions in responders to folate: RFC1 G80A × MTHFR C677T (primary), COMT H108L × CYP1A1 m2 (secondary), MTR A2756G (tertiary). The interactions among responders to B12 were RFC1G80A × cSHMT C1420T and CYP1A1 m2 × CYP1A1 m4. ANN simulations revealed that increased folate might restore ER and PR expression and reduce the promoter CpG island methylation of extra cellular superoxide dismutase and BRCA1. Dietary intake of folate appears to confer protection against breast cancer through its modulating effects on ER and PR expression and methylation of EC-SOD and BRCA1.

  9. Artificial Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Yasar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes. Studies on artificial blood basically aim to develop oxygen carrying compounds, produce stem cell-based erythrocyte cells in vitro and, implement the functions and movements of natural hemoglobin molecules found in erythrocyte cells through artificial erythrocyte cells. Consequently, major areas of research in artificial blood studies are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, perfluorochemicals, respirocytes and stem cells. Even though these artificial erythrocyte cells do not qualify as perfect red blood cell substitutes yet, they have many potential clinical and non clinical uses. Studies are being carried out on the elimination of side effects of blood substitutes and extensive clinical trials are being conducted to test their safety and efficacy. Artificial blood substitutes could only be used clinically for patient management following clinical trials and approvals, and will be the ultimate global solution to the problems associated with donor scarcity, blood collection and transfusion-mediated diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 95-108

  10. Interactive modeling-synthesis-characterization approach towards controllable in situ self-assembly of artificial pinning centers in RE-123 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Judy; Shi, Jack

    2017-10-01

    Raising critical current density J c in high temperature superconductors (HTSs) is an important strategy towards performance-cost balanced HTS technology for commercialization. The development of strong nanoscale artificial pinning centers (APCs) in HTS, such as YBa2Cu3O7 or RE-123 in general, represents one of the most exciting progressions in HTS material research in the last decade. Significantly raised J c has been demonstrated in APC/RE-123 nanocomposites by enhanced pinning on magnetic vortices in magnetic fields towards that demanded in practical applications. Among other processes, strain-mediated self-organization has been explored extensively for in situ formation of the APCs based on fundamental physics design rules. The desire in controlling the morphology, dimension, orientation, and concentration of APCs has led to a fundamental question on how strains interact in determining APCs at a macroscopic scale. Answering this question demands an interactive modeling-synthesis-characterization approach towards a thorough understanding of fundamental physics governing the strain-mediated self-organization of the APCs in the APC/RE-123 nanocomposites. Such an understanding is the key for a leap forward from the traditionally empirical method to materials-by-design to enable an optimal APC landscape to be achieved in epitaxial films of APC/YBCO nanocomposites under a precise guidance of fundamental physics. The paper intends to provide a review of recent progress made in the controllable generation of APCs using the interactive modeling-synthesis-characterization approach. The emphasis will be given to the understanding so far achieved using such an approach on the collective effect of the strain field on the morphology, dimension, and orientation of APCs in epitaxial APC/RE-123 nanocomposite films.

  11. Design Principles for Interactive Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book addresses the crucial intersection of human-computer interaction (HCI) and software engineering by asking both what users require from interactive systems and what developers need to produce well-engineered software. Needs are expressed as......The book addresses the crucial intersection of human-computer interaction (HCI) and software engineering by asking both what users require from interactive systems and what developers need to produce well-engineered software. Needs are expressed as...

  12. Spectroscopic Study of the Interaction between Horse Heart Myoglobin and Zirconium(IV)-Substituted Polyoxometalates as Artificial Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Hong Giang T; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2017-07-04

    A recent study [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 7391-7394] has shown that horse heart myoglobin (HHM) is selectively hydrolyzed by a range of zirconium(IV)-substituted polyoxometalates (POMs) under mild conditions. In this study, the molecular interactions between the Zr-POM catalysts and HHM are investigated by using a range of complementary techniques, including circular dichroism (CD), UV/Vis spectroscopy, tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy, and (1) H and (31) P NMR spectroscopy. A tryptophan fluorescence quenching study reveals that, among all examined Zr-POMs, the most reactive POM, 2:2 Zr(IV) -Keggin, exhibits the strongest interaction with HHM. (31) P NMR spectroscopy studies show that this POM dissociates in solution, resulting in the formation of a monomeric 1:1 Zr(IV) -Keggin structure, which is likely to be a catalytically active species. In the presence of Zr(IV) -POMs, HHM does not undergo complete denaturation, as evidenced by CD, UV/Vis, tryptophan fluorescence, and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. CD spectroscopy shows a gradual decrease in the α-helical content of HHM upon addition of Zr(IV) -POMs. The largest effect is observed in the presence of a large Zr(IV) -Wells-Dawson structure, whereas small Zr(IV) -Lindqvist POM has the least influence on the decrease in the α-helical content of HHM. In all cases, the Soret band at λ=409 nm is maintained in the presence of all examined Zr-POMs, which indicates that no conformational changes in the protein occur near the heme group. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Language/Action Model of Human-Computer Communication in a Psychiatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, R. A.; Goethe, J. W.; Bronzino, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    When a staff physician says to an intern he is supervising “I think you should try medication X,” this statement may differ in meaning from the same string of words spoken between colleagues. In the first case, the statement may have the force of an order (“Do this!”), while in the latter it is merely a suggestion. In either case, the utterance sets up important expectations which constrain the future actions of the parties involved. This paper lays out an analytic framework, based on speech act theory, for representing such “conversations for action” so that they may be used to inform the design of human-computer interaction. The language/action design perspective views the information system -- in this case an expert system that monitors drug treatment -- as one of many “agents” within a broad communicative network. Speech act theory is used to model a typical psychiatric hospital unit as a system of communicative action. In addition to identifying and characterizing the primary communicative agents and speech acts, the model presents a taxonomy of key conversational patterns and shows how they may be applied to the design of a clinical monitoring system. In the final section, the advantages and implications of this design approach are discussed.

  14. Impact of familiarity on information complexity in human-computer interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakaev Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative measure of information complexity remains very much desirable in HCI field, since it may aid in optimization of user interfaces, especially in human-computer systems for controlling complex objects. Our paper is dedicated to exploration of subjective (subject-depended aspect of the complexity, conceptualized as information familiarity. Although research of familiarity in human cognition and behaviour is done in several fields, the accepted models in HCI, such as Human Processor or Hick-Hyman’s law do not generally consider this issue. In our experimental study the subjects performed search and selection of digits and letters, whose familiarity was conceptualized as frequency of occurrence in numbers and texts. The analysis showed significant effect of information familiarity on selection time and throughput in regression models, although the R2 values were somehow low. Still, we hope that our results might aid in quantification of information complexity and its further application for optimizing interaction in human-machine systems.

  15. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  16. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

    2014-01-01

    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  17. Halogenated solvent interactions with N,N-dimethyltryptamine: formation of quaternary ammonium salts and their artificially induced rearrangements during analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Simon D; Martins, Cláudia P B; Freeman, Sally; Dempster, Nicola; Riby, Philip G; Gartz, Jochen; Alder, John F

    2008-07-04

    The psychoactive properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) 1a are known to induce altered states of consciousness in humans. This particular attribute attracts great interest from a variety of scientific and also clandestine communities. Our recent research has confirmed that DMT reacts with dichloromethane (DCM), either as a result of work-up or storage to give a quaternary N-chloromethyl ammonium salt 2a. Furthermore, this was observed to undergo rearrangement during analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with products including 3-(2-chloroethyl)indole 3 and 2-methyltetrahydro-beta-carboline 4 (2-Me-THBC). This study further investigates this so far unexplored area of solvent interactions by the exposure of DMT to other halogenated solvents including dibromomethane and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE). The N-bromomethyl- and N-chloroethyl quaternary ammonium derivatives were subsequently characterised by ion trap GC-MS in electron and chemical ionisation tandem MS mode and by NMR spectroscopy. The DCE-derived derivative formed at least six rearrangement products in the total ion chromatogram. Identification of mass spectrometry generated by-products was verified by conventional or microwave-accelerated synthesis. The use of deuterated DCM and deuterated DMT 1b provided insights into the mechanism of the rearrangements. The presence of potentially characteristic marker molecules may allow the identification of solvents used during the manufacture of controlled substances, which is often neglected since these are considered inert.

  18. Isothermal titration calorimetry study of the interaction of sweeteners with fullerenols as an artificial sweet taste receptor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong-Xiu; Guo, Gang-Min; Deng, Shao-Ping

    2009-04-08

    A fullerenol-based synthetic sweetness receptor model, consisting of polyhydroxy groups for potential hydrogen bond donor along with a spherical hydrophobic center, was proposed according to the widely accepted sweetness hypothesis. An isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) technique was used to study mimetic interaction of this sweet receptor model with a series of sweeteners having increasing sweetness intensity. The results showed that ITC is an effective method to provide thorough and precise characterization of the energies of molecular complex formation. Binding of all of the studied sweeteners with fullerenols was found through two sets of site models. More heat was released from sweeter synthetic compounds binding with fullerenols than from less sweet carbohydrates. The results imply that hydrogen bond formation is necessary for the sweeteners to bind to the fullerenol receptor in the first stage, whereas hydrophobic effect and conformation changes that lead to favorable entropy changes occur in most cases. The preliminary results of this study help to cover the lack of information about the thermodynamic basis of understanding of the initiation of the sweet sensation. It also adds complementary physicochemical measurements available for comparison with the sweetness hypothesis. On the other hand, a correlation between the thermodynamic parameters and sweetness intensity has been made as well, which exhibits potential as a useful tool in sensory analysis.

  19. User interface issues in supporting human-computer integrated scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Biefeld, Eric W.

    1991-09-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: characteristics of Operations Mission Planner (OMP) schedule domain; OMP architecture; definition of a schedule; user interface dimensions; functional distribution; types of users; interpreting user interaction; dynamic overlays; reactive scheduling; and transitioning the interface.

  20. Gut microbial adaptation to dietary consumption of fructose, artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols: implications for host-microbe interactions contributing to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, A N; Chassard, C; Lacroix, C

    2012-09-01

    The Western diet, comprised of highly refined carbohydrates and fat but reduced complex plant polysaccharides, has been attributed to the prevalence of obesity. A concomitant rise in the consumption of fructose and sugar substitutes such as sugar alcohols, artificial sweeteners, even rare sugars, has mirrored this trend, as both probable contributor and solution to the epidemic. Acknowledgement of the gut microbiota as a factor involved in obesity has sparked much controversy as to the cause and consequence of this relationship. Dietary intakes are a known modulator of gut microbial phylogeny and metabolic activity, frequently exploited to stimulate beneficial bacteria, promoting health benefits. Comparably little research exists on the impact of 'unconscious' dietary modulation on the resident commensal community mediated by increased fructose and sugar substitute consumption. This review highlights mechanisms of potential host and gut microbial fructose and sugar substitute metabolism. Evidence is presented suggesting these sugar compounds, particularly fructose, condition the microbiota, resulting in acquisition of a westernized microbiome with altered metabolic capacity. Disturbances in host-microbe interactions resulting from fructose consumption are also explored.

  1. Towards human-computer synergetic analysis of large-scale biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Yang, Hui; Dalziel, Ben; Asarnow, Daniel; Murad, William; Foote, David; Gormley, Matthew; Stillman, Jonathan; Fisher, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Advances in technology have led to the generation of massive amounts of complex and multifarious biological data in areas ranging from genomics to structural biology. The volume and complexity of such data leads to significant challenges in terms of its analysis, especially when one seeks to generate hypotheses or explore the underlying biological processes. At the state-of-the-art, the application of automated algorithms followed by perusal and analysis of the results by an expert continues to be the predominant paradigm for analyzing biological data. This paradigm works well in many problem domains. However, it also is limiting, since domain experts are forced to apply their instincts and expertise such as contextual reasoning, hypothesis formulation, and exploratory analysis after the algorithm has produced its results. In many areas where the organization and interaction of the biological processes is poorly understood and exploratory analysis is crucial, what is needed is to integrate domain expertise during the data analysis process and use it to drive the analysis itself. In context of the aforementioned background, the results presented in this paper describe advancements along two methodological directions. First, given the context of biological data, we utilize and extend a design approach called experiential computing from multimedia information system design. This paradigm combines information visualization and human-computer interaction with algorithms for exploratory analysis of large-scale and complex data. In the proposed approach, emphasis is laid on: (1) allowing users to directly visualize, interact, experience, and explore the data through interoperable visualization-based and algorithmic components, (2) supporting unified query and presentation spaces to facilitate experimentation and exploration, (3) providing external contextual information by assimilating relevant supplementary data, and (4) encouraging user-directed information

  2. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanache Florin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus automatic. But conscience is above these differences because it is neither conditioned by the self-preservation of autonomy, because a conscience is something that you use to help your neighbor, nor automatic, because one’s conscience is tested by situations which are not similar or subject to routine. So, artificial intelligence is only in science-fiction literature similar to an autonomous conscience-endowed being. In real life, religion with its notions of redemption, sin, expiation, confession and communion will not have any meaning for a machine which cannot make a mistake on its own.

  3. Artificial ribonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J R

    1994-01-01

    Many inorganic and organic compounds promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A. Both the transesterification step, where a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is formed with concomitant cleavage of RNA, and the hydrolysis step, where the 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is converted to a phosphate monoester, may be mimicked with compounds that are readily synthesized in the laboratory. Electrophilic activation of the phosphate ester and charge neutralization are generally important means by which artificial RNases promote phosphate diester displacement reactions. Several artificial RNases operate by a bifunctional general acid/general base mechanism, as does RNase A. Provision of an intramolecular nucleophile appears to be an important pathway for metal complex promoted phosphate diester hydrolysis. In contrast to the successful design of compounds that promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A, there are no artificial nucleases to date that will cleave the 3' P-O bond of RNA or hydrolyze an oligonucleotide of DNA. Artificial RNases based on both metal complexes and organic compounds have been described. Metal complexes may be particularly effective catalysts for both transesterification and hydrolysis reactions of phosphate diesters. Under physiological conditions (37 degrees C and neutral pH), several metal complexes catalyze the transesterification of RNA. Future work should involve the development of metal complexes which are inert to metal ion release but which maintain open coordination sites for catalytic activity. The design of compounds containing multiple amine or imidazole groups that may demonstrate bifunctional catalysis is a promising route to new artificial RNases. Further design of these compounds and careful placement of catalytic groups may yield new RNase mimics that operate under physiological conditions. The attachment of artificial RNases to recognition agents such as oligodeoxynucleotides to create new sequence-specific endoribonucleases is an exciting field of

  4. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  5. Artificial blood.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  6. Artificial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  7. 基于虚拟成像技术与语音人机交互技术的移动终端的研究∗%The Research of Mobile Terminals based on Virtual Imaging Technology and Voice Human-computer Interaction Research of Mobile Terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林峻; 陈锦彪

    2016-01-01

    在智能电网发展背景下,针对电力一线作业人员应用平板电脑与 PDA 等,存在户外携带便利性较差,不能简化原有的工作,需要双手拿平板电脑或 PDA 操作录入等问题,结合电网发展对电子化作业的需求,探索将虚拟成像技术与语音人机交互技术应用于移动终端,详细阐述了其技术原理与实现方式,采用成熟的 Mediatek 平台与 Android 操作系统,配备高像素数码摄像头、双麦克风降噪处理系统,同时实现 WCDMA、GSM、GPS、蓝牙和 WiFi 等通信定位功能,将所有功能集成于电力安全帽,形成移动作业的新平台。解放电力工作人员双手,实现了作业同时电子化办公、电力系统内的数据交换及远程可视指导作业等。在配网电力检修操作中进行新作业模式尝试,摸索出了科技成果在员工操作培训模式的改进方式,形成了全新的高效作业方式,具有良好的应用前景。%Under the background of the smart grid development,the tablet computers and PDA when applied in the pow-er line homework personnel have poor outdoor carrying convenience,can not simplify the original work,need hands to carry tablet PC or PDA.Combined with power grid development on the demand of electronic exploration,apply virtual imaging technology and speech interactive mobile terminals,elaborate on the technical principle and implementation way,use the mature Mediatek platform and Android operating system,equip with high pixel digital photo head and the double micro-phone down processing.Realize the WCDMA and GSM,GPS,bluetooth and WiFi positioning functions at the same time loith as communication and integrate functions in the power safety helmet to form the new platform of mobile operations. Hands liberation tapping at a keyboard power staff achieves the operating electronic office in the power system data exchange and remote visual guidance,etc.New operations are tried in the

  8. Comparison of hydrophilic interaction and reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common steviol glycosides in popular beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2016-08-05

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to separate artificial and natural sweeteners approved for use in European Union (EU). Among three tested HILIC columns (BlueOrchid PAL-HILIC, Ascentis Express Si and Acclaim™ Trinity™ P2) the last one was selected for the development of HILIC method due to the best results obtained with it. Early eluting and coeluting compounds in HILIC (acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, sucralose and aspartame) were successfully separated by the HILIC-based approach for the first time. The developed HILIC method allows for determination of all high potency sweeteners in one analytical run. The calibration curves for all analytes had good linearity within the tested ranges. The limits of detection and quantitation were in the range 0.81-3.30ng/mL and 2.32-9.89ng/mL, respectively. The obtained recoveries used for trueness and precision estimation were from 98.6% to 106.2% with standard deviation less than 4.1%. Sample preparation was reduced to a necessary minimum and contained only proper dilution and centrifugation. More than twenty samples of beverages were analyzed with the developed HILIC method. Finally, the chromatographic parameters of peaks (reduced retention time, width at baseline, width at 50% of peak height, tailing factor and efficiency) obtained in HILIC mode and in RPLC mode were compared. Developed HILIC method along with RPLC method can be applied for rapid evaluation of sweeteners' content, quality and safety control.

  9. Interaction, at Ambient Temperature and 80 °C, between Minerals and Artificial Seawaters Resembling the Present Ocean Composition and that of 4.0 Billion Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Cristine E. A.; Stabile, Antonio C.; Gomes, Frederico P.; da Costa, Antonio C. S.; Zaia, Cássia T. B. V.; Zaia, Dimas A. M.

    2016-10-01

    Probably one of the most important roles played by minerals in the origin of life on Earth was to pre-concentrate biomolecules from the prebiotic seas. There are other ways to pre concentrate biomolecules such as wetting/drying cycles and freezing/sublimation. However, adsorption is most important. If the pre-concentration did not occur—because of degradation of the minerals—other roles played by them such as protection against degradation, formation of polymers, or even as primitive cell walls would be seriously compromised. We studied the interaction of two artificial seawaters with kaolinite, bentonite, montmorillonite, goethite, ferrihydrite and quartz. One seawater has a major cation and anion composition similar to that of the oceans of the Earth 4.0 billion years ago (ASW 4.0 Ga). In the other, the major cations and anions are an average of the compositions of the seawaters of today (ASWT). When ASWT, which is rich in Na+ and Cl-, interacted with bentonite and montmorrilonite structural collapse occurred on the 001 plane. However, ASW 4.0 Ga, which is rich in Mg2+ and SO4 2-, did not induce this behavior. When ASW 4.0 Ga was reacted with the minerals for 24 h at room temperature and 80 °C, the release of Si and Al to the fluid was below 1 % of the amount in the minerals—meaning that dissolution of the minerals did not occur. In general, minerals adsorbed Mg2+ and K+ from the ASW 4.0 Ga and these cations could be used for the formation of polymers. Also, when the minerals were mixed with ASW 4.0 Ga at 80 °C and ASWT at room temperature or 80 °C it caused the precipitation of CaSO4•2H2O and halite, respectively. Finally, further experiments (adsorption, formation of polymers, protection of molecules against degradation, primitive cell wall formation) performed under the conditions described in this paper will probably be more representative of what happened on the prebiotic Earth.

  10. Artificial Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term reduced gravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity, which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by short-radius human centrifuge devices within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient

  11. Psychosocial and Cultural Modeling in Human Computation Systems: A Gamification Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Haack, Jereme N.; Butner, R. Scott

    2013-11-20

    “Gamification”, the application of gameplay to real-world problems, enables the development of human computation systems that support decision-making through the integration of social and machine intelligence. One of gamification’s major benefits includes the creation of a problem solving environment where the influence of cognitive and cultural biases on human judgment can be curtailed through collaborative and competitive reasoning. By reducing biases on human judgment, gamification allows human computation systems to exploit human creativity relatively unhindered by human error. Operationally, gamification uses simulation to harvest human behavioral data that provide valuable insights for the solution of real-world problems.

  12. THE RESEARCH SITUATION AND TREND OF ARTIFICIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND ARTIFICIAL EMOTION IN CHINA%我国人工心理与人工情感研究现状与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志良; 解仑

    2013-01-01

    As an emerging research direction, Artificial Psychology & Artificial Emotion will be widely used in various human-computer interaction areas, such as robot, smart home, natural interaction and health etc. In this paper, according to high-caliber academic activities and many national major research projects, the whole development process of Artificial Psychology & Artificial Emotion is expounded in detail. The research results in Artificial Psychology & Artificial Emotion are objectively described from the progress of affective modeling and the production of books and papers. With the sharp rising influence of Chinese scholars in the international academia, the domestic research of Artificial Psychology & Artificial Emotion will uninterruptedly and quickly develop. In the future, the new mode of Industry-Education-Academy, which is the original innovation combined with the practical application, will be formed for marker demand.%人工心理与人工情感作为人工智能的新兴延伸方向,将广泛应用于机器人领域、智能家居领域、人机交互领域及医疗卫生等相关领域,其发展前景非常广阔.本文以国内高水平相关学术活动以及国家自然科学基金、“973”、“863”等国家重大科研项目为线索,详细概述了人工心理与人工情感研究从概念提出,到方兴未艾,再到蓬勃发展的全过程;并通过阐述基于人工心理的情感建模研究进展、相关系列著作以及论文发表情况,客观地描述了我国近年来在人工心理与人工情感方面取得的研究成果.随着我国学者在国际学术界的影响力不断提升,我国人工心理与人工情感研究将持续快速发展.未来,在市场需求的推动下,必将形成原始创新与实际应用相结合的产学研新模式.

  13. Risk Issues in Developing Novel User Interfaces for Human-Computer Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Klinker, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. All rights are reserved. When new user interfaces or information visualization schemes are developed for complex information processing systems, it is not readily clear how much they do, in fact, support and improve users\\' understanding and use of such systems. Is a new interface better than an older one? In what respect, and in which situations? To provide answers to such questions, user testing schemes are employed. This chapter reports on a range of risks pertaining to the design and implementation of user interfaces in general, and to newly emerging interfaces (3-dimensionally, immersive, mobile) in particular.

  14. Human-Computer Interaction and Operators' Performance Optimizing Work Design with Activity Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bedny, Gregory Z

    2010-01-01

    Directed to a broad and interdisciplinary audience, this book provides a complete account of what has been accomplished in applied and systemic-structural activity theory. It presents a new approach to applied psychology and the study of human work that has derived from activity theory. The selected articles demonstrate the basic principles of studying human work and particularly computer-based work in complex sociotechnical systems. The book includes examples of applied and systemic-structural activity theory to HCI and man-machine-systems, aviation, safety, design and optimization of human p

  15. Understanding Usefulness in Human-Computer Interaction to Enhance User Experience Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Craig Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The concept of usefulness has implicitly played a pivotal role in evaluation research, but the meaning of usefulness has changed over time from system reliability to user performance and learnability/ease of use for non-experts. Despite massive technical and social changes, usability remains the "gold standard" for system evaluation.…

  16. Trends in Human-Computer Interaction to Support Future Intelligence Analysis Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    strategies including (DARPA, 2011a): • Intelligent interruption to improve limited working memory ; • Attention management to improve focus during...complex tasks; • Cued memory retrieval to improve situational awareness and context recovery; • Modality switching (i.e., audio, visual) to increase...www.biometry.com www.handresearch.com Vein pattern palm reading by Fujitsu www.dealspwn.com 16 Augmented Cognition / Brain Computer Interfaces NeuroSky MindSet OCZ

  17. Guidelines for the use of vibro-tactile displays in human computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van

    2002-01-01

    Vibro-tactile displays convey messages by presenting vibration to the user's skin. In recent years, the interest in and application of vibro-tactile displays is growing. Vibratory displays are introduced in mobile devices, desktop applications and even in aircraft [1]. Despite the growing interest,

  18. Proceedings of the 5th Danish Human-Computer Interaction Research Symposium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    ORGANISATIONS Olav W. Bertelsen & Pär-Ola Zander PROCESS MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN HIGHER EDUCATION E-LEARNING - A NEWRESEARCH AREA Karin Tweddell Levinsen FROM HANDICRAFT SCHOOL TO DESIGN UNIVERSITY Eva Brandt THE USE PROJECT: BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN USABILITY EVALUATIONAND SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT Als, B., Frøkjær, E...

  19. Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Internet Residency: Implications for Both Personal Life and Teaching/Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crearie, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances over the last decade have had a significant impact on the teaching and learning experiences students encounter today. We now take technologies such as Web 2.0, mobile devices, cloud computing, podcasts, social networking, super-fast broadband, and connectedness for granted. So what about the student use of these types of…

  20. Human-Computer Interaction Based on Hand Gestures Using RGB-D Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Llorente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new method for hand gesture recognition based on an RGB-D sensor. The proposed approach takes advantage of depth information to cope with the most common problems of traditional video-based hand segmentation methods: cluttered backgrounds and occlusions. The algorithm also uses colour and semantic information to accurately identify any number of hands present in the image. Ten different static hand gestures are recognised, including all different combinations of spread fingers. Additionally, movements of an open hand are followed and 6 dynamic gestures are identified. The main advantage of our approach is the freedom of the user’s hands to be at any position of the image without the need of wearing any specific clothing or additional devices. Besides, the whole method can be executed without any initial training or calibration. Experiments carried out with different users and in different environments prove the accuracy and robustness of the method which, additionally, can be run in real-time.

  1. Knowledge Management of Web Financial Reporting in Human-Computer Interactive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Yujing; Xu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Handling and analyzing to web financial data is becoming a challenge issue in knowledge management and education to accounting practitioners. eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL), which is a type of web financial reporting, describes and recognizes financial items by tagging metadata. The goal is to make it possible for financial reports…

  2. An Innovative Solution Based on Human-Computer Interaction to Support Cognitive Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Cogollor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses its objective in describing the design and implementation of an innovative system to provide cognitive rehabilitation. People who will take advantage of this platform suffer from a post-stroke disease called Apraxia and Action Disorganisation Syndrome (AADS. The platform has been integrated at Universidad Politécnica de Madrid and tries to reduce the stay in hospital or rehabilitation center by supporting self-rehabilitation at home. So, the system acts as an intelligent machine which guides patients while executing Activities of Daily Living (ADL, such as preparing a simple tea, by informing them about the errors committed and possible actions to correct them. A short introduction to other works related to stroke, patients to work with, how the system works and how it is implemented are provided in the document. Finally, some relevant information from experiment made with healthy people for technical validation is also shown.

  3. Using Tablet PCs in Classroom for Teaching Human-Computer Interaction: An Experience in High Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, André Constantino; Marques, Daniela; de Oliveira, Rodolfo Francisco; Noda, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The use of computers in the teaching and learning process is investigated by many researches and, nowadays, due the available diversity of computing devices, tablets are become popular in classroom too. So what are the advantages and disadvantages to use tablets in classroom? How can we shape the teaching and learning activities to get the best of…

  4. Prevention or Identification of Web Intrusion via Human Computer Interaction Behaviour - A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-25

    Ana Fred2 and António Alves Vieira1 [1]Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal Campus do IPS Estefanilha Setúbal, Portugal Tel +351 265790000, Fax...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Escola Superior de Tecnologia de

  5. Robot Arm Control and Having Meal Aid System with Eye Based Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kohei; Mardiyanto, Ronny

    Robot arm control and having meal aid system with eye based HCI is proposed. The proposed system allows disabled person to select desirable food from the meal tray by their eyes only. Robot arm which is used for retrieving the desirable food is controlled by human eye. At the tip of the robot arm, tiny camera is equipped. Disabled person wear a glass of which a single Head Mount Display: HMD and tiny camera is mounted so that disabled person can take a look at the desired food and retrieve it by looking at the food displayed onto HMD. Experimental results show that disabled person can retrieve the desired food successfully. It also is confirmed that robot arm control by eye based HCI is much faster than that by hands.

  6. Preface (to: Brain-Computer Interfaces. Applying our Minds to Human-Computer Interaction)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    The advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies provide us with the increasing ability to interface directly with activity in the brain. Researchers have begun to use these technologies to build brain-computer interfaces. Originally, these interfaces were meant to allow

  7. The Changing Face of Human-Computer Interaction in the Age of Ubiquitous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Yvonne

    HCI is reinventing itself. No longer only about being user-centered, it has set its sights on pastures new, embracing a much broader and far-reaching set of interests. From emotional, eco-friendly, embodied experiences to context, constructivism and culture, HCI research is changing apace: from what it looks at, the lenses it uses and what it has to offer. Part of this is as a reaction to what is happening in the world; ubiquitous technologies are proliferating and transforming how we live our lives. We are becoming more connected and more dependent on technology. The home, the crèche, outdoors, public places and even the human body are now being experimented with as potential places to embed computational devices, even to the extent of invading previously private and taboo aspects of our lives. In this paper, I examine the diversity of lifestyle and technological transformations in our midst and outline some 'difficult' questions these raise together with alternative directions for HCI research and practice.

  8. Incorporating a Human-Computer Interaction Course into Software Development Curriculums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Thomas N.; Cummings, Jeffrey; Healy, R. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Individuals have increasing options on retrieving information related to hardware and software. Specific hardware devices include desktops, tablets and smart devices. Also, the number of software applications has significantly increased the user's capability to access data. Software applications include the traditional web site, smart device…

  9. Non-Speech Sound in Human-Computer Interaction: A Review and Design Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, James; Winn, William

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research on uses of computer sound and suggests how sound might be used effectively by instructional and interface designers. Topics include principles of interface design; the perception of sound; earcons, both symbolic and iconic; sound in data analysis; sound in virtual environments; and guidelines for using sound. (70 references) (LRW)

  10. Undergraduate Use of CD-ROM Databases: Observations of Human-Computer Interaction and Relevance Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Debora

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that observed undergraduates as they searched bibliographic databases on a CD-ROM local area network. Topics include related research, information needs, evolution of search topics, database selection, search strategies, relevance judgments, CD-ROM interfaces, and library instruction. (Author/LRW)

  11. Modeling Goal-Directed User Exploration in Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    is implemented as a LISP program outside the confines of a cognitive architecture. The normalization assumption is implemented by simply normalizing...invoke a LISP function to compute the infoscent of the link with respect to the goal. The LISP function will then update the utilities of the three...competing productions (see Section 4.2.1.1) based on the link’s infoscent. This LISP function is an example of a black-box implementation of the

  12. Combining heterogeneous inputs for the development of adaptive and multimodal interaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David GRIOL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel framework for the integration of visual sensor networks and speech-based interfaces. Our proposal follows the standard reference architecture in fusion systems (JDL, and combines different techniques related to Artificial Intelligence, Natural Language Processing and User Modeling to provide an enhanced interaction with their users. Firstly, the framework integrates a Cooperative Surveillance Multi-Agent System (CS-MAS, which includes several types of autonomous agents working in a coalition to track and make inferences on the positions of the targets. Secondly, enhanced conversational agents facilitate human-computer interaction by means of speech interaction. Thirdly, a statistical methodology allows modeling the user conversational behavior, which is learned from an initial corpus and improved with the knowledge acquired from the successive interactions. A technique is proposed to facilitate the multimodal fusion of these information sources and consider the result for the decision of the next system action.

  13. Means of Question-Answer Interaction for Collaborative Development Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sosnin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of successful developing of the software intensive system (SIS is adequate conceptual interactions of stakeholders at the early stages of designing. Nowadays the success of development is extremely low. It can be increased with using artificial intelligence (AI means including models of reasoning supported by the human-computer interaction in collaborative development activity. In this paper, a number of question-answer means for modeling reasoning are suggested. Such kind of means is defined and implemented in order to get effects of integrating the collective reasoning for their positive influence on the intellectual activity of designers. Question-answer means are arranged as a specialized processor opening the possibility to question-answer programming of the tasks on the conceptual stage of designing. Suggested and investigated means can be used for solving any complicated task.

  14. Cells, Agents, and Support Vectors in Interaction - Modeling Urban Sprawl based on Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence Techniques in a Post-Industrial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienow, A.; Menz, G.

    2015-12-01

    Since the beginning of the millennium, artificial intelligence techniques as cellular automata (CA) and multi-agent systems (MAS) have been incorporated into land-system simulations to address the complex challenges of transitions in urban areas as open, dynamic systems. The study presents a hybrid modeling approach for modeling the two antagonistic processes of urban sprawl and urban decline at once. The simulation power of support vector machines (SVM), cellular automata (CA) and multi-agent systems (MAS) are integrated into one modeling framework and applied to the largest agglomeration of Central Europe: the Ruhr. A modified version of SLEUTH (short for Slope, Land-use, Exclusion, Urban, Transport, and Hillshade) functions as the CA component. SLEUTH makes use of historic urban land-use data sets and growth coefficients for the purpose of modeling physical urban expansion. The machine learning algorithm of SVM is applied in order to enhance SLEUTH. Thus, the stochastic variability of the CA is reduced and information about the human and ecological forces driving the local suitability of urban sprawl is incorporated. Subsequently, the supported CA is coupled with the MAS ReHoSh (Residential Mobility and the Housing Market of Shrinking City Systems). The MAS models population patterns, housing prices, and housing demand in shrinking regions based on interactions between household and city agents. Semi-explicit urban weights are introduced as a possibility of modeling from and to the pixel simultaneously. Three scenarios of changing housing preferences reveal the urban development of the region in terms of quantity and location. They reflect the dissemination of sustainable thinking among stakeholders versus the steady dream of owning a house in sub- and exurban areas. Additionally, the outcomes are transferred into a digital petri dish reflecting a synthetic environment with perfect conditions of growth. Hence, the generic growth elements affecting the future

  15. Artificial rheotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacci, Jérémie; Sacanna, Stefano; Abramian, Anaïs; Barral, Jérémie; Hanson, Kasey; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Pine, David J; Chaikin, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    Motility is a basic feature of living microorganisms, and how it works is often determined by environmental cues. Recent efforts have focused on developing artificial systems that can mimic microorganisms, in particular their self-propulsion. We report on the design and characterization of synthetic self-propelled particles that migrate upstream, known as positive rheotaxis. This phenomenon results from a purely physical mechanism involving the interplay between the polarity of the particles and their alignment by a viscous torque. We show quantitative agreement between experimental data and a simple model of an overdamped Brownian pendulum. The model notably predicts the existence of a stagnation point in a diverging flow. We take advantage of this property to demonstrate that our active particles can sense and predictably organize in an imposed flow. Our colloidal system represents an important step toward the realization of biomimetic microsystems with the ability to sense and respond to environmental changes.

  16. Human Computation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  17. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99 in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text chat communications, manipulation of procedureschecklists, cataloguingannotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit andor other EVA systems.

  18. Artificial intelligence: Human effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, M.; Narayanan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body'' (robotics) of intelligent computing systems.

  19. Artificial cells based on biodegradable polymersomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Fenghua

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the research that is described in this thesis is to develop biodegradable, biocompatible polymersomes that can serve as a basis for artificial cells. These artificial cells should be able to be delivered to the circulation, interact with specific sites where they perform their function, a

  20. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  1. OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF HYDRAU-LIC MANIFOLD BLOCKS BASED ON HUMAN-COMPUTER COOPERATIVE GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yi; Li Li; Tian Shujun

    2003-01-01

    Optimization design of hydraulic manifold blocks (HMB) is studied as a complex solid spatial layout problem. Based on comprehensive research into structure features and design rules of HMB, an optimal mathematical model for this problem is presented. Using human-computer cooperative genetic algorithm (GA) and its hybrid optimization strategies, integrated layout and connection design schemes of HMB can be automatically optimized. An example is given to testify it.

  2. 考虑用户视觉注意机制的人机交互界面设计%Human-Computer Interface Design Considering Visual Attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁; 余隋怀; 肖琳臻; 周宪

    2016-01-01

    为了有效提高人机交互界面的设计质量和效率,将视觉注意的计算方法引入到人机交互界面设计过程中,提出了一种考虑用户视觉注意机制的人机交互界面设计方法。利用视觉注意计算模型分析了人机交互界面中各元件的视觉注意程度,构建了视觉注意焦点图;采用配对比较法确定各元件的重要度和使用频率,以灰度图的形式建立了人机交互界面重要性分布图。通过比对视觉注意焦点图和重要性分布图,以用户的视觉特性为评价指标对人机交互界面设计方案进行了评估。以智能手机的人机交互界面设计为例,对所提出方法进行验证。结果表明:该方法优化了用户的视觉特性,与传统方法相比,人机交互界面设计质量和效率得以提升;所设计的人机交互界面增强了用户的交互体验。%In order to improve the design efficiency and quality,a new method for human-computer interface design,which considers human visual attention and ergonomics,is proposed.The visual attention of human-computer interface is analyzed and calculated by a context-aware saliency detection algorithm and the visual attention map is established.Meantime,the importance and frequency of use of each component is obtained by the users’investigation.And the significance distribution map of human-computer interface is drawn.By comparing the two maps,the designer can estimate if the component with high significance has high visual attention or not.Studying the design of human computer interaction interface of intelligent mobile phone,the proposed method is validated.The results show that the proposed method optimizes the user’s visual characteristics.Compared with the traditional method, the quality and efficiency of the human-computer interaction interface design is improved.The designed human-computer interaction interface enhances the user’s interactive experience.

  3. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W. H.

    2017-01-01

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind’s oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices. PMID:28138542

  4. Ion specificities of artificial macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lvdan; Kou, Ran; Liu, Guangming

    2016-12-21

    Artificial macromolecules are well-defined synthetic polymers, with a relatively simple structure as compared to naturally occurring macromolecules. This review focuses on the ion specificities of artifical macromolecules. Ion specificities are influenced by solvent-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions and also by direct ion-macromolecule interactions. In aqueous solutions, the role of water-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions will be discussed. The addition of organic solvents to aqueous solutions significantly changes the ion specificities due to the formation of water-organic solvent complexes. For direct ion-macromolecule interactions, we will discuss specific ion-pairing interactions for charged macromolecules and specific ion-neutral site interactions for uncharged macromolecules. When the medium conditions change from dilute solutions to crowded environments, the ion specificities can be modified by either the volume exclusion effect, the variation of dielectric constant, or the interactions between ions, macromolecules, and crowding agents.

  5. The Ethical Dilemmas Raised by Artificial Intelligence%人工智能体的道德确立与伦理困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东浩

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of artificial intelligence unlocked people's thoughts on traditional ethical ideas. With technology innovation,artificial intelligence has enriched its connotation;it's freer and more inde-pendent,which has protruded the problem of safety.While in the process of design and application,the traditional developing approaches have fell behind.People are beginning to question the morals and the whereabouts of the related ethical issues.Human-computer integration may be helpful in establishing arti-ficial intelligence ethics and human-computer interaction and exchange may have a positive role in solving the ethical dilemmas raised by artificial intelligence.Harmonious coexistence between man and machine may be a path taking artificial intelligence out of moral dilemma in the future.%人工智能体道德的出现引发了人们对传统伦理体制的思考。随着技术不断革新,人工智能体的内涵也不断丰富,它的自由性和独立性日趋进步。人工智能体的安全性凸显,在设计和应用人工智能体的过程中,传统的研发进路已然落后。人们对人工智能体有无道德以及道德去向提出了质疑。人工智能体走向人机一体化可能更有助于人工智能体道德的确立,人机之间的互动与交流对于人工智能体道德所引发的伦理困境而言具有进步意义。人机之间的和谐相处可能是未来人工智能体道德迈出困境的一条路径。

  6. Collection of Information Directly from Patients through an Adaptive Human-computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, David F.; Arbanas, Jennifer M.; Mishra, Dharani D.; Wildemuth, Barbara; Campbell, Marci

    2002-01-01

    Clinical information collected directly from patients is critical to the practice of medicine. Past efforts to collect this information using computers have had limited utility because these efforts required users to be facile with the information collecting system. This poster describes the development and function of a computer system that uses technology to overcome the limitations of previous computer-based data collection tools by adapting the human-computer interface to fit the skills of the user. The system has been successfully used at two diverse clinical sites.

  7. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  8. Artificial life and Piaget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  9. Artificiality in Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Rennard, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This text provides with an introduction to the modern approach of artificiality and simulation in social sciences. It presents the relationship between complexity and artificiality, before introducing the field of artificial societies which greatly benefited from the computer power fast increase, gifting social sciences with formalization and experimentation tools previously owned by "hard" sciences alone. It shows that as "a new way of doing social sciences", artificial societies should undo...

  10. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  11. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  12. Kinesthetic Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup; Fritsch, Jonas; Kortbek, Karen Johanne

    2008-01-01

    Within the Human-Computer Interaction community there is a growing interest in designing for the whole body in interaction design. The attempts aimed at addressing the body have very different outcomes spanning from theoretical arguments for understanding the body in the design process, to more...... to reveal bodily potential in relation to three design themes – kinesthetic development, kinesthetic means and kinesthetic disorder; and seven design parameters – engagement, sociality, movability, explicit motivation, implicit motivation, expressive meaning and kinesthetic empathy. The framework is a tool...

  13. US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) style guide, Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.

    1996-09-30

    A stated goal of the U.S. Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIS) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of style guides. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide. This document, the U.S. Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide, represents the first version of that style guide. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for RT/NRT Army systems across the weapon systems domains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each domain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their domains.

  14. The use of analytical models in human-computer interface design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugerty, Leo

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a large number of human-computer interface (HCI) researchers have investigated building analytical models of the user, which are often implemented as computer models. These models simulate the cognitive processes and task knowledge of the user in ways that allow a researcher or designer to estimate various aspects of an interface's usability, such as when user errors are likely to occur. This information can lead to design improvements. Analytical models can supplement design guidelines by providing designers rigorous ways of analyzing the information-processing requirements of specific tasks (i.e., task analysis). These models offer the potential of improving early designs and replacing some of the early phases of usability testing, thus reducing the cost of interface design. This paper describes some of the many analytical models that are currently being developed and evaluates the usefulness of analytical models for human-computer interface design. This paper will focus on computational, analytical models, such as the GOMS model, rather than less formal, verbal models, because the more exact predictions and task descriptions of computational models may be useful to designers. The paper also discusses some of the practical requirements for using analytical models in complex design organizations such as NASA.

  15. A Model-based Framework for Risk Assessment in Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems. This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions. Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  16. Human Computation: Object Recognition for Mobile Games Based on Single Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sakr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart phones and its applications gain a lot of popularity nowadays. Many people depend on them to finish their tasks banking, social networking, fun and a lot other things. Games with a purpose (GWAP and microtask crowdsourcing are considered two techniques of the human-computation. GWAPs depend on humans to accomplish their tasks. Porting GWAPs to smart phones will be great in increasing the number of humans in it. One of the systems of human-computation is ESP Game. ESP Game is a type of games with a purpose. ESP game will be good candidate to be ported to smart phones. This paper presents a new mobile game called MemoryLabel. It is a single player mobile game. It helps in labeling images and gives description for them. In addition, the game gives description for objects in the image not the whole image. We deploy our algorithm at the University of Menoufia for evaluation. In addition, the game is published on Google play market for android applications. In this trial, we first focused on measuring the total number of labels generated by our game and also the number of objects that have been labeled. The results reveal that the proposed game has promising results in describing images and objects.

  17. Effects of muscle fatigue on the usability of a myoelectric human-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszap, Alexander G; Skavhaug, Ida-Maria; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2016-10-01

    Electromyography-based human-computer interface development is an active field of research. However, knowledge on the effects of muscle fatigue for specific devices is limited. We have developed a novel myoelectric human-computer interface in which subjects continuously navigate a cursor to targets by manipulating a single surface electromyography (sEMG) signal. Two-dimensional control is achieved through simultaneous adjustments of power in two frequency bands through a series of dynamic low-level muscle contractions. Here, we investigate the potential effects of muscle fatigue during the use of our interface. In the first session, eight subjects completed 300 cursor-to-target trials without breaks; four using a wrist muscle and four using a head muscle. The wrist subjects returned for a second session in which a static fatiguing exercise took place at regular intervals in-between cursor-to-target trials. In the first session we observed no declines in performance as a function of use, even after the long period of use. In the second session, we observed clear changes in cursor trajectories, paired with a target-specific decrease in hit rates.

  18. An analysis of the aesthetic embodiment of human computer interface%对于计算机人机界面交互美感体现的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋发君

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,based on in the aspects of man-machine interface of computer application of aesthetic principle,application of man-machine interface aesthetics of computer implementation of, according to the summary,how to rely on computer interactive interface beauty to ascend will users use efficiency of human-computer interaction and feelings for lifting.%本文立足于计算机人机界面应用美学原则这一层面,对计算机人机界面应用美学实施探讨,根据所进行的总结,怎样凭借计算机人机交互界面美感提升来将用户使用人机交互效率与感受提升。

  19. A Hybrid Artificial Reputation Model Involving Interaction Trust, Witness Information and the Trust Model to Calculate the Trust Value of Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh Ransi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Agent interaction in a community, such as the online buyer-seller scenario, is often uncertain, as when an agent comes in contact with other agents they initially know nothing about each other. Currently, many reputation models are developed that help service consumers select better service providers. Reputation models also help agents to make a decision on who they should trust and transact with in the future. These reputation models are either built on interaction trust that involves direct experience as a source of information or they are built upon witness information also known as word-of-mouth that involves the reports provided by others. Neither the interaction trust nor the witness information models alone succeed in such uncertain interactions. In this paper we propose a hybrid reputation model involving both interaction trust and witness information to address the shortcomings of existing reputation models when taken separately. A sample simulation is built to setup buyer-seller services and uncertain interactions. Experiments reveal that the hybrid approach leads to better selection of trustworthy agents where consumers select more reputable service providers, eventually helping consumers obtain more gains. Furthermore, the trust model developed is used in calculating trust values of service providers.

  20. Modulation of autoimmunity with artificial peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cava, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The loss of immune tolerance to self antigens leads to the development of autoimmune responses. Since self antigens are often multiple and/or their sequences may not be known, one approach to restore immune tolerance uses synthetic artificial peptides that interfere or compete with self peptides in the networks of cellular interactions that drive the autoimmune process. This review describes the rationale behind the use of artificial peptides in autoimmunity and their mechanisms of action. Examples of use of artificial peptides in preclinical studies and in the management of human autoimmune diseases are provided. PMID:20807590

  1. Rotating artificial gauge magnetic and electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lembessis, V E; Alshamari, S; Siddig, A; Aldossary, O M

    2016-01-01

    We consider the creation of artificial gauge magnetic and electric fields created when a two-level atom interacts with an optical Ferris wheel light field.These fields have the spatial structure of the optical Ferris wheel field intensity profile. If this optical field pattern is made to rotate in space then we have the creation of artificial electromagnetic fields which propagate in closed paths. The properties of such fields are presented and discussed

  2. Artificial Life - Why Should Musicians Bother?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Rodney; Dahlstedt, Palle

    2003-01-01

    for artistic expression. Artists serve to prepare society for the invisible changes going on within it by producing artworks in response to the mechanisms of change. This paper discusses the authors' approaches to using concepts from artificial life in their musical works, which are basically of two kinds...... - artificial worlds producing music as an output, and interactive compositional tools using evolutionary algorithms to generate music and sound. It also provides a brief cultural context for these works....

  3. Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, Craig S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (AAITT) is a laboratory testbed for the design, analysis, integration, evaluation, and exercising of large-scale, complex, software systems, composed of both knowledge-based and conventional components. The AAITT assists its users in the following ways: configuring various problem-solving application suites; observing and measuring the behavior of these applications and the interactions between their constituent modules; gathering and analyzing statistics about the occurrence of key events; and flexibly and quickly altering the interaction of modules within the applications for further study.

  4. Artificial intelligence and immediacy: designing health communication to personally engage consumers and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L; Neuhauser, Linda

    2013-08-01

    We describe how ehealth communication programs can be improved by using artificial intelligence (AI) to increase immediacy. We analyzed major deficiencies in ehealth communication programs, illustrating how programs often fail to fully engage audiences and can even have negative consequences by undermining the effective delivery of information intended to guide health decision-making and influence adoption of health-promoting behaviors. We examined the use of AI in ehealth practices to promote immediacy and provided examples from the ChronologyMD project. Strategic use of AI is shown to help enhance immediacy in ehealth programs by making health communication more engaging, relevant, exciting, and actionable. AI can enhance the "immediacy" of ehealth by humanizing health promotion efforts, promoting physical and emotional closeness, increasing authenticity and enthusiasm in health promotion efforts, supporting personal involvement in communication interactions, increasing exposure to relevant messages, reducing demands on healthcare staff, improving program efficiency, and minimizing costs. User-centered AI approaches, such as the use of personally involving verbal and nonverbal cues, natural language translation, virtual coaches, and comfortable human-computer interfaces can promote active information processing and adoption of new ideas. Immediacy can improve information access, trust, sharing, motivation, and behavior changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modification of spacecraft charging and the near-plasma environment caused by the interaction of an artificial electron beam with the earth's upper atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Torsten; Banks, P. M.; Gilchrist, B.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Beam-Atmosphere Interaction (BAI) involves the ionization created in the earth's upper atmosphere by electron beams emitted from a low altitude spacecraft. This process is described by two coupled non-linear differential electron transport equations for the up-going (along magnetic field line...

  6. Criteria of Human-computer Interface Design for Computer Assisted Surgery Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-guo; LIN Yan-ping; WANG Cheng-tao; LIU Zhi-hong; YANG Qing-ming

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems become more and more common in clinical practices, but few specific design criteria have been proposed for human-computer interface (HCI) in CAS systems. This paper tried to give universal criteria of HCI design for CAS systems through introduction of demonstration application, which is total knee replacement (TKR) with a nonimage-based navigation system.A typical computer assisted process can be divided into four phases: the preoperative planning phase, the intraoperative registration phase, the intraoperative navigation phase and finally the postoperative assessment phase. The interface design for four steps is described respectively in the demonstration application. These criteria this paper summarized can be useful to software developers to achieve reliable and effective interfaces for new CAS systems more easily.

  7. U.S. Army weapon systems human-computer interface style guide. Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.; Donohoo, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    A stated goal of the US Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIs) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of HCI design guidance documents. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA), now termed the Joint Technical Architecture-Army (JTA-A). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide, which resulted in the US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide Version 1. Based on feedback from the user community, DISC4 further tasked PNNL to revise Version 1 and publish Version 2. The intent was to update some of the research and incorporate some enhancements. This document provides that revision. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for the RT/NRT Army system domain across the weapon systems subdomains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each subdomain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their subdomains.

  8. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  9. 多感官人机交互界面的视觉设计原则%Discussion on the Visual Design Pinciples of Multi-Sense Human-Computer Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红; 郭歌

    2012-01-01

    通过阐述多感官人机交互界面的概念,分析了交互界面的视觉设计发展趋势——动态化、多维化、综合化。在此基础上,提出了人机交互界面的视觉设计应遵守"简洁易用"的总原则,并根据多感官人机交互界面的功能与特点,依次提出了:简洁性与美观性并存,统一性与多样性并存,易用性与交互性并存,静态与动态并存,理性与感性并存这5条设计原则。%Through expounding the concept and definition of "Multi-Sense Human-Computer Interface",it analyzed the visual trend of interface design was interactive,dynamic,comprehensiveness.On this basis,according to the functions and features of the multi-sense human-computer interface,it proposed the human-computer interface design should comply with the general principles of "Keep It Simple And Stupid".To put it concretely,the visual design of multi-sense human-computer interface should: simplicity and aesthetic property;unity and diversity;ease of use and interactive;statics and dynamic;rational and perceptual.

  10. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  11. Interaction with geospatial data

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOENING, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    My research interest lies at the interaction between human-computer interaction (HCI) and geoinformatics. I am interested in developing new methods and novel user interfaces to navigate through spatial information. This article will give a brief overview on my past and current research topics and streams. Generally speaking, geography is playing an increasingly important role in computer science and also in the field of HCI ranging from social computing to natural user interfaces (NUIs). At t...

  12. Onion artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  13. The mind-writing pupil : A human-computer interface based on decoding of covert attention through pupillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Melmi, Jean Baptiste; Van Der Linden, Lotje; Van Der Stigchel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present a new human-computer interface that is based on decoding of attention through pupillometry. Our method builds on the recent finding that covert visual attention affects the pupillary light response: Your pupil constricts when you covertly (without looking at it) attend to a bright, compar

  14. The Mind-Writing Pupil : A Human-Computer Interface Based on Decoding of Covert Attention through Pupillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Melmi, Jean-Baptiste; van der Linden, Lotje; van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present a new human-computer interface that is based on decoding of attention through pupillometry. Our method builds on the recent finding that covert visual attention affects the pupillary light response: Your pupil constricts when you covertly (without looking at it) attend to a bright, compar

  15. Beller Lecture: Artificial Ferroic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyderman, Laura

    In artificial ferroic systems, novel functionality is engineered through the combination of structured ferroic materials and the control of the interactions between the different components. I will present two classes of these systems, beginning with hybrid mesoscopic structures incorporating two different ferromagnetic layers whose static and dynamic behaviour result from the mutual imprint of the magnetic domain configurations. Here we have demonstrated a new vortex core reversal mechanism, which occurs when it is displaced across domain boundaries with a magnetic field. I will then describe our progress on artificial spin ice, consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets arranged in frustrated geometries. We have employed photoemission electron microscopy to observe the behaviour of emergent magnetic monopoles in an array of nanomagnets placed on the kagome lattice. We have also created artificial spin ice with fluctuating magnetic moments and observed the evolution of magnetic configurations with time. This has provided a means to study relaxation processes with a controlled route to the lowest-energy state. Recently, we have demonstrated with muon spin relaxation that these magnetic metamaterials can support thermodynamic phase transitions, and future directions include the incorporation of novel magnetic materials such as ultrathin magnetic films, the investigation of 3D structures, as well as the implementation of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering to study magnetic correlations in smaller nanomagnets and at faster timescales

  16. Neuroscience-Inspired Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Summerfield, Christopher; Botvinick, Matthew

    2017-07-19

    The fields of neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) have a long and intertwined history. In more recent times, however, communication and collaboration between the two fields has become less commonplace. In this article, we argue that better understanding biological brains could play a vital role in building intelligent machines. We survey historical interactions between the AI and neuroscience fields and emphasize current advances in AI that have been inspired by the study of neural computation in humans and other animals. We conclude by highlighting shared themes that may be key for advancing future research in both fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The design of an intelligent human-computer interface for the test, control and monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaff, William D.

    1988-01-01

    The graphical intelligence and assistance capabilities of a human-computer interface for the Test, Control, and Monitor System at Kennedy Space Center are explored. The report focuses on how a particular commercial off-the-shelf graphical software package, Data Views, can be used to produce tools that build widgets such as menus, text panels, graphs, icons, windows, and ultimately complete interfaces for monitoring data from an application; controlling an application by providing input data to it; and testing an application by both monitoring and controlling it. A complete set of tools for building interfaces is described in a manual for the TCMS toolkit. Simple tools create primitive widgets such as lines, rectangles and text strings. Intermediate level tools create pictographs from primitive widgets, and connect processes to either text strings or pictographs. Other tools create input objects; Data Views supports output objects directly, thus output objects are not considered. Finally, a set of utilities for executing, monitoring use, editing, and displaying the content of interfaces is included in the toolkit.

  18. User participation in the development of the human/computer interface for control centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Richard; Quick-Campbell, Marlene; Creegan, James; Dutilly, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Technological advances coupled with the requirements to reduce operations staffing costs led to the demand for efficient, technologically-sophisticated mission operations control centers. The control center under development for the earth observing system (EOS) is considered. The users are involved in the development of a control center in order to ensure that it is cost-efficient and flexible. A number of measures were implemented in the EOS program in order to encourage user involvement in the area of human-computer interface development. The following user participation exercises carried out in relation to the system analysis and design are described: the shadow participation of the programmers during a day of operations; the flight operations personnel interviews; and the analysis of the flight operations team tasks. The user participation in the interface prototype development, the prototype evaluation, and the system implementation are reported on. The involvement of the users early in the development process enables the requirements to be better understood and the cost to be reduced.

  19. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  20. Interaction Widget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Mads

    2003-01-01

    This pattern describes the idea of making a user interface of discrete, reusable entities---here called interaction widgets. The idea behind widgets is described using two perspectives, that of the user and that of the developer. It is the forces from these two perspectives that are balanced in t...... in the pattern. The intended audience of the pattern is developers and researchers within the field of human computer interaction.......This pattern describes the idea of making a user interface of discrete, reusable entities---here called interaction widgets. The idea behind widgets is described using two perspectives, that of the user and that of the developer. It is the forces from these two perspectives that are balanced...

  1. Assessment of trace heavy metals dynamics during the interaction of aqueous solutions with the artificial OECD soil: Evaluation of the effect of soil organic matter content and colloidal mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoni, Ludovico; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Esposito, Giovanni; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    A micro-contamination phenomenon was reproduced and studied at lab-scale, mimicking the irrigation of a standard artificial soil with a water solution containing three Heavy Metals (HMs) at trace concentration level. To assess the dynamics of micro-pollutants accumulation and migration trough the soil, the organic matter in the soil was varied, together with sodicity of the irrigation water. Accumulation of the investigated contaminants was observed mainly in the top layer (≤1 cm) of the irrigated soil. This was attributed to the high interaction capacity of the soil compared to the low HM concentrations in the water phase. HMs transport pattern was described assuming a multi-component mechanism including: i) the interaction of HMs with the colloidal phase of the soil; ii) the slow and constant release of small molecular weight ligands detaching from the soil immobile matrix; iii) the transportation of HMs through the soil by these low molecular weight chaperon molecules. The mobility was directly related to the soil organic matter (SOM), since higher amount of SOM correspond to a higher number of chaperon molecules. In the first centimetre of the soil the metals were mostly bound to the acid labile fraction. Very low mobilization was observed with increasing sodicity in the leaching water, since such conditions were unfavourable to the colloidal mobilization of SOM. This indicated that water/soil transfer of pollutant is not only related to the contaminant concentration in the irrigation water but also to the characteristics of the aqueous solution and to the physical-chemical properties of the soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Artificial faces are harder to remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to "out-groups" defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the "in-group." Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an "out-group" in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing.

  3. Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal theories of modern physics and new fundamental mathematical structures were discovered or formed in this period. Significant physicists...... such as Lorentz and Einstein as well as mathematicians such as Poincare, Minkowski, Hilbert and Weyl contributed to this development. They created the new physical theories and the mathematical disciplines that play such paramount roles in their mathematical formulations. These physicists and mathematicians were...

  4. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, P.; Gevarter, W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an introductory view of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In addition to defining AI, it discusses the foundations on which it rests, research in the field, and current and potential applications.

  5. Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Ming Kuan

    2006-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) constitute a class of flexible nonlinear models designed to mimic biological neural systems. In this entry, we introduce ANN using familiar econometric terminology and provide an overview of ANN modeling approach and its implementation methods.

  6. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  7. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  8. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  9. Human Computation in Visualization: Using Purpose Driven Games for Robust Evaluation of Visualization Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, N; Zheng, Ziyi; Mueller, K

    2012-12-01

    Due to the inherent characteristics of the visualization process, most of the problems in this field have strong ties with human cognition and perception. This makes the human brain and sensory system the only truly appropriate evaluation platform for evaluating and fine-tuning a new visualization method or paradigm. However, getting humans to volunteer for these purposes has always been a significant obstacle, and thus this phase of the development process has traditionally formed a bottleneck, slowing down progress in visualization research. We propose to take advantage of the newly emerging field of Human Computation (HC) to overcome these challenges. HC promotes the idea that rather than considering humans as users of the computational system, they can be made part of a hybrid computational loop consisting of traditional computation resources and the human brain and sensory system. This approach is particularly successful in cases where part of the computational problem is considered intractable using known computer algorithms but is trivial to common sense human knowledge. In this paper, we focus on HC from the perspective of solving visualization problems and also outline a framework by which humans can be easily seduced to volunteer their HC resources. We introduce a purpose-driven game titled "Disguise" which serves as a prototypical example for how the evaluation of visualization algorithms can be mapped into a fun and addicting activity, allowing this task to be accomplished in an extensive yet cost effective way. Finally, we sketch out a framework that transcends from the pure evaluation of existing visualization methods to the design of a new one.

  10. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P

    2015-07-17

    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  12. Supervisory Control: Problems, Theory and Experiment for Application to Human-Computer Interaction in Undersea Remote Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    very difficult for human workers . For example, if a known mix of products is coming down the assembly line in a known order, the computer can then treat...each product according to its appropriate (different) program without any forgetting or confusion. A human worker would become very confused. In...An operator who formerly found his dignity in being an expert at some marn.a] or visual skill may may become " deskilled ". He may become a supervisor

  13. Attitudes, Learning and Human-Computer Interaction: An Application of the Fishbein and Ajzen Model of Attitude-Behavior Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    The Fishbein and Ajzen model of attitude-behavior consistency was applied to 56 undergraduates learning to use a microcomputer. Two levels of context for this act were compared: the students' beliefs about themselves, and their beliefs about people in general. The results indicated that students' beliefs were good predictors of their behavioral…

  14. Open-Box Muscle-Computer Interface: Introduction to Human-Computer Interactions in Bioengineering, Physiology, and Neuroscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Jiménez, M. A.; González-Gaspar, P.; Pérez-Estudillo, C.; López-Meraz, M. L.; Morgado-Valle, C.; Beltran-Parrazal, L.

    2016-01-01

    A Muscle-Computer Interface (muCI) is a human-machine system that uses electromyographic (EMG) signals to communicate with a computer. Surface EMG (sEMG) signals are currently used to command robotic devices, such as robotic arms and hands, and mobile robots, such as wheelchairs. These signals reflect the motor intention of a user before the…

  15. Open-Box Muscle-Computer Interface: Introduction to Human-Computer Interactions in Bioengineering, Physiology, and Neuroscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Jiménez, M. A.; González-Gaspar, P.; Pérez-Estudillo, C.; López-Meraz, M. L.; Morgado-Valle, C.; Beltran-Parrazal, L.

    2016-01-01

    A Muscle-Computer Interface (muCI) is a human-machine system that uses electromyographic (EMG) signals to communicate with a computer. Surface EMG (sEMG) signals are currently used to command robotic devices, such as robotic arms and hands, and mobile robots, such as wheelchairs. These signals reflect the motor intention of a user before the…

  16. Medical students' cognitive load in volumetric image interpretation : Insights from human-computer interaction and eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijfzand, Bobby G.; Van Der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Kirschner, Femke C.; Ravesloot, Cécile J.; Van Der Gijp, Anouk; Vincken, Koen L.

    2016-01-01

    Medical image interpretation is moving from using 2D- to volumetric images, thereby changing the cognitive and perceptual processes involved. This is expected to affect medical students' experienced cognitive load, while learning image interpretation skills. With two studies this explorative researc

  17. 基于Kinect的人机交互演示系统%Human-computer Interaction Demonstration System Based on Kinect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍峰; 卢稼奇; 黎楚秦

    2013-01-01

    针对现有的投影演示系统中翻页、注释过程存在的人机交互问题,以Microsoft Office的PowerPoint(PPT)作为平台,采用Microsoft的Kinect作为传感器,建立不依赖手持硬件的肢体交互系统.通过对肢体语言的识别与对身体部位的追踪,分别实现用挥手控制PPT翻页以及虚拟的手写注释两个功能.应用统计方法与滤波技术增强系统的体验效果.测试结果表明系统有较好的实现效果,在绝大多数场合下能够完全取代现有的交互方式.

  18. Intensidad exportadora e interacción entre fortalezas del marketing mix: un análisis basado en redes neuronales artificiales || Export Intensity and Interaction between Marketing Mix: An Analysis based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Villar, Belén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre los factores determinantes de la actuación exportadora de las empresas, numerosos estudios han subrayado la relevancia del mix de marketing. Generalmente, la mayoría de los estudios abordan el análisis de las variables centrado en estrategias específicas, en particular fenómenos de estandarización-adaptación. El presente estudio analiza si existe un efecto interactivo de fortalezas generadas en las diferentes variables del mix de marketing que pueda asociarse a diferentes perfiles exportadores. Para ello, se ha empleado el algoritmo Extreme Learning Machine (ELM dentro de los procedimientos Perceptrón Multicapa (MLP de Redes Neuronales Artificiales (RNA. Asimismo, el análisis se combina con un novedoso procedimiento de análisis de sensibilidad desarrollado ad hoc para este estudio, el cual permite conocer los efectos individuales e interactivos de las variables predictoras sobre la variable dependiente en problemas clasificatorios de naturaleza dicotómica. Los resultados obtenidos nos permiten corroborar la existencia de los efectos interactivos postulados, poniendo al mismo tiempo de manifiesto la utilidad de las RNA y del análisis de sensibilidad propuesto para la investigación en el área de marketing y, específicamente, para los estudios de internacionalización de empresas. || Among the determining factors in export activity, many studies have highlighted the relevance of the marketing mix. Generally, the majority of them use a variables analysis to focus on specific strategies, in particular, standardized-adaptations. This paper analyzes if there is an interactive effect of strength generated in different variables of the marketing mix that can be associated with different export profiles. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM algorithm has been used within the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. In addition, the analyses combine a novel approach for sensitivity analysis developed ad hoc for this

  19. Vision-based interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such

  20. Artificial olfaction systems: principles and applications to food analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonella Macagnano; Roberto Paolesse; Arnaldo D’Amico; Corrado Di Natale

    2001-01-01

    .... On the other hands, since human senses are strongly involved in the interaction with foods the analysis of food provides an excellent field to compare the performances of natural and artificial olfaction systems...

  1. A user-friendly wearable single-channel EOG-based human-computer interface for cursor control

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel wearable single-channel electrooculography (EOG) based human-computer interface (HCI) with a simple system design and robust performance. In the proposed system, EOG signals for control are generated from double eye blinks, collected by a commercial wearable device (the NeuroSky MindWave headset), and then converted into a sequence of commands that can control cursor navigations and actions. The EOG-based cursor control system was tested on 8 subjects in indoor or ...

  2. A Conceptual Architecture for Adaptive Human-Computer Interface of a PT Operation Platform Based on Context-Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a conceptual architecture for adaptive human-computer interface of a PT operation platform based on context-awareness. This architecture will form the basis of design for such an interface. This paper describes components, key technologies, and working principles of the architecture. The critical contents covered context information modeling, processing, relationship establishing between contexts and interface design knowledge by use of adaptive knowledge reasoning, and visualization implementing of adaptive interface with the aid of interface tools technology.

  3. Natural Language Interactions with Artificial Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    remuneration may come in other ways; e.g., tips, commission, stock options , etc. To anticipate and avoid such a false conclusion, the system...on sales or provide stock options or other free benefits or are nonpay- ing. Moreover, the system knows that this job offers a 20-percent

  4. Electrically tunable artificial gauge potential for polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Togan, Emre; Kroner, Martin; Miguel-Sanchez, Javier; Imamoğlu, Atac

    2017-01-01

    Neutral particles subject to artificial gauge potentials can behave as charged particles in magnetic fields. This fascinating premise has led to demonstrations of one-way waveguides, topologically protected edge states and Landau levels for photons. In ultracold neutral atoms, effective gauge fields have allowed the emulation of matter under strong magnetic fields leading to realization of Harper-Hofstadter and Haldane models. Here we show that application of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields effects a tunable artificial gauge potential for two-dimensional microcavity exciton polaritons. For verification, we perform interferometric measurements of the associated phase accumulated during coherent polariton transport. Since the gauge potential originates from the magnetoelectric Stark effect, it can be realized for photons strongly coupled to excitations in any polarizable medium. Together with strong polariton–polariton interactions and engineered polariton lattices, artificial gauge fields could play a key role in investigation of non-equilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated photons. PMID:28230047

  5. Interaction, at Ambient Temperature and 80 °C, between Minerals and Artificial Seawaters Resembling the Present Ocean Composition and that of 4.0 Billion Years Ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Cristine E A; Stabile, Antonio C; Gomes, Frederico P; da Costa, Antonio C S; Zaia, Cássia T B V; Zaia, Dimas A M

    2016-10-25

    Probably one of the most important roles played by minerals in the origin of life on Earth was to pre-concentrate biomolecules from the prebiotic seas. There are other ways to pre concentrate biomolecules such as wetting/drying cycles and freezing/sublimation. However, adsorption is most important. If the pre-concentration did not occur-because of degradation of the minerals-other roles played by them such as protection against degradation, formation of polymers, or even as primitive cell walls would be seriously compromised. We studied the interaction of two artificial seawaters with kaolinite, bentonite, montmorillonite, goethite, ferrihydrite and quartz. One seawater has a major cation and anion composition similar to that of the oceans of the Earth 4.0 billion years ago (ASW 4.0 Ga). In the other, the major cations and anions are an average of the compositions of the seawaters of today (ASWT). When ASWT, which is rich in Na(+) and Cl(-), interacted with bentonite and montmorrilonite structural collapse occurred on the 001 plane. However, ASW 4.0 Ga, which is rich in Mg(2+) and SO4(2-), did not induce this behavior. When ASW 4.0 Ga was reacted with the minerals for 24 h at room temperature and 80 °C, the release of Si and Al to the fluid was below 1 % of the amount in the minerals-meaning that dissolution of the minerals did not occur. In general, minerals adsorbed Mg(2+) and K(+) from the ASW 4.0 Ga and these cations could be used for the formation of polymers. Also, when the minerals were mixed with ASW 4.0 Ga at 80 °C and ASWT at room temperature or 80 °C it caused the precipitation of CaSO4∙2H2O and halite, respectively. Finally, further experiments (adsorption, formation of polymers, protection of molecules against degradation, primitive cell wall formation) performed under the conditions described in this paper will probably be more representative of what happened on the prebiotic Earth.

  6. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  7. Artificial muscles on heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  8. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  9. Artificial vision workbench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, P

    1997-01-01

    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  10. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  11. General artificial neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Schiopu, Paul; Degeratu, Stefania

    2007-05-01

    In this paper the authors present a model of artificial neuron named the general artificial neuron. Depending on application this neuron can change self number of inputs, the type of inputs (from excitatory in inhibitory or vice versa), the synaptic weights, the threshold, the type of intensifying functions. It is achieved into optoelectronic technology. Also, into optoelectronic technology a model of general McCulloch-Pitts neuron is showed. The advantages of these neurons are very high because we have to solve different applications with the same neural network, achieved from these neurons, named general neural network.

  12. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  13. Artificial Photosynthesis: Hybrid Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yan; Hollmann, Frank

    Oxidoreductases are promising catalysts for organic synthesis. To sustain their catalytic cycles they require efficient supply with redox equivalents. Today classical biomimetic approaches utilizing natural electron supply chains prevail but artificial regeneration approaches bear the promise of simpler and more robust reaction schemes. Utilizing visible light can accelerate such artificial electron transport chains and even enable thermodynamically unfeasible reactions such as the use of water as reductant.This contribution critically summarizes the current state of the art in photoredoxbiocatalysis (i.e. light-driven biocatalytic oxidation and reduction reactions).

  14. Artificial human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes [1] . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.

  15. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2003-01-01

    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  16. Artificial intelligence in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-10-04

    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  17. Exploration of Artificial Frustrated Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarth, Nitin [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Schiffer, Peter [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Crespi, Vincent [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2015-02-17

    This program encompasses experimental and theoretical studies of arrays of nanometer-scale magnets known as “artificial frustrated magnets”. These magnets are small and closely spaced, so that their behavior as a collective group is complex and reveals insights into how such collections of interacting objects behave as a group. In particular, the placement of the magnets is such that the interactions between them are “frustrated”, in that they compete with each other. These systems are analogs to a class of magnetic materials in which the lattice geometry frustrates interactions between individual atomic moments, and in which a wide range of novel physical phenomena have been recently observed. The advantage to studying the arrays is that they are both designable and resolvable: i.e., the experiments can control all aspects of the array geometry, and can also observe how individual elements of the arrays behave. This research program demonstrated a number of phenomena including the role of multiple collective interactions, the feasibility of using systems with their magnetism aligned perpendicular to the plane of the array, the importance of disorder in the arrays, and the possibility of using high temperatures to adjust the magnet orientations. All of these phenomena, and others explored in this program, add to the body of knowledge around collective magnetic behavior and magnetism in general. Aside from building scientific knowledge in an important technological area, with relevance to computing and memory, the program also gave critical support to the education of students working on the experiments.

  18. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-05-05

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social agent?'

  19. Migration Dynamics in Artificial Agent Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Agent Society can be defined as a collection of agents interacting with each other for some purpose and/or inhabiting a specific locality, possibly in accordance to some common norms/rules. These societies are analogous to human and ecological societies, and are an expanding and emerging field in research about social systems. Social networks, electronic markets and disaster management organizations can be viewed as such artificial (open agent societies and can be best understood as computational societies. Members of such artificial agent societies are heterogeneous intelligent software agents which are operating locally and cooperating and coordinating with each other in order to achieve goals of an agent society. These artificial agent societies have some kind of dynamics existing in them in terms of dynamics of Agent Migration, Role-Assignment, Norm- Emergence, Security and Agent-Interaction. In this paper, we have described the dynamics of agent migration process, starting from the various types of agent migration, causes or reasons for agent migration, consequences of agent migration, and an agent migration framework to model the its behavior for migration of agents between societies.

  20. Heterogeneous information-based artificial stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, S.; Ponta, L.; Cincotti, S.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, an information-based artificial stock market is considered. The market is populated by heterogeneous agents that are seen as nodes of a sparsely connected graph. Agents trade a risky asset in exchange for cash. Besides the amount of cash and assets owned, each agent is characterized by a sentiment. Moreover, agents share their sentiments by means of interactions that are identified by the graph. Interactions are unidirectional and are supplied with heterogeneous weights. The agent's trading decision is based on sentiment and, consequently, the stock price process depends on the propagation of information among the interacting agents, on budget constraints and on market feedback. A central market maker (clearing house mechanism) determines the price process at the intersection of the demand and supply curves. Both closed- and open-market conditions are considered. The results point out the validity of the proposed model of information exchange among agents and are helpful for understanding the role of information in real markets. Under closed market conditions, the interaction among agents' sentiments yields a price process that reproduces the main stylized facts of real markets, e.g. the fat tails of the returns distributions and the clustering of volatility. Within open-market conditions, i.e. with an external cash inflow that results in asset price inflation, also the unitary root stylized fact is reproduced by the artificial stock market. Finally, the effects of model parameters on the properties of the artificial stock market are also addressed.

  1. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  2. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servan-Schreiber, D

    1986-04-01

    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  3. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAMMANO

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  4. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  5. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Task Committee on Guidelines for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) Irrigation and Drainage Division, sponsored an International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater at the Inn-at-the-Park Hotel in Anaheim, Calif., August 23-27, 1988. Cosponsors were the U.S. Geological Survey, California Department of Water Resources, University of California Water Resources Center, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, with cooperation from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, American Water Resources Association, U.S. Agency for International Development, World Bank, United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, and a number of local and state organizations.Because of the worldwide interest in artificial recharge and the need to develop efficient recharge facilities, the Anaheim symposium brought together an interdisciplinary group of engineers and scientists to provide a forum for many professional disciplines to exchange experiences and findings related to various types of artificial recharge; learn from both successful and unsuccessful case histories; promote technology transfer between the various disciplines; provide an education resource for communication with those who are not water scientists, such as planners, lawyers, regulators, and the public in general; and indicate directions by which cities or other entities can save funds by having reasonable technical guidelines for implementation of a recharge project.

  6. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  7. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  8. Quantifying Quality Aspects of Multimodal Interactive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This book systematically addresses the quantification of quality aspects of multimodal interactive systems. The conceptual structure is based on a schematic view on human-computer interaction where the user interacts with the system and perceives it via input and output interfaces. Thus, aspects of multimodal interaction are analyzed first, followed by a discussion of the evaluation of output and input and concluding with a view on the evaluation of a complete system.

  9. Topological frustration of artificial spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, Jasper; Marsh, Thomas; Cumings, John

    2017-01-01

    Frustrated systems, typically characterized by competing interactions that cannot all be simultaneously satisfied, display rich behaviours not found elsewhere in nature. Artificial spin ice takes a materials-by-design approach to studying frustration, where lithographically patterned bar magnets mimic the frustrated interactions in real materials but are also amenable to direct characterization. Here, we introduce controlled topological defects into square artificial spin ice lattices in the form of lattice edge dislocations and directly observe the resulting spin configurations. We find the presence of a topological defect produces extended frustration within the system caused by a domain wall with indeterminate configuration. Away from the dislocation, the magnets are locally unfrustrated, but frustration of the lattice persists due to its topology. Our results demonstrate the non-trivial nature of topological defects in a new context, with implications for many real systems in which a typical density of dislocations could fully frustrate a canonically unfrustrated system.

  10. A Real-Time Model-Based Human Motion Tracking and Analysis for Human-Computer Interface Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lin Huang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a real-time model-based human motion tracking and analysis method for human computer interface (HCI. This method tracks and analyzes the human motion from two orthogonal views without using any markers. The motion parameters are estimated by pattern matching between the extracted human silhouette and the human model. First, the human silhouette is extracted and then the body definition parameters (BDPs can be obtained. Second, the body animation parameters (BAPs are estimated by a hierarchical tritree overlapping searching algorithm. To verify the performance of our method, we demonstrate different human posture sequences and use hidden Markov model (HMM for posture recognition testing.

  11. Human Computing in the Life Sciences: What does the future hold?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    In future computing environments you will be surrounded and supported by all kinds of technologies. Characteristic is that you can interact with them in a natural way: you can speak to, point at, or even frown about some piece of presented information: the environment understands your intent. Natura

  12. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  13. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information.The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems.Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  14. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt

    1993-01-01

    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  15. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  16. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  17. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  18. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN BOVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M Marinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to show the main scientific advances achieved in the area of Artificial Insemination (AI within animal reproduction and how these can improve reproductive efficiency and productive of the Brazilian cattle herd. With knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the control of reproductive physiology, in levels endocrine, cellular and molecular, it was possible the development of reproductive biotechnologies, standing out the IA, It has been used on a large scale, by allow the multiplication of animals superior genetically , increase the birthrate and be particularly effective in adjusting the breeding season in cattle. Artificial insemination has an important role in animal genetic improvement; it is the main and more viable middle of spread of genes worldwide when compared to other methods how technologies of embryos and the natural breeding. There are several advantages in using artificial insemination in herd both of cutting as milkman, as herd genetic improvement in lesser time and at a low cost through the use of semen of demonstrably superior sires for production, well as in the control and decrease of diseases which entail reproductive losses and consequently productive, by allowing the creator The crossing of zebuine females with bulls of European breeds and vice-versa, through the use of semen, increasing the number of progeny of a reproducer superior

  19. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  20. Artificial Evolution for the Detection of Group Identities in Complex Artificial Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at detecting the presence of group structures in complex artificial societies by solely observing and analysing the interactions occurring among the artificial agents. Our approach combines: (1) an unsupervised method for clustering interactions into two possible classes, namely in......- group and out-group, (2) reinforcement learning for deriving the existing levels of collaboration within the society, and (3) an evolutionary algorithm for the detection of group structures and the assignment of group identities to the agents. Under a case study of static societies — i.e. the agents do...... not evolve their social preferences — where agents interact with each other by means of the Ultimatum Game, our approach proves to be successful for small-sized social networks independently on the underlying social structure of the society; promising results are also registered for mid-size societies....

  1. Proceedings of the Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (11th) held in Daegu, Korea, August/September 2010. PRICAI 2010: Trends in Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Man-Machine Interface Concept Integrating Computer Vision and Human Tactile Perception. In: Euro- Haptics 2003 (2003) Schmorrow. D.D., Kruse, A.A...DARPA’s Augmented Cognition Program-tomorrow’s human computer interaction from vision to reality : building cognitively aware computa- tional...research areas ranging from Evolving Autonomous Systems to Human- Augmented Cognition. There was an overwhelming interest to the call for papers for the

  2. Modeling Strategic Use of Human Computer Interfaces with Novel Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jane Mariano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Immersive software tools are virtual environments designed to give their users an augmented view of real-world data and ways of manipulating that data. As virtual environments, every action users make while interacting with these tools can be carefully logged, as can the state of the software and the information it presents to the user, giving these actions context. This data provides a high-resolution lens through which dynamic cognitive and behavioral processes can be viewed. In this report, we describe new methods for the analysis and interpretation of such data, utilizing a novel implementation of the Beta Process Hidden Markov Model (BP-HMM for analysis of software activity logs. We further report the results of a preliminary study designed to establish the validity of our modeling approach. A group of 20 participants were asked to play a simple computer game, instrumented to log every interaction with the interface. Participants had no previous experience with the game’s functionality or rules, so the activity logs collected during their naïve interactions capture patterns of exploratory behavior and skill acquisition as they attempted to learn the rules of the game. Pre- and post-task questionnaires probed for self-reported styles of problem solving, as well as task engagement, difficulty, and workload. We jointly modeled the activity log sequences collected from all participants using the BP-HMM approach, identifying a global library of activity patterns representative of the collective behavior of all the participants. Analyses show systematic relationships between both pre- and post-task questionnaires, self-reported approaches to analytic problem solving, and metrics extracted from the BP-HMM decomposition. Overall, we find that this novel approach to decomposing unstructured behavioral data within software environments provides a sensible means for understanding how users learn to integrate software functionality for strategic

  3. Human Computer Confluence in Rehabilitation: Digital Media Plasticity and Human Performance Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2013-01-01

    approaches promoting mindsets and activities commonly considered enduring, mundane and boring. The concept focuses on sensor-based interfaces mapped to control tailored-content that acts as direct and immediate feedbacks mirroring input. These flexible, adaptive, and ‘plastic’ options offer facilitators new......Digital media plasticity evocative to embodied interaction is presented as a utilitarian tool when mixed and matched to target human performance potentials specific to nuance of development for those with impairment. A distinct intervention strategy trains via alternative channeling of external...

  4. An Analysis of the Distributed Architecture for a Telephone Based Human Computer Dialogue System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHengt; DULimin

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to present a distributed speech interactive system built on LAN (Local area network), which integrated Automatic speech recognition (ASR), Text to speech (TTS) and Natural language perception (NLP) technologies to allow multiusers to access and converse with it concurrently. During a typical telephone based interaction, users could retrieve up-to-date stock information and call for somebody by directly speaking their name. Though there were far too many papers published to describe such system, most of them all focused on the algorithm on speech recognition rather than the architecture. Our paper was written to make for it and proposed an efficient and effective dynamic load balancing algorithm with sender active and non-preemptive concepts based on the distributed architecture and multithread concurrency in order to solve the loads allocating when multi-users accessed the system and gave rise to much burden to the servers. This paper was composed of five part: (1) an introduction about why such architecture was built; (2) an overview about the system; (3) proposed and implemented the algorithm; (4) evaluated and tested the system performance based on the architecture; and (5) a brief summary.

  5. GAIML: A New Language for Verbal and Graphical Interaction in Chatbots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pirrone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural and intuitive interaction between users and complex systems is a crucial research topic in human-computer interaction. A major direction is the definition and implementation of systems with natural language understanding capabilities. The interaction in natural language is often performed by means of systems called chatbots. A chatbot is a conversational agent with a proper knowledge base able to interact with users. Chatbots appearance can be very sophisticated with 3D avatars and speech processing modules. However the interaction between the system and the user is only performed through textual areas for inputs and replies. An interaction able to add to natural language also graphical widgets could be more effective. On the other side, a graphical interaction involving also the natural language can increase the comfort of the user instead of using only graphical widgets. In many applications multi-modal communication must be preferred when the user and the system have a tight and complex interaction. Typical examples are cultural heritages applications (intelligent museum guides, picture browsing or systems providing the user with integrated information taken from different and heterogenous sources as in the case of the iGoogle™ interface. We propose to mix the two modalities (verbal and graphical to build systems with a reconfigurable interface, which is able to change with respect to the particular application context. The result of this proposal is the Graphical Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (GAIML an extension of AIML allowing merging both interaction modalities. In this context a suitable chatbot system called Graphbot is presented to support this language. With this language is possible to define personalized interface patterns that are the most suitable ones in relation to the data types exchanged between the user and the system according to the context of the dialogue.

  6. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  7. Vertex micromagnetic energy in artificial square ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Yann; Canals, Benjamin; Rougemaille, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    Artificial arrays of interacting magnetic elements provide an uncharted arena in which the physics of magnetic frustration and magnetic monopoles can be observed in real space and in real time. These systems offer the formidable opportunity to investigate a wide range of collective magnetic phenomena with a lab-on-chip approach and to explore various theoretical predictions from spin models. Here, we study artificial square ice systems numerically and use micromagnetic simulations to understand how the geometrical parameters of the individual magnetic elements affect the energy levels of an isolated square vertex. More specifically, we address the question of whether the celebrated square ice model could be made relevant for artificial square ice systems. Our work reveals that tuning the geometry alone should not allow the experimental realization of the square ice model when using nanomagnets coupled through the magnetostatic interaction. However, low-aspect ratios combined with small gaps separating neighboring magnetic elements of moderated thickness might permit approaching the ideal case where the degeneracy of the ice rule states is recovered.

  8. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  9. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN

    1986-01-01

    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  10. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  11. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  12. Nuclear power plant human computer interface design incorporating console simulation, operations personnel, and formal evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, C.; Edwards, R.M.; Goldberg, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    New CRT-based information displays which enhance the human machine interface are playing a very important role and are being increasingly used in control rooms since they present a higher degree of flexibility compared to conventional hardwired instrumentation. To prototype a new console configuration and information display system at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), an iterative process of console simulation and evaluation involving operations personnel is being pursued. Entire panels including selector switches and information displays are simulated and driven by plant dynamical simulations with realistic responses that reproduce the actual cognitive and physical environment. Careful analysis and formal evaluation of operator interaction while using the simulated console will be conducted to determine underlying principles for effective control console design for this particular group of operation personnel. Additional iterations of design, simulation, and evaluation will then be conducted as necessary.

  13. Human-Centered Design of Human-Computer-Human Dialogs in Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1998-01-01

    A series of ongoing research programs at Georgia Tech established a need for a simulation support tool for aircraft computer-based aids. This led to the design and development of the Georgia Tech Electronic Flight Instrument Research Tool (GT-EFIRT). GT-EFIRT is a part-task flight simulator specifically designed to study aircraft display design and single pilot interaction. ne simulator, using commercially available graphics and Unix workstations, replicates to a high level of fidelity the Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS), Flight Management Computer (FMC) and Auto Flight Director System (AFDS) of the Boeing 757/767 aircraft. The simulator can be configured to present information using conventional looking B757n67 displays or next generation Primary Flight Displays (PFD) such as found on the Beech Starship and MD-11.

  14. How to teach artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B

    2011-01-01

    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  15. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  16. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  17. Artificial Intelligence in Space Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    computer algorithms, there still appears to be a need for Artificial Inteligence techniques in the navigation area. The reason is that navigaion, in...RD-RI32 679 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPACE PLRTFORNSMU AIR FORCE 1/𔃼 INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING M A WRIGHT DEC 94...i4 Preface The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility of implementing Artificial Intelligence techniques to increase autonomy for

  18. Upper Hybrid Effects in Artificial Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Eliasson, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    A most fascinating result of recent ionospheric experiments has been the discovery of artificial ionization by Pedersen et al. (GRL, 37, L02106, 2010). The Artificial Ionospheric Layers (AIL) were the result of F-region O-mode HF irradiation using the HAARP ionospheric heater operating at 3.6 MW power. As demonstrated by Eliasson et al. (JGR, 117, A10321, 2012) the physics controlling the observed phenomenon and its threshold can be summarized as: " Collisional ionization due to high energy (~ 20 eV) electron tails generated by the interaction of strong Langmuir turbulence with plasma heated at the upper hybrid resonance and transported at the reflection height". The objective of the current presentation is to explore the role of the upper hybrid heating in the formation of AIL and its implications to future experiments involving HF heaters operating in middle and equatorial latitudes.

  19. An artificial life approach to language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, D

    1997-08-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that an Artificial Life approach to language tends to change the research agenda on language which has been shared by both the symbolic paradigm and classical connectionism. Artificial Life Neural Networks (ALNNs) are different from classical connectionist networks because they interact with an independent physical environment; are subject to evolutionary, developmental, and cultural change, and not only to learning; and are part of organisms that have a physical body, have a life (are born, develop, and die), and are members of genetic and sometimes, cultural populations. Using ALNNs to study language shifts the emphasis from research on linguistic forms and laboratory-like tasks to the investigation of the emergence and transmission of language, the use of language, its role in cognition, and language as a populational rather than as an individual phenomenon.

  20. Reducing disorder in artificial kagome ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunheimer, Stephen A; Petrova, Olga; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Cumings, John

    2011-10-14

    Artificial spin ice has become a valuable tool for understanding magnetic interactions on a microscopic level. The strength in the approach lies in the ability of a synthetic array of nanoscale magnets to mimic crystalline materials, composed of atomic magnetic moments. Unfortunately, these nanoscale magnets, patterned from metal alloys, can show substantial variation in relevant quantities such as the coercive field, with deviations up to 16%. By carefully studying the reversal process of artificial kagome ice, we can directly measure the distribution of coercivities, and, by switching from disconnected islands to a connected structure, we find that the coercivity distribution can achieve a deviation of only 3.3%. These narrow deviations should allow the observation of behavior that mimics canonical spin-ice materials more closely.

  1. [Artificial neural networks in Neurosciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras Chavarino, Carmen; Salinas Martínez de Lecea, José María

    2011-11-01

    This article shows that artificial neural networks are used for confirming the relationships between physiological and cognitive changes. Specifically, we explore the influence of a decrease of neurotransmitters on the behaviour of old people in recognition tasks. This artificial neural network recognizes learned patterns. When we change the threshold of activation in some units, the artificial neural network simulates the experimental results of old people in recognition tasks. However, the main contributions of this paper are the design of an artificial neural network and its operation inspired by the nervous system and the way the inputs are coded and the process of orthogonalization of patterns.

  2. The potential of the skin as a readout system to test artificial turf systems: clinical and immunohistological effects of a sliding on natural grass and artificial turf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peppelman, M.; Eijnde, W.A. van den; Langewouters, A.M.G.; Weghuis, M.O.; Erp, P.E.J. van

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of skin with natural grass and artificial turf at clinical, histological and immunohistochemical level. Therefore, 14 male volunteers performed slidings on dry natural grass, wet natural grass and artificial turf. Directly and 24 h after t

  3. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  4. Development of artificial empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed.

  5. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models that successf......Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...... that successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...

  6. Creating an Artificial Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Katherine; Krause, Sonja

    1997-03-01

    Striated skeletal muscle responds to a nerve impulse in less than 100 ms. In the past, polymeric gels and conducting polymers have been investigated for use as artificial muscle. However, the main problem with these materials is their relatively slow response (>3 seconds). On the other hand, electrorheological (ER) fluids are materials that change from a liquid to a solid upon application of an electric field. These fluids have a response on the order of a millisecond. A novel approach to artificial muscle utilizing the fast time response of ER fluids and the elasticity of polymeric gels has been investigated. A commercial sample of a two-part poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) dielectric gel was used. The PDMS was cured around two flexible electrodes 5 mm apart while a mixture of PDMS with solvent was cured between the electrodes. The solvents were either silicone oil or an ER fluid composed of crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) particles in silicone oil. The mixtures investigated were 90/10, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 10/90 PDMS/solvent. Upon application of a 6.2 kV/cm DC electric field the gel was reversibly compressed. The time response of the gel was actuator has been created using the 60/40 PDMS/ER fluid mixture.

  7. Spaces of interaction, places for experience

    CERN Document Server

    Benyon, David

    2014-01-01

    Spaces of Interaction, Places for Experience is a book about Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), interaction design (ID) and user experience (UX) in the age of ubiquitous computing. The book explores interaction and experience through the different spaces that contribute to interaction until it arrives at an understanding of the rich and complex places for experience that will be the focus of the next period for interaction design. The book begins by looking at the multilayered nature of interaction and UX-not just with new technologies, but with technologies that are embedded in the world. Peop

  8. Generative Artificial Intelligence : Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Kouw, Matthijs; Schomaker, Lambertus; Mueller, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    The closed systems of contemporary Artificial Intelligence do not seem to lead to intelligent machines in the near future. What is needed are open-ended systems with non-linear properties in order to create interesting properties for the scaffolding of an artificial mind. Using post-structuralistic

  9. Generative Artificial Intelligence : Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Kouw, Matthijs; Schomaker, Lambertus; Mueller, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    The closed systems of contemporary Artificial Intelligence do not seem to lead to intelligent machines in the near future. What is needed are open-ended systems with non-linear properties in order to create interesting properties for the scaffolding of an artificial mind. Using post-structuralistic

  10. Time Evolution of Artificial Plasma Cloud in Atmospheric Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆启明; 杨维纮; 刘万东

    2004-01-01

    By analyzing the time evolution of artificial plasma cloud in the high altitude of atmospheric environment, we found that there are two zones, an exponential attenuation zone and a linearly attenuating zone, existing in the spatial distribution of electron density of the artificial plasma clouds. The plasma generator's particle flux density only contributes to the exponential attenuation zone, and has no effect on the linear attenuation zone. The average electron density in the linear attenuation zone is about 10-5 of neutral particle density, and can diffuse over a wider area. The conclusion will supply some valuable references to the research of electromagnetic wave and artificial plasma interaction, the plasma invisibleness research of missile and special aerocraft,and the design of artificial plasma source.

  11. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  12. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  13. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  14. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  15. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  16. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  17. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, Adele

    1987-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  18. Artificial insemination in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, John C; Paris, Damien B B P; Czarny, Natasha A; Harris, Merrilee S; Molinia, Frank C; Taggart, David A; Allen, Camryn D; Johnston, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Assisted breeding technology (ART), including artificial insemination (AI), has the potential to advance the conservation and welfare of marsupials. Many of the challenges facing AI and ART for marsupials are shared with other wild species. However, the marsupial mode of reproduction and development also poses unique challenges and opportunities. For the vast majority of marsupials, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding basic reproductive biology to guide an AI strategy. For threatened or endangered species, only the most basic reproductive information is available in most cases, if at all. Artificial insemination has been used to produce viable young in two marsupial species, the koala and tammar wallaby. However, in these species the timing of ovulation can be predicted with considerably more confidence than in any other marsupial. In a limited number of other marsupials, such precise timing of ovulation has only been achieved using hormonal treatment leading to conception but not live young. A unique marsupial ART strategy which has been shown to have promise is cross-fostering; the transfer of pouch young of a threatened species to the pouches of foster mothers of a common related species as a means to increase productivity. For the foreseeable future, except for a few highly iconic or well studied species, there is unlikely to be sufficient reproductive information on which to base AI. However, if more generic approaches can be developed; such as ICSI (to generate embryos) and female synchronization (to provide oocyte donors or embryo recipients), then the prospects for broader application of AI/ART to marsupials are promising.

  19. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  20. Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Swegle, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solid and Structural Mechanics Dept.

    1994-08-01

    This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

  1. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  2. What Is a Total Artificial Heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows the normal structure and location ...

  3. Surface plasmon polaritons in artificial metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Jayson Lawrence

    Surface plasmon polaritons have been the focus of intense research due to their many unique properties such as high electromagnetic field localization, extreme sensitivity to surface conditions, and subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic waves. The area of potential impact is vast and includes promising advancements in photonic circuits, high speed photodetection, hyperspectral imaging, spectroscopy, enhanced solar cells, ultra-small scale lithography, and microscopy. My research has focused on utilizing these properties to design and demonstrate new phenomena and implement real-world applications using artificial metallic nanostructures. Artificial metallic nanostructures employed during my research begin as thin planar gold films which are then lithographically patterned according to previously determined dimensions. The result is a nanopatterned device which can excite surface plasmon polaritons on its surface under specific conditions. Through my research I characterized the optical properties of these devices for further insight into the interesting properties of surface plasmon polaritons. Exploration of these properties led to advancements in biosensing, development of artificial media to enhance and control light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, and hybrid plasmonic cavities. Demonstrations from these advancements include: label-free immunosensing of Plasmodium in a whole blood lysate, low part-per-trillion detection of microcystin-LR, enhanced refractive index sensitivity of novel resonant plasmonic devices, a defect-based plasmonic crystal, spontaneous emission modification of colloidal quantum dots, and coupling of plasmonic and optical Fabry-Perot resonant modes in a hybrid cavity.

  4. Interaction as Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    In this paper we discuss recent developments in interaction design principles for ubiquitous computing environments, specifically implications related to situated and mobile aspects of work. We present 'Interaction through Negotiation' as a general Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) paradigm, aimed...... at ubiquitous/pervasive technology and environments, with focus on facilitating negotiation in and between webs of different artifacts, humans and places. This approach is concerned with the way technology presents itself to us, both as physical entities and as conceptual entities, as well as the relations...... on several extensive empirical case studies, as well as co-operative design-sessions, we present a reflective analysis providing insights into results of the "Interaction through Negotiation" design approach in action. A very promising area of application is exception handling in pervasive computing...

  5. Using Social Media Sentiment Analysis for Interaction Design Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Mark; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Social media analytics is an emerging skill for organizations. Currently, developers are exploring ways to create tools for simplifying social media analysis. These tools tend to focus on gathering data, and using systems to make it meaningful. However, we contend that making social media data...... meaningful is by nature a human-computer interaction problem. We examine this problem around the emerging field of sentiment analysis, exploring criteria for designing sentiment analysis systems based in Human Computer interaction, HCI. We contend that effective sentiment analysis affects audience analysis...

  6. Using Social Media Sentiment Analysis for Interaction Design Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Mark; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Social media analytics is an emerging skill for organizations. Currently, developers are exploring ways to create tools for simplifying social media analysis. These tools tend to focus on gathering data, and using systems to make it meaningful. However, we contend that making social media data...... meaningful is by nature a human-computer interaction problem. We examine this problem around the emerging field of sentiment analysis, exploring criteria for designing sentiment analysis systems based in Human Computer interaction, HCI. We contend that effective sentiment analysis affects audience analysis......, and can serve as a basis for communication design choices that support strategic relationship goals for organizations....

  7. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  8. The asthma epidemic and our artificial habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziak Wasim

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increase in childhood asthma has been a puzzling one. Recent views focus on the role of infection in the education of the immune system of young children. However, this so called hygiene hypothesis fails to answer some important questions about the current trends in asthma or to account for environmental influences that bear little relation to infection. Discussion The multi-factorial nature of asthma, reflecting the different ways we tend to interact with our environment, mandates that we look at the asthma epidemic from a broader perspective. Seemingly modern affluent lifestyles are placing us increasingly in static, artificial, microenvironments very different from the conditions prevailed for most part of our evolution and shaped our organisms. Changes that occurred during the second half of the 20th century in industrialized nations with the spread of central heating/conditioning, building insulation, hygiene, TV/PC/games, manufactured food, indoor entertainment, cars, medical care, and sedentary lifestyles all seem to be depriving our children from the essential inputs needed to develop normal airway function (resistance. Asthma according to this view is a manifestation of our respiratory maladaptation to modern lifestyles, or in other words to our increasingly artificial habitats. The basis of the artificial habitat notion may lie in reduced exposure of innate immunity to a variety of environmental stimuli, infectious and non-infectious, leading to reduced formulation of regulatory cells/cytokines as well as inscribed regulatory pathways. This could contribute to a faulty checking mechanism of non-functional Th2 (and likely Th1 responses, resulting in asthma and other immuno-dysregulation disorders. Summary In this piece I discuss the artificial habitat concept, its correspondence with epidemiological data of asthma and allergy, and provide possible immunological underpinning for it from an evolutionary

  9. VOLTAGE COMPENSATION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VOLTAGE COMPENSATION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK: A CASE STUDY OF RUMUOLA DISTRIBUTION NETWORK. ... The artificial neural networks controller engaged to controlling the dynamic voltage ... Article Metrics.

  10. [Research and development of artificial retina material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Chenglin; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Sijie; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Erxin

    2008-04-01

    The application of artificial retina was introduced. The principal characteristics of artificial retina material were reviewed in particular. Moreover, the recent research development and application prospect were discussed.

  11. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  12. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  13. Artificial Neural Network Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Contract No. DASG60-00-M-0201 Purchase request no.: Foot in the Door-01 Title Name: Artificial Neural Network Analysis System Company: Atlantic... Artificial Neural Network Analysis System 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Powell, Bruce C 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...34) 27-02-2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") 28-10-2000 27-02-2001 Title and Subtitle Artificial Neural Network Analysis

  14. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2017-04-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application.

  15. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  16. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  17. Programmable artificial phototactic microswimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Baohu; Wang, Jizhuang; Xiong, Ze; Zhan, Xiaojun; Dai, Wei; Li, Chien-Cheng; Feng, Shien-Ping; Tang, Jinyao

    2016-12-01

    Phototaxis is commonly observed in motile photosynthetic microorganisms. For example, green algae are capable of swimming towards a light source (positive phototaxis) to receive more energy for photosynthesis, or away from a light source (negative phototaxis) to avoid radiation damage or to hide from predators. Recently, with the aim of applying nanoscale machinery to biomedical applications, various inorganic nanomotors based on different propulsion mechanisms have been demonstrated. The only method to control the direction of motion of these self-propelled micro/nanomotors is to incorporate a ferromagnetic material into their structure and use an external magnetic field for steering. Here, we show an artificial microswimmer that can sense and orient to the illumination direction of an external light source. Our microswimmer is a Janus nanotree containing a nanostructured photocathode and photoanode at opposite ends that release cations and anions, respectively, propelling the microswimmer by self-electrophoresis. Using chemical modifications, we can control the zeta potential of the photoanode and program the microswimmer to exhibit either positive or negative phototaxis. Finally, we show that a school of microswimmers mimics the collective phototactic behaviour of green algae in solution.

  18. BioArtificial polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szałata, Kamila; Gumi, Tania

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the polymer science has impact in practically all life areas. Countless benefits coming from the usage of materials with high mechanical and chemical resistance, variety of functionalities and potentiality of modification drive to the development of new application fields. Novel approaches of combining these synthetic substances with biomolecules lead to obtain multifunctional hybrid conjugates which merge the bioactivity of natural component with outstanding properties of artificial polymer. Over the decades, an immense progress in bioartificial composites domain allowed to reach a high level of knowledge in terms of natural-like systems engineering, leading to diverse strategies of biomolecule immobilization. Together with different available options, including covalent and noncovalent attachment, come various challenges, related mainly with maintaining the biological activity of fixed molecules. Even though the amount of applications that achieve commercial status is still not substantial, and is expanding continuously in the disciplines like "smart materials," biosensors, delivery systems, nanoreactors and many others. A huge number of remarkable developments reported in the literature present a potential of bioartificial conjugates as a fabrics with highly controllable structure and multiple functionalities, serving as a powerful nanotechnological tool. This novel approach brings closer biologists, chemists and engineers, who sharing their effort and complementing the knowledge can revolutionize the field of bioartificial polymer science.

  19. Adapting the human-computer interface for reading literacy and computer skill to facilitate collection of information directly from patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, David F; Arbanas, Jennifer M; Mishra, Dharani D; Campbell, Marci; Wildemuth, Barbara M

    2004-01-01

    Clinical information collected directly from patients is critical to the practice of medicine. Past efforts to collect this information using computers have had limited utility because these efforts required users to be facile with the computerized information collecting system. In this paper we describe the design, development, and function of a computer system that uses recent technology to overcome the limitations of previous computer-based data collection tools by adapting the human-computer interface to the native language, reading literacy, and computer skills of the user. Specifically, our system uses a numerical representation of question content, multimedia, and touch screen technology to adapt the computer interface to the native language, reading literacy, and computer literacy of the user. In addition, the system supports health literacy needs throughout the data collection session and provides contextually relevant disease-specific education to users based on their responses to the questions. The system has been successfully used in an academically affiliated family medicine clinic and in an indigent adult medicine clinic.

  20. Conversion of IVA Human Computer Model to EVA Use and Evaluation and Comparison of the Result to Existing EVA Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, George S.; Williams, Jermaine C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the methods, rationale, and comparative results of the conversion of an intravehicular (IVA) 3D human computer model (HCM) to extravehicular (EVA) use and compares the converted model to an existing model on another computer platform. The task of accurately modeling a spacesuited human figure in software is daunting: the suit restricts the human's joint range of motion (ROM) and does not have joints collocated with human joints. The modeling of the variety of materials needed to construct a space suit (e. g. metal bearings, rigid fiberglass torso, flexible cloth limbs and rubber coated gloves) attached to a human figure is currently out of reach of desktop computer hardware and software. Therefore a simplified approach was taken. The HCM's body parts were enlarged and the joint ROM was restricted to match the existing spacesuit model. This basic approach could be used to model other restrictive environments in industry such as chemical or fire protective clothing. In summary, the approach provides a moderate fidelity, usable tool which will run on current notebook computers.

  1. The Mind-Writing Pupil: A Human-Computer Interface Based on Decoding of Covert Attention through Pupillometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Mathôt

    Full Text Available We present a new human-computer interface that is based on decoding of attention through pupillometry. Our method builds on the recent finding that covert visual attention affects the pupillary light response: Your pupil constricts when you covertly (without looking at it attend to a bright, compared to a dark, stimulus. In our method, participants covertly attend to one of several letters with oscillating brightness. Pupil size reflects the brightness of the selected letter, which allows us-with high accuracy and in real time-to determine which letter the participant intends to select. The performance of our method is comparable to the best covert-attention brain-computer interfaces to date, and has several advantages: no movement other than pupil-size change is required; no physical contact is required (i.e. no electrodes; it is easy to use; and it is reliable. Potential applications include: communication with totally locked-in patients, training of sustained attention, and ultra-secure password input.

  2. The Mind-Writing Pupil: A Human-Computer Interface Based on Decoding of Covert Attention through Pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Melmi, Jean-Baptiste; van der Linden, Lotje; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present a new human-computer interface that is based on decoding of attention through pupillometry. Our method builds on the recent finding that covert visual attention affects the pupillary light response: Your pupil constricts when you covertly (without looking at it) attend to a bright, compared to a dark, stimulus. In our method, participants covertly attend to one of several letters with oscillating brightness. Pupil size reflects the brightness of the selected letter, which allows us-with high accuracy and in real time-to determine which letter the participant intends to select. The performance of our method is comparable to the best covert-attention brain-computer interfaces to date, and has several advantages: no movement other than pupil-size change is required; no physical contact is required (i.e. no electrodes); it is easy to use; and it is reliable. Potential applications include: communication with totally locked-in patients, training of sustained attention, and ultra-secure password input.

  3. Teaching the Absorption of Light Colours Using an Artificial Rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan; Arikan, Gizem; Kabay, Gozde

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental activity based on the absorption of light colours by pigments. The activity is constructed using a stepwise design and offers an opportunity for students and teachers to compare and generalize the interactions between light and pigment colours. The light colours composing an artificial rainbow produced in the…

  4. Magical Stories: Blending Virtual Reality and Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Hilary

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and virtual reality (VR) make possible powerful interactive stories, and this paper focuses on examples of virtual characters in three dimensional (3-D) worlds. Waldern, a virtual reality game designer, has theorized about and implemented software design of virtual teammates and opponents that incorporate AI…

  5. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  6. Food analysis using artificial senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar

    2014-02-19

    Nowadays, consumers are paying great attention to the characteristics of food such as smell, taste, and appearance. This motivates scientists to imitate human senses using devices known as electronic senses. These include electronic noses, electronic tongues, and computer vision. Thanks to the utilization of various sensors and methods of signal analysis, artificial senses are widely applied in food analysis for process monitoring and determining the quality and authenticity of foods. This paper summarizes achievements in the field of artificial senses. It includes a brief history of these systems, descriptions of most commonly used sensors (conductometric, potentiometric, amperometic/voltammetric, impedimetric, colorimetric, piezoelectric), data analysis methods (for example, artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA), model CIE L*a*b*), and application of artificial senses to food analysis, in particular quality control, authenticity and falsification assessment, and monitoring of production processes.

  7. Artificial intelligence: Deep neural reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471

  8. Fuel-Powered Artificial Muscles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Von Howard Ebron; Zhiwei Yang; Daniel J. Seyer; Mikhail E. Kozlov; Jiyoung Oh; Hui Xie; Joselito Razal; Lee J. Hall; John P. Ferraris; Alan G. MacDiarmid; Ray H. Baughman

    2006-01-01

    ... long inactivity during battery recharge. To help solve these problems, we demonstrated two types of artificial muscles that convert the chemical energy of high-energy-density fuels to mechanical energy...

  9. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  10. Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI) : An analysis, a perspective, and guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI)’s founding elements are discussed in relation to its overarching discipline Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Its basic dimensions are identified: agent, computing machinery, and interaction, and their levels of processing: perceptual, cognitive, and affective. Subs

  11. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  12. What are artificial neural networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb......Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  13. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron

    1982-01-01

    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  14. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron J

    1981-01-01

    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume I focuses on the progress in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including parsing, grammars, and search methods.The book first elaborates on AI, AI handbook and literature, problem representation, search methods, and sample search programs. The text then ponders on representation of knowledge, including survey of representation techniques and representation schemes. The manuscript explores understanding natural languages, as well as machine translation, grammars, parsing, test generation, and natural language processing

  15. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  16. Development of a totally implantable artificial larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, GJ; Veenstra, Aalze; de Vries, MP; Schutte, HK; Busscher, HJ; Herrmann, IF; Van der Mei, HC; Rakhorst, G; Clements, MP

    1996-01-01

    Background. The consequences of a life-saving laryngectomy are still very distressing. The Eureka project "Artificial Larynx" aims at realization of an implantable artificial larynx to eliminate all drawbacks. Methods. The artificial larynx will consist of artificial vocal folds of adjustable pitch

  17. Human-Robot Teams for Unknown and Uncertain Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Man-robot interaction is the study of interactions between humans and robots. It is often referred as HRI by researchers. Human-robot interaction is a multidisciplinary field with contributions from human-computer interaction, artificial intelligence.

  18. AIonAI: a humanitarian law of artificial intelligence and robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2015-02-01

    The enduring progression of artificial intelligence and cybernetics offers an ever-closer possibility of rational and sentient robots. The ethics and morals deriving from this technological prospect have been considered in the philosophy of artificial intelligence, the design of automatons with roboethics and the contemplation of machine ethics through the concept of artificial moral agents. Across these categories, the robotics laws first proposed by Isaac Asimov in the twentieth century remain well-recognised and esteemed due to their specification of preventing human harm, stipulating obedience to humans and incorporating robotic self-protection. However the overwhelming predominance in the study of this field has focussed on human-robot interactions without fully considering the ethical inevitability of future artificial intelligences communicating together and has not addressed the moral nature of robot-robot interactions. A new robotic law is proposed and termed AIonAI or artificial intelligence-on-artificial intelligence. This law tackles the overlooked area where future artificial intelligences will likely interact amongst themselves, potentially leading to exploitation. As such, they would benefit from adopting a universal law of rights to recognise inherent dignity and the inalienable rights of artificial intelligences. Such a consideration can help prevent exploitation and abuse of rational and sentient beings, but would also importantly reflect on our moral code of ethics and the humanity of our civilisation.

  19. Directional depletion interactions in shaped particles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Scala; P.G. De Sanctis Lucentini

    2014-01-01

    ... that such particles can be utilized as "artificial atoms" to build new materials. To elucidate the effects of the shape of particles upon the magnitude of entropic interaction, we analyse the entropic interactions of two cut-spheres...

  20. 均衡时间压力的人机界面信息编码%Encoding Information of Human-Computer Interface for Equilibrium of Time Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 薛澄岐; 王海燕; 周蕾; 牛亚峰

    2013-01-01

    It is a studying worthy problem in interface design whether the operator can deal with lots of information quickly and correctly under time pressure in human-computer interaction of a complex system.How to use reasonable encoding models to optimize interface design is researched in this paper,according to the influences of time pressures on cognitive behaviors.According to the variablelevel description of the Subject Workload Assessment Technique and vision gaze,time pressures is divided into three levels as high,medium,low,and the presentation time of each level corresponds to 200,600 and 1000 ms.With the help of the experiment,the influences of time pressures on color and shape cognition are analyzed.The results show that the cognition of color was more and quicker than the cognition of shape under time pressures within 1000 ms.Finally,the improved effect of color encoding on rapid recognition of multiple messages was tested and verified,with the emulational interface design of A320 airplane Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor system as demonstrative object.%复杂系统人机交互中,在紧迫的时间压力下,操作者能否迅速而准确地对界面承载的大量信息作出反应是界面设计中有待研究的课题.文中针对时间压力对认知行为的影响,研究如何合理地使用编码方式达到界面优化设计.基于主观工作负荷测量法中变量的水平描述和视觉凝视,将时间压力设定为大、适中和小3种水平,对应的呈现时间分别为200 ms,600 ms和1 000 ms;通过实验分析时间压力对颜色和形状编码的认知影响,结果表明,在1000 ms以内的时间压力下,颜色编码比形状编码的认知容量大、认知速度快.最后以A320飞机的电子集成监控系统仿真界面设计为例,验证了颜色编码在多个信息量快速识别中的改进作用.