WorldWideScience

Sample records for human computer interaction

  1. Minimal mobile human computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Ali, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the widespread adoption of personal, mobile computing devices in everyday life, has allowed entry into a new technological era in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). The constant change of the physical and social context in a user's situation made possible by the portability of m

  2. Humans, computers and wizards human (simulated) computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Norman; McGlashan, Scott; Wooffitt, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Using data taken from a major European Union funded project on speech understanding, the SunDial project, this book considers current perspectives on human computer interaction and argues for the value of an approach taken from sociology which is based on conversation analysis.

  3. Language evolution and human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

  4. Language evolution and human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

  5. Fundamentals of human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Monk, Andrew F

    1985-01-01

    Fundamentals of Human-Computer Interaction aims to sensitize the systems designer to the problems faced by the user of an interactive system. The book grew out of a course entitled """"The User Interface: Human Factors for Computer-based Systems"""" which has been run annually at the University of York since 1981. This course has been attended primarily by systems managers from the computer industry. The book is organized into three parts. Part One focuses on the user as processor of information with studies on visual perception; extracting information from printed and electronically presented

  6. Human Computer Interaction: An intellectual approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Saroha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the research that has been done in thefield of Human Computer Interaction (HCI relating tohuman psychology. Human-computer interaction (HCI isthe study of how people design, implement, and useinteractive computer systems and how computers affectindividuals, organizations, and society. This encompassesnot only ease of use but also new interaction techniques forsupporting user tasks, providing better access toinformation, and creating more powerful forms ofcommunication. It involves input and output devices andthe interaction techniques that use them; how information ispresented and requested; how the computer’s actions arecontrolled and monitored; all forms of help, documentation,and training; the tools used to design, build, test, andevaluate user interfaces; and the processes that developersfollow when creating Interfaces.

  7. Deep architectures for Human Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noulas, A.K.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present the application of Conditional Restricted Boltzmann Machines in Human Computer Interaction. These provide a well suited framework to model the complex temporal patterns produced from humans in the audio and video modalities. They can be trained in a semisupervised fashion and

  8. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Paravati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  9. Introduction to human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Originally published in 1989 this title provided a comprehensive and authoritative introduction to the burgeoning discipline of human-computer interaction for students, academics, and those from industry who wished to know more about the subject. Assuming very little knowledge, the book provides an overview of the diverse research areas that were at the time only gradually building into a coherent and well-structured field. It aims to explain the underlying causes of the cognitive, social and organizational problems typically encountered when computer systems are introduced. It is clear and co

  10. Human-Computer Interaction The Agency Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, José

    2012-01-01

    Agent-centric theories, approaches and technologies are contributing to enrich interactions between users and computers. This book aims at highlighting the influence of the agency perspective in Human-Computer Interaction through a careful selection of research contributions. Split into five sections; Users as Agents, Agents and Accessibility, Agents and Interactions, Agent-centric Paradigms and Approaches, and Collective Agents, the book covers a wealth of novel, original and fully updated material, offering:   ü  To provide a coherent, in depth, and timely material on the agency perspective in HCI ü  To offer an authoritative treatment of the subject matter presented by carefully selected authors ü  To offer a balanced and broad coverage of the subject area, including, human, organizational, social, as well as technological concerns. ü  To offer a hands-on-experience by covering representative case studies and offering essential design guidelines   The book will appeal to a broad audience of resea...

  11. Human computer interaction using hand gestures

    CERN Document Server

    Premaratne, Prashan

    2014-01-01

    Human computer interaction (HCI) plays a vital role in bridging the 'Digital Divide', bringing people closer to consumer electronics control in the 'lounge'. Keyboards and mouse or remotes do alienate old and new generations alike from control interfaces. Hand Gesture Recognition systems bring hope of connecting people with machines in a natural way. This will lead to consumers being able to use their hands naturally to communicate with any electronic equipment in their 'lounge.' This monograph will include the state of the art hand gesture recognition approaches and how they evolved from their inception. The author would also detail his research in this area for the past 8 years and how the future might turn out to be using HCI. This monograph will serve as a valuable guide for researchers (who would endeavour into) in the world of HCI.

  12. Human-Computer Interactions and Decision Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    software interfaces. The major components of the reseach program included the Diaiogue Management System. (DMS) operating environment, the role of...specification; and new methods for modeling, designing, and developing human-computer interfaces based on syntactic and semantic specification. The DMS...achieving communication is language. Accordingly, the transaction model employs a linguistic model consisting of parts that relate computer responses

  13. On the Rhetorical Contract in Human-Computer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    An exploration of the rhetorical contract--i.e., the expectations for appropriate interaction--as it develops in human-computer interaction revealed that direct manipulation interfaces were more likely to establish social expectations. Study results suggest that the social nature of human-computer interactions can be examined with reference to the…

  14. The epistemology and ontology of human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes epistemological and ontological dimensions of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) through an analysis of the functions of computer systems in relation to their users. It is argued that the primary relation between humans and computer systems has historically been epistemic: computer

  15. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  16. Human-computer interaction and management information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Galletta, Dennis F

    2014-01-01

    ""Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems: Applications"" offers state-of-the-art research by a distinguished set of authors who span the MIS and HCI fields. The original chapters provide authoritative commentaries and in-depth descriptions of research programs that will guide 21st century scholars, graduate students, and industry professionals. Human-Computer Interaction (or Human Factors) in MIS is concerned with the ways humans interact with information, technologies, and tasks, especially in business, managerial, organizational, and cultural contexts. It is distinctiv

  17. A Glance into the Future of Human Computer Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Umer; Nazir, Sohail

    2011-01-01

    Computers have a direct impact on our lives nowadays. Human's interaction with the computer has modified with the passage of time as improvement in technology occurred the better the human computer interaction became. Today we are facilitated by the operating system that has reduced all the complexity of hardware and we undergo our computation in a very convenient way irrespective of the process occurring at the hardware level. Though the human computer interaction has improved but it's not done yet. If we come to the future the computer's role in our lives would be a lot more rather our life would be of the artificial intelligence. In our future the biggest resource would be component of time and wasting time for a key board entry or a mouse input would be unbearable so the need would be of the computer interaction environment that along with the complexity reduction also minimizes the time wastage in the human computer interaction. Accordingly in our future the computation would also be increased it would n...

  18. A Glance into the Future of Human Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Umer; Nazir, Sohail

    2011-01-01

    Computers have a direct impact on our lives nowadays. Human's interaction with the computer has modified with the passage of time as improvement in technology occurred the better the human computer interaction became. Today we are facilitated by the operating system that has reduced all the complexity of hardware and we undergo our computation in a very convenient way irrespective of the process occurring at the hardware level. Though the human computer interaction has improved but it's not done yet. If we come to the future the computer's role in our lives would be a lot more rather our life would be of the artificial intelligence. In our future the biggest resource would be component of time and wasting time for a key board entry or a mouse input would be unbearable so the need would be of the computer interaction environment that along with the complexity reduction also minimizes the time wastage in the human computer interaction. Accordingly in our future the computation would also be increased it would n...

  19. Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design...

  20. Brain-Computer Interfaces Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes a direct output channel between the human brain and external devices. BCIs infer user intent via direct measures of brain activity and thus enable communication and control without movement. This book, authored by experts in the field, provides an accessible introduction to the neurophysiological and signal-processing background required for BCI, presents state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive approaches, gives an overview of current hardware and software solutions, and reviews the most interesting as well as new, emerging BCI applications. The book is intended not only for students and young researchers, but also for newcomers and other readers from diverse backgrounds keen to learn about this vital scientific endeavour.

  1. Human computer interaction issues in Clinical Trials Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starren, Justin B; Payne, Philip R O; Kaufman, David R

    2006-01-01

    Clinical trials increasingly rely upon web-based Clinical Trials Management Systems (CTMS). As with clinical care systems, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) issues can greatly affect the usefulness of such systems. Evaluation of the user interface of one web-based CTMS revealed a number of potential human-computer interaction problems, in particular, increased workflow complexity associated with a web application delivery model and potential usability problems resulting from the use of ambiguous icons. Because these design features are shared by a large fraction of current CTMS, the implications extend beyond this individual system.

  2. Computer Aided Design in Digital Human Modeling for Human Computer Interaction in Ergonomic Assessment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Mukhopadhyay , Sanjib Kumar Das and Tania Chakraborty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI hasbeen enormously successful in the area of computeraidedergonomics or human-centric designs. Perfectfit for people has always been a target for productdesign. Designers traditionally used anthropometricdimensions for 3D product design which created a lotof fitting problems when dealing with thecomplexities of the human body shapes. Computeraided design (CAD, also known as Computer aideddesign and drafting (CADD is the computertechnology used for the design processing and designdocumentation. CAD has now been used extensivelyin many applications such as automotive,shipbuilding, aerospace industries, architectural andindustrial designs, prosthetics, computer animationfor special effects in movies, advertising andtechnical manuals. As a technology, digital humanmodeling (DHM has rapidly emerged as atechnology that creates, manipulates and controlhuman representations and human-machine systemsscenes on computers for interactive ergonomic designproblem solving. DHM promises to profoundlychange how products or systems are designed, howergonomics analysis is performed, how disorders andimpairments are assessed and how therapies andsurgeries are conducted. The imperative andemerging need for the DHM appears to be consistentwith the fact that the past decade has witnessedsignificant growth in both the software systemsoffering DHM capabilities as well as the corporateadapting the technology.The authors shall dwell atlength and deliberate on how research in DHM hasfinally brought about an enhanced HCI, in thecontext of computer-aided ergonomics or humancentricdesign and discuss about future trends in thiscontext.

  3. Visual Interpretation Of Hand Gestures For Human Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.Sahane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hand gestures provides an attractive alternative to cumbersome interface devices for human-computer interaction (HCI. In particular, visual interpretation of hand gestures can help in achieving the ease and naturalness desired for HCI. This discussion is organized on the basis of the method used for modeling, analyzing, and recognizing gestures. We propose pointing gesture-based large display interaction using a depth camera. A user interacts with applications for large display by using pointing gestures with the barehand. The calibration between large display and depth camera can be automatically performed by using RGB-D camera.. We also discuss implemented gestural systems as well as other potential applications of vision-based gesture recognition. We discuss directions of future research in gesture recognition, including its integration with other natural modes of human computer interaction.

  4. Formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de G.; Veer, van der G.C.; Vliet, van J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical contribution, elaborating the concept of models as used in Cognitive Ergonomics. A number of formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction will be reviewed and discussed. The analysis focusses on different related concepts of formal modelling techniques in hum

  5. Human-Computer Interaction, Tourism and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.

    We present a state of the art of the human-computer interaction aimed at tourism and cultural heritage in some cities of the European Mediterranean. In the work an analysis is made of the main problems deriving from training understood as business and which can derail the continuous growth of the HCI, the new technologies and tourism industry. Through a semiotic and epistemological study the current mistakes in the context of the interrelations of the formal and factual sciences will be detected and also the human factors that have an influence on the professionals devoted to the development of interactive systems in order to safeguard and boost cultural heritage.

  6. Interaction in Information Systems - Beyond Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and analyze the role of interaction in information systems. Interaction represents dynamic relations between actors and other elements in information systems. We introduce a semi-formal notation that we use to describe a set of interaction patterns and we...... illustrate how the notation can be used to describe mediated interaction. We use the interaction patterns to evaluate a set of modeling languages. No single language supports all relevant aspects of interaction modeling. We use the interaction patterns to identify to general and supplementary forms...... of interaction-interaction based on exchange of objects and interaction based on exchange of commands. None of the modeling languages that we analyze support both forms in a rich way....

  7. Study on Human-Computer Interaction in Immersive Virtual Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段红; 黄柯棣

    2002-01-01

    Human-computer interaction is one of the most important issues in research of Virtual Environments. This paper introduces interaction software developed for a virtual operating environment for space experiments. Core components of the interaction software are: an object-oriented database for behavior management of virtual objects, a software agent called virtual eye for viewpoint control, and a software agent called virtual hand for object manipulation. Based on the above components, some instance programs for object manipulation have been developed. The user can observe the virtual environment through head-mounted display system, control viewpoint by head tracker and/or keyboard, and select and manipulate virtual objects by 3D mouse.

  8. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews literature in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) as it applies to educational environments. Topics include the origin of HCI; human factors; usability; computer interface design; goals, operations, methods, and selection (GOMS) models; command language versus direct manipulation; hypertext; visual perception; interface…

  9. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Nijholt, Anton; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to provide us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that can monitor some of the physical processes that occur within the brain that correspo

  10. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to provide us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that can monitor some of the physical processes that occur within the brain that

  11. Interactive Evolutionary Computation for Analyzing Human Awareness Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Takagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the importance of establishing awareness science and show the idea of using interactive evolutionary computation (IEC as a tool for analyzing awareness mechanism and making awareness models. First, we describe the importance of human factors in computational intelligence and that IEC is one of approaches for the so-called humanized computational intelligence. Second, we show examples that IEC is used as an analysis tool for human science. As analyzing human awareness mechanism is in this kind of analyzing human characteristics and capabilities, IEC may be able to be used for this purpose. Based on this expectation, we express one idea for analyzing the awareness mechanism. This idea is to make an equivalent model of an IEC user using a learning model and find latent variables that connect inputs and outputs of the user model and that help to understand or explain the inputs-outputs relationship. Although there must be several definitions of awareness, this idea is based on one definition that awareness is to find out unknown variables that helps our understanding. If we establish a method for finding the latent variables automatically, we can realize an awareness model in computer.

  12. Human-computer systems interaction backgrounds and applications 3

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikowski, Juliusz; Mroczek, Teresa; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    This book contains an interesting and state-of the art collection of papers on the recent progress in Human-Computer System Interaction (H-CSI). It contributes the profound description of the actual status of the H-CSI field and also provides a solid base for further development and research in the discussed area. The contents of the book are divided into the following parts: I. General human-system interaction problems; II. Health monitoring and disabled people helping systems; and III. Various information processing systems. This book is intended for a wide audience of readers who are not necessarily experts in computer science, machine learning or knowledge engineering, but are interested in Human-Computer Systems Interaction. The level of particular papers and specific spreading-out into particular parts is a reason why this volume makes fascinating reading. This gives the reader a much deeper insight than he/she might glean from research papers or talks at conferences. It touches on all deep issues that ...

  13. Advancements in Violin-Related Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Finesse is required while performing with many traditional musical instruments, as they are extremely responsive to human inputs. The violin is specifically examined here, as it excels at translating a performer’s gestures into sound in manners that evoke a wide range of affective qualities...... of human intelligence and emotion is at the core of the Musical Interface Technology Design Space, MITDS. This is a framework that endeavors to retain and enhance such traits of traditional instruments in the design of interactive live performance interfaces. Utilizing the MITDS, advanced Human......-Computer Interaction technologies for the violin are developed in order to allow musicians to explore new methods of creating music. Through this process, the aim is to provide musicians with control systems that let them transcend the interface itself, and focus on musically compelling performances....

  14. Combining Natural Human-Computer Interaction and Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Gheorghe PENTIUC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present how human-computer interaction can be improved by using wireless communication between devices. Devices that offer a natural user interaction, like the Microsoft Surface Table and tablet PCs, can work together to enhance the experience of an application. Users can use physical objects for a more natural way of handling the virtual world on one hand, and interact with other users wirelessly connected on the other. Physical objects, that interact with the surface table, have a tag attached to them, allowing us to identify them, and take the required action. The TCP/IP protocol was used to handle the wireless communication over the wireless network. A server and a client application were developed for the used devices. To get a wide range of targeted mobile devices, different frameworks for developing cross platform applications were analyzed.

  15. Human-computer interaction: psychology as a science of design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J M

    1997-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) study is the region of intersection between psychology and the social sciences, on the one hand, and computer science and technology, on the other. HCI researchers analyze and design specific user interface technologies (e.g. pointing devices). They study and improve the processes of technology development (e.g. task analysis, design rationale). They develop and evaluate new applications of technology (e.g. word processors, digital libraries). Throughout the past two decades, HCI has progressively integrated its scientific concerns with the engineering goal of improving the usability of computer systems and applications, which has resulted in a body of technical knowledge and methodology. HCI continues to provide a challenging test domain for applying and developing psychological and social theory in the context of technology development and use.

  16. Wearable joystick for gloves-on human/computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaewook; Voyles, Richard M.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary work on a novel wearable joystick for gloves-on human/computer interaction in hazardous environments. Interacting with traditional input devices can be clumsy and inconvenient for the operator in hazardous environments due to the bulkiness of multiple system components and troublesome wires. During a collapsed structure search, for example, protective clothing, uneven footing, and "snag" points in the environment can render traditional input devices impractical. Wearable computing has been studied by various researchers to increase the portability of devices and to improve the proprioceptive sense of the wearer's intentions. Specifically, glove-like input devices to recognize hand gestures have been developed for general-purpose applications. But, regardless of their performance, prior gloves have been fragile and cumbersome to use in rough environments. In this paper, we present a new wearable joystick to remove the wires from a simple, two-degree of freedom glove interface. Thus, we develop a wearable joystick that is low cost, durable and robust, and wire-free at the glove. In order to evaluate the wearable joystick, we take into consideration two metrics during operator tests of a commercial robot: task completion time and path tortuosity. We employ fractal analysis to measure path tortuosity. Preliminary user test results are presented that compare the performance of both a wearable joystick and a traditional joystick.

  17. Cognition beyond the brain computation, interactivity and human artifice

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Arguing that a collective dimension has given cognitive flexibility to human intelligence, this book shows that traditional cognitive psychology underplays the role of bodies, dialogue, diagrams, tools, talk, customs, habits, computers and cultural practices.

  18. Human Computer Interaction Approach in Developing Customer Relationship Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd H.N.M. Nasir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many published studies have found that more than 50% of Customer Relationship Management (CRM system implementations have failed due to the failure of system usability and does not fulfilled user expectation. This study presented the issues that contributed to the failures of CRM system and proposed a prototype of CRM system developed using Human Computer Interaction approaches in order to resolve the identified issues. Approach: In order to capture the users' requirements, a single in-depth case study of a multinational company was chosen in this research, in which the background, current conditions and environmental interactions were observed, recorded and analyzed for stages of patterns in relation to internal and external influences. Some techniques of blended data gathering which are interviews, naturalistic observation and studying user documentation were employed and then the prototype of CRM system was developed which incorporated User-Centered Design (UCD approach, Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA, metaphor and identification of users' behaviors and characteristics. The implementation of these techniques, were then measured in terms of usability. Results: Based on the usability testing conducted, the results showed that most of the users agreed that the system is comfortable to work with by taking the quality attributes of learnability, memorizeablity, utility, sortability, font, visualization, user metaphor, information easy view and color as measurement parameters. Conclusions/Recommendations: By combining all these techniques, a comfort level for the users that leads to user satisfaction and higher usability degree can be achieved in a proposed CRM system. Thus, it is important that the companies should put usability quality attribute into a consideration before developing or procuring CRM system to ensure the implementation successfulness of the CRM system.

  19. A Software Framework for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a software framework we designed and implemented for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface. The proposed framework is based on publish / subscribe architecture, which allows developers and researchers to conveniently configure, test and

  20. A Software Framework for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a software framework we designed and implemented for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface. The proposed framework is based on publish / subscribe architecture, which allows developers and researchers to conveniently configure, test and

  1. Effective Use of Human Computer Interaction in Digital Academic Supportive Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Thuseethan, S.; Kuhanesan, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, a literature in human-computer interaction is reviewed and the technology aspect of human computer interaction related with digital academic supportive devices is also analyzed. According to all these concerns, recommendations to design good human-computer digital academic supportive devices are analyzed and proposed. Due to improvements in both hardware and software, digital devices have unveiled continuous advances in efficiency and processing capacity. However, many of th...

  2. Applying systemic-structural activity theory to design of human-computer interaction systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bedny, Gregory Z; Bedny, Inna

    2015-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is an interdisciplinary field that has gained recognition as an important field in ergonomics. HCI draws on ideas and theoretical concepts from computer science, psychology, industrial design, and other fields. Human-Computer Interaction is no longer limited to trained software users. Today people interact with various devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and laptops. How can you make such interaction user friendly, even when user proficiency levels vary? This book explores methods for assessing the psychological complexity of computer-based tasks. It also p

  3. Situated dialog in speech-based human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Raux, Antoine; Lane, Ian; Misu, Teruhisa

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art in the practical implementation of Spoken Dialog Systems for applications in everyday settings. It includes contributions on key topics in situated dialog interaction from a number of leading researchers and offers a broad spectrum of perspectives on research and development in the area. In particular, it presents applications in robotics, knowledge access and communication and covers the following topics: dialog for interacting with robots; language understanding and generation; dialog architectures and modeling; core technologies; and the analysis of human discourse and interaction. The contributions are adapted and expanded contributions from the 2014 International Workshop on Spoken Dialog Systems (IWSDS 2014), where researchers and developers from industry and academia alike met to discuss and compare their implementation experiences, analyses and empirical findings.

  4. Metaphors for the Nature of Human-Computer Interaction in an Empowering Environment: Interaction Style Influences the Manner of Human Accomplishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Herman G.; Hartson, H. Rex

    1992-01-01

    Describes human-computer interface needs for empowering environments in computer usage in which the machine handles the routine mechanics of problem solving while the user concentrates on its higher order meanings. A closed-loop model of interaction is described, interface as illusion is discussed, and metaphors for human-computer interaction are…

  5. Interactive 3D computer model of the human corneolimbal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvaer, Rikke Kongshaug; Andreasen, Arne; Heegaard, Steffen;

    2013-01-01

    in the superior limbal region and one LEC, six LCs and 12 FSPs in the inferior limbal region. Only few LECs, LCs and FSPs were localized nasally and temporally. CONCLUSION: Interactive 3D models are a powerful tool that may help to shed more light on the existence and spatial localization of the different stem......PURPOSE: This study aims to clarify the existence of and to map the localization of different proposed stem cell niches in the corneal limbal region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One human eye was cut into 2200 consecutive sections. Every other section was stained with haematoxylin and eosin, digitized...... in the limbal region: limbal epithelial crypts (LECs), limbal crypts (LCs) and focal stromal projections (FSPs). In all, eight LECs, 25 LCs and 105 FSPs were identified in the limbal region. The LECs, LCs and FSPs were predominantly located in the superior limbal region with seven LECs, 19 LCs and 93 FSPs...

  6. Design of Food Management Information System Based on Human-computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingkai Cui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Food safety problem is directly related with public health. This study takes the necessity of establishing food management information system as the breakthrough point, through the interpretation of the overview of human-computer interaction technology, as well as the conceptual framework of human-computer interaction, it discusses the construction of food management information system, expecting to promote China's food safety management process so as to guarantee public health guarantee.

  7. The human-computer interaction design of self-operated mobile telemedicine devices

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Shaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) is an important issue in the area of medicine, for example, the operation of surgical simulators, virtual rehabilitation systems, telemedicine treatments, and so on. In this thesis, the human-computer interaction of a self-operated mobile telemedicine device is designed. The mobile telemedicine device (i.e. intelligent Medication Box or iMedBox) is used for remotely monitoring patient health and activity information such as ECG (electrocardiogram) signals, hom...

  8. Human-Centered Software Engineering: Software Engineering Architectures, Patterns, and Sodels for Human Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffah, Ahmed; Vanderdonckt, Jean; Desmarais, Michel C.

    The Computer-Human Interaction and Software Engineering (CHISE) series of edited volumes originated from a number of workshops and discussions over the latest research and developments in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Software Engineering (SE) integration, convergence and cross-pollination. A first volume in this series (CHISE Volume I - Human-Centered Software Engineering: Integrating Usability in the Development Lifecycle) aims at bridging the gap between the field of SE and HCI, and addresses specifically the concerns of integrating usability and user-centered systems design methods and tools into the software development lifecycle and practices. This has been done by defining techniques, tools and practices that can fit into the entire software engineering lifecycle as well as by defining ways of addressing the knowledge and skills needed, and the attitudes and basic values that a user-centered development methodology requires. The first volume has been edited as Vol. 8 in the Springer HCI Series (Seffah, Gulliksen and Desmarais, 2005).

  9. Design Science in Human-Computer Interaction: A Model and Three Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestopnik, Nathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Humanity has entered an era where computing technology is virtually ubiquitous. From websites and mobile devices to computers embedded in appliances on our kitchen counters and automobiles parked in our driveways, information and communication technologies (ICTs) and IT artifacts are fundamentally changing the ways we interact with our world.…

  10. Human-computer interaction handbook fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This second edition of The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook provides an updated, comprehensive overview of the most important research in the field, including insights that are directly applicable throughout the process of developing effective interactive information technologies. It features cutting-edge advances to the scientific knowledge base, as well as visionary perspectives and developments that fundamentally transform the way in which researchers and practitioners view the discipline. As the seminal volume of HCI research and practice, The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook feature

  11. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Pokorný, Jaroslav; Snášel, Václav; Abraham, Ajith

    2013-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction 2011 (IHCI 2011) was held at Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic from August 29 - August 31, 2011. This conference was third in the series, following IHCI 2009 and IHCI 2010 held in January at IIIT Allahabad, India. Human computer interaction is a fast growing research area and an attractive subject of interest for both academia and industry. There are many interesting and challenging topics that need to be researched and discussed. This book aims to provide excellent opportunities for the dissemination of interesting new research and discussion about presented topics. It can be useful for researchers working on various aspects of human computer interaction. Topics covered in this book include user interface and interaction, theoretical background and applications of HCI and also data mining and knowledge discovery as a support of HCI applications.

  12. Enhancing Human-Computer Interaction Design Education: Teaching Affordance Design for Emerging Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Anthony; Matei, Sorin Adam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of human-computer interaction design (HCID) over the last 20 years suggests that there is a growing need for educational scholars to consider new and more applicable theoretical models of interactive product design. The authors suggest that such paradigms would call for an approach that would equip HCID students with a better…

  13. The Human-Computer Interaction of Cross-Cultural Gaming Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Joyram; Norcio, Anthony F.; Van Der Veer, Jacob J.; Andre, Charles F.; Miller, Zachary; Regelsberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the cultural dimensions of the human-computer interaction that underlies gaming strategies. The article is a desktop study of existing literature and is organized into five sections. The first examines the cultural aspects of knowledge processing. The social constructs technology interaction is discussed. Following this, the…

  14. Human-Computer Interaction Software: Lessons Learned, Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    domain communi- Iatelligent s t s s Me cation. Users familiar with problem Inteligent support systes. High-func- anddomains but inxperienced with comput...8217i. April 1987, pp. 7.3-78. His research interests include artificial intel- Creating better HCI softw-are will have a 8. S.K Catrd. I.P. Moran. arid

  15. Transnational HCI: Humans, Computers and Interactions in Global Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertesi, Janet; Lindtner, Silvia; Shklovski, Irina

    2011-01-01

    , but as evolving in relation to global processes, boundary crossings, frictions and hybrid practices. In doing so, we expand upon existing research in HCI to consider the effects, implications for individuals and communities, and design opportunities in times of increased transnational interactions. We hope...

  16. Individual Difference Effects in Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    evaluated in terns of the amount of sales revenue af -er deducting production costs. nhe time variable was measured in terms of the amount of time a subject...subject acted as an inventory/ production manage:r of a hypothetical firm which was simulated by a computer program. The cubject’s task was to obtain the...34search list" will be examined. Thus, the u3ar w.ll probably match "apple pie" but not "apple cider " or "appl-? butter’ because these items would not

  17. Impact of Cognitive Architectures on Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    simulation. In this work they were preparing for the Synthetic Theatre of War-1997 exercise where between 10,000 and 50,000 automated agents would...work with up to 1,000 humans.27 The results of this exercise are documented by Laird et al.28 5. Conclusions and Future Work To assess whether cognitive...RW, MacKenzie IS. Towards a standard for pointing device evaluation, perspectives on 27 years of Fitts’ law research in HCI. International Journal of

  18. Appearance-based human gesture recognition using multimodal features for human computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Gao, Hua; Ekenel, Hazim Kemal; Ohya, Jun

    2011-03-01

    The use of gesture as a natural interface plays an utmost important role for achieving intelligent Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Human gestures include different components of visual actions such as motion of hands, facial expression, and torso, to convey meaning. So far, in the field of gesture recognition, most previous works have focused on the manual component of gestures. In this paper, we present an appearance-based multimodal gesture recognition framework, which combines the different groups of features such as facial expression features and hand motion features which are extracted from image frames captured by a single web camera. We refer 12 classes of human gestures with facial expression including neutral, negative and positive meanings from American Sign Languages (ASL). We combine the features in two levels by employing two fusion strategies. At the feature level, an early feature combination can be performed by concatenating and weighting different feature groups, and LDA is used to choose the most discriminative elements by projecting the feature on a discriminative expression space. The second strategy is applied on decision level. Weighted decisions from single modalities are fused in a later stage. A condensation-based algorithm is adopted for classification. We collected a data set with three to seven recording sessions and conducted experiments with the combination techniques. Experimental results showed that facial analysis improve hand gesture recognition, decision level fusion performs better than feature level fusion.

  19. Real Time Multiple Hand Gesture Recognition System for Human Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth S. Rautaray

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of computing devices in day to day life, the need of user friendly interfaces has lead towards the evolution of different types of interfaces for human computer interaction. Real time vision based hand gesture recognition affords users the ability to interact with computers in more natural and intuitive ways. Direct use of hands as an input device is an attractive method which can communicate much more information by itself in comparison to mice, joysticks etc allowing a greater number of recognition system that can be used in a variety of human computer interaction applications. The gesture recognition system consist of three main modules like hand segmentation, hand tracking and gesture recognition from hand features. The designed system further integrated with different applications like image browser, virtual game etc. possibilities for human computer interaction. Computer Vision based systems has the potential to provide more natural, non-contact solutions. The present research work focuses on to design and develops a practical framework for real time hand gesture.

  20. Brain-Computer Interfaces. Applying our Minds to Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    For generations, humans have fantasized about the ability to create devices that can see into a person’s mind and thoughts, or to communicate and interact with machines through thought alone. Such ideas have long captured the imagination of humankind in the form of ancient myths and modern science

  1. Brain-Computer Interfaces: Applying our Minds to Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Anton

    2010-01-01

    For generations, humans have fantasized about the ability to create devices that can see into a person’s mind and thoughts, or to communicate and interact with machines through thought alone. Such ideas have long captured the imagination of humankind in the form of ancient myths and modern science f

  2. Use of computational modeling approaches in studying the binding interactions of compounds with human estrogen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Dang, Li; Zhu, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens have a whole host of physiological functions in many human organs and systems, including the reproductive, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. Many naturally-occurring compounds with estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity are present in our environment and food sources. Synthetic estrogens and antiestrogens are also important therapeutic agents. At the molecular level, estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate most of the well-known actions of estrogens. Given recent advances in computational modeling tools, it is now highly practical to use these tools to study the interaction of human ERs with various types of ligands. There are two common categories of modeling techniques: one is the quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, which uses the structural information of the interacting ligands to predict the binding site properties of a macromolecule, and the other one is molecular docking-based computational analysis, which uses the 3-dimensional structural information of both the ligands and the receptor to predict the binding interaction. In this review, we discuss recent results that employed these and other related computational modeling approaches to characterize the binding interaction of various estrogens and antiestrogens with the human ERs. These examples clearly demonstrate that the computational modeling approaches, when used in combination with other experimental methods, are powerful tools that can precisely predict the binding interaction of various estrogenic ligands and their derivatives with the human ERs.

  3. Human Computation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  4. A Project-Based Learning Setting to Human-Computer Interaction for Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Cornelia; Geisler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of fundamentals of human-computer interaction resp. usability engineering is getting more and more important in technical domains. However this interdisciplinary field of work and corresponding degree programs are not broadly known. Therefore at the Hochschule Ruhr West, University of Applied Sciences, a program was developed to give…

  5. HCI^2 Workbench: A Development Tool for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jie; Wenzhe, Shi; Pantic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel software tool designed and implemented to simplify the development process of Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction (MHCI) systems. This tool, which is called the HCI^2 Workbench, exploits a Publish / Subscribe (P/S) architecture [13] [14] to facilitate efficient an

  6. A Framework and Implementation of User Interface and Human-Computer Interaction Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslak, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that up to 50 % of the effort in development of information systems is devoted to user interface development (Douglas, Tremaine, Leventhal, Wills, & Manaris, 2002; Myers & Rosson, 1992). Yet little study has been performed on the inclusion of important interface and human-computer interaction topics into a current…

  7. Brain-Computer Interfaces Applying Our Minds to Human-computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Desney S

    2010-01-01

    For generations, humans have fantasized about the ability to create devices that can see into a person's mind and thoughts, or to communicate and interact with machines through thought alone. Such ideas have long captured the imagination of humankind in the form of ancient myths and modern science fiction stories. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to turn these myths into a reality, and are providing us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that monitor physical p

  8. Towards a semio-cognitive theory of human-computer interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Scolari, Carlos Alberto

    2001-01-01

    The research here presented is theoretical and introduces a critical analysis of instrumental approaches in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). From a semiotic point of view interfaces are not "natural" or "neutral" instruments, but rather complex sense production devices. Interaction, in other words, is far from being a "transparent" process.In this abstract we present the fundaments of a theoretical model that combines Semiotics with Cognitive Science approaches.

  9. Cross-cultural human-computer interaction and user experience design a semiotic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Brejcha, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes patterns of language and culture in human-computer interaction (HCI). Through numerous examples, it shows why these patterns matter and how to exploit them to design a better user experience (UX) with computer systems. It provides scientific information on the theoretical and practical areas of the interaction and communication design for research experts and industry practitioners and covers the latest research in semiotics and cultural studies, bringing a set of tools and methods to benefit the process of designing with the cultural background in mind.

  10. Portable tongue-supported human computer interaction system design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Rohan; Khan, Masood Mehmood

    2014-01-01

    Tongue supported human-computer interaction (TSHCI) systems can help critically ill patients interact with both computers and people. These systems can be particularly useful for patients suffering injuries above C7 on their spinal vertebrae. Despite recent successes in their application, several limitations restrict performance of existing TSHCI systems and discourage their use in real life situations. This paper proposes a low-cost, less-intrusive, portable and easy to use design for implementing a TSHCI system. Two applications of the proposed system are reported. Design considerations and performance of the proposed system are also presented.

  11. Interactions among human behavior, social networks, and societal infrastructures: A Case Study in Computational Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Bisset, Keith; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Eubank, Stephen; Lewis, Bryan; Kumar, V. S. Anil; Marathe, Madhav V.; Mortveit, Henning S.

    Human behavior, social networks, and the civil infrastructures are closely intertwined. Understanding their co-evolution is critical for designing public policies and decision support for disaster planning. For example, human behaviors and day to day activities of individuals create dense social interactions that are characteristic of modern urban societies. These dense social networks provide a perfect fabric for fast, uncontrolled disease propagation. Conversely, people’s behavior in response to public policies and their perception of how the crisis is unfolding as a result of disease outbreak can dramatically alter the normally stable social interactions. Effective planning and response strategies must take these complicated interactions into account. In this chapter, we describe a computer simulation based approach to study these issues using public health and computational epidemiology as an illustrative example. We also formulate game-theoretic and stochastic optimization problems that capture many of the problems that we study empirically.

  12. AFFECTIVE AND EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION: Game-Based and Innovative Learning Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Askim GULUMBAY, Anadolu University, TURKEY

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computersupported learning and human-computer interactions.Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cognitive sciences, various aspects of communication and human computer interaction, interface design andcomputer science on one hand and educators and game industry on the other, this should open gates to evolutionary changes of the learning industry. The major topics discussed are emotions, motivation, games and game-experience.

  13. 08292 Abstracts Collection -- The Study of Visual Aesthetics in Human-Computer Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hassenzahl, Marc; Lindgaard, Gitte; Platz, Axel; Tractinsky, Noam

    2008-01-01

    From 13.07. to 16.07.2008, the Dagstuhl Seminar 08292 ``The Study of Visual Aesthetics in Human-Computer Interaction'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first secti...

  14. AFFECTIVE AND EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION: Game-Based and Innovative Learning Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    A. Askim GULUMBAY, Anadolu University, TURKEY

    2006-01-01

    This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computersupported learning and human-computer interactions.Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cogni...

  15. The experience of agency in human-computer interactions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limerick, Hannah; Coyle, David; Moore, James W

    2014-01-01

    The sense of agency is the experience of controlling both one's body and the external environment. Although the sense of agency has been studied extensively, there is a paucity of studies in applied "real-life" situations. One applied domain that seems highly relevant is human-computer-interaction (HCI), as an increasing number of our everyday agentive interactions involve technology. Indeed, HCI has long recognized the feeling of control as a key factor in how people experience interactions with technology. The aim of this review is to summarize and examine the possible links between sense of agency and understanding control in HCI. We explore the overlap between HCI and sense of agency for computer input modalities and system feedback, computer assistance, and joint actions between humans and computers. An overarching consideration is how agency research can inform HCI and vice versa. Finally, we discuss the potential ethical implications of personal responsibility in an ever-increasing society of technology users and intelligent machine interfaces.

  16. The Changing Face of Human-Computer Interaction in the Age of Ubiquitous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Yvonne

    HCI is reinventing itself. No longer only about being user-centered, it has set its sights on pastures new, embracing a much broader and far-reaching set of interests. From emotional, eco-friendly, embodied experiences to context, constructivism and culture, HCI research is changing apace: from what it looks at, the lenses it uses and what it has to offer. Part of this is as a reaction to what is happening in the world; ubiquitous technologies are proliferating and transforming how we live our lives. We are becoming more connected and more dependent on technology. The home, the crèche, outdoors, public places and even the human body are now being experimented with as potential places to embed computational devices, even to the extent of invading previously private and taboo aspects of our lives. In this paper, I examine the diversity of lifestyle and technological transformations in our midst and outline some 'difficult' questions these raise together with alternative directions for HCI research and practice.

  17. Cognitive engineering models: A prerequisite to the design of human-computer interaction in complex dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter examines a class of human-computer interaction applications, specifically the design of human-computer interaction for the operators of complex systems. Such systems include space systems (e.g., manned systems such as the Shuttle or space station, and unmanned systems such as NASA scientific satellites), aviation systems (e.g., the flight deck of 'glass cockpit' airplanes or air traffic control) and industrial systems (e.g., power plants, telephone networks, and sophisticated, e.g., 'lights out,' manufacturing facilities). The main body of human-computer interaction (HCI) research complements but does not directly address the primary issues involved in human-computer interaction design for operators of complex systems. Interfaces to complex systems are somewhat special. The 'user' in such systems - i.e., the human operator responsible for safe and effective system operation - is highly skilled, someone who in human-machine systems engineering is sometimes characterized as 'well trained, well motivated'. The 'job' or task context is paramount and, thus, human-computer interaction is subordinate to human job interaction. The design of human interaction with complex systems, i.e., the design of human job interaction, is sometimes called cognitive engineering.

  18. Using Noninvasive Brain Measurement to Explore the Psychological Effects of Computer Malfunctions on Users during Human-Computer Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne M. Hirshfield

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s technologically driven world, there is a need to better understand the ways that common computer malfunctions affect computer users. These malfunctions may have measurable influences on computer user’s cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses. An experiment was conducted where participants conducted a series of web search tasks while wearing functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and galvanic skin response sensors. Two computer malfunctions were introduced during the sessions which had the potential to influence correlates of user trust and suspicion. Surveys were given after each session to measure user’s perceived emotional state, cognitive load, and perceived trust. Results suggest that fNIRS can be used to measure the different cognitive and emotional responses associated with computer malfunctions. These cognitive and emotional changes were correlated with users’ self-report levels of suspicion and trust, and they in turn suggest future work that further explores the capability of fNIRS for the measurement of user experience during human-computer interactions.

  19. Preface (to: Brain-Computer Interfaces. Applying our Minds to Human-Computer Interaction)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    The advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies provide us with the increasing ability to interface directly with activity in the brain. Researchers have begun to use these technologies to build brain-computer interfaces. Originally, these interfaces were meant to allow

  20. Human-Computer Interaction Handbook Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jacko, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    The third edition of a groundbreaking reference, The Human--Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications raises the bar for handbooks in this field. It is the largest, most complete compilation of HCI theories, principles, advances, case studies, and more that exist within a single volume. The book captures the current and emerging sub-disciplines within HCI related to research, development, and practice that continue to advance at an astonishing rate. It features cutting-edge advances to the scientific knowledge base as well as visionary perspe

  1. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction: Graphics and Animation Components for Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.; Nicol, Emma; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel; Richardson, Lucy

    We present an analysis of communicability methodology in graphics and animation components for interface design, called CAN (Communicability, Acceptability and Novelty). This methodology has been under development between 2005 and 2010, obtaining excellent results in cultural heritage, education and microcomputing contexts. In studies where there is a bi-directional interrelation between ergonomics, usability, user-centered design, software quality and the human-computer interaction. We also present the heuristic results about iconography and layout design in blogs and websites of the following countries: Spain, Italy, Portugal and France.

  2. Real-time non-invasive eyetracking and gaze-point determination for human-computer interaction and biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; Morookian, John-Michael; Monacos, S.; Lam, R.; Lebaw, C.; Bond, A.

    2004-01-01

    Eyetracking is one of the latest technologies that has shown potential in several areas including human-computer interaction for people with and without disabilities, and for noninvasive monitoring, detection, and even diagnosis of physiological and neurological problems in individuals.

  3. Adaptation of hybrid human-computer interaction systems using EEG error-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Biasiucci, Andrea; Forster, Killian; Roggen, Daniel; Troster, Gerhard; Millan, Jose Del R

    2010-01-01

    Performance improvement in both humans and artificial systems strongly relies in the ability of recognizing erroneous behavior or decisions. This paper, that builds upon previous studies on EEG error-related signals, presents a hybrid approach for human computer interaction that uses human gestures to send commands to a computer and exploits brain activity to provide implicit feedback about the recognition of such commands. Using a simple computer game as a case study, we show that EEG activity evoked by erroneous gesture recognition can be classified in single trials above random levels. Automatic artifact rejection techniques are used, taking into account that subjects are allowed to move during the experiment. Moreover, we present a simple adaptation mechanism that uses the EEG signal to label newly acquired samples and can be used to re-calibrate the gesture recognition system in a supervised manner. Offline analysis show that, although the achieved EEG decoding accuracy is far from being perfect, these signals convey sufficient information to significantly improve the overall system performance.

  4. Brain computer interfaces as intelligent sensors for enhancing human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, M.; Nijboer, F.; Broek, E.L. van den; Fairclough, S.; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    BCIs are traditionally conceived as a way to control apparatus, an interface that allows you to act on" external devices as a form of input control. We propose an alternative use of BCIs, that of monitoring users as an additional intelligent sensor to enrich traditional means of interaction. This vi

  5. Categorisation of visualisation methods to support the design of Human-Computer Interaction Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Katie; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Alcock, Jeffrey; Bermell-Garcia, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    During the design of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) systems, the creation of visual artefacts forms an important part of design. On one hand producing a visual artefact has a number of advantages: it helps designers to externalise their thought and acts as a common language between different stakeholders. On the other hand, if an inappropriate visualisation method is employed it could hinder the design process. To support the design of HCI systems, this paper reviews the categorisation of visualisation methods used in HCI. A keyword search is conducted to identify a) current HCI design methods, b) approaches of selecting these methods. The resulting design methods are filtered to create a list of just visualisation methods. These are then categorised using the approaches identified in (b). As a result 23 HCI visualisation methods are identified and categorised in 5 selection approaches (The Recipient, Primary Purpose, Visual Archetype, Interaction Type, and The Design Process).

  6. Soft Electronics Enabled Ergonomic Human-Computer Interaction for Swallowing Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongkuk; Nicholls, Benjamin; Sup Lee, Dong; Chen, Yanfei; Chun, Youngjae; Siang Ang, Chee; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2017-04-01

    We introduce a skin-friendly electronic system that enables human-computer interaction (HCI) for swallowing training in dysphagia rehabilitation. For an ergonomic HCI, we utilize a soft, highly compliant (“skin-like”) electrode, which addresses critical issues of an existing rigid and planar electrode combined with a problematic conductive electrolyte and adhesive pad. The skin-like electrode offers a highly conformal, user-comfortable interaction with the skin for long-term wearable, high-fidelity recording of swallowing electromyograms on the chin. Mechanics modeling and experimental quantification captures the ultra-elastic mechanical characteristics of an open mesh microstructured sensor, conjugated with an elastomeric membrane. Systematic in vivo studies investigate the functionality of the soft electronics for HCI-enabled swallowing training, which includes the application of a biofeedback system to detect swallowing behavior. The collection of results demonstrates clinical feasibility of the ergonomic electronics in HCI-driven rehabilitation for patients with swallowing disorders.

  7. Interaction of cyclodextrins with human and bovine serum albumins: A combined spectroscopic and computational investigation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saptarshi Ghosh; Bijan Kumar Paul; Nitin Chattopadhyay

    2014-07-01

    Interaction of cyclodextrins (CDs) with the two most abundant proteins, namely human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), has been investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorometric techniques, circular dichroism measurements and molecular docking simulation. The study reveals that the three CDs interact differently on the fluorescence and fluorescence lifetimes of the serum albumins. However, fluorescence anisotropy and circular dichroism are not affected. Depending on their size, different CDs bind to the serum albumins in different positions, resulting in changes in the spectral behaviour of the proteins. Docking study suggests the probable binding sites of the three CDs with the proteins. Combined experimental and computational studies imply that sufficiently high concentration of CDs causes loosening of the rigid structures of these transport proteins, although their secondary structures remain intact. Thus, CDs are found to be safe for the serum proteins from the structural point of view.

  8. Hand gesture recognition based on motion history images for a simple human-computer interaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timotius, Ivanna K.; Setyawan, Iwan

    2013-03-01

    A human-computer interaction can be developed using several kind of tools. One choice is using images captured using a camera. This paper proposed a simple human-computer interaction system based on hand movement captured by a web camera. The system aims to classify the captured movement into one of three classes. The first two classes contain hand movements to the left and right, respectively. The third class contains non-hand movements or hand movements to other directions. The method used in this paper is based on Motion History Images (MHIs) and nearest neighbor classifier. The resulting MHIs are processed in two manners, namely by summing the pixel values along the vertical axis and reshaping into vectors. We also use two distance criteria in this paper, respectively the Euclidian distance and cross correlation. This paper compared the performance of the combinations of different MHI data processing and distance criteria using 10 runs of 2-fold cross validation. Our experiments show that reshaping the MHI data into vectors combined with a Euclidean distance criterion gives the highest average accuracy, namely 55.67%.

  9. Delays and user performance in human-computer-network interaction tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Barrett S; Wang, Enlie

    2009-12-01

    This article describes a series of studies conducted to examine factors affecting user perceptions, responses, and tolerance for network-based computer delays affecting distributed human-computer-network interaction (HCNI) tasks. HCNI tasks, even with increasing computing and network bandwidth capabilities, are still affected by human perceptions of delay and appropriate waiting times for information flow latencies. Conducted were 6 laboratory studies with university participants in China (Preliminary Experiments 1 through 3) and the United States (Experiments 4 through 6) to examine users' perceptions of elapsed time, effect of perceived network task performance partners on delay tolerance, and expectations of appropriate delays based on task, situation, and network conditions. Results across the six experiments indicate that users' delay tolerance and estimated delay were affected by multiple task and expectation factors, including task complexity and importance, situation urgency and time availability, file size, and network bandwidth capacity. Results also suggest a range of user strategies for incorporating delay tolerance in task planning and performance. HCNI user experience is influenced by combinations of task requirements, constraints, and understandings of system performance; tolerance is a nonlinear function of time constraint ratios or decay. Appropriate user interface tools providing delay feedback information can help modify user expectations and delay tolerance. These tools are especially valuable when delay conditions exceed a few seconds or when task constraints and system demands are high. Interface designs for HCNI tasks should consider assistant-style presentations of delay feedback, information freshness, and network characteristics. Assistants should also gather awareness of user time constraints.

  10. Dynamic management of multi-channel interfaces for human interactions with computer-based intelligent assistants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, T.D. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    For complex man-machine tasks where multi-media interaction with computer-based assistants is appropriate, a portion of the assistant's intelligence must be devoted to managing its communication processes with the user. Since people often serve the role of assistants, the conventions of human communication provide a basis for designing the communication processes of the computer-based assistant. Human decision making for communication requires knowledge of the user's style, the task demands, and communication practices, and knowledge of the current situation. Decisions necessary for effective communication, when, how, and what to communicate, can be expressed using these knowledge sources. A system based on human communication rules was developed to manage the communication decisions of an intelligent assistant. The Dynamic Communication Management (DCM) system consists of four components, three models and a manager. The model of the user describes the user's communication preferences for different task situations. The model of the task is used to establish the user's current activity and to describe how communication should be conducted for this activity. The communication model provides the rules needed to make decisions: when to communicate the message, how to present the message to the user, and what information should be communicated. The Communication Manager controls and coordinates these models to conduct all communication with the user. Performance with DCM as the interface to a simulated Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control task was established to learn about the potential benefits of the concept.

  11. Perspectives on the Design of Human-Computer Interactions: Issues and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavora, Mark J.; Hannafin, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Considers several perspectives on interaction strategies for computer-aided learning; examines dimensions of interaction; and presents a model for the design of interaction strategies. Topics include pacing; navigation; mental processes; cognitive and physical responses; the role of quality and quantity; a conceptual approach; and suggestions for…

  12. An Overview of a Decade of Journal Publications about Culture and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Roese, Kerstin

    In this paper, we analyze the concept of human-computer interaction in cultural and national contexts. Building and extending upon the framework for understanding research in usability and culture by Honold [3], we give an overview of publications in culture and HCI between 1998 and 2008, with a narrow focus on high-level journal publications only. The purpose is to review current practice in how cultural HCI issues are studied, and to analyse problems with the measures and interpretation of this studies. We find that Hofstede's cultural dimensions has been the dominating model of culture, participants have been picked because they could speak English, and most studies have been large scale quantitative studies. In order to balance this situation, we recommend that more researchers and practitioners do qualitative, empirical work studies.

  13. Emotion Modelling and Facial Affect Recognition in Human-Computer and Human-Robot Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Malatesta, Lori; Murray, John; Raouzaiou, Amaryllis; Hiolle, Antoine; Ca?amero, Lola; Karpouzis, Kostas

    2009-01-01

    This work is funded by the EU FP6 project Feelix Growing: FEEL, Interact, eXpress: a Global appRoach to develOpment With INterdisciplinary Grounding, Contract FP6 IST-045169 (http://feelix-growing.org).

  14. Open-Box Muscle-Computer Interface: Introduction to Human-Computer Interactions in Bioengineering, Physiology, and Neuroscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Jiménez, M. A.; González-Gaspar, P.; Pérez-Estudillo, C.; López-Meraz, M. L.; Morgado-Valle, C.; Beltran-Parrazal, L.

    2016-01-01

    A Muscle-Computer Interface (muCI) is a human-machine system that uses electromyographic (EMG) signals to communicate with a computer. Surface EMG (sEMG) signals are currently used to command robotic devices, such as robotic arms and hands, and mobile robots, such as wheelchairs. These signals reflect the motor intention of a user before the…

  15. Open-Box Muscle-Computer Interface: Introduction to Human-Computer Interactions in Bioengineering, Physiology, and Neuroscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Jiménez, M. A.; González-Gaspar, P.; Pérez-Estudillo, C.; López-Meraz, M. L.; Morgado-Valle, C.; Beltran-Parrazal, L.

    2016-01-01

    A Muscle-Computer Interface (muCI) is a human-machine system that uses electromyographic (EMG) signals to communicate with a computer. Surface EMG (sEMG) signals are currently used to command robotic devices, such as robotic arms and hands, and mobile robots, such as wheelchairs. These signals reflect the motor intention of a user before the…

  16. An Human-Computer Interactive Augmented Reality System for Coronary Artery Diagnosis Planning and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiming; Huang, Chen; Lv, Shengqing; Li, Zeyu; Chen, Yimin; Ma, Lizhuang

    2017-09-02

    In order to let the doctor carry on the coronary artery diagnosis and preoperative planning in a more intuitive and more natural way, and to improve the training effect for interns, an augmented reality system for coronary artery diagnosis planning and training (ARS-CADPT) is designed and realized in this paper. At first, a 3D reconstruction algorithm based on computed tomographic (CT) images is proposed to model the coronary artery vessels (CAV). Secondly, the algorithms of static gesture recognition and dynamic gesture spotting and recognition are presented to realize the real-time and friendly human-computer interaction (HCI), which is the characteristic of ARS-CADPT. Thirdly, a Sort-First parallel rendering and splicing display subsystem is developed, which greatly expands the capacity of student users. The experimental results show that, with the use of ARS-CADPT, the reconstruction accuracy of CAV model is high, the HCI is natural and fluent, and the visual effect is good. In a word, the system fully meets the application requirement.

  17. HumanComputer Systems Interaction Backgrounds and Applications 2 Part 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikowski, Juliusz; Mroczek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This volume of the book contains a collection of chapters selected from the papers which originally (in shortened form) have been presented at the 3rd International Conference on Human-Systems Interaction held in Rzeszow, Poland, in 2010. The chapters are divided into five sections concerning: IV. Environment monitoring and robotic systems, V. Diagnostic systems, VI. Educational Systems, and VII. General Problems. The novel concepts and realizations of humanoid robots, talking robots and orthopedic surgical robots, as well as those of direct brain-computer interface  are examples of particularly interesting topics presented in Sec. VI. In Sec. V the problems of  skin cancer recognition, colonoscopy diagnosis, and brain strokes diagnosis as well as more general problems of ontology design for  medical diagnostic knowledge are presented. Example of an industrial diagnostic system and a concept of new algorithm for edges detection in computer-analyzed images  are also presented in this Section. Among the edu...

  18. The Electronic Mirror: Human-Computer Interaction and Change in Self-Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laere, Kevin H.; Lundgren, David C.; Howe, Steven R.

    1998-01-01

    Compares humanlike versus machinelike interactional styles of computer interfaces, testing hypotheses that evaluative feedback conveyed through a humanlike interface will have greater impact on individuals' self-appraisals. Reflected appraisals were more influenced by computer feedback than were self-appraisals. Humanlike and machinelike interface…

  19. Rethinking Human-Centered Computing: Finding the Customer and Negotiated Interactions at the Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Roxana; O'Neill, John; Mirmalek, Zara

    2003-01-01

    The breakdown in the air transportation system over the past several years raises an interesting question for researchers: How can we help improve the reliability of airline operations? In offering some answers to this question, we make a statement about Huuman-Centered Computing (HCC). First we offer the definition that HCC is a multi-disciplinary research and design methodology focused on supporting humans as they use technology by including cognitive and social systems, computational tools and the physical environment in the analysis of organizational systems. We suggest that a key element in understanding organizational systems is that there are external cognitive and social systems (customers) as well as internal cognitive and social systems (employees) and that they interact dynamically to impact the organization and its work. The design of human-centered intelligent systems must take this outside-inside dynamic into account. In the past, the design of intelligent systems has focused on supporting the work and improvisation requirements of employees but has often assumed that customer requirements are implicitly satisfied by employee requirements. Taking a customer-centric perspective provides a different lens for understanding this outside-inside dynamic, the work of the organization and the requirements of both customers and employees In this article we will: 1) Demonstrate how the use of ethnographic methods revealed the important outside-inside dynamic in an airline, specifically the consequential relationship between external customer requirements and perspectives and internal organizational processes and perspectives as they came together in a changing environment; 2) Describe how taking a customer centric perspective identifies places where the impact of the outside-inside dynamic is most critical and requires technology that can be adaptive; 3) Define and discuss the place of negotiated interactions in airline operations, identifying how these

  20. REVIEW: Affective and Emotional Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction: Game-Based and Innovative Learning Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    GULUMBAY, Reviewed By Dr. A. Askim

    2006-01-01

    This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computer-supported learning and human-computer interactions. Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cog...

  1. Using minimal human-computer interfaces for studying the interactive development of social awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eFroese

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the enactive approach to cognitive science, perception is essentially a skillful engagement with the world. Learning how to engage via a human-computer interface (HCI can therefore be taken as an instance of developing a new mode of experiencing. Similarly, social perception is theorized to be primarily constituted by skillful engagement between people, which implies that it is possible to investigate the origins and development of social awareness using multi-user HCIs. We analyzed the trial-by-trial objective and subjective changes in sociality that took place during a perceptual crossing experiment in which embodied interaction between pairs of adults was mediated over a minimalist haptic HCI. Since that study required participants to implicitly relearn how to mutually engage so as to perceive each other’s presence, we hypothesized that there would be indications that the initial developmental stages of social awareness were recapitulated. Preliminary results reveal that, despite the lack of explicit feedback about task performance, there was a trend for the clarity of social awareness to increase over time. We discuss the methodological challenges involved in evaluating whether this trend was characterized by distinct developmental stages of objective behavior and subjective experience.

  2. Using minimal human-computer interfaces for studying the interactive development of social awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Iizuka, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    According to the enactive approach to cognitive science, perception is essentially a skillful engagement with the world. Learning how to engage via a human-computer interface (HCI) can therefore be taken as an instance of developing a new mode of experiencing. Similarly, social perception is theorized to be primarily constituted by skillful engagement between people, which implies that it is possible to investigate the origins and development of social awareness using multi-user HCIs. We analyzed the trial-by-trial objective and subjective changes in sociality that took place during a perceptual crossing experiment in which embodied interaction between pairs of adults was mediated over a minimalist haptic HCI. Since that study required participants to implicitly relearn how to mutually engage so as to perceive each other's presence, we hypothesized that there would be indications that the initial developmental stages of social awareness were recapitulated. Preliminary results reveal that, despite the lack of explicit feedback about task performance, there was a trend for the clarity of social awareness to increase over time. We discuss the methodological challenges involved in evaluating whether this trend was characterized by distinct developmental stages of objective behavior and subjective experience.

  3. Design of a compact low-power human-computer interaction equipment for hand motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianwei; Jin, Wenguang

    2017-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) raises demand of convenience, endurance, responsiveness and naturalness. This paper describes a design of a compact wearable low-power HCI equipment applied to gesture recognition. System combines multi-mode sense signals: the vision sense signal and the motion sense signal, and the equipment is equipped with the depth camera and the motion sensor. The dimension (40 mm × 30 mm) and structure is compact and portable after tight integration. System is built on a module layered framework, which contributes to real-time collection (60 fps), process and transmission via synchronous confusion with asynchronous concurrent collection and wireless Blue 4.0 transmission. To minimize equipment's energy consumption, system makes use of low-power components, managing peripheral state dynamically, switching into idle mode intelligently, pulse-width modulation (PWM) of the NIR LEDs of the depth camera and algorithm optimization by the motion sensor. To test this equipment's function and performance, a gesture recognition algorithm is applied to system. As the result presents, general energy consumption could be as low as 0.5 W.

  4. Redesign of a computerized clinical reminder for colorectal cancer screening: a human-computer interaction evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Jason J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on barriers to the use of computerized clinical decision support (CDS learned in an earlier field study, we prototyped design enhancements to the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA's colorectal cancer (CRC screening clinical reminder to compare against the VHA's current CRC reminder. Methods In a controlled simulation experiment, 12 primary care providers (PCPs used prototypes of the current and redesigned CRC screening reminder in a within-subject comparison. Quantitative measurements were based on a usability survey, workload assessment instrument, and workflow integration survey. We also collected qualitative data on both designs. Results Design enhancements to the VHA's existing CRC screening clinical reminder positively impacted aspects of usability and workflow integration but not workload. The qualitative analysis revealed broad support across participants for the design enhancements with specific suggestions for improving the reminder further. Conclusions This study demonstrates the value of a human-computer interaction evaluation in informing the redesign of information tools to foster uptake, integration into workflow, and use in clinical practice.

  5. Using minimal human-computer interfaces for studying the interactive development of social awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Iizuka, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    According to the enactive approach to cognitive science, perception is essentially a skillful engagement with the world. Learning how to engage via a human-computer interface (HCI) can therefore be taken as an instance of developing a new mode of experiencing. Similarly, social perception is theorized to be primarily constituted by skillful engagement between people, which implies that it is possible to investigate the origins and development of social awareness using multi-user HCIs. We analyzed the trial-by-trial objective and subjective changes in sociality that took place during a perceptual crossing experiment in which embodied interaction between pairs of adults was mediated over a minimalist haptic HCI. Since that study required participants to implicitly relearn how to mutually engage so as to perceive each other's presence, we hypothesized that there would be indications that the initial developmental stages of social awareness were recapitulated. Preliminary results reveal that, despite the lack of explicit feedback about task performance, there was a trend for the clarity of social awareness to increase over time. We discuss the methodological challenges involved in evaluating whether this trend was characterized by distinct developmental stages of objective behavior and subjective experience. PMID:25309490

  6. Reciprocity in computer-human interaction: source-based, norm-based, and affect-based explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Liang, Yuhua Jake

    2015-04-01

    Individuals often apply social rules when they interact with computers, and this is known as the Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) effect. Following previous work, one approach to understand the mechanism responsible for CASA is to utilize computer agents and have the agents attempt to gain human compliance (e.g., completing a pattern recognition task). The current study focuses on three key factors frequently cited to influence traditional notions of compliance: evaluations toward the source (competence and warmth), normative influence (reciprocity), and affective influence (mood). Structural equation modeling assessed the effects of these factors on human compliance with computer request. The final model shows that norm-based influence (reciprocity) increased the likelihood of compliance, while evaluations toward the computer agent did not significantly influence compliance.

  7. Human-Computer Interaction for BCI Games: Usability and User Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plass-Oude Bos, Danny; Reuderink, Boris; Laar, van de Bram; Gürkök, Hayrettin; Mühl, Christian; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk; Nijholt, Anton; Sourin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) come with a lot of issues, such as delays, bad recognition, long training times, and cumbersome hardware. Gamers are a large potential target group for this new interaction modality, but why would healthy subjects want to use it? BCI provides a combination of informat

  8. Human-Computer Interaction and Operators' Performance Optimizing Work Design with Activity Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bedny, Gregory Z

    2010-01-01

    Directed to a broad and interdisciplinary audience, this book provides a complete account of what has been accomplished in applied and systemic-structural activity theory. It presents a new approach to applied psychology and the study of human work that has derived from activity theory. The selected articles demonstrate the basic principles of studying human work and particularly computer-based work in complex sociotechnical systems. The book includes examples of applied and systemic-structural activity theory to HCI and man-machine-systems, aviation, safety, design and optimization of human p

  9. Wearable Computing System with Input-Output Devices Based on Eye-Based Human Computer Interaction Allowing Location Based Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wearable computing with Input-Output devices Base on Eye-Based Human Computer Interaction: EBHCI which allows location based web services including navigation, location/attitude/health condition monitoring is proposed. Through implementation of the proposed wearable computing system, all the functionality is confirmed. It is also found that the system does work well. It can be used easily and also is not expensive. Experimental results for EBHCI show excellent performance in terms of key-in accuracy as well as input speed. It is accessible to internet, obviously, and has search engine capability.

  10. Child Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Janet; Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Markopoulos, Panos

    The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant...

  11. Advancements in remote physiological measurement and applications in human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Physiological signals are important for tracking health and emotional states. Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is a set of techniques for remotely recovering cardio-pulmonary signals from video of the human body. Advances in iPPG methods over the past decade combined with the ubiquity of digital cameras presents the possibility for many new, lowcost applications of physiological monitoring. This talk will highlight methods for recovering physiological signals, work characterizing the impact of video parameters and hardware on these measurements, and applications of this technology in human-computer interfaces.

  12. Rapid Human-Computer Interactive Conceptual Design of Mobile and Manipulative Robot Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-19

    Learning Comparative User Models for Accelerating Human-Computer Collaborative Search, Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music , Sound, Art and...has been investigated theoretically to some extent ([12]) and successfully applied to artistic tasks ([11, 5]). Our hypothesis is that it is possible...model’s prediction to the sign of the original entry. If the signs coincide for all entries, the network is considered to be successfully trained

  13. Ontology for assessment studies of human-computer-interaction in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machno, Andrej; Jannin, Pierre; Dameron, Olivier; Korb, Werner; Scheuermann, Gerik; Meixensberger, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    New technologies improve modern medicine, but may result in unwanted consequences. Some occur due to inadequate human-computer-interactions (HCI). To assess these consequences, an investigation model was developed to facilitate the planning, implementation and documentation of studies for HCI in surgery. The investigation model was formalized in Unified Modeling Language and implemented as an ontology. Four different top-level ontologies were compared: Object-Centered High-level Reference, Basic Formal Ontology, General Formal Ontology (GFO) and Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering, according to the three major requirements of the investigation model: the domain-specific view, the experimental scenario and the representation of fundamental relations. Furthermore, this article emphasizes the distinction of "information model" and "model of meaning" and shows the advantages of implementing the model in an ontology rather than in a database. The results of the comparison show that GFO fits the defined requirements adequately: the domain-specific view and the fundamental relations can be implemented directly, only the representation of the experimental scenario requires minor extensions. The other candidates require wide-ranging extensions, concerning at least one of the major implementation requirements. Therefore, the GFO was selected to realize an appropriate implementation of the developed investigation model. The ensuing development considered the concrete implementation of further model aspects and entities: sub-domains, space and time, processes, properties, relations and functions. The investigation model and its ontological implementation provide a modular guideline for study planning, implementation and documentation within the area of HCI research in surgery. This guideline helps to navigate through the whole study process in the form of a kind of standard or good clinical practice, based on the involved foundational frameworks

  14. A truly human interface: Interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eCorti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots become hybrid agents (echoborgs capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people’s experiences interacting with echoborgs and the extent to which echoborgs pass as autonomous humans. First, participants in a Turing Test spoke with a chat bot via either a text interface or an echoborg. Human shadowing did not improve the chat bot’s chance of passing but did increase interrogators’ ratings of how human-like the chat bot seemed. In our second study, participants had to decide whether their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot or simply pretended to be one. Compared to those who engaged a text interface, participants who engaged an echoborg were more likely to perceive their interlocutor as pretending to be a chat bot. In our third study, participants were naïve to the fact that their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot. Unlike those who engaged a text interface, the vast majority of participants who engaged an echoborg neither sensed nor suspected a robotic interaction. These findings have implications for android science, the Turing Test paradigm, and human-computer interaction. The human body, as the delivery mechanism of communication, fundamentally alters the social psychological dynamics of interactions with machine intelligence.

  15. Improving Human-Computer Interaction by Developing Culture-sensitive Applications based on Common Sense Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Anacleto, Junia Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    The advent of Web 3.0, claiming for personalization in interactive systems (Lassila & Hendler, 2007), and the need for systems capable of interacting in a more natural way in the future society flooded with computer systems and devices (Harper et al., 2008) show that great advances in HCI should be done. This chapter presents some contributions of LIA for the future of HCI, defending that using common sense knowledge is a possibility for improving HCI, especially because people assign meaning to their messages based on their common sense and, therefore, the use of this knowledge in developing user interfaces can make them more intuitive to the end-user. Moreover, as common sense knowledge varies from group to group of people, it can be used for developing applications capable of giving different feedback for different target groups, as the applications presented along this chapter illustrate, allowing, in this way, interface personalization taking into account cultural issues. For the purpose of using com...

  16. A truly human interface: interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower) repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots) become hybrid agents (“echoborgs”) capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people’s experiences interacting with echoborgs and the extent to which echoborgs pass as autonomous humans. First, participants in a Turing Test spoke with a chat bot via either a text interface or an echoborg. Human shadowing did not improve the chat bot’s chance of passing but did increase interrogators’ ratings of how human-like the chat bot seemed. In our second study, participants had to decide whether their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot or simply pretended to be one. Compared to those who engaged a text interface, participants who engaged an echoborg were more likely to perceive their interlocutor as pretending to be a chat bot. In our third study, participants were naïve to the fact that their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot. Unlike those who engaged a text interface, the vast majority of participants who engaged an echoborg did not sense a robotic interaction. These findings have implications for android science, the Turing Test paradigm, and human–computer interaction. The human body, as the delivery mechanism of communication, fundamentally alters the social psychological dynamics of interactions with machine intelligence. PMID:26042066

  17. A Computational Model of Human-Robot Spatial Interactions Based on a Qualitative Trajectory Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dondrup

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a probabilistic sequential model of Human-Robot Spatial Interaction (HRSI using a well-established Qualitative Trajectory Calculus (QTC to encode HRSI between a human and a mobile robot in a meaningful, tractable, and systematic manner. Our key contribution is to utilise QTC as a state descriptor and model HRSI as a probabilistic sequence of such states. Apart from the sole direction of movements of human and robot modelled by QTC, attributes of HRSI like proxemics and velocity profiles play vital roles for the modelling and generation of HRSI behaviour. In this paper, we particularly present how the concept of proxemics can be embedded in QTC to facilitate richer models. To facilitate reasoning on HRSI with qualitative representations, we show how we can combine the representational power of QTC with the concept of proxemics in a concise framework, enriching our probabilistic representation by implicitly modelling distances. We show the appropriateness of our sequential model of QTC by encoding different HRSI behaviours observed in two spatial interaction experiments. We classify these encounters, creating a comparative measurement, showing the representational capabilities of the model.

  18. Composite pattern structured light projection for human computer interaction in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chun; Hassebrook, Laurence G.; Lau, Daniel L.; Yalla, Veera Ganesh

    2005-05-01

    Interacting with computer technology while wearing a space suit is difficult at best. We present a sensor that can interpret body gestures in 3-Dimensions. Having the depth dimension allows simple thresholding to isolate the hands as well as use their positioning and orientation as input controls to digital devices such as computers and/or robotic devices. Structured light pattern projection is a well known method of accurately extracting 3-Dimensional information of a scene. Traditional structured light methods require several different patterns to recover the depth, without ambiguity and albedo sensitivity, and are corrupted by object motion during the projection/capture process. The authors have developed a methodology for combining multiple patterns into a single composite pattern by using 2-Dimensional spatial modulation techniques. A single composite pattern projection does not require synchronization with the camera so the data acquisition rate is only limited by the video rate. We have incorporated dynamic programming to greatly improve the resolution of the scan. Other applications include machine vision, remote controlled robotic interfacing in space, advanced cockpit controls and computer interfacing for the disabled. We will present performance analysis, experimental results and video examples.

  19. Computational study on the interactions and orientation of monoclonal human immunoglobulin G on a polystyrene surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javkhlantugs, Namsrai; Bayar, Hexig; Ganzorig, Chimed; Ueda, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Having a theoretical understanding of the orientation of immunoglobulin on an immobilized solid surface is important in biomedical pathogen-detecting systems and cellular analysis. Despite the stable adsorption of immunoglobulin on a polystyrene (PS) surface that has been applied in many kinds of immunoassays, there are many uncertainties in antibody-based clinical and biological experimental methods. To understand the binding mechanism and physicochemical interactions between immunoglobulin and the PS surface at the atomic level, we investigated the binding behavior and interactions of the monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) on the PS surface using the computational method. In our docking simulation with the different arrangement of translational and rotational orientation of IgG onto the PS surface, three typical orientation patterns of the immunoglobulin G on the PS surface were found. We precisely analyzed these orientation patterns and clarified how the immunoglobulin G interacts with the PS surface at atomic scale in the beginning of the adsorption process. Major driving forces for the adsorption of IgG onto the PS surface come from serine (Ser), aspartic acid (Asp), and glutamic acid (Glu) residues. PMID:23874096

  20. Ibalizumab-human CD4 receptor interaction: computational alanine scanning molecular dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Antibody drugs are used in the treatment of many chronic diseases. Recently, however, patients and doctors have encountered problems with drug resistance, and improving the affinity of antibody drugs has therefore become a pressing issue. Ibalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human CD4, the primary receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this study, we sought to identify the key residues of the complementaritydetermining regions (CDRs) of ibalizumab. Virtual alanine mutations (complementarity-determining regions of ibalizumab) were also studied using solvated interaction energies derived from molecular dynamics and the explicit water model. Using 1,000 nanosecond molecular dynamic simulations, we identified six residues: Tyr50 [HCDR2], Tyr53 [HCDR3], Asp58 [HCDR2], Glu95 [HCDR2], and Arg95 [LCDR3]. The Robetta alanine-scanning mutagenesis method and crystallographic information were used to verify our simulations. Our simulated binding affinity of -17.33 kcal/mol is close to the experimentally determined value of -16.48 kcal/mol. Our findings may be useful for protein engineering the structure of the ibalizumab-human CD4 receptor complex. Moreover, the six residues that we identified may play a significant role in the development of bioactive antibody analogues.

  1. HumanComputer Systems Interaction Backgrounds and Applications 2 Part 1

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikowski, Juliusz; Mroczek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The main contemporary human-system interaction (H-SI) problems consist in design and/or improvement of the tools for effective exchange of information between individual humans or human groups and technical systems created for humans aiding in reaching their vital goals. This book is a second issue in a series devoted to the novel in H-SI results and contributions reached for the last years by many research groups in European and extra-European countries. The preliminary (usually shortened) versions of the chapters  were presented as conference papers at the 3rd International Conference on H-SI held in Rzeszow, Poland, in 2010. A  large number of valuable papers  selected for publication caused a necessity to publish the book in two volumes. The given, 1st Volume  consists of sections devoted to: I. Decision Supporting Systems, II. Distributed Knowledge Bases and WEB Systems and III. Impaired Persons  Aiding Systems. The decision supporting systems concern various application areas, like enterprises mana...

  2. The effects of syntactic complexity on the human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechile, R. A.; Fleischman, R. N.; Sadoski, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Three divided-attention experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a syntactic analysis of the primary task of editing flight route-way-point information. For all editing conditions, a formal syntactic expression was developed for the operator's interaction with the computer. In terms of the syntactic expression, four measures of syntactic were examined. Increased syntactic complexity did increase the time to train operators, but once the operators were trained, syntactic complexity did not influence the divided-attention performance. However, the number of memory retrievals required of the operator significantly accounted for the variation in the accuracy, workload, and task completion time found on the different editing tasks under attention-sharing conditions.

  3. Computational study on the interactions and orientation of monoclonal human immunoglobulin G on a polystyrene surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javkhlantugs N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Namsrai Javkhlantugs,1,2 Hexig Bayar,3 Chimed Ganzorig,1 Kazuyoshi Ueda2 1Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and Department of Chemical Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; 2Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan; 3The Key Laboratory of Mammalian Reproductive Biology and Biotechnology of the Ministry of Education, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China Abstract: Having a theoretical understanding of the orientation of immunoglobulin on an immobilized solid surface is important in biomedical pathogen-detecting systems and cellular analysis. Despite the stable adsorption of immunoglobulin on a polystyrene (PS surface that has been applied in many kinds of immunoassays, there are many uncertainties in antibody-based clinical and biological experimental methods. To understand the binding mechanism and physicochemical interactions between immunoglobulin and the PS surface at the atomic level, we investigated the binding behavior and interactions of the monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG on the PS surface using the computational method. In our docking simulation with the different arrangement of translational and rotational orientation of IgG onto the PS surface, three typical orientation patterns of the immunoglobulin G on the PS surface were found. We precisely analyzed these orientation patterns and clarified how the immunoglobulin G interacts with the PS surface at atomic scale in the beginning of the adsorption process. Major driving forces for the adsorption of IgG onto the PS surface come from serine (Ser, aspartic acid (Asp, and glutamic acid (Glu residues. Keywords: bionano interface, immunoassay, polystyrene, IgG, physical adsorption, simulation

  4. Child Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Janet; Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Markopoulos, Panos

    The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant...... contributor to the ACM CHI conference. Having recently been given status as an IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing) TC13 working group, the community now needs to make plans around its academic themes and its coherence as a developing academic community. The CCI SIG at CHI aims to use...

  5. HUMAN INTERACTION WITH MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Zamfiroiu; Emanuel Herteliu; Bogdan Vintila

    2012-01-01

    Computing - human interaction is a very important paradigm because informatics applications are created to be used by people via human interaction. Nowadays mobile applications are more used so is necessarily to talk about mobile - human interaction. In this paper types of mobile devices are presented. Citizen oriented character of mobile application and his utility are described. Different means of interactions with mobile devices are analyzed and in the end of the paper direction of mobile ...

  6. Study of interaction between human serum albumin and three phenanthridine derivatives: Fluorescence spectroscopy and computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianming; Yue, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jing; Yan, Xuyang; Liu, Ren; Sun, Yangyang; Li, Xiaoge

    2015-06-01

    Over the past decades, phenanthridine derivatives have captured the imagination of many chemists due to their wide applications. In the present work, the interaction between phenanthridine derivatives benzo [4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]thieno[2,3-c]quinoline (BTQ), benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]furo[2,3-c]quinoline (BFQ), 5,6-dimethylbenzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]furo[2,3-c]quinoline (DFQ) and human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by molecular modeling techniques and spectroscopic methods. The results of molecular modeling simulations revealed that the phenanthridine derivatives could bind on both site I in HSA. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of HSA by phenanthridine derivatives were the result of the formation of phenanthridine derivatives-HSA complex, and the binding intensity between three phenanthridine derivatives and HSA was BTQ > BFQ > DFQ. Thermodynamics confirmed that the interaction were entropy driven with predominantly hydrophobic forces. The effects of some biological metal ions and toxic ions on the binding affinity between phenanthridine derivatives and HSA were further examined.

  7. 人机交互的若干关键技术%Some Key Techniques on Human-Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红兵; 瞿裕忠; 徐冬梅; 王; 尧

    2001-01-01

    人机交互(Human-Computer Interaction)是研究人、计算机以及它们相互影响的技术.人机结合以人为主,将是未来计算机系统的特点,实现人机高效合作将是新一代人机界面的主要目的.多通道用户界面、计算机支持的协同工作、三维人机交互等是实现高效自然的人机交互的关键技术.

  8. 人机交互中的场景开发%Scenarios Development in Human-Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向波; 邢朝伟

    2003-01-01

    场景是人机交互HCI(Human-Computer Interaction)中的重要技术.文章针对交互系统设计中通常存在的问题,比较深入地分析了基于模型的人机交互过程,对任务分析中场景的作用、应用、包含内容作了较深入的探讨.结果说明场景开发是交互系统深入研究、成功开发的关键步骤之一.

  9. Computational study of the human dystrophin repeats: interaction properties and molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Baptiste; Giudice, Emmanuel; Nicolas, Aurélie; Delalande, Olivier; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Dystrophin is a large protein involved in the rare genetic disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). It functions as a mechanical linker between the cytoskeleton and the sarcolemma, and is able to resist shear stresses during muscle activity. In all, 75% of the dystrophin molecule consists of a large central rod domain made up of 24 repeat units that share high structural homology with spectrin-like repeats. However, in the absence of any high-resolution structure of these repeats, the molecular basis of dystrophin central domain's functions has not yet been deciphered. In this context, we have performed a computational study of the whole dystrophin central rod domain based on the rational homology modeling of successive and overlapping tandem repeats and the analysis of their surface properties. Each tandem repeat has very specific surface properties that make it unique. However, the repeats share enough electrostatic-surface similarities to be grouped into four separate clusters. Molecular dynamics simulations of four representative tandem repeats reveal specific flexibility or bending properties depending on the repeat sequence. We thus suggest that the dystrophin central rod domain is constituted of seven biologically relevant sub-domains. Our results provide evidence for the role of the dystrophin central rod domain as a scaffold platform with a wide range of surface features and biophysical properties allowing it to interact with its various known partners such as proteins and membrane lipids. This new integrative view is strongly supported by the previous experimental works that investigated the isolated domains and the observed heterogeneity of the severity of dystrophin related pathologies, especially Becker muscular dystrophy.

  10. Computational study of the human dystrophin repeats: interaction properties and molecular dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Legrand

    Full Text Available Dystrophin is a large protein involved in the rare genetic disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. It functions as a mechanical linker between the cytoskeleton and the sarcolemma, and is able to resist shear stresses during muscle activity. In all, 75% of the dystrophin molecule consists of a large central rod domain made up of 24 repeat units that share high structural homology with spectrin-like repeats. However, in the absence of any high-resolution structure of these repeats, the molecular basis of dystrophin central domain's functions has not yet been deciphered. In this context, we have performed a computational study of the whole dystrophin central rod domain based on the rational homology modeling of successive and overlapping tandem repeats and the analysis of their surface properties. Each tandem repeat has very specific surface properties that make it unique. However, the repeats share enough electrostatic-surface similarities to be grouped into four separate clusters. Molecular dynamics simulations of four representative tandem repeats reveal specific flexibility or bending properties depending on the repeat sequence. We thus suggest that the dystrophin central rod domain is constituted of seven biologically relevant sub-domains. Our results provide evidence for the role of the dystrophin central rod domain as a scaffold platform with a wide range of surface features and biophysical properties allowing it to interact with its various known partners such as proteins and membrane lipids. This new integrative view is strongly supported by the previous experimental works that investigated the isolated domains and the observed heterogeneity of the severity of dystrophin related pathologies, especially Becker muscular dystrophy.

  11. Human DPP III – Keap1 Interactions: A Combined Experimental And Computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gundić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1 is a cellular sensor for oxidative stress and a negative regulator of the transcription factor Nrf2. Keap1 and Nrf2 control expression of nearly 500 genes with diverse cytoprotective functions and the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway is a major regulator of cytoprotective responses to oxidative and electrophilic stress. It was found that the metallopeptidase dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III contributes to Nrf2 activation by binding to Keap1, probably by binding to the Kelch domain, and thereby influences Nrf2 activity in cancer. We here first determined that the KD of the DPP III-Kelch domain complex is in the submicromolar range. In order to elucidate the molecular details of the DPP III – Kelch interaction we then built models of the complex between human DPP III and the Keap1 Kelch domain and performed coarse-grained and atomistic simulations of the complexes. In the most stable complexes, the ETGE motif in the DPP III flexible loop binds near the central pore of the six-blade β-propeller Kelch domain. According to the preliminary HD exchange experiments DPP III binds to the more unstructured end of Kelch domain. According to the results of MD simulations DPP III binding to the Kelch domain does not influence the overall DPP III structure or the long-range domain fluctuations. We can conclude that DPP III forms the stable complexes with the Keap1 Kelch domain by inserting the flexible loop into the entrance to the central pore of the six blade β-propeller Kelch domain at its more unstructured, N-terminus. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  12. Using Tablet PCs in Classroom for Teaching Human-Computer Interaction: An Experience in High Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, André Constantino; Marques, Daniela; de Oliveira, Rodolfo Francisco; Noda, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The use of computers in the teaching and learning process is investigated by many researches and, nowadays, due the available diversity of computing devices, tablets are become popular in classroom too. So what are the advantages and disadvantages to use tablets in classroom? How can we shape the teaching and learning activities to get the best of…

  13. An Investigation of Human-Computer Interaction Approaches Beneficial to Weak Learners in Complex Animation Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Animation is one of the useful contemporary educational technologies in teaching complex subjects. There is a growing interest in proper use of learner-technology interaction to promote learning quality for different groups of learner needs. The purpose of this study is to investigate if an interaction approach supports weak learners, who have…

  14. Une approche pragmatique cognitive de l'interaction personne/système informatisé A Cognitive Pragmatic Approach of Human/Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Saint-Pierre

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous proposons une approche inférentielle de l'interaction humain/ordinateur. C'est par la prise en compte de l'activité cognitive de l'utilisateur pendant son travail avec un système que nous voulons comprendre ce type d'interaction. Ceci mènera à une véritable évaluation des interfaces/utilisateurs et pourra servir de guide pour des interfaces en développement. Nos analyses décrivent le processus inférentiel impliqué dans le contexte dynamique d'exécution de tâche, grâce à une catégorisation de l'activité cognitive issue des verbalisations recueillies auprès d'utilisateurs qui " pensent à haute voix " en travaillant. Nous présentons des instruments méthodologiques mis au point dans notre recherche pour l'analyses et la catégorisation des protocoles. Les résultats sont interprétés dans le cadre de la théorie de la pertinence de Sperber et Wilson (1995 en termes d'effort cognitif dans le traitement des objets (linguistique, iconique, graphique... apparaissant à l'écran et d'effet cognitif de ces derniers. Cette approche est généralisable à tout autre contexte d'interaction humain/ordinateur comme, par exemple, le télé-apprentissage.This article proposes an inferential approach for the study of human/computer interaction. It is by taking into account the user's cognitive activity while working at a computer that we propose to understand this interaction. This approach leads to a real user/interface evaluation and, hopefully, will serve as guidelines for the design of new interfaces. Our analysis describe the inferential process involved in the dynamics of task performance. The cognitive activity of the user is grasped by the mean of a " thinking aloud " method through which the user is asked to verbalize while working at the computer. Tools developped by our research team for the categorization of the verbal protocols are presented. The results are interpreted within the relevance theory

  15. Computational modeling of blast wave interaction with a human body and assessment of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X. G.; Przekwas, A. J.; Gupta, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    The modeling of human body biomechanics resulting from blast exposure poses great challenges because of the complex geometry and the substantial material heterogeneity. We developed a detailed human body finite element model representing both the geometry and the materials realistically. The model includes the detailed head (face, skull, brain and spinal cord), the neck, the skeleton, air cavities (lungs) and the tissues. Hence, it can be used to properly model the stress wave propagation in the human body subjected to blast loading. The blast loading on the human was generated from a simulated C4 explosion. We used the highly scalable solvers in the multi-physics code CoBi for both the blast simulation and the human body biomechanics. The meshes generated for these simulations are of good quality so that relatively large time-step sizes can be used without resorting to artificial time scaling treatments. The coupled gas dynamics and biomechanics solutions were validated against the shock tube test data. The human body models were used to conduct parametric simulations to find the biomechanical response and the brain injury mechanism due to blasts impacting the human body. Under the same blast loading condition, we showed the importance of inclusion of the whole body.

  16. Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Internet Residency: Implications for Both Personal Life and Teaching/Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crearie, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances over the last decade have had a significant impact on the teaching and learning experiences students encounter today. We now take technologies such as Web 2.0, mobile devices, cloud computing, podcasts, social networking, super-fast broadband, and connectedness for granted. So what about the student use of these types of…

  17. Non-Speech Sound in Human-Computer Interaction: A Review and Design Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, James; Winn, William

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research on uses of computer sound and suggests how sound might be used effectively by instructional and interface designers. Topics include principles of interface design; the perception of sound; earcons, both symbolic and iconic; sound in data analysis; sound in virtual environments; and guidelines for using sound. (70 references) (LRW)

  18. Toward affective brain-computer interfaces : exploring the neurophysiology of affect during human media interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Affective Brain-Computer Interfaces (aBCI), the sensing of emotions from brain activity, seems a fantasy from the realm of science fiction. But unlike faster-than-light travel or teleportation, aBCI seems almost within reach due to novel sensor technologies, the advancement of neuroscience, and the

  19. Cooperation in human-computer communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenberg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to simulate cooperation in human-computer communication to model the communicative interaction process of agents in natural dialogs in order to provide advanced human-computer interaction in that coherence is maintained between contributions of both agents, i.e. the human user and the computer. This thesis contributes to certain aspects of understanding and generation and their interaction in the German language. In spontaneous dialogs agents cooperate by the pro...

  20. Trends in Human-Computer Interaction to Support Future Intelligence Analysis Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    strategies including (DARPA, 2011a): • Intelligent interruption to improve limited working memory ; • Attention management to improve focus during...complex tasks; • Cued memory retrieval to improve situational awareness and context recovery; • Modality switching (i.e., audio, visual) to increase...www.biometry.com www.handresearch.com Vein pattern palm reading by Fujitsu www.dealspwn.com 16 Augmented Cognition / Brain Computer Interfaces NeuroSky MindSet OCZ

  1. Modeling Goal-Directed User Exploration in Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    is implemented as a LISP program outside the confines of a cognitive architecture. The normalization assumption is implemented by simply normalizing...invoke a LISP function to compute the infoscent of the link with respect to the goal. The LISP function will then update the utilities of the three...competing productions (see Section 4.2.1.1) based on the link’s infoscent. This LISP function is an example of a black-box implementation of the

  2. The Importance of Human-Computer Interaction in Radiology E-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Harder, Annemarie M; Frijlingh, Marissa; Ravesloot, Cécile J; Oosterbaan, Anne E; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2015-01-01

    With the development of cross-sectional imaging techniques and transformation to digital reading of radiological imaging, e-learning might be a promising tool in undergraduate radiology education. In this systematic review of the literature, we evaluate the emergence of image interaction possibiliti

  3. The Importance of Human-Computer Interaction in Radiology E-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Harder, Annemarie M; Frijlingh, Marissa; Ravesloot, Cécile J; Oosterbaan, Anne E; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2016-04-01

    With the development of cross-sectional imaging techniques and transformation to digital reading of radiological imaging, e-learning might be a promising tool in undergraduate radiology education. In this systematic review of the literature, we evaluate the emergence of image interaction possibilities in radiology e-learning programs and evidence for effects of radiology e-learning on learning outcomes and perspectives of medical students and teachers. A systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, ERIC, and PsycInfo was performed. Articles were screened by two authors and included when they concerned the evaluation of radiological e-learning tools for undergraduate medical students. Nineteen articles were included. Seven studies evaluated e-learning programs with image interaction possibilities. Students perceived e-learning with image interaction possibilities to be a useful addition to learning with hard copy images and to be effective for learning 3D anatomy. Both e-learning programs with and without image interaction possibilities were found to improve radiological knowledge and skills. In general, students found e-learning programs easy to use, rated image quality high, and found the difficulty level of the courses appropriate. Furthermore, they felt that their knowledge and understanding of radiology improved by using e-learning. In conclusion, the addition of radiology e-learning in undergraduate medical education can improve radiological knowledge and image interpretation skills. Differences between the effect of e-learning with and without image interpretation possibilities on learning outcomes are unknown and should be subject to future research.

  4. Visualizing Humans by Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of the problems and techniques involved in visualizing humans in a three-dimensional scene. Topics discussed include human shape modeling, including shape creation and deformation; human motion control, including facial animation and interaction with synthetic actors; and human rendering and clothing, including textures and…

  5. Why E-Business Must Evolve beyond Market Orientation: Applying Human Interaction Models to Computer-Mediated Corporate Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kevin McCullough

    2001-01-01

    Considers the design of corporate communications for electronic business and discusses the increasing importance of corporate interaction as companies work in virtual environments. Compares sociological and psychological theories of human interaction and relationship formation with organizational interaction theories of corporate relationship…

  6. Robot Arm Control and Having Meal Aid System with Eye Based Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kohei; Mardiyanto, Ronny

    Robot arm control and having meal aid system with eye based HCI is proposed. The proposed system allows disabled person to select desirable food from the meal tray by their eyes only. Robot arm which is used for retrieving the desirable food is controlled by human eye. At the tip of the robot arm, tiny camera is equipped. Disabled person wear a glass of which a single Head Mount Display: HMD and tiny camera is mounted so that disabled person can take a look at the desired food and retrieve it by looking at the food displayed onto HMD. Experimental results show that disabled person can retrieve the desired food successfully. It also is confirmed that robot arm control by eye based HCI is much faster than that by hands.

  7. A mobile Nursing Information System based on human-computer interaction design for improving quality of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuo-Wei; Liu, Cheng-Li

    2012-06-01

    A conventional Nursing Information System (NIS), which supports the role of nurse in some areas, is typically deployed as an immobile system. However, the traditional information system can't response to patients' conditions in real-time, causing delays on the availability of this information. With the advances of information technology, mobile devices are increasingly being used to extend the human mind's limited capacity to recall and process large numbers of relevant variables and to support information management, general administration, and clinical practice. Unfortunately, there have been few studies about the combination of a well-designed small-screen interface with a personal digital assistant (PDA) in clinical nursing. Some researchers found that user interface design is an important factor in determining the usability and potential use of a mobile system. Therefore, this study proposed a systematic approach to the development of a mobile nursing information system (MNIS) based on Mobile Human-Computer Interaction (M-HCI) for use in clinical nursing. The system combines principles of small-screen interface design with user-specified requirements. In addition, the iconic functions were designed with metaphor concept that will help users learn the system more quickly with less working-memory. An experiment involving learnability testing, thinking aloud and a questionnaire investigation was conducted for evaluating the effect of MNIS on PDA. The results show that the proposed MNIS is good on learning and higher satisfaction on symbol investigation, terminology and system information.

  8. 计算机人机界面交互的美感体现%Beauty of Human-computer Interface Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高超; 王坤茜

    2014-01-01

    By the angle of the application of aesthetic principles in human-computer interface, the paper explores the application of aesthetics in human-computer interface, and sums up improve the use efficient and use feeling in human-computer interaction by enhancing the beauty of human-computer interface.%本文从美学原则在计算机人机界面中的应用的角度进行分析,探讨美学在计算机人机界面中的应用,从而总结出,如何通过提高计算机人机交互界面的美感来提升用户进行人机交互时的使用效率及使用感受。

  9. Ubiquitous Human Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Zittrain, Jonathan L.

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing means network connectivity everywhere, linking devices and systems as small as a thumb tack and as large as a worldwide product distribution chain. What could happen when people are so readily networked? This short essay explores issues arising from two possible emerging models of ubiquitous human computing: fungible networked brainpower and collective personal vital sign monitoring.

  10. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  11. When computers were human

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, David Alan

    2013-01-01

    Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term ""computer"" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology. Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider wo

  12. Evaluation of mental workload and familiarity in human computer interaction with integrated development environments using single-channel EEG

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    With modern developments in sensing technology it has become possible to detect and classify brain activity into distinct states such as attention and relaxation using commercially avail- able EEG devices. These devices provide a low-cost and minimally intrusive method to observe a subject’s cognitive load whilst interacting with a computer system, thus providing a basis for deter- mining the overall effectiveness of the design of a computer interface. In this paper, a single-channel dry sens...

  13. Support vector machines to detect physiological patterns for EEG and EMG-based human-computer interaction: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, L. R.; Cavrini, F.; Sbernini, L.; Riillo, F.; Bianchi, L.; Seri, S.; Saggio, G.

    2017-02-01

    Support vector machines (SVMs) are widely used classifiers for detecting physiological patterns in human-computer interaction (HCI). Their success is due to their versatility, robustness and large availability of free dedicated toolboxes. Frequently in the literature, insufficient details about the SVM implementation and/or parameters selection are reported, making it impossible to reproduce study analysis and results. In order to perform an optimized classification and report a proper description of the results, it is necessary to have a comprehensive critical overview of the applications of SVM. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the usage of SVM in the determination of brain and muscle patterns for HCI, by focusing on electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) techniques. In particular, an overview of the basic principles of SVM theory is outlined, together with a description of several relevant literature implementations. Furthermore, details concerning reviewed papers are listed in tables and statistics of SVM use in the literature are presented. Suitability of SVM for HCI is discussed and critical comparisons with other classifiers are reported.

  14. Human computer interaction and communication aids for hearing-impaired, deaf and deaf-blind people: Introduction to the special thematic session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothe, Hans-Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives ail overview and extends the Special Thematic Session (STS) oil research and development of technologies for hearing-impaired, deaf, and deaf-blind people. The topics of the session focus oil special equipment or services to improve communication and human computer interaction...

  15. Human computer interaction and communication aids for hearing-impaired, deaf and deaf-blind people: Introduction to the special thematic session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothe, Hans-Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives ail overview and extends the Special Thematic Session (STS) oil research and development of technologies for hearing-impaired, deaf, and deaf-blind people. The topics of the session focus oil special equipment or services to improve communication and human computer interaction...

  16. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ICACII 2012) was the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. The conference provided a rare opportunity to bring together worldwide academic researchers and practitioners for exchanging the latest developments and applications in this field such as Intelligent Computing, Affective Computing, Machine Learning, Business Intelligence and HCI.   This volume is a collection of 119 papers selected from 410 submissions from universities and industries all over the world, based on their quality and relevancy to the conference. All of the papers have been peer-reviewed by selected experts.  

  17. 人机交互技术在现代展示设计中的应用%Application of Human-computer Interaction in Modern Display Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周波; 杨京玲

    2011-01-01

    Taking the application of human-computer interaction in modem display design as an inspiration, it analyzed the key technologies of human-computer interaction such as multi-channel user interface, computer supported cooperative work, three-dimensional human-computer interaction, etc. And then, it discussed the significance of the interactive modes in multimedia and hypermedia through the history of human-computer interaction. Further on, it analyzed the principles and advantages of the application of human-computer interaction in display design. On this basis, it pointed out that the future of the development in display design should be oriented to human-computer interaction. In order to achieve the desired result of display design, designer should choose the appropriate method base on the correct analysis and understanding of display design.%以人机交互技术在现代展示设计中的应用为启示,分析了多通道用户界面、计算机支持的协同工作、三维人机交互等实现高效自然人机交互的关键技术,并结合人机交互技术的发展历程,论述了多媒体与超媒体的交互方式对展示设计的意义,进而分析了在展示设计中人机交互技术的应用原则和使用优势。在此基础上,提出了人机交互是展示设计的发展方向,会展设计师应该基于对展示主客体的正确分析和理解,遵循相应的设计原则,选择恰当的交互实现方式,以达到预期的展示设计效果。

  18. Supervisory Control: Problems, Theory and Experiment for Application to Human-Computer Interaction in Undersea Remote Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    very difficult for human workers . For example, if a known mix of products is coming down the assembly line in a known order, the computer can then treat...each product according to its appropriate (different) program without any forgetting or confusion. A human worker would become very confused. In...An operator who formerly found his dignity in being an expert at some marn.a] or visual skill may may become " deskilled ". He may become a supervisor

  19. Insight into the modified Ibalizumab-human CD4 receptor interactions: using a computational binding free energy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Chuang, Lea-Yea

    2015-01-01

    Antibody drugs are very useful tools for the treatment of many chronic diseases. Recently, however, patients and doctors have encountered the problem of drug resistance. How to improve the affinity of antibody drugs has therefore become a pressing issue. Ibalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human CD4, the primary receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. This study investigates the mutation residues of the complementarity determining regions of Ibalizumab. We propose using the wild and mutations of Ibalizumab-human CD4 receptor complex structures, molecular dynamics techniques, alanine-scanning mutagenesis calculations and solvated interaction energies methods to predict the binding free energy of the Ibalizumab-human CD4 receptor complex structures. This work found that revealed three key positions (31th, 32th and 33th in HCDR-1) of the residues may play an important role in Ibalizumab-human CD4 receptor complex interactions. Therefore, bioengineering substitutions of the three key positions and increasing number of intermolecular interactions (HCDR-1 of Ibalizumab/human CD4 receptor) might improve the binding affinities of this complex structure.

  20. Affective Computing used in an imaging interaction paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette

    2003-01-01

    This paper combines affective computing with an imaging interaction paradigm. An imaging interaction paradigm means that human and computer communicates primarily by images. Images evoke emotions in humans, so the computer must be able to behave emotionally intelligent. An affective image selection...

  1. Affective Computing used in an imaging interaction paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette

    2003-01-01

    This paper combines affective computing with an imaging interaction paradigm. An imaging interaction paradigm means that human and computer communicates primarily by images. Images evoke emotions in humans, so the computer must be able to behave emotionally intelligent. An affective image selection...

  2. 感知媒体--机器感知与人机交互%Perceptive Media: Machine Perception and Human Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Computer hardware has always changed rapidly, but input/output devices, interaction techniques, and software for human-computer interaction have not experienced similar growth and improvement. The GUI-based style of interaction has made computers simpler and easier to use, especially for office productivity applications where computers are used as tools to accomplish specific tasks. However, as the way we use computers changes and computing becomes more pervasive and ubiquitous, largely due to advances in bandwidth and mobility, GUIs will not easily support the range of interactions necessary to meet users' needs. In order to accommodate a wider range of scenarios, tasks, users, and preferences, we need to move toward interfaces that are natural, intuitive, adaptive, and unobtrusive. "Perceptive media" is an interdisciplinary initiative to combine multimedia display and machine perception to create useful, adaptive, responsive interfaces between people and technology. This article describes and investigates aspects of perceptive media and gives examples of work in one particular sub-area, Vision Based Interfaces.

  3. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies dif

  4. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  5. Child-Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Revelle, Glenda; Zeising, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This SIG will provide child-computer interaction researchers and practitioners an opportunity to discuss four topics that represent new challenges and opportunities for the community. The four areas are: interactive technologies for children under the age of five, technology for inclusion, privacy...

  6. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  7. Handling emotions in human-computer dialogues

    CERN Document Server

    Pittermann, Johannes; Minker, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This book presents novel methods to perform robust speech-based emotion recognition at low complexity. It describes a flexible dialogue model to conveniently integrate emotions and other dialogue-influencing parameters in human-computer interaction.

  8. Experimental Tests of Normative Group Influence and Representation Effects in Computer-Mediated Communication: When Interacting Via Computers Differs from Interacting With Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Nass, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Presents two experiments to address the questions of if and how normative social influence operates in anonymous computer-mediated communication and human-computer interaction. Finds that the perception of interaction partner (human vs. computer) moderated the group conformity effect such that the undergraduate student subjects expressed greater…

  9. Molecular interaction of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) with human serum albumin (HSA): The spectroscopic, calorimetric and computational investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragna Lakshmi, T.; Mondal, Moumita; Ramadas, Krishna; Natarajan, Sakthivel

    2017-08-01

    Drug molecule interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) affects the distribution and elimination of the drug. The compound, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) has been known for its antimicrobial, antiviral, antihelminthic and anticancer properties. However, its interaction with HSA is not yet reported. In this study, the interaction between HSA and DAPG was investigated through steady-state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence (TRF), circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). Fluorescence spectroscopy results showed the strong quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of HSA due to interaction with DAPG, through dynamic quenching mechanism. The compound bound to HSA with reversible and moderate affinity which explained its easy diffusion from circulatory system to target tissue. The thermodynamic parameters from fluorescence spectroscopic data clearly revealed the contribution of hydrophobic forces but, the role of hydrogen bonds was not negligible according to the ITC studies. The interaction was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Binding with DAPG reduced the helical content of protein suggesting the unfolding of HSA. Site marker fluorescence experiments revealed the change in binding constant of DAPG in the presence of site I (warfarin) but not site II marker (ibuprofen) which confirmed that the DAPG bound to site I. ITC experiments also supported this as site I marker could not bind to HSA-DAPG complex while site II marker was accommodated in the complex. In silico studies further showed the lowest binding affinity and more stability of DAPG in site I than in site II. Thus the data presented in this study confirms the binding of DAPG to the site I of HSA which may help in further understanding of pharmacokinetic properties of DAPG.

  10. Supporting collaborative computing and interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McParland, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perry, Marcia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-05-22

    To enable collaboration on the daily tasks involved in scientific research, collaborative frameworks should provide lightweight and ubiquitous components that support a wide variety of interaction modes. We envision a collaborative environment as one that provides a persistent space within which participants can locate each other, exchange synchronous and asynchronous messages, share documents and applications, share workflow, and hold videoconferences. We are developing the Pervasive Collaborative Computing Environment (PCCE) as such an environment. The PCCE will provide integrated tools to support shared computing and task control and monitoring. This paper describes the PCCE and the rationale for its design.

  11. Close But Not Stuck: Understanding Social Distance in Human-Robot Interaction Through a Computer Mediation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Haplem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We draw on the social information processing (SIP model to argue that users’ earlier experiences with online social environments tend to attribute human-like characteristics to robots. Specifically, when users engage in socially-charged electronic environments to interact and communicate electronically with others, they find ways to overcome the relative lack of cues to adapt to the medium; this includes in terms of reacting to emotional relationships (Walther, 1997. We hypothesize that individuals who have a high sense of online community, engage with avatars and have higher levels of competence communicating with information and communication technologies (ICT, are more likely to recognize humanlike cues in robots. This in turn leads them to accept robots as part of their social and physical environments. A “robotic” social distance scale was developed to measure willingness to accept robots, and the results based on this scale, from an empirical study of college students (N = 874 are explored. The findings show that whereas avatar engagement and sense of online community have a strong effect on robots acceptance, recognition of human-like characteristics partially mediates the association between these concepts; this is even after accounting for predictors expected to affect attitudes toward robots such as religion, gender, age and robots’ appearance. The article ends by exploring the implications of this research for greater social acceptability of robots in various human domains.

  12. 1-B it 人机交互系统%One-Bit human-computer interactive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程煜; 张鸣宇; 陶霖密

    2015-01-01

    通过研制普适的非对称交互系统,解决运动能力障碍人群借助通用计算设备通过互联网进行交流这一问题。虚拟鼠标替代传统鼠标、中文输入法替代传统键盘输入功能、快捷键替代传统键盘快捷操作功能,作为交互系统的基础支持完全根据用户自身意志完成各类操作;配置1-Bit输入设备有效减轻了运动障碍人群的操作负担。基于上述方法,设计并开发实现了1-Bit人机交互系统,该系统能够利用1-Bit输入设备完成对普通计算机的操作。实验测试和分析表明,用户可以基于1-Bit输入设备操作电脑,包括文字输入、网页浏览、音视频播放、日常护理等功能,满足用户的日常电脑使用需求,同时该交互系统具有易于学习、功能方便扩展的特性。%Through developing a universal asymmetric interactive system, the obstacle of communication in the In-ternet among movement disability crowds through general computing equipment is solved.A virtual mouse took the place of the traditional mouse.A Chinese input method and shortcut keys were used instead of the original keyboard input.Users can operate computers according to their own will.The set of the one-Bit input device can further re-duce the burden for the disabled people.Based on the above-mentioned method, a one-Bit interaction system was developed and implemented, which can manipulate computers by the one-Bit input device.The user tests and anal-ysis of the system indicate that users can manipulate computers with multi-functions, including text entry, website browsing, audio and video play, and health care via one-Bit input device.The system is easy to learn and its func-tions can be developed and expanded easily, which meets the daily requirements for a user to operate a computer.

  13. 人机交互中的语音情感识别研究进展%A survey of speech emotion recognition in human computer interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张石清; 李乐民; 赵知劲

    2013-01-01

    Speech emotion recognition is a current active research topic in the fields of signal processing,pattern recognition,artificial intelligence,human computer interaction,etc.The ultimate purpose of such research is to endow computers with emotion ability and make human computer interaction be genuinely harmonic and natural.This paper reviews the recent advance of several key problems involved in speech emotion recognition,including emotional description theory,emotional speech databases,emotional acoustic analysis as well as emotion recognition methods.In addition,the existing research problems and the future direction are presented.%语音情感识别是当前信号处理、模式识别、人工智能、人机交互等领域的热点研究课题,其研究的最终目的是赋予计算机情感能力,使得人机交互做到真正的和谐和自然.本文综述了语音情感识别所涉及到的几个关键问题,包括情感表示理论、情感语音数据库、情感声学特征分析以及情感识别方法四个方面的最新进展,并指出了研究中存在的问题及下一步发展的方向.

  14. Human-computer Interaction Based on Gaze Tracking and Gesture Recognition%基于视线跟踪和手势识别的人机交互

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志勇; 秦华标

    2009-01-01

    提出一种新的基于视线跟踪和手势识别的交互方式用于远距离操作计算机.系统通过摄像头采集用户的图像,利用图像识别算法检测人眼和手指的位置,由人眼和指尖的连线确定用户指向屏幕的位置,通过判别用户手势的变化实现各种操作,达到人机交互的目的.实验结果表明,该交互方式可以较好地定位屏幕和判断用户的操作,实现自然、友好的远距离人机交互.%This paper presents a novel human-computer interaction for long-distance operation based on gaze tracking and gesture recognition. The system analyzes the image captured by camera and finds the position of eyes and fingers through some recognition algorithms. The position which user points to the screen finds through the line from the eye to the finger. By recognizing user's gestures, the system executes various operations. Experimental results demonstrate that the interaction can locate the position on the screen and recognize user's gesture. This method achieves friendly and natural long-distance human-computer interaction.

  15. Critical insight into the interaction of naringenin with human haemoglobin: A combined spectroscopic and computational modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2017-02-01

    The present study demonstrates critical insight into the binding of a bioactive flavanone naringenin with normal human haemoglobin (NHb). Both spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies reveal that naringenin interacts with NHb. The binding affinity constant and number of binding sites appear to be approximately (1.5 ± 0.2) × 104 M-1 and 1, respectively. Static quenching seems to be an important factor in binding process, as evident from steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic studies. Far UV circular dichroism spectroscopy depicts that binding of naringenin to NHb causes no change in the secondary structure of the protein, which is also evident from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study. Free energy change (ΔG0) for naringenin-NHb interaction, determined by spectroscopic and isothermal calorimetric method, appears to be -5.67 kcal/mol and -6.90 kcal/mol, respectively, and is close to the docking energy -6.84 kcal/mol. Molecular docking suggests that naringenin binds near the cavity of the tetrameric heme protein, forming hydrogen bonds with surrounding amino acid residues. The binding site is away from the heme moieties, implicating naringenin binding does not affect the oxygen binding capacity of NHb, which makes the protein a suitable carrier of the flavonoid.

  16. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then ...

  17. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID framework, and a sample of 54 HWID related papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009–2014. We group the papers into six topical group...

  18. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  19. Anthropomorphism:The Psychological Application in the Interaction between Human and Computer%拟人化:人机交互中的心理学应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗阳; 王广新

    2016-01-01

    Anthropomorphism describes the tendency to attribute human-like qualities to nonhuman agent, making it a live person with feelings and thoughts.Currently, anthropomorphism is more widely used in the domain of human-computer interaction.This study introduces the theoretical background of anthropomorphism and gives a detailed ex-planation to the psychological significance of anthropomorphism on the application and effect of human-computer in-teraction.The future research directions of anthropomorphism lie in the investigation of the anthropomorphic applica-tion boundary and utility maximization on human-computer interaction from the perspective of designers and users, as well as the exploration of the process of dehumanization.%拟人化( anthropomorphism)是指将人类的特征附加于非人类个体,使其被看作是有生命、有感觉和思想的人。人机交互是目前拟人化研究和应用较多的领域。这篇文章介绍了拟人化的理论背景并从人机交互的应用和效应方面对拟人化的心理学意义进行了详细阐述。从设计者和使用者角度探究人机交互领域中拟人化的应用边界和效用最大化,关注非人性化逆过程,是未来拟人化的研究方向。

  20. The Self-Organization of Human Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Rick; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Duran, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    We describe a “centipede’s dilemma” that faces the sciences of human interaction. Research on human interaction has been involved in extensive theoretical debate, although the vast majority of research tends to focus on a small set of human behaviors, cognitive processes, and interactive contexts....... The problem is that naturalistic human interaction must integrate all of these factors simultaneously, and grander theoretical mitigation cannot come only from focused experimental or computational agendas. We look to dynamical systems theory as a framework for thinking about how these multiple behaviors...

  1. Human computer interaction positioning system based on RFID for museum%基于RFID的博物馆人机互动定位系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周祥云; 钱慧; 余轮

    2011-01-01

    Designed a positioning system of human-computer interaction based on RFID for digital museum, bringing about the functions of zone location of people, the monitoring of people-flow's distribution and the track of people's moving trace. It met the management and application requirement of museum. Based on the track of people's moving trace, the paper proposed an application program of human-computer game-interaction combined with the location technology of RFID, and the scheme has been applied in the museum.%设计了一种基于RFID技术的数字博物馆人机互动定位系统。该系统具备人员区域定位、人流量分布监测和人员移动轨迹的追踪功能,满足了博物馆的管理应用需求。在实现人员移动轨迹追踪的基础上提出了一种结合RFID定位技术的人机互动游戏应用方案,并将该方案应用到博物馆中。

  2. Computer aided composition by means of interactive GP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ando, Daichi; Dahlstedt, Palle; Nordahl, Mats G.

    2006-01-01

    Research on the application of Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC) to the field of musical computation has been improved in recent years, marking an interesting parallel to the current trend of applying human characteristics or sensitivities to computer systems. However, past techniques...

  3. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  4. Brain-Computer Interaction: Can Multimodality Help?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Allison, Brendan Z.; Jacobs, Robert J.K.; Vidal, E.; Gatica-Perez, D.; Morency, L.P.; Sebe, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short introduction to a special ICMI session on brain-computer interaction. During this paper, we first discuss problems, solutions, and a five-year view for brain-computer interaction. We then talk further about unique issues with multimodal and hybrid brain-computer interfaces,

  5. Citation Counting, Citation Ranking, and h-Index of Human-Computer Interaction Researchers: A Comparison between Scopus and Web of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Meho, Lokman I

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the differences between Scopus and Web of Science in the citation counting, citation ranking, and h-index of 22 top human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers from EQUATOR--a large British Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration project. Results indicate that Scopus provides significantly more coverage of HCI literature than Web of Science, primarily due to coverage of relevant ACM and IEEE peer-reviewed conference proceedings. No significant differences exist between the two databases if citations in journals only are compared. Although broader coverage of the literature does not significantly alter the relative citation ranking of individual researchers, Scopus helps distinguish between the researchers in a more nuanced fashion than Web of Science in both citation counting and h-index. Scopus also generates significantly different maps of citation networks of individual scholars than those generated by Web of Science. The study also presents a comparison of h-index scores based on Goo...

  6. 近距离3D人机交互技术研究实现%Research and implementation of 3D human computer interactive technology in close scenario

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘川; 邬春学

    2015-01-01

    3D human-computer interaction is an amalgamation of computer graphics, virtual reality and pattern recognition, which consists of virtual environment and 3D object recognition. A total solution consisting of virtual environment rendering and 3D object recognition is proposed and applied in the close human-computer interaction scenes, which simulate virtual scenario with the ratio of 1∶1. The research analyses the transformation between virtual environment and reality; three main factors which have influence on stereo display of virtual object have been explored, which include the camera angle, the distance between two cameras in OpenGL and the stereo image pairs generation;3D object recognition is implemented on Intel Perceptual Computing. Experiments show that the solution has excellent 3D effect in simulation virtual scenario with 1∶1 ratio and high gesture recognition rate.%3D人机交互技术是计算机图形学、虚拟现实和模式识别的交叉融合领域,可分为虚拟环境的显示和三维物体识别。该研究将虚拟环境显示和三维物体识别整合成一个完整的解决方案并应用到1∶1模拟虚拟场景的近距离交互。研究了虚拟现实之间的坐标转换;分析了影响虚拟物体立体显示的三个主要因素:OpenGL中摄像机的张角,摄像机间距和立体图像对的产生;并实现了基于Intel Perceptual Computing的三维物体识别。实验结果显示:该方案在1∶1模拟虚拟场景方面具有良好的3D显示效果,同时在手势识别方面有较高的识别率。

  7. Interactive computer-enhanced remote viewing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtellott, J.A.; Wagner, J.F. [Mechanical Technology Incorporated, Latham, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Remediation activities such as decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) typically involve materials and activities hazardous to humans. Robots are an attractive way to conduct such remediation, but for efficiency they need a good three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the task space where they are to function. This model can be created from engineering plans and architectural drawings and from empirical data gathered by various sensors at the site. The model is used to plan robotic tasks and verify that selected paths are clear of obstacles. This report describes the development of an Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS), a software system to provide a reliable geometric description of a robotic task space, and enable robotic remediation to be conducted more effectively and more economically.

  8. Supporting Negotiation Behavior with Haptics-Enabled Human-Computer Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Küçükyılmaz, Ayşe; Sezgin, Tevfik Metin; Başdoğan, Çağatay

    2012-01-01

    An active research goal for human-computer interaction is to allow humans to communicate with computers in an intuitive and natural fashion, especially in real-life interaction scenarios. One approach that has been advocated to achieve this has been to build computer systems with human-like qualities and capabilities. In this paper, we present insight on how human-computer interaction can be enriched by employing the computers with behavioral patterns that naturally appear in human-human nego...

  9. 基于人眼注视非穿戴自然人机交互%Gazing Based Non-Wearable and Natural Human-Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳雯; 管业鹏

    2016-01-01

    提出了一种基于人眼注视的非穿戴自然人机交互新方法。基于人体生物结构特征,采用主动形状模型确定人眼轮廓特征点,并根据HSV色彩空间构建人眼特征直方图,采用粒子滤波法,对人眼目标跟踪与定位。基于最大三角化划分人眼轮廓特征,构建人眼几何模型,通过图像帧间均值滤波,确定人眼注视交互目标,实现非穿戴的人机交互,满足用户交互的灵活性、舒适性和自由性等要求。通过实验对比,验证了该方法有效、可行。%A novel non-wearable and natural human-computer interaction(HCI)method has been proposed based on eye gazing. According to human being biological structure characteristics ,an active shape model is employed to locate some feature points in the eye profile. A histogram of eye feature has been built according to the HSV color space. A particle filter method has been adopted to track and locate the eye. A 2D eye geometric model is constructed based on the maximal triangulation of the eye contour features. A temporal median filter strategy has been developed to determine a stable gazing interactive target. Non-wearable and natural HCI modal is realized in which the user can move flexibly both in comfort and freedom interactive ways. Experiment results indicate that the developed approach is efficient and can be used to natural non-wearable HCI.

  10. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then at......-tempt to map these groups to the framework to find research gaps for future re-search. We find that the groups of papers cover all areas of the framework well for a variety of work and leisure domains. The area in strongest need for more research papers is the development of the holistic framework itself....... Furthermore, much focus has been on studying design sketching or implemented systems-in-use, while little attention has been paid to mature design (prototypes) or early implementation (content templates). In conclusion, we recommend an update to the framework so that it can be also useful for research...

  11. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Chris G.; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the ‘docking’, first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one ‘final’ probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial ‘orientation’ of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the ‘final’ AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target.

  12. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Chris G; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the 'docking', first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one 'final' probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial 'orientation' of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the 'final' AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target.

  13. Study on the interaction of artificial and natural food colorants with human serum albumin: A computational point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masone, Diego; Chanforan, Céline

    2015-06-01

    Due to the high amount of artificial food colorants present in infants' diets, their adverse effects have been of major concern among the literature. Artificial food colorants have been suggested to affect children's behavior, being hyperactivity the most common disorder. In this study we compare binding affinities of a group of artificial colorants (sunset yellow, quinoline yellow, carmoisine, allura red and tartrazine) and their natural industrial equivalents (carminic acid, curcumin, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside) to human serum albumin (HSA) by a docking approach and further refinement through atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Due to the protein-ligand conformational interface complexity, we used collective variable driven molecular dynamics to refine docking predictions and to score them according to a hydrogen-bond criterion. With this protocol, we were able to rank ligand affinities to HSA and to compare between the studied natural and artificial food additives. Our results show that the five artificial colorants studied bind better to HSA than their equivalent natural options, in terms of their H-bonding network, supporting the hypothesis of their potential risk to human health.

  14. Human/computer control of undersea teleoperators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, T. B.; Verplank, W. L.; Brooks, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of supervisory controlled teleoperators for accomplishment of manipulation and sensory tasks in deep ocean environments is discussed. Teleoperators and supervisory control are defined, the current problems of human divers are reviewed, and some assertions are made about why supervisory control has potential use to replace and extend human diver capabilities. The relative roles of man and computer and the variables involved in man-computer interaction are next discussed. Finally, a detailed description of a supervisory controlled teleoperator system, SUPERMAN, is presented.

  15. 载人航天某装置人机交互式结构优化设计%Structural optimization using human-computer interaction for an aerospace assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 刘洪英; 马爱军; 胡清华; 冯雪梅; 石蒙; 董睿; 赵亚雄

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of the structural optimization of a complicated structure under dynamic response constraints, a human-computer interaction method is proposed to take the advantages of human and computer in the structural optimization, and it is used in the structural optimization of an aerospace assembly. The assembly, after the structural optimization, exhibits remarkable performance improvement in that the first integral vibration frequency increases 41.1% and the maximal the frequency response acceleration of cared points drops 24.3% under the sinusoidal vibration test load conditions while the mass remains essentially unchanged. The result satisfies the requirement of the optimal design and proves the effectiveness and feasibility of the method.%为了解决复杂结构在动力学响应约束下优化的难题,综合人工以及计算机在复杂结构优化中的优点,提出一种人机交互式优化方法用于载人航天某复杂装置的优化设计。经过结构优化后的装置,在质量保持基本不变的情况下一阶振动频率提升41.1%,正弦试验条件下关心节点的最大加速度响应值减小24.3%,优化效果明显,满足优化设计要求,验证了该优化设计方法的可行、有效。

  16. Dynamic Stall Analysis Utilizing Interactive Computer Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Blade-Vortex Interaction (BV[) studies. solkes the two-dimen i,)nal, unsteady, compressible Euler and Napier -Stokes equations in strong conservation...requirements, interactive computer graphics workstations have been evolved to complement the super -computer. Workstation capabilities, in terms of

  17. Making IBM's Computer, Watson, Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This essay uses the recent victory of an IBM computer (Watson) in the TV game, Jeopardy, to speculate on the abilities Watson would need, in addition to those it has, to be human. The essay's basic premise is that to be human is to behave as humans behave and to function in society as humans function. Alternatives to this premise are considered and rejected. The viewpoint of the essay is that of teleological behaviorism. Mental states are defined as temporally extended patterns of overt behavior. From this viewpoint (although Watson does not currently have them), essential human attributes such as consciousness, the ability to love, to feel pain, to sense, to perceive, and to imagine may all be possessed by a computer. Most crucially, a computer may possess self-control and may act altruistically. However, the computer's appearance, its ability to make specific movements, its possession of particular internal structures (e.g., whether those structures are organic or inorganic), and the presence of any nonmaterial “self,” are all incidental to its humanity. PMID:22942530

  18. CosmicPy: Interactive cosmology computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, Francois; Rassat, Anais; Starck, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    CosmicPy performs simple and interactive cosmology computations for forecasting cosmological parameters constraints; it computes tomographic and 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel power spectra as well as Fisher matrices for galaxy clustering. Written in Python, it relies on a fast C++ implementation of Fourier-Bessel related computations, and requires NumPy, SciPy, and Matplotlib.

  19. Human-computer interface design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowser, S.E.

    1995-04-01

    Modern military forces assume that computer-based information is reliable, timely, available, usable, and shared. The importance of computer-based information is based on the assumption that {open_quotes}shared situation awareness, coupled with the ability to conduct continuous operations, will allow information age armies to observe, decide, and act faster, more correctly and more precisely than their enemies.{close_quotes} (Sullivan and Dubik 1994). Human-Computer Interface (HCI) design standardization is critical to the realization of the previously stated assumptions. Given that a key factor of a high-performance, high-reliability system is an easy-to-use, effective design of the interface between the hardware, software, and the user, it follows logically that the interface between the computer and the military user is critical to the success of the information-age military. The proliferation of computer technology has resulted in the development of an extensive variety of computer-based systems and the implementation of varying HCI styles on these systems. To accommodate the continued growth in computer-based systems, minimize HCI diversity, and improve system performance and reliability, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is continuing to adopt interface standards for developing computer-based systems.

  20. A computer-human interaction model to improve the diagnostic accuracy and clinical decision-making during 12-lead electrocardiogram interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Andrew W; Bond, Raymond R; Finlay, Dewar D; Breen, Cathal; Guldenring, Daniel; Gaffney, Robert; Gallagher, Anthony G; Peace, Aaron J; Henn, Pat

    2016-12-01

    The 12-lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) presents a plethora of information and demands extensive knowledge and a high cognitive workload to interpret. Whilst the ECG is an important clinical tool, it is frequently incorrectly interpreted. Even expert clinicians are known to impulsively provide a diagnosis based on their first impression and often miss co-abnormalities. Given it is widely reported that there is a lack of competency in ECG interpretation, it is imperative to optimise the interpretation process. Predominantly the ECG interpretation process remains a paper based approach and whilst computer algorithms are used to assist interpreters by providing printed computerised diagnoses, there are a lack of interactive human-computer interfaces to guide and assist the interpreter. An interactive computing system was developed to guide the decision making process of a clinician when interpreting the ECG. The system decomposes the interpretation process into a series of interactive sub-tasks and encourages the clinician to systematically interpret the ECG. We have named this model 'Interactive Progressive based Interpretation' (IPI) as the user cannot 'progress' unless they complete each sub-task. Using this model, the ECG is segmented into five parts and presented over five user interfaces (1: Rhythm interpretation, 2: Interpretation of the P-wave morphology, 3: Limb lead interpretation, 4: QRS morphology interpretation with chest lead and rhythm strip presentation and 5: Final review of 12-lead ECG). The IPI model was implemented using emerging web technologies (i.e. HTML5, CSS3, AJAX, PHP and MySQL). It was hypothesised that this system would reduce the number of interpretation errors and increase diagnostic accuracy in ECG interpreters. To test this, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of clinicians when they used the standard approach (control cohort) with clinicians who interpreted the same ECGs using the IPI approach (IPI cohort). For the control cohort, the

  1. 多模态人机交互中基于笔输入的手势识别%Pen-Based Gesture Recognition in Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延江; 袁保宗

    2001-01-01

    为研究多模态人机交互系统的理论及构造方法,提出了一种快速的、单笔划手势识别方法.该方法通过提取手势轨迹的关键点及各关键点的运移方向,形成特征码,然后与标准手势符号的各种可能的特征码进行匹配.其中方向特征用于预分类,而关键点位置信息用于细分类.实验结果表明该方法速度快、识别率高.%This paper proposes a fast, one-stroke pen gesture recognition approac h to the studying of multimodal human-computer interaction theory and building method. In the approach, a pen gesture is characterized by a sequence of dominan t points along the gesture trajectory and a sequence of writing directions betwe en consecutive dominant points. The recognition result can be obtained by matchi ng the feature code of the input gesture with the various possible feature codes of each standard gesture. The directional feature is used for gesture pre-class ification and the positional information is used for fine classification. Experi mental results show that this approach is fast and can get a high recognition rate.

  2. Gesture Recognition for Human-computer Interaction by Using Neural Networks%手势语言识别的神经网络方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁景和; 王勇; 常胜江; 张延炘

    2002-01-01

    For the purpose of human-computer interaction(HCI),a visual approach based on gesture recognition is proposed in this paper.The technique essentially includes detection and segmentation,feature extraction,and recognition of a number of gestures which are assigned as some control commands.Each of the processing stages employs a neural network for skin-color detection,principal component analysis(PCA) as well as clustering encoding of the hand-gestures.Details of the approach and experiment results are provided.The experimental recognizing accuracy is 94 %.%提供了一种用于人机交互(HCI)的手势语言可视化识别方法.该方法包括用于几种控制命令的手势的探测、分割、特征提取及识别,每一步的处理都用到了神经网络方法,像肤色探测、主元分析(PCA)以及聚类编码识别.实验结果显示正确识别率高达94 %.

  3. Human Computer Interactions in Next-Generation of Aircraft Smart Navigation Management Systems: Task Analysis and Architecture under an Agent-Oriented Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Canino-Rodríguez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The limited efficiency of current air traffic systems will require a next-generation of Smart Air Traffic System (SATS that relies on current technological advances. This challenge means a transition toward a new navigation and air-traffic procedures paradigm, where pilots and air traffic controllers perform and coordinate their activities according to new roles and technological supports. The design of new Human-Computer Interactions (HCI for performing these activities is a key element of SATS. However efforts for developing such tools need to be inspired on a parallel characterization of hypothetical air traffic scenarios compatible with current ones. This paper is focused on airborne HCI into SATS where cockpit inputs came from aircraft navigation systems, surrounding traffic situation, controllers’ indications, etc. So the HCI is intended to enhance situation awareness and decision-making through pilot cockpit. This work approach considers SATS as a system distributed on a large-scale with uncertainty in a dynamic environment. Therefore, a multi-agent systems based approach is well suited for modeling such an environment. We demonstrate that current methodologies for designing multi-agent systems are a useful tool to characterize HCI. We specifically illustrate how the selected methodological approach provides enough guidelines to obtain a cockpit HCI design that complies with future SATS specifications.

  4. What is the value of embedding artificial emotional prosody in human computer interactions? Implications for theory and design in psychological science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. C. Mitchell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In computerised technology, artificial speech is becoming increasingly important, and is already used in ATMs, online gaming and healthcare contexts. However, today’s artificial speech typically sounds monotonous, a main reason for this being the lack of meaningful prosody. One particularly important function of prosody is to convey different emotions. This is because successful encoding and decoding of emotions is vital for effective social cognition, which is increasingly recognised in human-computer interaction contexts. Current attempts to artificially synthesise emotional prosody are much improved relative to early attempts, but there remains much work to be done due to methodological problems, lack of agreed acoustic correlates, and lack of theoretical grounding. If the addition of synthetic emotional prosody is not of sufficient quality, it may risk alienating users instead of enhancing their experience. So the value of embedding emotion cues in artificial speech may ultimately depend on the quality of the synthetic emotional prosody. However, early evidence on reactions to synthesised nonverbal cues in the facial modality bodes well. Attempts to implement the recognition of emotional prosody into artificial applications and interfaces have perhaps been met with greater success, but the ultimate test of synthetic emotional prosody will be to critically compare how people react to synthetic emotional prosody vs. natural emotional prosody, at the behavioural, socio-cognitive and neural levels.

  5. Feature selection for speech emotion recognition in Spanish and Basque: on the use of machine learning to improve human-computer interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andoni Arruti

    Full Text Available Study of emotions in human-computer interaction is a growing research area. This paper shows an attempt to select the most significant features for emotion recognition in spoken Basque and Spanish Languages using different methods for feature selection. RekEmozio database was used as the experimental data set. Several Machine Learning paradigms were used for the emotion classification task. Experiments were executed in three phases, using different sets of features as classification variables in each phase. Moreover, feature subset selection was applied at each phase in order to seek for the most relevant feature subset. The three phases approach was selected to check the validity of the proposed approach. Achieved results show that an instance-based learning algorithm using feature subset selection techniques based on evolutionary algorithms is the best Machine Learning paradigm in automatic emotion recognition, with all different feature sets, obtaining a mean of 80,05% emotion recognition rate in Basque and a 74,82% in Spanish. In order to check the goodness of the proposed process, a greedy searching approach (FSS-Forward has been applied and a comparison between them is provided. Based on achieved results, a set of most relevant non-speaker dependent features is proposed for both languages and new perspectives are suggested.

  6. Feature selection for speech emotion recognition in Spanish and Basque: on the use of machine learning to improve human-computer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, Andoni; Cearreta, Idoia; Alvarez, Aitor; Lazkano, Elena; Sierra, Basilio

    2014-01-01

    Study of emotions in human-computer interaction is a growing research area. This paper shows an attempt to select the most significant features for emotion recognition in spoken Basque and Spanish Languages using different methods for feature selection. RekEmozio database was used as the experimental data set. Several Machine Learning paradigms were used for the emotion classification task. Experiments were executed in three phases, using different sets of features as classification variables in each phase. Moreover, feature subset selection was applied at each phase in order to seek for the most relevant feature subset. The three phases approach was selected to check the validity of the proposed approach. Achieved results show that an instance-based learning algorithm using feature subset selection techniques based on evolutionary algorithms is the best Machine Learning paradigm in automatic emotion recognition, with all different feature sets, obtaining a mean of 80,05% emotion recognition rate in Basque and a 74,82% in Spanish. In order to check the goodness of the proposed process, a greedy searching approach (FSS-Forward) has been applied and a comparison between them is provided. Based on achieved results, a set of most relevant non-speaker dependent features is proposed for both languages and new perspectives are suggested.

  7. Human computer interactions in next-generation of aircraft smart navigation management systems: task analysis and architecture under an agent-oriented methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino-Rodríguez, José M; García-Herrero, Jesús; Besada-Portas, Juan; Ravelo-García, Antonio G; Travieso-González, Carlos; Alonso-Hernández, Jesús B

    2015-03-04

    The limited efficiency of current air traffic systems will require a next-generation of Smart Air Traffic System (SATS) that relies on current technological advances. This challenge means a transition toward a new navigation and air-traffic procedures paradigm, where pilots and air traffic controllers perform and coordinate their activities according to new roles and technological supports. The design of new Human-Computer Interactions (HCI) for performing these activities is a key element of SATS. However efforts for developing such tools need to be inspired on a parallel characterization of hypothetical air traffic scenarios compatible with current ones. This paper is focused on airborne HCI into SATS where cockpit inputs came from aircraft navigation systems, surrounding traffic situation, controllers' indications, etc. So the HCI is intended to enhance situation awareness and decision-making through pilot cockpit. This work approach considers SATS as a system distributed on a large-scale with uncertainty in a dynamic environment. Therefore, a multi-agent systems based approach is well suited for modeling such an environment. We demonstrate that current methodologies for designing multi-agent systems are a useful tool to characterize HCI. We specifically illustrate how the selected methodological approach provides enough guidelines to obtain a cockpit HCI design that complies with future SATS specifications.

  8. What is the Value of Embedding Artificial Emotional Prosody in Human-Computer Interactions? Implications for Theory and Design in Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    In computerized technology, artificial speech is becoming increasingly important, and is already used in ATMs, online gaming and healthcare contexts. However, today's artificial speech typically sounds monotonous, a main reason for this being the lack of meaningful prosody. One particularly important function of prosody is to convey different emotions. This is because successful encoding and decoding of emotions is vital for effective social cognition, which is increasingly recognized in human-computer interaction contexts. Current attempts to artificially synthesize emotional prosody are much improved relative to early attempts, but there remains much work to be done due to methodological problems, lack of agreed acoustic correlates, and lack of theoretical grounding. If the addition of synthetic emotional prosody is not of sufficient quality, it may risk alienating users instead of enhancing their experience. So the value of embedding emotion cues in artificial speech may ultimately depend on the quality of the synthetic emotional prosody. However, early evidence on reactions to synthesized non-verbal cues in the facial modality bodes well. Attempts to implement the recognition of emotional prosody into artificial applications and interfaces have perhaps been met with greater success, but the ultimate test of synthetic emotional prosody will be to critically compare how people react to synthetic emotional prosody vs. natural emotional prosody, at the behavioral, socio-cognitive and neural levels.

  9. Vesalius project: interactive computers in anatomical instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Thomas O.; Roper, Stephen D.; Spurgeon, Thomas L.

    1991-04-01

    This project is based on an entirely new concept for teaching the structure and function of the human body a concept which combines traditional approaches gained from centuries of study of human anatomy with the most recent sophisticated 3-dimensional computer graphics display systems and laser disc technology. The end-point of the project is a high resolution interactive 3-D atlas of human/animal anatomy stored on a laser video disc and displayed on graphics workstations--an " electronic Gray''s Anatomy" . These displays will be used to teach the structure of the body and to give students and instructors an understanding of their own body in health and disease. To evaluate the software developed undergraduate students from the anatomy courses at CSU wil be allowed to work with the computer-generated images from the earliest stages of development. Feedback from these students will be incorporated into the software development. Furthermore once a relatively complete series of images has been generated groups of students will be selected at random to study anatomy with this new methodology and will be compared with control groups who utilize more traditional techniques. METHODOLOGY This is a complex project that requires many individual facets to be developed simultaneously (figure 1). We have established an important collaboration with the Uniformed Services University in Bethesda that will allow us to utilize a large cryotome with photographic systems and the expertise to operate it already available there. Indeed most of the elaborate apparatus such as graphics workstations needed for the project is currently available either at CSU or through collaborative arrangements with other institutions.

  10. Interactive TV meets Mobile Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Rauschenbach, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    The talk presents some recent developments in interactive digital television and discusses the trends and challenges of bringing TV services to mobile devices. Two areas will be addressed: portable use of mobile devices to complement the TV set in the home and mobile TV services while on the move using mobile broadcasting technology.

  11. Impact of computer usage on the social interaction patterns of intense computer users and programmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    This research is a qualitative analysis of the impact of intense computer use upon interpersonal relations. Through the use of a structured interview conducted through an interactive computer program called SIGMUND, data were collected from sixty subjects on: (1) the areas of the computer's attraction; (2) the intensity of the interaction with the computer; (3) the level, breadth and depth of the intense computer users' interpersonal relations; and (4) the impact of computer usage on interpersonal relationships. Additional personal interviews were conducted by the researcher with seven of these subjects for further clarification. The subjects were all extensive computer users. All but one were computer programmers and spent a mean of 5.13 hours per day at the computer. Conclusions are that intense computer users (1) seek the same qualities in interpersonal relations that are found with the computer; (2) due to this, they gradually narrow their social field to include primarily other intense computer users; (3) seek instant intensity in interpersonal relations, often without success; and (4) become gradually isolated from humans as this failure increases, reverting more to computer use. Computer use need not, however, have this negative impact. With awareness of the problems and a concerted effort on the computer user's part, the intensity of the computer relationship can be carried over to interpersonal relationships with some benefit.

  12. Translator-computer interaction in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI p...

  13. The Quantum Human Computer (QHC) Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to suggest the existence of a human computer called Quantum Human Computer (QHC) on the basis of an analogy between human beings and computers. To date, there are two types of computers: Binary and Quantum. The former operates on the basis of binary logic where an object is said to exist in either of the two states of 1 and…

  14. Human ear recognition by computer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu, Bir; Chen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics deals with recognition of individuals based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. Unlike the fingerprint and iris, it can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject, although sometimes it may be hidden with hair, scarf and jewellery. Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. ""Human Ear Recognition by Computer"" is the first book o

  15. Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The current study reports on a meta-analysis of the relative effectiveness of interaction in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) and face-to-face (FTF) contexts. The primary studies included in the analysis were journal articles and dissertations completed between 1990 and 2012 (k = 14). Results demonstrate that interaction in SCMC…

  16. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  17. Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI) : An analysis, a perspective, and guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI)’s founding elements are discussed in relation to its overarching discipline Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Its basic dimensions are identified: agent, computing machinery, and interaction, and their levels of processing: perceptual, cognitive, and affective. Subs

  18. 人机交互视角下网民符码传播心理探析%Code Communication P sychology of Internet Users from the P erspective of Human-Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方艳; 明珠; 陈佩

    2016-01-01

    人机交互( Human-Computer Interaction, HCI)是研究人、计算机以及它们之间相互影响的技术。网上的网民符号交流,通过的是技术的平台和技术的手段,同时也是双方心理的“印迹”、传播伦理的表征。本文从人机交互的心理层次对网民使用文字、图像以及图文并茂的符码传播心理进行考察。%Human-Computer Interaction ( HCI) is the technology that studies on people, computer and the relations between them. The Internet users contact each other by codes, through the technology platform and means, which imprints both sides’ psychologies and presents the Internet ethic as well. This paper explores the code communication psychology of the Internet users from Human-Computer Interaction.

  19. Toward Usable Interactive Analytics: Coupling Cognition and Computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endert, Alexander; North, Chris; Chang, Remco; Zhou, Michelle

    2014-09-24

    Interactive analytics provide users a myriad of computational means to aid in extracting meaningful information from large and complex datasets. Much prior work focuses either on advancing the capabilities of machine-centric approaches by the data mining and machine learning communities, or human-driven methods by the visualization and CHI communities. However, these methods do not yet support a true human-machine symbiotic relationship where users and machines work together collaboratively and adapt to each other to advance an interactive analytic process. In this paper we discuss some of the inherent issues, outlining what we believe are the steps toward usable interactive analytics that will ultimately increase the effectiveness for both humans and computers to produce insights.

  20. 儿童学习型游戏人机交互界面的设计研究%Research on Design of Human Computer Interaction Interface for Childr- en's Learning Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明朗; 郭峰; 刘贺

    2012-01-01

    Taking the rapid appear of children' s learning game as inspiration, it analyzed the general situation of the human computer interaction interface design for children' s learning game at present, and discussed the question of human computer interaction interface design for children' s learning game which didn' t accord with children' s cognitive habits, pay more attention to visual effect and neglected the sound effects, poor of interactive. Based on this, it proposed the design of the children' s learning game human computer interaction interface should proceed with graphical user interface, voice user interface, the entity of user interface, search for a most conforms to the children' s cognitive characteristics of the human computer interaction interface.%摘要:以儿童学习型游戏的大量出现为启示,分析了现阶段儿童学习型游戏人机交互界面设计的概况,进而论述了儿童学习型游戏人机交互界面设计存在的不符合儿童认知习惯、过分注重视觉效果而忽视听觉效果、交互性差的问题。在此基础上,提出了儿童学习型游戏人机交互界面的设计应从图形化用户交互界面、声音用户界面、实体用户界面入手,探寻最符合儿童认知特性的人机交互界面。

  1. Application Exploration of Techniques of New Type Human-computer Interaction in Games%新型人机互动技术在游戏中的应用探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛凯

    2011-01-01

    随着计算机性能的不断发展,人机交互的瓶颈问题越来越突出.传统的人机交互手段已经远远不能满足现代计算机互动游戏所需要的信息量.因此使用最廉价和最普及的人机交互设备(网络摄像头和麦克风)拓展了人机交互的信息量,从而增强人机交互的效率,实现一个不用鼠标键盘进行游戏控制的新的游戏形态.%At present,the bottle-neck of human-machine interaction is more and more outstanding along with computer performance development.The traditional man-machine interactive technique can't provide enough information to modern computer interactive games.Therefore,the information amount of human-machine interaction is expanded by using the cheapest and popular human-machine equipments(web camera and microphone) to increase the efficiency of human-machine.A new game form can be realized without a mouse and keyboard controlling.

  2. BaffleText: a Human Interactive Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Monica; Baird, Henry S.

    2003-01-01

    Internet services designed for human use are being abused by programs. We present a defense against such attacks in the form of a CAPTCHA (Completely Automatic Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) that exploits the difference in ability between humans and machines in reading images of text. CAPTCHAs are a special case of 'human interactive proofs,' a broad class of security protocols that allow people to identify themselves over networks as members of given groups. We point out vulnerabilities of reading-based CAPTCHAs to dictionary and computer-vision attacks. We also draw on the literature on the psychophysics of human reading, which suggests fresh defenses available to CAPTCHAs. Motivated by these considerations, we propose BaffleText, a CAPTCHA which uses non-English pronounceable words to defend against dictionary attacks, and Gestalt-motivated image-masking degradations to defend against image restoration attacks. Experiments on human subjects confirm the human legibility and user acceptance of BaffleText images. We have found an image-complexity measure that correlates well with user acceptance and assists in engineering the generation of challenges to fit the ability gap. Recent computer-vision attacks, run independently by Mori and Jitendra, suggest that BaffleText is stronger than two existing CAPTCHAs.

  3. The inhuman computer/the too-human psychotherapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelson, T

    1987-10-01

    There has been an understandable rejection by psychotherapists of any natural language processing (computer/human interaction by means of usual language exchange) which is intended to embrace aspects of psychotherapy. For at least twenty years therapists have experimented with computer programs for specific and general purpose with reported success. This paper describes some of the aspects of artificial intelligence used in computer-mediated or computer-assisted therapy and the utility of such efforts in general reevaluation of human-to-human psychotherapy.

  4. Discussion on Technology and Development of Submarine Command and Control System Human-Computer Interaction%潜艇指控系统人机交互技术发展分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程飞

    2013-01-01

      介绍和分析了国外潜艇指控系统人机交互技术的发展情况和技术特点,回顾了国内潜艇指控系统人机交互手段的发展,从满足未来海军潜艇作战需求出发,对潜艇指控人机交互技术的发展进行了前瞻性分析。%In this paper,an introduction and analysis are given for general development situation and technical feature of Human-computer Interaction for foreign submarine C2 system,and then the Human-computer Interaction for domestic submarine C2 systems are reviewed briefly.In the view of satisfying operational requirement of our future submarine,we analyzed the development of Human-computer Interaction for submarine C2 system.

  5. Unimodal and Multimodal Human Perception of Affective States During Human-computer Interaction%人机交互中情感状态单多模的人类感知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雪婷; 王宇; 田丽迎

    2016-01-01

    情感识别是人机交互领域的重要研究课题之一,随着研究通道的增多,研究成本和工作量也越来越大。本文在7种模式下通过未受训的观察员来检测人机交互过程中人类的基本情感状态(包括:厌恶、恐惧、快乐、悲伤和惊讶)的自然表达,并评估稳定性。用混合效应逻辑回归模型对2个观察员( oo)之间的一致性进行计算和分析,结果显示一致性普遍偏低。除了比较单模态和多模态的整体一致性,还比较了单个情感状态在单个模式下的一致性,而比较结果则用超可加性、可加性、冗余性和抑制性效应进行分类。目前,自动情感检测结果的意义还在研究中。%Emotion perception is one of the most important research topics in the field of human-computer interaction. With the increase of channels, research costs and the workload are also increasing. In this paper, the human’ s basic emotion states were been detected by untrained people in seven conditions during human-computer interaction, and assess stability. It computed and analyzed the agreement between two observers( oo) with mixed-effects logistic regression models. The result is generally low. In addition to the overall consistency of the unimodal and multimodal condition, it also compared the consistency of individual affec-tive states in a single model, and classified the results with the superadditive, additive, redundancy and inhibitory effect. The significance of the results of automatic emotion detection is still been discussed.

  6. Computer aided composition by means of interactive GP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ando, Daichi; Dahlstedt, Palle; Nordahl, Mats G.

    2006-01-01

    Research on the application of Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC) to the field of musical computation has been improved in recent years, marking an interesting parallel to the current trend of applying human characteristics or sensitivities to computer systems. However, past techniques...... developed for IEC-based composition have not necessarily proven very effective for professional use. This is due to the large difference between data representation used by IEC and authored classical music composition. To solve this difficulties, we purpose a new IEC approach to music composition based...

  7. CHOREO: An Interactive Computer Model for Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, G. J.; Officer, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Establishes the need for literacy in dance; and describes two dance notation systems: the Massine notation method, and the Labanotation method. The use of interactive computer graphics as a tool for both learning and interpreting dance notation is introduced. (Author/VT)

  8. Salesperson Ethics: An Interactive Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A new interactive computer simulation designed to teach sales ethics is described. Simulation learner objectives include gaining a better understanding of legal issues in selling; realizing that ethical dilemmas do arise in selling; realizing the need to be honest when selling; seeing that there are conflicting demands from a salesperson's…

  9. Salesperson Ethics: An Interactive Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A new interactive computer simulation designed to teach sales ethics is described. Simulation learner objectives include gaining a better understanding of legal issues in selling; realizing that ethical dilemmas do arise in selling; realizing the need to be honest when selling; seeing that there are conflicting demands from a salesperson's…

  10. Human-Computer Etiquette Cultural Expectations and the Design Implications They Place on Computers and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, Caroline C

    2010-01-01

    Written by experts from various fields, this edited collection explores a wide range of issues pertaining to how computers evoke human social expectations. The book illustrates how socially acceptable conventions can strongly impact the effectiveness of human-computer interactions and how to consider such norms in the design of human-computer interfaces. Providing a complete introduction to the design of social responses to computers, the text emphasizes the value of social norms in the development of usable and enjoyable technology. It also describes the role of socially correct behavior in t

  11. Human-centered Computing: Toward a Human Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes, Alejandro; Gatica-Perez, Daniel; Sebe, Nicu; Thomas S. Huang

    2007-01-01

    Human-centered computing studies the design, development, and deployment of mixed-initiative human-computer systems. HCC is emerging from the convergence of multiple disciplines that are concerned both with understanding human beings and with the design of computational artifacts.

  12. Design of 3D Virtual Manipulatives Supported by Natural Human Computer Interaction%人机自然交互支持的3D虚拟教具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丽一; 张宝运

    2012-01-01

    现有学习软件或虚拟教具存在交互方式不自然、抽象性差、不智能的缺点,应用基于自然的人机交互技术,以物理教学中的平抛运动教具作为实例,设计实现一种3D虚拟教具用以模拟教学过程中的真实教具。这种虚拟教具主要采用手势识别技术实现人和计算机的自然她交互,同时采用虚拟现实技术构建微具实体。应用人机自然交互技术支持的3D虚拟教具,具有交互方式自然、空间感强和抽象表现力强的特点,体现了和谐自然地人机交互方式在教育中的广泛应用前景。%The current learning software or virtual manipulatives have the shortcomings of unnatural interaction, poor abstractness and unintelligent in application. Using natural human computer interaction technology and taking the horizontal projectile motion in physics instruction as an example, a kind of 3D virtual manipulatives was designed which had the ability to simulate the real teaching aids. Gesture recognition technology was used to realize the natural human-computer interaction. The well designed 3D virtual manipulatives has the characteristic of natural interaction, great abstractness and spatial impression which reflects the board application prospects of natural human computer interaction in education.

  13. Interactions between Humans and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    introduce a generic model for comparing and contrasting robots (CCM), aiming to provide a common platform for robot designers, developers and users. The framework for HRI we propose stems mainly from the vagueness and the lack of clarity that has been observed in the definitions of both Direct and Indirect......Combining multiple scientific disciplines, robotic technology has made significant progress the last decade, and so did the interactions between humans and robots. This article updates the agenda for robotic research by highlighting the factors that affect Human – Robot Interaction (HRI......), and explains the relationships and dependencies that exist between them. The four main factors that define the properties of a robot, and therefore the interaction, are distributed in two dimensions: (1) Intelligence (Control - Autonomy), and (2) Perspective (Tool - Medium). Based on these factors, we...

  14. Interactions between Humans and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Combining multiple scientific disciplines, robotic technology has made significant progress the last decade, and so did the interactions between humans and robots. This article updates the agenda for robotic research by highlighting the factors that affect Human – Robot Interaction (HRI......), and explains the relationships and dependencies that exist between them. The four main factors that define the properties of a robot, and therefore the interaction, are distributed in two dimensions: (1) Intelligence (Control - Autonomy), and (2) Perspective (Tool - Medium). Based on these factors, we...... introduce a generic model for comparing and contrasting robots (CCM), aiming to provide a common platform for robot designers, developers and users. The framework for HRI we propose stems mainly from the vagueness and the lack of clarity that has been observed in the definitions of both Direct and Indirect...

  15. Pseudo-interactive monitoring in distributed computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfiligoi, I.; /Fermilab; Bradley, D.; Livny, M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-05-01

    Distributed computing, and in particular Grid computing, enables physicists to use thousands of CPU days worth of computing every day, by submitting thousands of compute jobs. Unfortunately, a small fraction of such jobs regularly fail; the reasons vary from disk and network problems to bugs in the user code. A subset of these failures result in jobs being stuck for long periods of time. In order to debug such failures, interactive monitoring is highly desirable; users need to browse through the job log files and check the status of the running processes. Batch systems typically don't provide such services; at best, users get job logs at job termination, and even this may not be possible if the job is stuck in an infinite loop. In this paper we present a novel approach of using regular batch system capabilities of Condor to enable users to access the logs and processes of any running job. This does not provide true interactive access, so commands like vi are not viable, but it does allow operations like ls, cat, top, ps, lsof, netstat and dumping the stack of any process owned by the user; we call this pseudo-interactive monitoring. It is worth noting that the same method can be used to monitor Grid jobs in a glidein-based environment. We further believe that the same mechanism could be applied to many other batch systems.

  16. Audio Interaction in Computer Mediated Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Parker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sound in an interactive media environment has not been advanced, as a technology, as far as graphics or artificial intelligence. This discussion will explore the use of sound as a way to influence the player of a computer game, will show ways that a game can use sound as input, and will describe ways that the player can influence sound in a game. The role of sound in computer games will be explored some practical design ideas that can be used to improve the current state of the art will be given.

  17. 基于人机交互的界面设计研究%Research on the Interface Design Based on Human-Computer Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙扬; 浦云明; 黄淑贞

    2012-01-01

    Making the application of interaction design in the computer application software interface as the breakthrough point, analyzes and summarizes the principles and prototype construction of interaction design, and analyses and improves the 91Note interation design scheme, leads the application of interaction design principle in the practice according to its availability and easy using. Discusses some non-technical issues to improve the quality of software products for bet- ter customer service.%以交互设计在计算机应用软件界面上的应用为切入点.分析总结交互设计原则和交互设计中的原型构建M题,并根据可用性与易用性原则,分析改进现有91Note交互设计方案,领会交互设计原则在实践中的应用。从非技术问题上改进软件质量,使软件产品更好地为用户服务。

  18. Computational Techniques of Electromagnetic Dosimetry for Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    There has been increasing public concern about the adverse health effects of human exposure to electromagnetic fields. This paper reviews the rationale of international safety guidelines for human protection against electromagnetic fields. Then, this paper also presents computational techniques to conduct dosimetry in anatomically-based human body models. Computational examples and remaining problems are also described briefly.

  19. The Social Computer: Combining Machine and Human Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Giunchiglia, Fausto; Robertson, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The social computer is a future computational system that harnesses the innate problem solving, action and information gathering powers of humans and the environments in which they live in order to tackle large scale social problems that are beyond our current capabilities. The hardware of a social computer is supplied by people’s brains and bodies, the environment where they live, including artifacts, e.g., buildings and roads, sensors into the environment, networks and computers; while the ...

  20. Social touch in human–computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.

    2015-01-01

    Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords

  1. Social touch in human–computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander

    Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords

  2. Social touch in human–computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van Jan B.F.; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords affectiv

  3. Estimation of the binding modes with important human cytochrome P450 enzymes, drug interaction potential, pharmacokinetics, and hepatotoxicity of ginger components using molecular docking, computational, and pharmacokinetic modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhu, Shengrong

    2015-01-01

    Ginger is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines for the treatment of numerous ailments and improvement of body functions. It may be used in combination with prescribed drugs. The coadministration of ginger with therapeutic drugs raises a concern of potential deleterious drug interactions via the modulation of the expression and/or activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, resulting in unfavorable therapeutic outcomes. This study aimed to determine the molecular interactions between 12 main active ginger components (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, ar-curcumene, β-bisabolene, β-sesquiphelandrene, 6-gingerdione, (-)-zingiberene, and methyl-6-isogingerol) and human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 and to predict the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) of the 12 ginger components using computational approaches and comprehensive literature search. Docking studies showed that ginger components interacted with a panel of amino acids in the active sites of CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 mainly through hydrogen bond formation, to a lesser extent, via π-π stacking. The pharmacokinetic simulation studies showed that the [I]/[Ki ] value for CYP2C9, 2C19, and 3A4 ranged from 0.0002 to 19.6 and the R value ranged from 1.0002 to 20.6 and that ginger might exhibit a high risk of drug interaction via inhibition of the activity of human CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, but a low risk of drug interaction toward CYP2C19-mediated drug metabolism. Furthermore, it has been evaluated that the 12 ginger components possessed a favorable ADMET profiles with regard to the solubility, absorption, permeability across the blood-brain barrier, interactions with CYP2D6, hepatotoxicity, and plasma protein binding. The validation results showed that there was no remarkable effect of ginger on the metabolism of warfarin in humans, whereas concurrent use of ginger and nifedipine exhibited a

  4. Multiyear interactive computer almanac, 1800-2050

    CERN Document Server

    United States. Naval Observatory

    2005-01-01

    The Multiyear Interactive Computer Almanac (MICA Version 2.2.2 ) is a software system that runs on modern versions of Windows and Macintosh computers created by the U.S. Naval Observatory's Astronomical Applications Department, especially for astronomers, surveyors, meteorologists, navigators and others who regularly need accurate information on the positions, motions, and phenomena of celestial objects. MICA produces high-precision astronomical data in tabular form, tailored for the times and locations specified by the user. Unlike traditional almanacs, MICA computes these data in real time, eliminating the need for table look-ups and additional hand calculations. MICA tables can be saved as standard text files, enabling their use in other applications. Several important new features have been added to this edition of MICA, including: extended date coverage from 1800 to 2050; a redesigned user interface; a graphical sky map; a phenomena calculator (eclipses, transits, equinoxes, solstices, conjunctions, oppo...

  5. 人机交互技术在现代展示设计中的应用%Application of Human-Computer Interaction Technology in Modern Exhibition Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳

    2014-01-01

    随着各种新型交互方式充斥着人类的生活空间,使人们得以了解、探知一个全新的感官世界。通过设计各种交互媒体设施,将多种新型的交互方式应用于现代空间陈列之中,让观众通过看、听、触等方式欣赏、品味乃至探讨展品的“外延”与“内涵”,使展览生动有趣,激发观众的新奇感与兴奋感,有效提升其对展品的阅读、理解能力。%New ways for interacting with each other which are iflled in human living space allow us to discover a whole new world of senses. People integrate the “intrinsic” and “extrinsic” exhibition into the environment or atmosphere by their senses such as seeing, hearing, touching etc when a variety of interactive media facilities are applied to this new way of modern interactive exhibition space, which makes the exhibition interesting and inspires novelty and excitement of the audience as well as effectively enhances the audience's ability of understanding the exhibition.

  6. Interactive Computing Framework for Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Knezevic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Even though the computational steering state-of-the-art environments allow users to embed their simulation codes as a module for an interactive steering without the necessity for their own expertise in high-performance computing and visualisation, e.g., these environments are limited in their possible applications and mostly entail heavy code changes in order to integrate the existing code. Approach: In this study, we introduce an integration framework for engineering applications that supports distributed computations as well as visualization on-the-fly in order to reduce latency and enable a high degree of interactivity with only minor code alterations involved. Moreover, we tackle the problem of long communication delays in the case of huge data advent, which occur due to rigid coupling of simulation back-ends with visualization front-ends and handicap a user in exploring intuitively the relation of cause and effect. Results: The results for the first test cases are encouraging, both showing that we obtain excellent speedup in parallel scenarios and proving that the overhead introduced by the framework itself is negligible. Conclusion/Recommendations: Testing the case involving massively parallel simulation, as well as the integration of the framework into several parallel engineering applications are part of our imminent research.

  7. Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... estimation system uses a single camera to estimate the motion of a human. The results show that inverse kinematics can significantly speed up the estimation process, while retaining a quality comparable to a full pose motion estimation system. Our novelty lies primarily in use of inverse kinematics...... to significantly speed up the particle filtering. It should be stressed that the observation part of the system has not been our focus, and as such is described only from a sense of completeness. With our approach it is possible to construct a robust and computationally efficient system for human motion estimation....

  8. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnikov, K K; Makletsov, A A; Mileev, V N; Novikov, L S; Sinolits, V V

    1999-10-01

    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991 1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language.

  9. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Krupnikov, K K; Mileev, V N; Novikov, L S; Sinolits, V V

    1999-01-01

    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991-1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language.

  10. Research on the Human-computer Interaction Design for Children' s Smart Toys%儿童智能玩具中人机交互设计的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国荣; 王微

    2012-01-01

    以人机交互在现实生活中的信息传播、交流为启示,分析了电子时代玩具的功能、造型等信息,并结合日常生活中人对机器的广泛运用,进而分析了近年来在计算机软件及产品设计领域开发的人机界面设计。通过语音识别、肢体触碰、图像交互以及数字交互等新技术研究领域,实现交互式智能玩具在儿童成长阶段发挥的重要作用,让儿童在潜移默化中"寓教于乐、健康成长"。%Inspired by the information dissemination and communication of human-computer interaction in real life, it analyzed the function and modeling of the electronic age toys. Combined with the extensive use of human for machine in the daily life, and then it analyzed the human-computer interface design of software and product man-machine in the recent years. Through the research field of voice recognition, physical touch, image interaction and digital interactive technology, the interactive smart toys play an important role in the child growth which make the children entertaining and grow healthy.

  11. Integrating interactive computational modeling in biology curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helikar, Tomáš; Cutucache, Christine E; Dahlquist, Lauren M; Herek, Tyler A; Larson, Joshua J; Rogers, Jim A

    2015-03-01

    While the use of computer tools to simulate complex processes such as computer circuits is normal practice in fields like engineering, the majority of life sciences/biological sciences courses continue to rely on the traditional textbook and memorization approach. To address this issue, we explored the use of the Cell Collective platform as a novel, interactive, and evolving pedagogical tool to foster student engagement, creativity, and higher-level thinking. Cell Collective is a Web-based platform used to create and simulate dynamical models of various biological processes. Students can create models of cells, diseases, or pathways themselves or explore existing models. This technology was implemented in both undergraduate and graduate courses as a pilot study to determine the feasibility of such software at the university level. First, a new (In Silico Biology) class was developed to enable students to learn biology by "building and breaking it" via computer models and their simulations. This class and technology also provide a non-intimidating way to incorporate mathematical and computational concepts into a class with students who have a limited mathematical background. Second, we used the technology to mediate the use of simulations and modeling modules as a learning tool for traditional biological concepts, such as T cell differentiation or cell cycle regulation, in existing biology courses. Results of this pilot application suggest that there is promise in the use of computational modeling and software tools such as Cell Collective to provide new teaching methods in biology and contribute to the implementation of the "Vision and Change" call to action in undergraduate biology education by providing a hands-on approach to biology.

  12. Integrating interactive computational modeling in biology curricula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Helikar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While the use of computer tools to simulate complex processes such as computer circuits is normal practice in fields like engineering, the majority of life sciences/biological sciences courses continue to rely on the traditional textbook and memorization approach. To address this issue, we explored the use of the Cell Collective platform as a novel, interactive, and evolving pedagogical tool to foster student engagement, creativity, and higher-level thinking. Cell Collective is a Web-based platform used to create and simulate dynamical models of various biological processes. Students can create models of cells, diseases, or pathways themselves or explore existing models. This technology was implemented in both undergraduate and graduate courses as a pilot study to determine the feasibility of such software at the university level. First, a new (In Silico Biology class was developed to enable students to learn biology by "building and breaking it" via computer models and their simulations. This class and technology also provide a non-intimidating way to incorporate mathematical and computational concepts into a class with students who have a limited mathematical background. Second, we used the technology to mediate the use of simulations and modeling modules as a learning tool for traditional biological concepts, such as T cell differentiation or cell cycle regulation, in existing biology courses. Results of this pilot application suggest that there is promise in the use of computational modeling and software tools such as Cell Collective to provide new teaching methods in biology and contribute to the implementation of the "Vision and Change" call to action in undergraduate biology education by providing a hands-on approach to biology.

  13. Notion of Mediators in Human Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Josip Stepanic

    2003-01-01

    Many types of human interaction are mediated processes. However, regarding the details of human description, the mediating unit structure and dynamics is not developed appropriately. The explicit concentration on mediators contributes to understanding of interplay between value sets governing interaction, interaction roles in regular activities and interaction design for purpose. This article is a contribution to development of a concept of mediated human interaction through structuring of me...

  14. Computational characterisation of the interactions between human ST6Gal I and transition-state analogue inhibitors: insights for inhibitor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Andrew; Szabo, Rémi; Skropeta, Danielle; Yu, Haibo

    2016-05-01

    Human β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase I (hST6Gal I) catalyses the synthesis of sialylated glycoconjugates involved in cell-cell interactions. Overexpression of hST6Gal I is observed in many different types of cancers, where it promotes metastasis through altered cell surface sialylation. A wide range of sialyltransferase (ST) inhibitors have been developed based on the natural donor, cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac). Of these, analogues that are structurally similar to the transition state exhibit the highest inhibitory activity. In order to design inhibitors that are readily accessible synthetically and with favourable pharmacokinetic properties, an investigation of the replacement of the charged phosphodiester-linker, present in many ST inhibitors, with a potential neutral isostere such as a carbamate or a 1,2,3-triazole has been undertaken. To investigate this, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed. These simulations provided an insight into the binding mode of previously reported phosphodiester-linked ST inhibitors and demonstrated that targeting the proposed sialyl acceptor site is a viable option for producing selective inhibitors. The potential for a carbamate- or triazole-linker as an isosteric replacement for the phosphodiester in transition-state analogue ST inhibitors was established using molecular docking. Molecular dynamics simulations of carbamate- and phosphodiester-linked compounds revealed that both classes exhibit consistent interactions with hST6Gal I. Overall, the results obtained from this study provide a rationale for synthetic and biological evaluation of triazole- and carbamate-linked transition-state analogue ST inhibitors as potential new antimetastatic agents.

  15. Computer Vision Method in Human Motion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Li; FANG Shuai; XU Xin-he

    2007-01-01

    Human motion detection based on computer vision is a frontier research topic and is causing an increasing attention in the field of computer vision research. The wavelet transform is used to sharpen the ambiguous edges in human motion image. The shadow's effect to the image processing is also removed. The edge extraction can be successfully realized.This is an effective method for the research of human motion analysis system.

  16. STUDY ON HUMAN-COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR STABLE VIRTUAL DISASSEMBLY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Qiang; Zhang Shensheng; Liu Jihong; Cao Pengbing; Zhong Yifang

    2003-01-01

    The cooperative work between human being and computer based on virtual reality (VR) is investigated to plan the disassembly sequences more efficiently. A three-layer model of human-computer cooperative virtual disassembly is built, and the corresponding human-computer system for stable virtual disassembly is developed. In this system, an immersive and interactive virtual disassembly environment has been created to provide planners with a more visual working scene. For cooperative disassembly, an intelligent module of stability analysis of disassembly operations is embedded into the human-computer system to assist planners to implement disassembly tasks better. The supporting matrix for stability analysis of disassembly operations is defined and the method of stability analysis is detailed. Based on the approach, the stability of any disassembly operation can be analyzed to instruct the manual virtual disassembly. At last, a disassembly case in the virtual environment is given to prove the validity of above ideas.

  17. Cyberpsychology: a human-interaction perspective based on cognitive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Bruno; West, Robert L

    2003-10-01

    This paper argues for the relevance of cognitive modeling and cognitive architectures to cyberpsychology. From a human-computer interaction point of view, cognitive modeling can have benefits both for theory and model building, and for the design and evaluation of sociotechnical systems usability. Cognitive modeling research applied to human-computer interaction has two complimentary objectives: (1) to develop theories and computational models of human interactive behavior with information and collaborative technologies, and (2) to use the computational models as building blocks for the design, implementation, and evaluation of interactive technologies. From the perspective of building theories and models, cognitive modeling offers the possibility to anchor cyberpsychology theories and models into cognitive architectures. From the perspective of the design and evaluation of socio-technical systems, cognitive models can provide the basis for simulated users, which can play an important role in usability testing. As an example of application of cognitive modeling to technology design, the paper presents a simulation of interactive behavior with five different adaptive menu algorithms: random, fixed, stacked, frequency based, and activation based. Results of the simulation indicate that fixed menu positions seem to offer the best support for classification like tasks such as filing e-mails. This research is part of the Human-Computer Interaction, and the Broadband Visual Communication research programs at the National Research Council of Canada, in collaboration with the Carleton Cognitive Modeling Lab at Carleton University.

  18. Practical Verified Computation with Streaming Interactive Proofs

    OpenAIRE

    Thaler, Justin R

    2013-01-01

    As the cloud computing paradigm has gained prominence, the need for verifiable computation has grown urgent. Protocols for verifiable computation enable a weak client to outsource difficult computations to a powerful, but untrusted, server. These protocols provide the client with a (probabilistic) guarantee that the server performed the requested computations correctly, without requiring the client to perform the computations herself.

  19. Public Websites and Human–computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørum, Hanne; Andersen, Kim Normann; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to investigate measurement of website quality and user satisfaction. More specifically, the paper reports on a study investigating whether users of high-quality public websites are more satisfied than those of low-quality websites. Adopting a human–computer interaction...... perspective, we have gathered data from the 2009 public website awards in Scandinavia. Our analysis of Norwegian and Danish websites reveals that the use of quality criteria is highly technical compared to the traditional usability testing focus on efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction of the actual...... system use by representatives. A Pearson correlation analysis of user evaluation from 296 websites that participated in the Danish web award Bedst på Nettet (‘Top of the Web’) showed no significant positive correlation between website quality and user satisfaction. We put forward recommendations...

  20. 基于认知耦合态的翻转课堂人机交互设计%Human-Computer Interaction Design for Flipped Classroom Based on Cognitive Coupling States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤燕; 朱旭; 程仁贵; 孟世敏

    2014-01-01

    在无监督环境中,保持学生持续而有效的学习是翻转课堂的难点。翻转课堂无监督学习环境是人机情境。从人机交互角度,学生沉浸在持续学习中,达到有效学习、深度学习状态,也称“人机认知耦合态”。认知耦合态是学生认知结构、个性、能力和教师设计的学习内容、情境、轨道匹配的状态,是学生和机器相互依赖,形成高效学习体。人机耦合态设计理念上需理解学生心理规律及过程,让计算机成为“教助理”引导学生学习;设计形式上需采集人机交互数据、观测学习过程、创意耦合情境、调制认知过程。翻转课堂中人机认知耦合设计重点是教学资源结构、认知思维过程、在线导学互动、学习成像形式、认知大数据处理技术、实证教学实施方法。基于人机认知耦合态的翻转课堂是教育数字化、实证化思想的实践,也是信息技术与教育深度融合的尝试。%The difficult point in the flipped classroom is how to keep persistent and effective learning in unsupervised environment. The unsupervised learning environment in the flipped classroom is human-computer situation. In human-computer interaction, the persistent learning requires that students immerse themselves in interactive situation, so as to achieve the effective learning and deep learning, which is known as Cognitive Coupling State (CCS). The CCS is a match between the cognitive structure, personality, ability of students and the learning content, design situation, track of teachers ’ design. Students and machines rely on each other. When one designs the CCS, he should study the psychology of students and use computers as teaching assistants to guide students’ learning. Collecting the data of the human-computer interaction, observing learning process, creating coupling situation and modulating cognitive process are needed in the design of CCS. The key points of

  1. Introducing Handheld Computing for Interactive Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Finkelstein

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this project were: (1 development of an interactive multimedia medical education tool (CO-ED utilizing modern features of handheld computing (PDA and major constructs of adult learning theories, and (2 pilot testing of the computer-assisted education in residents and clinicians. Comparison of the knowledge scores using paired t-test demonstrated statistically significant increase in subject knowledge (p<0.01 after using CO-ED. Attitudinal surveys were analyzed by total score (TS calculation represented as a percentage of a maximal possible score. The mean TS was 74.5±7.1%. None of the subjects (N=10 had TS less than 65% and in half of the subjects (N=5 TS was higher than 75%. Analysis of the semi-structured in-depth interviews showed strong support of the study subjects in using PDA as an educational tool, and high acceptance of CO-ED user interface. We concluded that PDA have a significant potential as a tool for clinician education.

  2. CHI '13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The CHI Papers and Notes program is continuing to grow along with many of our sister conferences. We are pleased that CHI is still the leading venue for research in human-computer interaction. CHI 2013 continued the use of subcommittees to manage the review process. Authors selected the subcommit...

  3. Object categorization: computer and human vision perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickinson, Sven J

    2009-01-01

    .... The result of a series of four highly successful workshops on the topic, the book gathers many of the most distinguished researchers from both computer and human vision to reflect on their experience...

  4. Microscopic computation in human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R

    1995-04-01

    When human psychological performance is viewed in terms of cognitive modules, our species displays remarkable differences in computational power. Algorithmically simple computations are generally difficult to perform, whereas optimal routing or "Traveling Salesman" Problems (TSP) of far greater complexity are solved on an everyday basis. It is argued that even "simple" instances of TSP are not purely Euclidian problems in human computations, but involve emotional, autonomic, and cognitive constraints. They therefore require a level of parallel processing not possible in a macroscopic system to complete the algorithm within a brief period of time. A microscopic neurobiological model emphasizing the computational power of excited atoms within the neuronal membrane is presented as an alternative to classical connectionist approaches. The evolution of the system is viewed in terms of specific natural selection pressures driving satisfying computations toward global optimization. The relationship of microscopic computation to the nature of consciousness is examined, and possible mathematical models as a basis for simulation studies are briefly discussed.

  5. Workshop on cultural usability and human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Ørngreen, Rikke; Roese, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    This workshop analyzes the use of techniques to connect empirical work analysis and interaction design in different cultural contexts. In industry, a wealth of usability evaluation methods is used to evaluate computer software user interfaces and other interactive products: Inspection methods...... it into interaction design. The workshop will present current research into cultural usability and human work interaction design. Cultural usability is a comprehensive concept, which adheres to all kinds of contexts in which humans are involved (private family, work, public and private organizations, nature...

  6. Human Adaptation to the Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Resistance to Change ; Stress; Adaptation to Computers ABSTRACT (Continue on reverie of necessary and identify by block number) This thesis is a study of...OF RESISTANCE TO CHANGE -------------- 48 B. OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE ------------- 50 C. SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS TO OVERCOME RESISTANCE...greater his bewilderment and the greater his bewilderment, the greater his resistance will be [Ref. 7:p. 539]. Overcoming man’s resistance to change

  7. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  8. Verifiable Computation with Massively Parallel Interactive Proofs

    CERN Document Server

    Thaler, Justin; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2012-01-01

    As the cloud computing paradigm has gained prominence, the need for verifiable computation has grown increasingly urgent. The concept of verifiable computation enables a weak client to outsource difficult computations to a powerful, but untrusted, server. Protocols for verifiable computation aim to provide the client with a guarantee that the server performed the requested computations correctly, without requiring the client to perform the computations herself. By design, these protocols impose a minimal computational burden on the client. However, existing protocols require the server to perform a large amount of extra bookkeeping in order to enable a client to easily verify the results. Verifiable computation has thus remained a theoretical curiosity, and protocols for it have not been implemented in real cloud computing systems. Our goal is to leverage GPUs to reduce the server-side slowdown for verifiable computation. To this end, we identify abundant data parallelism in a state-of-the-art general-purpose...

  9. 基于肤色识别的人机交互方法在游戏中的应用研究%Research on Human-Computer Interaction Methods in Game Application Based on Skin Color Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玉宝; 夏露; 侯宪锋

    2012-01-01

    利用计算机视觉技术实现游戏人机交互来提高游戏的娱乐性,是当前国内外应用研究的热点.文中提出了采用肤色检测技术应用于游戏交互的方法.通过摄像头对肤色进行采样,再利用统计方法对皮肤颜色进行分析建立肤色模型;采用背景差分阈值分割法和Camshift算法进行手势跟踪监测,获取手的位置;将手的位置作为信号传递给游戏角色,从而控制游戏.在VC ++6.0下,使用OpenCV和OpenGL开源库,构建了普通摄像头视觉游戏实验平台,通过手势的运动轨迹控制粒子系统喷射方向.实验结果表明,通过肤色进行手势跟踪监测,进而控制游戏角色运动,具有很好的实时性和交互性.%The game human-computer interaction is fulfilled by making use of computer vision technology to improve the game entertainment. It is a current research hotspot at home and abroad. This paper puts forward the method that the skin detection technology is applied to game interaction. Skin detection technology is applied in human-computer interaction in this paper. Skin color is sampled through the camera, and skin color model is established by making use of statistical methods for analysis of skin color. In order to reduce the influence of the background color recognition, the RGB model translates into HSV model. It takes advantage of the background difference threshold segmentation method and Camshaft algorithm for hand tracking monitoring to get the position of the hand. So as to control the game, the position of handle as a signal is transmitted to characters. And in VC+ + 6. 0, it uses open source library OpenCV and gestures OpenGL to build a common experimental platform game camera vision, with gestures trajectory controlling particle system injection. The experimental result shows that making use of the skin color tracking and monitoring gesture to control game character movement has very good real-time and interactivity.

  10. A Moving Human Tracking Approach Based on Semantic Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ning; FANG Bao-hong; SUN Fu-liang

    2007-01-01

    In order to deal with partical occlusion, a semantic interaction based moving human tracking approach is put forward. Firstly human is modeled as moving blobs which are described as blob descriptions. Then moving blobs are updated and verified by projecting these descriptions. The approach exploits improved fast gauss transform and chooses source and target samples to reduce compute cost. Multi-moving human can be tracked simply and part occlusion can be done well.

  11. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  12. Granular computing and decision-making interactive and iterative approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shyi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    This volume is devoted to interactive and iterative processes of decision-making– I2 Fuzzy Decision Making, in brief. Decision-making is inherently interactive. Fuzzy sets help realize human-machine communication in an efficient way by facilitating a two-way interaction in a friendly and transparent manner. Human-centric interaction is of paramount relevance as a leading guiding design principle of decision support systems.   The volume provides the reader with an updated and in-depth material on the conceptually appealing and practically sound methodology and practice of I2 Fuzzy Decision Making. The book engages a wealth of methods of fuzzy sets and Granular Computing, brings new concepts, architectures and practice of fuzzy decision-making providing the reader with various application studies.   The book is aimed at a broad audience of researchers and practitioners in numerous disciplines in which decision-making processes play a pivotal role and serve as a vehicle to produce solutions to existing prob...

  13. A Human-Centred Tangible approach to learning Computational Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Turchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Computational Thinking has recently become a focus of many teaching and research domains; it encapsulates those thinking skills integral to solving complex problems using a computer, thus being widely applicable in our society. It is influencing research across many disciplines and also coming into the limelight of education, mostly thanks to public initiatives such as the Hour of Code. In this paper we present our arguments for promoting Computational Thinking in education through the Human-centred paradigm of Tangible End-User Development, namely by exploiting objects whose interactions with the physical environment are mapped to digital actions performed on the system.

  14. Speech Dialogue with Facial Displays Multimodal Human-Computer Conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, K; Nagao, Katashi; Takeuchi, Akikazu

    1994-01-01

    Human face-to-face conversation is an ideal model for human-computer dialogue. One of the major features of face-to-face communication is its multiplicity of communication channels that act on multiple modalities. To realize a natural multimodal dialogue, it is necessary to study how humans perceive information and determine the information to which humans are sensitive. A face is an independent communication channel that conveys emotional and conversational signals, encoded as facial expressions. We have developed an experimental system that integrates speech dialogue and facial animation, to investigate the effect of introducing communicative facial expressions as a new modality in human-computer conversation. Our experiments have shown that facial expressions are helpful, especially upon first contact with the system. We have also discovered that featuring facial expressions at an early stage improves subsequent interaction.

  15. Computing dispersion interactions in density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, V. R.; Kong, L.; Langreth, D. C.

    2010-02-01

    In this article techniques for including dispersion interactions within density functional theory are examined. In particular comparisons are made between four popular methods: dispersion corrected DFT, pseudopotential correction schemes, symmetry adapted perturbation theory, and a non-local density functional - the so called Rutgers-Chalmers van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF). The S22 benchmark data set is used to evaluate the relative accuracy of these methods and factors such as scalability and transferability are also discussed. We demonstrate that vdW-DF presents an excellent compromise between computational speed and accuracy and lends most easily to full scale application in solid materials. This claim is supported through a brief discussion of a recent large scale application to H2 in a prototype metal organic framework material (MOF), Zn2BDC2TED. The vdW-DF shows overwhelming promise for first-principles studies of physisorbed molecules in porous extended systems; thereby having broad applicability for studies as diverse as molecular adsorption and storage, battery technology, catalysis and gas separations.

  16. Pantomimic gestures for human-robot interaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS 1 Pantomimic Gestures for Human-Robot Interaction Michael Burke, Student Member, IEEE, and Joan Lasenby Abstract This work introduces a pantomimic gesture interface, which classifies human hand gestures using...

  17. The Human-Robot Interaction Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Kunz, Clayton; Hiatt, Laura M.; Bugajska, Magda

    2006-01-01

    In order for humans and robots to work effectively together, they need to be able to converse about abilities, goals and achievements. Thus, we are developing an interaction infrastructure called the "Human-Robot Interaction Operating System" (HRI/OS). The HRI/OS provides a structured software framework for building human-robot teams, supports a variety of user interfaces, enables humans and robots to engage in task-oriented dialogue, and facilitates integration of robots through an extensible API.

  18. IPython interactive computing and visualization cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rossant, Cyrille

    2014-01-01

    Intended to anyone interested in numerical computing and data science: students, researchers, teachers, engineers, analysts, hobbyists... Basic knowledge of Python/NumPy is recommended. Some skills in mathematics will help you understand the theory behind the computational methods.

  19. The Human-Computer Interface and Information Literacy: Some Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses human/computer interaction research, human/computer interface, and their relationships to information literacy. Highlights include communication models; cognitive perspectives; task analysis; theory of action; problem solving; instructional design considerations; and a suggestion that human/information interface may be a more appropriate…

  20. Thole's interacting polarizability model in computational chemistry practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deVries, AH; vanDuijnen, PT; Zijlstra, RWJ; Swart, M

    1997-01-01

    Thole's interacting polarizability model to calculate molecular polarizabilities from interacting atomic polarizabilities is reviewed and its major applications in computational chemistry are illustrated. The applications include prediction of molecular polarizabilities, use in classical expressions

  1. The computational power of interactive recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabessa, Jérémie; Siegelmann, Hava T

    2012-04-01

    In classical computation, rational- and real-weighted recurrent neural networks were shown to be respectively equivalent to and strictly more powerful than the standard Turing machine model. Here, we study the computational power of recurrent neural networks in a more biologically oriented computational framework, capturing the aspects of sequential interactivity and persistence of memory. In this context, we prove that so-called interactive rational- and real-weighted neural networks show the same computational powers as interactive Turing machines and interactive Turing machines with advice, respectively. A mathematical characterization of each of these computational powers is also provided. It follows from these results that interactive real-weighted neural networks can perform uncountably many more translations of information than interactive Turing machines, making them capable of super-Turing capabilities.

  2. Themes in human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. This paper raises themes that are seen as some of the challenges facing the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design. The paper has its offset in the discussions and writings that have been dominant within the IFIP Working Group on Human Work Interaction...

  3. Themes in human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. This paper raises themes that are seen as some of the challenges facing the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design. The paper has its offset in the discussions and writings that have been dominant within the IFIP Working Group on Human Work Interaction...... Design (name HWID) through the last two and half years since the commencement of this Working Group. The paper thus provides an introduction to the theory and empirical evidence that lie behind the combination of empirical work studies and interaction design. It also recommends key topics for future...... research in Human Work Interaction Design....

  4. Two Invariants of Human-Swarm Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    2002). Humans and automation: System design and research issues. John Wiley and Sons. 29 Brown et al., Two Invariants of Human Swarm Interaction...Daniel S. Brown AFRL Information Directorate and Michael A. Goodrich, Shin-Young Jung, and Sean Kerman Brigham Young University The search for...publication in this journal. Journal of Human-Robot Interaction, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2012, Pages 78-95. DOI 10.5898/JHRI.1.1.Tanaka Brown et al., Two Invariants

  5. 基于多屏协同的智能电视人机交互系统%SMART TV HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION SYSTEM BASED ON MULTI-SCREEN COLLABORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兴旺; 孙鹏; 韩锐; 刘春梅

    2016-01-01

    基于多屏协同的智能电视人机交互系统定义了移动设备对智能电视的远程操控和文本输入的通信机制,以解决用户对智能电视的操作不灵活的问题,尤其改善用户的文本输入操作体验。该通信机制稳定、可扩展性强,适用于不同平台的远程操控和文本输入需求。该系统基于 UPnP 协议实现了快速连接移动设备和智能电视,并且以 Android 系统广播机制和输入机制为依据,提出了基于虚拟驱动的输入扩展机制,达到了原生鼠标键盘事件的效果,实现了利用移动设备对智能电视进行交互控制的设计。实验证明,该人机交互系统,具有无缝连接、操作简单的优点,尤其适合用户进行文本输入操作。%The smart TV human-computer interaction system based on multi-screen collaboration defines a communication mechanism for mobile devices in regard to remote control and text input on smart TV so as to solve the problem that user’s control on smart TV is not flexible,in particular to improve user’s experience of text inputting operation.This mechanism is stable and has high scalability,and is suitable for the requirement of remote control and text input on different platforms.Based on UPnP protocol the system implements fast connection on mobile devices and smart TV,and presents the virtual drive-based input extension mechanism based on Android system broadcast mechanism and input mechanism,this achieves the effect of the native mouse and keyboard events,thus realises the design of using mobile devices to interactively control smart TV.Experiments show that this human-computer interaction system has the advantages of seamless connectivity and simple operation,and is particularly suitable for users in text input operation.

  6. Interactive Computation for Undergraduates: The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolan, Amy J.

    2017-05-01

    A generation ago (29 years ago), Leo Kadanoff and Michael Vinson created the Computers, Chaos, and Physics course. A major pedagogical thrust of this course was to help students form and test hypotheses via computer simulation of small problems in physics. Recently, this aspect of the 1987 course has been revived for use with first year physics undergraduate students at St. Olaf College.

  7. 体感设备与被动立体相结合的人机交互方法研究%Research on the method of human-computer interaction in combining somatosensory equipment with passive stereo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭剑波; 张光刘; 李琳

    2011-01-01

    The technology of human-computer interaction full of sense of immersion and manipulation is the target of researchers in the area of virtual reality, and three-dimensional display and somatosensory interaction has become the hot topics at present. By means of introducing the Somatosensory equipment into the display environment of passive stereo, this paper designs and develops a three-dimensional tennis game. Taking the advantage of a stereo display of 3D, and through reasonably planning the relationships and mapping links among objects, participants' visual sense and somatosensory equipment in the game, the sense of immersion and manipulation is improved dramatically.%富有沉浸感和操纵感的人机交互技术是虚拟现实学科研究者的追求目标,立体显示与体感交互是当前的热点问题.文章将体感设备引入被动立体的显示环境,设计开发了一个立体网球游戏,利用立体显示的三维视觉特性,通过合理规划游戏中的对象、参与人的视觉感官以及体感设备三者之间的联系和映射关系,使沉浸感和操纵感得到很大的提升.

  8. Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…

  9. Analysis of the Trend of Development of Multimedia Human-Computer Interaction Techniques in the Field of Product Design%浅析多媒体人机交互技术在产品设计领域的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋培培

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the development of science and technology is flourishing, international exchange is frequent, global economic and cultural interdependence is enhanced since the 1990s. Multimedia human-computer interaction technology has gotten rapid development. Meanwhile, it also plays a significant role in the field of product design and product display and sales. According to the detailed analysis on the main interactive ways of multimedia human-computer interaction in the product design, including network virtual interactive and multimedia, multi-channel intelligent human-computer interaction, as well as existent problems in these interactions, through the research of existing human-computer interaction technology, the future direction and trend of development of multimedia human-computer interaction technology in the field of product design is proposed.%介绍了自20世纪90年代以来,科学技术蓬勃发展,国际交流频繁,全球经济文化相互依赖增强.多媒体人机交互技术发展迅速.同时,在产品设计领域以及产品展示和销售方面也起到了很大的作用.针对产品设计中的多媒体人机交互的主要交互方式,包括了网络虚拟的交互方式和多媒体、多通道的智能人机交互方式.以及这些交互方式中所存在问题做了详细分析.通过现有的这些人机交互技术的分析研究,提出了多媒体人机交互技术在产品设计领域未来的发展方向及发展趋势.

  10. Multi-channel virtual reality human-computer interactive terminal design and application%多通道虚拟现实人机交互终端设计及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐守祥; 胡文; 于成龙; 马超

    2015-01-01

    设计了一款多通道虚拟现实人机交互终端,它依据虚拟环境产生真实的环境模拟,为真人带来沉浸式的环境带入体验。给出了利用虚拟环境中的语义对象控制该交互终端,产生三维环境、立体声音、自然气象、碰撞接触和气味仿真等感知功能的方法,为人的大脑依附于虚拟世界的化身上给出了一种新途径,通过虚拟世界环境的变换,实现真人的时空穿越体验。借助Unity虚拟现实开发平台和虚拟现实头盔,给出了该方案的原型系统。%In order to bring immersive environment into reality experience, we propose a multi-channel virtual reality human-computer interactive terminal, which is based on the virtual environment to simulate real environment. In the virtual environment, semantic objects are given as the controller of the interactive terminal. It produces three-dimensional environment, stereo sound, natural calamities, impact and odor perception. The embodiment of human brain attached to the virtual world generates a new way by the transformation of virtual world environment to achieve a real-time travel experience. By means of Unity development platform and virtual reality helmet, the scheme of prototype system is presented.

  11. Computer Modeling of Human Delta Opioid Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Dzimbova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of selective agonists of δ-opioid receptor as well as the model of interaction of ligands with this receptor is the subjects of increased interest. In the absence of crystal structures of opioid receptors, 3D homology models with different templates have been reported in the literature. The problem is that these models are not available for widespread use. The aims of our study are: (1 to choose within recently published crystallographic structures templates for homology modeling of the human δ-opioid receptor (DOR; (2 to evaluate the models with different computational tools; and (3 to precise the most reliable model basing on correlation between docking data and in vitro bioassay results. The enkephalin analogues, as ligands used in this study, were previously synthesized by our group and their biological activity was evaluated. Several models of DOR were generated using different templates. All these models were evaluated by PROCHECK and MolProbity and relationship between docking data and in vitro results was determined. The best correlations received for the tested models of DOR were found between efficacy (erel of the compounds, calculated from in vitro experiments and Fitness scoring function from docking studies. New model of DOR was generated and evaluated by different approaches. This model has good GA341 value (0.99 from MODELLER, good values from PROCHECK (92.6% of most favored regions and MolProbity (99.5% of favored regions. Scoring function correlates (Pearson r = -0.7368, p-value = 0.0097 with erel of a series of enkephalin analogues, calculated from in vitro experiments. So, this investigation allows suggesting a reliable model of DOR. Newly generated model of DOR receptor could be used further for in silico experiments and it will give possibility for faster and more correct design of selective and effective ligands for δ-opioid receptor.

  12. Interactive computing in BASIC an introduction to interactive computing and a practical course in the BASIC language

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, Peter C

    1973-01-01

    Interactive Computing in BASIC: An Introduction to Interactive Computing and a Practical Course in the BASIC Language provides a general introduction to the principles of interactive computing and a comprehensive practical guide to the programming language Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC). The book starts by providing an introduction to computers and discussing the aspects of terminal usage, programming languages, and the stages in writing and testing a program. The text then discusses BASIC with regard to methods in writing simple arithmetical programs, control stateme

  13. Mixed reality and human-robot interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiangyu

    2011-01-01

    MR technologies play an increasing role in different aspects of human-robot interactions. The visual combination of digital contents with real working spaces creates a simulated environment that is set out to enhance these aspects. This book presents and discusses fundamental scientific issues, technical implementations, lab testing, and industrial applications and case studies of Mixed Reality in Human-Robot Interaction. It is a reference book that not only acts as meta-book in the field that defines and frames Mixed Reality use in Human-Robot Interaction, but also addresses up-coming trends

  14. Neuromolecular computing: a new approach to human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R; Price, H

    1999-09-01

    Evolutionary approaches in human cognitive neurobiology traditionally emphasize macroscopic structures. It may soon be possible to supplement these studies with models of human information-processing of the molecular level. Thin-film, simulation, fluorescence microscopy, and high-resolution X-ray crystallographic studies provide evidence for transiently organized neural membrane molecular systems with possible computational properties. This review article examines evidence for hydrophobic-mismatch molecular interactions within phospholipid microdomains of a neural membrane bilayer. It is proposed that these interactions are a massively parallel algorithm which can rapidly compute near-optimal solutions to complex cognitive and physiological problems. Coupling of microdomain activity to permenant ion movements at ligand-gated and voltage-gated channels permits the conversion of molecular computations into neuron frequency codes. Evidence for microdomain transport of proteins to specific locations within the bilayer suggests that neuromolecular computation may be under some genetic control and thus modifiable by natural selection. A possible experimental approach for examining evolutionary changes in neuromolecular computation is briefly discussed.

  15. Soft Computing in Humanities and Social Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    González, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    The field of Soft Computing in Humanities and Social Sciences is at a turning point. The strong distinction between “science” and “humanities” has been criticized from many fronts and, at the same time, an increasing cooperation between the so-called “hard sciences” and “soft sciences” is taking place in a wide range of scientific projects dealing with very complex and interdisciplinary topics. In the last fifteen years the area of Soft Computing has also experienced a gradual rapprochement to disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences, and also in the field of Medicine, Biology and even the Arts, a phenomenon that did not occur much in the previous years.   The collection of this book presents a generous sampling of the new and burgeoning field of Soft Computing in Humanities and Social Sciences, bringing together a wide array of authors and subject matters from different disciplines. Some of the contributors of the book belong to the scientific and technical areas of Soft Computing w...

  16. Shared resource control between human and computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, James; Wilson, Reid

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of an AI system of actively monitoring human control of a shared resource (such as a telerobotic manipulator) are presented. A system is described in which a simple AI planning program gains efficiency by monitoring human actions and recognizing when the actions cause a change in the system's assumed state of the world. This enables the planner to recognize when an interaction occurs between human actions and system goals, and allows maintenance of an up-to-date knowledge of the state of the world and thus informs the operator when human action would undo a goal achieved by the system, when an action would render a system goal unachievable, and efficiently replans the establishment of goals after human intervention.

  17. Human -Computer Interface using Gestures based on Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Malik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available - Gestures are powerful tools for non-verbal communication. Human computer interface (HCI is a growing field which reduces the complexity of interaction between human and machine in which gestures are used for conveying information or controlling the machine. In the present paper, static hand gestures are utilized for this purpose. The paper presents a novel technique of recognizing hand gestures i.e. A-Z alphabets, 0-9 numbers and 6 additional control signals (for keyboard and mouse control by extracting various features of hand ,creating a feature vector table and training a neural network. The proposed work has a recognition rate of 99%. .

  18. Computation of Viscous-Inviscid Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    computations can be made quantitative. Similar remarks have been made independently by D.A . Humphreys and B. van den Berg in the evaluation of data for three...were Mrs. Sophia Porson, Mrs. Margaret Mark, and Miss Doris Kirsch. Now a few words about our future plans. Next year there will be tw’ Symposia. The

  19. Are human interactivity times lognormal?

    CERN Document Server

    Blenn, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are analyzing the interactivity time, defined as the duration between two consecutive tasks such as sending emails, collecting friends and followers and writing comments in online social networks (OSNs). The distributions of these times are heavy tailed and often described by a power-law distribution. However, power-law distributions usually only fit the heavy tail of empirical data and ignore the information in the smaller value range. Here, we argue that the durations between writing emails or comments, adding friends and receiving followers are likely to follow a lognormal distribution. We discuss the similarities between power-law and lognormal distributions, show that binning of data can deform a lognormal to a power-law distribution and propose an explanation for the appearance of lognormal interactivity times. The historical debate of similarities between lognormal and power-law distributions is reviewed by illustrating the resemblance of measurements in this paper with the historical...

  20. General aviation design synthesis utilizing interactive computer graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, T. L.; Smith, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Interactive computer graphics is a fast growing area of computer application, due to such factors as substantial cost reductions in hardware, general availability of software, and expanded data communication networks. In addition to allowing faster and more meaningful input/output, computer graphics permits the use of data in graphic form to carry out parametric studies for configuration selection and for assessing the impact of advanced technologies on general aviation designs. The incorporation of interactive computer graphics into a NASA developed general aviation synthesis program is described, and the potential uses of the synthesis program in preliminary design are demonstrated.

  1. Eliciting Children's Recall of Events: How Do Computers Compare with Humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martine B.; Wilson, J. Clare; Thomson, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the usefulness of an interactive computer program in eliciting children's reports about an event. Compared results of interviews by computer with interviews with humans with children aged five through eight that showed little benefit in computers over face-to-face interviews. (Author/LRW)

  2. Study on augmented reality human-computer interactive technology with Vizard and Kinect%基于Vizard和Kinect的增强现实人机交互技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利利; 刘江城; 林晓斌

    2016-01-01

    Natural human-computer interaction technology based on posture and language has largely solved the problem of the traditional game experience, and augmented the user experience. This paper presents a method to develop augmented reality interactive technology with Vizard and Kinect. It uses Kinect to obtain tracking identification points of human skeleton, and gets three-dimensional coordinate values of corresponding bones node by Vizard and FAAST. By space vector processing, the body posture can be converted to a state value and then the corresponding control command output is completed, and the interaction control between user and system is realized. The experimental results show that the method is cost low, development cycle short, integrates the real world information with virtual world information seamlessly, thus augments the game user experience.%基于体态和语言的人机自然交互技术很大程度上解决了传统游戏的体验问题,增强了游戏用户的体验感。提出了一种将Vizard和Kinect相结合开发增强现实人机交互技术的方法,即利用Kinect设备获取人体骨骼跟踪识别点,通过Vizard和FAAST取得对应骨骼节点的三维坐标值,并进行空间向量处理,进而判断肢体信息再转换为状态参数,最后完成相应的控制指令输出,实现用户和系统的交互控制。实验结果表明,这种开发方法成本低,周期短,将真实世界信息和虚拟世界信息“无缝”地融合,增强游戏用户的体验感。

  3. Human brain mapping: Experimental and computational approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.C.; George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Aine, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Sanders, J. [Albuquerque VA Medical Center, NM (US); Belliveau, J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This program developed project combined Los Alamos' and collaborators' strengths in noninvasive brain imaging and high performance computing to develop potential contributions to the multi-agency Human Brain Project led by the National Institute of Mental Health. The experimental component of the project emphasized the optimization of spatial and temporal resolution of functional brain imaging by combining: (a) structural MRI measurements of brain anatomy; (b) functional MRI measurements of blood flow and oxygenation; and (c) MEG measurements of time-resolved neuronal population currents. The computational component of the project emphasized development of a high-resolution 3-D volumetric model of the brain based on anatomical MRI, in which structural and functional information from multiple imaging modalities can be integrated into a single computational framework for modeling, visualization, and database representation.

  4. Human brain mapping: Experimental and computational approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.C.; George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Aine, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Sanders, J. [Albuquerque VA Medical Center, NM (US); Belliveau, J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This program developed project combined Los Alamos' and collaborators' strengths in noninvasive brain imaging and high performance computing to develop potential contributions to the multi-agency Human Brain Project led by the National Institute of Mental Health. The experimental component of the project emphasized the optimization of spatial and temporal resolution of functional brain imaging by combining: (a) structural MRI measurements of brain anatomy; (b) functional MRI measurements of blood flow and oxygenation; and (c) MEG measurements of time-resolved neuronal population currents. The computational component of the project emphasized development of a high-resolution 3-D volumetric model of the brain based on anatomical MRI, in which structural and functional information from multiple imaging modalities can be integrated into a single computational framework for modeling, visualization, and database representation.

  5. Human Work Interaction Design Meets International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique oppo...

  6. Aesthetic Approaches to Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume consists of revised papers from the First International Workshop on Activity Theory Based Practical Methods for IT Design. The workshop took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, September 2-3, 2004. The particular focus of the workshop was the development of methods based on activity theory...... for practical development of IT-based systems....

  7. Measuring Appeal in Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neben, Tillmann; Xiao, Bo Sophia; Lim, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    has relied predominantly on subjective self-rating scales, this research-in-progress paper proposes complementary objective measurement for appeal. We start by reviewing the linkages between the theoretical constructs related to appeal and their neurophysiological correlates. We then review past......Appeal refers to the positive emotional response to an aesthetic, beautiful, or in another way desirable stimulus. It is a recurring topic in information systems (IS) research, and is important for understanding many phenomena of user behavior and decision-making. While past IS research on appeal...

  8. Human-computer interaction fundamentals and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Gerard Jounghyun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction What HCI Is and Why It Is Important Principles of HCI     ""Know Thy User""      Understand the Task      Reduce Memory Load      Strive for Consistency      Remind Users and Refresh Their Memory      Prevent Errors/Reversal of Action      Naturalness SummaryReferences Specific HCI Guidelines Guideline Categories Examples of HCI Guidelines      Visual Display Layout (General HCI Design)      Information Structuring and Navigation (General HCI Design)      Taking User Input (General H

  9. Aesthetic Approaches to Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume consists of revised papers from the First International Workshop on Activity Theory Based Practical Methods for IT Design. The workshop took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, September 2-3, 2004. The particular focus of the workshop was the development of methods based on activity theory ...

  10. Interacting electrons theory and computational approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Richard M; Ceperley, David M

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the theory and computation of electronic structure is bringing an unprecedented level of capability for research. Many-body methods are becoming essential tools vital for quantitative calculations and understanding materials phenomena in physics, chemistry, materials science and other fields. This book provides a unified exposition of the most-used tools: many-body perturbation theory, dynamical mean field theory and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Each topic is introduced with a less technical overview for a broad readership, followed by in-depth descriptions and mathematical formulation. Practical guidelines, illustrations and exercises are chosen to enable readers to appreciate the complementary approaches, their relationships, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method. This book is designed for graduate students and researchers who want to use and understand these advanced computational tools, get a broad overview, and acquire a basis for participating in new developments.

  11. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaiya, Shiro; Shiraito, Yuki; Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Okada, Kensuke; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human) and strategy (random, tit-for-tat) in repeated prisoner's dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate) and theory of mind (ToM) regions [i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and precuneus]. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (de)activation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during social interactions.

  12. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro eSakaiya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human and strategy (random, tit-for-tat in repeated prisoner’s dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate and theory of mind (ToM regions (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex [VMPFC] and precuneus. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (deactivation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during

  13. The application of 2.5D human-computer interaction inversion to aeromagnetic anomaly interpretation%2.5D人机交互反演在航磁异常解释中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周子阳; 常树帅; 宁媛丽; 陈江源

    2016-01-01

    2.5D joint inversion of gravity and magnetic module in RGIS data processing software uses 2.5D human-computer interaction inversion method of gravity and magnetic anomalies,which has advantages of simple interface,convenient operation,and real-time dis-play of inversional curve. Taking inversion of GanC-2011-0011 aeromagnetic anomaly in the Dunhuang area of Gansu Province as an ex-ample,this paper describes concrete methods of data import,parameter setting and modeling. The inversion result is basically in accord with verification result with drilling. It is shown that the inversion result is reliable.%RGIS软件中2.5D重磁联合反演模块采用2.5D人机交互重磁异常反演方法,具有界面简洁、操作方便、反演曲线实时显示等优点.笔者以甘肃敦煌地区甘C-2011-0011航磁异常反演为例,介绍了该软件数据输入、参数设置及模型建立的具体方法.反演结果与实际钻孔验证结果基本吻合,表明反演结果可靠.

  14. Fluctuating hyperfine interactions: an updated computational implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacate, M. O.; Evenson, W. E.

    2015-04-01

    The stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (SHIML) is a set of routines written in the C programming language designed to assist in the analysis of stochastic models of hyperfine interactions. The routines read a text-file description of the model, set up the Blume matrix, upon which the evolution operator of the quantum mechanical system depends, and calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Blume matrix, from which theoretical spectra of experimental techniques can be calculated. The original version of SHIML constructs Blume matrices applicable for methods that measure hyperfine interactions with only a single nuclear spin state. In this paper, we report an extension of the library to provide support for methods such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation, which are sensitive to interactions with two nuclear spin states. Examples will be presented that illustrate the use of this extension of SHIML to generate Mössbauer spectra for polycrystalline samples under a number of fluctuating hyperfine field models.

  15. Fluctuating hyperfine interactions: an updated computational implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States); Evenson, W. E. [Utah Valley University, Department of Physics (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (SHIML) is a set of routines written in the C programming language designed to assist in the analysis of stochastic models of hyperfine interactions. The routines read a text-file description of the model, set up the Blume matrix, upon which the evolution operator of the quantum mechanical system depends, and calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Blume matrix, from which theoretical spectra of experimental techniques can be calculated. The original version of SHIML constructs Blume matrices applicable for methods that measure hyperfine interactions with only a single nuclear spin state. In this paper, we report an extension of the library to provide support for methods such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation, which are sensitive to interactions with two nuclear spin states. Examples will be presented that illustrate the use of this extension of SHIML to generate Mössbauer spectra for polycrystalline samples under a number of fluctuating hyperfine field models.

  16. Interactively human: Sharing time, constructing materiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Predictive processing models of cognition are promising an elegant way to unite action, perception, and learning. However, in the current formulations, they are species-unspecific and have very little particularly human about them. I propose to examine how, in this framework, humans can be able to massively interact and to build shared worlds that are both material and symbolic.

  17. Problem spotting in human-machine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc; Theune, Mariët; Weegels, Mieke

    1999-01-01

    In human-human communication, dialogue participants are con-tinuously sending and receiving signals on the status of the inform-ation being exchanged. We claim that if spoken dialogue systems were able to detect such cues and change their strategy accordingly, the interaction between user and system

  18. Problem spotting in human-machine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc; Theune, Mariet; Weegels, Mieke

    In human-human communication, dialogue participants are con-tinuously sending and receiving signals on the status of the inform-ation being exchanged. We claim that if spoken dialogue systems were able to detect such cues and change their strategy accordingly, the interaction between user and

  19. The Science of Human Interaction and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There is a missing link between our understanding of teaching as high-level social phenomenon and teaching as a physiological phenomenon of brain activity. We suggest that the science of human interaction is the missing link. Using over one-million days of human-behavior data, we have discovered that "collective activenes" (CA), which indicates…

  20. Use of Interactive Computer Graphics to Solve Routing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, B. E.; Lawrence, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses vehicle routing problems and solutions. Describes testing of an interactive computer graphics package combining several types of solutions that allows users with little or no experience to work out routing problems. (Author/RW)

  1. Approaches to Affective Computing and Learning towards Interactive Decision Making in Process Control Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Chong; LI Hong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Numerous multi-objective decision-making problems related to industrial process control engineering such as control and operation performance evaluation are being resolved through human-computer interactions.With regard to the problems that traditional interactive evolutionary computing approaches suffer i.e.,limited searching ability and human's strong subjectivity in multi-objective-attribute decision-making,a novel affective computing and learning solution adapted to human-computer interaction mechanism is explicitly proposed.Therein,a kind of stimulating response based affective computing model (STAM) is constructed,along with quantitative relations between affective space and human's subjective preferences.Thereafter,affective learning strategies based on genetic algorithms are introduced which are responsible for gradually grasping essentials in human's subjective judgments in decision-making,reducing human's subjective fatigue as well as making the decisions more objective and scientific.Affective learning algorithm's complexity and convergence analysis are shown in Appendices A and B.To exemplify applications of the proposed methods,ad-hoc test functions and PID parameter tuning are suggested as case studies,giving rise to satisfying results and showing validity of the contributions.

  2. Ivermectin interacts with human ABCG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Márton; Makai, Ildikó; Kis, Emese; Szabó, Pál; Nagy, Tünde; Krajcsi, Péter; Lespine, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug frequently administered to humans. It has a limited brain exposure that is attributed to the efflux activity of ABCB1/Abcb1. ABCG2/Abcg2 is also a major transporter present in most pharmacologically important barriers. However, interaction of ivermectin with Abcg2 shows species specificity and in many studies was confounded by the masking effect of ABCB1/Abcb1. In this study using cellular and membrane assays we show that ivermectin displays a high-affinity interaction with human ABCG2 with IC(50) values in the 1-1.5  µM range. This interaction may have implications in human ABCG2-mediated drug-drug interactions of ivermectin.

  3. An Interactive Chemical Equilibrium Solver for the Personal Computer

    OpenAIRE

    Negus, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    AN INTERACTIVE CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM SOLVER FOR THE PERSONAL COMPUTER Charles Hugh Negus Felix J. Pierce, Chairman Mechanical Engineering The Virginia Tech Equilibrium Chemistry (VTEC) code is a keyboard interactive, user friendly, chemical equilibrium solver for use on a personal computer. The code is particularly suitable for a teaching / learning environment. For a set of reactants at a defined thermodynamic state given by a user, the program will select all species...

  4. Identifying the structural discontinuities of human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Grauwin, Sebastian; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Hövel, Philipp; Simini, Filippo; Vanhoof, Maarten; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo; Ratti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The idea of a hierarchical spatial organization of society lies at the core of seminal theories in human geography that have strongly influenced our understanding of social organization. In the same line, the recent availability of large-scale human mobility and communication data has offered novel quantitative insights hinting at a strong geographical confinement of human interactions within neighboring regions, extending to local levels within countries. However, models of human interaction largely ignore this effect. Here, we analyze several country-wide networks of telephone calls and uncover a systematic decrease of communication induced by borders which we identify as the missing variable in state-of-the-art models. Using this empirical evidence, we propose an alternative modeling framework that naturally stylize the damping effect of borders. We show that this new notion substantially improves the predictive power of widely used interaction models, thus increasing our ability to predict social activiti...

  5. Human-Robot Interaction: Status and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Thomas B

    2016-06-01

    The current status of human-robot interaction (HRI) is reviewed, and key current research challenges for the human factors community are described. Robots have evolved from continuous human-controlled master-slave servomechanisms for handling nuclear waste to a broad range of robots incorporating artificial intelligence for many applications and under human supervisory control. This mini-review describes HRI developments in four application areas and what are the challenges for human factors research. In addition to a plethora of research papers, evidence of success is manifest in live demonstrations of robot capability under various forms of human control. HRI is a rapidly evolving field. Specialized robots under human teleoperation have proven successful in hazardous environments and medical application, as have specialized telerobots under human supervisory control for space and repetitive industrial tasks. Research in areas of self-driving cars, intimate collaboration with humans in manipulation tasks, human control of humanoid robots for hazardous environments, and social interaction with robots is at initial stages. The efficacy of humanoid general-purpose robots has yet to be proven. HRI is now applied in almost all robot tasks, including manufacturing, space, aviation, undersea, surgery, rehabilitation, agriculture, education, package fetch and delivery, policing, and military operations. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. Investigation of Lecture method on Fitts' Law in Human-computer Interaction Courses%人机交互课程中费茨定律的讲授方案探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂华伟

    2016-01-01

    费茨定律(Fitts’Law)是人机交互界面设计中的重要指导理论。因此,费茨定律的讲授是人机交互课堂的重要环节。在本文中,作者以自身教学实践为基础,提出费茨定律的三层次讲解模型(理论层次、应用层次和科研层次),以系统地讲授费茨定律的理论及应用。具体而言,这个模型首先对比香农定理和费茨定律,分析费茨定律起源及其参数含义。其次参考商业操作系统(iOS和Windows)的设计,说明费茨定律的应用场景。最后以发表在人机交互顶级会议CHI上新颖的研究成果为例,阐述费茨定律的理论指导作用。课堂反馈初步说明了该教学模型的有效性。该教学方式不仅为更好地讲解费茨定律提供了借鉴,也为讲授人机交互课程的其他知识给出了思路。%Fitts' law plays an important role in human-computer interface design. Hence, the lecture on Fitts' law is vital in Human-computer Interaction (HCI) courses. In this article, the author proposes a three-level lecture model (theory, application and research levels) based on the author' teaching experience. Specifically, this model first compares Shannon's theorem to Fit-ts' law so as to analyze the origin of Fitts' Law and the meanings of its parameters. Then this model refers to commercial OS design such as iOS and Windows to illustrate application scenarios of Fitts' law. Last, this model demonstrates the function of Fitts' law as a theoretical guidance by taking research outcomes published in the top level HCI conference CHI as examples. The initial feedback demonstrates the effectiveness of the lecture model. The proposed method not only provides references of how to better lecture on Fitts' law, but also offers thoughts to lecture on other HCI knowledge.

  7. Duplicability of self-interacting human genes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pérez-Bercoff, Asa

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the evolution of protein-protein interactions because this should ultimately be informative of the patterns of evolution of new protein functions within the cell. One model proposes that the evolution of new protein-protein interactions and protein complexes proceeds through the duplication of self-interacting genes. This model is supported by data from yeast. We examined the relationship between gene duplication and self-interaction in the human genome. RESULTS: We investigated the patterns of self-interaction and duplication among 34808 interactions encoded by 8881 human genes, and show that self-interacting proteins are encoded by genes with higher duplicability than genes whose proteins lack this type of interaction. We show that this result is robust against the system used to define duplicate genes. Finally we compared the presence of self-interactions amongst proteins whose genes have duplicated either through whole-genome duplication (WGD) or small-scale duplication (SSD), and show that the former tend to have more interactions in general. After controlling for age differences between the two sets of duplicates this result can be explained by the time since the gene duplication. CONCLUSIONS: Genes encoding self-interacting proteins tend to have higher duplicability than proteins lacking self-interactions. Moreover these duplicate genes have more often arisen through whole-genome rather than small-scale duplication. Finally, self-interacting WGD genes tend to have more interaction partners in general in the PIN, which can be explained by their overall greater age. This work adds to our growing knowledge of the importance of contextual factors in gene duplicability.

  8. Computer-Based Interaction Analysis with DEGREE Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, B.; Verdejo, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    We review our research with "DEGREE" and analyse how our work has impacted the collaborative learning community since 2000. Our research is framed within the context of computer-based interaction analysis and the development of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) tools. We identify some aspects of our work which have been…

  9. ACII 2009, Affective Computing & Intelligent Interaction : Proceedings Volume II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühl, Christian; Heylen, Dirk; Nijholt, Anton

    2009-01-01

    These are the proceedings of ABCI 2009, Affective Brain Computer Interfaces, a workshop that was organized in conjunction with ACII 2009, the International Conference on Affective Computation and Intelligent Interaction, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 2009. The workshop took place on

  10. IPython: components for interactive and parallel computing across disciplines. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, F.; Bussonnier, M.; Frederic, J. D.; Froehle, B. M.; Granger, B. E.; Ivanov, P.; Kluyver, T.; Patterson, E.; Ragan-Kelley, B.; Sailer, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific computing is an inherently exploratory activity that requires constantly cycling between code, data and results, each time adjusting the computations as new insights and questions arise. To support such a workflow, good interactive environments are critical. The IPython project (http://ipython.org) provides a rich architecture for interactive computing with: 1. Terminal-based and graphical interactive consoles. 2. A web-based Notebook system with support for code, text, mathematical expressions, inline plots and other rich media. 3. Easy to use, high performance tools for parallel computing. Despite its roots in Python, the IPython architecture is designed in a language-agnostic way to facilitate interactive computing in any language. This allows users to mix Python with Julia, R, Octave, Ruby, Perl, Bash and more, as well as to develop native clients in other languages that reuse the IPython clients. In this talk, I will show how IPython supports all stages in the lifecycle of a scientific idea: 1. Individual exploration. 2. Collaborative development. 3. Production runs with parallel resources. 4. Publication. 5. Education. In particular, the IPython Notebook provides an environment for "literate computing" with a tight integration of narrative and computation (including parallel computing). These Notebooks are stored in a JSON-based document format that provides an "executable paper": notebooks can be version controlled, exported to HTML or PDF for publication, and used for teaching.

  11. Human Pacman: A Mobile Augmented Reality Entertainment System Based on Physical, Social, and Ubiquitous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    This chapter details the Human Pacman system to illuminate entertainment computing which ventures to embed the natural physical world seamlessly with a fantasy virtual playground by capitalizing on infrastructure provided by mobile computing, wireless LAN, and ubiquitous computing. With Human Pacman, we have a physical role-playing computer fantasy together with real human-social and mobile-gaming that emphasizes on collaboration and competition between players in a wide outdoor physical area that allows natural wide-area human-physical movements. Pacmen and Ghosts are now real human players in the real world experiencing mixed computer graphics fantasy-reality provided by using the wearable computers on them. Virtual cookies and actual tangible physical objects are incorporated into the game play to provide novel experiences of seamless transitions between the real and virtual worlds. This is an example of a new form of gaming that anchors on physicality, mobility, social interaction, and ubiquitous computing.

  12. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  13. The Human-Computer Domain Relation in UX Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    This paper argues that the conceptualization of the human, the computer and the domain of use in competing lines of UX research have problematic similarities and superficial differences. The paper qualitatively analyses concepts and models in five research papers that together represent two...... influential lines of UX research: aesthetics and temporal UX, and two use situations: using a website and starting to use a smartphone. The results suggest that the two lines of UX research share a focus on users’ evaluative judgments of technology, both focuses on product qualities rather than activity...... domains, give little details about users, and treat human-computer interaction as perception. The conclusion gives similarities and differences between the approaches to UX. The implications for theory building are indicated....

  14. A Guide for Developing Human-Robot Interaction Experiments in the Robotic Interactive Visualization and Experimentation Technology (RIVET) Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    camera control for remote exploration. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems; 2004 Apr 24–29; Vienna...Austria. New York (NY): ACM ; c2004. p. 511–517. Kunkler K. The role of medical simulation: an overview. The International Journal of Medical Robotics and...Schreckenghost D. Survey of metrics for human-robot interaction. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM /IEEE Human-Robot Interaction Conference; HRI 2013

  15. Multimodal interaction for human-robot teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Dustin; Schurr, Nathan; Ayers, Jeanine; Rousseau, Jeff; Fertitta, John; Carlin, Alan; Dumond, Danielle

    2013-05-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles have the potential for supporting small dismounted teams in mapping facilities, maintaining security in cleared buildings, and extending the team's reconnaissance and persistent surveillance capability. In order for such autonomous systems to integrate with the team, we must move beyond current interaction methods using heads-down teleoperation which require intensive human attention and affect the human operator's ability to maintain local situational awareness and ensure their own safety. This paper focuses on the design, development and demonstration of a multimodal interaction system that incorporates naturalistic human gestures, voice commands, and a tablet interface. By providing multiple, partially redundant interaction modes, our system degrades gracefully in complex environments and enables the human operator to robustly select the most suitable interaction method given the situational demands. For instance, the human can silently use arm and hand gestures for commanding a team of robots when it is important to maintain stealth. The tablet interface provides an overhead situational map allowing waypoint-based navigation for multiple ground robots in beyond-line-of-sight conditions. Using lightweight, wearable motion sensing hardware either worn comfortably beneath the operator's clothing or integrated within their uniform, our non-vision-based approach enables an accurate, continuous gesture recognition capability without line-of-sight constraints. To reduce the training necessary to operate the system, we designed the interactions around familiar arm and hand gestures.

  16. Child-Computer Interaction SIG: New Challenges and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Revelle, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This SIG will provide child-computer interaction researchers and practitioners an opportunity to discuss four topics that represent new challenges and opportunities for the community. The four areas are: interactive technologies for children under the age of five, technology for inclusion, privacy...

  17. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  18. Equality: A Principle of Human Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjördís Hákonardóttir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on equality as a primary principle of human interaction. Human beings have basic needs, physical and mental, the fulfilment of which is necessary for a flourishing life. These needs transfer into so-called fundamental rights. Humans are entitled to a life as conscious, autonomous actors in respect to those needs. In this respect all humans are equal. It is proposed here that equality in this sense promotes a situation from which fundamental rights are derived. Thus equality is primary to and the reason why recognition of fundamental rights cannot be left to the chance of social development.

  19. Computer Simulation of the Beating Human Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Charles S.; McQueen, David M.

    2001-06-01

    The mechanical function of the human heart couples together the fluid mechanics of blood and the soft tissue mechanics of the muscular heart walls and flexible heart valve leaflets. We discuss a unified mathematical formulation of this problem in which the soft tissue looks like a specialized part of the fluid in which additional forces are applied. This leads to a computational scheme known as the Immersed Boundary (IB) method for solving the coupled equations of motion of the whole system. The IB method is used to construct a three-dimensional Virtual Heart, including representations of all four chambers of the heart and all four valves, in addition to the large arteries and veins that connect the heart to the rest of the circulation. The chambers, valves, and vessels are all modeled as collections of elastic (and where appropriate, actively contractile) fibers immersed in viscous incompressible fluid. Results are shown as a computer-generated video animation of the beating heart.

  20. Human-Robot Interaction and Human Self-Realization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The ethical debate on robots has become a cutting edge issue in many countries. It is, however, most often approached through an us-versus-them perspective—as if we were watching a soccer game and taking one side. Informed by Eastern as well as Western thought, the meta-ethical aim of this paper...... is to test the basis for this type of discrimination when it comes to human-robot interaction. Furthermore, the paper will take Heidegger's warning concerning technology as a vantage point and explore the possibility of human-robot interaction forming a praxis that might help humans to be with robots beyond...

  1. Analysis of human emotion in human-robot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blar, Noraidah; Jafar, Fairul Azni; Abdullah, Nurhidayu; Muhammad, Mohd Nazrin; Kassim, Anuar Muhamed

    2015-05-01

    There is vast application of robots in human's works such as in industry, hospital, etc. Therefore, it is believed that human and robot can have a good collaboration to achieve an optimum result of work. The objectives of this project is to analyze human-robot collaboration and to understand humans feeling (kansei factors) when dealing with robot that robot should adapt to understand the humans' feeling. Researches currently are exploring in the area of human-robot interaction with the intention to reduce problems that subsist in today's civilization. Study had found that to make a good interaction between human and robot, first it is need to understand the abilities of each. Kansei Engineering in robotic was used to undergo the project. The project experiments were held by distributing questionnaire to students and technician. After that, the questionnaire results were analyzed by using SPSS analysis. Results from the analysis shown that there are five feelings which significant to the human in the human-robot interaction; anxious, fatigue, relaxed, peaceful, and impressed.

  2. Computation of the magnetostatic interaction between linearly magnetized polyhedrons

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyshenko, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to accurately compute the energy of the magnetostatic interaction between linearly (or uniformly, as a special case) magnetized polyhedrons. The method has applications in finite element micromagnetics, or more generally in computing the magnetostatic interaction when the magnetization is represented using the finite element method (FEM). The magnetostatic energy is described by a six-fold integral that is singular when the interaction regions overlap, making direct numerical evaluation problematic. To resolve the singularity, we evaluate four of the six iterated integrals analytically resulting in a 2d integral over the surface of a polyhedron, which is nonsingular and can be integrated numerically. This provides a more accurate and efficient way of computing the magnetostatic energy integral compared to existing approaches. The method was developed to facilitate the evaluation of the demagnetizing interaction between neighouring elements in finite-element micromagnetics and...

  3. A Human-Information Interaction Perspective on Augmented Cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Griffith, Douglas

    2006-10-15

    Nearly a half-century ago, J.C.R. Licklider expressed a vision for “man-machine symbiosis,” coupling human brains and computing machines in a partnership that “will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today.” Until relatively recently, this vision was largely left idle by human factors engineering (HFE) research that grew over the decades from an initial focus on design of equipment to accommodate human limitations to cognitive systems engineering research to a more recent perspective focusing on design of human-information interaction. These perspective shifts and insights have brought a degree of success to the field in design efforts aimed at enhancing human-system performance. In recent years, the research area of augmented cognition has begun to shift the focus once more not only to enhancing the interaction environment, but also the cognitive abilities of the human operators and decision makers themselves. Ambitious goals of increasing total cognitive capacity through augmented cognition technologies are still on the horizon of this research program. This paper describes a framework within which augmented cognition research may identify requirements that compensate for human information processing shortcomings and augment human potential.

  4. Mathematical morphology based electro-oculography recognition algorithm for human-computer interaction%基于数学形态学的眼电信号识别及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫东; 李昕; 刘俊; 郝耀耀; 廖玉玺; 苏煜; 张韶岷; 郑筱祥

    2011-01-01

    Electro-oculography (EOG) signals can be used for recognizing the directions of eye movements and voluntary eye blinks, which can be used to develop a new human-computer interaction (HCI) system.A mathematical morphology based algorithm was presented to process the EOG signals, which always contain some interference components, such as baseline drift, EMG interference and movement artifacts.The new approach can effectively reduce the artifacts and recognize the directions of eye movements and voluntary eye blinks by using a set of thresholds. A HCI system for disabled using the method was designed and tested by both healthy and disabled people. Experimental results showed that the average correct rate was 96.2%. The system can be employed in clinical HCI fields.%通过分析眼电(EOG)信号可以识别人眼球的运动状态及眨眼情况,进而设计一种新型的人机交互(HCI)系统.眼电信号通常包含一些干扰信息,如漂移、肌电干扰、运动伪迹.为了去除这些干扰信息,提出一种利用数学形态学对眼电信号进行处理的方法;通过阈值检测可以准确识别使用者眼球的运动状态和有意识眨眼.设计一个基于眼电的人机交互系统并通过健康与残疾被试的测试.实验结果显示,眼电信号识别的平均正确率达到96.2%,表明该方法可以应用于临床人机交互领域.

  5. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  6. Computers vs. Humans in Galaxy Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    In this age of large astronomical surveys, one major scientific bottleneck is the analysis of enormous data sets. Traditionally, this task requires human input but could computers eventually take over? A pair of scientists explore this question by testing whether computers can classify galaxies as well as humans.Examples of disagreement: galaxies that Galaxy-Zoo humans classified as spirals with 95% agreement, but the computer algorithm classified as ellipticals with 70% certainty. Most are cases where the computer got it wrong but not all of them. [Adapted from Kuminski et al. 2016]Limits of Citizen ScienceGalaxy Zoo is an internet-based citizen science project that uses non-astronomer volunteers to classify galaxy images. This is an innovative way to provide more manpower, but its still only practical for limited catalog sizes. How do we handle the data from upcoming surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will produce billions of galaxy images when it comes online?In a recent study by Evan Kuminski and Lior Shamir, two computer scientists at Lawrence Technological University in Michigan, a machine learning algorithm known as Wndchrm was used to classify a dataset of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies into ellipticals and spirals. The authors goal is to determine whether their algorithm can classify galaxies as accurately as the human volunteers for Galaxy Zoo.Automatic ClassificationAfter training their classifier on a small set of spiral and elliptical galaxies, Kuminski and Shamir set it loose on a catalog of ~3 million SDSS galaxies. The classifier first computes a set of 2,885 numerical descriptors (like textures, edges, and shapes) for each galaxy image, and then uses these descriptors to categorize the galaxy as spiral or elliptical.Rate of agreement of the computer classification with human classification (for the Galaxy Zoo superclean subset) for different ranges of computed classification certainties. For certainties above

  7. Patient-Specific Computational Modeling of Human Phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qian; Zheng, Xudong; University of Maine Team

    2013-11-01

    Phonation is a common biological process resulted from the complex nonlinear coupling between glottal aerodynamics and vocal fold vibrations. In the past, the simplified symmetric straight geometric models were commonly employed for experimental and computational studies. The shape of larynx lumen and vocal folds are highly three-dimensional indeed and the complex realistic geometry produces profound impacts on both glottal flow and vocal fold vibrations. To elucidate the effect of geometric complexity on voice production and improve the fundamental understanding of human phonation, a full flow-structure interaction simulation is carried out on a patient-specific larynx model. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first patient-specific flow-structure interaction study of human phonation. The simulation results are well compared to the established human data. The effects of realistic geometry on glottal flow and vocal fold dynamics are investigated. It is found that both glottal flow and vocal fold dynamics present a high level of difference from the previous simplified model. This study also paved the important step toward the development of computer model for voice disease diagnosis and surgical planning. The project described was supported by Grant Number ROlDC007125 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD).

  8. 基于多点手势识别的人机交互技术框架%Framework of human-computer interaction based on multi-point gesture recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文生; 解梅; 邓春健

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种基于机器视觉的多点手势识别方法及其人机交互技术框架.指尖跟踪和手势识别服务程序通过一个普通的摄像机捕获用户手的运动,对多个指尖目标进行实时检测和跟踪,在指尖跟踪结果基础上利用BP神经网络实现多点手势识别,并根据指尖跟踪和手势识别结果构造相应的消息(包括低级指点消息和高级手势消息)发送给客户端应用程序,客户端响应消息并进行相应的处理.该框架可以帮助开发人员的在应用程序中增加类似iPhone多点触摸控制的多点手势识别控制功能,实现更加自然的人机交互,提高用户操作体验.%A framework of human-computer interaction based on multi-point gesture recognition is presented. The server of fingertip tracking and gesture recognition firstly captures the movement of user' s hands by a camera, detects and tracks multiple fingertips in real time, then realizes multi-point gesture recognition by making use of the results of fingertip tracking through BP neural network. Finally,the server constructs messages (including primary fmgertip messages and senior gesture message) according to the result of fingertip tracking and gesture recognition and sends them the client application, the client responds to the messages. The framework can help programmers realize multi-point gesture based control functions just like multi-touch functions of iPhone, achieve a more natural humancomputer interaction and improve the operation experience of user.

  9. A Case Study: Novel Group Interactions through Introductory Computational Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Obsniuk, Michael J; Caballero, Marcos D

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of high-level programming languages capable of quickly rendering three-dimensional simulations, the inclusion of computers as a learning tool in the classroom has become more prevalent. Although work has begun to study the patterns seen in implementing and assessing computation in introductory physics, more insight is needed to understand the observed effects of blending computation with physics in a group setting. In a newly adopted format of introductory calculus-based mechanics, called Projects and Practices in Physics, groups of students work on short modeling projects -- which make use of a novel inquiry-based approach -- to develop their understanding of both physics content and practice. Preliminary analyses of observational data of groups engaging with computation, coupled with synchronized computer screencast, has revealed a unique group interaction afforded by the practices specific to computational physics -- problem debugging.

  10. Metabolic interactions of agrochemicals in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ernest; Rose, Randy L

    2008-06-01

    Agrochemicals and other xenobiotics are metabolized by xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) to products that may be more or less toxic than the parent chemical. In this regard, phase-I XMEs such as cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are of primary importance. Interactions at the level of metabolism may take place via either inhibition or induction of XMEs. Such interactions have often been investigated, in vitro, in experimental animals, using subcellular fractions such as liver microsomes, but seldom in humans or at the level of individual XME isoforms. The authors have been investigating the metabolism of a number of agrochemicals by human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP isoforms and have recently embarked on studies of the induction of XMEs in human hepatocytes. The insecticides chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, carbofuran and fipronil, as well as the repellant DEET, are all extensively metabolized by human liver microsomes and, although a number of CYP isoforms may be involved, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 are usually the most important. Permethrin is hydrolyzed by esterase(s) present in both human liver microsomes and cytosol. A number of metabolic interactions have been observed. Chlorpyrifos and other phosphorothioates are potent inhibitors of the CYP-dependent metabolism of both endogenous substrates, such as testosterone and estradiol, and exogenous substrates, such as carbaryl, presumably as a result of the interaction of highly reactive sulfur, released during the oxidative desulfuration reaction, with the heme iron of CYP. The hydrolysis of permethrin in human liver can be inhibited by chlorpyrifos oxon and by carbaryl. Fipronil can inhibit testosterone metabolism by CYP3A4 and is an effective inducer of CYP isoforms in human hepatocytes.

  11. Quantification of human-structure interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caprani Colin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In lightweight structural systems there is increasing evidence that the presence of humans influences the dynamics characteristics of the system. In the past, most effort on determining the footfall-induced vertical force to the walking surface has been conducted using rigid or non-flexible surfaces such as treadmills. However, should the walking surface be vibrating, the characteristics of human walking could change to maximize comfort. This interaction between the structure and human may account for the discrepancy between the levels of vibration predicted by theory and those observed in practice. Indeed, many design rules can be seen to be conservative, perhaps partly because knowledge of this human-structure interaction is limited. This work aims to address this problem by quantifying the magnitude of human-structure interaction through a comprehensive experimental programme. Novel experimental techniques are used to measure the human-imparted force on the walking surface. Both rigid and flexible (vibrating surfaces are used, and we measure the imparted vibration response on a lively footbridge (the Warwick Bridge which acts as the flexible surface. A range of test subjects is considered, walking at a range of pacing frequencies. Comparison is made between a notional vibration response from the footfall force imparted to the rigid surface and the actual vibration response caused by the footfall force imparted to the flexible surface. Key aspects of the experimental regime are also explained. Finally, some comparisons are made using footfall force models from the literature. It is concluded that human-structure interaction is a key phenomenon that should be taken into account in the design and assessment of vibration-sensitive structures.

  12. Design of human computer interaction system of virtual crops based on Leap Motion%基于Leap Motion的虚拟农作物人机交互系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福理; 丁胤; 丁维龙; 谢涛

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the Somatosensory Technology has been applied in many fields including entertainment, education, automation and medicine etc. But in agriculture, it still has rarely involved. The traditional human-computer interaction system of virtual plant operating at a particular operating system or on a mobile platform, and interactive mode is interactive through the mouse and keyboard, need parameters and commands more cumbersome user input, resulting in the lack of good user interaction experience. In view of the above situation, in this paper, we designed and developed virtual farming object interaction system based on cloud computing and somatosensory interactive technology. The system firstly generated a 3D model of the virtual crop in the cloud, and the model was stored in the cloud. Our virtual crop model included rice and tomato. The cloud-side provided the data calculation ability and responded the browser requesting, the browser-side was responsible for display, caching and a small amount of calculation, and Leap Motion was responsible for interaction on the browser-side. In order to obtain the relevant parameters for rice modeling, we had done experiments in China National Rice Research Institute in Zhejiang, Hangzhou between 2015 and 2016. The selected rice stage was from the jointing stage to the heading stage. For each plant, we measured three blades in different leaf positions, which included blade lengths, blade widths, the changed widths along the blades, and blade growth positions. The 3D data of virtual crops needed to be generated by algorithms on Amazon cloud platform. The topological structures of tomato plants were described by the parametric L-system in our system, and we separated the structures into stems, rachis, blades, fruit branches and flower branches. Using WebGL to render 3D crop models on browser allowed and incorporated users to directly interact with it. In this paper, we defined a 3D virtual crop data exchange protocol

  13. Manipulation of Non-verbal Interaction Style and Demographic Embodiment to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2005-02-01

    For years, people have sought more natural means of communicating with their computers. Many have suggested that interaction with a computer should be as easy as interacting with other people, taking advantage of the multimodal nature of human communication. While users should, in theory, gravitate to such anthropomorphic embodiments, quite the contrary has been experienced; users generally have been dissatisfied and abandoned their use. This suggests a disconnect between the factors that make human-human communication engaging and those used by designers to support human-agent interaction. This paper discusses a set of empirical studies that attempted to replicate human-human nonverbal behavior. The focus revolved around the behaviors that portrayed a credible façade, helping the embodied conversational agent (ECA) to form a successful cooperative dyad with the user. Based on a review of the nonverbal literature, a framework was created that identified trustworthy and credible nonverbal behaviors across five areas and formed design guidelines for character interaction. The design suggestions for those areas emanating from the facial region (facial expression, eye contact and paralanguage) were experimentally supported but there was no concordant increase in perceived trust when bodily regions (posture and gesture) were added. In addition, in examining the importance of demographic elements in the embodiment, it was found that users prefer to interact with characters that match their ethnicity and are young looking. There was no significant preference for gender. The implications of these results, as well as other interesting consequences are discussed.

  14. Rxpert: An Intelligent Computer System For Drug Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Brian G.; Dankel, Douglas D.

    1986-03-01

    Drug interactions have become very prevalent in modern medicine. With the increasing numbers of techniques for disease diagnosis and marketed medications for disease treatment, multiple drug patient care has become a customary practice. Consequently, the potential of harmful drug induced effects has become, and will continue to be, an enormous problem in providing patient care. A computer reference aid, knowledgeable about drug interactions, would be of great value to medical personnel in eliminating untoward drug effects in patient care. This research involved the development of such a system called RxPERT. RxPERT is an intelligent, easy to use, interactive computer system with expert level knowledge of drug interactions, implemented for use on an IBM-PC microcomputer. The microcomputer implementation allows the program to be highly accessible, and its information promptly retrievable for office as well as institutional settings. The system requires input of a patient history and patient drug requirements. Throughout the user/computer interactive session the user can review explanations of the possible interactions. Ultimately a listing of drug interactions and overall rating of the drug regimen instituted is displayed.

  15. Interactive Computer-Assisted Instruction in Acid-Base Physiology for Mobile Computer Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmuir, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ~20 screens of information, on the subjects…

  16. Interactive Computer-Assisted Instruction in Acid-Base Physiology for Mobile Computer Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmuir, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ~20 screens of information, on the subjects…

  17. Guest Editorial: Brain/Neuronal-Computer Game Interfaces and Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Damien; Principe, Jose; Lotte, Fabien; Nijholt, Anton

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Games, in general, have been around since ancient times to entertain us. Since the first electronic and video games appeared in the 1940s and 1950s there has been an increasing demand for enhancements to existing games and new ways of interacting with computer games. Brain/neuronal signal controlled games controllers are now satisfying this demand, extending the accessibility of computer games to physically impaired users and enhancing neurofeedback for rehabilitation ...

  18. Human interactions with sirenians (manatees and dugongs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.; Flint, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There are three extant sirenian species of the Trichechidae family and one living Dugongidae family member. Given their close ties to coastal and often urbanized habitats, sirenians are exposed to many types of anthropogenic activities that result in challenges to their well-being, poor health, and even death. In the wild, they are exposed to direct and indirect local pressures as well as subject to large-scale stressors such as global climate change acting on regions or entire genetic stocks. In captivity, they are subject to husbandry and management practices based on our collective knowledge, or in some cases lack thereof, of their needs and welfare. It is therefore reasonable to consider that their current imperiled status is very closely linked to our actions. In this chapter, we identify and define human interactions that may impact dugongs and manatees, including hunting, fisheries, boat interactions, negative interactions with man-made structures, disease and contaminants, and global climate change. We examine techniques used to investigate these impacts and the influence of sirenian biology and of changing human behaviors on potential outcomes. We examine how this differs for dugongs and manatees in the wild and for those held in captivity. Finally, we provide possible mitigation strategies and ways to assess the efforts we are making to improve the welfare of individuals and to conserve these species. This chapter identifies how the welfare of these species is intrinsically linked to the human interactions these animals experience, and how the nature of these interactions has changed with societal shifts. We proffer suggested ways to minimize negative impacts. Current knowledge should be used to minimize negative human interactions and impacts, to promote positive impacts, and to protect these animals for the future.

  19. Supporting Negotiation Behavior with Haptics-Enabled Human-Computer Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, S O; Kucukyilmaz, A; Sezgin, Tevfik Metin; Basdogan, C

    2012-01-01

    An active research goal for human-computer interaction is to allow humans to communicate with computers in an intuitive and natural fashion, especially in real-life interaction scenarios. One approach that has been advocated to achieve this has been to build computer systems with human-like qualities and capabilities. In this paper, we present insight on how human-computer interaction can be enriched by employing the computers with behavioral patterns that naturally appear in human-human negotiation scenarios. For this purpose, we introduce a two-party negotiation game specifically built for studying the effectiveness of haptic and audio-visual cues in conveying negotiation related behaviors. The game is centered around a real-time continuous two-party negotiation scenario based on the existing game-theory and negotiation literature. During the game, humans are confronted with a computer opponent, which can display different behaviors, such as concession, competition, and negotiation. Through a user study, we show that the behaviors that are associated with human negotiation can be incorporated into human-computer interaction, and the addition of haptic cues provides a statistically significant increase in the human-recognition accuracy of machine-displayed behaviors. In addition to aspects of conveying these negotiation-related behaviors, we also focus on and report game-theoretical aspects of the overall interaction experience. In particular, we show that, as reported in the game-theory literature, certain negotiation strategies such as tit-for-tat may generate maximum combined utility for the negotiating parties, providing an excellent balance between the energy spent by the user and the combined utility of the negotiating parties.

  20. A hierarchical framework for understanding human-human interactions in video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangho; Aggarwal, J. K.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding human behavior in video is essential in numerous applications including smart surveillance, video annotation/retrieval, and human-computer interaction. However, recognizing human interactions is a challenging task due to ambiguity in body articulation, variations in body size and appearance, loose clothing, mutual occlusion, and shadows. In this paper we present a framework for recognizing human actions and interactions in color video, and a hierarchical graphical model that unifies multiple-level processing in video computing: pixel level, blob level, object level, and event level. A mixture of Gaussian (MOG) model is used at the pixel level to train and classify individual pixel colors. A relaxation labeling with attribute relational graph (ARG) is used at the blob level to merge the pixels into coherent blobs and to register inter-blob relations. At the object level, the poses of individual body parts are recognized using Bayesian networks (BNs). At the event level, the actions of a single person are modeled using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The results of the object-level descriptions for each person are juxtaposed along a common timeline to identify an interaction between two persons. The linguistic 'verb argument structure' is used to represent human action in terms of triplets. A meaningful semantic description in terms of is obtained. Our system achieves semantic descriptions of positive, neutral, and negative interactions between two persons including hand-shaking, standing hand-in-hand, and hugging as the positive interactions, approaching, departing, and pointing as the neutral interactions, and pushing, punching, and kicking as the negative interactions.

  1. Negative Affect in Human Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Krogsager, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The vision of social robotics sees robots moving more and more into unrestricted social environments, where robots interact closely with users in their everyday activities, maybe even establishing relationships with the user over time. In this paper we present a field trial with a robot in a semi......-public place. Our analysis of the interactions with casual users shows that it is not enough to focus on modeling behavior that is similar to successful human interactions but that we have to take more deviant ways of interaction like abuse and impoliteness into account when we send robots into the users......’ environments. The analysis uses impoliteness theory as an analytical toolbox and exemplifies which strategies are employed by users in unexpected encounters with a humanoid robot....

  2. Child-Computer Interaction SIG: Ethics and Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Zeising, Anja; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2017-01-01

    This SIG will provide child computer interaction researchers and practitioners an opportunity to discuss topics related to ethical challenges in the design, and use of interactive technologies for children. Topics include the role of big data, the impact of technology in children’s social...... and physical ecosystem, and the consideration of ethics in children’s participation in the design of technologies, and in the conceptualization of technologies for children....

  3. Data Analysis through a Generalized Interactive Computer Animation Method (DATICAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, J.N.; Schweider, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    DATICAM is an interactive computer animation method designed to aid in the analysis of nuclear research data. DATICAM was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG and G Idaho, Inc. INEL analysts use DATICAM to produce computer codes that are better able to predict the behavior of nuclear power reactors. In addition to increased code accuracy, DATICAM has saved manpower and computer costs. DATICAM has been generalized to assist in the data analysis of virtually any data-producing dynamic process.

  4. Data analysis through interactive computer animation method (DATICAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, J.N.; Schwieder, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    DATICAM is an interactive computer animation method designed to aid in the analysis of nuclear research data. DATICAM was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG and G Idaho, Inc. INEL analysts use DATICAM to produce computer codes that are better able to predict the behavior of nuclear power reactors. In addition to increased code accuracy, DATICAM has saved manpower and computer costs. DATICAM has been generalized to assist in the data analysis of virtually any data-producing dynamic process.

  5. Human Computation An Integrated Approach to Learning from the Crowd

    CERN Document Server

    Law, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Human computation is a new and evolving research area that centers around harnessing human intelligence to solve computational problems that are beyond the scope of existing Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms. With the growth of the Web, human computation systems can now leverage the abilities of an unprecedented number of people via the Web to perform complex computation. There are various genres of human computation applications that exist today. Games with a purpose (e.g., the ESP Game) specifically target online gamers who generate useful data (e.g., image tags) while playing an enjoy

  6. Advanced Technologies, Embedded and Multimedia for Human-Centric Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Han-Chieh; Deng, Der-Jiunn; Park, James; HumanCom and EMC 2013

    2014-01-01

    The theme of HumanCom and EMC are focused on the various aspects of human-centric computing for advances in computer science and its applications, embedded and multimedia computing and provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of human-centric computing. And the theme of EMC (Advanced in Embedded and Multimedia Computing) is focused on the various aspects of embedded system, smart grid, cloud and multimedia computing, and it provides an opportunity for academic, industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of embedded and multimedia computing. Therefore this book will be include the various theories and practical applications in human-centric computing and embedded and multimedia computing.

  7. Behavioral Entropy in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Department 2 Erwin R. Boer Consulting Brigham Young University San Diego, CA, USA Provo, UT, USA ABSTRACT The ability to quickly and accurately measure...AND ADDRESS(ES) Brigham Young University,Computer Science Department,33361 Talmage Building,Provo,UT,84602 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...in- teraction. To paraphrase Wiener, people work to re- duce entropy so skilled behavior minimizes entropy. This manifests itself in human behavior

  8. An Interdisciplinary Bibliography for Computers and the Humanities Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Heyward

    1991-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of works related to the subject of computers and the humanities. Groups items into textbooks and overviews; introductions; human and computer languages; literary and linguistic analysis; artificial intelligence and robotics; social issue debates; computers' image in fiction; anthologies; writing and the…

  9. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrinin (CIT is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3 and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I. In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  10. Adaptive interaction a utility maximization approach to understanding human interaction with technology

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    This lecture describes a theoretical framework for the behavioural sciences that holds high promise for theory-driven research and design in Human-Computer Interaction. The framework is designed to tackle the adaptive, ecological, and bounded nature of human behaviour. It is designed to help scientists and practitioners reason about why people choose to behave as they do and to explain which strategies people choose in response to utility, ecology, and cognitive information processing mechanisms. A key idea is that people choose strategies so as to maximise utility given constraints. The frame

  11. User localization during human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, F; Gorostiza, Javi F; Malfaz, María; Salichs, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a user localization system based on the fusion of visual information and sound source localization, implemented on a social robot called Maggie. One of the main requisites to obtain a natural interaction between human-human and human-robot is an adequate spatial situation between the interlocutors, that is, to be orientated and situated at the right distance during the conversation in order to have a satisfactory communicative process. Our social robot uses a complete multimodal dialog system which manages the user-robot interaction during the communicative process. One of its main components is the presented user localization system. To determine the most suitable allocation of the robot in relation to the user, a proxemic study of the human-robot interaction is required, which is described in this paper. The study has been made with two groups of users: children, aged between 8 and 17, and adults. Finally, at the end of the paper, experimental results with the proposed multimodal dialog system are presented.

  12. User Localization During Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Salichs

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a user localization system based on the fusion of visual information and sound source localization, implemented on a social robot called Maggie. One of the main requisites to obtain a natural interaction between human-human and human-robot is an adequate spatial situation between the interlocutors, that is, to be orientated and situated at the right distance during the conversation in order to have a satisfactory communicative process. Our social robot uses a complete multimodal dialog system which manages the user-robot interaction during the communicative process. One of its main components is the presented user localization system. To determine the most suitable allocation of the robot in relation to the user, a proxemic study of the human-robot interaction is required, which is described in this paper. The study has been made with two groups of users: children, aged between 8 and 17, and adults. Finally, at the end of the paper, experimental results with the proposed multimodal dialog system are presented.

  13. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2011-03-29

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  14. Computational Models to Synthesize Human Walking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Ren; David Howard; Laurence Kenney

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of human walking is of great interest in biomechanics and biomimetic engineering due to its predictive capabilities and potential applications in clinical biomechanics, rehabilitation engineering and biomimetic robotics. In this paper,the various methods that have been used to synthesize humanwalking are reviewed from an engineering viewpoint. This involves a wide spectrum of approaches, from simple passive walking theories to large-scale computational models integrating the nervous, muscular and skeletal systems. These methods are roughly categorized under four headings: models inspired by the concept of a CPG (Central Pattern Generator), methods based on the principles of control engineering, predictive gait simulation using optimisation, and models inspired by passive walking theory. The shortcomings and advantages of these methods are examined, and future directions are discussed in the context of providing insights into the neural control objectives driving gait and improving the stability of the predicted gaits. Future advancements are likely to be motivated by improved understanding of neural control strategies and the subtle complexities of the musculoskeletal system during human locomotion. It is only a matter of time before predictive gait models become a practical and valuable tool in clinical diagnosis, rehabilitation engineering and robotics.

  15. 基于MapX的电力系统GIS人机交互设计%Design of GIS Human-Computer Interaction Based on MapX for Electric Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱作欣; 朱全胜; 马超; 李卫东

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, based on the method geographic information system (GIS) visual development interface, a GIS map is designed and drawn by MapInfo, which includes basic geographic layer, power station layer, substation layer, 220 kV transmission line layer, and 500 kV transmission line layer. Moreover, some basic functions and advanced functions of human-computer interaction of electric power system GIS based on MapX are achieved. The basic functions include space function, search function, display data function, thematic map function, eagle eye map function, contour map function, and 3D Visualization function. The advanced functions include multi-screen display function and associated adaptive regulatory function. According to different usage features and demands, more advanced functions can be developed on this basis. The design as presented in this paper will have significant effects in the management, analysis and maintenance of the power grid data.%应用基于地理信息系统(GIS)的电力系统可视化界面开发方法,使用MapInfo软件,设计绘制包括基础地理层、发电厂层、变电站层、220 kV输电线路层、500 kV输电线路层的GIS图.在此基础上,实现基于MapX的电力系统GIS人机交互基本功能及高级功能,基本功能包括空间功能、查询功能、详细数据展示功能、专题图功能、鹰眼图功能、等高线图功能、3D可视化功能,高级功能包括关联多屏显示功能、自适应调节功能.在整个系统中,基本功能可以较为简单地进行实现;高级功能突破了简单的二次开发限制,针对性更强,且具备了更专业的人机交互功能.依据电力系统中不同的使用特点和需求,还可以在此基础上开发出更多的其他高级功能.在对电网数据进行管理、分析和维护时具有显著的效果.

  16. Non-Linear Interactive Stories in Computer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø, Olav; Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Kocka, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    The paper introduces non-linear interactive stories (NOLIST) as a means to generate varied and interesting stories for computer games automatically. We give a compact representation of a NOLIST based on the specification of atomic stories, and show how to build an object-oriented Bayesian network...

  17. The Hyper Apuntes Interactive Learning Environment for Computer Programming Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommaruga, Lorenzo; Catenazzi, Nadia

    1998-01-01

    Describes the "Hyper Apuntes" interactive learning environment, used as a didactic support to a computer programming course taught at the University Carlos III of Madrid, Spain. The system allows students to study the material and see examples, edit, compile and run programs, and evaluate their learning degree. It is installed on a Web server,…

  18. Interactive Computer Aided Learning and Teaching of Analytical Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aare Aan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a new possibility for learning Analytical Mechanics via internet. This subject belongs to the field of engineering, the theoretical parts of lecture materials are available online in PDF format and have special links to switch on the interactive examples on the worksheets of the Computer Package Mathcad.

  19. Human metabolic interactions of environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ernest; Rose, Randy L

    2007-01-01

    Investigations utilizing recombinant human xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes as well as human hepatocytes have revealed a number of interactions not only between different environmental chemicals (ECs) but also between ECs and endogenous metabolites. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are potent inhibitors of the human metabolism of carbaryl, carbofuran, DEET and fipronil, as well as the jet fuel components, nonane and naphthalene. OPs are potent irreversible inhibitors of testosterone metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and of estradiol metabolism by CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. All of these CYP inhibitions are believed to be due to the release of reactive sulfur during CYP-catalyzed oxidative desulfuration. It has also been shown that the esterase(s) responsible for the initial step in permethrin metabolism in human liver is inhibited by both chlorpyrifos oxon and carbaryl. A number of pesticides, including chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, and the repellent, DEET, have been shown to be inducers of CYP isoforms in human hepatocytes, with fipronil being the most potent. Several agrochemicals, including fipronil and the pyrethroids, permethrin and deltamethrin, show toxicity toward human hepatocytes with fipronil being the most potent in this regard. Endosulfan-alpha, which has shown promise as a model substrate for phenotyping CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in human liver microsomes, is also an inducer of CYP2B6, acting through the PXR receptor.

  20. Exploring host-microbiota interactions in animal models and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Aleksandar D; Howitt, Michael R; Garrett, Wendy S

    2013-04-01

    The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how host-microbiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of host-microbiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies.

  1. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  2. Ivermectin Interacts With Human ABCG2

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug frequently administered to humans. It has alimited brain exposure that is attributed to the efflux activity of ABCB1/Abcb1. ABCG2/Abcg2 isalso a major transporter present in most pharmacologically important barriers. However,interaction of ivermectin with Abcg2 shows species specificity and in many studies wasconfounded by the masking effect of ABCB1/Abcb1. In this study using cellular and membraneassays we show that ivermectin displays a high-affinity inte...

  3. Computational learning on specificity-determining residue-nucleotide interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2015-11-02

    The protein–DNA interactions between transcription factors and transcription factor binding sites are essential activities in gene regulation. To decipher the binding codes, it is a long-standing challenge to understand the binding mechanism across different transcription factor DNA binding families. Past computational learning studies usually focus on learning and predicting the DNA binding residues on protein side. Taking into account both sides (protein and DNA), we propose and describe a computational study for learning the specificity-determining residue-nucleotide interactions of different known DNA-binding domain families. The proposed learning models are compared to state-of-the-art models comprehensively, demonstrating its competitive learning performance. In addition, we describe and propose two applications which demonstrate how the learnt models can provide meaningful insights into protein–DNA interactions across different DNA binding families.

  4. Computational Modeling of Arc-Slag Interaction in DC Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Quinn G.

    2016-11-01

    The plasma arc is central to the operation of the direct-current arc furnace, a unit operation commonly used in high-temperature processing of both primary ores and recycled metals. The arc is a high-velocity, high-temperature jet of ionized gas created and sustained by interactions among the thermal, momentum, and electromagnetic fields resulting from the passage of electric current. In addition to being the primary source of thermal energy, the arc jet also couples mechanically with the bath of molten process material within the furnace, causing substantial splashing and stirring in the region in which it impinges. The arc's interaction with the molten bath inside the furnace is studied through use of a multiphase, multiphysics computational magnetohydrodynamic model developed in the OpenFOAM® framework. Results from the computational solver are compared with empirical correlations that account for arc-slag interaction effects.

  5. Computational Modeling of Arc-Slag Interaction in DC Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Quinn G.

    2017-02-01

    The plasma arc is central to the operation of the direct-current arc furnace, a unit operation commonly used in high-temperature processing of both primary ores and recycled metals. The arc is a high-velocity, high-temperature jet of ionized gas created and sustained by interactions among the thermal, momentum, and electromagnetic fields resulting from the passage of electric current. In addition to being the primary source of thermal energy, the arc jet also couples mechanically with the bath of molten process material within the furnace, causing substantial splashing and stirring in the region in which it impinges. The arc's interaction with the molten bath inside the furnace is studied through use of a multiphase, multiphysics computational magnetohydrodynamic model developed in the OpenFOAM® framework. Results from the computational solver are compared with empirical correlations that account for arc-slag interaction effects.

  6. Gesture controlled human-computer interface for the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Oskar M; Sawicki, Dariusz J

    2017-02-28

    The possibility of using a computer by a disabled person is one of the difficult problems of the human-computer interaction (HCI), while the professional activity (employment) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of life, especially for disabled people. The aim of the project has been to propose a new HCI system that would allow for resuming employment for people who have lost the possibility of a standard computer operation. The basic requirement was to replace all functions of a standard mouse without the need of performing precise hand movements and using fingers. The Microsoft's Kinect motion controller had been selected as a device which would recognize hand movements. Several tests were made in order to create optimal working environment with the new device. The new communication system consisted of the Kinect device and the proper software had been built. The proposed system was tested by means of the standard subjective evaluations and objective metrics according to the standard ISO 9241-411:2012. The overall rating of the new HCI system shows the acceptance of the solution. The objective tests show that although the new system is a bit slower, it may effectively replace the computer mouse. The new HCI system fulfilled its task for a specific disabled person. This resulted in the ability to return to work. Additionally, the project confirmed the possibility of effective but nonstandard use of the Kinect device. Med Pr 2017;68(1):1-21.

  7. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...

  8. Predicting human genetic interactions from cancer genome evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Lu

    Full Text Available Synthetic Lethal (SL genetic interactions play a key role in various types of biological research, ranging from understanding genotype-phenotype relationships to identifying drug-targets against cancer. Despite recent advances in empirical measuring SL interactions in human cells, the human genetic interaction map is far from complete. Here, we present a novel approach to predict this map by exploiting patterns in cancer genome evolution. First, we show that empirically determined SL interactions are reflected in various gene presence, absence, and duplication patterns in hundreds of cancer genomes. The most evident pattern that we discovered is that when one member of an SL interaction gene pair is lost, the other gene tends not to be lost, i.e. the absence of co-loss. This observation is in line with expectation, because the loss of an SL interacting pair will be lethal to the cancer cell. SL interactions are also reflected in gene expression profiles, such as an under representation of cases where the genes in an SL pair are both under expressed, and an over representation of cases where one gene of an SL pair is under expressed, while the other one is over expressed. We integrated the various previously unknown cancer genome patterns and the gene expression patterns into a computational model to identify SL pairs. This simple, genome-wide model achieves a high prediction power (AUC = 0.75 for known genetic interactions. It allows us to present for the first time a comprehensive genome-wide list of SL interactions with a high estimated prediction precision, covering up to 591,000 gene pairs. This unique list can potentially be used in various application areas ranging from biotechnology to medical genetics.

  9. Secure Human-Computer Identification against Peeping Attacks (SecHCI): A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Li, SJ; Shum, HY

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on human-computer identification systems against peeping attacks, in which adversaries can observe (and even control) interactions between humans (provers) and computers (verifiers). Real cases on peeping attacks were reported by Ross J. Anderson ten years before. Fixed passwords are insecure to peeping attacks since adversaries can simply replay the observed passwords. Some identification techniques can be used to defeat peeping attacks, but auxiliary devices must be used ...

  10. 2012 International Conference on Human-centric Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Qun; Yeo, Martin; Hu, Bin; Human Centric Technology and Service in Smart Space, HumanCom 2012

    2012-01-01

    The theme of HumanCom is focused on the various aspects of human-centric computing for advances in computer science and its applications and provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of human-centric computing. In addition, the conference will publish high quality papers which are closely related to the various theories and practical applications in human-centric computing. Furthermore, we expect that the conference and its publications will be a trigger for further related research and technology improvements in this important subject.

  11. Interactive Rhythm Learning System by Combining Tablet Computers and Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsing Chou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a percussion learning device that combines tablet computers and robots. This device comprises two systems: a rhythm teaching system, in which users can compose and practice rhythms by using a tablet computer, and a robot performance system. First, teachers compose the rhythm training contents on the tablet computer. Then, the learners practice these percussion exercises by using the tablet computer and a small drum set. The teaching system provides a new and user-friendly score editing interface for composing a rhythm exercise. It also provides a rhythm rating function to facilitate percussion training for children and improve the stability of rhythmic beating. To encourage children to practice percussion exercises, a robotic performance system is used to interact with the children; this system can perform percussion exercises for students to listen to and then help them practice the exercise. This interaction enhances children’s interest and motivation to learn and practice rhythm exercises. The results of experimental course and field trials reveal that the proposed system not only increases students’ interest and efficiency in learning but also helps them in understanding musical rhythms through interaction and composing simple rhythms.

  12. Computational insight into nitration of human myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Wu; Shu, Xiao-Gang; Du, Ke-Jie; Nie, Chang-Ming; Wen, Ge-Bo

    2014-10-01

    Protein nitration is an important post-translational modification regulating protein structure and function, especially for heme proteins. Myoglobin (Mb) is an ideal protein model for investigating the structure and function relationship of heme proteins. With limited structural information available for nitrated heme proteins from experiments, we herein performed a molecular dynamics study of human Mb with successive nitration of Tyr103, Tyr146, Trp7 and Trp14. We made a detailed comparison of protein motions, intramolecular contacts and internal cavities of nitrated Mbs with that of native Mb. It showed that although nitration of both Tyr103 and Tyr146 slightly alters the local conformation of heme active site, further nitration of both Trp7 and Trp14 shifts helix A apart from the rest of protein, which results in altered internal cavities and forms a water channel, representing an initial stage of Mb unfolding. The computational study provides an insight into the nitration of heme proteins at an atomic level, which is valuable for understanding the structure and function relationship of heme proteins in non-native states by nitration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lightness computation by the human visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Michael E.

    2017-05-01

    A model of achromatic color computation by the human visual system is presented, which is shown to account in an exact quantitative way for a large body of appearance matching data collected with simple visual displays. The model equations are closely related to those of the original Retinex model of Land and McCann. However, the present model differs in important ways from Land and McCann's theory in that it invokes additional biological and perceptual mechanisms, including contrast gain control, different inherent neural gains for incremental, and decremental luminance steps, and two types of top-down influence on the perceptual weights applied to local luminance steps in the display: edge classification and spatial integration attentional windowing. Arguments are presented to support the claim that these various visual processes must be instantiated by a particular underlying neural architecture. By pointing to correspondences between the architecture of the model and findings from visual neurophysiology, this paper suggests that edge classification involves a top-down gating of neural edge responses in early visual cortex (cortical areas V1 and/or V2) while spatial integration windowing occurs in cortical area V4 or beyond.

  14. Computational Analysis of Human Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Yogendra; Marie, Hazel; Harvey, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Fluid flow modeling with commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is widely used to visualize and predict physical phenomena related to various biological systems. In this presentation, a typical human aorta model was analyzed assuming the blood flow as laminar with complaint cardiac muscle wall boundaries. FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume software, coupled with Solidworks, a modeling software, was employed for the preprocessing, simulation and postprocessing of all the models.The analysis mainly consists of a fluid-dynamics analysis including a calculation of the velocity field and pressure distribution in the blood and a mechanical analysis of the deformation of the tissue and artery in terms of wall shear stress. A number of other models e.g. T branches, angle shaped were previously analyzed and compared their results for consistency for similar boundary conditions. The velocities, pressures and wall shear stress distributions achieved in all models were as expected given the similar boundary conditions. The three dimensional time dependent analysis of blood flow accounting the effect of body forces with a complaint boundary was also performed.

  15. Quantitative Modeling of Human-Environment Interactions in Preindustrial Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Philipp S.; Kaplan, Jed O.

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying human-environment interactions and anthropogenic influences on the environment prior to the Industrial revolution is essential for understanding the current state of the earth system. This is particularly true for the terrestrial biosphere, but marine ecosystems and even climate were likely modified by human activities centuries to millennia ago. Direct observations are however very sparse in space and time, especially as one considers prehistory. Numerical models are therefore essential to produce a continuous picture of human-environment interactions in the past. Agent-based approaches, while widely applied to quantifying human influence on the environment in localized studies, are unsuitable for global spatial domains and Holocene timescales because of computational demands and large parameter uncertainty. Here we outline a new paradigm for the quantitative modeling of human-environment interactions in preindustrial time that is adapted to the global Holocene. Rather than attempting to simulate agency directly, the model is informed by a suite of characteristics describing those things about society that cannot be predicted on the basis of environment, e.g., diet, presence of agriculture, or range of animals exploited. These categorical data are combined with the properties of the physical environment in coupled human-environment model. The model is, at its core, a dynamic global vegetation model with a module for simulating crop growth that is adapted for preindustrial agriculture. This allows us to simulate yield and calories for feeding both humans and their domesticated animals. We couple this basic caloric availability with a simple demographic model to calculate potential population, and, constrained by labor requirements and land limitations, we create scenarios of land use and land cover on a moderate-resolution grid. We further implement a feedback loop where anthropogenic activities lead to changes in the properties of the physical

  16. The human-bacterial pathogen protein interaction networks of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Dyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis are bacterial pathogens that can cause anthrax, lethal acute pneumonic disease, and bubonic plague, respectively, and are listed as NIAID Category A priority pathogens for possible use as biological weapons. However, the interactions between human proteins and proteins in these bacteria remain poorly characterized leading to an incomplete understanding of their pathogenesis and mechanisms of immune evasion. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we used a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assay to identify physical interactions between human proteins and proteins from each of these three pathogens. From more than 250,000 screens performed, we identified 3,073 human-B. anthracis, 1,383 human-F. tularensis, and 4,059 human-Y. pestis protein-protein interactions including interactions involving 304 B. anthracis, 52 F. tularensis, and 330 Y. pestis proteins that are uncharacterized. Computational analysis revealed that pathogen proteins preferentially interact with human proteins that are hubs and bottlenecks in the human PPI network. In addition, we computed modules of human-pathogen PPIs that are conserved amongst the three networks. Functionally, such conserved modules reveal commonalities between how the different pathogens interact with crucial host pathways involved in inflammation and immunity. SIGNIFICANCE: These data constitute the first extensive protein interaction networks constructed for bacterial pathogens and their human hosts. This study provides novel insights into host-pathogen interactions.

  17. The Status of Interactivity in Computer Art: Formal Apories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Castro Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary art, particularly that which is produced by computer technologies capable of receiving data input via interactive devices (sensors and controllers, constitutes an emerging expressive medium of interdisciplinary nature, which implies the need for a critical look at its constitution and artistic functions. To consider interactive art as a form of artistic expression that files under the present categorization, implies the acceptance of the participation of the spectator in the production of the work of art, supposedly at the time of its origin / or during its creation. When we examine the significance of the formal status of interactivity, assuming as a theoretical starting point the referred premises and reducing it to a phenomenological point of view of artistic creation, we quickly fall into difficulties of conceptual definitions and structural apories [1]. The fundamental aim of this research is to formally define the status of interactive art, by perpetrating a phenomenological examination on the creative process of this specific art, establishing crucial distinctions in order to develop a hermeneutics in favor of creation of new perspectives and aesthetic frameworks. What is interactive creation? Is interactivity, from the computing artistic creativity point of view, the exponentiation of the concept of the open work of art (ECO 2009? Does interactive art correspond to an a priori projective and unachievable meta-art? What is the status of the artist and of the spectator in relation to an interactive work of art? What ontic and factical conditions are postulated as necessary in order to determine an artistic product as co-created? What apories do we find along the progres- sive process of reaching to a clarifying conceptual definition?This brief investigation will seek to contribute to the study of this issue, intending ultimately, and above all, to expose pertinent lines of inquiry rather than to provide definite scientific and

  18. Flooring-systems and their interaction with furniture and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Pedersen, Lars; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    Flooring-system designs may be sensitive in terms of their vibrational performance due the risk that serviceability-limit-state problems may be encountered. For evaluating the vibrational performance of a flooring system at the design stage, decisions must be made by the engineer in charge...... of computations. Passive humans and/or furniture are often present on a floor. Typically, these masses and their way of interacting with the floor mass are ignored in predictions of vibrational behaviour of the flooring system. Utilizing a shell finite-element model, the paper explores and quantifies how non...

  19. Probing - and - Molecular Interactions via Irmpd Experiments and Computational Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Scott; McMahon, Terry

    2015-06-01

    Experiments carried out at the CLIO Free Electron Facility have been used to probe a range of novel bonding motifs and dissociation dynamics in a variety of chemical systems. Among these are species which exhibit anion-pi interactions in complexes of halide ions with aromatic ring systems with electron withdrawing substituents; charge solvated and zwitterionic clusters of protonated methylamines with phenylalanines; hydrogen bonded dimers of nucleic acid analogues and Pd complexes potentially involving agnostic hydrogen bond interactions. Accompanying DFT computational work is used to assist in identifying the most probable structure(s) present in the IRMPD experiments.

  20. The Vesalius Project: Interactive Computers in Anatomical Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Thomas O.; Spurgeon, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a high-resolution, interactive 3-D atlas of human/animal anatomy that students will use to learn the structure of the body and to understand their own bodies in health and disease. This system can be used to reinforce cadaver study or to serve as a substitute for institutions where it is not practical to use cadavers. (KR)

  1. Examining human-system interactions: The HSYS (Human SYStem) methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.G.; Harbour, J.L.; Sullivan, C.; Hallbert, B.P. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-01-01

    HSYS is a model-based methodology developed to examine the many factors which influence Human-SYStem interactions. HSYS is built around a linear model of human performance, called the Input-Action model, which describes five sequential steps: Input Detection, Input Understanding, Action Selection, Action Planning, and Action Execution. HSYS is structured in an hierarchical tree which presents a logical structure for examining potential areas where human performance, hardware or other system components are less than adequate. The HSYS tree consists of five major branches which correspond to the five major components of the Input-Action model. Initial validation was begun by studying accident reports via HSYS and identifying sources of error. The validation process has continued with accident investigations in operational settings. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  2. The interactive evolution of human communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Nicolas; Garrod, Simon; Roberts, Leo; Swoboda, Nik

    2010-04-01

    This paper compares two explanations of the process by which human communication systems evolve: iterated learning and social collaboration. It then reports an experiment testing the social collaboration account. Participants engaged in a graphical communication task either as a member of a community, where they interacted with seven different partners drawn from the same pool, or as a member of an isolated pair, where they interacted with the same partner across the same number of games. Participants' horizontal, pair-wise interactions led "bottom up" to the creation of an effective and efficient shared sign system in the community condition. Furthermore, the community-evolved sign systems were as effective and efficient as the local sign systems developed by isolated pairs. Finally, and as predicted by a social collaboration account, and not by an iterated learning account, interaction was critical to the creation of shared sign systems, with different isolated pairs establishing different local sign systems and different communities establishing different global sign systems.

  3. Essentials of interactive computer graphics concepts and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, Kelvin; Baer, Steven

    2008-01-01

    This undergraduate-level computer graphics text provides the reader with conceptual and practical insights into how to approach building a majority of the interactive graphics applications they encounter daily. As each topic is introduced, students are guided in developing a software library that will support fast prototyping of moderately complex applications using a variety of APIs, including OpenGL and DirectX.

  4. Scalable photonic quantum computation through cavity-assisted interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, L-M; Kimble, H J

    2004-03-26

    We propose a scheme for scalable photonic quantum computation based on cavity-assisted interaction between single-photon pulses. The prototypical quantum controlled phase-flip gate between the single-photon pulses is achieved by successively reflecting them from an optical cavity with a single-trapped atom. Our proposed protocol is shown to be robust to practical noise and experimental imperfections in current cavity-QED setups.

  5. Learning, Interactional, and Motivational Outcomes in One-to-One Synchronous Computer-Mediated versus Face-to-Face Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Stephanie Ann; VanLehn, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Face-to-face (FTF) human-human tutoring has ranked among the most effective forms of instruction. However, because computer-mediated (CM) tutoring is becoming increasingly common, it is instructive to evaluate its effectiveness relative to face-to-face tutoring. Does the lack of spoken, face-to-face interaction affect learning gains and…

  6. Learning, Interactional, and Motivational Outcomes in One-to-One Synchronous Computer-Mediated versus Face-to-Face Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Stephanie Ann; VanLehn, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Face-to-face (FTF) human-human tutoring has ranked among the most effective forms of instruction. However, because computer-mediated (CM) tutoring is becoming increasingly common, it is instructive to evaluate its effectiveness relative to face-to-face tutoring. Does the lack of spoken, face-to-face interaction affect learning gains and…

  7. Effects of interactions between humans and domesticated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Humans have many kinds of relationships with domesticated animals. To maintain relationships interactions are needed. Interactions with animals may be beneficial for humans but may also be risky. Scientific literature on effects of human¿animal relationships and interactions in a workplace, health-c

  8. Shock interaction with organized structures: Theory and computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong

    Unsteady interactions between shocks and turbulence are important phenomena frequently encountered in high-speed flows. In this dissertation the problem of a shock interaction with an entropy spot is studied by means of both theoretical analysis and nonlinear computation. The main objective of the studies is to apply both theoretical and computational approaches to study the physics underlying such shock interaction process. The theoretical analysis is based on the Fourier decomposition of the upstream disturbance, the interaction of each Fourier mode with the shock, and the reconstruction of the downstream disturbance via the inverse Fourier transform. The theory is linear in that it assumes the principle of superposition and that the Rankine-Hugoniot relations are linearized about the mean position of the shock. The numerical simulation is carried out within the framework of the unsteady and compressible Euler equations, coupled with an equation for the shock motion, solved numerically by a sixth-order accurate spatial scheme and a fourth-order Runge-Kutta time-integration method. Analyses of the results are concentrated on the case of a Mach 2.0 shock interaction with an entropy spot that has a Gaussian density distribution. The theoretical analysis and the numerical simulation are verified with each other for small amplitude disturbances. The roles of the evanescent and the non-evanescent waves and the mechanisms for downstream disturbance generations are explored in details. In addition, the quasi three-dimensional interaction between a shock and a vortex ring is investigated computationally within the framework of the axisymmetric Euler equations. The vortex ring, which is based on Lamb's formula, has an upstream circulation Gamma = 0.01 and its aspect ratio R lies in the range 8 ≤ R ≤ 100. The shock Mach number varies in the range 1.1 ≤ M1 ≤ 1.8. The interaction results in the streamwise compression of the vortex core and the generation of a toroidal

  9. Human-computer interface glove using flexible piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Youngsu; Seo, Jeonggyu; Kim, Jun-Sik; Park, Jung-Min

    2017-05-01

    In this note, we propose a human-computer interface glove based on flexible piezoelectric sensors. We select polyvinylidene fluoride as the piezoelectric material for the sensors because of advantages such as a steady piezoelectric characteristic and good flexibility. The sensors are installed in a fabric glove by means of pockets and Velcro bands. We detect changes in the angles of the finger joints from the outputs of the sensors, and use them for controlling a virtual hand that is utilized in virtual object manipulation. To assess the sensing ability of the piezoelectric sensors, we compare the processed angles from the sensor outputs with the real angles from a camera recoding. With good agreement between the processed and real angles, we successfully demonstrate the user interaction system with the virtual hand and interface glove based on the flexible piezoelectric sensors, for four hand motions: fist clenching, pinching, touching, and grasping.

  10. Computing paths and cycles in biological interaction graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Kamp Axel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction graphs (signed directed graphs provide an important qualitative modeling approach for Systems Biology. They enable the analysis of causal relationships in cellular networks and can even be useful for predicting qualitative aspects of systems dynamics. Fundamental issues in the analysis of interaction graphs are the enumeration of paths and cycles (feedback loops and the calculation of shortest positive/negative paths. These computational problems have been discussed only to a minor extent in the context of Systems Biology and in particular the shortest signed paths problem requires algorithmic developments. Results We first review algorithms for the enumeration of paths and cycles and show that these algorithms are superior to a recently proposed enumeration approach based on elementary-modes computation. The main part of this work deals with the computation of shortest positive/negative paths, an NP-complete problem for which only very few algorithms are described in the literature. We propose extensions and several new algorithm variants for computing either exact results or approximations. Benchmarks with various concrete biological networks show that exact results can sometimes be obtained in networks with several hundred nodes. A class of even larger graphs can still be treated exactly by a new algorithm combining exhaustive and simple search strategies. For graphs, where the computation of exact solutions becomes time-consuming or infeasible, we devised an approximative algorithm with polynomial complexity. Strikingly, in realistic networks (where a comparison with exact results was possible this algorithm delivered results that are very close or equal to the exact values. This phenomenon can probably be attributed to the particular topology of cellular signaling and regulatory networks which contain a relatively low number of negative feedback loops. Conclusion The calculation of shortest positive

  11. The convergence of robotics, vision, and computer graphics for user interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerback, J.M.; Thompson, W.B.; Shirley, P.

    1999-11-01

    Mechanical interfaces to virtual environments and the creation of virtual environments represent important and relatively new application areas for robotics. The creation of immersive interfaces will require codevelopment of visual displays that complement mechanical stimuli with appropriate visual cues, ultimately determined from human psychophysics. Advances in interactive rendering and geometric modeling form computer graphics will play a key role. Examples are drawn from haptic and locomotion interface projects.

  12. Development of Interactive Courseware for Learning Basic Computer System Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida A. Bahrudin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer assisted learning approach was developed to enhance course material for students to learn about computer components, through the use of multimedia courseware. Recent advances in software authoring packages have made the production of CD-ROMs an efficient and effective educational strategy. Problem statement: This study reports on the development an evaluation of this courseware related to the learning basic computer system components through the use of courseware (iC-COM. The purpose of the study was to evaluate a courseware for learning basic computer system components. The basic components of iC-COM included an interface, graphics, sound effects, narration and video. Approach: The iC-COM was developed based on the ADDIE instructional system design model. The research instrument was the courseware evaluation in the form of questionnaire that consisted of various attributes included content, interactivity, navigation and screen design which distributed to 50 computer system and support programme students of Kolej Komuniti Jasin. Results: Based on the results, it was shown that the analysis results of each questionnaire item mean ranged from 3.5 to 3.8. Conclusion/Recommendations: For future enhancement, it is recommended that iC-COM will be integrated into web-based platform so it can be accessed easily anywhere.

  13. Computing and Visualizing Log-linear Analysis Interactively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Valero-Mora

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe a simple program for computing log-linear analysis based on a direct manipulation interface that emphasizes the use of plots for guiding the analysis and evaluating the results obtained. The program described here works as a plugin for ViSta (Young 1997 and receives the name of LoginViSta (for Log-linear analysis in ViSTa. ViSta is a statistical package based on Lisp-Stat. Lisp-Stat is a statistical programming environment developed by Luke Tierney (1990 that features an object-oriented approach for statistical computing and one that allows for The purpose of this paper is to describe a simple program for computing log-linear analysis based on a direct manipulation interface that emphasizes the use of plots for guiding the analysis and evaluating the results obtained. The program described here works as a plugin for ViSta (Young 1997 and receives the name of LoginViSta (for Log-linear analysis in ViSTa. ViSta is a statistical package based on Lisp-Stat. Lisp-Stat is a statistical programming environment developed by Luke Tierney (1990 that features an object-oriented approach for statistical computing and one that allows for Computing and Visualizing Pedro Valero-Mora and Forrest W. Young interactive and dynamic graphs.

  14. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, Ernest V., II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human's ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. This DRP concentrates on three areas associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI which are applicable to NASA robot systems: 1) Video Overlays, 2) Camera Views, and 3) Command Modalities. The first study focused on video overlays that investigated how Augmented Reality (AR) symbology can be added to the human-robot interface to improve teleoperation performance. Three types of AR symbology were explored in this study, command guidance (CG), situation guidance (SG), and both (SCG). CG symbology gives operators explicit instructions on what commands to input, whereas SG symbology gives operators implicit cues so that operators can infer the input commands. The combination of CG and SG provided operators with explicit and implicit cues allowing the operator to choose which symbology to utilize. The objective of the study was to understand how AR symbology affects the human operator's ability to align a robot arm to a target using a flight stick and the ability to allocate attention between the symbology and external views of the world. The study evaluated the effects type of symbology (CG and SG) has on operator tasks performance and attention allocation during teleoperation of a robot arm. The second study expanded on the first study by evaluating the effects of the type of

  15. Simulating Human Cognitive Using Computational Verb Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGTao

    2004-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of a life system is closely connected to the modeling of cognition,especially for advanced life systems. The primary difference between an advanced life system and a digital computer is that the advanced life system consists of a body with mind while a digital computer is only a mind in a formal sense. To model an advanced life system one needs to symbols into a body where a digital computer is embedded. In this paper, a computational verb theory is proposed as a new paradigm of grounding symbols into the outputs of sensors. On one hand, a computational verb can preserve the physical "meanings" of the dynamics of sensor data such that a symbolic system can be used to manipulate physical meanings instead of abstract tokens in the digital computer. On the other hand, the physical meanings of an abstract symbol/token, which is usually an output of a reasoning process in the digital computer, can be restored and fed back to the actuators. Therefore, the computational verb theory bridges the gap between symbols and physical reality from the dynamic cognition perspective.

  16. Safety Metrics for Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy G; Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems.This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  17. Personality and social skills in human-dog interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley

    able to form human-dog relationships that are comparable to such interpersonal relationships. Human-dog interaction has been suggested to have various benefits for humans, but obviously the welfare of both humans and dogs depend on such interaction being successful. Unfor-tunately not all human...... developing a social tool set that makes it very successful in interacting and communicating with humans. Human evolution has similarly resulted in the development of complex social cognition in humans. This enables humans to form bonded relationships, besides pair-bonding, and it seems that humans are also......-dog relationships are successful and every year a large number of dogs are relinquished because of failed dog-owner relationships. Therefore more knowledge is needed about the mechanisms of human-dog interaction and about factors related to successful as well as unsuc-cessful human-dog relationships. The aim...

  18. [An interactive three-dimensional model of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, S L

    2009-01-01

    Driven by advanced computer technology, it is now possible to show the human anatomy on a computer. On the internet, the Visible Body programme makes it possible to navigate in all directions through the anatomical structures of the human body, using mouse and keyboard. Visible Body is a wonderful tool to give insight in the human structures, body functions and organs.

  19. Rationale awareness for quality assurance in iterative human computation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Human computation refers to the outsourcing of computation tasks to human workers. It offers a new direction for solving a variety of problems and calls for innovative ways of managing human computation processes. The majority of human computation tasks take a parallel approach, whereas the potential of an iterative approach, i.e., having workers iteratively build on each other's work, has not been sufficiently explored. This study investigates whether and how human workers' awareness of previous workers' rationales affects the performance of the iterative approach in a brainstorming task and a rating task. Rather than viewing this work as a conclusive piece, the author believes that this research endeavor is just the beginning of a new research focus that examines and supports meta-cognitive processes in crowdsourcing activities.

  20. Loving Machines: Theorizing Human and Sociable-Technology Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Garlock, Glenda

    Today, human and sociable-technology interaction is a contested site of inquiry. Some regard social robots as an innovative medium of communication that offer new avenues for expression, communication, and interaction. Other others question the moral veracity of human-robot relationships, suggesting that such associations risk psychological impoverishment. What seems clear is that the emergence of social robots in everyday life will alter the nature of social interaction, bringing with it a need for new theories to understand the shifting terrain between humans and machines. This work provides a historical context for human and sociable robot interaction. Current research related to human-sociable-technology interaction is considered in relation to arguments that confront a humanist view that confine 'technological things' to the nonhuman side of the human/nonhuman binary relation. Finally, it recommends a theoretical approach for the study of human and sociable-technology interaction that accommodates increasingly personal relations between human and nonhuman technologies.

  1. Computational Study of Flow Interactions in Coaxial Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    account for multiple real-world constraints up front in design nor possible to know what performance is possible with a given design. Since unmanned vehicles are sized and optimized for the particular mission, a modern low-fidelity conceptual design and sizing tool that has been used for the design of large helicopters can be used for design of small coaxial rotorcraft. However, unlike most helicopters with single main rotor, the interactions between the upper and lower rotors emerge as an important factor to consider in design because an increase in performance of a multi-rotor system is not proportional to the number of rotors. Interference losses and differences in thrusts between the upper and lower rotors were investigated by theoretical methods as well as a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In this work, hybrid turbulence models are used to investigate the physics of interactions between coaxial rotors and a fuselage that are not well understood. Present study covers not only small-scale drones but also large-scale coaxial rotors for heavy-lifting missions. Considering the recently proposed FAA drone rules that require the flight only in visual line-of-sight, a large multirotor might be used as an airborne carrier for launch and recovery of unmanned aircraft systems with a human operator onboard. For applications to civil operations, their aerodynamic performance and noise levels need to be assessed. Noise is one of the largest limiting factors to rotorcraft operations in urban area. Since the high-frequency noise of multi-rotors may increase the annoyance, noise may turn out to be a key issue that must be addressed for market acceptability. One of the objectives of the present work is to study the effects of inter-rotor spacing and collectives on the performance, efficiency, and acoustics of coaxial rotor systems.

  2. Neurosurgical simulation by interactive computer graphics on iPad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Keisuke; Kin, Taichi; Saito, Toki; Suematsu, Shinya; Gomyo, Miho; Noguchi, Akio; Nagane, Motoo; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Presurgical simulation before complicated neurosurgery is a state-of-the-art technique, and its usefulness has recently become well known. However, simulation requires complex image processing, which hinders its widespread application. We explored handling the results of interactive computer graphics on the iPad tablet, which can easily be controlled anywhere. Data from preneurosurgical simulations from 12 patients (4 men, 8 women) who underwent complex brain surgery were loaded onto an iPad. First, DICOM data were loaded using Amira visualization software to create interactive computer graphics, and ParaView, another free visualization software package, was used to convert the results of the simulation to be loaded using the free iPad software KiwiViewer. The interactive computer graphics created prior to neurosurgery were successfully displayed and smoothly controlled on the iPad in all patients. The number of elements ranged from 3 to 13 (mean 7). The mean original data size was 233 MB, which was reduced to 10.4 MB (4.4% of original size) after image processing by ParaView. This was increased to 46.6 MB (19.9%) after decompression in KiwiViewer. Controlling the magnification, transfer, rotation, and selection of translucence in 10 levels of each element were smoothly and easily performed using one or two fingers. The requisite skill to smoothly control the iPad software was acquired within 1.8 trials on average in 12 medical students and 6 neurosurgical residents. Using an iPad to handle the result of preneurosurgical simulation was extremely useful because it could easily be handled anywhere.

  3. Effects of interactions between humans and domesticated animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Humans have many kinds of relationships with domesticated animals. To maintain relationships interactions are needed. Interactions with animals may be beneficial for humans but may also be risky. Scientific literature on effects of human¿animal relationships and interactions in a workplace, health-care and residential context has been reviewed to develop ideas about the effects farm animals can have on humans. Although there are quite a few studies, the variety of methods, the complexity of t...

  4. Mobile devices and computing cloud resources allocation for interactive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Henryk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using mobile devices such as smartphones or iPads for various interactive applications is currently very common. In the case of complex applications, e.g. chess games, the capabilities of these devices are insufficient to run the application in real time. One of the solutions is to use cloud computing. However, there is an optimization problem of mobile device and cloud resources allocation. An iterative heuristic algorithm for application distribution is proposed. The algorithm minimizes the energy cost of application execution with constrained execution time.

  5. CATIA Core Tools Computer Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Michel

    2012-01-01

    CATIA Core Tools: Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application explains how to use the essential features of this cutting-edge solution for product design and innovation. The book begins with the basics, such as launching the software, configuring the settings, and managing files. Next, you'll learn about sketching, modeling, drafting, and visualization tools and techniques. Easy-to-follow instructions along with detailed illustrations and screenshots help you get started using several CATIA workbenches right away. Reverse engineering--a valuable product development skill--is also covered in this practical resource.

  6. Structural mode significance using INCA. [Interactive Controls Analysis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural finite element models are often too large to be used in the design and analysis of control systems. Model reduction techniques must be applied to reduce the structural model to manageable size. In the past, engineers either performed the model order reduction by hand or used distinct computer programs to retrieve the data, to perform the significance analysis and to reduce the order of the model. To expedite this process, the latest version of INCA has been expanded to include an interactive graphical structural mode significance and model order reduction capability.

  7. Computation of Capillary Interactions among Many Particles at Free Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masahiro; Koike, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Yukio

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a new computational method to efficiently estimate capillary interactions among many moving particles at a free surface. A novelty of the method is the immersed free surface (IFS) model that transforms the surface tension exerted on a three-phase contact line on a particle surface into the surface tension exerted on an artificially created virtual free surface in the particle. Using the IFS model along with a level set method and an immersed boundary method, we have reasonably simulated a capillary-force-induced self-assembly of particles that is common in coating-drying of particle suspension.

  8. Structural mode significance using INCA. [Interactive Controls Analysis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural finite element models are often too large to be used in the design and analysis of control systems. Model reduction techniques must be applied to reduce the structural model to manageable size. In the past, engineers either performed the model order reduction by hand or used distinct computer programs to retrieve the data, to perform the significance analysis and to reduce the order of the model. To expedite this process, the latest version of INCA has been expanded to include an interactive graphical structural mode significance and model order reduction capability.

  9. Pedagogical Strategies for Human and Computer Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Brian J.

    The pedagogical strategies of human tutors in problem solving domains are described and the possibility of incorporating these techniques into computerized tutors is examined. GIL (Graphical Instruction in LISP), an intelligent tutoring system for LISP programming, is compared to human tutors teaching the same material in order to identify how the…

  10. New activity pattern in human interactive dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentin, Marco; Lovison, Alberto; Maritan, Amos; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the response function of human agents as demonstrated by written correspondence, uncovering a new pattern for how the reactive dynamics of individuals is distributed across the set of each agent’s contacts. In long-term empirical data on email, we find that the set of response times considered separately for the messages to each different correspondent of a given writer, generate a family of heavy-tailed distributions, which have largely the same features for all agents, and whose characteristic times grow exponentially with the rank of each correspondent. We furthermore show that this new behavioral pattern emerges robustly by considering weighted moving averages of the priority-conditioned response-time probabilities generated by a basic prioritization model. Our findings clarify how the range of priorities in the inputs from one’s environment underpin and shape the dynamics of agents embedded in a net of reactive relations. These newly revealed activity patterns might be universal, being present in other general interactive environments, and constrain future models of communication and interaction networks, affecting their architecture and evolution.

  11. Computational Intelligence in a Human Brain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Gaftea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current trends in brain research domain and the current stage of development of research for software and hardware solutions, communication capabilities between: human beings and machines, new technologies, nano-science and Internet of Things (IoT devices. The proposed model for Human Brain assumes main similitude between human intelligence and the chess game thinking process. Tactical & strategic reasoning and the need to follow the rules of the chess game, all are very similar with the activities of the human brain. The main objective for a living being and the chess game player are the same: securing a position, surviving and eliminating the adversaries. The brain resolves these goals, and more, the being movement, actions and speech are sustained by the vital five senses and equilibrium. The chess game strategy helps us understand the human brain better and easier replicate in the proposed ‘Software and Hardware’ SAH Model.

  12. Computational Intelligence in a Human Brain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Gaftea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current trends in brain research domain and the current stage of development of research for software and hardware solutions, communication capabilities between: human beings and machines, new technologies, nano-science and Internet of Things (IoT devices. The proposed model for Human Brain assumes main similitude between human intelligence and the chess game thinking process. Tactical & strategic reasoning and the need to follow the rules of the chess game, all are very similar with the activities of the human brain. The main objective for a living being and the chess game player are the same: securing a position, surviving and eliminating the adversaries. The brain resolves these goals, and more, the being movement, actions and speech are sustained by the vital five senses and equilibrium. The chess game strategy helps us understand the human brain better and easier replicate in the proposed ‘Software and Hardware’ SAH Model.

  13. A scalable method for computing quadruplet wave-wave interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vledder, Gerbrant

    2017-04-01

    Non-linear four-wave interactions are a key physical process in the evolution of wind generated ocean waves. The present generation operational wave models use the Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA), but it accuracy is poor. It is now generally acknowledged that the DIA should be replaced with a more accurate method to improve predicted spectral shapes and derived parameters. The search for such a method is challenging as one should find a balance between accuracy and computational requirements. Such a method is presented here in the form of a scalable and adaptive method that can mimic both the time consuming exact Snl4 approach and the fast but inaccurate DIA, and everything in between. The method provides an elegant approach to improve the DIA, not by including more arbitrarily shaped wave number configurations, but by a mathematically consistent reduction of an exact method, viz. the WRT method. The adaptiveness is to adapt the abscissa of the locus integrand in relation to the magnitude of the known terms. The adaptiveness is extended to the highest level of the WRT method to select interacting wavenumber configurations in a hierarchical way in relation to their importance. This adaptiveness results in a speed-up of one to three orders of magnitude depending on the measure of accuracy. This definition of accuracy should not be expressed in terms of the quality of the transfer integral for academic spectra but rather in terms of wave model performance in a dynamic run. This has consequences for the balance between the required accuracy and the computational workload for evaluating these interactions. The performance of the scalable method on different scales is illustrated with results from academic spectra, simple growth curves to more complicated field cases using a 3G-wave model.

  14. Can the human brain do quantum computing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A F; Massad, E; Coutinho, F A B

    2004-01-01

    The electrical membrane properties have been the key issues in the understanding of the cerebral physiology for more than almost two centuries. But, molecular neurobiology has now discovered that biochemical transactions play an important role in neuronal computations. Quantum computing (QC) is becoming a reality both from the theoretical point of view as well as from practical applications. Quantum mechanics is the most accurate description at atomic level and it lies behind all chemistry that provides the basis for biology ... maybe the magic of entanglement is also crucial for life. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the dendrite spine as a quantum computing device, taking into account what is known about the physiology of the glutamate receptors and the cascade of biochemical transactions triggered by the glutamate binding to these receptors.

  15. Computer-assisted visual interactive recognition and its prospects of implementation over the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jie; Gattani, Abhishek

    2005-01-01

    When completely automated systems don't yield acceptable accuracy, many practical pattern recognition systems involve the human either at the beginning (pre-processing) or towards the end (handling rejects). We believe that it may be more useful to involve the human throughout the recognition process rather than just at the beginning or end. We describe a methodology of interactive visual recognition for human-centered low-throughput applications, Computer Assisted Visual InterActive Recognition (CAVIAR), and discuss the prospects of implementing CAVIAR over the Internet. The novelty of CAVIAR is image-based interaction through a domain-specific parameterized geometrical model, which reduces the semantic gap between humans and computers. The user may interact with the computer anytime that she considers its response unsatisfactory. The interaction improves the accuracy of the classification features by improving the fit of the computer-proposed model. The computer makes subsequent use of the parameters of the improved model to refine not only its own statistical model-fitting process, but also its internal classifier. The CAVIAR methodology was applied to implement a flower recognition system. The principal conclusions from the evaluation of the system include: 1) the average recognition time of the CAVIAR system is significantly shorter than that of the unaided human; 2) its accuracy is significantly higher than that of the unaided machine; 3) it can be initialized with as few as one training sample per class and still achieve high accuracy; and 4) it demonstrates a self-learning ability. We have also implemented a Mobile CAVIAR system, where a pocket PC, as a client, connects to a server through wireless communication. The motivation behind a mobile platform for CAVIAR is to apply the methodology in a human-centered pervasive environment, where the user can seamlessly interact with the system for classifying field-data. Deploying CAVIAR to a networked mobile

  16. Interactive computer-assisted instruction in acid-base physiology for mobile computer platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmuir, Kenneth J

    2014-03-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ∼20 screens of information, on the subjects of the CO2-bicarbonate buffer system, other body buffer systems, and acid-base disorders. Five clinical case modules were also developed. For the learning modules, the interactive, active learning activities were primarily step-by-step learner control of explanations of complex physiological concepts, usually presented graphically. For the clinical cases, the active learning activities were primarily question-and-answer exercises that related clinical findings to the relevant basic science concepts. The student response was remarkably positive, with the interactive, active learning aspect of the instruction cited as the most important feature. Also, students cited the self-paced instruction, extensive use of interactive graphics, and side-by-side presentation of text and graphics as positive features. Most students reported that it took less time to study the subject matter with this online instruction compared with subject matter presented in the lecture hall. However, the approach to learning was highly examination driven, with most students delaying the study of the subject matter until a few days before the scheduled examination. Wider implementation of active learning computer-assisted instruction will require that instructors present subject matter interactively, that students fully embrace the responsibilities of independent learning, and that institutional administrations measure instructional effort by criteria other than scheduled hours of instruction.

  17. HIV-1, human interaction database: current status and new features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako-Adjei, Danso; Fu, William; Wallin, Craig; Katz, Kenneth S; Song, Guangfeng; Darji, Dakshesh; Brister, J Rodney; Ptak, Roger G; Pruitt, Kim D

    2015-01-01

    The 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), Human Interaction Database', available through the National Library of Medicine at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/retroviruses/hiv-1/interactions, serves the scientific community exploring the discovery of novel HIV vaccine candidates and therapeutic targets. Each HIV-1 human protein interaction can be retrieved without restriction by web-based downloads and ftp protocols and includes: Reference Sequence (RefSeq) protein accession numbers, National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene identification numbers, brief descriptions of the interactions, searchable keywords for interactions and PubMed identification numbers (PMIDs) of journal articles describing the interactions. In addition to specific HIV-1 protein-human protein interactions, included are interaction effects upon HIV-1 replication resulting when individual human gene expression is blocked using siRNA. A total of 3142 human genes are described participating in 12,786 protein-protein interactions, along with 1316 replication interactions described for each of 1250 human genes identified using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Together the data identifies 4006 human genes involved in 14,102 interactions. With the inclusion of siRNA interactions we introduce a redesigned web interface to enhance viewing, filtering and downloading of the combined data set.

  18. Soil and Human Interactions in Maya Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl

    2013-04-01

    Since the early 1990s, we have studied Maya interaction with soils in Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and elsewhere. We studied upland and lowland soils, but here we focus on seasonal or 'Bajo' wetlands and perennial wetlands for different reasons. Around the bajos, the ancient Maya focused on intensive agriculture and habitation despite the difficulties their Vertisol soils posed. For the perennial wetlands, small populations spread diffusely through Mollisol and Histisol landscapes with large scale, intensive agro-ecosystems. These wetlands also represent important repositories for both environmental change and how humans responded in situ to environmental changes. Work analyzing bajo soils has recorded significant diversity but the soil and sediment record shows two main eras of soil instability: the Pleistocene-Holocene transition as rainfall fluctuated and increased and tropical forest pulsed through the region, and the Maya Preclassic to Classic 3000 to 1000 BP as deforestation, land use intensity, and drying waxed and waned. The ancient Maya adapted their bajo soil ecosystems successfully through agro-engineering but they also withdrew in many important places in the Late Preclassic about 2000 BP and Terminal Classic about 1200 BP. We continue to study and debate the importance of perennial wetland agro-ecosystems, but it is now clear that Maya interaction with these soil landscapes was significant and multifaceted. Based on soil excavation and coring with a broad toolkit of soil stratigraphy, chemistry, and paleoecology from 2001 to 2013, our results show the ancient Maya interacted with their wetland soils to maintain cropland for maize, tree crops, arrow root, and cassava against relative sea level rise, increased flooding, and aggradation by gypsum precipitation and sedimentation. We have studied these interactions across an area of 2000 km2 in Northern Belize to understand how Maya response varied and how these soil environments varied over time and distance

  19. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The CHI Papers and Notes program is continuing to grow along with many of our sister conferences. We are pleased that CHI is still the leading venue for research in human-computer interaction. CHI 2013 continued the use of subcommittees to manage the review process. Authors selected the subcommit...

  20. Development of a body motion interactive system with a weight voting mechanism and computer vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Tse; Shei, Hung-Jung; Lay, Yun-Long; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2012-09-01

    This study develops a body motion interactive system with computer vision technology. This application combines interactive games, art performing, and exercise training system. Multiple image processing and computer vision technologies are used in this study. The system can calculate the characteristics of an object color, and then perform color segmentation. When there is a wrong action judgment, the system will avoid the error with a weight voting mechanism, which can set the condition score and weight value for the action judgment, and choose the best action judgment from the weight voting mechanism. Finally, this study estimated the reliability of the system in order to make improvements. The results showed that, this method has good effect on accuracy and stability during operations of the human-machine interface of the sports training system.

  1. Computer games as a new ontological reality of human existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Shymeiko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the ontological dimension of the phenomenon of computer games and their role in the perception of modern man in the world and himself. Describes the characteristic features of the ontological computer game as a virtual world that has an intangible character. Reveals the positive and negative features of computer games in the formation of the meaning of human life.

  2. Can Computers Foster Human Users’ Creativity? Theory and Praxis of Mixed-Initiative Co-Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Liapis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the impact of artificially intelligent computers to the process of design, play and educational activities. A computational process which has the necessary intelligence and creativity to take a proactive role in such activities can not only support human creativity but also foster it and prompt lateral thinking. The argument is made both from the perspective of human creativity, where the computational input is treated as an external stimulus which triggers re-framing of humans’ routines and mental associations, but also from the perspective of computational creativity where human input and initiative constrains the search space of the algorithm, enabling it to focus on specific possible solutions to a problem rather than globally search for the optimal. The article reviews four mixed-initiative tools (for design and educational play based on how they contribute to human-machine co-creativity. These paradigms serve different purposes, afford different human interaction methods and incorporate different computationally creative processes. Assessing how co-creativity is facilitated on a per-paradigm basis strengthens the theoretical argument and provides an initial seed for future work in the burgeoning domain of mixed-initiative interaction.

  3. Safe physical human robot interaction- past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pervez, Aslam; Ryu, Jeha [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    When a robot physically interacts with a human user, the requirements should be drastically changed. The most important requirement is the safety of the human user in the sense that robot should not harm the human in any situation. During the last few years, research has been focused on various aspects of safe physical human robot interaction. This paper provides a review of the work on safe physical interaction of robotic systems sharing their workspace with human users (especially elderly people). Three distinct areas of research are identified: interaction safety assessment, interaction safety through design, and interaction safety through planning and control. The paper then highlights the current challenges and available technologies and points out future research directions for realization of a safe and dependable robotic system for human users

  4. Use of Computers in Human Factors Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    SENSES (PHYSIOLOGY), THERMOPLASTIC RESINS, VISUAL ACUITY (U)R RESEARCH CONCERNS DETERMINATION OF THE INFORMATION PRESENTATION REQUIREMENTS OF HUMAN DATA...THE GEOMETRY OF THE wORK STATION, IS CURRENTLY BEING DEVELOPED. IT IS CALLED COMBIMAN, AN ACRONYM FOR COMPUTERIZED BIOMECHANICAL MAN- MODELo COMBIMAN

  5. Cognitive Robotics, Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    Cognitive Robotics , Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction Greg Trafton, Ph.D Naval Research Laboratory Wednesday, November 3, 2010 Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cognitive Robotics , Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction 5a. CONTRACT...that cognition is for action (embodied cognition) • We are building embodied models for cognitive robotics and human-robot interaction • Online

  6. Ghost-in-the-Machine reveals human social signals for human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Sebastian; Jettka, Katharina; Giuliani, Manuel; de Ruiter, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    We used a new method called "Ghost-in-the-Machine" (GiM) to investigate social interactions with a robotic bartender taking orders for drinks and serving them. Using the GiM paradigm allowed us to identify how human participants recognize the intentions of customers on the basis of the output of the robotic recognizers. Specifically, we measured which recognizer modalities (e.g., speech, the distance to the bar) were relevant at different stages of the interaction. This provided insights into human social behavior necessary for the development of socially competent robots. When initiating the drink-order interaction, the most important recognizers were those based on computer vision. When drink orders were being placed, however, the most important information source was the speech recognition. Interestingly, the participants used only a subset of the available information, focussing only on a few relevant recognizers while ignoring others. This reduced the risk of acting on erroneous sensor data and enabled them to complete service interactions more swiftly than a robot using all available sensor data. We also investigated socially appropriate response strategies. In their responses, the participants preferred to use the same modality as the customer's requests, e.g., they tended to respond verbally to verbal requests. Also, they added redundancy to their responses, for instance by using echo questions. We argue that incorporating the social strategies discovered with the GiM paradigm in multimodal grammars of human-robot interactions improves the robustness and the ease-of-use of these interactions, and therefore provides a smoother user experience.

  7. Ghost-in-the-Machine Reveals Human Social Signals for Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eLoth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We used a new method called Ghost-in-the-Machine (GiM to investigate social interactions with a robotic bartender taking orders for drinks and serving them. Using the GiM paradigm allowed us to identify how human participants recognise the intentions of customers on the basis of the output of the robotic recognisers. Specifically, we measured which recogniser modalities (e.g., speech, the distance to the bar were relevant at different stages of the interaction. This provided insights into human social behaviour necessary for the development of socially competent robots. When initiating the drink-order interaction, the most important recognisers were those based on computer vision. When drink orders were being placed, however, the most important information source was the speech recognition. Interestingly, the participants used only a subset of the available information, focussing only on a few relevant recognisers while ignoring others. This reduced the risk of acting on erroneous sensor data and enabled them to complete service interactions more swiftly than a robot using all available sensor data. We also investigated socially appropriate response strategies. In their responses, the participants preferred to use the same modality as the customer’s requests, e.g., they tended to respond verbally to verbal requests. Also, they added redundancy to their responses, for instance by using echo questions. We argue that incorporating the social strategies discovered with the GiM paradigm in multimodal grammars of human-robot interactions improves the robustness and the ease-of-use of these interactions, and therefore provides a smoother user experience.

  8. [Affective computing--a mysterious tool to explore human emotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Honghong; Dou, Yi; Hou, Yongjie; Li, Changwu

    2013-12-01

    Perception, affection and consciousness are basic psychological functions of human being. Affection is the subjective reflection of different kinds of objects. The foundation of human being's thinking is constituted by the three basic functions. Affective computing is an effective tool of revealing the affectiveness of human being in order to understand the world. Our research of affective computing focused on the relation, the generation and the influent factors among different affections. In this paper, the affective mechanism, the basic theory of affective computing, is studied, the method of acquiring and recognition of affective information is discussed, and the application of affective computing is summarized as well, in order to attract more researchers into this working area.

  9. Study of movement coordination in human ensembles via a novel computer-based set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Alderisio, Francesco; Fiore, Gianfranco; di Bernardo, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Movement coordination in human ensembles has been studied little in the current literature. In the existing experimental works, situations where all subjects are connected with each other through direct visual and auditory coupling, and social interaction affects their coordination, have been investigated. Here, we study coordination in human ensembles via a novel computer-based set-up that enables individuals to coordinate each other's motion from a distance so as to minimize the influence of social interaction. The proposed platform makes it possible to implement different visual interaction patterns among the players, so that participants take into consideration the motion of a designated subset of the others. This allows the evaluation of the exclusive effects on coordination of the structure of interconnections among the players and their own dynamics. Our set-up enables also the deployment of virtual players to investigate dyadic interaction between a human and a virtual agent, as well as group synchron...

  10. A Utopian agenda in Child-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    While participatory techniques and practices have become commonplace in parts of the Child-Computer Interaction (CCI) related literature we believe that the tradition of Participatory Design has more to offer CCI. In particular, the Scandinavian Cooperative Design tradition, manifest through...... the Utopia project, provides a valuable resource for setting an agenda for CCI research that explicitly addresses ideals and values in research and practice. Based on a revisit of the Utopia project we position the ideals of democracy, skilfulness, and emancipation as the core ideals of a Utopian agenda...... and discuss how these resonate with issues and challenges in CCI research. Moreover, we propose that a Utopian agenda entails an explicit alignment between these ideals, a participatory epistemology, and methodology in terms of tools and techniques in CCI practice....

  11. Some Implications of Human-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    On structures, humans may be active which may cause structural vibrations as human activity can excite structural vibration modes. However, humans may also be passive (sitting or standing on the structure). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans pr...

  12. Proactive human-computer collaboration for information discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBona, Phil; Shilliday, Andrew; Barry, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is researching methods, representations, and processes for human/autonomy collaboration to scale analysis and hypotheses substantiation for intelligence analysts. This research establishes a machinereadable hypothesis representation that is commonsensical to the human analyst. The representation unifies context between the human and computer, enabling autonomy in the form of analytic software, to support the analyst through proactively acquiring, assessing, and organizing high-value information that is needed to inform and substantiate hypotheses.

  13. Unmanned Surface Vehicle Human-Computer Interface for Amphibious Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    FIGURES Figure 1. MOCU Baseline HCI using Both Aerial Photo and Digital Nautical Chart ( DNC ) Maps to Control and Monitor Land, Sea, and Air...Action DNC Digital Nautical Chart FNC Future Naval Capability HCI Human-Computer Interface HRI Human-Robot Interface HSI Human-Systems Integration...Digital Nautical Chart ( DNC ) Maps to Control and Monitor Land, Sea, and Air Vehicles. 3.2 BASELINE MOCU HCI The Baseline MOCU interface is a tiled

  14. Functional features and protein network of human sperm-egg interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetian, Soudabeh; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Abu Naser, Mohammed

    2014-12-01

    Elucidation of the sperm-egg interaction at the molecular level is one of the unresolved problems in sexual reproduction, and understanding the molecular mechanism is crucial in solving problems in infertility and failed in vitro fertilization (IVF). Many molecular interactions in the form of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediate the sperm-egg membrane interaction. Due to the complexity of the problem such as difficulties in analyzing in vivo membrane PPIs, many efforts have failed to comprehensively elucidate the fusion mechanism and the molecular interactions that mediate sperm-egg membrane fusion. The main purpose of this study was to reveal possible protein interactions and associated molecular function during sperm-egg interaction using a protein interaction network approach. Different databases have been used to construct the human sperm-egg interaction network. The constructed network revealed new interactions. These included CD151 and CD9 in human oocyte that interact with CD49 in sperm, and CD49 and ITGA4 in sperm that interact with CD63 and CD81, respectively, in the oocyte. These results showed that the different integrins in sperm may be involved in human sperm-egg interaction. It was also suggested that sperm ADAM2 plays a role as a protein candidate involved in sperm-egg membrane interaction by interacting with CD9 in the oocyte. Interleukin-4 receptor activity, receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity, and manganese ion transmembrane transport activity are the major molecular functions in sperm-egg interaction protein network. The disease association analysis indicated that sperm-egg interaction defects are also reflected in other disease networks such as cardiovascular, hematological, and breast cancer diseases. By analyzing the network, we identified the major molecular functions and disease association genes in sperm-egg interaction protein. Further experimental studies will be required to confirm the significance of these new

  15. Computational phenotyping of two-person interactions reveals differential neural response to depth-of-thought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xiang

    Full Text Available Reciprocating exchange with other humans requires individuals to infer the intentions of their partners. Despite the importance of this ability in healthy cognition and its impact in disease, the dimensions employed and computations involved in such inferences are not clear. We used a computational theory-of-mind model to classify styles of interaction in 195 pairs of subjects playing a multi-round economic exchange game. This classification produces an estimate of a subject's depth-of-thought in the game (low, medium, high, a parameter that governs the richness of the models they build of their partner. Subjects in each category showed distinct neural correlates of learning signals associated with different depths-of-thought. The model also detected differences in depth-of-thought between two groups of healthy subjects: one playing patients with psychiatric disease and the other playing healthy controls. The neural response categories identified by this computational characterization of theory-of-mind may yield objective biomarkers useful in the identification and characterization of pathologies that perturb the capacity to model and interact with other humans.

  16. Studying Collective Human Decision Making and Creativity with Evolutionary Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, Hiroki; Dionne, Shelley D

    2015-01-01

    We report a summary of our interdisciplinary research project "Evolutionary Perspective on Collective Decision Making" that was conducted through close collaboration between computational, organizational, and social scientists at Binghamton University. We redefined collective human decision making and creativity as evolution of ecologies of ideas, where populations of ideas evolve via continual applications of evolutionary operators such as reproduction, recombination, mutation, selection, and migration of ideas, each conducted by participating humans. Based on this evolutionary perspective, we generated hypotheses about collective human decision making, using agent-based computer simulations. The hypotheses were then tested through several experiments with real human subjects. Throughout this project, we utilized evolutionary computation (EC) in non-traditional ways-(1) as a theoretical framework for reinterpreting the dynamics of idea generation and selection, (2) as a computational simulation model of collective human decision-making processes, and (3) as a research tool for collecting high-resolution experimental data on actual collaborative design and decision making from human subjects. We believe our work demonstrates untapped potential of EC for interdisciplinary research involving human and social dynamics.

  17. Contextual Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Porzel, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the latest in knowledge representation and human-computer interaction to address the problem of contextual computing in artificial intelligence. It uses high-level context to solve some challenging problems in natural language understanding.

  18. HOME COMPUTER USE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Ofer; Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the effect of home computers on child and adolescent outcomes by exploiting a voucher program in Romania. Our main results indicate that home computers have both positive and negative effects on the development of human capital. Children who won a voucher to purchase a computer had significantly lower school grades but show improved computer skills. There is also some evidence that winning a voucher increased cognitive skills, as measured by Raven’s Progressive Matrices. We do not find much evidence for an effect on non-cognitive outcomes. Parental rules regarding homework and computer use attenuate the effects of computer ownership, suggesting that parental monitoring and supervision may be important mediating factors. PMID:22719135

  19. HOME COMPUTER USE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Ofer; Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2011-05-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the effect of home computers on child and adolescent outcomes by exploiting a voucher program in Romania. Our main results indicate that home computers have both positive and negative effects on the development of human capital. Children who won a voucher to purchase a computer had significantly lower school grades but show improved computer skills. There is also some evidence that winning a voucher increased cognitive skills, as measured by Raven's Progressive Matrices. We do not find much evidence for an effect on non-cognitive outcomes. Parental rules regarding homework and computer use attenuate the effects of computer ownership, suggesting that parental monitoring and supervision may be important mediating factors.

  20. Flow-Structure-Acoustic Interaction Computational Modeling of Voice Production inside an Entire Airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weili; Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian

    2015-11-01

    Human voice quality is directly determined by the interplay of dynamic behavior of glottal flow, vibratory characteristics of VFs and acoustic characteristics of upper airway. These multiphysics constituents are tightly coupled together and precisely coordinate to produce understandable sound. Despite many years' research effort, the direct relationships among the detailed flow features, VF vibration and aeroacoustics still remains elusive. This study utilizes a first-principle based, flow-structure-acoustics interaction computational modeling approach to study the process of voice production inside an entire human airway. In the current approach, a sharp interface immersed boundary method based incompressible flow solver is utilized to model the glottal flow; A finite element based solid mechanics solver is utilized to model the vocal vibration; A high-order immersed boundary method based acoustics solver is utilized to directly compute sound. These three solvers are fully coupled to mimic the complex flow-structure-acoustic interaction during voice production. The geometry of airway is reconstructed based on the in-vivo MRI measurement reported by Story et al. (1995) and a three-layer continuum based vocal fold model is taken from Titze and Talkin (1979). Results from these simulations will be presented and further analyzed to get new insight into the complex flow-structure-acoustic interaction during voice production. This study is expected to improve the understanding of fundamental physical mechanism of voice production and to help to build direct cause-effect relationship between biomechanics and voice sound.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and biological application of four novel metal-Schiff base complexes derived from allylamine and their interactions with human serum albumin: Experimental, molecular docking and ONIOM computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Zahra; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri; Sahihi, Mehdi; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj; Gharaghani, Sajjad

    2016-09-01

    Novel metal-based drug candidate including VOL2, NiL2, CuL2 and PdL2 have been synthesized from 2-hydroxy-1-allyliminomethyl-naphthalen ligand and have been characterized by means of elemental analysis (CHN), FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopies. In addition, (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques were employed for characterization of the PdL2 complex. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique was utilized to characterise the structure of the complexes. The Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pd(II) complexes show a square planar trans-coordination geometry, while in the VOL2, the vanadium center has a distorted tetragonal pyramidal N2O3 coordination sphere. The HSA-binding was also determined, using fluorescence quenching, UV-vis spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD) titration method. The obtained results revealed that the HSA affinity for binding the synthesized compounds follows as PdL2>CuL2>VOL2>NiL2, indicating the effect of metal ion on binding constant. The distance between these compounds and HSA was obtained based on the Förster's theory of non-radiative energy transfer. Furthermore, computational methods including molecular docking and our Own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbital and molecular Mechanics (ONIOM) were carried out to investigate the HSA-binding of the compounds. Molecular docking calculation indicated the existence of hydrogen bond between amino acid residues of HSA and all synthesized compounds. The formation of the hydrogen bond in the HSA-compound systems leads to their stabilization. The ONIOM method was utilized in order to investigate HSA binding of compounds more precisely in which molecular mechanics method (UFF) and semi empirical method (PM6) were selected for the low layer and the high layer, respectively. The results show that the structural parameters of the compounds changed along with binding to HSA, indicating the strong interaction between the compounds and HSA. The value of binding constant depends on the extent of the resultant changes. This

  2. Activity-based computing: computational management of activities reflecting human intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob E; Jeuris, Steven; Houben, Steven

    2015-01-01

    paradigm that has been applied in personal information management applications as well as in ubiquitous, multidevice, and interactive surface computing. ABC has emerged as a response to the traditional application- and file-centered computing paradigm, which is oblivious to a notion of a user’s activity...... context spanning heterogeneous devices, multiple applications, services, and information sources. In this article, we present ABC as an approach to contextualize information, and present our research into designing activity-centric computing technologies.......An important research topic in artificial intelligence is automatic sensing and inferencing of contextual information, which is used to build computer models of the user’s activity. One approach to build such activity-aware systems is the notion of activity-based computing (ABC). ABC is a computing...

  3. Activity-based computing: computational management of activities reflecting human intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob E; Jeuris, Steven; Houben, Steven

    2015-01-01

    An important research topic in artificial intelligence is automatic sensing and inferencing of contextual information, which is used to build computer models of the user’s activity. One approach to build such activity-aware systems is the notion of activity-based computing (ABC). ABC is a computing...... paradigm that has been applied in personal information management applications as well as in ubiquitous, multidevice, and interactive surface computing. ABC has emerged as a response to the traditional application- and file-centered computing paradigm, which is oblivious to a notion of a user’s activity...... context spanning heterogeneous devices, multiple applications, services, and information sources. In this article, we present ABC as an approach to contextualize information, and present our research into designing activity-centric computing technologies....

  4. An Aspect of Dynamic Human-structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    . Focus is on how modal characteristics of the structure, i.e. its frequency and damping, are influenced by the presence of stationary humans. Vertical vibrations are considered, and particular focus is given the influence of human posture on modal characteristics of the supporting structure. Insight......It is known that humans and structures interact. Humans can cause structures to vibrate, and excessive vibrations may occur if the motion frequency of humans coincides with a resonant frequency of the structural system. It is also known that stationary humans (such as humans sitting or standing...... on the structure) influence the dynamic behaviour and modal characteristics of the structure carrying them, whether being a grandstand, an office floor or similar. However, the interaction between the stationary humans and the structure is generally not well understood, and the paper addresses this interaction...

  5. Drum-mate: interaction dynamics and gestures in human-humanoid drumming experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose-Bagci, Hatice; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Syrdal, Dag S.; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.

    2010-06-01

    This article investigates the role of interaction kinesics in human-robot interaction (HRI). We adopted a bottom-up, synthetic approach towards interactive competencies in robots using simple, minimal computational models underlying the robot's interaction dynamics. We present two empirical, exploratory studies investigating a drumming experience with a humanoid robot (KASPAR) and a human. In the first experiment, the turn-taking behaviour of the humanoid is deterministic and the non-verbal gestures of the robot accompany its drumming to assess the impact of non-verbal gestures on the interaction. The second experiment studies a computational framework that facilitates emergent turn-taking dynamics, whereby the particular dynamics of turn-taking emerge from the social interaction between the human and the humanoid. The results from the HRI experiments are presented and analysed qualitatively (in terms of the participants' subjective experiences) and quantitatively (concerning the drumming performance of the human-robot pair). The results point out a trade-off between the subjective evaluation of the drumming experience from the perspective of the participants and the objective evaluation of the drumming performance. A certain number of gestures was preferred as a motivational factor in the interaction. The participants preferred the models underlying the robot's turn-taking which enable the robot and human to interact more and provide turn-taking closer to 'natural' human-human conversations, despite differences in objective measures of drumming behaviour. The results are consistent with the temporal behaviour matching hypothesis previously proposed in the literature which concerns the effect that the participants adapt their own interaction dynamics to the robot's.

  6. Implications of interaction between Humans and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    as structural damping and therefore also structural vibration levels). The paper addresses this subject and explores implications of having passive humans present on the structure. In experimental tests with a laboratory floor it is examined to which degree the posture of humans passively sitting on the floor......Many civil engineering structures are occupied by humans, and often humans are considered as a static load in calculations. However, active humans on structures can cause structural vibrations. Passive humans might also be present on that structure and they do change the structural system (such...... influences the damping added to the floor. A numerical case study explores how passive humans may influence vibration levels of a floor....

  7. The UK Human Genome Mapping Project online computing service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, F R; Bishop, M J; Gibbs, G P; Williams, G W

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of computing and networking facilities developed by the Medical Research Council to provide online computing support to the Human Genome Mapping Project (HGMP) in the UK. The facility is connected to a number of other computing facilities in various centres of genetics and molecular biology research excellence, either directly via high-speed links or through national and international wide-area networks. The paper describes the design and implementation of the current system, a 'client/server' network of Sun, IBM, DEC and Apple servers, gateways and workstations. A short outline of online computing services currently delivered by this system to the UK human genetics research community is also provided. More information about the services and their availability could be obtained by a direct approach to the UK HGMP-RC.

  8. Linguistics in the digital humanities: (computational corpus linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ebensgaard Jensen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and fi gures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. Th is article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data and method and also off ers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented towards an acknowledgment of corpus linguistics' alignment with the digital humanities.

  9. Real-time Animation of Interactive Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last years, there has been a lot of interest in the area of Interactive Virtual Humans (IVHs). Virtual characters who interact naturally with users in mixed realities have many different applications, such as interactive video games, virtual training and rehabilitation, or virtual heritage.

  10. Conveying Lava Flow Hazards Through Interactive Computer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Edwards, H. K.; Harnish, E. P.

    2007-12-01

    As part of an Information Sciences senior class project, a software package of an interactive version of the FLOWGO model was developed for the Island of Hawaii. The software is intended for use in an ongoing public outreach and hazards awareness program that educates the public about lava flow hazards on the island. The design parameters for the model allow an unsophisticated user to initiate a lava flow anywhere on the island and allow it to flow down-slope to the shoreline while displaying a timer to show the rate of advance of the flow. The user is also able to modify a range of input parameters including eruption rate, the temperature of the lava at the vent, and crystal fraction present in the lava at the source. The flow trajectories are computed using a 30 m digital elevation model for the island and the rate of advance of the flow is estimated using the average slope angle and the computed viscosity of the lava as it cools in either a channel (high heat loss) or lava tube (low heat loss). Even though the FLOWGO model is not intended to, and cannot, accurately predict the rate of advance of a tube- fed or channel-fed flow, the relative rates of flow advance for steep or flat-lying terrain convey critically important hazard information to the public: communities located on the steeply sloping western flanks of Mauna Loa may have no more than a few hours to evacuate in the face of a threatened flow from Mauna Loa's southwest rift whereas communities on the more gently sloping eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea may have weeks to months to prepare for evacuation. Further, the model also can show the effects of loss of critical infrastructure with consequent impacts on access into and out of communities, loss of electrical supply, and communications as a result of lava flow implacement. The interactive model has been well received in an outreach setting and typically generates greater involvement by the participants than has been the case with static maps

  11. A Research Roadmap for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Groth, Katrina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research through the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to extend the life of the currently operating fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. The Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) research pathway within LWRS looks at ways to maintain and improve the safety margins of these plants. The RISMC pathway includes significant developments in the area of thermalhydraulics code modeling and the development of tools to facilitate dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). PRA is primarily concerned with the risk of hardware systems at the plant; yet, hardware reliability is often secondary in overall risk significance to human errors that can trigger or compound undesirable events at the plant. This report highlights ongoing efforts to develop a computation-based approach to human reliability analysis (HRA). This computation-based approach differs from existing static and dynamic HRA approaches in that it: (i) interfaces with a dynamic computation engine that includes a full scope plant model, and (ii) interfaces with a PRA software toolset. The computation-based HRA approach presented in this report is called the Human Unimodels for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER) and incorporates in a hybrid fashion elements of existing HRA methods to interface with new computational tools developed under the RISMC pathway. The goal of this research effort is to model human performance more accurately than existing approaches, thereby minimizing modeling uncertainty found in current plant risk models.

  12. Implementing interactive computing in an object-oriented environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Udina

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Statistical computing when input/output is driven by a Graphical User Interface is considered. A proposal is made for automatic control of computational flow to ensure that only strictly required computations are actually carried on. The computational flow is modeled by a directed graph for implementation in any object-oriented programming language with symbolic manipulation capabilities. A complete implementation example is presented to compute and display frequency based piecewise linear density estimators such as histograms or frequency polygons.

  13. From humans to computers cognition through visual perception

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Viktor Vasilievitch

    1991-01-01

    This book considers computer vision to be an integral part of the artificial intelligence system. The core of the book is an analysis of possible approaches to the creation of artificial vision systems, which simulate human visual perception. Much attention is paid to the latest achievements in visual psychology and physiology, the description of the functional and structural organization of the human perception mechanism, the peculiarities of artistic perception and the expression of reality. Computer vision models based on these data are investigated. They include the processes of external d

  14. Human Factors Issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    subtle leaders of fish schools. Pheromone trails also suggest a way to support human interaction as has been explored to a limited extent... Human Factors issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms Michael Lewis*, Michael Goodrich**, Katia Sycara+, Mark Steinberg++ * School of...Enabling a human to control such bio-inspired systems is a considerable challenge due to the limitations of each individual robot and the sheer

  15. A computational method for dislocation-precipitate interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiyuki; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    A new computational method for the elastic interaction between dislocations and precipitates is developed and applied to the solution of problems involving dislocation cutting and looping around precipitates. Based on the superposition principle, the solution to the dislocation-precipitate interaction problem is obtained as the sum of two solutions: (1) a dislocation problem with image stresses from interfaces between the dislocation and the precipitate, and (2) a correction solution for the elastic problem of a precipitate with an initial strain distribution. The current development is based on a combination of the parametric dislocation dynamics (PDD) and the boundary element method (BEM) with volume integrals.The method allows us to calculate the stress field both inside and outside precipitates of elastic moduli different from the matrix, and that may have initial coherency strain fields. The numerical results of the present method show good convergence and high accuracy when compared to a known analytical solution, and they are also in good agreement with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Sheared copper precipitates (2.5 nm in diameter) are shown to lose some of their resistance to dislocation motion after they are cut by leading dislocations in a pileup. Successive cutting of precipitates by the passage of a dislocation pileup reduces the resistance to about half its original value, when the number of dislocations in the pileup exceeds about 10. The transition from the shearable precipitate regime to the Orowan looping regime occurs for precipitate-to-matrix elastic modulus ratios above approximately 3-4, with some dependence on the precipitate size. The effects of precipitate size, spacing, and elastic modulus mismatch with the host matrix on the critical shear stress (CSS) to dislocation motion are presented.

  16. Computation of multi-material interactions using point method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Duan Z [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ma, Xia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giguere, Paul T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Calculations of fluid flows are often based on Eulerian description, while calculations of solid deformations are often based on Lagrangian description of the material. When the Eulerian descriptions are used to problems of solid deformations, the state variables, such as stress and damage, need to be advected, causing significant numerical diffusion error. When Lagrangian methods are used to problems involving large solid deformat ions or fluid flows, mesh distortion and entanglement are significant sources of error, and often lead to failure of the calculation. There are significant difficulties for either method when applied to problems involving large deformation of solids. To address these difficulties, particle-in-cell (PIC) method is introduced in the 1960s. In the method Eulerian meshes stay fixed and the Lagrangian particles move through the Eulerian meshes during the material deformation. Since its introduction, many improvements to the method have been made. The work of Sulsky et al. (1995, Comput. Phys. Commun. v. 87, pp. 236) provides a mathematical foundation for an improved version, material point method (MPM) of the PIC method. The unique advantages of the MPM method have led to many attempts of applying the method to problems involving interaction of different materials, such as fluid-structure interactions. These problems are multiphase flow or multimaterial deformation problems. In these problems pressures, material densities and volume fractions are determined by satisfying the continuity constraint. However, due to the difference in the approximations between the material point method and the Eulerian method, erroneous results for pressure will be obtained if the same scheme used in Eulerian methods for multiphase flows is used to calculate the pressure. To resolve this issue, we introduce a numerical scheme that satisfies the continuity requirement to higher order of accuracy in the sense of weak solutions for the continuity equations

  17. A computational model of the human hand 93-ERI-053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerbach, K.; Axelrod, T.

    1996-03-01

    The objectives of the Computational Hand Modeling project were to prove the feasibility of the Laboratory`s NIKE3D finite element code to orthopaedic problems. Because of the great complexity of anatomical structures and the nonlinearity of their behavior, we have focused on a subset of joints of the hand and lower extremity and have developed algorithms to model their behavior. The algorithms developed here solve fundamental problems in computational biomechanics and can be expanded to describe any other joints of the human body. This kind of computational modeling has never successfully been attempted before, due in part to a lack of biomaterials data and a lack of computational resources. With the computational resources available at the National Laboratories and the collaborative relationships we have established with experimental and other modeling laboratories, we have been in a position to pursue our innovative approach to biomechanical and orthopedic modeling.

  18. Eyeblink Synchrony in Multimodal Human-Android Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Kyohei; Nakano, Tamami; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Yuichiro

    2016-12-23

    As the result of recent progress in technology of communication robot, robots are becoming an important social partner for humans. Behavioral synchrony is understood as an important factor in establishing good human-robot relationships. In this study, we hypothesized that biasing a human's attitude toward a robot changes the degree of synchrony between human and robot. We first examined whether eyeblinks were synchronized between a human and an android in face-to-face interaction and found that human listeners' eyeblinks were entrained to android speakers' eyeblinks. This eyeblink synchrony disappeared when the android speaker spoke while looking away from the human listeners but was enhanced when the human participants listened to the speaking android while touching the android's hand. These results suggest that eyeblink synchrony reflects a qualitative state in human-robot interactions.

  19. Reliability of an interactive computer program for advance care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubart, Jane R; Levi, Benjamin H; Camacho, Fabian; Whitehead, Megan; Farace, Elana; Green, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Despite widespread efforts to promote advance directives (ADs), completion rates remain low. Making Your Wishes Known: Planning Your Medical Future (MYWK) is an interactive computer program that guides individuals through the process of advance care planning, explaining health conditions and interventions that commonly involve life or death decisions, helps them articulate their values/goals, and translates users' preferences into a detailed AD document. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that (in the absence of major life changes) the AD generated by MYWK reliably reflects an individual's values/preferences. English speakers ≥30 years old completed MYWK twice, 4 to 6 weeks apart. Reliability indices were assessed for three AD components: General Wishes; Specific Wishes for treatment; and Quality-of-Life values (QoL). Twenty-four participants completed the study. Both the Specific Wishes and QoL scales had high internal consistency in both time periods (Knuder Richardson formula 20 [KR-20]=0.83-0.95, and 0.86-0.89). Test-retest reliability was perfect for General Wishes (κ=1), high for QoL (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.83), but lower for Specific Wishes (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.57). MYWK generates an AD where General Wishes and QoL (but not Specific Wishes) statements remain consistent over time.

  20. Interactive Quantum Mechanics Quantum Experiments on the Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, S; Dahmen, H.D

    2011-01-01

    Extra Materials available on extras.springer.com INTERACTIVE QUANTUM MECHANICS allows students to perform their own quantum-physics experiments on their computer, in vivid 3D color graphics. Topics covered include: •        harmonic waves and wave packets, •        free particles as well as bound states and scattering in various potentials in one and three dimensions (both stationary and time dependent), •        two-particle systems, coupled harmonic oscillators, •        distinguishable and indistinguishable particles, •        coherent and squeezed states in time-dependent motion, •        quantized angular momentum, •        spin and magnetic resonance, •        hybridization. For the present edition the physics scope has been widened appreciably. Moreover, INTERQUANTA can now produce user-defined movies of quantum-mechanical situations. Movies can be viewed directly and also be saved to be shown later in any browser. Sections on spec...

  1. LigandRNA: computational predictor of RNA-ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Anna; Milanowska, Kaja; Lach, Grzegorz; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2013-12-01

    RNA molecules have recently become attractive as potential drug targets due to the increased awareness of their importance in key biological processes. The increase of the number of experimentally determined RNA 3D structures enabled structure-based searches for small molecules that can specifically bind to defined sites in RNA molecules, thereby blocking or otherwise modulating their function. However, as of yet, computational methods for structure-based docking of small molecule ligands to RNA molecules are not as well established as analogous methods for protein-ligand docking. This motivated us to create LigandRNA, a scoring function for the prediction of RNA-small molecule interactions. Our method employs a grid-based algorithm and a knowledge-based potential derived from ligand-binding sites in the experimentally solved RNA-ligand complexes. As an input, LigandRNA takes an RNA receptor file and a file with ligand poses. As an output, it returns a ranking of the poses according to their score. The predictive power of LigandRNA favorably compares to five other publicly available methods. We found that the combination of LigandRNA and Dock6 into a "meta-predictor" leads to further improvement in the identification of near-native ligand poses. The LigandRNA program is available free of charge as a web server at http://ligandrna.genesilico.pl.

  2. Human-Centered Design of Human-Computer-Human Dialogs in Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1998-01-01

    A series of ongoing research programs at Georgia Tech established a need for a simulation support tool for aircraft computer-based aids. This led to the design and development of the Georgia Tech Electronic Flight Instrument Research Tool (GT-EFIRT). GT-EFIRT is a part-task flight simulator specifically designed to study aircraft display design and single pilot interaction. ne simulator, using commercially available graphics and Unix workstations, replicates to a high level of fidelity the Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS), Flight Management Computer (FMC) and Auto Flight Director System (AFDS) of the Boeing 757/767 aircraft. The simulator can be configured to present information using conventional looking B757n67 displays or next generation Primary Flight Displays (PFD) such as found on the Beech Starship and MD-11.

  3. Management Education: Reflective Learning on Human Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clydesdale, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe an attempt to develop a more effective technique to teach self-awareness and relationship skills. Design/methodology/approach: A journal is used in combination with a model of human nature. The model lists human characteristics that the management trainee must identify in themselves and others they interact…

  4. Collaborative filtering for brain-computer interaction using transfer learning and active class selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongrui Wu

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interaction (BCI and physiological computing are terms that refer to using processed neural or physiological signals to influence human interaction with computers, environment, and each other. A major challenge in developing these systems arises from the large individual differences typically seen in the neural/physiological responses. As a result, many researchers use individually-trained recognition algorithms to process this data. In order to minimize time, cost, and barriers to use, there is a need to minimize the amount of individual training data required, or equivalently, to increase the recognition accuracy without increasing the number of user-specific training samples. One promising method for achieving this is collaborative filtering, which combines training data from the individual subject with additional training data from other, similar subjects. This paper describes a successful application of a collaborative filtering approach intended for a BCI system. This approach is based on transfer learning (TL, active class selection (ACS, and a mean squared difference user-similarity heuristic. The resulting BCI system uses neural and physiological signals for automatic task difficulty recognition. TL improves the learning performance by combining a small number of user-specific training samples with a large number of auxiliary training samples from other similar subjects. ACS optimally selects the classes to generate user-specific training samples. Experimental results on 18 subjects, using both k nearest neighbors and support vector machine classifiers, demonstrate that the proposed approach can significantly reduce the number of user-specific training data samples. This collaborative filtering approach will also be generalizable to handling individual differences in many other applications that involve human neural or physiological data, such as affective computing.

  5. Collaborative filtering for brain-computer interaction using transfer learning and active class selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongrui; Lance, Brent J; Parsons, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interaction (BCI) and physiological computing are terms that refer to using processed neural or physiological signals to influence human interaction with computers, environment, and each other. A major challenge in developing these systems arises from the large individual differences typically seen in the neural/physiological responses. As a result, many researchers use individually-trained recognition algorithms to process this data. In order to minimize time, cost, and barriers to use, there is a need to minimize the amount of individual training data required, or equivalently, to increase the recognition accuracy without increasing the number of user-specific training samples. One promising method for achieving this is collaborative filtering, which combines training data from the individual subject with additional training data from other, similar subjects. This paper describes a successful application of a collaborative filtering approach intended for a BCI system. This approach is based on transfer learning (TL), active class selection (ACS), and a mean squared difference user-similarity heuristic. The resulting BCI system uses neural and physiological signals for automatic task difficulty recognition. TL improves the learning performance by combining a small number of user-specific training samples with a large number of auxiliary training samples from other similar subjects. ACS optimally selects the classes to generate user-specific training samples. Experimental results on 18 subjects, using both k nearest neighbors and support vector machine classifiers, demonstrate that the proposed approach can significantly reduce the number of user-specific training data samples. This collaborative filtering approach will also be generalizable to handling individual differences in many other applications that involve human neural or physiological data, such as affective computing.

  6. Sea Turtle Human/Gear Interactions Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories is responsible for new gear development and testing to reduce bycatch and incidental interactions of...

  7. Interactive Computer Visualization in the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, Victoria M.

    1996-08-01

    determine acid/base dissociation constants. Several curves may be superimposed to enable visual comparison and emphasize the effect of acid/base strength on overall curve shape. At the simplest level, the user determines the equivalents of an unknown acid or base using an indicator, and titration curves are not shown. When an inappropriate indicator is chosen and the student discovers, for example, that a color change occurs even when significantly less than the equivalent amount of titrant is added, this becomes a point of departure for explaining the chemical functioning of an indicator and how to select the proper one for a particular analysis. The student interfaces with TitrationLab through interactive representations of traditional laboratory apparatus displayed on the screen so as to simulate actual laboratory manipulations, and the student is made aware of the consequences of mistakes common among novices in the laboratory, such as forgetting to add the indicator, allowing the buret contents to fall below the zero level, etc. Comprehension of abstract concepts is facilitated by the use of computer- generated displays. It'sAGas! is a newly developed hard-sphere simulation of the behavior of gas molecules demonstrating the basic principles of the kinetic molecular theory of gases. The concept of pressure as the rate of component particle collisions is made more vivid by having sound accompany collisions. The effect of changing conditions such as temperature on molecular properties, such as velocity, or of changing container size on the frequency of particle collisions is vividly illustrated. RasMol, shareware by Roger Sayle, allows the user to manipulate the computer representation of a molecule with intuitive mouse commands in a way that facilitates exploration of concepts such as the relationship between symmetry and dipole moment. The multitasking capability of the operating system used in the project allows simultaneous execution of software like RasMol and

  8. A multimodal emotion detection system during human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Malfaz, María; Sequeira, João; Gorostiza, Javier F; Salichs, Miguel A

    2013-11-14

    In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human-robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA), which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA), has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE) and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT). Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA) give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human-robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System). Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual) separately.

  9. Computational Virtual Reality (VR) as a human-computer interface in the operation of telerobotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the application of computer graphics or 'virtual reality' (VR) techniques as a human-computer interface tool in the operation of telerobotic systems. VR techniques offer very valuable task realization aids for planning, previewing and predicting robotic actions, operator training, and for visual perception of non-visible events like contact forces in robotic tasks. The utility of computer graphics in telerobotic operation can be significantly enhanced by high-fidelity calibration of virtual reality images to actual TV camera images. This calibration will even permit the creation of artificial (synthetic) views of task scenes for which no TV camera views are available.

  10. Interactive Computational Algorithms for Acoustic Simulation in Complex Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-19

    Heo, Ruo-Feng Tong. VolCCD, ACM Transactions on Graphics , (10 2011): 0. doi: 10.1145/2019627.2019630 Charlie C.L. Wang, Dinesh Manocha. GPU -based...Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG). , . : , JIa Pan, Dinesh Manocha. GPU -based Parallel Collision Detection for Real-Time Motion Planning...Computer Graphics (02 2011) Jie-yi Zhao, Min Tang, Ruo-feng Tong, Dinesh Manocha. GPU accelerated convex hull computation, Computers & Graphics (8 2012

  11. Computed tomography of the human developing anterior skull base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Loosen (J.); A.I.J. Klooswijk (A. I J); D. van Velzen (D.); C.D.A. Verwoerd (Carel)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The ossification of the anterior skull base, especially the lamina cribrosa, has been studied by computed tomography and histopathology. Sixteen human fetuses, (referred to our laboratory for pathological examination after spontaneous abortion between 18 and 32 weeks of ge

  12. Studying Collective Human Decision Making and Creativity with Evolutionary Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Sayama, Hiroki; Dionne, Shelley D.

    2014-01-01

    We report a summary of our interdisciplinary research project "Evolutionary Perspective on Collective Decision Making" that was conducted through close collaboration between computational, organizational and social scientists at Binghamton University. We redefined collective human decision making and creativity as evolution of ecologies of ideas, where populations of ideas evolve via continual applications of evolutionary operators such as reproduction, recombination, mutation, selection, and...

  13. Making Advanced Computer Science Topics More Accessible through Interactive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kun; Maher, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Teaching advanced technical concepts in a computer science program to students of different technical backgrounds presents many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed experimental pedagogy in teaching advanced computer science topics, such as computer networking, telecommunications and data structures using…

  14. Making Advanced Computer Science Topics More Accessible through Interactive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kun; Maher, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Teaching advanced technical concepts in a computer science program to students of different technical backgrounds presents many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed experimental pedagogy in teaching advanced computer science topics, such as computer networking, telecommunications and data structures using…

  15. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  16. Homo ludens in the loop playful human computation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The human mind is incredible. It solves problems with ease that will elude machines even for the next decades. This book explores what happens when humans and machines work together to solve problems machines cannot yet solve alone. It explains how machines and computers can work together and how humans can have fun helping to face some of the most challenging problems of artificial intelligence. In this book, you will find designs for games that are entertaining and yet able to collect data to train machines for complex tasks such as natural language processing or image understanding. You wil

  17. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR STUDYING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational Methods for Studying the Interaction between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Biological Macromolecules .The mechanisms for the processes that result in significant biological activity of PAHs depend on the interaction of these molecules or their metabol...

  18. Interactive computer-assisted approach for evaluation of ultrastructural cilia abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Christoph; Siegmund, Heiko; Semmelmann, Matthias; Grafe, Claudia; Evert, Matthias; Schroeder, Josef A.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction - Diagnosis of abnormal cilia function is based on ultrastructural analysis of axoneme defects, especialy the features of inner and outer dynein arms which are the motors of ciliar motility. Sub-optimal biopsy material, methodical, and intrinsic electron microscopy factors pose difficulty in ciliary defects evaluation. We present a computer-assisted approach based on state-of-the-art image analysis and object recognition methods yielding a time-saving and efficient diagnosis of cilia dysfunction. Method - The presented approach is based on a pipeline of basal image processing methods like smoothing, thresholding and ellipse fitting. However, integration of application specific knowledge results in robust segmentations even in cases of image artifacts. The method is build hierarchically starting with the detection of cilia within the image, followed by the detection of nine doublets within each analyzable cilium, and ending with the detection of dynein arms of each doublet. The process is concluded by a rough classification of the dynein arms as basis for a computer-assisted diagnosis. Additionally, the interaction possibilities are designed in a way, that the results are still reproducible given the completion report. Results - A qualitative evaluation showed reasonable detection results for cilia, doublets and dynein arms. However, since a ground truth is missing, the variation of the computer-assisted diagnosis should be within the subjective bias of human diagnosticians. The results of a first quantitative evaluation with five human experts and six images with 12 analyzable cilia showed, that with default parameterization 91.6% of the cilia and 98% of the doublets were found. The computer-assisted approach rated 66% of those inner and outer dynein arms correct, where all human experts agree. However, especially the quality of the dynein arm classification may be improved in future work.

  19. Conformational effects on the circular dichroism of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II: a multilevel computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana G Karabencheva-Christova

    Full Text Available Circular Dichroism (CD spectroscopy is a powerful method for investigating conformational changes in proteins and therefore has numerous applications in structural and molecular biology. Here a computational investigation of the CD spectrum of the Human Carbonic Anhydrase II (HCAII, with main focus on the near-UV CD spectra of the wild-type enzyme and it seven tryptophan mutant forms, is presented and compared to experimental studies. Multilevel computational methods (Molecular Dynamics, Semiempirical Quantum Mechanics, Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory were applied in order to gain insight into the mechanisms of interaction between the aromatic chromophores within the protein environment and understand how the conformational flexibility of the protein influences these mechanisms. The analysis suggests that combining CD semi empirical calculations, crystal structures and molecular dynamics (MD could help in achieving a better agreement between the computed and experimental protein spectra and provide some unique insight into the dynamic nature of the mechanisms of chromophore interactions.

  20. Building HAL: computers that sense, recognize, and respond to human emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Rosalind W.

    2001-06-01

    The HAL 9000 computer, the inimitable star of the classic Kubrick and Clarke film '2001: A Space Odyssey,' displayed image understanding capabilities vastly beyond today's computer systems. HAL could not only instantly recognize who he was interacting with, but also he could lip read, judge aesthetics of visual sketches, recognize emotions subtly expressed by scientists on board the ship, and respond to these emotions in an adaptive personalized way. Of course, HAL also had capabilities that we might not want to give to machines, like the ability to terminate life support or otherwise take lives of people. This presentation highlights recent research in giving machines certain affective abilities that aim to make them ore intelligent, shows examples of some of these systems, and describes the role that affective abilities may play in future human-computer interaction.