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Sample records for human vertebral body

  1. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10weeks of

  2. Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Robert; Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called "vertebral body stenting" (VBS) was tested in vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be implanted and expanded inside the vertebral body. As much as 24 fresh frozen human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T11-L5) were utilized. After creating typical compression fractures, the vertebral bodies were reduced by kyphoplasty (n = 12) or by VBS (n = 12) and then stabilized with PMMA bone cement. Each step of the procedure was performed under fluoroscopic control and analysed quantitatively. Finally, static and dynamic biomechanical tests were performed. A complete initial reduction of the fractured vertebral body height was achieved by both systems. There was a significant loss of reduction after balloon deflation in kyphoplasty compared to VBS, and a significant total height gain by VBS (mean +/- SD in %, p VBS: 3.7 +/- 3.8], and total anterior height gain [kyphoplasty: 8.0 +/- 9.4; VBS: 13.3 +/- 7.6]). Biomechanical tests showed no significant stiffness and failure load differences between systems. VBS is an innovative technique which allows for the possibly complete reduction of vertebral compression fractures and helps maintain the restored height by means of a stent. The height loss after balloon deflation is significantly decreased by using VBS compared to kyphoplasty, thus offering a new promising option for vertebral augmentation.

  3. Quantitative computed tomography-based finite element models of the human lumbar vertebral body: effect of element size on stiffness, damage, and fracture strength predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, R Paul; Rosenberg, William S; Keaveny, Tony M

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated the numerical convergence characteristics of specimen-specific "voxel-based" finite element models of 14 excised human cadaveric lumbar vertebral bodies (age: 37-87; M = 6, F = 8) that were generated automatically from clinical-type CT scans. With eventual clinical applications in mind, the ability of the model stiffness to predict the experimentally measured compressive fracture strength of the vertebral bodies was also assessed. The stiffness of "low"-resolution models (3 x 3 x 3 mm element size) was on average only 4% greater (p = 0.03) than for "high"-resolution models (1 x 1 x 1.5 mm) despite interspecimen variations that varied over four-fold. Damage predictions using low- vs high-resolution models were significantly different (p = 0.01) at loads corresponding to an overall strain of 0.5%. Both the high (r2 = 0.94) and low (r2 = 0.92) resolution model stiffness values were highly correlated with the experimentally measured ultimate strength values. Because vertebral stiffness variations in the population are much greater than those that arise from differences in voxel size, these results indicate that imaging resolution is not critical in cross-sectional studies of this parameter. However, longitudinal studies that seek to track more subtle changes in stiffness over time should account for the small but highly significant effects of voxel size. These results also demonstrate that an automated voxel-based finite element modeling technique may provide an excellent noninvasive assessment of vertebral strength.

  4. Giant cell tumor of dorsal vertebral body

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    Rakesh Redhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old female patient presented with complaints of backache, weakness in both lower limbs and bladder/bowel dysfunction. Imaging showed an osteolytic lesion at tenth dorsal (D10 vertebra with anterior compression on the spinal cord. Complete intralesional tumor excision with reconstruction was carried out using the anterolateral extrapleural approach. Histopathological examination was suggestive of giant cell tumor (GCT. Because of complete intralesional tumor excision and fear of post-radiation osteonecrosis of bone used for delayed bony union, a conservative approach was used, and radiation therapy was not given. After one year of follow-up patient is doing well without any recurrence of the tumor and is ambulant with support. GCT of dorsal vertebral body is an uncommon entity and total en bloc excision is difficult. Therefore, the treatment strategy is not well-defined. We discuss in brief about incidence, presentation and various treatment modalities available for spinal GCT.

  5. Vertebral body stenting versus kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Clément M L; Osterhoff, Georg; Schlickeiser, Jannis; Jenni, Raphael; Wanner, Guido A; Ossendorf, Christian; Simmen, Hans-Peter

    2013-04-03

    In the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, vertebral body stenting with an expandable scaffold inserted before application of the bone cement was developed to impede secondary loss of vertebral height encountered in patients treated with balloon kyphoplasty. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether there are relevant differences between balloon kyphoplasty and vertebral body stenting with regard to perioperative and postoperative findings. In a two-armed randomized controlled trial, patients with a total of 100 fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were treated with either balloon kyphoplasty or vertebral body stenting. The primary outcome was the post-interventional change in the kyphotic angle on radiographs. The secondary outcomes were the maximum pressure of the balloon tamp during inflation, radiation exposure time, perioperative complications, and cement leakage. The mean reduction (and standard deviation) of kyphosis (the kyphotic correction angle) was 4.5° ± 3.6° after balloon kyphoplasty and 4.7° ± 4.2° after vertebral body stenting (p = 0.972). The mean pressures were 24 ± 5 bar (348 ± 72 pounds per square inch [psi]) during vertebral body stenting and 16 ± 6 bar (233 ± 81 psi) during balloon kyphoplasty (p = 0.014). There were no significant differences in radiation exposure time.None of the patients underwent revision surgery, and postoperative neurologic sequelae were not observed. Cement leakage occurred at twenty-five of the 100 vertebral levels without significant differences between the two intervention arms (p = 0.230). Intraoperative material-related complications were observed at one of the fifty vertebral levels in the balloon kyphoplasty group and at nine of the fifty levels in the vertebral body stenting group. No beneficial effect of vertebral body stenting over balloon kyphoplasty was found among patients with painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures with regard to kyphotic correction, cement leakage

  6. Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Rotter, Robert; Martin, Heiner; Fuerderer, Sebastian; Gabl, Michael; Roeder, Christoph; Heini, Paul; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are well-established minimally invasive treatment options for compression fractures of osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Possible procedural disadvantages, however, include incomplete fracture reduction or a significant loss of reduction after balloon tamp deflation, prior to cement injection. A new procedure called ?vertebral body stenting? (VBS) was tested in?vitro and compared to kyphoplasty. VBS uses a specially designed catheter-mounted stent which can be impl...

  7. Percutaneous vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral body compression fracture secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, Parag M.; Heatwole, Eric V.; Boorstein, Jeffrey M. [Center for Vascular and Interventional Radiology, St. Vincent Mercy Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States); McGraw, Kevin J. [Riverside Methodist Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty, a minimally invasive interventional radiological procedure, has recently been used effectively for the treatment of symptomatic vertebral body compression fractures. Primary indications for vertebroplasty include osteoporotic compression fracture, osteolytic vertebral metastasis and myeloma, and vertebral hemangioma. We present a case and extend the indication of percutaneous vertebroplasty in a patient with a vertebral body compression fracture secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta. (orig.)

  8. Lumbar vertebral body and pars fractures following laminectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Yadhati, Akshay; Kurra, Swamy; Tallarico, Richard A.; Lavelle, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A 56-year-old alcoholic male incurred L5 vertebral body and bilateral L4 pars fractures with progressive L4 on L5 anterolisthesis following low-energy falls while intoxicated. Recently, he had a L3?S1 laminectomy for lumbar spinal stenosis with claudication. Preoperative imaging and radiographs were negative for pars defects and instability, so an isolated decompressive surgery was performed. Following low-energy falls, his outpatient work-up revealed fractures through the bilateral ...

  9. A New Vertebral Body Replacement Strategy Using Expandable Polymeric Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xifeng; Paulsen, Alex; Giambini, Hugo; Guo, Ji; Miller, A Lee; Lin, Po-Chun; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a novel polymeric expandable cage that can be delivered via a posterior-only surgical approach for the treatment of noncontained vertebral defects. This approach is less invasive than an anterior-only or combined approach and much more cost-effective than currently used expandable metal cages. The polymeric expandable cage is composed of oligo poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate (OPF), a hydrogel that has been previously shown to have excellent nerve and bone tissue biocompatibility. OPF hydrogel cages can expand to twice their original diameter and length within a surgical time frame following hydration. Modulation of parameters such as polymeric network crosslink density or the introduction of charge to the network allowed for precise expansion kinetics. To meet specific requirements due to size variations in patient vertebral bodies, we fabricated a series of molds with varied diameters and explored the expansion kinetics of the OPF cages. Results showed a stable expansion ratio of approximately twofold to the original size within 20 min, regardless of the absolute value of the cage size. Following implantation of a dried OPF cage into a noncontained vertebral defect and its in situ expansion with normal saline, other augmentation biomaterials, such as poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), can be injected to the lumen of the OPF cage and allowed to crosslink in situ. The OPF/PPF composite scaffold can provide the necessary rigidity and stability to the augmented spine.

  10. Lumbar vertebral body and pars fractures following laminectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadhati, Akshay; Kurra, Swamy; Tallarico, Richard A; Lavelle, William F

    2017-02-01

    A 56-year-old alcoholic male incurred L5 vertebral body and bilateral L4 pars fractures with progressive L4 on L5 anterolisthesis following low-energy falls while intoxicated. Recently, he had a L3-S1 laminectomy for lumbar spinal stenosis with claudication. Preoperative imaging and radiographs were negative for pars defects and instability, so an isolated decompressive surgery was performed. Following low-energy falls, his outpatient work-up revealed fractures through the bilateral L4 pedicles and posterior third of L5 vertebral body, with recurrence of axial back pain and bilateral lower extremity radiculopathy. He underwent revision decompression from L4-S1 and posterior instrumented fusion with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion performed at each revised level. His axial back pain and radiculopathy improved postoperatively. Instability of a lumbar spine fracture pattern can be due to the remote or prior iatrogenic disruption of the posterior ligamentous complex. Our patient benefitted from surgery and his low back pain was resolved.

  11. Vertebral body integrity: a review of various anatomical factors involved in the lumbar region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash; Prabhu, L V; Saralaya, V V; Pai, M M; Ranade, A V; Singh, G; Madhyastha, S

    2007-07-01

    morphology, development, genetics, growth and ossification, blood supply, specifically in the lumbar region, have been described, which were not covered earlier. The limitations of this review is its wide dimensions; hence, there are fair scopes of missing many relevant facts, as all of them cannot be compiled in a single article. We have attempted to confine our views to different anatomical domains only, this is our second limitation. Additional studies are required to incorporate and discuss the uncovered relevant scientific details. The integrity of the body of the lumbar vertebra is multifactorial (Fig. 8). The vast spectrum of the anatomical domain influencing it has been summarized. The evolution of erect posture is a landmark in the morphology of human beings and the lumbar lordosis, which has also contributed to the gross design of the vertebral body, is one of the most important adaptations for axial loading and bipedal movements. The role of metamerism in the evolution of vertebrate morphology is repeated in the development of spine. The body of the vertebra is intersegmental in origin, which results in dual vascular and nerve supply, both from superior and inferior aspects of the body of the lumbar vertebrae. The vertebral body ossifies from three primary centers, one for centrum, which will form the major portion of body, and the other two for neural arches. The cartilaginous growth plate is mainly responsible for the longitudinal vertebral growth. Regional differentiation of the vertebral column, and the definite pattern of the structure of the different vertebra, is regulated by a large number of genetic factors, including the Hox genes. The vertebral body design therefore provides the requirements for optimal load transfer by maximal strength with minimal weight. Bone mineral density (BMD), bone quality, microarchitecture, and material properties are the important factors that contribute to bone strength. BMD is highly heritable; bone mineral distribution and

  12. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

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    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  13. Vertebral Adaptations to Large Body Size in Theropod Dinosaurs.

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    Wilson, John P; Woodruff, D Cary; Gardner, Jacob D; Flora, Holley M; Horner, John R; Organ, Chris L

    2016-01-01

    Rugose projections on the anterior and posterior aspects of vertebral neural spines appear throughout Amniota and result from the mineralization of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments via metaplasia, the process of permanent tissue-type transformation. In mammals, this metaplasia is generally pathological or stress induced, but is a normal part of development in some clades of birds. Such structures, though phylogenetically sporadic, appear throughout the fossil record of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, yet their physiological and adaptive significance has remained unexamined. Here we show novel histologic and phylogenetic evidence that neural spine projections were a physiological response to biomechanical stress in large-bodied theropod species. Metaplastic projections also appear to vary between immature and mature individuals of the same species, with immature animals either lacking them or exhibiting smaller projections, supporting the hypothesis that these structures develop through ontogeny as a result of increasing bending stress subjected to the spinal column. Metaplastic mineralization of spinal ligaments would likely affect the flexibility of the spinal column, increasing passive support for body weight. A stiff spinal column would also provide biomechanical support for the primary hip flexors and, therefore, may have played a role in locomotor efficiency and mobility in large-bodied species. This new association of interspinal ligament metaplasia in Theropoda with large body size contributes additional insight to our understanding of the diverse biomechanical coping mechanisms developed throughout Dinosauria, and stresses the significance of phylogenetic methods when testing for biological trends, evolutionary or not.

  14. The implantation of a Nickel-Titanium shape memory alloy ameliorates vertebral body compression fractures: a cadaveric study.

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    Chen, Bo; Zheng, Yue-Huang; Zheng, Tao; Sun, Chang-Hui; Lu, Jiong; Cao, Peng; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) shape memory alloy in the treatment of vertebral body compression fractures. The experimental thoracic-lumbar fracture units were made with adult human fresh-frozen vertebral specimens. A total of 30 fresh-frozen vertebral units were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: control group, percutaneous kyphoplasty group (PKP group), and percutaneous Ni-Ti shape memory alloys implant group (Ni-Ti implant group). Vertebral height and ultimate compression load of the vertebral body before and after procedures were measured to determine the restoration of vertebral heights and compressive strength, respectively. The Ni-Ti implant group achieved a vertebrae endplate reduction effect comparable to the PKP group. The vertebral height of the PKP group was restored from 2.01±0.21 cm to 2.27±0.18 cm after procedure, whereas that of the Ni-Ti implant group was restored from 2.00±0.18 cm to 2.31±0.17 cm. The ultimate loads of the vertebrae body of the PKP and the Ni-Ti implant groups were 2880.75±126.17 N and 2888.00±144.69 N, respectively, both of which were statistically significantly higher than that of the control group (2017.17±163.71 N). There was no significant difference in ultimate compression load of vertebrae body between the Ni-Ti implant and PKP groups. The implantation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloys of vertebral body induced effective endplate reduction, restored vertebral height, and provided immediate biomechanical spinal stability.

  15. [Computer tomographic densitometry of the normal vertebral body spongiosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotti, G C; Fritschy, P; Triller, J

    1983-09-01

    The absorption values of cancellous bone of the third lumbar vertebral body were measured in 80 patients by CT. It was possible to demonstrate a statistically significant linear correlation between absorption values and patient age. The older the patient, the lower the average absorption values of cancellous bone. The average absorption values in patients between 20 and 30 Jrs. were found to be about 200 HU, between 30 and 50 Jrs. 180, between 60 and 70 Jrs. 120 and between 70 and 80 Jrs. 100 HU. Although correlation between calcium salt content and absorption of bone under CT are well known, there are other factors (mainly fatty involution of bone marrow) who influences the absorption behaviour of cancellous bone.

  16. Segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images based on 3D deterministic models

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    Štern, Darko; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    The evaluation of vertebral deformations is of great importance in clinical diagnostics and therapy of pathological conditions affecting the spine. Although modern clinical practice is oriented towards the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, as they can provide a detailed 3D representation of vertebrae, the established methods for the evaluation of vertebral deformations still provide only a two-dimensional (2D) geometrical description. Segmentation of vertebrae in 3D may therefore not only improve their visualization, but also provide reliable and accurate 3D measurements of vertebral deformations. In this paper we propose a method for 3D segmentation of individual vertebral bodies that can be performed in CT and MR images. Initialized with a single point inside the vertebral body, the segmentation is performed by optimizing the parameters of a 3D deterministic model of the vertebral body to achieve the best match of the model to the vertebral body in the image. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on five CT (40 vertebrae) and five T2-weighted MR (40 vertebrae) spine images, among them five are normal and five are pathological. The results show that the proposed method can be used for 3D segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images and that the proposed model can describe a variety of vertebral body shapes. The method may be therefore used for initializing whole vertebra segmentation or reliably describing vertebral body deformations.

  17. Fracture of posterior margin of lumbar vertebral body

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    Krishnan Ajay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Avulsion or fracture of posterior ring apophysis of lumbar vertebra is not a common clinical entity and is missed often. These fractures are mostly traumatic lesions typically seen in adolescents and young adults, because fusion in this area is not complete until the age of 18 to 25 years. These fractures are occult on plain radiographs and are frequently missed due to unfamiliarity with the entity. But, CT scanning and MR imaging shows characteristic picture. Methods: We had 21 cases of fracture of posterior margin of a lumbar vertebral body from 1991 to 2002. Fracture in all patients were classified according to CT imaging, into the three types described by Takata et al. Out of these, 8 patients were of type I, 4 patients of type II and 9 patients of type III respectively. Focal deficit / muscle weakness was present in only three patients. No fractures of type IV (Epstein et al was found. Twelve patients were treated conservatively and 9 patients were treated by posterior decompression with total laminectomy and removal of retropulsed fragment and discectomy. Results: The mean follow-up period was of 42 months. Conventional radiography could locate the fracture in only 6 cases and CT scan was required in all cases for stamping the diagnosis and classification. Though it is uncommon, high index of suspicion is required to diagnose it, in especially adolescent patients. All the 21 patients had good outcome following the management. Conclusion: Avulsion or fracture of posterior margin of lumbar vertebral body is not so rare entity. In children and young adults diagnosed as having lumbar disc herniation, this lesion may be the proper diagnosis. These fractures need to be accurately diagnosed because as compared to simple disc herniations these fractures require more extensive exposure and resection to relieve the nerve impingent.

  18. MRI Evaluation of Spinal Length and Vertebral Body Angle During Loading with a Spinal Compression Harness

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    Campbell, James A.; Hargens, Alan R.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan, R.; Sanchez, E.; Yang, C.; Mitsui, I.; Schwandt, D.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Weight bearing by the spinal column during upright posture often plays a role in the common problem of low back pain. Therefore, we developed a non-ferromagnetic spinal compression harness to enable MRI investigations of the spinal column during axial loading. Human subjects were fitted with a Nest and a footplate which were connected by adjustable straps to an analog load cell. MRI scans of human subjects (5 males and 1 female with age range of 27-53 yrs) during loaded and unloaded conditions were accomplished with a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa scanner. Studies of two subjects undergoing sequentially increasing spinal loads revealed significant decreases (r(sup 2) = 0.852) in spinal length between T4 and L5 culminating in a 1.5 to 2% length decrease during loading with 75% body weight. Sagittal vertebral body angles of four subjects placed under a constant 50% body weight load for one hour demonstrated increased lordotic and kyphotic curvatures. In the lumbar spine, the L2 vertebral body experienced the greatest angular change (-3 deg. to -5 deg.) in most subjects while in the thoracic spine, T4 angles increased from the unloaded state by +2 deg. to +9 deg. Overall, our studies demonstrate: 1) a progressive, although surprisingly small, decrease in spinal length with increasing load and 2) relatively large changes in spinal column angulation with 50% body weight.

  19. Zone-dependent changes in human vertebral trabecular bone: clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    We have previously shown that there are pronounced age-related changes in human vertebral cancellous bone density and microarchitecture. However, the magnitude of these changes seemed to be dependent on zone location in the vertebral body-the central third vs. the areas adjacent to the endplates...... this was significant only for trabecular separation. The described differences might have significant clinical implications concerning quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scanning, X-ray analyses, and assessment of fracture liability in the human spine, but the underlying pathogenesis is still not known. This study...... shows that the human vertebral body can be described as two distinct zones with very specific age-related changes in density and microstructure. This zone-specificity is important for the correct interpretation of clinical data....

  20. Parametric modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D CT and MR spine images.

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    Stern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2011-12-07

    Accurate and objective evaluation of vertebral deformations is of significant importance in clinical diagnostics and therapy of pathological conditions affecting the spine. Although modern clinical practice is focused on three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, the established methods for evaluation of vertebral deformations are limited to measuring deformations in two-dimensional (2D) x-ray images. In this paper, we propose a method for quantitative description of vertebral body deformations by efficient modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D. The deformations are evaluated from the parameters of a 3D superquadric model, which is initialized as an elliptical cylinder and then gradually deformed by introducing transformations that yield a more detailed representation of the vertebral body shape. After modelling the vertebral body shape with 25 clinically meaningful parameters and the vertebral body pose with six rigid body parameters, the 3D model is aligned to the observed vertebral body in the 3D image. The performance of the method was evaluated on 75 vertebrae from CT and 75 vertebrae from T(2)-weighted MR spine images, extracted from the thoracolumbar part of normal and pathological spines. The results show that the proposed method can be used for 3D segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images, as the proposed 3D model is able to describe both normal and pathological vertebral body deformations. The method may therefore be used for initialization of whole vertebra segmentation or for quantitative measurement of vertebral body deformations.

  1. [MDCT after balloon kyphoplasty: analysis of vertebral body architecture one year after treatment of osteoporotic fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrl, B; Sadick, M; Brocker, K; Brade, J; Voggenreiter, G; Obertacke, U; Düber, C

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the value of MDCT in the monitoring of vertebral body architecture after balloon kyphoplasty and observe morphological changes of the vertebral body. During a period of 26 months, 66 osteoporotic fractures of the vertebral bodies were treated with percutanous balloon kyphoplasty. The height of the vertebral body, width of spinal space, sagittal indices, kyphosis und COBB angle, and cement leakage were evaluated by computed tomography before and after treatment and in a long-term follow up. Statistical analysis was performed by calculating quantitative constant parameters of descriptive key data. In addition, parametric and distribution-free procedures were performed for all questions. After kyphoplasty, the treated vertebral bodies showed a significant gain in the height of the leading edge (0.15 cm; p architecture after treatment with balloon kyphoplasty. Morphological changes in the vertebral bodies, and complications such as pallacos leakage and progression of osteoprosis can be accurately documented. The significant increase in the vertebral body height after treatment is closely correlated with a gain in the sagittal index and reduced kyphosis and COBB angle.

  2. Transoral vertebral augmentation with polymethylmethacrylate in the treatment of a patient with a dens fracture nonunion and subarticular vertebral body fracture of C2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, Douglas P. [University of Oklahoma, Clinical Radiology of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Martin, Hal D. [Oklahoma Sports Science and Orthopaedics, Oklahoma City (United States); Stapp, Annette M. [Physicians Group, Clinical Radiology of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Stanfield, Matthew

    2007-05-15

    The injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a minimally invasive, image-guided procedure used to treat vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis, metastatic lesions, multiple myeloma, and benign but destabilizing bone tumors. The injection of PMMA into the C2 vertebral body using the transoral technique has been reported in three separate patients for treatment of benign tumors (a vertebral hemangioma and an aneurysmal bone cyst) and for multiple myeloma in the third patient. Although the injection of PMMA into the vertebral body is most commonly performed to treat benign vertebral compression fractures, a transoral C2 approach has not been reported in the English literature as a treatment for a benign fracture of C2. We report the treatment of a fracture and nonunion of the base of the dens and a subarticular fracture of the vertebral body of C2 using a bilateral transoral approach. (orig.)

  3. Demographic aspects in cervical vertebral bodies' size and shape (C3-C7): a skeletal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, David; Masharawi, Youssef; Salame, Khalil; Slon, Viviane; Alperovitch-Najenson, Deborah; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on the skeletal remains of individuals of known sex, age, and ethnic origin. The vertebral bodies of levels C3-C7 were measured and analyzed. Whereas many studies were performed on the size and shape of the vertebral bodies in the thoracic and lumbar spines, few have focused on the cervical vertebral bodies. Thus, there is insufficient data in the literature on the anatomy of the cervical spine, especially based on large study populations. To establish a large database on cervical vertebral bodies' size and shape and analyze their association with demographic parameters. The population studied was composed of 277 individuals, adult males and females of African American (AA) and European American (EA) origin. The skeletal remains are housed at the Hamman-Todd Osteological collection (Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, OH). A 3-D digitizer was used to measure the size and shape of the C3-C7 vertebral bodies. Descriptive statistics were carried out for all measurements. t Test and one-way analysis of variance were performed to assess differences in vertebral bodies' size and shape between different demographical groups (by age, sex, and ethnicity). The vertebral bodies and foramina are significantly wider, more elongated, and higher in males compared to females. AA females and males manifest significantly greater vertebral bodies (width and length) in the upper and midcervical region (vertebrae C3-C5) than EA females and males. Nevertheless, the heights of the C3 and C4 vertebral bodies are significantly smaller among the AA population, regardless of sex. The vertebral foramina's width does not differ significantly between the two ethnic groups, independent of sex, whereas they tend to be elongated in the EA group (significant for C3, C5, C7). For most vertebrae, no significant differences were found in the superior facets' length between AA and EA males and females. Cervical vertebral bodies become wider and more

  4. Metastatic compression fractures of vertebral bodies; MR findings

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    Kakitsubata, Yousuke; Kakitsubata, Sachiko; Watanabe, Katsushi (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on 65 patients with 76 vertebral compression fractures. Thirty three fractures were due to metastatic tumors; 43 were caused by benign process except for known spinal trauma. Metastatic fractures showed low signal intensity on T1 weighted image (T1WI) and various signal intensities on T2WI. In 27 of the 33 fractures caused by metastases, MRI showed complete replacement of normal bone marrow. Vertebral arches and spinous processes were frequently involved by the tumor. Paravertebral and/or intraspinal soft tissue masses were also highly associated with metastatic fractures. In metastatic fractures, the compression of the spinal cord was more frequent compared to benign processes. Disk involvement was rare in either type of fracture. We suppose MRI is a useful modality in diagnosing metastatic compression fractures. The involvement of vertebral arches and spinous processes due to metastasis, and the presence of paravertebral and/or intraspinal masses are helpful findings for discriminating between malignant and benign processes. (author).

  5. Analysis of results using percutaneous vertebroplasty for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Woong; Kwon, Austin; Lee, Min Cheol; Song, Jae Wook; Kim, Sang Kyu; Kim, In Hwan

    2009-04-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the vertebral body is known as a relatively uncommon phenomenon in a vertebral compression fracture (VCF). The outstanding radiologic findings of AVN are intravertebral vacuum phenomenon with or without fluid collection. Several reports revealed that PVP or balloon kyphoplasty might be the effective treatment modalities for AVN. We also experienced excellent results when using PVP for the treatment of AVN of the vertebral body, and intend to describe the treatment's efficacy in this report. Thirty-two patients diagnosed with AVN of the vertebral body were treated with PVP. We measured the pre- and post-operative anterior body height and kyphotic angulation. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the relief of back pain. The anterior body height (pre-operative : 1.49 cm, post-operative : 2.22 cm) and kyphotic angulation (pre-operative : 14.47 degrees, post-operative : 6.57 degrees) were significantly restored (p<0.001). VAS was improved from 8.9 to 3.7. Pseudoarthrosis was corrected in all cases, which was confirmed by dynamic radiographs. Fluid collection was found in sixteen cases and was aspirated with serous nature. No organism and tumor cell were noted. PVP proved to be an effective procedure for the treatment of AVN of the vertebral body, which corrected dynamic instability and significantly restored the anterior body height and kyphotic angulation.

  6. Cross-sectional study of the ossification center of the C1-S5 vertebral bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Małkowski, Bogdan; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Króliczewski, Dariusz

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge on the normative growth of the spine is relevant in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. This study describes the size of the ossification center of C1-S5 vertebral bodies. Using CT, digital-image analysis, and statistics, the size of the ossification center of C1-S5 vertebral bodies in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17-30 weeks was examined. No sex significant differences were found. The body ossification centers were found within the entire presacral spine and in 85.5 % of S1, in 76.4 % of S2, in 67.3 % of S3, in 40.0 % of S4, and in 14.5 % of S5. All the values for the atlas were sharply smaller than for the axis. The mean transverse diameter of the body ossification center gradually increased from the axis to T12 vertebra, so as to stabilize through L1-L3 vertebrae, and finally was intensively decreasing to S5 vertebra. There was a gradual increase in sagittal diameter of the body ossification center from the axis to T5 vertebra and its stabilization for T6-T9 vertebrae. Afterward, an alternate progression was observed: a decrease in values for T10-T12 vertebrae, an increase in values for L1-L2 vertebrae, and finally a decrease in values for L3-S5 vertebrae. The values of cross-sectional area of ossification centers were gradually increasing from the axis to L2 vertebra and then started decreasing to S5 vertebra. The following cross-sectional areas were approximately equivalent to each other: for L5 and T3-T5, and for S4 and C1. The volumetric growth of the body ossification center gradually increased from the axis to L3 vertebra and then sharply decreased from L4 to S5. No male-female differences are found in the size of the body ossification centers of the spine. The growth dynamics for morphometric parameters of the body ossification centers of the spine follow similarly with gestational age.

  7. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  8. High-resolution computed tomography evaluation of the bronchial lumen to vertebral body diameter and pulmonary artery to vertebral body diameter ratios in anesthetized ventilated normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cole, Robert C; Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, D Michael; Garbarino, Rachel; Barney, Sharron

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (BA) ratio has been utilized to investigate pulmonary pathology on high-resolution CT images. Diseases affecting both the bronchi and pulmonary arteries render the BA ratio less useful. The purpose of the study was to establish bronchial lumen diameter to vertebral body diameter (BV) and pulmonary artery diameter to vertebral body diameter (AV) ratios in normal cats. Methods Using high-resolution CT images, 16 sets of measurements (sixth thoracic vertebral body [mid-body], each lobar bronchi and companion pulmonary artery diameter) were acquired from young adult female cats and 41 sets from pubertal female cats. Results Young adult and pubertal cat BV ratios were not statistically different from each other in any lung lobe. Significant differences between individual lung lobe BV ratios were noted on combined age group analysis. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different between young adult and pubertal cats. All other lung lobe AV ratios were not significantly different. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different from all other lung lobes but not from each other in both the young adult and pubertal cats. Conclusions and relevance BV ratio reference intervals determined for individual lung lobes could be applied to both young adult and pubertal cats. Separate AV ratios for individual lung lobes would be required for young adult and pubertal cats. These ratios should allow more accurate evaluation of cats with concurrent bronchial and pulmonary arterial disease.

  9. Core Needle Percutaneous Transpedicular Vertebral Body Biopsy: A Study of 128 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Yoichi; Nishida, Jun; Mimata, Yoshikuni; Shiraishi, Hideo; Ehara, Shigeru; Satoh, Takashi; Shimamura, Tadashi

    2015-08-01

    We report an accurate technique for percutaneous transpedicular core needle biopsy of vertebral body lesions, and evaluate its effectiveness for histologic diagnosis retrospectively. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of this method retrospectively. Better knowledge of vertebral pedicle morphometry has led to the development of transpedicular fixation techniques in spinal surgery. After experience with these techniques, we have been performing percutaneous transpedicular vertebral body core needle biopsies (transpedicular biopsy) for histologic diagnosis since 1993. A total of 128 patients who had undergone transpedicular biopsy for T1-L5 vertebral body lesions were evaluated. The biopsies were carried out under local anesthesia, except in children, for whom general anesthesia was used. Biopsy specimens were obtained by passing 8 or 11 G needle biopsy instruments percutaneously through the pedicle into the site of the lesion under C-arm fluoroscopy guidance. Histologic analyses were performed, and the accuracy and effectiveness of this technique were evaluated. The pathologic evaluations were definitive in 120 patients (93.8%) and not diagnostic in 8. The accuracy of the results differed among the diagnostic categories. Diagnostic accuracy was 78.6% for primary neoplasms and 97.0% for metastatic neoplasms. There was a significant difference in the diagnostic criteria and spinal segment. True positive rate was higher in the thoracic spine (92.2%) than that of lumbar spine (76.6%). Transpedicular biopsy is a useful procedure for evaluation of thoracic and lumbar vertebral body lesions.

  10. Investigation of Buckling Phenomenon Induced by Growth of Vertebral Bodies Using a Mechanical Spine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaoka, Ryu; Azegami, Hideyuki; Murachi, Shunji; Kitoh, Junzoh; Ishida, Yoshito; Kawakami, Noriaki; Makino, Mitsunori; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    A hypothesis that idiopathic scoliosis is a buckling phenomenon of the fourth or sixth mode, which is the second or third lateral bending mode, induced by the growth of vertebral bodies was presented in a previous paper by the authors using numerical simulations with a finite-element model of the spine. This paper presents experimental proof of the buckling phenomenon using mechanical spine models constructed with the geometrical data of the finite-element model used in a previous work. Using three spine mechanical models with different materials at intervertebral joints, the change in the natural vibration eigenvalue of the second lateral bending mode with the growth of vertebral bodies was measured by experimental modal analysis. From the result, it was observed that natural vibration eigenvalue decreased with the growth of vertebral bodies. Since the increase in primary factor inducing the buckling phenomenon decreases natural vibration eigenvalue, the obtained result confirms the buckling hypothesis.

  11. Magnetic human body communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiwoong; Mercier, Patrick P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new human body communication (HBC) technique that employs magnetic resonance for data transfer in wireless body-area networks (BANs). Unlike electric field HBC (eHBC) links, which do not necessarily travel well through many biological tissues, the proposed magnetic HBC (mHBC) link easily travels through tissue, offering significantly reduced path loss and, as a result, reduced transceiver power consumption. In this paper the proposed mHBC concept is validated via finite element method simulations and measurements. It is demonstrated that path loss across the body under various postures varies from 10-20 dB, which is significantly lower than alternative BAN techniques.

  12. Human Body Exergy Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mady, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The exergy analysis of the human body is a tool that can provide indicators of health and life quality. To perform the exergy balance it is necessary to calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis, or metabolic exergy, although there is not yet consensus in its calculation procedure. Hence, the aim of this work is to provide a general method to evaluate this physical quantity for human body based on indirect calorimetry data. To calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis it is necessary to d...

  13. Vertebral Body Stenting System for the Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture: Follow-up at 12 Months in 20 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, M; Greco, B; Setola, F; Vassallo, P; Ambrosanio, G; Guarnieri, G

    2011-08-31

    We describe our preliminary experience with the vertebral body stenting system (VBS) for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fracture or traumatic vertebral fracture showing our clinical results at 12 months follow-up. Twenty patients (16 women, four men, mean age 71 years): four with traumatic vertebral fracture (Magerl A1 fractures) and 16 with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (VCFs) resistant to conservative therapy, were treated by vertebral body stenting system (VBS) as follows: two at level T11, four at T12, one at L1, two at L2, five at L3 and six at L4. All patients were studied by MR (protocol: sagittal T1W, T2W and T2 STIR) and MDCT with MPR reconstructions. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia with fluoroscopy guidance and a bipeduncular approach. VBS, a new system of implantation of endovertebral stent used as an alternative to conventional vertebroplasty (VP), was implanted in all patients to restore the loss of height in the fractured vertebral body. A clinical and x-ray follow-up was performed at six and 12 months evaluating the result by VAS and ODS scale. New vertebral fractures at a distant level were observed in two cases and treated by VP. VBS was successful and led to an excellent outcome in all patients with clinical improvement stable at six months and one year follow-up. The height in the fractured vertebral body was increased in 12 of the 20 VCFs by an average of 1.5 mm. No vascular, extraforaminal or epidural leakage or other adverse events were observed. In the clinical 12 months follow-up we recorded a reduction of four scores in the VAS evaluation and a 40% reduction in the ODS score compared with the pre-treatment values. Endovertebral stents were stable at 12 months at x-ray control in 19/20 patients. No new vertebral fracture located in adjacent vertebrae were observed at 12 month follow-up. By using a stent, the VBS system reduces the collapsed vertebral body and offers good height restoration. The

  14. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  15. Radiographic and safety details of vertebral body stenting: results from a multicenter chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel, Peter; Röder, Christoph; Perler, Gosia; Vordemvenne, Thomas; Scholz, Matti; Kandziora, Frank; Fürderer, Sebastian; Eiskjaer, Soren; Maestretti, Gianluca; Rotter, Robert; Benneker, Lorin Michael; Heini, Paul Friedhelm

    2013-08-08

    Up to one third of BKP treated cases shows no appreciable height restoration due to loss of both restored height and kyphotic realignment after balloon deflation. This shortcoming has called for an improved method that maintains the height and realignment reached by the fully inflated balloon until stabilization of the vertebral body by PMMA-based cementation. Restoration of the physiological vertebral body height for pain relief and for preventing further fractures of adjacent and distant vertebral bodies must be the main aim for such a method. A new vertebral body stenting system (VBS) stabilizes the vertebral body after balloon deflation until cementation. The radiographic and safety results of the first 100 cases where VBS was applied are presented. During the planning phase of an ongoing international multicenter RCT, radiographic, procedural and followup details were retrospectively transcribed from charts and xrays for developing and testing the case report forms. Radiographs were centrally assessed at the institution of the first/senior author. 100 patients (62 with osteoporosis) with a total of 103 fractured vertebral bodies were treated with the VBS system. 49 were females with a mean age of 73.2 years; males were 66.7 years old. The mean preoperative anterior-middle-posterior heights were 20.3-17.6-28.0 mm, respectively. The mean local kyphotic angle was 13.1°. The mean preoperative Beck Index (anterior edge height/posterior edge height) was 0.73, the mean alternative Beck Index (middle height/posterior edge height) was 0.63. The mean postoperative heights were restored to 24.5-24.6-30.4 mm, respectively. The mean local kyphotic angle was reduced to 8.9°. The mean postoperative Beck Index was 0.81, the mean alternative one was 0.82. The overall extrusion rate was 29.1%, the symptomatic one was 1%. In the osteoporosis subgroup there were 23.8% extrusions. Within the three months followup interval there were 9% of adjacent and 4% of remote new

  16. Body-size reduction in vertebrates following the end-Devonian mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallan, Lauren; Galimberti, Andrew K

    2015-11-13

    Following the end-Devonian mass extinction (359 million years ago), vertebrates experienced persistent reductions in body size for at least 36 million years. Global shrinkage was not related to oxygen or temperature, which suggests that ecological drivers played a key role in determining the length and direction of size trends. Small, fast-breeding ray-finned fishes, sharks, and tetrapods, most under 1 meter in length from snout to tail, radiated to dominate postextinction ecosystems and vertebrae biodiversity. The few large-bodied, slow-breeding survivors failed to diversify, facing extinction despite earlier evolutionary success. Thus, the recovery interval resembled modern ecological successions in terms of active selection on size and related life histories. Disruption of global vertebrate, and particularly fish, biotas may commonly lead to widespread, long-term reduction in body size, structuring future biodiversity. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Mandibular growth as related to cervical vertebral maturation and body height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, L; Baccetti, T; McNamara, J A

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the validity of 6 stages of cervical vertebral maturation (Cvs1 through Cvs6) as a biologic indicator for skeletal maturity in 24 subjects (15 females, 9 males). The method was able to detect the greatest increment in mandibular and craniofacial growth during the interval from vertebral stage 3 to vertebral stage 4 (Cvs3 to Cvs4), when the peak in statural height also occurred. The prevalence rate of examined subjects who presented with the peak in body height at this interval was 100% for boys and 87% for girls. Statural height and total mandibular length (Co-Gn) showed significant increments during the growth interval Cvs3 to Cvs4 when compared with the growth interval Cvs2 to Cvs3, and significant growth deceleration occurred during the interval Cvs4 to Cvs5 when compared with Cvs3 to Cvs4. Ramus height (Co-Goi) and S-Gn also showed significant deceleration of growth during the interval Cvs4 to Cvs5 when compared with Cvs3 to Cvs4. Cervical vertebral maturation appears to be an appropriate method for the appraisal of mandibular skeletal maturity in individual patients on the basis of a single cephalometric observation and without additional x-ray exposure. The accuracy of the cervical vertebral method in the detection of the onset of the pubertal spurt in mandibular growth provides helpful indications concerning treatment timing of mandibular deficiencies.

  18. Determination of bone mineral density in the third lumbar vertebral body using photon absorptiometry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanpalmer, Janos; Kullenberg, Ragnar [Departments of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg, (Sweden); Hansson, Tommy [Department of Orthopaedics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg, (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    Dual-photon absorptiometry and triple-energy X-ray absorptiometry were used to investigate the total bone mineral content and density as well as the trabecular bone mineral density in the third lumbar vertebral body. Both anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) measurements were performed. By combining the two projections it was found that the mean trabecular bone mineral density for all 202 subjects included in the study was 52% (SD{+-}20%) of the total bone mineral density in the third lumbar vertebral body. The mean trabecular bone mineral density as a fraction of the total vertebral body bone mineral density decreased as a function of age. The relative annual change in this fraction differed between males and females. It was also found that neither trabecular nor total bone mineral density differed significantly between male and female subjects aged 25-35 years, and bone mineral density (BMD), expressed in g/cm{sup 3}, showed no correlation to subject height, body weight or body mass index (BMI). Male and female individuals showed different rates of change of trabecular bone mineral density with age.

  19. The Human Body Sword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The human body shield problem involves an apparent dilemma for a libertarian, forcing him to choose between his own death and the death of an innocent person. This paper argues that the non-aggression principle permits a forceful response against the property of innocent individuals when a conflict is initiated with that property. In other words, a libertarian may shoot the hostage in order to save himself.

  20. Two-year results of vertebral body stenting for the treatment of traumatic incomplete burst fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Frank; Griese, Marleen; Dietz, Sven-Oliver; Kuhn, Sebastian; Rommens, Pol Maria; Gercek, Erol

    2015-06-01

    Vertebral body stenting (VBS) was developed to prevent loss of reduction after balloon deflation during kyphoplasty. The aim of this study is the radiological and clinical mid-term evaluation of traumatic incomplete burst fractures treated by vertebral body stenting. This retrospective study included patients with traumatic thoracolumbar incomplete burst fractures treated with VBS between 2009 and 2010. The outcome was evaluated with the visual analogue pain scale (VAS), the Oswestry Disability Score (ODI), the SF-36 Health Survey and radiologically assessed. Eighteen patients with an average age of 74.8 years were treated with VBS. Twelve were female and six were male. Two years after the operation the ODI and SF-36 showed a moderate limitation of daily activities and quality of life without neurological deficits. VBS restored the vertebral kyphosis by 3.2° and segmental kyphosis by 5°. A minor sintering was observed at follow-up losing 0.8° vertebral kyphosis and 2.1° segmental kyphosis correction. Two asymptomatic cement leakages were detected. VBS provides clinical outcomes comparable with BKP. The stent allows a reconstruction of the anterior column with reduced subsequent loss of correction.

  1. Radiofrequency Kyphoplasty - An Innovative Method of Treating Osteoporotic Vertebral Body Compression Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drees P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic vertebral body fractures are encountered increasingly often. Cement augmentation using vertebroplasty or balloon kyphoplasty are standardised and established procedures. However, the optimal cement viscosity at the time of cement augmentation has not yet been satisfactory resolved for either method. In other words, the time point of cement application is left to the surgeon’s subjective estimation. Early application of cement may cause cement leakage whereas late application may cause incomplete filling of the vertebral body. Radiofrequency kyphoplasty is a recently developed augmentation system that enables the surgeon to exert control when creating the cavity, as well as aids him in the placement and application of cement. Cement is applied by remote control and thus uniformly retains its properties. The method is presented in the following.

  2. Characteristic features of bone tissue regeneration in the vertebral bodies in the experiment with osteograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaydman, A. M.; Predein, Yu. A.; Korel, A. V.; Shchelkunova, E. I.; Strokova, E. I.; Lastevskiy, A. D.; Rerikh, V. V.; Fomichev, N. G.; Falameeva, O. V.; Shevchenko, A. I.; Shevtcov, V. I.

    2017-09-01

    In the practice of orthopedic and trauma surgeons, there is a need to close bone tissue defects after removal of tumors or traumatic and dystrophic lesions. Currently, as cellular technologies are being developed, stem embryonic and pluripotent cells are widely introduced into practical medicine. The unpredictability of the spectrum of cell differentiations, up to oncogenesis, raised the question of creating biological structures committed toward osteogenic direction, capable of regenerating organo-specific graft at the optimal time. Such osteograft was created at the Novosibirsk Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics (patent RU 2574942). Its osteogenic orientation was confirmed by the morphological and immunohistochemical methods, and by the expression of bone genes. The regeneration potential of the osteograft was studied in the vertebral bodies of the mini piglet model. The study revealed that the regeneration of the vertebral body defect and the integration of the osteograft with the bed of the recipient proceeds according to the type of primary angiogenic osteogenesis within 30 days.

  3. Imaging of human vertebral surface using ultrasound RF data received at each element of probe for thoracic anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuki; Taki, Hirofumi; Onishi, Eiko; Yamauchi, Masanori; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    Epidural anesthesia is a common technique for perioperative analgesia and chronic pain treatment. Since ultrasonography is insufficient for depicting the human vertebral surface, most examiners apply epidural puncture by body surface landmarks on the back such as the spinous process and scapulae without any imaging, including ultrasonography. The puncture route to the epidural space at thoracic vertebrae is much narrower than that at lumber vertebrae, and therefore, epidural anesthesia at thoracic vertebrae is difficult, especially for a beginner. Herein, a novel imaging method is proposed based on a bi-static imaging technique by making use of the transmit beam width and direction. In an in vivo experimental study on human thoracic vertebrae, the proposed method succeeded in depicting the vertebral surface clearly as compared with conventional B-mode imaging and the conventional envelope method. This indicates the potential of the proposed method in visualizing the vertebral surface for the proper and safe execution of epidural anesthesia.

  4. A carbon fiber reinforced polymer cage for vertebral body replacement: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappetta, P; Boriani, S; Fava, G P

    1997-11-01

    We analyzed the surgical technique used for the replacement of damaged vertebral bodies of the thoracolumbar spine and the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) cages that are used to replace the pathological vertebral bodies. We also evaluated the biomechanical properties of carbon composite materials used in spinal surgery. The surgical technique of CFRP implants may be divided into two distinct steps, i.e., assembling the components that will replace the pathological vertebral bodies and connecting the cage to an osteosynthetic system to immobilize the cage. The CFRP cages, made of Ultrapek polymer and AS-4 pyrolytic carbon fiber (AcroMed, Rotterdam, The Netherlands), are of different sizes and may be placed one on top of the other and fixed together with a titanium rod. These components are hollow to allow fragments of bone to be pressed manually into them and present threaded holes at 15, 30, and 90 degrees on the external surface, permitting the insertion of screws to connect the cage to an anterior or posterior osteosynthetic system. To date, we have used CFRP cages in 13 patients undergoing corporectomies and 10 patients undergoing spondylectomies. None of our patients have reported complications. CFRP implants offer several advantages compared with titanium or surgical grade stainless steel implants, demonstrating high versatility and outstanding biological and mechanical properties. Furthermore, CFRP implants are radiolucent and do not hinder radiographic evaluation of bone fusion, allowing for better follow-up studies.

  5. Predicting vertebral bone strength by vertebral static histomorphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between static histomorphometry and bone strength of human lumbar vertebral bone. The ability of vertebral histomorphometry to predict vertebral bone strength was compared with that of vertebral densitometry, and also with histomorphometry and bone strength...... of the entire vertebral bodies (L-2) were used for histomorphometry. The other iliac crest biopsies and the L-3 were destructively tested by compression. High correlation was found between BV/TV or Tb.Sp and vertebral bone strength (absolute value of r = 0.86 in both cases). Addition of Tb.Th significantly...... of improving the prediction of bone strength of the vertebral body. The correlations between BV/TV of L-2 and bone strength of L-3 were comparable with the correlation obtained by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), peripheral QCT (pQCT), and dual-energy X-ray absorptrometry (DEXA) of L-3 and bone strength...

  6. Micromechanical modeling of open cell structures with application in finite element analysis of vertebral body mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overaker, David Wolfgang

    1997-12-01

    applications in static compression of a whole vertebra. Elastic finite element analyses showed that the relative contribution of the shell to the load-bearing ability of the vertebra decreases with increasing age and lateral wall curvature. Nonlinear elasto-plastic analyses showed regions of failure concentrated in the upper posterior region of the vertebra in both the shell and core components. The model has provided a clearer understanding of the relative role of the core and shell in vertebral body mechanics and has shed light on the mechanism of vertebral burst fracture.

  7. Refracture of osteoporotic vertebral body concurrent with cement fragmentation at the previously treated vertebral level after balloon kyphoplasty: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xigong; Lou, Xianfeng; Lin, Xiangjin; Du, Junhua

    2014-05-01

    Kyphoplasty has been shown to provide symptomatic relief of vertebral compression fractures refractory to medical therapy. However, few reports have focused on refracture of cemented vertebrae after kyphoplasty. The presence of cemented vertebrae refracture concurrent with cement fragmentation is an extremely rare condition. We reported an 86-year-old man with a T12 osteoporotic compression fracture undergoing the kyphoplasty treatment. The patient postoperatively continued to have back pain at the same level. The solid lumped polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) mass and inadequate use and insufficient filling of PMMA cement were observed in postoperative radiographs and magnetic resonance image (MRI) examination. He refused to receive the surgical intervention, but had not strict compliance with oral anti-osteoporotic medications. Ten months postoperatively, refracture of osteoporotic vertebral body concurrent with cement fragmentation occurred at the previously kyphoplasty-treated vertebral level. Bone mineral analysis showed severe osteoporosis with a T-score of -4.0. The patient finally obtained therapeutic benefit of pain relief and bony union of T12 vertebral body by consistently adhering to anti-osteoporotic medication treatment. This case illustrated that patients who underwent kyphoplasty to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with intravertebral fracture should be strictly followed up and supervised in their anti-osteoporotic medication treatment. The interdigitation injection pattern of PMMA and sufficient PMMA filling with trabeculae in the kyphoplasty procedure also might prevent refracture of the cemented vertebrae concurrent with PMMA fragmentation.

  8. Complications following kyphoplasty in unstable osteoporotic vertebral body fractures. A guide to correct fracture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouillier, Hans-Heinrich; Birkenmaier, Christof; Seidl, Tamara; Jansson, Volkmar

    2013-10-01

    The possibilities offered by kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures have been widely described. Kyphoplasty is technically not very demanding, it can be easily learned and it is minimally invasive when compared to open surgical fracture treatment. Like many other simple surgical methods, it has spread rapidly and as a consequence of the above factors combined with its good reimbursement in many countries, it has experienced a widening in the indications for which it is being employed. The intial purpose of kyphoplasty was pain relief based on vertebral body stabilisation combined with restoration of vertebral body height. An increasingly uncritical use of the method can be observed and as a consequence, an increase in serious complications. During recent years, spinal surgery departments have received an increasing number of patients with serious complications following kyphoplasty, requiring major reconstructive spinal surgery. On the basis of 12 cases treated over the past 36 months, we aim to provide guidelines for the indications of the kyphoplasty procedure.

  9. X-ray morphology of the eburnated vertebral body - diagnostic and differential diagnostic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, B.; Lorenz, R.; Steinbrich, W.

    1988-08-01

    1. Numerous diseases may become manifest as eburnated vertebral bodies, and hence the X-ray morphological sign of eburnation is an unspecific one. Isolated characteristics such as the involvement of one or several vertebrae, an intact vertebral space, a broadening of the paravertebral accompanying shadow, and the remaining radiological skeletal status enable narrowing down the differential diagnosis, although anamnesis and clinical findings will supply the main pointers. 2. In primary tumorous eburnations radiotherapy or chemotherapy will render an X-ray morphological assessment of therapeutic success impossible. 3. In primary diagnosis of an eburnated vertebral body it is possible to apply sonography. CT and MR as diagnostic tools step by step to narrow down the differential diagnosis by detecting or excluding pathological abdominal processes such as liver or lymphatic node metastases, paravertebral or intraspinal soft-part dense space-occupying growths or bone infiltration, but it will only rarely be possible to classify the phenomenon properly as being caused by a well-defined process, even if CT and MR are employed.

  10. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of a lumbar vertebral body with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst formation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snieders Marieke N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the case of a 25-year-old Caucasian woman with symptomatic monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the fourth lumbar vertebral body. The patient suffered from a five-week history of progressive low back pain, radiating continuously to the left leg. Her medical history and physical and neurological examination did not demonstrate any significant abnormalities. Radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an osteolytic expansive lesion with a cystic component of the fourth lumbar vertebral body. Percutaneous transpedicular biopsy showed histological characteristics of fibrous dysplasia superimposed by the formation of aneurysmal bone cyst components. The patient was treated by subtotal vertebrectomy of the L4 vertebral body with anterior reconstruction and her postoperative course was uncomplicated. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a monostotic fibrous dysplasia with superimposed secondary aneurysmal bone cysts of a lumbar vertebral body.

  11. 1980 Volvo award in biomechanics. Measurement of the distribution of axial stress on the end-plate of the vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, M; Brinckmann, P

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of axial stress on the end-plate of the vertebral body has been measured by the aid of miniature piezoelectric pressure transducers in specimens of motion segments of the human vertebral column. The results indicate that the stress distribution depends essentially on the state of degeneration of the intervertebral disc and on the relative position of the adjacent end-plates. Furthermore lumbar and thoracic motion segments show a different behaviour. The measured results relate to the problem of the stress dependent deformation of the growing vertebra, the codfish shape of the osteoporotic vertebra and to the mechanism of degeneration of the intervertebral disc.

  12. A meta-analysis of the association between body mass index and risk of vertebral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaze, A D; Rosen, H N; Paik, J M

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to assess the association between BMI and incident vertebral fracture. We found that as body mass index (BMI) increases, the risk of vertebral fracture decreases in men, but not in women, suggesting possible gender differences in the relationship of BMI with risk of vertebral fracture. Recent evidence suggests that the relationship between BMI and fracture risk may be site-specific. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to investigate the association between BMI and risk of incident vertebral fracture. PubMed and Embase were searched for relevant articles published from inception through February 15, 2017. Extracted relative risks (RR) from the prospective studies were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Six studies were included, with a total of 105,129 participants followed for 3 to 19 years. The pooled RR (95% confidence interval [CI]) for vertebral fracture per each standard deviation increase in BMI was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.80-1.10) with significant heterogeneity (I 2 = 88.0%, p < 0.001). In subgroup analysis by gender, we found a significant inverse association between BMI and risk of vertebral fracture in men (RR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.73-0.98, n = 25,617 participants) but not in women (RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81-1.20, n = 79,512 participants). Across studies of women not adjusting for bone mineral density (BMD), there was no significant association between BMI and risk of vertebral fracture (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.80-1.04, p = 0.18, n = 72,755 participants). However, BMI was associated with an increased risk of vertebral fracture in studies of women that adjusted for BMD (RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.17-1.40, p < 0.001, n = 6757 participants). Substantial heterogeneity was found among studies of women (I 2 = 90.1%, p < 0.001), which was partly explained by the adjustment for BMD (adjusted R 2 = 61%). We found no evidence of publication bias

  13. Host body size and the diversity of tick assemblages on Neotropical vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen J. Esser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the factors that influence the species diversity and distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodida across vertebrate host taxa is of fundamental ecological and medical importance. Host body size is considered one of the most important determinants of tick abundance, with larger hosts having higher tick burdens. The species diversity of tick assemblages should also be greater on larger-bodied host species, but empirical studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we evaluate this relationship using a comparative dataset of feeding associations from Panama between 45 tick species and 171 host species that range in body size by three orders of magnitude. We found that tick species diversity increased with host body size for adult ticks but not for immature ticks. We also found that closely related host species tended to have similar tick species diversity, but correcting for host phylogeny did not alter the relationships between host body size and tick species diversity. The distribution of tick species was highly aggregated, with approximately 20% of the host species harboring 80% of all tick species, following the Pareto principle or 20/80 Rule. Thus, the aggregated pattern commonly observed for tick burdens and disease transmission also holds for patterns of tick species richness. Our finding that the adult ticks in this system preferentially parasitize large-bodied host species suggests that the ongoing anthropogenic loss of large-bodied vertebrates is likely to result in host-tick coextinction events, even when immature stages feed opportunistically. As parasites play critical roles in ecological and evolutionary processes, such losses may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning and services.

  14. Vertebral body or intervertebral disc wedging: which contributes more to thoracolumbar kyphosis in ankylosing spondylitis patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Qian, Bang-Ping; Qiu, Yong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Ze-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both vertebral body wedging and disc wedging are found in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis. However, their relative contribution to thoracolumbar kyphosis is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to compare different contributions of vertebral and disc wedging to the thoracolumbar kyphosis in AS patients, and to analyze the relationship between the apical vertebral wedging angle and thoracolumbar kyphosis. From October 2009 to October 2013, a total of 59 consecutive AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis with a mean age of 38.1 years were recruited in this study. Based on global kyphosis (GK), 26 patients with GK < 70° were assigned to group A, and the other 33 patients with GK ≥ 70° were included in group B. Each GK was divided into disc wedge angles and vertebral wedge angles. The wedging angle of each disc and vertebra comprising the thoracolumbar kyphosis was measured, and the proportion of the wedging angle to the GK was calculated accordingly. Intergroup and intragroup comparisons were subsequently performed to investigate the different contributions of disc and vertebra to the GK. The correlation between the apical vertebral wedging angle and GK was calculated by Pearson correlation analysis. The duration of disease and sex were also recorded in this study. With respect to the mean disease duration, significant difference was observed between the two groups (P < 0.01). The wedging angle and wedging percentage of discs were significantly higher than those of vertebrae in group A (34.8° ± 2.5° vs 26.7° ± 2.7°, P < 0.01 and 56.6% vs 43.4%, P < 0.01), whereas disc wedging and disc wedging percentage were significantly lower than vertebrae in group B (37.6° ± 7.0° vs 50.1° ± 5.1°, P < 0.01 and 42.7% vs 57.3%, P < 0.01). The wedging of vertebrae was significantly higher in group B than in group A (50.1° ± 5.1° vs 26.7° ± 2.7°, P < 0

  15. Clinical correlation of radiological spinal stenosis after standardization for vertebral body size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athiviraham, A. [Department of Surgery, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Yen, D. [Department of Surgery, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: yend@kgh.kari.net; Scott, C. [Department of Radiology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Soboleski, D. [Department of Radiology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-08-15

    Aim: To determine the relationship between the degree of radiographic lumbar spinal stenosis, adjusted with an internal control for vertebral body size, and disability from lumbar stenosis. Materials and methods: one hundred and twenty-three consecutive patients with clinical and radiological confirmation of neural impingement secondary to lumbar stenosis were enrolled prospectively. Thecal sac anteroposterior (AP) diameter (TSD) and cross-sectional area (CSA), and vertebral body AP dimension (VBD) were determined. These parameters were then correlated with patients' symptoms using the modified Roland-Morris questionnaire (RMQ) disability score. Results: No statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the TSD and RMQ score (p = 0.433), between the CSA and RMQ score (p = 0.124), or between the TSD:VBD ratio and RMQ score (p = 0.109). There was a significant positive correlation between the CSA:VBD ratio and RMQ score (p = .036), and therefore, there was no statistical support for an inverse relationship between the two. There was a significant difference in mean RMQ scores when the patients were divided into those with CSA greater than or equal to 70 mm{sup 2} and those less than 70 mm{sup 2}, with T = -2.104 and p = 0.038. Conclusion: The degree of radiographic lumbar spinal stenosis, even with the use of an internal control of vertebral body size and standardized disability questionnaires, does not correlate with clinical symptoms. However, patients with more severe stenosis below a CSA critical threshold of 70 mm{sup 2}, have significantly greater functional disability.

  16. Multi-Parameter Ensemble Learning for Automated Vertebral Body Segmentation in Heterogeneously Acquired Clinical MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Xia, Yihao; Villaroman, Diane S; Ko, Allison; Attiah, Mark; Beckett, Joel S; Macyszyn, Luke

    2017-01-01

    The development of quantitative imaging biomarkers in medicine requires automatic delineation of relevant anatomical structures using available imaging data. However, this task is complicated in clinical medicine due to the variation in scanning parameters and protocols, even within a single medical center. Existing literature on automatic image segmentation using MR data is based on the analysis of highly homogenous images obtained using a fixed set of pulse sequence parameters (TR/TE). Unfortunately, algorithms that operate on fixed scanning parameters do not avail themselves to real-world daily clinical use due to the existing variation in scanning parameters and protocols. Thus, it is necessary to develop algorithmic techniques that can address the challenge of MR image segmentation using real clinical data. Toward this goal, we developed a multi-parametric ensemble learning technique to automatically detect and segment lumbar vertebral bodies using MR images of the spine. We use spine imaging data to illustrate our techniques since low back pain is an extremely common condition and a typical spine clinic evaluates patients that have been referred with a wide range of scanning parameters. This method was designed with special emphasis on robustness so that it can perform well despite the inherent variation in scanning protocols. Specifically, we show how a single multi-parameter ensemble model trained with manually labeled T2 scans can autonomously segment vertebral bodies on scans with echo times varying between 24 and 147 ms and relaxation times varying between 1500 and 7810 ms. Furthermore, even though the model was trained using T2-MR imaging data, it can accurately segment vertebral bodies on T1-MR and CT, further demonstrating the robustness and versatility of our methodology. We believe that robust segmentation techniques, such as the one presented here, are necessary for translating computer assisted diagnosis into everyday clinical practice.

  17. Treatment of osteoid osteoma in the vertebral body of the lumbar spine by radiofrequency ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristante, Alexandre Fogaca; Barros Filho, Tarcisio; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo de; Babrabrini, Almir F.; Teixeira, William G.J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Ortopedia e Traumatologia]. E-mail: aacristante@uol.com.br

    2007-07-01

    A case of Osteoid osteoma, a rare bone tumor, is studied in a 44-year-old female patient. Scintigraphy using Tc{sup 99m} demonstrated increased uptake on the left side of the vertebral body of the fourth vertebra. Computed tomography of the lumbar spine revealed an area of hypoattenuation surrounded by an area of hyperattenuation (bone sclerosis), suggestive of an osteogenic tumor . Complementary examination using MRI demonstrated a signal alteration of 1 cm diameter in the vertebral body of the fourth lumbar vertebra, surrounded by an area of signal compatible with bone edema. The anamnesis data, physical evaluation, and complementary examinations suggested the presence of osteoid osteoma in the vertical body of the fourth lumbar vertebra. A tomography-guided biopsy was performed, and material was collected for cultures, pathological studies in paraffin, and fast freezing (in print). Pathological study of frozen sections ruled out the presence of neoplastic cells. At the same time, minimally invasive destruction of the tumor was performed through a pedicullar approach, via a radiofrequency probe. One year after the procedure, computed tomography did not demonstrate any tumor, and the patient did not report any lumbar pain. (MAC)

  18. Supraphysiologic glucocorticoid administration increased biomechanical bone strength of rats' vertebral body

    OpenAIRE

    Najar, Azam; Fridoni, Mohammadjavad; Rezaei, Fatemesadat; Bayat, Saba; Bayat, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effects of different glucocorticoid administration protocols on biomechanical properties of the first lumbar vertebral body in rats. We divided 40 male rats into the following groups: control, dexamethasone (7 mg/week), dexamethasone (0.7 mg/week), methylprednisolone (7 mg/kg/week), methylprednisolone (5 mg/kg twice weekly), dexamethasone (7 mg/kg three times per week), dexamethasone (0.7 mg/kg three times per week, and low-level laser treated rats. Lumb...

  19. Analysis of radiological characteristics distribution in the vertebral bodies of the lumbosacral spine of competitive rowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Ogurkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable biomechanical situations, usually related to the performance of a profession and competitive sports practice, promote formation of overloads. This problem may be particularly perceptible among sportsmen that practice strength and stamina sports. The present study deals with rowing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the degree of degenerative changes of the lumbosacral spine in competitive rowers, on the basis of an analysis of changes in the cancellous structure of vertebral bodies. This has been achieved on the basis of radiological density acquired from a CT test.

  20. Automatic vertebral bodies detection of x-ray images using invariant multiscale template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Sarabi, Mona; Villaroman, Diane; Beckett, Joel; Attiah, Mark; Marcus, Logan; Ahn, Christine; Babayan, Diana; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Macyszyn, Luke; Raghavendra, Cauligi

    2017-03-01

    Lower back pain and pathologies related to it are one of the most common results for a referral to a neurosurgical clinic in the developed and the developing world. Quantitative evaluation of these pathologies is a challenge. Image based measurements of angles/vertebral heights and disks could provide a potential quantitative biomarker for tracking and measuring these pathologies. Detection of vertebral bodies is a key element and is the focus of the current work. From the variety of medical imaging techniques, MRI and CT scans have been typically used for developing image segmentation methods. However, CT scans are known to give a large dose of x-rays, increasing cancer risk [8]. MRI can be substituted for CTs when the risk is high [8] but are difficult to obtain in smaller facilities due to cost and lack of expertise in the field [2]. X-rays provide another option with its ability to control the x-ray dosage, especially for young people, and its accessibility for smaller facilities. Hence, the ability to create quantitative biomarkers from x-ray data is especially valuable. Here, we develop a multiscale template matching, inspired by [9], to detect centers of vertebral bodies from x-ray data. The immediate application of such detection lies in developing quantitative biomarkers and in querying similar images in a database. Previously, shape similarity classification methods have been used to address this problem, but these are challenging to use in the presence of variation due to gross pathology and even subtle effects [1].

  1. Genetic variation in structure-function relationships for the inbred mouse lumbar vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, Steven M; Morgan, Timothy G; van der Meulen, Marjolein Ch; Jepsen, Karl J

    2005-05-01

    Structure-function relationships were determined for L(5) vertebral bodies from three inbred mouse strains. Genetic variability in whole bone mechanical properties could be explained by a combination of the traits specifying the amount, distribution, and quality of the cortical and trabecular bone tissue. Although phenotypically correlated with fracture, BMD may be disadvantageous to use in genetic and biomechanical analyses because BMD does not distinguish the contributions of the underlying morphological and compositional bone traits. Developing functional relationships between the underlying bone traits and whole bone mechanical properties should further our understanding of the genetics of bone fragility. Microarchitecture and composition of L(5) vertebral bodies (n = 10/strain) from A/J, C57BL/6J, and C3H/HeJ inbred mouse strains were determined using muCT with an isotropic voxel size of 16 mum(3). Failure load, stiffness, and total deformation as a measure of ductility were measured in compression using a noncontact strain extensometer imaging system. A correlation analysis related morphological and compositional bone traits to whole bone mechanical properties. A multivariate analysis identified structure-function relationships for each genotype. No single bone trait accurately explained the genetic variation in mechanical properties. However, a combination of traits describing the amount, distribution, and quality of cortical and trabecular bone tissue explained >70% of the variation in vertebral mechanical properties. Importantly, structure-function relationships were unique among genotypes. Different genetic backgrounds use different combinations of underlying bone traits to create mechanically functional structures. Using a single complex trait such as BMD or BV/TV as the sole phenotypic marker in genetic analyses may prove to be disadvantageous because of the complex relationship between mechanical properties and the underlying bone traits. Therefore

  2. HUMAN BODY COMPOSITION DURING ONTOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Koukou, Aikaterini

    2015-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT This diploma thesis refers to human body composition and its alterations by physiological and pathological processes that occur during different stages of life. Fat mass, fat free mass and total body water represent the major components of the human body which are modified during infancy, childhood, puberty, pregnancy and adulthood. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), Dual Energy Absorptiometry (DEXA), Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are some meth...

  3. Minimum cement volume required in vertebral body augmentation--A biomechanical study comparing the permanent SpineJack device and balloon kyphoplasty in traumatic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Robert; Schmitt, Lena; Gierer, Philip; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Noriega, David; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Meeder, Peter-J; Martin, Heiner

    2015-08-01

    Minimally invasive treatment of vertebral fractures is basically characterized by cement augmentation. Using the combination of a permanent implant plus cement, it is now conceivable that the amount of cement can be reduced and so this augmentation could be an attractive opportunity for use in traumatic fractures in young and middle-aged patients. The objective of this study was to determine the smallest volume of cement necessary to stabilize fractured vertebrae comparing the SpineJack system to the gold standard, balloon kyphoplasty. 36 fresh frozen human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T11-L3) were utilized. After creating typical compression wedge fractures (AO A1.2.1), the vertebral bodies were reduced by SpineJack (n=18) or kyphoplasty (n=18) under preload (100N). Subsequently, different amounts of bone cement (10%, 16% or 30% of the vertebral body volume) were inserted. Finally, static and dynamic biomechanical tests were performed. Following augmentation and fatigue tests, vertebrae treated with SpineJack did not show any significant loss of intraoperative height gain, in contrast to kyphoplasty. In the 10% and 16%-group the height restoration expressed as a percentage of the initial height was significantly increased with the SpineJack (>300%). Intraoperative SpineJack could preserve the maximum height gain (mean 1% height loss) better than kyphoplasty (mean 16% height loss). In traumatic wedge fractures it is possible to reduce the amount of cement to 10% of the vertebral body volume when SpineJack is used without compromising the reposition height after reduction, in contrast to kyphoplasty that needs a 30% cement volume. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What is a Human Body?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulrik Becker

    2017-01-01

    The essay offers an overview of different understandings of what a body is. As such, it can be read as an overview of what we mean, when we speak of a “human body”. However, the article also goes a step further; in the last section, a responsive understanding of the human body is outlined....... This is understood as responsiveness in three ways: viz an embodied self that responds to natural life, other human beings and, ultimately, to God....

  5. Accurate Segmentation of Vertebral Bodies and Processes Using Statistical Shape Decomposition and Conditional Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereañez, Marco; Lekadir, Karim; Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Pozo, José Maria; Lazáry, Áron; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2015-08-01

    Detailed segmentation of the vertebrae is an important pre-requisite in various applications of image-based spine assessment, surgery and biomechanical modeling. In particular, accurate segmentation of the processes is required for image-guided interventions, for example for optimal placement of bone grafts between the transverse processes. Furthermore, the geometry of the processes is now required in musculoskeletal models due to their interaction with the muscles and ligaments. In this paper, we present a new method for detailed segmentation of both the vertebral bodies and processes based on statistical shape decomposition and conditional models. The proposed technique is specifically developed with the aim to handle the complex geometry of the processes and the large variability between individuals. The key technical novelty in this work is the introduction of a part-based statistical decomposition of the vertebrae, such that the complexity of the subparts is effectively reduced, and model specificity is increased. Subsequently, in order to maintain the statistical and anatomic coherence of the ensemble, conditional models are used to model the statistical inter-relationships between the different subparts. For shape reconstruction and segmentation, a robust model fitting procedure is used to exclude improbable inter-part relationships in the estimation of the shape parameters. Segmentation results based on a dataset of 30 healthy CT scans and a dataset of 10 pathological scans show a point-to-surface error improvement of 20% and 17% respectively, and the potential of the proposed technique for detailed vertebral modeling.

  6. Outcome following kyphoplasty or vertebral body stenting with special regard to associated complications including their treatment strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, C.; Strohm, P.; Knöller, S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Kyphoplasty (KP) and vertebral body stenting (VBS) have been established for treatment of spine fractures in elderly people. There are a lot of studies about the short-term pain reduction in reference to the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to invest......Introduction: Kyphoplasty (KP) and vertebral body stenting (VBS) have been established for treatment of spine fractures in elderly people. There are a lot of studies about the short-term pain reduction in reference to the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study...... were included. The mean age at the time of operation was 74 years, 76 % were women and 24 % were men. 51 patients with 60 vertebral body fractures out of 128 patients with 147 vertebral body fractures took part in the survey. 17 patients declined participation, 60 patients were not available...... patients had a secondary intervention. These 12 patients are split into 5 with dorso-ventral stabilization systems (41.7 %), 4 with subsequent adjacent vertebral fractures (33.3 %), one with an isolated dorsal stabilization system (8.3 %) and one with an isolated ventral stabilization system (8.3 %). One...

  7. [A case of conus medullaris infarction expanding to the vertebral bodies, major psoas and erector spinae muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takuya; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Sou; Umeda, Yoshitaka; Oyake, Mutsuo; Fujita, Nobuya

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome following a sudden pain in the bilateral lower abdomen and right buttock. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed not only a conus medullaris lesion, but also several lesions in the vertebral bodies (L1, L2), right major psoas muscle, right multifidus muscle and bilateral erector spinae muscles. As these areas receive blood supply from each branch of the same segmental artery, we considered all of the lesions as infarctions that were a result of a single parent vessel occlusion. It is known that a vertebral body lesion can be accompanied by a spinal cord infarction, but in combination with infarction of a muscle has not been reported. This is the first report of a concomitant spinal cord and muscle infarction revealed by MRI. It is noteworthy that a spinal cord infarction could expand not only to neighboring vertebral bodies, but also to muscles.

  8. Physics of the Human Body

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Irving P

    2007-01-01

    Physics of the Human Body comprehensively addresses the physical and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in motion, the materials properties of the body, muscles in the body, the energetics of body metabolism, fluid flow in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the acoustics of sound waves in speaking and hearing, vision and the optics of the eye, the electrical properties of the body, and the basic engineering principles of feedback and control in regulating all aspects of function. The goal of this text is to understand physical issues concerning the human body, in part by developing and then using simple and subsequently more refined models of the macrophysics of the human body. Many chapters include a brief review of the necessary physical principles. There are problems at the end of each chapter; solutions to selected problems are also provided. This text is geared t...

  9. Cement augmentation in a thoracolumbar fracture model: reduction and stability after balloon kyphoplasty versus vertebral body stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disch, Alexander C; Schmoelz, Werner

    2014-09-01

    In vitro biomechanical investigation. To assess differences in kyphosis after balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) or vertebral body stenting (VBS). Cement augmentation techniques allow early mobilization in patients with osteoporotic thoracolumbar fractures. Biomechanically, the grade of reduction and preservation are as important as in nonosteoporotic fractures. With BKP, negative effects of balloon deflation on the reduction and whether specific combinations of materials may preserve the reduction are as yet unclear. Twelve bisegmental human thoracolumbar specimens (6×T12-L2, 6×L3-L5; age at death, 76.3 yr; range, 63-89 yr; female:male ratio, 3:3; bone mineral density, 68.1 g/cm; mean, 12.9 g/cm) were tested in a spine simulator with pure moments of 7.5 Nm to assess primary and secondary stability. After flexibility testing of the intact specimens, an eccentric compression force induced standardized fractures, which were reduced using either BKP or VBS against a flexional moment of 2.5 Nm. Primary and secondary stability were assessed using range of motion in a spine tester. The specimens were tested after each of 3 periods of cyclic flexion loading. The kyphotic angle of the index vertebra was measured radiographically. The 2 techniques achieved comparable reduction against a relatively high bending moment in this model. Neither technique restored the stability of the intact state; with increasing loads, the range of motion continuously increased to the level of fractured specimen to the level of the fractured specimen. Although the deflation effect on the kyphotic angle was lower with VBS (P≤0.05), there were no significant differences between the techniques relative to angle restoration. Both augmentation techniques are able to restore vertebral body height after thoracolumbar fractures. The deflation effect on the kyphotic angle was less with VBS than with BKP. High flexion moments during implantation limit the effectiveness of reduction using cement augmentation

  10. Vertebral body stapling: a fusionless treatment option for a growing child with moderate idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Randal R; Ranade, Ashish; Samdani, Amer F; Chafetz, Ross; D'Andrea, Linda P; Gaughan, John P; Asghar, Jahangir; Grewal, Harsh; Mulcahey, Mary Jane

    2010-01-15

    Retrospective review. To report the results of vertebral body stapling (VBS) with minimum 2-year follow-up in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. While bracing for idiopathic scoliosis is moderately successful, its efficacy has been called into question, and it carries associated psychosocial ramifications. VBS has been shown to be a safe, feasible alternative to bracing for idiopathic scoliosis. We retrospectively reviewed 28 of 29 patients (96%) with idiopathic scoliosis treated with VBS followed for a minimum of 2 years. Risser sign of 0 or 1 and coronal curve measuring between 20 degrees and 45 degrees . There were 26 thoracic and 15 lumbar curves. Average follow-up was 3.2 years. The procedure was considered a success if curves corrected to within 10 degrees of preoperative measurement or decreased >10 degrees . Thoracic curves measuring 50% correction on bend film had a success rate of 71.4%. Of the 26 curves, 4 (15%) showed correction >10 degrees. Kyphosis improved in 7 patients with preoperative hypokyphosis (10 degrees. Major complications include rupture of a unrecognized congenital diaphragmatic hernia and curve overcorrection in 1 patient. Two minor complications included superior mesenteric artery syndrome and atelectasis due to a mucous plug. There were no instances of staple dislodgement or neurovascular injury. Analysis of patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) with high-risk progression treated with vertebral body stapling (VBS) and minimum 2-year follow-up shows a success rate of 87% in all lumbar curves and in 79% of thoracic curves 35 degrees were not successful and require alternative treatments.

  11. Measurement of kyphosis and vertebral body height loss in traumatic spine fractures: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiqi, Said; Verlaan, Jorrit-Jan; Lehr, A Mechteld; Chapman, Jens R; Dvorak, Marcel F; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S; Schnake, Klaus J; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Oner, F Cumhur

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether wide variations are seen in the measurement techniques preferred by spine surgeons around the world to assess traumatic fracture kyphosis and vertebral body height loss (VBHL). An online survey was conducted at two time points among an international community of spine trauma experts from all world regions. The first survey (TL-survey) focused on the thoracic, thoracolumbar and lumbar spine, the second survey (C-survey) on the subaxial cervical spine. Participants were asked to indicate which measurement technique(s) they used for measuring kyphosis and VBHL. Descriptive statistics, frequency analysis and the Fisher exact test were used to analyze the responses. Of the 279 invited experts, 107 (38.4 %) participated in the TL-survey, and 108 (38.7 %) in the C-survey. The Cobb angle was the most frequently used for all spine regions to assess kyphosis (55.6-75.7 %), followed by the wedge angle and adjacent endplates method. Concerning VBHL, the majority of the experts used the vertebral body compression ratio in all spine regions (51.4-54.6 %). The most frequently used combination for kyphosis was the Cobb and wedge angles. Considerable differences were observed between the world regions, while fewer differences were seen between surgeons with different degrees of experience. This study identified worldwide variations in measurement techniques preferred by treating spine surgeons to assess fracture kyphosis and VBHL in spine trauma patients. These results establish the importance of standardizing assessment parameters in spine trauma care, and can be taken into account to further investigate these radiographic parameters.

  12. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced

  13. Vertebral body spread in thoracolumbar burst fractures can predict posterior construct failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Iure, Federico; Lofrese, Giorgio; De Bonis, Pasquale; Cultrera, Francesco; Cappuccio, Michele; Battisti, Sofia

    2017-10-23

    The load sharing classification (LSC) laid foundations for a scoring system able to indicate which thoracolumbar fractures, after short-segment posterior-only fixations, would need longer instrumentations or additional anterior supports. We analyzed surgically treated thoracolumbar fractures, quantifying the vertebral body's fragment displacement with the aim of identifying a new parameter that could predict the posterior-only construct failure. This is a retrospective cohort study from a single institution. One hundred twenty-one consecutive patients were surgically treated for thoracolumbar burst fractures. Grade of kyphosis correction (GKC) expressed radiological outcome; Oswestry Disability Index and visual analog scale were considered. One hundred twenty-one consecutive patients who underwent posterior fixation for unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures were retrospectively evaluated clinically and radiologically. Supplementary anterior fixations were performed in 34 cases with posterior instrumentation failure, determined on clinic-radiological evidence or symptomatic loss of kyphosis correction. Segmental kyphosis angle and GKC were calculated according to the Cobb method. The displacement of fracture fragments was obtained from the mean of the adjacent end plate areas subtracted from the area enclosed by the maximum contour of vertebral fragmentation. The "spread" was derived from the ratio between this subtraction and the mean of the adjacent end plate areas. Analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney, and receiver operating characteristic were performed for statistical analysis. The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in the present study or the findings specified in this paper. No funds or grants have been received for the present study. The spread revealed to be a helpful quantitative measurement of vertebral body fragment displacement, easily reproducible with the current computed tomography (CT) imaging technologies

  14. Future Osteoporotic Fracture Risk related to Lumbar Vertebral Trabecular Attenuation Measured at Routine Body CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott J; Graffy, Peter M; Zea, Ryan D; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2018-01-03

    We sought to determine if vertebral trabecular attenuation values measured on routine body CT scans obtained for a variety of unrelated indications can predict future osteoporotic fractures at multiple skeletal sites. For this HIPAA-compliant and IRB-approved retrospective cohort study, trabecular attenuation of the first lumbar vertebra was measured in 1966 consecutive older adults who underwent chest and/or abdominal CT at a single institution over the course of one year. New pathologic fragility fractures that occurred after a patient's CT study date were identified through an electronic health record database query using ICD-9 codes for vertebral, hip, and extremity fractures. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression were performed to determine the effect of L1 trabecular attenuation on fracture-free survival. Age at CT, gender, and presence of a prior fragility fracture were included as confounders in multivariate survival analysis. Model discriminative capability was assessed through calculation of an optimism-corrected concordance index. A total of 507 patients (mean age 73.4 ± 6.3 years; 277 women, 230 men) were included in the final analysis. The median post-CT follow-up interval was 5.8 years (interquartile range 2.1-11.0 years). Univariate analysis showed that L1 attenuation values ≤90 HU are significantly associated with decreased fracture-free survival (pattenuation on fracture-free survival (HR: 0.63 per 10-unit increase; 95% CI: 0.47-0.85). The model concordance index was 0.700. Ten-year probabilities for major osteoporosis-related fractures straddled the treatment threshold for most sub-cohorts over the observed L1 HU range. In conclusion, for patients undergoing body CT scanning for any indication, L1 vertebral trabecular attenuation is a simple measure that, when ≤90 HU, identifies patients with a significant decrease in fracture free survival. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This

  15. Initial experience with the use of an expandable titanium cage as a vertebral body replacement in patients with tumors of the spinal column: a report of 95 patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viswanathan, Ashwin; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Doppenberg, Egon; Suki, Dima; Gokaslan, Ziya; Mendel, Ehud; Rao, Ganesh; Rhines, Laurence D

    ...) for reconstruction after vertebral body resection for primary or metastatic spine tumors. We report the functional outcome, assess the durability of reconstruction, and describe complications associated...

  16. Change in the Beaufort Sea ecosystem: Diverging trends in body condition and/or production in five marine vertebrate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, L. A.; Smith, T. G.; George, J. C.; Sandstrom, S. J.; Walkusz, W.; Divoky, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    Studies of the body condition of five marine vertebrate predators in the Beaufort Sea, conducted independently during the past 2-4 decades, suggest each has been affected by biophysical changes in the marine ecosystem. We summarize a temporal trend of increasing body condition in two species (bowhead whale subadults, Arctic char), in both cases influenced by the extent and persistence of annual sea ice. Three other species (ringed seal, beluga, black guillemot chicks), consumers with a dietary preference for Arctic cod, experienced declines in condition, growth and/or production during the same time period. The proximate causes of these observed changes remain unknown, but may reflect an upward trend in secondary productivity, and a concurrent downward trend in the availability of forage fishes, such as the preferred Arctic cod. To further our understanding of these apparent ecosystem shifts, we urge the use of multiple marine vertebrate species in the design of biophysical sampling studies to identify causes of these changes. Continued long-term, standardized monitoring of vertebrate body condition should be paired with concurrent direct (stomach contents) or indirect (isotopes, fatty acids) monitoring of diet, detailed study of movements and seasonal ranges to establish and refine baselines, and identification of critical habitats of the marine vertebrates being monitored. This would be coordinated with biophysical and oceanographic sampling, at spatial and temporal scales, and geographic locations, that are relevant to the home range, critical habitats and prey of the vertebrate indicator species showing changes in condition and related parameters.

  17. Vertebral compression fracture risk after stereotactic body radiotherapy for spinal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehling, Nicholas S; Grosshans, David R; Allen, Pamela K; McAleer, Mary F; Burton, Allen W; Azeem, Syed; Rhines, Laurence D; Chang, Eric L

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential risk factors for and determine the rate of vertebral compression fracture (VCF) after intensity-modulated, near-simultaneous, CT image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for spinal metastases. The study group consisted of 123 vertebral bodies (VBs) in 93 patients enrolled in prospective protocols for metastatic disease. Data from these patients were retrospectively analyzed. Stereotactic body radiotherapy consisted of 1, 3, or 5 fractions for overall median doses of 18, 27, and 30 Gy, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging studies, obtained at baseline and at each follow-up, were evaluated for VCFs, tumor involvement, and radiographic progression. Self-reported average pain levels were scored based on the 11-point (0-10) Brief Pain Inventory both at baseline and at follow-up. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30. The median imaging follow-up was 14.9 months (range 1-71 months). Twenty-five new or progressing fractures (20%) were identified, and the median time to progression was 3 months after SBRT. The most common histologies included renal cancer (36 VBs, 10 fractures, 10 tumor progressions), breast cancer (20 VBs, 0 fractures, 5 tumor progressions), thyroid cancer (14 VBs, 1 fracture, 2 tumor progressions), non-small cell lung cancer (13 VBs, 3 fractures, 3 tumor progressions), and sarcoma (9 VBs, 2 fractures, 2 tumor progressions). Fifteen VBs were treated with kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty after SBRT, with 5 procedures done for preexisting VCFs. Tumor progression was noted in 32 locations (26%) with 5 months' median time to progression. At the time of noted fracture progression there was a trend toward higher average pain scores but no significant change in the median value. Univariate logistic regression showed that an age > 55 years (HR 6.05, 95% CI 2.1-17.47), a preexisting fracture (HR 5.05, 95% CI 1.94-13.16), baseline pain and narcotic use before SBRT (pain: HR 1.31, 95% CI 1

  18. Physics of the human body

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Irving P

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively addresses the physics and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in motion, the mechanical properties of the body, muscles in the body, the energetics of body metabolism, fluid flow in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the acoustics of sound waves in speaking and hearing, vision and the optics of the eye, the electrical properties of the body, and the basic engineering principles of feedback and control in regulating all aspects of function. The goal of this text is to clearly explain the physics issues concerning the human body, in part by developing and then using simple and subsequently more refined models of the macrophysics of the human body. Many chapters include a brief review of the underlying physics. There are problems at the end of each chapter; solutions to selected problems are also provided. This second edition enhances the treat...

  19. Phages in the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Ferran; Muniesa, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have re-emerged as powerful regulators of bacterial populations in natural ecosystems. Phages invade the human body, just as they do other natural environments, to such an extent that they are the most numerous group in the human virome. This was only revealed in recent metagenomic studies, despite the fact that the presence of phages in the human body was reported decades ago. The influence of the presence of phages in humans has yet to be evaluated; but as in marine environments, a clear role in the regulation of bacterial populations could be envisaged, that might have an impact on human health. Moreover, phages are excellent vehicles of genetic transfer, and they contribute to the evolution of bacterial cells in the human body by spreading and acquiring DNA horizontally. The abundance of phages in the human body does not pass unnoticed and the immune system reacts to them, although it is not clear to what extent. Finally, the presence of phages in human samples, which most of the time is not considered, can influence and bias microbiological and molecular results; and, in view of the evidences, some studies suggest that more attention needs to be paid to their interference.

  20. Thoracoscopic vertebral body stapling for treatment of scoliosis in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laituri, Carrie A; Schwend, Richard M; Holcomb, George W

    2012-10-01

    The management of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis (JIS) in young children can be challenging. Vertebral body stapling (VBS) is a new alternate to bracing and is intended to reduce or eliminate the need for subsequent spinal fusion. In concept, VBS of the anterior spine inhibits curve progression, thus stabilizing the spine as the child grows. There is a paucity of data in the pediatric population on its effectiveness. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with thoracoscopic VBS in children with juvenile scoliosis. After Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, a retrospective study was conducted on all patients who underwent thoracoscopic VBS for scoliosis from January 2007 to December 2010. Only patients with a follow-up of at least 2 years were included in this study group. Data obtained were demographics, indications for VBS, degree of curvature, treatment, complications, and follow-up. Cobb angle was used to measure the initial degree of curvature on a standing posterior-anterior spine radiograph. During the study period, 11 patients underwent thoracoscopic VBS for JIS using single lung ventilation in a lateral position. Of those, 7 patients ages 8-11 years (mean, 9 years) with a mean body mass index of 17 kg/m(2) (±2.9 kg/m(2)) had at least a 2-year follow-up and make up the study group for this review. Indications for stapling in these 7 patients were progression of scoliosis (n=3), noncompliance with brace (n=3), and double curve with progression (n=1). The mean preoperative Cobb angle was 34.1±5° (range, 25°-41°), and the mean immediate postoperative Cobb angle was 23±5° (range, 16°-30°). The staples encompassed a mean number of 6.4 vertebral bodies. The mean duration of chest drainage was 2.7 days (range, 2-6 days), and the mean length of hospitalization was 3.9 days (range, 3-7 days). The mean operative time was 156.2±39.5 minutes (range, 101-214 minutes). There were no intraoperative complications or mortality. Postoperatively, 1

  1. Depression of the Thoracolumbar Posterior Vertebral Body on the Estimation of Cement Leakage in Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Depression of the thoracolumbar posterior vertebral body may be informative for the estimation of cement location on C-arm images. To reduce type-B leakage, DCPW should be made longer than DBCV on C-arm images for safety during PVP or PKP.

  2. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of a lumbar vertebral body with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst formation: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snieders, N.M.E.; Kemenade, van F.J.; Royen, van B.J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old Caucasian woman with symptomatic monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the fourth lumbar vertebral body. The patient suffered from a five-week history of progressive low back pain, radiating continuously to the left leg. Her medical history and physical and neurological

  3. Effects of vertebral-body-sparing proton craniospinal irradiation on the spine of young pediatric patients with medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain MacEwan, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Vertebral-body-sparing CSI with proton beam did not appear to cause increased severe spinal abnormalities in patients treated at our institution. This approach could be considered in future clinical trials in an effort to reduce toxicity and the risk of secondary malignancy and to improve adult height.

  4. Quantification of liver, pancreas, kidney, and vertebral body MRI-PDFF in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idilman, Ilkay S; Tuzun, Ali; Savas, Berna; Elhan, Atilla Halil; Celik, Azim; Idilman, Ramazan; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine liver, pancreas, kidney, and vertebral fat deposition in NAFLD patients by proton density fat fraction (PDFF) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to evaluate the relationships among them. A total of 41 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients underwent MRI-PDFF with IDEAL-IQ. MRI protocol included T1-independent volumetric multi-echo gradient-echo imaging with T2* correction and spectral fat modeling. The MR examinations were performed on a 1.5 HDx MRI system. MRI-PDFF measurements were obtained from liver, pancreas, renal cortex and sinus, and vertebral body. Liver biopsy specimens were retrieved from the archives and evaluated by one pathologist according to NASH CRN. The median age of the patients was 47 years. The median interval between liver biopsy and MRI examination was 16 days. Mean liver, pancreas, renal cortex, renal sinus, T12 and L1 vertebral body MRI-PDFFs were 18.7%, 5.7%, 1.7%, 51%, 43.2%, and 43.5%, respectively. No correlation between either liver MRI-PDFF or histological steatosis, and other organ MRI-PDFFs was observed. A good correlation between pancreas and vertebral body MRI-PDFFs, and pancreas and renal sinus MRI-PDFFs was observed. Diabetic patients had higher average pancreas MRI-PDFF compared to non-diabetics (12.2%, vs., 4.8%; P = 0.028). Pancreas and vertebral body MRI-PDFF is well correlated in NAFLD patients and both of them are higher in diabetic patients which may explain increased bone fractures in diabetics. MRI-PDFF can be used to demonstrate fat fractions of different organs and tissues and to understand fat metabolism.

  5. Vertebral Body Stapling for Moderate Juvenile and Early Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Cautions and Patient Selection Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpass, David B; Fuhrhop, Sara K; Schootman, Mario; Smith, June C; Luhmann, Scott J

    2015-12-01

    Single-surgeon retrospective case series. To validate and further describe clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients undergoing vertebral body stapling (VBS), with the goal of learning if VBS is a safe and effective alternative to bracing for treating moderate idiopathic scoliosis (IS) in the growing pediatric patient. VBS is a growth-modulation technique to control moderate idiopathic scoliosis (IS) while avoiding fusion. Existing studies state successful curve control rates equivalent to bracing, but the majority of reports have come from a single institution. All IS patients who underwent VBS by 1 surgeon were included. Indications were brace intolerance and a structural coronal curve of 25° to 40°. Proportional nitinol staples were used in all cases. Pre- and postoperative radiographs, pulmonary function testing, and physical exam measurements were serially recorded. VBS was performed on 35 patients (28 females, 7 males) with mean age 10.5 years (range 7.0-14.6 years). Total of 31 patients (33 stapled curves) completed follow-up. Preoperative Risser grade was 0 in 31 patients, 1 in 1 patient, and 2 in 3 patients. Stapled curves were controlled with 30% was predictive of ultimate curve control. No neurologic complications were encountered; 5 patients (14%) developed small pneumothoraces. This series contains the most patients and longest followup reported for VBS. Successful curve control was achieved less frequently than in previous reports, particularly in patients <10 years. 4.

  6. Vertebral Body Stapling versus Bracing for Patients with High-Risk Moderate Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, Laury; Danielsson, Aina J; Cahill, Patrick J; Samdani, Amer F; Grewal, Harsh; Richmond, John M; Mulcahey, M J; Gaughan, John P; Antonacci, M Darryl; Betz, Randal R

    2015-01-01

    We report a comparison study of vertebral body stapling (VBS) versus a matched bracing cohort for immature patients with moderate (25 to 44°) idiopathic scoliosis (IS). 42 of 49 consecutive patients (86%) with IS were treated with VBS and followed for a minimum of 2 years. They were compared to 121 braced patients meeting identical inclusion criteria. 52 patients (66 curves) were matched according to age at start of treatment (10.6 years versus 11.1 years, resp. [P = 0.07]) and gender. For thoracic curves 25-34°, VBS had a success rate (defined as curve progression VBS and bracing both had a poor success rate. For lumbar curves, success rates were similar in both groups for curves measuring 25-34°. In this comparison of two cohorts of patients with high-risk (Risser 0-1) moderate IS (25-44°), in smaller thoracic curves (25-34°) VBS provided better results as a clinical trend as compared to bracing. VBS was found not to be effective for thoracic curves ≥35°. For lumbar curves measuring 25-34°, results appear to be similar for both VBS and bracing, at 80% success.

  7. MDCT after balloon kyphoplasty: analysis of vertebral body architecture one year after treatment of osteoporotic fractures; MDCT nach Ballonkyphoplastie: Analyse der Wirbelkoerperarchitektur 1 Jahr nach Behandlung osteoporotischer Sinterungsfrakturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrl, B.; Dueber, C. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany); Sadick, M. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim (Germany); Brocker, K.; Voggenreiter, G.; Obertacke, U. [Zentrum fuer Orthopaedie und Traumatologie, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim (Germany); Brade, J. [Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Biometrie, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the value of MDCT in the monitoring of vertebral body architecture after balloon kyphoplasty and observe morphological changes of the vertebral body. Material and methods: during a period of 26 months, 66 osteoporotic fractures of the vertebral bodies were treated with percutanous balloon kyphoplasty. The height of the vertebral body, width of spinal space, sagittal indices, kyphosis und COBB angle, and cement leakage were evaluated by computed tomography before and after treatment and in a long-term follow up. Statistical analysis was performed by calculating quantitative constant parameters of descriptive key data. In addition, parametric and distribution-free procedures were performed for all questions. Results: after kyphoplasty, the treated vertebral bodies showed a significant gain in the height of the leading edge (0.15 cm; p < 0.0001) and in the central part of the vertebral body (0.17 cm; p < 0.0001). The height of the trailing edge did not change significantly. A corresponding gain in the sagittal index was found. The index remained stable during follow-up. Treated vertebral bodies as well as untreated references showed a comparable loss of height over the period of one year. The shape of the vertebral bodies remained stable. In comparison to these findings, treated vertebral bodies showed a reduced loss of height. A significant change in kyphosis und the COBB angle was noted. In total, pallacos leakage was detected in 71% of cases. Conclusion: MDCT is an accurate method for evaluating vertebral body architecture after treatment with balloon kyphoplasty. (orig.)

  8. Variability in human body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  9. Form and function remixed: developmental physiology in the evolution of vertebrate body plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Stuart A

    2014-06-01

    The most widely accepted model of evolutionary change, the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, is based on the gradualism of Darwin and Wallace. They, in turn, developed their ideas in the context of 19th century concepts of how matter, including the tissues of animals and plants, could be reshaped and repatterned. A new physics of condensed, chemically, electrically and mechanically excitable materials formulated in the 20th century was, however, readily taken up by physiologists, who applied it to the understanding of dynamical, external condition-dependent and homeostatic properties of individual organisms. Nerve conduction, vascular and airway dynamics, and propagation of electrical excitations in heart and brain tissue all benefited from theories of biochemical oscillation, fluid dynamics, reaction-diffusion-based pattern instability and allied dissipative processes. When, in the late 20th century, the development of body and organ form was increasingly seen to involve dynamical, frequently non-linear processes similar to those that had become standard in physiology, a strong challenge to the evolutionary synthesis emerged. In particular, large-scale changes in organismal form now had a scientific basis other than gradualistic natural selection based on adaptive advantage. Moreover, heritable morphological changes were seen to be capable of occurring abruptly with little or no genetic change, with involvement of the external environment, and in preferred directions. This paper discusses three examples of morphological motifs of vertebrate bodies and organs, the somites, the skeletons of the paired limbs, and musculoskeletal novelties distinctive to birds, for which evolutionary origination and transformation can be understood on the basis of the physiological and biophysical determinants of their development. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  10. The effect of screw tunnels on the biomechanical stability of vertebral body after pedicle screws removal: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Xuan-Yin; Huang, Shan-Hu; Hua, Zi-Kai; Liu, Zhi-Li

    2017-06-01

    Posterior reduction and pedicle screw fixation is a widely used procedure for thoracic and lumbar vertebrae fractures. Usually, the pedicle screws would be removed after the fracture healing and screw tunnels would be left. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of screw tunnels on the biomechanical stability of the lumbar vertebral body after pedicle screws removal by finite element analysis (FEA). First, the CT values of the screw tunnels wall in the fractured vertebral bodies were measured in patients whose pedicle screws were removed, and they were then compared with the values of vertebral cortical bone. Second, an adult patient was included and the CT images of the lumbar spine were harvested. Three dimensional finite element models of the L1 vertebra with unilateral or bilateral screw tunnels were created based on the CT images. Different compressive loads were vertically acted on the models. The maximum loads which the models sustained and the distribution of the force in the different parts of the models were recorded and compared with each other. The CT values of the tunnels wall and vertebral cortical bone were 387.126±62.342 and 399.204±53.612, which were not statistically different (P=0.149). The models of three dimensional tetrahedral mesh finite element of normal lumbar 1 vertebra were established with good geometric similarity and realistic appearance. After given the compressive loads, the cortical bone was the first one to reach its ultimate stress. The maximum loads which the bilateral screw tunnels model, unilateral screw tunnel model, and normal vertebral model can sustain were 3.97 Mpa, 3.83 Mpa, and 3.78 Mpa, respectively. For the diameter of the screw tunnels, the model with a diameter of 6.5 mm could sustain the largest load. In addition, the stress distributing on the outside of the cortical bone gradually decreased as the thickness of the tunnel wall increased. Based on the FEA, pedicle screw tunnels would not decrease the

  11. [Wireless human body communication technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2014-12-01

    The Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a key part of the wearable monitoring technologies, which has many communication technologies to choose from, like Bluetooth, ZigBee, Ultra Wideband, and Wireless Human Body Communication (WHBC). As for the WHBC developed in recent years, it is worthy to be further studied. The WHBC has a strong momentum of growth and a natural advantage in the formation of WBAN. In this paper, we first briefly describe the technical background of WHBC, then introduce theoretical model of human-channel communication and digital transmission machine based on human channel. And finally we analyze various of the interference of the WHBC and show the AFH (Adaptive Frequency Hopping) technology which can effectively deal with the interference.

  12. Ossification of the vertebral column in human foetuses: histological and computed tomography studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórzewska, A; Grzymisławska, M; Bruska, M; Lupicka, J; Woźniak, W

    2013-08-01

    There is no agreement in the literature as to the time of the onset and progress of the vertebral column ossification. The aim of the present study was to determine the precise sequence of ossification of the neural arches and vertebral centra.Histological and radiographic studies were performed on 27 human foetuses aged from 9 to 21 weeks. It was found that the ossification of vertebrae commences in foetuses aged 10 and 11 weeks. Ossification centres appear first for neuralarches in the cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae and by the end of 11th week they are present in all thoracic and lumbar neural arches. In the vertebral centrain foetus of 10 weeks ossification was found in the lower 7 thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae. By the end of 11th week ossification is present in the lower 4 cervical, all thoracic, all lumbar and 4 sacral vertebral centra. The study indicates that ossification of the neural arches proceeds in the craniocaudal direction,whereas in the vertebral centra it progresses from the lower thoracic vertebrae into both directions. Different shapes of ossification centres were also described.

  13. Factors Predictive of Outcomes in Vertebral Body Stapling for Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patrick J; Auriemma, Michael; Dakwar, Elias; Gaughan, John P; Samdani, Amer F; Pahys, Joshua M; Betz, Randal R

    2018-01-01

    Retrospective review. To identify factors associated with successful outcomes in patients treated with vertebral body stapling (VBS) for idiopathic scoliosis. The standard of care for moderate scoliosis (20°-45°) consists of observation and bracing with the goal of halting curve progression. Although several recent studies have confirmed the efficacy of bracing in altering the natural history of scoliosis, bracing is not universally effective. Recent studies have demonstrated that VBS is a safe and viable treatment for some young patients with scoliosis at risk for progression. The identification of factors associated with successful outcomes in VBS for idiopathic scoliosis would better define the population likely to benefit from VBS. We retrospectively reviewed all patients from a single institution treated with VBS who met previously defined inclusion criteria. Successful treatment was defined as avoidance of a fusion and a final Cobb angle no more than 10° greater than the pretreatment Cobb angle. We identified 63 patients who met inclusion criteria. The patients underwent VBS at a mean age of 10.78 years and had a mean follow-up of 3.62 years (minimum 2 years). The mean pre-op Cobb angle for stapled thoracic curves was 29.5°. Seventy-four percent of the patients who had VBS of the thoracic curve have avoided progression and/or fusion, and the mean Cobb angle at most recent follow-up was 21.8°. The mean preoperative Cobb angle for lumbar curves was 31.1°. Eighty-two percent of the patients who had VBS of the lumbar curve have avoided progression and/or fusion, and their mean Cobb angle at follow-up was 21.6°. VBS is effective at preventing progression and fusion for moderate idiopathic scoliosis in immature patients. The complication rates are low. Copyright © 2017 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Vertebral Body Biopsy Using a Novel Drill-Powered Device: Technical Case Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Adam N., E-mail: wallacea@mir.wustl.edu; Pacheco, Rafael A., E-mail: pachecor@mir.wustl.edu; Tomasian, Anderanik, E-mail: tomasiana@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States); Hsi, Andy C., E-mail: hsia@path.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Pathology & Immunology (United States); Long, Jeremiah, E-mail: longj@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States); Chang, Randy O., E-mail: changr@wusm.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine (United States); Jennings, Jack W., E-mail: jenningsj@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2016-02-15

    BackgroundA novel coaxial biopsy system powered by a handheld drill has recently been introduced for percutaneous bone biopsy. This technical note describes our initial experience performing fluoroscopy-guided vertebral body biopsies with this system, compares the yield of drill-assisted biopsy specimens with those obtained using a manual technique, and assesses the histologic adequacy of specimens obtained with drill assistance.MethodsMedical records of all single-level, fluoroscopy-guided vertebral body biopsies were reviewed. Procedural complications were documented according to the Society of Interventional Radiology classification. The total length of bone core obtained from drill-assisted biopsies was compared with that of matched manual biopsies. Pathology reports were reviewed to determine the histologic adequacy of specimens obtained with drill assistance.ResultsTwenty eight drill-assisted percutaneous vertebral body biopsies met study inclusion criteria. No acute complications were reported. Of the 86 % (24/28) of patients with clinical follow-up, no delayed complications were reported (median follow-up, 28 weeks; range 5–115 weeks). The median total length of bone core obtained from drill-assisted biopsies was 28 mm (range 8–120 mm). This was longer than that obtained from manual biopsies (median, 20 mm; range 5–45 mm; P = 0.03). Crush artifact was present in 11 % (3/28) of drill-assisted biopsy specimens, which in one case (3.6 %; 1/28) precluded definitive diagnosis.ConclusionsA drill-assisted, coaxial biopsy system can be used to safely obtain vertebral body core specimens under fluoroscopic guidance. The higher bone core yield obtained with drill assistance may be offset by the presence of crush artifact.

  15. Prediction of Human Vertebral Compressive Strength Using Quantitative Computed Tomography Based Nonlinear Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Zeinali

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because of the importance of vertebral compressive fracture (VCF role in increasing the patients’ death rate and reducing their quality of life, many studies have been conducted for a noninvasive prediction of vertebral compressive strength based on bone mineral density (BMD determination and recently finite element analysis. In this study, QCT-voxel based nonlinear finite element method is used for predicting vertebral compressive strength. Material and Methods: Four thoracolumbar vertebrae were excised from 3 cadavers with an average age of 42 years. They were then put in a water phantom and were scanned using the QCT. Using a computer program prepared in MATLAB, detailed voxel based geometry and mechanical characteristics of the vertebra were extracted from the CT images. The three dimensional finite element models of the samples were created using ANSYS computer program. The compressive strength of each vertebra body was calculated based on a linearly elastic-linearly plastic model and large deformation analysis in ANSYS and was compared to the value measured experimentally for that sample. Results: Based on the obtained results the QCT-voxel based nonlinear finite element method (FEM can predict vertebral compressive strength more effectively and accurately than the common QCT-voxel based linear FEM. The difference between the predicted strength values using this method and the measured ones was less than 1 kN for all the samples. Discussion and Conclusion: It seems that the QCT-voxel based nonlinear FEM used in this study can predict more effectively and accurately the vertebral strengths based on every vertebrae specification by considering their detailed geometric and densitometric characteristics.

  16. Three-Dimensional C-Arm Computed Tomography Combined with Fluoroscopic Guided Pediculoplasty for Treatment of Vertebral Body Metastasis with Lytic Pedicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Gang; Jin, Peng; Li, Min; Liu, Xunwei; Li, Fandong; Xie, Zhiyong; Ding, Juan; Peng, Zhaohui

    2012-01-01

    ...) technique, using 3-dimensional C-arm CT reformation combined with fluoroscopic guidance for patients presented vertebral body metastasis with lytic pedicle. Thirteen patients (average age 57.8 years...

  17. Importance of mechanics and kinematics in determining the stiffness contribution of the vertebral column during body-caudal-fin swimming in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowroozi, Bryan N; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2014-02-01

    Whole-body stiffness in fishes has important consequences for swimming mode, speed and efficiency, but the contribution of vertebral column stiffness to whole-body stiffness is unclear. In our opinion, this lack of clarity is due in part to the lack of studies that have measured both in vitro mechanical properties of the vertebral column as well as in vivo vertebral kinematics in the same species. Some lack of clarity may also come from real variation in the mechanical role of the vertebral column across species. Previous studies, based on either mechanics or kinematics alone, suggest species-specific variation in vertebral column locomotor function that ranges from highly stiff regimes that contribute greatly to whole-body stiffness, and potentially act as a spring, to highly compliant regimes that only prohibit excessive flexion of the intervertebral joints. We review data collected in combined investigations of both mechanics and kinematics of three species, Myxine glutinosa, Acipenser transmontanus, and Morone saxatilis, to illustrate how mechanical testing within the context of the in vivo kinematics more clearly distinguishes the role of the vertebral column in each species. In addition, we identify species for which kinematic data are available, but mechanical data are lacking. We encourage further investigation of these species to fill these mechanical data gaps. Finally, we hope these future combined analyses will identify certain morphological, mechanical, or kinematic parameters that might be associated with certain vertebral column functional regimes with respect to body stiffness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Phylogenetic investigation of human FGFR-bearing paralogons favors piecemeal duplication theory of vertebrate genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Wajya; Khan, Hiba; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying the organismal complexity and origin of novelties during vertebrate history is one of the central goals of evolutionary biology. Ohno (1970) was the first to postulate that whole genome duplications (WGD) have played a vital role in the evolution of new gene functions: permitting an increase in morphological, physiological and anatomical complexity during early vertebrate history. Here, we analyze the evolutionary history of human FGFR-bearing paralogon (human autosome 4/5/8/10) by the phylogenetic analysis of multigene families with triplicate and quadruplicate distribution on these chromosomes. Our results categorized the histories of 21 families into discrete co-duplicated groups. Genes of a particular co-duplicated group exhibit identical evolutionary history and have duplicated in concert with each other, whereas genes belonging to different groups have dissimilar histories and have not duplicated concurrently. Taken together with our previously published data, we submit that there is sufficient empirical evidence to disprove the 1R/2R hypothesis and to support the general prediction that vertebrate genome evolved by relatively small-scale, regional duplication events that spread across the history of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in osteoporotic fractures of vertebral bodies - a prospective 1-year follow-up analysis; Vertebroplastie und Kyphoplastie bei osteoporotischen Wirbelkoerperfrakturen - Eine prospektive Analyse der Einjahresergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugmacher, R.; Kandziora, F.; Schroeder, R.; Schleicher, P.; Scholz, M.; Schnake, K.; Haas, N.; Khodadadyan-Klostermann, C. [Charite - Centrum fuer Muskuloskeletale Chirurgie, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Purpose: Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty offer two minimally invasive operative stabilization procedures for vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate whether both procedures are able to reduce pain and to preserve postoperative vertebral height during a 1-year follow up. Materials and methods: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures were treated in 42 cases, 20 patients (15 female, 5 male) underwent vertebroplasty, 22 patients (14 female, 8 male) underwent kyphoplasty. 32 vertebral fractures were treated with vertebroplasty and 35 vertebral fractures were treated with kyphoplasty. Symptomatic levels were identified by correlating the clinical presentation with conventional radiographs, CT or/and MRI. During the follow up reduction of pain was determined. Radiographic scans were performed pre- and postoperatively and after 3, 6 and 12 months. The vertebral height and endplate angles were measured to assess the restoration of the sagittal alignment. The effects on pain symptoms were measured on a self-reported Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry score was documented. Results: The median pain scores (VAS) decreased significantly for kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty from pre- to post-treatment, as did the Oswestry score (p<0.05). No significant differences could be found between both groups for the median pain score (VAS) and the Oswestry score. Kyphoplasty led to a significant restoration of the vertebral height and reduction of kyphosis (p<0.05). During the 1-year follow up operation techniques were able to stabilize the height of the vertebral body. Conclusion: Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are effective minimally invasive procedures for the stabilization of osteoporotic vertebral fractures leading to a statistically significant reduction in pain. Kyphoplasty restores significantly vertebral body height in fresh fractures. The restoration of vertebral height and reduction of kyphosis may have an influence on the long

  20. Proximal instrumented vertebral body chance fracture after pedicle screw instrumentation in a thoracic kyphosis patient with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaobang; Lieberman, Isador H

    2015-02-01

    We present a case of proximal vertebral body chance fracture after pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion in a 67-year-old woman with osteoporosis and thoracic kyphosis. To report the rare and unique complication of proximal vertebral body chance fracture after pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion in a kyphosis patient. Pedicle screw instrumentation has been associated with complications not limited to neurological or vascular injury, loss of curve correction, intraoperative pedicle fracture or loosening, dural laceration, deep infection, and pseudarthrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports describing a chance-type fracture generated by a pedicle screw fixation at the proximal end of a construct. A 67-year-old woman suffered from progressive thoracic kyphosis and mid thoracic pain presented 2 weeks after pedicle screw instrumentation and correction. She developed a vertebral body fracture at the proximal end of the instrumentation construct. Surgical intervention, including removal of the screws in the fractured vertebrae and extension of the instrumented fusion across the cervicothoracic junction, effectively restored the physiological sagittal alignment. Postoperatively, at 12-month follow-up, the patient is doing exceptionally well with near-complete relief of back pain and an excellent maintenance of correction. Chance fracture in osteoporotic bone at the proximal end of a construct due to a pedicle screw is a rare complication but it may result in catastrophic consequences. Early recognition of this complication, reduction of the fraction-dislocation, and an extension of the instrumentation can be utilized for realignment and long-term stabilization.

  1. Evaluation of a Novel HA/ZrO2-Based Porous Bioceramic Artificial Vertebral Body Combined with a rhBMP-2/Chitosan Slow-Release Hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Shi

    Full Text Available A new HA/ZrO2-based porous bioceramic artificial vertebral body (AVB, carried a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2/chitosan slow-release hydrogel was prepared to repair vertebral bone defect in beagles. An ionic cross-linking was used to prepare the chitosan hydrogel (CS gel as the rhBMP-2 slow-release carrier. The vertebral body defects were implanted with the rhBMP-2-loaded AVB in group A, or a non-drug-loaded AVB in group B, or autologous iliac in group C. The encapsulation rate of rhBMP-2 in rhBMP-2-loaded CS gel was 91.88±1.53%, with a drug load of 39.84±2.34 ng/mg. At 6, 12, 24 weeks postoperatively, radiography showed that the bone calluses gradually increased with time in group A, where the artificial vertebral body had completely fused with host-bone at 24 weeks after surgery. In group C, an apparent bone remodeling was occurred in the early stages, and the graft-bone and host-bone had also fused completely at 24 weeks postoperatively. In group B, fusion occurred less than in groups A and C. At 24 weeks after surgery, micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT revealed that the volume of newly-formed bone in group A was significantly more than in group B (p<0.05. At 24 weeks after surgery, ultra-compressive strengths of the operated segments were 14.03±1.66 MPa in group A, 8.62±1.24 MPa in group B, and 13.78±1.43 MPa in group C. Groups A and C were both significantly higher than group B (p < 0.05. At 24 weeks postoperatively, the hard tissue sections showed that the AVB of group A had tightly fused with host bone, and that pores of the AVB had been filled with abundant nearly mature bone, and that the new bone structured similarly to a trabecular framework, which was similar to that in group C. In contrast, implant fusion of the AVB in group B was not as apparent as group A. In conclusion, the novel HA/ZrO2-based porous bioceramic AVB carried the rhBMP-2-loaded CS gel can promote the repair of bony defect, and induce

  2. Analysis of radiological characteristics distribution in the vertebral bodies of the lumbosacral spine of competitive rowers

    OpenAIRE

    M.B. Ogurkowska

    2010-01-01

    Unfavorable biomechanical situations, usually related to the performance of a profession and competitive sports practice, promote formation of overloads. This problem may be particularly perceptible among sportsmen that practice strength and stamina sports. The present study deals with rowing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the degree of degenerative changes of the lumbosacral spine in competitive rowers, on the basis of an analysis of changes in the cancellous structure of vertebr...

  3. Deformable human body model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  4. Effects of bone damage on creep behaviours of human vertebral trabeculae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Szarko, Matthew; Wang, Yue; Luo, Jin

    2018-01-01

    A subgroup of patients suffering with vertebral fractures can develop progressive spinal deformities over time. The mechanism underlying such clinical observation, however, remains unknown. Previous studies suggested that creep deformation of the vertebral trabeculae may play a role. Using the acoustic emission (AE) technique, this study investigated effects of bone damage (modulus reduction) on creep behaviours of vertebral trabecular bone. Thirty-seven human vertebral trabeculae samples were randomly assigned into five groups (A to E). Bones underwent mechanical tests using similar experimental protocols but varied degree of bone damage was induced. Samples first underwent creep test (static compressive stress of 0.4MPa) for 30min, and then were loaded in compression to a specified strain level (0.4%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.5%, and 4% for group A to E, respectively) to induce different degrees of bone damage (0.4%, no damage control; 1.0%, yield strain; 1.5%, beyond yield strain, 2.5% and 4%, post-ultimate strains). Samples were creep loaded (0.4MPa) again for 30min. AE techniques were used to monitor bone damage. Bone damage increased significantly from group A to E (P30% of modulus reduction in group D and E. Before compressive loading, creep deformation was not different among the five groups and AE hits in creep test were rare. After compressive loading, creep deformation was significantly greater in group D and E than those in other groups (P<0.05). The number of AE hits and other AE measurements during creep test were significantly greater in group D and E than in group A, B, and C (P<0.05 for all). Data suggested that with the increase of vertebral trabecular bone damage, substantial creep deformation may occur even when the vertebra was under physiological loads. The boosted creep deformation observed may be attributed to newly created trabecular microfractures. Findings provide a possible explanation as to why some vertebral fracture patients develop progressive

  5. The spotted gar genome illuminates vertebrate evolution and facilitates human-to-teleost comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Ingo; Gehrke, Andrew R.; Smith, Jeramiah J.; Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Manousaki, Tereza; Pasquier, Jeremy; Amores, Angel; Desvignes, Thomas; Batzel, Peter; Catchen, Julian; Berlin, Aaron M.; Campbell, Michael S.; Barrell, Daniel; Martin, Kyle J.; Mulley, John F.; Ravi, Vydianathan; Lee, Alison P.; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Chalopin, Domitille; Fan, Shaohua; Wcisel, Dustin; Cañestro, Cristian; Sydes, Jason; Beaudry, Felix E. G.; Sun, Yi; Hertel, Jana; Beam, Michael J.; Fasold, Mario; Ishiyama, Mikio; Johnson, Jeremy; Kehr, Steffi; Lara, Marcia; Letaw, John H.; Litman, Gary W.; Litman, Ronda T.; Mikami, Masato; Ota, Tatsuya; Saha, Nil Ratan; Williams, Louise; Stadler, Peter F.; Wang, Han; Taylor, John S.; Fontenot, Quenton; Ferrara, Allyse; Searle, Stephen M. J.; Aken, Bronwen; Yandell, Mark; Schneider, Igor; Yoder, Jeffrey A.; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Meyer, Axel; Amemiya, Chris T.; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Holland, Peter W. H.; Guiguen, Yann; Bobe, Julien; Shubin, Neil H.; Di Palma, Federica; Alföldi, Jessica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Postlethwait, John H.

    2016-01-01

    To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before the teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by illuminating the evolution of immunity, mineralization, and development (e.g., Hox, ParaHox, and miRNA genes). Numerous conserved non-coding elements (CNEs, often cis-regulatory) undetectable in direct human-teleost comparisons become apparent using gar: functional studies uncovered conserved roles of such cryptic CNEs, facilitating annotation of sequences identified in human genome-wide association studies. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that the sum of expression domains and levels from duplicated teleost genes often approximate patterns and levels of gar genes, consistent with subfunctionalization. The gar genome provides a resource for understanding evolution after genome duplication, the origin of vertebrate genomes, and the function of human regulatory sequences. PMID:26950095

  6. The spotted gar genome illuminates vertebrate evolution and facilitates human-teleost comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Ingo; Gehrke, Andrew R; Smith, Jeramiah J; Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Manousaki, Tereza; Pasquier, Jeremy; Amores, Angel; Desvignes, Thomas; Batzel, Peter; Catchen, Julian; Berlin, Aaron M; Campbell, Michael S; Barrell, Daniel; Martin, Kyle J; Mulley, John F; Ravi, Vydianathan; Lee, Alison P; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Chalopin, Domitille; Fan, Shaohua; Wcisel, Dustin; Cañestro, Cristian; Sydes, Jason; Beaudry, Felix E G; Sun, Yi; Hertel, Jana; Beam, Michael J; Fasold, Mario; Ishiyama, Mikio; Johnson, Jeremy; Kehr, Steffi; Lara, Marcia; Letaw, John H; Litman, Gary W; Litman, Ronda T; Mikami, Masato; Ota, Tatsuya; Saha, Nil Ratan; Williams, Louise; Stadler, Peter F; Wang, Han; Taylor, John S; Fontenot, Quenton; Ferrara, Allyse; Searle, Stephen M J; Aken, Bronwen; Yandell, Mark; Schneider, Igor; Yoder, Jeffrey A; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Meyer, Axel; Amemiya, Chris T; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Holland, Peter W H; Guiguen, Yann; Bobe, Julien; Shubin, Neil H; Di Palma, Federica; Alföldi, Jessica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Postlethwait, John H

    2016-04-01

    To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome has conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by illuminating the evolution of immunity, mineralization and development (mediated, for example, by Hox, ParaHox and microRNA genes). Numerous conserved noncoding elements (CNEs; often cis regulatory) undetectable in direct human-teleost comparisons become apparent using gar: functional studies uncovered conserved roles for such cryptic CNEs, facilitating annotation of sequences identified in human genome-wide association studies. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the sums of expression domains and expression levels for duplicated teleost genes often approximate the patterns and levels of expression for gar genes, consistent with subfunctionalization. The gar genome provides a resource for understanding evolution after genome duplication, the origin of vertebrate genomes and the function of human regulatory sequences.

  7. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  8. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirsch, Walter [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  9. Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Rikowski, A; Grammer, K

    1999-01-01

    Several studies have found body and facial symmetry as well as attractiveness to be human mate choice criteria. These characteristics are presumed to signal developmental stability. Human body odour has been shown to influence female mate choice depending on the immune system, but the question of whether smell could signal general mate quality, as do other cues, was not addressed in previous studies. We compared ratings of body odour, attractiveness, and measurements of facial and body asymme...

  10. A Human Body Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girondel Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for human body analysis (segmentation, tracking, face/hands localisation, posture recognition from a single view that is fast and completely automatic. The system first extracts low-level data and uses part of the data for high-level interpretation. It can detect and track several persons even if they merge or are completely occluded by another person from the camera's point of view. For the high-level interpretation step, static posture recognition is performed using a belief theory-based classifier. The belief theory is considered here as a new approach for performing posture recognition and classification using imprecise and/or conflicting data. Four different static postures are considered: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying. The aim of this paper is to give a global view and an evaluation of the performances of the entire system and to describe in detail each of its processing steps, whereas our previous publications focused on a single part of the system. The efficiency and the limits of the system have been highlighted on a database of more than fifty video sequences where a dozen different individuals appear. This system allows real-time processing and aims at monitoring elderly people in video surveillance applications or at the mixing of real and virtual worlds in ambient intelligence systems.

  11. Volume of Lytic Vertebral Body Metastatic Disease Quantified Using Computed Tomography-Based Image Segmentation Predicts Fracture Risk After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Isabelle; Whyne, Cari M; Zhou, Stephanie; Campbell, Mikki; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Myrehaug, Sten; Soliman, Hany; Lee, Young K; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Yee, Albert J M; Sahgal, Arjun

    2017-01-01

    To determine a threshold of vertebral body (VB) osteolytic or osteoblastic tumor involvement that would predict vertebral compression fracture (VCF) risk after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), using volumetric image-segmentation software. A computational semiautomated skeletal metastasis segmentation process refined in our laboratory was applied to the pretreatment planning CT scan of 100 vertebral segments in 55 patients treated with spine SBRT. Each VB was segmented and the percentage of lytic and/or blastic disease by volume determined. The cumulative incidence of VCF at 3 and 12 months was 14.1% and 17.3%, respectively. The median follow-up was 7.3 months (range, 0.6-67.6 months). In all, 56% of segments were determined lytic, 23% blastic, and 21% mixed, according to clinical radiologic determination. Within these 3 clinical cohorts, the segmentation-determined mean percentages of lytic and blastic tumor were 8.9% and 6.0%, 0.2% and 26.9%, and 3.4% and 15.8% by volume, respectively. On the basis of the entire cohort (n=100), a significant association was observed for the osteolytic percentage measures and the occurrence of VCF (Pconfidence interval 9.4-148.9). On multivariable analysis, ≥11.6% lytic disease (P<.001), baseline VCF (P<.001), and SBRT with ≥20 Gy per fraction (P=.014) were predictive. Pretreatment lytic VB disease volumetric measures, independent of the blastic component, predict for SBRT-induced VCF. Larger-scale trials evaluating our software are planned to validate the results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Volume of Lytic Vertebral Body Metastatic Disease Quantified Using Computed Tomography–Based Image Segmentation Predicts Fracture Risk After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, Isabelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de L' Universite de Québec–Université Laval, Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Whyne, Cari M. [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zhou, Stephanie; Campbell, Mikki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Atenafu, Eshetu G. [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Myrehaug, Sten; Soliman, Hany; Lee, Young K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ebrahimi, Hamid [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yee, Albert J.M. [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine a threshold of vertebral body (VB) osteolytic or osteoblastic tumor involvement that would predict vertebral compression fracture (VCF) risk after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), using volumetric image-segmentation software. Methods and Materials: A computational semiautomated skeletal metastasis segmentation process refined in our laboratory was applied to the pretreatment planning CT scan of 100 vertebral segments in 55 patients treated with spine SBRT. Each VB was segmented and the percentage of lytic and/or blastic disease by volume determined. Results: The cumulative incidence of VCF at 3 and 12 months was 14.1% and 17.3%, respectively. The median follow-up was 7.3 months (range, 0.6-67.6 months). In all, 56% of segments were determined lytic, 23% blastic, and 21% mixed, according to clinical radiologic determination. Within these 3 clinical cohorts, the segmentation-determined mean percentages of lytic and blastic tumor were 8.9% and 6.0%, 0.2% and 26.9%, and 3.4% and 15.8% by volume, respectively. On the basis of the entire cohort (n=100), a significant association was observed for the osteolytic percentage measures and the occurrence of VCF (P<.001) but not for the osteoblastic measures. The most significant lytic disease threshold was observed at ≥11.6% (odds ratio 37.4, 95% confidence interval 9.4-148.9). On multivariable analysis, ≥11.6% lytic disease (P<.001), baseline VCF (P<.001), and SBRT with ≥20 Gy per fraction (P=.014) were predictive. Conclusions: Pretreatment lytic VB disease volumetric measures, independent of the blastic component, predict for SBRT-induced VCF. Larger-scale trials evaluating our software are planned to validate the results.

  13. A fully automated level-set based segmentation method of thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies in Computed Tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-España, Silvia; Díaz-Parra, Antonio; Arana, Estanislao; Moratal, David

    2015-01-01

    Spine is a structure commonly involved in several diseases. Identification and segmentation of the vertebral structures are of relevance to many medical applications related to the spine such as diagnosis, therapy or surgical intervention. However, the development of automatic and reliable methods are an unmet need. This work presents a fully automatic segmentation method of thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies from Computed Tomography images. The procedure can be divided into four main stages: firstly, seed points were detected in the spinal canal in order to generate initial contours in the segmentation process, automating the whole process. Secondly, a processing step is performed to improve image quality. Third step was to carry out the segmentation using the Selective Binary Gaussian Filtering Regularized Level Set method and, finally, two morphological operations were applied in order to refine the segmentation result. The method was tested in clinical data coming from 10 trauma patients. To evaluate the result the average value of the DICE coefficient was calculated, obtaining a 90.86 ± 1.87% in the whole spine (thoracic and lumbar regions), a 86.08 ± 1.73% in the thoracic region and a 95,61 ±2,25% in the lumbar region. The results are highly competitive when compared to the results obtained in previous methods, especially for the lumbar region.

  14. No relationship between vertebral column shifts and limb fluctuating asymmetry in human foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara M.A. ten Broek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance from the normal developmental trajectory of a trait during growth—the so-called developmental instability—can be observed morphologically through phenodeviants and subtle deviations from perfect symmetry (fluctuating asymmetry. This study investigates the relationship between phenodeviance in the human vertebral column (as a result of axial patterning defects and limb fluctuating asymmetry. Since both types of markers of developmental instability have been found associated with congenital abnormalities in humans, we anticipate a relationship between them if the concept of developmental instability, measured through either phenodeviants or asymmetry, would reflect an organism-wide process. Yet we did not find any support for this hypothesis. We argue that the vast differences in the developmental processes involved in both systems renders these two markers of developmental instability unrelated, in spite of their associations with other congenital abnormalities. Our results thus contribute to the growing awareness that developmental instability is not an organism-wide property.

  15. No relationship between vertebral column shifts and limb fluctuating asymmetry in human foetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Broek, Clara M A; Bots, Jessica; Bugiani, Marianna; Galis, Frietson; Van Dongen, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Disturbance from the normal developmental trajectory of a trait during growth-the so-called developmental instability-can be observed morphologically through phenodeviants and subtle deviations from perfect symmetry (fluctuating asymmetry). This study investigates the relationship between phenodeviance in the human vertebral column (as a result of axial patterning defects) and limb fluctuating asymmetry. Since both types of markers of developmental instability have been found associated with congenital abnormalities in humans, we anticipate a relationship between them if the concept of developmental instability, measured through either phenodeviants or asymmetry, would reflect an organism-wide process. Yet we did not find any support for this hypothesis. We argue that the vast differences in the developmental processes involved in both systems renders these two markers of developmental instability unrelated, in spite of their associations with other congenital abnormalities. Our results thus contribute to the growing awareness that developmental instability is not an organism-wide property.

  16. New families of human regulatory RNA structures identified by comparative analysis of vertebrate genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Brian John; Moltke, Ida; Roth, Adam

    2011-01-01

    a comparative method, EvoFam, for genome-wide identification of families of regulatory RNA structures, based on primary sequence and secondary structure similarity. We apply EvoFam to a 41-way genomic vertebrate alignment. Genome-wide, we identify 220 human, high-confidence families outside protein...... identify tens of new families supported by strong evolutionary evidence and other statistical evidence, such as GO term enrichments. For some of these, detailed analysis has led to the formulation of specific functional hypotheses. Examples include two hypothesized auto-regulatory feedback mechanisms: one...... involving six long hairpins in the 3'-UTR of MAT2A, a key metabolic gene that produces the primary human methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine; the other involving a tRNA-like structure in the intron of the tRNA maturation gene POP1. We experimentally validate the predicted MAT2A structures. Finally, we...

  17. Ultrasonic range measurements on the human body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Droog, Adriaan; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2013-01-01

    Ambulatory range estimation on the human body is important for the assessment of the performance of upper- and lower limb tasks outside a laboratory. In this paper an ultrasound sensor for estimating ranges on the human body is presented and validated during gait. The distance between the feet is

  18. Cervical Vertebral Body's Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Jinmi; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kim, Yong-Il

    2016-01-01

    .... We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies from 102 Japanese patients...

  19. A Novel Anterior Transpedicular Screw Artificial Vertebral Body System for Lower Cervical Spine Fixation: A Finite Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weidong; Chen, Chun; Ning, Jinpei; Sun, Peidong; Zhang, Jinyuan; Wu, Changfu; Bi, Zhenyu; Fan, Jihong; Lai, Xianliang; Ouyang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    A finite element model was used to compare the biomechanical properties of a novel anterior transpedicular screw artificial vertebral body system (AVBS) with a conventional anterior screw plate system (ASPS) for fixation in the lower cervical spine. A model of the intact cervical spine (C3-C7) was established. AVBS or ASPS constructs were implanted between C4 and C6. The models were loaded in three-dimensional (3D) motion. The Von Mises stress distribution in the internal fixators was evaluated, as well as the range of motion (ROM) and facet joint force. The models were generated and analyzed by mimics, geomagic studio, and ansys software. The intact model of the lower cervical spine consisted of 286,382 elements. The model was validated against previously reported cadaveric experimental data. In the ASPS model, stress was concentrated at the connection between the screw and plate and the connection between the titanium mesh and adjacent vertebral body. In the AVBS model, stress was evenly distributed. Compared to the intact cervical spine model, the ROM of the whole specimen after fixation with both constructs is decreased by approximately 3 deg. ROM of adjacent segments is increased by approximately 5 deg. Facet joint force of the ASPS and AVBS models was higher than those of the intact cervical spine model, especially in extension and lateral bending. AVBS fixation represents a novel reconstruction approach for the lower cervical spine. AVBS provides better stability and lower risk for internal fixator failure compared with traditional ASPS fixation.

  20. Widespread divergence of the CEACAM/PSG genes in vertebrates and humans suggests sensitivity to selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Lin Chang

    Full Text Available In mammals, carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs and pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs play important roles in the regulation of pathogen transmission, tumorigenesis, insulin signaling turnover, and fetal-maternal interactions. However, how these genes evolved and to what extent they diverged in humans remain to be investigated specifically. Based on syntenic mapping of chordate genomes, we reveal that diverging homologs with a prototypic CEACAM architecture-including an extracellular domain with immunoglobulin variable and constant domain-like regions, and an intracellular domain containing ITAM motif-are present from cartilaginous fish to humans, but are absent in sea lamprey, cephalochordate or urochordate. Interestingly, the CEACAM/PSG gene inventory underwent radical divergence in various vertebrate lineages: from zero in avian species to dozens in therian mammals. In addition, analyses of genetic variations in human populations showed the presence of various types of copy number variations (CNVs at the CEACAM/PSG locus. These copy number polymorphisms have 3-80% frequency in select populations, and encompass single to more than six PSG genes. Furthermore, we found that CEACAM/PSG genes contain a significantly higher density of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP compared to the chromosome average, and many CEACAM/PSG SNPs exhibit high population differentiation. Taken together, our study suggested that CEACAM/PSG genes have had a more dynamic evolutionary history in vertebrates than previously thought. Given that CEACAM/PSGs play important roles in maternal-fetal interaction and pathogen recognition, these data have laid the groundwork for future analysis of adaptive CEACAM/PSG genotype-phenotypic relationships in normal and complicated pregnancies as well as other etiologies.

  1. Biodynamics of deformable human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, A. M.; Huston, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The objective is to construct a framework wherein the various models of human biomaterials fit in order to describe the biodynamic response of the human body. The behavior of the human body in various situations, from low frequency, low amplitude vibrations to impact loadings in automobile and aircraft crashes, is very complicated with respect to all aspects of the problem: materials, geometry and dynamics. The materials problem is the primary concern, but the materials problem is intimately connected with geometry and dynamics.

  2. Dynamic representations of human body movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtzi, Z; Shiffrar, M

    1999-01-01

    Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies suggest that human body motions can be readily recognized. Human bodies are highly articulated and can move in a nonrigid manner. As a result, we perceive highly dissimilar views of the human form in motion. How does the visual system integrate multiple views of a human body in motion so that we can perceive human movement as a continuous event? The results of a set of priming experiments suggest that motion can readily facilitate the linkage of different views of a moving human. Positive priming was found for novel views of a human body that fell within the path of human movement. However, no priming was observed for novel views outside the path of motion. Furthermore, priming was restricted to those views that satisfied the biomechanical constraints of human movement. These results suggest that visual representation of human movement may be based upon the movement limitations of the human body and may reflect a dynamic interaction of motion and object-recognition processes.

  3. Vertebral lesion distribution in multiple myeloma - assessed by reduced-dose whole-body MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bier, Georg; Kloth, Christopher; Schabel, Christoph; Bongers, Malte; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Horger, Marius [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    To observe the distribution and potential distribution patterns of osteolytic and sclerotic vertebral involvement in a representative collective of multiple myeloma patients. A total of 66 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of multiple myeloma at initial diagnosis or during follow-up were examined by multidetector reduced-dose computed tomography to evaluate the distribution of bone lesions along the spine with focus on size, location, and lesion character. Confirmation of diagnosis was performed by comparison to follow-up computed tomography or magnetic resonance tomography. If >50 % of all detected malignant lesions occurred in one spinal segment, the distribution pattern was called cervical, thoracic, lumbar, or sacral, otherwise a ''mixed'' pattern was classified. Of a total number of 933 osseous spine lesions, 632 (67.7 %) were classified as malignant (98.9 % of them osteolytic) and 293 (31.5 %) as benign. The distribution pattern analysis yielded two patients (3.8 %) with a cervical, 26 (50 %) with a thoracic, 4 (7.7 %) with a lumbar, one (1.9 %) with a sacral pattern, and 19 cases (36.6 %) showed a mixed distribution pattern. Segment-wise, the mean lesion size was 6.52 ± 2.76 mm (cervical), 8.97 ± 5.43 mm (thoracic), 11.97 ± 7.11 mm (lumbar), and 17.5 ± 16.465 (sacral), whilst, related to the vertebra size, the lesion/vertebra size ratio is decreasing through the whole spine beginning from the top. Multiple myeloma bone lesions occur preferably and are larger in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Moreover, a specific distribution pattern is present in about 60 %. (orig.)

  4. G-compass: a web-based comparative genome browser between human and other vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Sakate, Ryuichi; Matsuya, Akihiro; Murakami, Katsuhiko; Sato, Yoshiharu; Zhang, Hao; Gojobori, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2009-12-15

    G-compass is designed for efficient comparative genome analysis between human and other vertebrate genomes. The current version of G-compass allows us to browse two corresponding genomic regions between human and another species in parallel. One-to-one evolutionarily conserved regions (i.e. orthologous regions) between species are highlighted along the genomes. Information such as locations of duplicated regions, copy number variations and mammalian ultra-conserved elements is also provided. These features of G-compass enable us to easily determine patterns of genomic rearrangements and changes in gene orders through evolutionary time. Since G-compass is a satellite database of H-InvDB, which is a comprehensive annotation resource for human genes and transcripts, users can easily refer to manually curated functional annotations and other abundant biological information for each human transcript. G-compass is expected to be a valuable tool for comparing human and model organisms and promoting the exchange of functional information. G-compass is freely available at http://www.h-invitational.jp/g-compass/. t.imanishi@aist.go.jp

  5. Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2012-06-23

    Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection.

  6. The effects of design and positioning of carbon fiber lumbar interbody cages and their subsidence in vertebral bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Fred C; Alkalay, Ron; Groff, Michael W

    2012-04-01

    A biomechanical study using human cadaveric lumbar spines. To determine the strength and stiffness of 3 carbon fiber cage designs in axial compression. To assess the effects of bone mineral density (BMD) on vertebral endplate failure with respect to the different cage patterns. Unilateral transforaminal approaches are gaining popularity compared with posterolateral lumbar interbody fusion. With differences in the inherent strengths of each quadrant of the endplate, the effect of different cage designs and their location on the endplate may affect subsidence and fusion success. BMD measurements were obtained from 30 human spinal segments from L3 to L5. Discectomies were performed and cages were placed on the cephalad endplate of each vertebra in 3 configurations: 2 small posterolateral rectangular cages; 1 small anterior banana cage; and 1 small central rectangular cage. Each segment was tested under compression until endplate failure was recorded. Two-way analysis of variance was used to test for the effects of cage design on cage subsidence and endplate failure. Analysis of covariance was conducted to test for the effects of age, BMD, and vertebral levels on the failure load and stiffness for each cage design. Cage design was not significant in affecting failure force across the endplate. There were insignificant differences comparing stiffness in compression for the 3 different cage placements patterns. Low BMD adversely affected failure force and construct stiffness across all 3 cage patterns. Cage design and position do not significantly affect failure of the construct or stiffness in compression across the endplate. BMD significantly affects both failure forces and stiffness but is not dependent on the positioning or design of the cage.

  7. UV radiation impacts body weight, oxygen consumption, and shelter selection in the intertidal vertebrate Girella laevifrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgar, José; Waldisperg, Melany; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Maturana, Diego; Pulgar, Victor M; Aldana, Marcela

    2017-02-01

    The amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the earth's surface has increased due to ozone layer depletion, and this fact represents an opportunity to evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of animals to this global-scale stressor. The transitory fish Girella laevifrons inhabits pools in the upper intertidal zone, which is characterized by exposure to a wide range of stressors, including UV radiation. We documented the field magnitude and the impact of UV radiation on oxygen consumption, body mass variations, and shelter (rocky and algae) selection by G. laevifrons. UV-exposed animals showed increased oxygen consumption, slower body weight increase, and active rocky shelter selection. Control fish showed increased body weight and no evident shelter selection. The results indicated that UV exposure affects fish energetic balance and habitat selection to favor greater protection against radiation. Increased UV exposure in transitory intertidal animals at levels observed in upper intertidal pools may alter the residency time of fish before leaving for the subtidal zone. Therefore, UV-induced energetic changes may determine animal performance and ontogenetic physiological itineraries, whereas shelter quality might determine habitat use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Light bodies in human pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1987-01-01

    Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined...... cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary....... by transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary...

  9. Radiographic damage and progression of the cervical spine in ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with TNF-alpha inhibitors : Facet joints vs. vertebral bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Fiona; Spoorenberg, Anneke; Brouwer, Elisabeth; van der Veer, Eveline; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bos, Reinhard; Wink, Freke R.; Arends, Suzanne

    Objectives: To investigate radiographic damage and 4-year progression of the cervical facet joints in a prospective observational cohort of AS patients treated with TNF-alpha inhibitors, to compare this with damage and progression of the cervical vertebral bodies, and to study the relation with

  10. Fracture of the L-4 vertebral body after use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device in degenerative spondylolisthesis for anterior L3-4 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yoon-Kwang; Jang, Ju-Hee; Lee, Choon-Dae; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2014-06-01

    Many studies attest to the excellent results achieved using anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for degenerative spondylolisthesis. The purpose of this report is to document a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device for L3-4 ALIF. The patient, a 55-year-old man, had suffered intractable pain of the back, right buttock, and left leg for several weeks. Initial radiographs showed Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis, with instability in the sagittal plane (upon 15° rotation) and stenosis of central and both lateral recesses at the L3-4 level. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion of the affected vertebrae was subsequently conducted using a stand-alone cage/plate system. Postoperatively, the severity of spondylolisthesis diminished, with resolution of symptoms. However, the patient returned 2 months later with both leg weakness and back pain. Plain radiographs and CT indicated device failure due to anterior fracture of the L-4 vertebral body, and the spondylolisthesis had recurred. At this point, bilateral facetectomies were performed, with reduction/fixation of L3-4 by pedicle screws. Again, degenerative spondylolisthesis improved postsurgically and symptoms eased, with eventual healing of the vertebral body fracture. This report documents a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone device for ALIF at L3-4, likely as a consequence of angular instability in degenerative spondylolisthesis. Under such conditions, additional pedicle screw fixation is advised.

  11. Fully Automatic Localization and Segmentation of 3D Vertebral Bodies from CT/MR Images via a Learning-Based Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwen Chu

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problems of fully automatic localization and segmentation of 3D vertebral bodies from CT/MR images. We propose a learning-based, unified random forest regression and classification framework to tackle these two problems. More specifically, in the first stage, the localization of 3D vertebral bodies is solved with random forest regression where we aggregate the votes from a set of randomly sampled image patches to get a probability map of the center of a target vertebral body in a given image. The resultant probability map is then further regularized by Hidden Markov Model (HMM to eliminate potential ambiguity caused by the neighboring vertebral bodies. The output from the first stage allows us to define a region of interest (ROI for the segmentation step, where we use random forest classification to estimate the likelihood of a voxel in the ROI being foreground or background. The estimated likelihood is combined with the prior probability, which is learned from a set of training data, to get the posterior probability of the voxel. The segmentation of the target vertebral body is then done by a binary thresholding of the estimated probability. We evaluated the present approach on two openly available datasets: 1 3D T2-weighted spine MR images from 23 patients and 2 3D spine CT images from 10 patients. Taking manual segmentation as the ground truth (each MR image contains at least 7 vertebral bodies from T11 to L5 and each CT image contains 5 vertebral bodies from L1 to L5, we evaluated the present approach with leave-one-out experiments. Specifically, for the T2-weighted MR images, we achieved for localization a mean error of 1.6 mm, and for segmentation a mean Dice metric of 88.7% and a mean surface distance of 1.5 mm, respectively. For the CT images we achieved for localization a mean error of 1.9 mm, and for segmentation a mean Dice metric of 91.0% and a mean surface distance of 0.9 mm, respectively.

  12. Fully Automatic Localization and Segmentation of 3D Vertebral Bodies from CT/MR Images via a Learning-Based Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chengwen; Belavý, Daniel L; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Bansmann, Martin; Felsenberg, Dieter; Zheng, Guoyan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problems of fully automatic localization and segmentation of 3D vertebral bodies from CT/MR images. We propose a learning-based, unified random forest regression and classification framework to tackle these two problems. More specifically, in the first stage, the localization of 3D vertebral bodies is solved with random forest regression where we aggregate the votes from a set of randomly sampled image patches to get a probability map of the center of a target vertebral body in a given image. The resultant probability map is then further regularized by Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to eliminate potential ambiguity caused by the neighboring vertebral bodies. The output from the first stage allows us to define a region of interest (ROI) for the segmentation step, where we use random forest classification to estimate the likelihood of a voxel in the ROI being foreground or background. The estimated likelihood is combined with the prior probability, which is learned from a set of training data, to get the posterior probability of the voxel. The segmentation of the target vertebral body is then done by a binary thresholding of the estimated probability. We evaluated the present approach on two openly available datasets: 1) 3D T2-weighted spine MR images from 23 patients and 2) 3D spine CT images from 10 patients. Taking manual segmentation as the ground truth (each MR image contains at least 7 vertebral bodies from T11 to L5 and each CT image contains 5 vertebral bodies from L1 to L5), we evaluated the present approach with leave-one-out experiments. Specifically, for the T2-weighted MR images, we achieved for localization a mean error of 1.6 mm, and for segmentation a mean Dice metric of 88.7% and a mean surface distance of 1.5 mm, respectively. For the CT images we achieved for localization a mean error of 1.9 mm, and for segmentation a mean Dice metric of 91.0% and a mean surface distance of 0.9 mm, respectively.

  13. New Window into the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Michael Vannier, MD, a former NASA engineer, recognized the similarity between NASA's computerized image processing technology and nuclear magnetic resonance. With technical assistance from Kennedy Space Center, he developed a computer program for Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology enabling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to scan body tissue for earlier diagnoses. Dr. Vannier feels that "satellite imaging" has opened a new window into the human body.

  14. A bacteriophages journey through the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jeremy J

    2017-09-01

    The human body is colonized by a diverse collective of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The smallest entity of this microbial conglomerate are the bacterial viruses. Bacteriophages, or phages for short, exert significant selective pressure on their bacterial hosts, undoubtedly influencing the human microbiome and its impact on our health and well-being. Phages colonize all niches of the body, including the skin, oral cavity, lungs, gut, and urinary tract. As such our bodies are frequently and continuously exposed to diverse collections of phages. Despite the prevalence of phages throughout our bodies, the extent of their interactions with human cells, organs, and immune system is still largely unknown. Phages physically interact with our mucosal surfaces, are capable of bypassing epithelial cell layers, disseminate throughout the body and may manipulate our immune system. Here, I establish the novel concept of an "intra-body phageome," which encompasses the collection of phages residing within the classically "sterile" regions of the body. This review will take a phage-centric view of the microbiota, human body, and immune system with the ultimate goal of inspiring a greater appreciation for both the indirect and direct interactions between bacteriophages and their mammalian hosts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Vertebral chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Unni, Krishnan K. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral

  16. Radiographic damage and progression of the cervical spine in ankylosing spondylitis patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors: Facet joints vs. vertebral bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Fiona; Spoorenberg, Anneke; Brouwer, Elisabeth; van der Veer, Eveline; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bos, Reinhard; Wink, Freke R; Arends, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    To investigate radiographic damage and 4-year progression of the cervical facet joints in a prospective observational cohort of AS patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors, to compare this with damage and progression of the cervical vertebral bodies, and to study the relation with patient characteristics and clinical outcome. Patients from the Groningen Leeuwarden AS (GLAS) cohort starting TNF-α inhibitors with baseline and 4-year radiographs were included. Cervical facet joints and vertebral bodies were scored by two independent readers according to the method of de Vlam and mSASSS, respectively. At baseline, 25 of 99 (25%) AS patients had partial or complete ankylosis of the cervical facet joints, whereas 51 (52%) patients had non-bridging or bridging syndesmophytes of cervical vertebral bodies. During 4 years, 13 (13%) patients developed new (partial) ankylosis of the facet joints, whereas 26 (26%) developed new (bridging) syndesmophytes. Facet joint damage and progression without involvement of the vertebral bodies were seen in 5 (5%) and 8 (8%) patients, respectively. Damage of facet joints was associated with longer disease duration, history of IBD/uveitis/psoriasis, higher disease activity, larger occiput-to-wall distance, higher mSASSS, and presence of syndesmophytes. Progression of the facet joints was associated with larger occiput-to-wall distance and more facet joint damage at baseline. Cervical facet joints were frequently involved in AS. During 4 years of TNF-α blocking therapy, 13% of the patients showed radiographic progression of cervical facet joints of which the majority did not show progression of vertebral bodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING IN THE EVALUATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF THE VERTEBRAL BODIES OF THE LUMBAR SPINE WITH BONE MINERAL DENSITY REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Myagkov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to study the morphological and structural changes of the vertebral bodies in patients with different bone mineral density by MRI. Materials and methods. 81 patients with different bone mineral density (BMD of the vertebral bodies of the lumbar spine (LS had taken part in the study. Osteopenia was diagnosed in 33 patients, 28 have osteoporosis and 20 patients without evidence of osteoporosis (according to the DXA, which was made all the investigated were in the control group. 69 of them were women and 12 men with a mean age 49,6 ± 7,6 years (control group, 56,5 ± 9,8 years (patients with osteopenia, 66,0 ± 9,4 years (with osteoporosis. All patients underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. DXA has been made on the unit «Lunar PRODIGY Primo DHA» (analysis version: 11.40 manufacture GE Healthcare, according to the standard protocol with the definition of osteoporosis by WHO (1994. In this case, average bone mineral density BMD (g/cm2 in the bodies of L1-L4 were: in healthy ones -1,232 ± 0,06; when osteopenia - 1,032 ± 0,07; osteoporosis - 0,757 ± 0,08. The average T -test was consistent, respectively: T - 1,27 ± 0,71; T - 1,40 ± 011 , T - 3,09 ± 1,73. The difference in BMD between I and II groups was 16,2 % , between I and III groups - 25%. MRI morphometry in patients with osteopenia changes of the vertebral bodies were accompanied by POP: marked reduction in the average height of the vertebral bodies, more pronounced than in osteoporosis, a slight drop height of the front body, reducing of the Barnett-Nordin index (B/N - 0,84. Osteopenia significantly correlated with BMD of vertebral body height rear L1, the index of B/N in the body of L4. In osteoporosis MRI morphometry data were characterized by the fact that the front and the average height of the vertebral bodies were not changed significantly. In patients with osteoporosis BMD was significantly correlated with rear

  18. Tratamento de osteoma osteóide de corpo vertebral da coluna lombar por ablação por radiofreqüência Treatment of osteoid osteoma of the lumbar spine vertebral body with radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de Barros Filho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo descreveremos um raro caso de osteoma osteóide de corpo vertebral da quarta vértebra lombar com epidemiologia não usual (42 anos, diagnosticado através da história clínica, exame físico, cintilografia, tomografia e ressonância magnética. O diagnóstico foi confirmado por biópsia guiada por tomografia, e o tratamento minimamente invasivo efetuado com sucesso através da abalação com radiofreqüência guiada por tomografia.In this article, we will describe a rare case of an osteoid osteoma of the fourth lumbar vertebra's vertebral body with unusual epidemiology (42 years old, diagnosed through clinical history, physical examination, scintiscan, tomography, and magnetic resonance. Diagnosis was confirmed by tomography-guided biopsy and minimally invasive therapy successfully provided through tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation.

  19. Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikowski, A; Grammer, K

    1999-05-07

    Several studies have found body and facial symmetry as well as attractiveness to be human mate choice criteria. These characteristics are presumed to signal developmental stability. Human body odour has been shown to influence female mate choice depending on the immune system, but the question of whether smell could signal general mate quality, as do other cues, was not addressed in previous studies. We compared ratings of body odour, attractiveness, and measurements of facial and body asymmetry of 16 male and 19 female subjects. Subjects wore a T-shirt for three consecutive nights under controlled conditions. Opposite-sex raters judged the odour of the T-shirts and another group evaluated portraits of the subjects for attractiveness. We measured seven bilateral traits of the subject's body to assess body asymmetry. Facial asymmetry was examined by distance measurements of portrait photographs. The results showed a significant positive correlation between facial attractiveness and sexiness of body odour for female subjects. We found positive relationships between body odour and attractiveness and negative ones between smell and body asymmetry for males only if female odour raters were in the most fertile phase of their menstrual cycle. The outcomes are discussed in the light of different male and female reproductive strategies.

  20. Building the Vertebrate Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead

  1. Biological effects of exposure to static electric fields in humans and vertebrates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Schmiedchen, Kristina; Stunder, Dominik; Dechent, Dagmar; Kraus, Thomas; Bailey, William H; Driessen, Sarah

    2017-04-17

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines are the technology of choice for the transport of large amounts of energy over long distances. The operation of these lines produces static electric fields (EF), but the data reviewed in previous assessments were not sufficient to assess the need for any environmental limit. The aim of this systematic review was to update the current state of research and to evaluate biological effects of static EF. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) recommendations, we collected and evaluated experimental and epidemiological studies examining biological effects of exposure to static EF in humans (n = 8) and vertebrates (n = 40). There is good evidence that humans and animals are able to perceive the presence of static EF at sufficiently high levels. Hair movements caused by electrostatic forces may play a major role in this perception. A large number of studies reported responses of animals (e.g., altered metabolic, immunologic or developmental parameters) to a broad range of static EF strengths as well, but these responses are likely secondary physiological responses to sensory stimulation. Furthermore, the quality of many of the studies reporting physiological responses is poor, which raises concerns about confounding. The weight of the evidence from the literature reviewed did not indicate that static EF have adverse biological effects in humans or animals. The evidence strongly supported the role of superficial sensory stimulation of hair and skin as the basis for perception of the field, as well as reported indirect behavioral and physiological responses. Physical considerations also preclude any direct effect of static EF on internal physiology, and reports that some physiological processes are affected in minor ways may be explained by other factors. While this literature does not support a level of concern about biological effects of exposure to static EF, the conditions

  2. HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELL CONTENT OF VERTEBRAL BODY MARROW USED FOR COMBINED SOLID ORGAN AND BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Witold B.; Fontes, Paulo A.; Rao, Abdul S.; Winkelstein, Alan; Ricordi, Camillo; Ball, Edward D.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    While cadaveric vertebral bodies (VB) have long been proposed as a suitable source of bone marrow (BM) for transplantation (BMT), they have rarely been used for this purpose. We have infused VB BM immediately following whole organ (WO) transplantation to augment donor cell chimerism. We quantified the hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) content of VB BM as well as BM obtained from the iliac crests (IC) of normal allogeneic donors (ALLO) and from patients with malignancy undergoing autologous marrow harvest (AUTO). Patients undergoing WOIBM transplantation also had AUTO BM harvested in the event that subsequent lymphohematopoietic reconstitution was required. Twenty-four VB BM, 24 IC BM-ALLO, 31 IC AUTO, and 24 IC WO-AUTO were harvested. VB BM was tested 12 to 72 hr after procurement and infused after completion ofWO grafting. IC BM was tested and then used or cryopreserved immediately. HPC were quantified by clonal assay measuring CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-GEMM, and by flow cytometry for CD34+ progenitor cells. On an average, 9 VB were processed during each harvest, and despite an extended processing time the number of viable nucleated cells obtained was significantly higher than that from IC. Furthermore, by HPC content, VB BM was equivalent to IC BM, which is routinely used for BMT. We conclude that VB BM is a clinically valuable source of BM for allogeneic transplantation. PMID:7701582

  3. Effect of melatonin on the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes from rat vertebral body growth plate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Li, Tao; Xu, Zi-Xing; Meng, Ting-Ting; Zeng, Ji-Huan; Zheng, Shuai; Ye, Wen-Bin; Wu, Qian; Chen, Jian-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal growth of vertebral body growth plate (VBGP) is considered as one of the etiologic factors in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). It was well-known that melatonin was correlated with the emergence and development of AIS. This study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on rat VBGP chondrocytes in vitro. Chondrocytes were isolated from rat VBGP, and treated with or without melatonin. Cell proliferation was measured by the Alamar Blue assay. Gene expression of collagen type II and aggrecan were evaluated by real-time PCR. Expression of the melatonin receptors (MT1, MT2), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, a cell proliferation marker), Sox9 (a chondrocytic differentiation marker) and Smad4 (a common mediator in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes) were detected by Western blotting. Expression of melatonin receptors (MT1, MT2) were detected in the rat VBGP chondrocytes. Melatonin, at 10 and 100 µg/mL concentration, significantly inhibited the proliferation of VBGP-chondrocytes and the gene expression of collagen type II and aggrecan, and down-regulated the protein expression of PCNA, Sox9 and Smad4. In addition, the inhibitory effect of melatonin was reversed by luzindole, a melatonin receptor antagonist. These results suggest that melatonin at high concentrations can inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of VBGP chondrocytes, which might give some new insight into the pathogenic mechanism of AIS.

  4. Radiological Results and Clinical Patient Outcome After Implantation of a Hydraulic Expandable Vertebral Body Replacement following Traumatic Vertebral Fractures in the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine: A 3-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinest, Michael; Schmahl, Dorothee; Grützner, Paul A; Matschke, Stefan

    2017-04-15

    A prospective monocentric study. The aim of the current study was the analysis of patient outcome and radiological results 3 years after implantation of a hydraulic expandable vertebral body replacement (VBR) system. Around 70% to 90% of all traumatic spinal fractures are located in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Dorso-ventral stabilization is a frequently used procedure in traumatic vertebral body fracture treatment. VBR systems can be used to bridge bony defects. In the current study, a new VBR expanded by water pressure with adjustable endplates is used. All patients who suffered a singular traumatic fracture to a thoracic or lumbar vertebral body (Th 5-L 5) in the period from November 2009 to December 2010 and (i) underwent dorsal instrumentation and (ii) afterwards received the implantation of a hydraulic VBR were included in this study. The clinical outcome (visual analogue scale [VAS] spine score, questionnaire) and radiological findings (sagittal angle, implant subsidence, and implant position) 3 years after implantation were analyzed. The follow-up was successful for n = 47 patients (follow-up rate: 89%). Most of the patients (n = 40) were "generally/very satisfied" with their outcome. The mean rating of the VAS spine score was 65.2 ± 23.1 (range: 20.5-100.0). The analysis of the radiological data showed an average subsidence of the implants of 1.1 ± 1.2 mm (range 0.0-5.0 mm). After the initial operation, the local sagittal angle remained stable in the follow-up 3 years later both for the thoracic spine and lumbar spine. Furthermore, no change in the implant's position was observed. The implantation of a hydraulically expandable VBR allows a permanent stable fixation after traumatic fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine. 2.

  5. On the use of volumetric-modulated arc therapy for single-fraction thoracic vertebral metastases stereotactic body radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Damodar; Sood, Sumit; McClinton, Christopher; Shen, Xinglei; Badkul, Rajeev; Jiang, Hongyu; Mallory, Matthew; Mitchell, Mellissa; Wang, Fen; Lominska, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate quality, efficiency, and delivery accuracy of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for single-fraction treatment of thoracic vertebral metastases using image-guided stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRS) after RTOG 0631 dosimetric compliance criteria. After obtaining credentialing for MD Anderson spine phantom irradiation validation, 10 previously treated patients with thoracic vertebral metastases with noncoplanar hybrid arcs using 1 to 2 3D-conformal partial arcs plus 7 to 9 intensity-modulated radiation therapy beams were retrospectively re-optimized with VMAT using 3 full coplanar arcs. Tumors were located between T2 and T12. Contrast-enhanced T1/T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were coregistered with planning computed tomography and planning target volumes (PTV) were between 14.4 and 230.1cc (median = 38.0cc). Prescription dose was 16Gy in 1 fraction with 6MV beams at Novalis-TX linear accelerator consisting of micro multileaf collimators. Each plan was assessed for target coverage using conformality index, the conformation number, the ratio of the volume receiving 50% of the prescription dose over PTV, R50%, homogeneity index (HI), and PTV_1600 coverage per RTOG 0631 requirements. Organs-at-risk doses were evaluated for maximum doses to spinal cord (D0.03cc, D0.35cc), partial spinal cord (D10%), esophagus (D0.03cc and D5cc), heart (D0.03cc and D15cc), and lung (V5, V10, and maximum dose to 1000cc of lung). Dose delivery efficiency and accuracy of each VMAT-SBRS plan were assessed using quality assurance (QA) plan on MapCHECK device. Total beam-on time was recorded during QA procedure, and a clinical gamma index (2%/2mm and 3%/3mm) was used to compare agreement between planned and measured doses. All 10 VMAT-SBRS plans met RTOG 0631 dosimetric requirements for PTV coverage. The plans demonstrated highly conformal and homogenous coverage of the vertebral PTV with mean HI, conformality index, conformation number, and R50

  6. [The solidarity of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioy, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    The legal and bioethical regulation of the uses of the elements of the human body can be described by means of the concept of solidarity. From the French example, we can so show that the State tries to frame solidarities which already exist, for example between people who share the same genome, in the family, or, on the contrary, tent to impose or to direct the sharing of the human biological resources (organs, tissues, gametes, stem cell...).

  7. Radiofrequency Kyphoplasty for the Treatment of Osteoporotic and Neoplastic Vertebral Body Fractures - Preliminary Experience and Clinical Results after 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgeti F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebroplasty and conventional kyphoplasty using a balloon or a stent are established methods for the treatment of painful osteoporotic or neoplastic vertebral compression fractures that are resistant to conservative medical treatment. Radiofrequency (RF kyphoplasty with ultra-high viscosity cement is an innovative method. It permits safe and effective treatment of painful osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral compression fractures while preserving non-compromised cancellous bone.

  8. Development of an experimental model of burst fracture with damage characterization of the vertebral bodies under dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaneau, A; Vendeuvre, T; Saget, M; Doumalin, P; Dupré, J C; Brémand, F; Hesser, F; Brèque, C; Maxy, P; Roulaud, M; Monlezun, O; Rigoard, P

    2017-11-01

    Burst fractures represent a significant proportion of fractures of the thoracolumbar junction. The recent advent of minimally invasive techniques has revolutionized the surgical treatment of this type of fracture. However mechanical behaviour and primary stability offered by these solutions have to be proved from experimental validation tests on cadaveric specimens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an original and reproducible model of burst fracture under dynamic impact. Experimental tests were performed on 24 cadaveric spine segments (T11-L3). A system of dynamic loading was developed using a modified Charpy pendulum. The mechanical response of the segments (strain measurement on vertebrae and discs) was obtained during the impact by using an optical method with a high-speed camera. The production of burst fracture was validated by an analysis of the segments by X-ray tomography. Burst fracture was systematically produced on L1 for each specimen. Strain analysis during impact highlighted the large deformation of L1 due to the fracture and small strains in adjacent vertebrae. The mean reduction of the vertebral body of L1 assessed for all the specimens was around 15%. No damage was observed in adjacent discs or vertebrae. With this new, reliable and replicable procedure for production and biomechanical analysis of burst fractures, comparison of different types of stabilization systems can be envisaged. The loading system was designed so as to be able to produce loads leading to other types of fractures and to provide data to validate finite element modelling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Successful treatment of a T4 lung tumor with vertebral body invasion using fiducial markers in the thoracic spine for image-guided radiation therapy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solin Lawrence J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Paravertebral and paraspinal tumors pose a significant challenge in radiation therapy because of the radiation sensitivity of the spinal cord and the need for maximum treatment accuracy. Implantation of fiducial markers into vertebral bodies has been described as a method of increasing the accuracy of radiation treatment for single-dose stereotactic radiosurgery for spinal and paraspinal primary tumors and metastases. However, utilization of this technique has not been described for conventionally fractionated radiation therapy. This report is the first of its kind in the literature and describes successful treatment of a T4 primary lung tumor with vertebral body invasion with conventionally fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy using fiducial markers implanted in the thoracic spine. Case presentation Our patient was a 47-year-old African-American man who presented to our hospital with a history of several months of increasing left arm pain, chest pain, dyspnea on exertion, occasional dry cough, and weight loss. He was found to have stage IIIA T4, N0, M0 lung cancer with vertebral body invasion. He had fiducial markers placed in the thoracic spine for image-guided radiation treatment set-up. The patient received 74 Gy radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy, and daily matching of the fiducial markers on the treatment machine allowed for treatment of the tumor while sparing the dose to the adjacent spinal cord. With one year of clinical follow-up, the patient has had regression of the tumor with only asymmetric soft-tissue thickening seen on a computed tomographic scan and grade 1 dyspnea on exertion as the only side effects of the treatment. Conclusion Fiducial marker placement is a safe and effective technique for maximizing the accuracy and reproducibility for radiation treatment of lesions near the spinal cord. This technique may be used in conventionally fractionated radiation treatment regimens, such as those

  10. Human bipedalism and body-mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Su Do; Noh, Jae Dong; Minnhagen, Petter; Song, Mi-Young; Chon, Tae-Soo; Kim, Beom Jun

    2017-06-16

    Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H (2) with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H (p) and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously. In contrast, human populations are different: As young infants grow to become toddlers and keep growing, the sudden change of p is observed at about one year after birth. Infants younger than one year old exhibit significantly larger value of p than two, while children between one and five years old show p ≈ 2, sharply different from other animal species. The observation implies the importance of the upright posture of human individuals. We also propose a simple mechanical model for a human body and suggest that standing and walking upright should put a clear division between bipedal human (p ≈ 2) and other animals (p ≈ 3).

  11. Visuals and Visualisation of Human Body Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Sindhu; Ramadas, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of diagrams and text in middle school students' understanding and visualisation of human body systems. We develop a common framework based on structure and function to assess students' responses across diagram and verbal modes. Visualisation is defined in terms of understanding transformations on structure and relating…

  12. Mathematical human body modelling for impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of the human body is widely used for automotive crash safety research and design. Simulations have contributed to a reduction of injury numbers by optimisation of vehicle structures and restraint systems. Currently such simulations are largely performed using occupant models

  13. Thermodynamics of Cooling a (Live) Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Harold

    1980-01-01

    Presents a practical problem to students in a junior-level thermodynamics course in which a human body regulates its own internal temperature. This problem can be utilized as well (with modification) in an introductory physics course for life science majors. (HM)

  14. Bone creep can cause progressive vertebral deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollintine, Phillip; Luo, Jin; Offa-Jones, Ben; Dolan, Patricia; Adams, Michael A

    2009-09-01

    Vertebral deformities in elderly people are conventionally termed "fractures", but their onset is often insidious, suggesting that time-dependent (creep) processes may also be involved. Creep has been studied in small samples of bone, but nothing is known about creep deformity of whole vertebrae, or how it might be influenced by bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesise that sustained compressive loading can cause progressive and measurable creep deformity in elderly human vertebrae. 27 thoracolumbar "motion segments" (two vertebrae and the intervening disc and ligaments) were dissected from 20 human cadavers aged 42-91 yrs. A constant compressive force of approximately 1.0 kN was applied to each specimen for either 0.5 h or 2 h, while the anterior, middle and posterior heights of each of the 54 vertebral bodies were measured at 1 Hz using a MacReflex 2D optical tracking system. This located 6 reflective markers attached to the lateral cortex of each vertebral body, with resolution better than 10 microm. Experiments were at laboratory temperature, and polythene film was used to minimise water loss. Volumetric BMD was calculated for each vertebral body, using DXA to measure mineral content, and water immersion for volume. In the 0.5 h tests, creep deformation in the anterior, middle and posterior vertebral cortex averaged 4331, 1629 and 614 micro-strains respectively, where 10,000 micro-strains represents 1% loss in height. Anterior creep strains exceeded posterior (Pspecimens with average BMDfracture.

  15. Energy Generation in the Human Body by the Human Cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We adapted the thermodynamics equation for energy generation in a diesel engine in modeling energy generation in human body by the human cells by doing a thorough study on both systems and saw that the process of energy generation is the same in them. We equally saw that the stages involved in energy generation ...

  16. [Microbiota and representations of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodet, Betty

    2016-11-01

    Although the presence of an intestinal flora has been known for a long time, the discovery of the role of gut microbiota in human health and disease has been widely recognized as one of the most important advances in the recent years. Chronic diseases may result from dysbiosis, i.e. a disruption of the balance within the bacterial population hosted by the human body. These developments open new prospects in terms of prevention and treatment, including the design of adapted diets, the development of functional foods and fecal transplantation. These discoveries have profoundly altered our view of microbes, of health and disease, of self and non-self, as well as our representations of the body and its relationship with its ecosystem. Gut microbiota is now generally considered as an organ in its own right. A model of the "microbiotic person" thus arises, in which the human organism is defined as an ecosystem, a chimeric superorganism with a double genome, both human and microbial. Thought should be given to the way in which these new paradigms modify lay perceptions of the human body. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  17. Radiofrequency kyphoplasty: a new method for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licht AW

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From January 2005 to December 2008, a total of 148 patients with 205 vertebral fractures were treated with the balloon kyphoplasty system of Medtronic Company at the Asklepios Südpfalzkliniken in Kandel. The outcome of the procedure was favourable. During this period, cement leakages were observed in 27 % of cases, and a pulmonary embolism requiring intervention occurred in one case. Since February 2009, 21 patients with 26 vertebral fractures have been manutreated by the new radiofrequency kyphoplasty procedure of DFine Company. Very good clinical results have been obtained with this method.

  18. EFFECT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS ON HISTOARCHITECTONICS AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF BONE TISSUE OF THE VERTEBRAL BODY RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Lukanina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with study an influence of the oxidative stress on morphofunctional characteris-tics and elemental composition of bone tissue of the vertebral body rats.Material and methods. The research carried out on male rats of the Wistar line with weight 250–300 g. All rats were categorized into 4 groups with 10 ones in each: 1 – intact group; 2 and 3 – experimental groups; 4 – control group. Rats from groups 2–4 were under the development of oxidized stress which caused by daily stomach-pump injection (during fortnight with aqua suspension of synthetic glucocorticoid “Prednisolone” in dose 50 mg/kg. Through three hours after “Prednisolone” the antioxidant “Tiophan” was injected by stomach-pump (dose 100 mg/kg, which was dissolved in 0.2 ml of vegetation oil to laboratory animals from the group 2. Rats from control group got only solvent (vegetative oil 0.2 ml according the same scheme. Three hours after “Prednisolone” to rats from group 3 were injected of 0.2 ml aquaFontana. It was made for purity the experiment and standartization of manipulations, which are connected with injections into rats’ organisms. The peculiarities of structure of bone tissue of vertebra have been studied by methods of morphohystochemical analysis. The elemental composition of bone tissue was defined by atom-emission analysis method with inductive coupled plasma (spectrometer OPTIMA, code of methodics KHA: MUK.4.1.1482-03.Results. A development of glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress results to infraction the histoarchitectonics of bone tissue of vertebra and decreasing the content of cations, which are included to the composition of active centres of pherments of antioxidant protection and prosthetic groups of proteins with an antioxidant activity. Using the antioxidant “Tiophan” proved an existence of its expressed osteoprotective properties. This can be seen from decreasing a level of resorbtion of bone tissue of

  19. Sagittal whole-spine magnetic resonance imaging in 750 consecutive outpatients: accurate determination of the number of lumbar vertebral bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Eric H; Mishra, Rahul K; Chang, David S; Perkins, Thomas G; Bonifield, Daniel R; Tandy, Richard D; Cartwright, Peter E; Peoples, Randal R; Orrison, William W

    2010-01-01

    When the number of lumbar and sacral vertebrae is being assessed, variations from typical lumbosacral anatomy may confuse the practitioner, potentially leading to significant clinical errors. In this study, the authors describe the statistical variation in lumbar spine anatomy in an outpatient imaging setting, evaluate the potential implications for clinical practice based on the variation in the number of lumbar-type vertebrae identified, and recommend a method for rapidly determining the number of lumbar spine vertebral bodies (VBs) in outpatients referred for lumbar spine MR imaging. A total of 762 patients (male and female) who presented with low back-related medical conditions underwent whole-spine MR imaging in an outpatient setting. The high-speed whole-spine evaluation was successful for determining the number of lumbar-type VBs in 750 (98%) of 762 consecutive patients. The sagittal whole-spine 3-T MR imaging system images obtained between the beginning of January 2005 and the end of February 2007 were reviewed. The VBs were counted successively from the level of C-2 inferiorly to the intervertebral disc below the most inferior lumbar-type VB. Numbers of disc herniations were also evaluated in the context of the number of VBs. One in 5 of these outpatients did not have 5 lumbar-type vertebrae: 14.5% had 6; 5.3% had 4; and 1 (0.13%) had the rare finding of 3 lumbar-type vertebrae. Two-thirds of the individuals with 6 lumbar-type vertebrae were male and two-thirds of the individuals with 4 lumbar-type vertebrae were female. Sagittal whole-spine MR imaging can be performed rapidly and efficiently in the majority of patients (98%), and provides improved accuracy for the determination of the number of lumbar-type VBs. A supplementary coronal MR, Ferguson view radiograph or intraoperative fluoroscopic determination for the presence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae may add additional information when indicated for clinical treatment or surgical planning.

  20. The impact of direct vertebral body derotation on the lumbar prominence in Lenke Type 5C curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Steven W; Dubaz, Ornella M; Ames, Robert; Rothkrug, Alex; Kimball, Jeff S; Samdani, Amer F

    2012-10-01

    The thoracic rib hump, caused by axial rotation of the spine, is one of the most dissatisfying cosmetic features associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, advances in instrumentation and surgical techniques, such as direct vertebral body derotation (DVBD), have allowed improved correction in the axial plane and the rib hump. In cases of thoracolumbar/lumbar curves (Lenke Type 5), the lumbar prominence can be equally disfiguring and is often associated with waist asymmetry, another cosmetic concern. Although DVBD has been evaluated in the thoracic spine, little is known about its impact on the lumbar spine. The authors investigated the outcomes of DVBD on the lumbar prominence. A prospectively collected multicenter database was queried for pediatric patients with AIS and Lenke Type 5 curves. All patients who underwent thoracoplasty procedures were excluded. A total of 34 patients underwent surgical correction via a posterior-only approach using pedicle screw constructs. Nineteen patients underwent concurrent DVBD, and the remaining 15 patients served as a control group and did not undergo DVBD. All patients had a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. The mean age of the entire cohort was 14.9 ± 2.3 years, and the majority of patients were female (88%). All patients had Lenke Type 5C curves with a mean major curve of 46.0° ± 8.7°, which corrected to 13.7° ± 7.2° (70% correction). A mean of 10.7 ± 3.0 levels were fused. Only thoracic kyphosis was significantly different between the groups preoperatively. Similarly, postoperative radiographic parameters were comparable between the groups, with equivalent percentages of correction. Although improvement in the thoracic rib hump was comparable between the groups, the DVBD group had 56.2% correction of the lumbar prominence, and the control group had 76% improvement (p = 0.05). Although DVBD has been a valuable tool in the management of AIS, the authors' results suggest that its application for

  1. Centralized Networks to Generate Human Body Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakulenko, Sergei; Radulescu, Ovidiu; Morozov, Ivan; Weber, Andres

    2017-12-14

    We consider continuous-time recurrent neural networks as dynamical models for the simulation of human body motions. These networks consist of a few centers and many satellites connected to them. The centers evolve in time as periodical oscillators with different frequencies. The center states define the satellite neurons' states by a radial basis function (RBF) network. To simulate different motions, we adjust the parameters of the RBF networks. Our network includes a switching module that allows for turning from one motion to another. Simulations show that this model allows us to simulate complicated motions consisting of many different dynamical primitives. We also use the model for learning human body motion from markers' trajectories. We find that center frequencies can be learned from a small number of markers and can be transferred to other markers, such that our technique seems to be capable of correcting for missing information resulting from sparse control marker settings.

  2. [The microbiotics of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bik, E M

    2008-03-22

    --Our bodies are home to complex microbial communities. --In most samples, a greater microbial diversity is revealed by using culture-independent, molecular techniques than by conventional methods. --The composition of the human-associated microbiota differs in each individual, and at each anatomical site within an individual. --The intestinal colonization of newborn infants seems to be driven by environmental factors and random processes, rather than by the composition of the parent's microbial communities. --A set of fraternal twins showed almost identical microbial communities. --Investigating the composition of the human-associated microbiota will enable us to better understand the role of commensals in health and disease.

  3. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  4. Static histomorphometry of human iliac crest and vertebral trabecular bone: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    We recently developed a new, rapid method for conducting static histomorphometry on large histologic sections. This method has now been applied on both iliac crest and lumbar vertebral bone to compare the age-related changes at these two skeletal sites and to investigate the correlation between...

  5. [Survival Strategies of Aspergillus in the Human Body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Masato; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

     The human body is a hostile environment for Aspergillus species, which originally live outside the human body. There are lots of elimination mechanisms against Aspergillus inhaled into the human body, such as high body temperature, soluble lung components, mucociliary clearance mechanism, or responses of phagocytes. Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the primary causative agent of human infections among the human pathogenic species of Aspergillus, defend itself from the hostile human body environment by various mechanisms, such as thermotolerance, mycotoxin production, and characteristic morphological features. Here we review mechanisms of defense in Aspergillus against elimination from the human body.

  6. [An interactive three-dimensional model of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, S L

    2009-01-01

    Driven by advanced computer technology, it is now possible to show the human anatomy on a computer. On the internet, the Visible Body programme makes it possible to navigate in all directions through the anatomical structures of the human body, using mouse and keyboard. Visible Body is a wonderful tool to give insight in the human structures, body functions and organs.

  7. Assessment methods in human body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Recent findings Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. Summary There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth. PMID:18685451

  8. Assessment methods in human body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2008-09-01

    The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth.

  9. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference, it is demo......This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference......, it is demonstrated that Scandinavian and English systems differ significantly in some aspects of the way in which the construe the human body with words. The study ventures an innovative combination of methods, pairing the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach to linguistic and conceptual analysis...... with empirical evidence from the Evolution of Semantic Systems (EoSS) project. This combination of empirical and interpretative tools helps to integrate evidence from semantics and semiotics, pinning out in great detail the intricacies of the meanings of particular body words. The paper concludes that body words...

  10. Post-human body and beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Maria Teresa; Di Stefano, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The article calls into question the very possibility of a post-human aesthetics, starting from the following premise: rather than post-human, it is more correct to speak of post-natural, indicating by this expression a reality produced through a new type of evolution, which does not simply change human nature, but de-natures it, radically transforming it into an artefact. This post-nature which aspires to be perfect, immortal, invulnerable, is entirely devoid of beauty. In fact, while there may be an aesthetic of the artificial and of the artefact if it is in relation to objects, there is, however, no aesthetic of the post-human body. This is because is configured as a non-body and does not have the characteristics for what is commonly intended as beauty (harmony between matter and form, a reflection of inner life, uniqueness). Also in this case, it is more correct to speak of post-beauty, which in its properties appears to be the mirror image of beauty and ultimately, represents its complete dissolution.

  11. Evaluation of Three Human Cervical Fusion Implants for Use in the Canine Cervical Vertebral Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Emily J; Litsky, Alan S; Allen, Matthew J; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Hettlich, Bianca F

    2016-10-01

    To assess technical feasibility and mechanical properties of 3 locking plate designs (Zero-P, Zero-P VA, and Uniplate 2) for use in the canine cervical spine. Prospective ex vivo study. Cadaver cervical spines from skeletally mature large breed dogs (n = 18). Specimens were screened using radiography and allocated into balanced groups based on bone density. Stiffness of intact C4-C5 vertebral motion units was measured in extension, flexion, and lateral bending using nondestructive 4-point bend testing. Uniplate 2 was then implanted at C4-C5 and mechanical testing was repeated. Mechanical test data were compared against those from 6 spines implanted with monocortical screws, an allograft ring spacer, and PMMA. The Zero-P and Zero-P VA systems could not be surgically implanted due to anatomical constraints in the vertebral column sizes of the canine cervical spines used in this study. Fixation with Uniplate 2 or with screws/PMMA significantly increased stiffness of the C4-C5 vertebral motion units compared to unaltered specimens (P dogs requiring cervical fusion. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. [Human body structure in Su Wen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shizhe

    2011-05-01

    The ancient medical book Su Wen states that the human is a dual composition of physical and spiritual bodies. Thus, if only physical perspectives were applied to interpret its medical terms, confusion would result because of the misunderstanding of spiritual terms. The descriptions in Su Wen didn't show a complete anatomy system or at least at organ levels. The fragments of its context revealed proofs of gross anatomical studies with measurement in ancient China. Su Wen was not a special work for the circulatory route of the channels, so the anatomy terms used was simple. The anatomy position of the body couldn't be judged. The elementary superficial anatomy system formed, which can be traced from the superficial anatomy locations expounded in the book.

  13. [The human body in Michelangelo's Moses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2013-10-01

    What grips us so powerfully to a work of art is the artist's intention, if he succeeds to express it in his work and we are able to understand it. Michelangelo's Moses established the essential structures of an animate organism and the embodiment of consciousness in the world. Since the body is an expressive unit, it is possible to reconstruct a highly feasible sequence of movements that might have preceded the moment caught in the statue. It is an expression of the highest ideal of mental and spiritual achievement through the controlled tension between action and restraint. The phenomenon of embodiment and feeling the body as own is the basis of concrete human existence.

  14. Thermometry during coblation and radiofrequency ablation of vertebral metastases: a cadaver study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groetz, Simon F; Birnbaum, Klaus; Meyer, Carsten; Strunk, Holger; Schild, Hans H; Wilhelm, Kai E

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate safety of coblation of simulated lytic metastases in human cadaveric vertebral bodies by measuring heat distribution during thermal tissue ablation and comparing it to radiofrequency ablation (RFA...

  15. Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Karol

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1—effect of earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2—effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3—effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4—effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5—effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Results Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Conclusions Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems. PMID:21469913

  16. Earthing the human body influences physiologic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments: Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1-effect of earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2-effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3-effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4-effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5-effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems.

  17. Does pedicle screw fixation of the subaxial cervical spine provide adequate stabilization in a multilevel vertebral body fracture model? An in vitro biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, John; Hussain, Mir M; Klocke, Noelle; Harris, Jonathan A; Yandamuri, Soumya S; Bobinski, Lukas; Daniel, Roy T; Bucklen, Brandon S

    2018-02-14

    Cervical vertebral body fractures generally are treated through an anterior-posterior approach. Cervical pedicle screws offer an alternative to circumferential fixation. This biomechanical study quantifies whether cervical pedicle screws alone can restore the stability of a three-column vertebral body fracture, making standard 360° reconstruction unnecessary. Range of motion (2.0 Nm) in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation was tested on 10 cadaveric specimens (five/group) at C2-T1 with a spine kinematics simulator. Specimens were tested for flexibility of intact when a fatigue protocol with instrumentation was used to evaluate construct longevity. For a C4-6 fracture, spines were instrumented with 360° reconstruction (corpectomy spacer + plate + lateral mass screws) (Group 1) or cervical pedicle screw reconstruction (C3 and C7 only) (Group 2). Results are expressed as percentage of intact (100%). In Group 1, 360° reconstruction resulted in decreased motion during flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, to 21.5%, 14.1%, and 48.6%, respectively, following 18,000 cycles of flexion-extension testing. In Group 2, cervical pedicle screw reconstruction led to reduced motion after cyclic flexion-extension testing, to 38.4%, 12.3%, and 51.1% during flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, respectively. The 360° stabilization procedure provided the greatest initial stability. Cervical pedicle screw reconstruction resulted in less change in motion following cyclic loading with less variation from specimen to specimen, possibly caused by loosening of the shorter lateral mass screws. Cervical pedicle screw stabilization may be a viable alternative to 360° reconstruction for restoring multilevel vertebral body fracture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. [Effects of a combined regime of auricular-plaster and body acupuncture in treatment of cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Lan; Zhong, Yuan-Ming; Peng, Guo-Min; Wan, Yi-Gang

    2006-10-01

    To study effects of a combined regime of auricular-plaster and body acupuncture in treatment of cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type and make a preliminary revelation of the mechanism. Ninety-two patients were randomly divided into 2 groups, the treatment group (n = 56) received the combined regime of auricular-plaster and body acupuncture, and the control group (n = 36) received treatment with body acupuncture. Clinical symptoms and signs, therapeutic effect and some indexes about vertebrobasilar hema-kinetics and hema-rheology were investigated before and after treatment. The treatment group was better than the control group in the clinical overall effective rate (89.29%) and the clinically control rate (17. 85%), and in improving the following indexes, including dizziness and headache, the vertebrobasilar volume and rate of blood flow etab and IR (P Malaysia and in China.

  19. Their loss is our gain: regressive evolution in vertebrates provides genomic models for uncovering human disease loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerling, Christopher A; Widjaja, Andrew D; Nguyen, Nancy N; Springer, Mark S

    2017-12-01

    Throughout Earth's history, evolution's numerous natural 'experiments' have resulted in a diverse range of phenotypes. Though de novo phenotypes receive widespread attention, degeneration of traits inherited from an ancestor is a very common, yet frequently neglected, evolutionary path. The latter phenomenon, known as regressive evolution, often results in vertebrates with phenotypes that mimic inherited disease states in humans. Regressive evolution of anatomical and/or physiological traits is typically accompanied by inactivating mutations underlying these traits, which frequently occur at loci identical to those implicated in human diseases. Here we discuss the potential utility of examining the genomes of vertebrates that have experienced regressive evolution to inform human medical genetics. This approach is low cost and high throughput, giving it the potential to rapidly improve knowledge of disease genetics. We discuss two well-described examples, rod monochromacy (congenital achromatopsia) and amelogenesis imperfecta, to demonstrate the utility of this approach, and then suggest methods to equip non-experts with the ability to corroborate candidate genes and uncover new disease loci. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Deformable registration for image-guided spine surgery: preserving rigid body vertebral morphology in free-form transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Wang, A. S.; Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Deformable registration of preoperative and intraoperative images facilitates accurate localization of target and critical anatomy in image-guided spine surgery. However, conventional deformable registration fails to preserve the morphology of rigid bone anatomy and can impart distortions that confound high-precision intervention. We propose a constrained registration method that preserves rigid morphology while allowing deformation of surrounding soft tissues. Method: The registration method aligns preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) using free-form deformation (FFD) with penalties on rigid body motion imposed according to a simple intensity threshold. The penalties enforced 3 properties of a rigid transformation - namely, constraints on affinity (AC), orthogonality (OC), and properness (PC). The method also incorporated an injectivity constraint (IC) to preserve topology. Physical experiments (involving phantoms, an ovine spine, and a human cadaver) as well as digital simulations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to registration parameters, preservation of rigid body morphology, and overall registration accuracy of constrained FFD in comparison to conventional unconstrained FFD (denoted uFFD) and Demons registration. Result: FFD with orthogonality and injectivity constraints (denoted FFD+OC+IC) demonstrated improved performance compared to uFFD and Demons. Affinity and properness constraints offered little or no additional improvement. The FFD+OC+IC method preserved rigid body morphology at near-ideal values of zero dilatation (D = 0.05, compared to 0.39 and 0.56 for uFFD and Demons, respectively) and shear (S = 0.08, compared to 0.36 and 0.44 for uFFD and Demons, respectively). Target registration error (TRE) was similarly improved for FFD+OC+IC (0.7 mm), compared to 1.4 and 1.8 mm for uFFD and Demons. Results were validated in human cadaver studies using CT and CBCT images, with FFD+OC+IC providing excellent preservation

  1. A modular approach to numerical human body modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Griotto, G.; Rooij, L. van

    2007-01-01

    The choice of a human body model for a simulated automotive impact scenario must take into account both accurate model response and computational efficiency as key factors. This study presents a "modular numerical human body modeling" approach which allows the creation of a customized human body

  2. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vanni, Daniele; Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater...

  3. Nanogenerators for Human Body Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, Antonino; Penhaker, Marek; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio

    2017-07-01

    Humans generate remarkable quantities of energy while performing daily activities, but this energy usually dissipates into the environment. Here, we address recent progress in the development of nanogenerators (NGs): devices that are able to harvest such body-produced biomechanical and thermal energies by exploiting piezoelectric, triboelectric, and thermoelectric physical effects. In designing NGs, the end-user's comfort is a primary concern. Therefore, we focus on recently developed materials giving flexibility and stretchability to NGs. In addition, we summarize common fabrics for NG design. Finally, the mid-2020s market forecasts for these promising technologies highlight the potential for the commercialization of NGs because they may help contribute to the route of innovation for developing self-powered systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Sofia N. Chatziioannou; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S

    2010-01-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned ca...

  5. Neuroproteomic profiling of human body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggmark, Anna; Schwenk, Jochen M; Nilsson, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of protein expression and abundance provides a possibility to extend the current knowledge on disease-associated processes and pathways. The human brain is a complex organ and dysfunction or damage can give rise to a variety of neurological diseases. Although many proteins potentially reflecting disease progress are originating from brain, the scarce availability of human tissue material has lead to utilization of body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood in disease-related research. Within the most common neurological disorders, much effort has been spent on studying the role of a few hallmark proteins in disease pathogenesis but despite extensive investigation, the signatures they provide seem insufficient to fully understand and predict disease progress. In order to expand the view the field of neuroproteomics has lately emerged alongside developing technologies, such as affinity proteomics and mass spectrometry, for multiplexed and high-throughput protein profiling. Here, we provide an overview of how such technologies have been applied to study neurological disease and we also discuss some important considerations concerning discovery of disease-associated profiles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  7. Correlação entre o posicionamento dos parafusos pediculares no corpo vertebral e sua força de arrancamento Correlation between pedicular screws positioning on vertebral body and its pullout strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Miller Reis Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi estudar as alterações da força de fixação dos parafusos pediculares nos corpos vertebrais ao variar a angulação durante o reposicionamento. Foram utilizados 8 suínos, totalizando 40 vértebras lombares. Dividimos em 4 grupos de estudo. No primeiro grupo os parafusos foram colocados a 0º (zero graus, no segundo introduzidos, retirados e recolocados na mesma posição (zero graus, no terceiro houve uma variação da angulação de 14º no reposicionamento e no quarto uma variação da angulação inicial de 28 graus. Todos os parafusos foram testados quanto à força de arrancamento. No resultado o grupo I apresentou uma média de arrancamento de 146,85N; o grupo II uma média de arrancamento de 77,34N. O grupo III 97,75N. O grupo IV teve uma média de 110,02N. Isso mostrou a necessidade de evitar o reposicionamento dos parafusos devido a perda de força de fixação no corpo vertebral. Quando reposicionados recolocá-los em angulações as mais diferentes possíveis da inicial, comprometendo assim, o mínimo possível a fixação.The objective of this paper was to study pedicular screws fixation strength on vertebral bodies by varying its repositioning angle. For this Study, eight pigs were selected, making up a total of 40 lumbar vertebrae, which were divided into 4 study groups. In the first group, the screws were inserted at zero degree, and in the second group, they were inserted and reinserted at the same position, while in the third group, the screws were reinserted within a 14-degree range, and, in the fourth group, within a 28-degree range. All screws were tested for pullout strength. Group I presented a pullout average of 146.85N. Group II presented a pullout average of 77.34N. Group III had an average of 97.75N. Group IV had an average of 110.02. It was concluded that the procedure of replacing screws should be avoided. Should any repositioning is required, this should be performed by changing repositioning

  8. Normal formation of a vertebrate body plan and loss of tissue maintenance in the absence of ezh2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Bilge; Chrispijn, Naomi D; Wittkopp, Nadine; van Heeringen, Simon J; Lagendijk, Anne K; Aben, Marco; Bakkers, Jeroen; Ketting, René F; Kamminga, Leonie M

    2016-05-05

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors of numerous genes, many of which regulate cell cycle progression or developmental processes. We used zebrafish to study Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), the PcG protein responsible for placing the transcriptional repressive H3K27me3 mark. We identified a nonsense mutant of ezh2 and generated maternal zygotic (MZ) ezh2 mutant embryos. In contrast to knockout mice for PcG proteins, MZezh2 mutant embryos gastrulate seemingly normal, but die around 2 days post fertilization displaying pleiotropic phenotypes. Expression analyses indicated that genes important for early development are not turned off properly, revealing a regulatory role for Ezh2 during zygotic gene expression. In addition, we suggest that Ezh2 regulates maternal mRNA loading of zygotes. Analyses of tissues arising later in development, such as heart, liver, and pancreas, indicated that Ezh2 is required for maintenance of differentiated cell fates. Our data imply that the primary role of Ezh2 is to maintain tissues after tissue specification. Furthermore, our work indicates that Ezh2 is essential to sustain tissue integrity and to set up proper maternal mRNA contribution, and presents a novel and powerful tool to study how PcG proteins contribute to early vertebrate development.

  9. Mineralization of the vertebral bodies in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is initiated segmentally in the form of hydroxyapatite crystal accretions in the notochord sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou; Kryvi, Harald; Grotmol, Sindre; Wargelius, Anna; Krossøy, Christel; Epple, Mattias; Neues, Frank; Furmanek, Tomasz; Totland, Geir K

    2013-01-01

    We performed a sequential morphological and molecular biological study of the development of the vertebral bodies in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Mineralization starts in separate bony elements which fuse to form complete segmental rings within the notochord sheath. The nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in both the lamellar type II collagen matrix of the notochord sheath and the lamellar type I collagen matrix derived from the sclerotome, were highly similar. In both matrices the hydroxyapatite crystals nucleate and accrete on the surface of the collagen fibrils rather than inside the fibrils, a process that may be controlled by a template imposed by the collagen fibrils. Apatite crystal growth starts with the formation of small plate-like structures, about 5 nm thick, that gradually grow and aggregate to form extensive multi-branched crystal arborizations, resembling dendritic growth. The hydroxyapatite crystals are always oriented parallel to the long axis of the collagen fibrils, and the lamellar collagen matrices provide oriented support for crystal growth. We demonstrate here for the first time by means of synchroton radiation based on X-ray diffraction that the chordacentra contain hydroxyapatite. We employed quantitative real-time PCR to study the expression of key signalling molecule transcripts expressed in the cellular core of the notochord. The results indicate that the notochord not only produces and maintains the notochord sheath but also expresses factors known to regulate skeletogenesis: sonic hedgehog (shh), indian hedgehog homolog b (ihhb), parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (pth1r) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (tgfb1). In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the process of vertebral body development in teleost fishes, which is initially orchestrated by the notochord. PMID:23711083

  10. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual.

  11. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  12. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  13. Complex Systems for Human Body Biomechanical Behavior Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baritz, Mihaela; Cristea, Luciana; Rogozea, Liliana; Cotoros, Diana; Ion, Balcu

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we will explore the way we are able to obtain some information about human body behavior during gait or stability actions using video and tracking capture and transpose these data on a virtual model for the simulation process. In the first part of the paper we presented some considerations about the problems developed by human body modeling and its interactions with the environment. In the final part we presented some recordings of the human body movements during the gait process and the model built to analyze biomechanical behavior of the human body.

  14. Specialised structural descriptions for human body parts: Evidence from autotopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxbaum, L J; Coslett, H B

    2001-06-01

    Previous accounts of autotopagnosia (e.g., Ogden, 1985; Pick, 1908; Semenza, 1988) propose that the disorder is attributable to deficits in "mental images," visual body schema, or semantic representations. A recent account (Sirigu, Grafman, Bressler, & Sunderland, 1991b) posits deficits in visual structural descriptions of the human body and its parts, in the context of spared semantic and proprioceptivespatio-motor body representations, but provides no evidence bearing on the nature or format of the putatively damaged representation. We report data from a man with autotopagnosia consequent to lefthemisphere brain damage which bear directly on the nature of the representation impaired in the disorder. The subject, GL, is unable to localise body parts on himself or others, whether cued by verbal or visual input. In contrast, he uses body parts precisely in reaching and grasping tasks, correctly matches items of clothing to body parts, and localises the parts of animals and man-made objects without error. We also demonstrate that GL is unable to match pictured or real human body parts across shifts in orientation or changes in visual appearance, but can perform analogous matching tasks with animal body parts and man-made object parts. The data extend the account of Sirigu et al. (1991b) in suggesting that human body part localisation depends upon structural descriptions of human (but not animal) bodies that enable viewpoint-independent body part recognition and participate in the calculation of equivalence between the body parts of self and others across transformations in orientation.

  15. Thoracic Vertebral Body Irradiation Contributes to Acute Hematologic Toxicity During Chemoradiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deek, Matthew P.; Benenati, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Kim, Sinae [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey (United States); Biometrics Division, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Chen, Ting; Ahmed, Inaya; Zou, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Aisner, Joseph [Division of Medical Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Jabbour, Salma K., E-mail: jabbousk@cinj.rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relationships between radiation doses to the thoracic bone marrow and declines in blood cell counts in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: We included 52 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive concurrent carboplatin–paclitaxel and RT. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for the thoracic vertebrae (TV), sternum, scapulae, clavicles, and ribs were assessed for associations with changes in blood counts during the course of CRT. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations between hematologic nadirs and DVH parameters. A DVH parameter of Vx was the percentage of the total organ volume exceeding x radiation dose. Results: Grade ≥3 hematologic toxicity including neutropenia developed in 21% (n=11), leukopenia in 42% (n=22), anemia in 6% (n=3), and throbocytopenia in 2% (n=1) of patients. Greater RT dose to the TV was associated with higher risk of grade ≥3 leukopenia across multiple DVH parameters, including TV V{sub 20} (TVV) (odds ratio [OR] 1.06; P=.025), TVV{sub 30} (OR 1.07; P=.013), and mean vertebral dose (MVD) (OR 1.13; P=.026). On multiple regression analysis, TVV{sub 30} (β = −0.004; P=.018) and TVV{sub 20} (β = −0.003; P=.048) were associated with white blood cell nadir. Additional bone marrow sites (scapulae, clavicles, and ribs) did not affect hematologic toxicity. A 20% chance of grade ≥3 leukopenia was associated with a MVD of 13.5 Gy and a TTV{sub 30} of 28%. Cutoff values to avoid grade ≥3 leukopenia were MVD ≤23.9 Gy, TVV{sub 20} ≤56.0%, and TVV{sub 30} ≤52.1%. Conclusions: Hematologic toxicity is associated with greater RT doses to the TV during CRT for NSCLC. Sparing of the TV using advanced radiation techniques may improve tolerance of CRT and result in improved tolerance of concurrent chemotherapy.

  16. Human body and head characteristics as a communication medium for Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Yonatan; Hun-Seok Kim; Yoo, Jerald

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth investigation of the Body Channel Communication (BCC) under the environment set according to the IEEE 802.15.6 Body Area Network (BAN) standard is conducted to observe and characterize the human body as a communication medium. A thorough measurement of the human head as part of the human channel is also carried out. Human forehead, head to limb, and ear to ear channel is characterized. The channel gain of the human head follows the same bandpass profile of the human torso and limbs with the maximum channel gain occurring at 35MHz. The human body channel gain distribution histogram at given frequencies, while all the other parameters are held constant, exhibits a maximum variation of 2.2dB in the channel gain at the center frequency of the bandpass channel gain profile.

  17. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

  18. Human body composition models and methodology : theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01


    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors.

  19. Sensing power transfer between the human body and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Kortier, H.G.; Schepers, H. Martin

    The power transferred between the human body and the environment at any time and the work performed are important quantities to be estimated when evaluating and optimizing the physical interaction between the human body and the environment in sports, physical labor, and rehabilitation. It is the

  20. Manteia, a predictive data mining system for vertebrate genes and its applications to human genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassy, Olivier; Pourquié, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The function of genes is often evolutionarily conserved, and comparing the annotation of ortholog genes in different model organisms has proved to be a powerful predictive tool to identify the function of human genes. Here, we describe Manteia, a resource available online at http://manteia.igbmc.fr. Manteia allows the comparison of embryological, expression, molecular and etiological data from human, mouse, chicken and zebrafish simultaneously to identify new functional and structural correlations and gene-disease associations. Manteia is particularly useful for the analysis of gene lists produced by high-throughput techniques such as microarrays or proteomics. Data can be easily analyzed statistically to characterize the function of groups of genes and to correlate the different aspects of their annotation. Sophisticated querying tools provide unlimited ways to merge the information contained in Manteia along with the possibility of introducing custom user-designed biological questions into the system. This allows for example to connect all the animal experimental results and annotations to the human genome, and take advantage of data not available for human to look for candidate genes responsible for genetic disorders. Here, we demonstrate the predictive and analytical power of the system to predict candidate genes responsible for human genetic diseases.

  1. Human Identification at a Distance Using Body Shape Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, N. K. A. M.; Yahya, M. F.; Shafie, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Shape of human body is unique from one person to another. This paper presents an intelligent system approach for human identification at a distance using human body shape information. The body features used are the head, shoulder, and trunk. Image processing techniques for detection of these body features were developed in this work. Then, the features are recognized using fuzzy logic approach and used as inputs to a recognition system based on a multilayer neural network. The developed system is only applicable for recognizing a person from its frontal view and specifically constrained to male gender to simplify the algorithm. In this research, the accuracy for human identification using the proposed method is 77.5%. Thus, it is proved that human can be identified at a distance using body shape information.

  2. Media Representation of the Human Body: Discourse Analysis of Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lončar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though advertisements represent a world of its own, they are an inevitable part of different kinds of media. The purpose of advertising is not only to promote a product but also to transfer messages, values and ideas in order to make emotional connections with brands. By building emotional attachment, advertisers increase and strengthen consumers’ responses. The promoting of the advertisements’ images becomes much more important than promoting the product itself. Nowadays, an increasing interest in representing a human body along with different kinds of products and services has become a commonplace among advertisers. Representation of the body is a socially constructed phenomenon. In other words, social processes shape perceptions of our bodies and these perceptions (recreate human experiences of the body. The authors’ approach includes qualitative discourse analysis of advertisements. The objective was to identify the relationship between the human body and textual messages as integral components of the advertised item taken in consideration, as well as the ways in which they interact with the reader’s overall experience. For this purpose, different advertisements that contain visual and textual messages representing human bodies have been analysed. They were all published in the following lifestyle magazines: Cosmopolitan, Playboy, Men’s Health, during 2012 and 2013. The authors conclude that media representations of a human body as social phenomena perceive value and treat the body in different ways depending on the relationship between the advertisement, the textual message and the human body.

  3. "Scientific peep show": the human body in contemporary science museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadelli, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The essay focuses on the discourse about the human body developed by contemporary science museums with educational and instructive purposes directed at the general public. These museums aim mostly at mediating concepts such as health and prevention. The current scenario is linked with two examples of past museums: the popular anatomical museums which emerged during the 19th century and the health museums thrived between 1910 and 1940. On the museological path about the human body self-care we went from the emotionally involving anatomical Venuses to the inexpressive Transparent Man, from anatomical specimens of ill organs and deformed subjects to the mechanical and electronic models of the healthy body. Today the body is made transparent by the new medical diagnostics and by the latest discoveries of endoscopy. The way museums and science centers presently display the human body involves computers, 3D animation, digital technologies, hands-on models of large size human parts.

  4. The ownership of human body: an islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, Kiarash

    2009-01-01

    Using human dead body for medical purposes is a common practice in medical schools and hospitals throughout the world. Iran, as an Islamic country is not an exception. According to the Islamic view, the body, like the soul, is a "gift" from God; therefore, human being does not possess absolute ownership on his or her body. But, the ownership of human beings on their bodies can be described as a kind of "stewardship". Accordingly, any kind of dissection or mutilation of the corpse is forbidden, even with the informed consent of the dead or his/her relatives. The exception of this principle is when such procedures are necessary for saving lives of other persons. In this article using the human dead body for medical education, research and treatment is discussed and the perspective of Iranian Shiite religious scholars in this regard is explained.

  5. Human body segmentation via data-driven graph cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shifeng; Lu, Huchuan; Shao, Xingqing

    2014-11-01

    Human body segmentation is a challenging and important problem in computer vision. Existing methods usually entail a time-consuming training phase for prior knowledge learning with complex shape matching for body segmentation. In this paper, we propose a data-driven method that integrates top-down body pose information and bottom-up low-level visual cues for segmenting humans in static images within the graph cut framework. The key idea of our approach is first to exploit human kinematics to search for body part candidates via dynamic programming for high-level evidence. Then, by using the body parts classifiers, obtaining bottom-up cues of human body distribution for low-level evidence. All the evidence collected from top-down and bottom-up procedures are integrated in a graph cut framework for human body segmentation. Qualitative and quantitative experiment results demonstrate the merits of the proposed method in segmenting human bodies with arbitrary poses from cluttered backgrounds.

  6. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  7. Implications of Vertebrate Craniodental Evo-Devo for Human Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughner, Julia C

    2017-06-01

    Highly processed diets eaten by postindustrial modern human populations coincide with higher frequencies of third molar impaction, malocclusion, and temporomandibular joint disorders that affect millions of people worldwide each year. Current treatments address symptoms, not causes, because the multifactorial etiologies of these three concerns mask which factors incline certain people to malocclusion, impaction, and/or joint issues. Deep scientific curiosity about the origins of jaws and dentitions continues to yield rich insights about the developmental genetic mechanisms that underpin healthy craniodental morphogenesis and integration. Mounting evidence from evolution and development (Evo-Devo) studies suggests that function is another mechanism important to healthy craniodental integration and fit. Starting as early as weaning, softer diets and thus lower bite forces appear to relax or disrupt integration of oral tissues, alter development and growth, and catalyze impaction, malocclusion, and jaw joint disorders. How developing oral tissues respond to bite forces remains poorly understood, but biomechanical feedback seems to alter balances of local bone resorption and deposition at the tooth-bone interface as well as affect tempos and amounts of facial outgrowth. Also, behavioral changes in jaw function and parafunction contribute to degeneration and pain in joint articular cartilages and masticatory muscles. The developmental genetic contribution to craniodental misfits and disorders is undeniable but still unclear; however, at present, human diet and jaw function remain important and much more actionable clinical targets. New Evo-Devo studies are needed to explain how function interfaces with craniodental phenotypic plasticity, variation, and evolvability to yield a spectrum of healthy and mismatched dentitions and jaws. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Toxic effects of perfluorinated compounds at human cellular level and on a model vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainieri, Sandra; Conlledo, Nadia; Langerholc, Tomaž; Madorran, Eneko; Sala, Martin; Barranco, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    This work aims at deepening the understanding of the mode of action of some of the most prominent perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by detecting in a realistic way their effects. To this end, after adjusting the exposure media taking into account the biological model employed and the physico-chemical properties of PFCs, we evaluated the toxic effects of PFOA, PFOS and PFNA in a human macrophage cell line (TLT cells) and in zebrafish embryos. We performed such evaluation on individual compounds and mixtures. Acute toxicity was greater for PFOS in zebrafish; however, it was greater for PFNA in TLT cells. PFNA was also the compound producing the greatest levels of oxidative stress, both in zebrafish and TLT cells. Additionally, in both biological systems, it showed a much stronger effect on mixtures in comparison to the others PFCs tested in this work. Mixture studies in zebrafish showed that acute toxicity depended on the concentration and that the mixture was far more toxic than the individual compounds. This study highlights the importance of studying PFCs in realistic conditions on various biological models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Standoff Human Identification Using Body Shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzner, Shari; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Amidan, Brett G.; Boettcher, Evelyn J.; Lochtefeld, Darrell; Webb, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The ability to identify individuals is a key component of maintaining safety and security in public spaces and around critical infrastructure. Monitoring an open space is challenging because individuals must be identified and re-identified from a standoff distance nonintrusively, making methods like fingerprinting and even facial recognition impractical. We propose using body shape features as a means for identification from standoff sensing, either complementing other identifiers or as an alternative. An important challenge in monitoring open spaces is reconstructing identifying features when only a partial observation is available, because of the view-angle limitations and occlusion or subject pose changes. To address this challenge, we investigated the minimum number of features required for a high probability of correct identification, and we developed models for predicting a key body feature—height—from a limited set of observed features. We found that any set of nine randomly selected body measurements was sufficient to correctly identify an individual in a dataset of 4426 subjects. For predicting height, anthropometric measures were investigated for correlation with height. Their correlation coefficients and associated linear models were reported. These results—a sufficient number of features for identification and height prediction from a single feature—contribute to developing systems for standoff identification when views of a subject are limited.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Psenakova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of electromagnetic field (EMF with environment and with tissue of human beings are still under discussion and many research teams are investigating it. The human simulation models are used for biomedical research in a lot of areas, where it is advantage to replace real human body (tissue by the numerical model. Biological effects of EMF are one of the areas, where numerical models are used with many advantages. On the other side, this research is very specific and it is always quite hard to simulate realistic human tissue. This paper deals with different possibilities of numerical modelling of electromagnetic field effects on the human body (especially calculation of the specific absorption rate (SAR distribution in human body and thermal effect.

  11. The functional architecture of the human body: assessing body representation by sorting body parts and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bläsing, Bettina; Schack, Thomas; Brugger, Peter

    2010-05-01

    We investigated mental representations of body parts and body-related activities in two subjects with congenitally absent limbs (one with, the other without phantom sensations), a wheelchair sports group of paraplegic participants, and two groups of participants with intact limbs. To analyse mental representation structures, we applied Structure Dimensional Analysis. Verbal labels indicating body parts and related activities were presented in randomized lists that had to be sorted according to a hierarchical splitting paradigm. Participants were required to group the items according to whether or not they were considered related, based on their own body perception. Results of the groups of physically intact and paraplegic participants revealed separate clusters for the lower body, upper body, fingers and head. The participant with congenital phantom limbs also showed a clear separation between upper and lower body (but not between fingers and hands). In the participant without phantom sensations of the absent arms, no such modularity emerged, but the specific practice of his right foot in communication and daily routines was reflected. Sorting verbal labels of body parts and activities appears a useful method to assess body representation in individuals with special body anatomy or function and leads to conclusions largely compatible with other assessment procedures.

  12. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyu; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones.

  13. Methods of Human Body Odor Sampling: The Effect of Freezing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lenochova, Pavlina; Roberts, S. Craig; Havlicek, Jan

    Body odor sampling is an essential tool in human chemical ecology research. However, methodologies of individual studies vary widely in terms of sampling material, length of sampling, and sample processing...

  14. Human body capacitance: static or dynamic concept? [ESD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1998-01-01

    was determined by an AC-bridge measurement, but 200-400 pF when the traditional static charge-sharing method was used. Further experiments indicate that the two methods give the same result when the electric flux is well located in a dielectric other than air, but that the static method leads to higher values......A standing human body insulated from ground by footwear and/or floor covering is in principle an insulated conductor and has, as such, a capacitance, i.e. the ability to store a charge and possibly discharge the stored energy in a spark discharge. In the human body, the human body capacitance (HBC...... when a substantial part of the flux extends itself through badly defined stray fields. Since the concept of human body capacitance is normally used in a static (electric) context, it is suggested that the HBC be determined by a static method. No theoretical explanation of the observed differences...

  15. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos

  16. Three-dimensional anatomical atlas of the human body

    OpenAIRE

    Barbeito, António Manuel Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical atlases allow mapping the anatomical structures of the human body. Early versions of these systems consisted of analogic representations with informative text and labelled images of the human body. With the advent of computer systems, digital versions emerged and the third dimension was introduced. Consequently, these systems increased their efficiency, allowing more realistic visualizations with improved interactivity. The development of anatomical atlases in geographic informatio...

  17. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized.

  18. A Circuit Model of Real Time Human Body Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asogwa, Clement Ogugua; Teshome, Assefa K; Collins, Stephen F; Lai, Daniel T H

    2016-06-01

    Changes in human body hydration leading to excess fluid losses or overload affects the body fluid's ability to provide the necessary support for healthy living. We propose a time-dependent circuit model of real-time human body hydration, which models the human body tissue as a signal transmission medium. The circuit model predicts the attenuation of a propagating electrical signal. Hydration rates are modeled by a time constant τ, which characterizes the individual specific metabolic function of the body part measured. We define a surrogate human body anthropometric parameter θ by the muscle-fat ratio and comparing it with the body mass index (BMI), we find theoretically, the rate of hydration varying from 1.73 dB/min, for high θ and low τ to 0.05 dB/min for low θ and high τ. We compare these theoretical values with empirical measurements and show that real-time changes in human body hydration can be observed by measuring signal attenuation. We took empirical measurements using a vector network analyzer and obtained different hydration rates for various BMI, ranging from 0.6 dB/min for 22.7 [Formula: see text] down to 0.04 dB/min for 41.2 [Formula: see text]. We conclude that the galvanic coupling circuit model can predict changes in the volume of the body fluid, which are essential in diagnosing and monitoring treatment of body fluid disorder. Individuals with high BMI would have higher time-dependent biological characteristic, lower metabolic rate, and lower rate of hydration.

  19. Teaching exploration and practice of the human body structure course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng LI; Ming-feng CHEN; Wen-long DING

    2015-01-01

    In the 21 st century,the medical model has transformed from the biological model to the biopsycho-social medical model. The transformation of medical model raises higher requirements for the training of medical staff. Comprehensive promotion of the reform of medical education has become the consensus and trend,which breeds the integrated medical teaching that is based on modules and organ systems. As one of eight integrated modules,the human body structure course of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine introduces morphological structures of normal human organs according to function systems( such as locomotor system,digestive system,angiological system,and nervous system) of human organs and parts of human body. This course endeavors to integrate theories with practices,contents of disciplines of basic medicine,and basic medicine with clinical medicine. The human body structure course combines basic medicine with clinical medicine and is an important part of medical science.

  20. Response to Jakobsson on Human Body Shields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A grabs B and uses him as a body shield. That is, A hides behind B (A renders B helpless to resist his grasp, and from that vantage point, shoots at C. According to libertarian theory, may B shoot at C, or, is it proper that C pull the trigger at B? In the view of Rothbard (1984, the former is correct: B is entitled to gun down C. In my (Block, forthcoming view, this is incorrect. Rather, it would be lawful to C to properly kill B. (Both Rothbard and I assume that neither B nor C can end A’s reign of terror. Jakobsson (2010 supports the Rothbardian position. The present paper is at an attempt of mine to refute Jakobsson, and, thus, also, Rothbard (1984, once again.

  1. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  2. Use of electromyography measurement in human body modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdmanová L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the use of the human body model for the muscle activity computation. This paper shows the comparison of measured and simulated muscle activities. Muscle active states of biceps brachia muscle are monitored by method called electromyography (EMG in a given position and for given subsequently increasing loads. The same conditions are used for simulation using a human body model (Hynčík, L., Rigid Body Based Human Model for Crash Test Purposes, EngineeringMechanics, 5 (8 (2001 1–6. This model consists of rigid body segments connected by kinematic joints and involves all major muscle bunches. Biceps brachia active states are evaluated by a special muscle balance solver. Obtained simulation results show the acceptable correlation with the experimental results. The analysis shows that the validation procedure of muscle activities determination is usable.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF 2D HUMAN BODY MODELING USING THINNING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the behavior and activities of people in Video surveillance has gained more applications in Computer vision. This paper proposes a new approach to model the human body in 2D view for the activity analysis using Thinning algorithm. The first step of this work is Background subtraction which is achieved by the frame differencing algorithm. Thinning algorithm has been used to find the skeleton of the human body. After thinning, the thirteen feature points like terminating points, intersecting points, shoulder, elbow, and knee points have been extracted. Here, this research work attempts to represent the body model in three different ways such as Stick figure model, Patch model and Rectangle body model. The activities of humans have been analyzed with the help of 2D model for the pre-defined poses from the monocular video data. Finally, the time consumption and efficiency of our proposed algorithm have been evaluated.

  4. Categorical Discrimination of Human Body Parts by Magnetoencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misaki eNakamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA and extrastriate body area (EBA are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48% was above chance (33.3% and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this noninvasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain–machine interface research.

  5. An implicit body representation underlying human position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-06-29

    Knowing the body's location in external space is a fundamental perceptual task. Perceiving the location of body parts through proprioception requires that information about the angles of each joint (i.e., body posture) be combined with information about the size and shape of the body segments between joints. Although information about body posture is specified by on-line afferent signals, no sensory signals are directly informative about body size and shape. Thus, human position sense must refer to a stored body model of the body's metric properties, such as body part size and shape. The need for such a model has long been recognized; however, the properties of this model have never been systematically investigated. We developed a technique to isolate and measure this body model. Participants judged the location in external space of 10 landmarks on the hand. By analyzing the internal configuration of the locations of these points, we produced implicit maps of the mental representation of hand size and shape. We show that this part of the body model is massively distorted, in a reliable and characteristic fashion, featuring shortened fingers and broadened hands. Intriguingly, these distortions appear to retain several characteristics of primary somatosensory representations, such as the Penfield homunculus.

  6. Naive Theories in Biology: Children's Concepts of the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Joel J.

    1984-01-01

    An overview is provided of 50 years of research on naive theories in human biology. A set of recommendations aimed at confronting student misconceptions and facilitating conceptual change about the structure and function of the human body is presented, with five lessons described. (MNS)

  7. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  8. Evidence for multiple, distinct representations of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwoebel, John; Coslett, H Branch

    2005-04-01

    Previous data from single-case and small group studies have suggested distinctions among structural, conceptual, and online sensorimotor representations of the human body. We developed a battery of tasks to further examine the prevalence and anatomic substrates of these body representations. The battery was administered to 70 stroke patients. Fifty-one percent of the patients were impaired relative to controls on at least one body representation measure. Further, principal components analysis of the patient data as well as direct comparisons of patient and control performance suggested a triple dissociation between measures of the 3 putative body representations. Consistent with previous distinctions between the "what" and "how" pathways, lesions of the left temporal lobe were most consistently associated with impaired performance on tasks assessing knowledge of the shape or lexical-semantic information about the body, whereas lesions of the dorsolateral frontal and parietal regions resulted in impaired performance on tasks requiring on-line coding of body posture.

  9. Size variation in small-bodied humans from palau, micronesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gallagher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent discoveries on Palau are claimed to represent the remains of small-bodied humans that may display evidence insular size reduction. This claim has yet to be statistically validated METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Published postcranial specimens (n = 16 from Palau were assessed relative to recent small-bodied comparative samples. Resampling statistical approaches were employed to test specific hypotheses relating to body size in the Palau sample. Results confirm that the Palau postcranial sample is indisputably small-bodied. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A single, homogenous body size morph is represented in early prehistoric postcrania from Palau. Small body size in early Palauans is an ancestral characteristic and was likely not a consequence of in-situ size reduction. Specimens from Palau have little bearing upon hypothesised insular size reduction in the ancestral lineage of Homo floresiensis.

  10. Thoracic corpectomy for neoplastic vertebral bodies using a navigated lateral extracavitary approach-a single-center consecutive case series: technique and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Sebastian; Wipplinger, Christoph; Tschugg, Anja; Kavakebi, Pujan; Örley, Alexander; Girod, Pierre Pascal; Thomé, Claudius

    2017-08-17

    Thoracic myelopathy is often caused by vertebral body fractures resulting from neoplastic conditions, traumatic events, or infectious diseases. One of the preferred procedures for treating it is the lateral extracavitary approach (LECA) with single-level or multilevel decompressive corpectomy and reconstruction. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the thoracic lateral extracavitary approach with corpectomy using vertebral body replacement systems (VBR-S) and dorsal reconstruction. Twenty-four patients with metastatic or primary lesions of thoracic vertebrae T2-T12 underwent spinal decompression and ventral column reconstruction with correction of spinal deformity via a LECA. One-level to four-level corpectomies were performed with additional navigated dorsal pedicle screw fixation at an average of two levels above and below the corpectomy lesion. None of the patients received preoperative spinal embolization, and the majority of the patients were admitted to radiotherapy postoperatively. Their mean age was 56 years (± 15), with a female-to-male sex ratio of 8 to 16. Patients with a minimum follow-up period of 16 months were included. The Karnofsky index, preoperative and postoperative numeric rating scale (NRS), and Frankel scale were measured. In addition, intraoperative loss of blood (LOB), units of packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions, the duration of the operation, and the hospitalization period were evaluated and correlated with preoperative and postoperative values. The majority of the patients were suffering from metastatic lesions and were treated with a 1 level corpectomy (median 1 level, range 1 to 4). The mean duration of surgery was 288 min (± 121) and the mean LOB was 1626 mL (± 1486 mL), with approximately two PRBC units per patient used. All patients were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) postoperatively, with a mean ICU stay of 2.0 days (± 1 day). The mean hospitalization period was 13 days (± 7

  11. Is kyphoplasty better than vertebroplasty at restoring form and function after severe vertebral wedge fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landham, Priyan R; Baker-Rand, Holly L A; Gilbert, Samuel J; Pollintine, Phillip; Annesley-Williams, Deborah J; Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    The vertebral augmentation procedures, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, can relieve pain and facilitate mobilization of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Kyphoplasty also aims to restore vertebral body height before cement injection and so may be advantageous for more severe fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty to restore vertebral height, shape, and mechanical function after severe vertebral wedge fractures. This is a biomechanical and radiographic study using human cadaveric spines. Seventeen pairs of thoracolumbar "motion segments" from cadavers aged 70-98 years were injured, in a two-stage process involving flexion and compression, to create severe anterior wedge fractures. One of each pair underwent vertebroplasty and the other kyphoplasty. Specimens were then compressed at 1 kN for 1 hour to allow consolidation. Radiographs were taken before and after injury, after treatment, and after consolidation. At these same time points, motion segment compressive stiffness was assessed, and intervertebral disc "stress profiles" were obtained to characterize the distribution of compressive stress on the vertebral body and neural arch. On average, injury reduced anterior vertebral body height by 34%, increased its anterior wedge angle from 5.0° to 11.4°, reduced intradiscal (nucleus) pressure and motion segment stiffness by 96% and 44%, respectively, and increased neural arch load bearing by 57%. Kyphoplasty caused 97% of the anterior height loss to be regained immediately, although this reduced to 79% after consolidation. Equivalent gains after vertebroplasty were significantly lower: 59% and 47%, respectively (pKyphoplasty reduced vertebral wedging more than vertebroplasty (pkyphoplasty and vertebroplasty. After severe vertebral wedge fractures, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty were equally effective in restoring mechanical function. However, kyphoplasty was better able to restore vertebral

  12. [Selenium levels in human bodies and environment in Qinghai province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, S; Yuan, J; Yan, H

    1996-07-01

    To study selenium level, its distribution in human bodies and environment and its effects on health, 3,035 specimens of human hair, blood, urine, and environmetal water, soil, food were collected from 91 sampling spots in 23 cities and counties of Qinghai Province and determined for selenium levels with fluorescence analysis. Results showed overall biological selenium level of human bodies in Qinghai Province was low and blood selenium level was lower than the normal reference value in 84.73% of the population, same as that in selenium-poor nations. Environmental selenium was poor or in a deficient status in Qinghai Province, 69.57% of the areas in the Province was in low, poor, or severely deficient selenium. Selenium level in vegetable food correlated closely with that in human blood, which indicated low selenium level in environment caused human selenium deficient in their internal environment via food chain. There were difference in biological selenium levels of human bodies in seven districts and six ethnic nationalities, which suggests selenium levels in human bodies correlate closely with economic development, selenium intake, geographical environment, living habits and customs, etc., and are nothing to do with the altitude above sea level.

  13. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-11-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira reconstruction and cinema 4D remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the 'closure' of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  14. The Intensity of Human Body Odors and the MHC: Should We Expect a Link?

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    Claus Wedekind

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now well established that genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC somehow affect the production of body odors in several vertebrates, including humans. Here we discuss whether variation in the intensity of body odors may be influenced by the MHC. In order to examine this question, we have to control for MHC-linked odor perception on the smeller's side. Such a control is necessary because the perception of pleasantness and intensity seem to be confounded, and the causalities are still unsolved. It has previously been found that intense odors are scored as less pleasant if the signaler and the receiver are of MHC-dissimilar type, but not if they are of MHC similar type. We argue, and first data suggest, that an effect of the degree of MHC-heterozygosity and odor intensity is likely (MHC-homozygotes may normally smell more intense, while there is currently no strong argument for other possible links between the MHC and body odor intensity.

  15. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Governing the postmortem procurement of human body material for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Kristof; Capitaine, Laura; Pennings, Guido; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2015-03-01

    Human body material removed post mortem is a particularly valuable resource for research. Considering the efforts that are currently being made to study the biochemical processes and possible genetic causes that underlie cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, it is likely that this type of research will continue to gain in importance. However, post mortem procurement of human body material for research raises specific ethical concerns, more in particular with regard to the consent of the research participant. In this paper, we attempt to determine which consent regime should govern the post mortem procurement of body material for research. In order to do so, we assess the various arguments that could be put forward in support of a duty to make body material available for research purposes after death. We argue that this duty does in practice not support conscription but is sufficiently strong to defend a policy of presumed rather than explicit consent.

  17. CIRSE Guidelines on Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: spyder55@gmail.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@gmail.com; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Strasbourg University Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2017-03-15

    Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is an important cause of severe debilitating back pain, adversely affecting quality of life, physical function, psychosocial performance, mental health and survival. Different vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs) are used in order to consolidate the VCFs, relief pain,and whenever posible achieve vertebral body height restoration. In the present review we give the indications, contraindications, safety profile and outcomes of the existing percutaneous VAPs.

  18. Segmentation of human upper body movement using multiple IMU sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takashi; Lin, Jonathan Feng-Shun; Kulic, Dana; Venture, Gentiane

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes an approach for the segmentation of human body movements measured by inertial measurement unit sensors. Using the angular velocity and linear acceleration measurements directly, without converting to joint angles, we perform segmentation by formulating the problem as a classification problem, and training a classifier to differentiate between motion end-point and within-motion points. The proposed approach is validated with experiments measuring the upper body movement during reaching tasks, demonstrating classification accuracy of over 85.8%.

  19. Human Body Representations in Didactic Books of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson de Lima Soares

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have pointed out that Didactic Book still plays an important role in the teaching and learning process, and is often the main, and the only educational resource available to teachers. In this way, we will analyze human body representations in Didactic Books of science adopted by a municipal public school in the city of Uruguaiana/RS. In the context of writing, we understand that body's perceptions permeate a historical and cultural construction, constituted from the relationships lived by the subjects in society. This study is a qualitative research, based on the content analysis of Bardin, in which we seek to identify human body representations in the messages, characteristics, structures, contents, and figures present in books. For this, we set up an analytical matrix with guiding questions related to the approach of the body, showed in didactic books. The results demonstrate that the contents follow the same pattern, that is, a body divided into parts like a human body just formed by limbs, organs, and tissues. They present a detailed division of content, from the cellular organization, concepts, structures, and the images are presented in a fragmented way, always following normative standards. We found these books dedicate spaces to analyze and discuss the biosocial body, in a well-elaborated way, contemplating different visions, such as sexuality beyond human reproduction. We believe that these issues should be part of the Political Education Projects (PPPs of schools and the educational system as a whole because in this way more projects will be carried out contemplating the issue. However, it is still up to the teacher to take this approach, and if such issues are not addressed in the LD, he should keep in mind that if we are thinking beings, our body is much more than organic components, and so seek means to carry out this approach.

  20. ESTIMATION OF HUMAN BODY SHAPE PARAMETERS USING MICROSOFT KINECTSENCOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Vasilkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a human body shape estimation technology based on scan data acquired from sensor controller Microsoft Kinect is described. This device includes an RGB camera and a depth sensor that provides, for each pixel of the image,a distance from the camera focus to the object. A scan session produces a triangulated high-density surface noised with oscillations, isolated fragments and holes. When scanning a human, additional noise comes from garment folds and wrinkles. An algorithm of creating a sparse and regular 3D human body model (avatar free of these defects, which approximates shape, posture and basic metrics of the scanned body is proposed. This solution finds application in individual clothing industry and computer games, as well.

  1. Optimization study of using PTC for human body heating dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Adrian SALAORU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the human body heat loses mechanisms is important for both diminishing the number of deaths during the surgical procedures of the patients under effect of full anaesthesia and increasing the efficiency of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems. For these studies it is necessary to manufacture a human body mannequin having its surface temperature maintained on a value close to the real human body temperature. A number of PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient thermistors placed on the entire external surface of the mannequin can be used for this purpose. This paper presents a study of the transient heating regime and the stability of the maintained temperature, performed on these devices.

  2. Gender Recognition from Unconstrained and Articulated Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition. PMID:24977203

  3. More-Realistic Digital Modeling of a Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Renee

    2010-01-01

    A MATLAB computer program has been written to enable improved (relative to an older program) modeling of a human body for purposes of designing space suits and other hardware with which an astronaut must interact. The older program implements a kinematic model based on traditional anthropometric measurements that do provide important volume and surface information. The present program generates a three-dimensional (3D) whole-body model from 3D body-scan data. The program utilizes thin-plate spline theory to reposition the model without need for additional scans.

  4. Emergency Handling for MAC Protocol in Human Body Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Youngmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body communication (HBC is a technology that enables short range data communication using the human body as a medium, like an electrical wire. Thus it removes the need for a traditional antenna. HBC may be used as a type of data communication in body area network (BAN, while the devices are being in contact with body. One of important issues in BAN is an emergency alarm because it may be closely related to human life. For emergency data communication, the most critical factor is the time constraint. IEEE 802.15.6 specifies that the emergency alarm for the BAN must be notified in less than 1 sec and must provide prioritization mechanisms for emergency traffic and notification. As one type of BAN, the HBC must follow this recommendation, too. Existing emergency handling methods in BAN are based on the carrier sensing capability on radio frequencies to detect the status of channels. However, PHY protocol in HBC does not provide the carrier sensing. So the previous methods are not well suitable for HBC directly. Additionally, in the environment that the emergency rate is very low, the allocation of dedicated slot(s for emergency in each superframe is very wasteful. In this work, we proposed specific emergency handling operation for human body communication's medium access control (HBC-MAC protocol to meet the emergency requirements for BAN. We also showed the optimal number of emergency slots for the various combinations of beacon intervals and emergency rates.

  5. The Reconfigured Body. Human-animal relations in xenotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Hansson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores issues concerning the reconfiguration of human and animal bodies in modern biotechnology. The examples are based on xenotransplantation: Transplantation of cells, tissue and organs from animals to humans. Three thematic issues that emerged from xenotransplantation research in Sweden in the 1990s and early 2000s are examined in the article. The first issue concerns how the pig was introduced as a donor animal in xenotransplantation and, at the same time, dehumanized in relation to what is human. Baboons and chimpanzees that had previously been used in xenotransplantation now became an ethically problematic choice, and were in stead humanized. The second issue concerns the introduction of transgenic and cloned pigs as commoditized objects. The biotechnological development reconfigured the pig’s cells, tissue and organs to become more human-like. The third issue concerns the risk that pigs contain retrovirus that could infect the transplanted patients. The human body became part of a network of both animal and retrovirus. Boundlessness between human and animal bodies appears in these three thematic phases and is analysed from a cultural perspective.

  6. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Daniele; Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting(®) (VBS), OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®). VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®) are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix(®) has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting(®) and Spine Jack(®), the OsseoFix(®) has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack(®) is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors.

  7. Inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes are associated with unstable hemoglobin and resemble human Heinz bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Filomena; Di Santi, Annalisa; Caldora, Mercedes; Ferretti, Luigi; Bentivegna, Flegra; Pica, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the erythrocyte inclusions found during the hematological screening of loggerhead population of the Mediterranean Sea. We studied the erythrocyte inclusions in blood specimens collected from six juvenile and nine adult specimens of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas. Our study indicates that the percentage of mature erythrocytes containing inclusions ranged from 3 to 82%. Each erythrocyte contained only one round inclusion body. Inclusion bodies stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa show that their cytochemical and ultrastructure characteristics are identical to those of human Heinz bodies. Because Heinz bodies originate from the precipitation of unstable hemoglobin (Hb) and cause globular osmotic resistance to increase, we analyzed loggerhead Hb using electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography to detect and quantitate Hb fractions. We also tested the resistance of Hb to alkaline pH, heat, isopropanol denaturation, and globular osmosis. Our hemogram results excluded the occurrence of any infection, which could be associated with an inclusion body, in all the specimens. Negative Feulgen staining indicated that the inclusion bodies are not derived from DNA fragmentation. We hypothesize that amino acid substitutions could explain why loggerhead Hb precipitates under normal physiologic conditions, forming Heinz bodies. The identification of inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes allow us to better understand the haematological characteristics and the physiology of these ancient reptiles, thus aiding efforts to conserve such an endangered species. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  8. DMRT genes in vertebrate gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkower, David

    2013-01-01

    Genes containing the DM domain DNA-binding motif regulate sex determination and sexual differentiation in a broad variety of metazoans, including nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. They can function in primary sex determination or downstream in sexual differentiation, and they can act either throughout the body or in highly restricted cell types. In vertebrates, several DM domain genes--DMRT genes--play critical roles in gonadal differentiation or gametogenesis. DMRT1 has the most prominent role and likely regulates testicular differentiation in all vertebrates. In the mammalian gonad, DMRT1 exerts both intrinsic and extrinsic control of gametogenesis; it is required for germ cell differentiation in males and regulates meiosis in both sexes, and it is required in supporting cells for the establishment and maintenance of male fate in the testis. These varied functions of DMRT1 serve to coordinate gonadal development and function. In other vertebrates, DMRT1 regulates gonadal differentiation, and it also appears to have played a central role in the evolution of new sex-determining mechanisms in at least three vertebrate clades. This chapter focuses on the regulation of vertebrate gametogenesis by DMRT1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between Human Body Composition and Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies.

  10. Exploiting amoeboid and non-vertebrate animal model systems to study the virulence of human pathogenic fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Mylonakis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments with insects, protozoa, nematodes, and slime molds have recently come to the forefront in the study of host-fungal interactions. Many of the virulence factors required for pathogenicity in mammals are also important for fungal survival during interactions with non-vertebrate hosts, suggesting that fungal virulence may have evolved, and been maintained, as a countermeasure to environmental predation by amoebae and nematodes and other small non-vertebrates that feed on microorganisms. Host innate immune responses are also broadly conserved across many phyla. The study of the interaction between invertebrate model hosts and pathogenic fungi therefore provides insights into the mechanisms underlying pathogen virulence and host immunity, and complements the use of mammalian models by enabling whole-animal high throughput infection assays. This review aims to assist researchers in identifying appropriate invertebrate systems for the study of particular aspects of fungal pathogenesis.

  11. A long term model of circulation. [human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A quantitative approach to modeling human physiological function, with a view toward ultimate application to long duration space flight experiments, was undertaken. Data was obtained on the effect of weightlessness on certain aspects of human physiological function during 1-3 month periods. Modifications in the Guyton model are reviewed. Design considerations for bilateral interface models are discussed. Construction of a functioning whole body model was studied, as well as the testing of the model versus available data.

  12. Radiation effects of wearable antenna in human body tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Soler González, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Nowadays humankind live completely surrounded by many wireless devices. Modern society lives and works with wireless applications such as mobile phones, GPS devices or other wireless devices that make our life easier. It means that we are constantly interacting with electromagnetic fields. The study of electromagnetic fields effects on human body is a very important subject, due to the possible health effects that these many electromagnetic fields can cause in humans. This project is...

  13. Vertebral wedging characteristic changes in scoliotic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert; Skalli, Wafa; de Guise, Jacques

    2004-10-15

    A morphometric analysis of vertebral wedging in vertebrae from scoliotic specimens. To quantify the vertebral body changes in 30 anatomic specimens affected by a scoliotic deformity. Only a few studies have evaluated the exact changes occurring at the level of the vertebral body in scoliotic spines. Most are observational studies of rare scoliotic specimens presenting major curvatures. The orientation of vertebral wedging is important for the planning of corrective surgery, performing vertebral osteotomy, and the evaluation of possible growth modulation. Thirty scoliotic specimens with curves presenting various degrees of severity were studied using a three-dimensional digitizing protocol developed to create a precise three-dimensional reconstruction of the vertebrae. Every scoliotic specimen was then matched with a normal specimen, and comparisons were made on the vertebral body parameters both for thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Analysis of variance and t test calculations were performed to identify significant differences with P = 0.05. A total of 471 vertebrae from scoliotic spines and 510 vertebrae from normal specimens were measured. Vertebral wedging increased progressively towards the apex of the curve and was maximal at the apex. Vertebral wedging was more prominent in the frontal plane, and there was minimal wedging in the sagittal plane. Vertebral heights were significantly different at T3 and T4 for the upper adjacent curve and at T6-T8 for a typical right thoracic curve, with smaller heights located on the concavity of the curve. No changes were observed on the convexity of the curve. Vertebral wedging is an essential component of the scoliotic deformity. The present study provides critical information for corrective surgery and vertebral osteotomy, as vertebral wedging occurs primarily in the frontal plane. Accurate knowledge of this deformity should also provide new insight into corrective surgical strategies aiming at growth modulation and more

  14. Vertebral body stapling in children younger than 10 years with idiopathic scoliosis with curve magnitude of 30° to 39°.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologis, Alexander A; Cahill, Patrick; Auriemma, Mike; Betz, Randal; Diab, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    Dual-center, retrospective study. To evaluate whether vertebral body stapling (VBS) influences curve progression between 30° and 39° in children younger than 10 years with idiopathic scoliosis. Patients younger than 10 years with idiopathic scoliosis of more than 30° have a 100% risk of progression to spine fusion regardless of nonoperative treatment. VBS may represent an alternative fusionless treatment option for this group of high-risk patients. Patients younger than 10 years with idiopathic thoracic or lumbar scoliosis of 30° to 39° who were treated with VBS with a minimum of 24 months of follow-up were studied. Outcome variables were curve progression and magnitude, surgical complications, and a need for reoperation. Preoperative and postoperative curve magnitudes were compared using a paired Student t test. Postoperative curve magnitudes were compared with one another using a paired Student t test. A P value of less than 0.05 was defined as statistically significant. Twelve patients were studied (female: n = 12; average age: 7.8 yr [range: 6.3-9.7 yr]). Thirteen curves were treated with VBS (thoracic: n = 9; lumbar: n = 4). The average follow-up was 3.4 years (range: 2.2-5.4 yr). The average preoperative curve magnitude was 33.4° (range: 30°-39°). The immediate postoperative curve magnitude (19.0°; range: 0°-29°) and curve magnitude at the most recent follow-up (23.0°; range: 10°-34°) were significantly less than the preoperative magnitude of 33.4°. Both thoracic curves (100%) and lumbar curves (100%) were treated successfully. Curve magnitudes did not change significantly postoperatively between the first erect radiographs and the most recent follow-up. Two patients had pneumothorax, and 1 patient had symptomatic pleural effusion. No patient required definitive fusion for curve progression. VBS is effective in controlling curve progression in the high-risk group of children younger than 10 years with idiopathic scoliosis between 30° and 39

  15. [Spondylosis: diseases of the vertebral column].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Amador Schüller

    2008-01-01

    Frequent and transcendent diseases for the difficulties of his diagnosis and treatment. The components of the vertebral column, vertebral bodies, discs and unvertebral joints, spondylosis ligaments must be considered to be a functional Unit. The Patology of each one of their parts concerns or reverberates in others.

  16. Human and animal sounds influence recognition of body language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Grèzes, Julie; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-11-25

    In naturalistic settings emotional events have multiple correlates and are simultaneously perceived by several sensory systems. Recent studies have shown that recognition of facial expressions is biased towards the emotion expressed by a simultaneously presented emotional expression in the voice even if attention is directed to the face only. So far, no study examined whether this phenomenon also applies to whole body expressions, although there is no obvious reason why this crossmodal influence would be specific for faces. Here we investigated whether perception of emotions expressed in whole body movements is influenced by affective information provided by human and by animal vocalizations. Participants were instructed to attend to the action displayed by the body and to categorize the expressed emotion. The results indicate that recognition of body language is biased towards the emotion expressed by the simultaneously presented auditory information, whether it consist of human or of animal sounds. Our results show that a crossmodal influence from auditory to visual emotional information obtains for whole body video images with the facial expression blanked and includes human as well as animal sounds.

  17. [With reference to the body anthropology: a human being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, A

    1998-01-01

    What does a man consist of? - the query "as old as a world". Does he consist of soul and body being the separate independent entities, or is he a mixture of those elements constituting an inseparable whole? It is a question which scientists of various disciplines are still trying to answer. While belief that those two elements coexist separately was sufficient for dualists, the burden of constant search for the "liaison" between the spiritual and the corporeal lay on the monists. The intellectual change of modern and post-modern times inaugurated the change also in this respect. The anthropological controversy assumes different shapes now: man is seen monisticaly, as a whole, and new directions in seeing the world and cognition are being formed. Phenomenology as well as cultural anthropology has done a lot in this field. While studying human body it also studies a man as a whole (body - subject); human body changes as if inherently according to a biological order but it is also shaped by "history", i.e. events, society, learning, politics, culture. And in those contexts body is studied by anthropology - a new specialization emerges: anthropology of body.

  18. A REVIEW ON LOWER APPENDICULAR MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM OF HUMAN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhtaruzzaman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation engineering plays an important role in designing various autonomous robots to provide better therapeutic exercise to disabled patients. Hence it is necessary to study human musculoskeletal system and also needs to be presented in scientific manner in order to describe and analyze the biomechanics of human body motion. This review focuses on lower appendicular musculoskeletal structure of human body to represent joints and links architectures; to identify muscle attachments and functions; and to illustrate muscle groups which are responsible for a particular joint movement. Firstly, human lower skeletal structure, linking systems, joint mechanisms, and their functions are described with a conceptual representation of joint architecture of human skeleton. This section also represents joints and limbs by comparing with mechanical systems. Characteristics of ligaments and their functions to construct skeletal joints are also discussed briefly in this part. Secondly, the study focuses on muscular system of human lower limbs where muscle structure, functions, roles in moving endoskeleton structure, and supporting mechanisms are presented ellaborately. Thirdly, muscle groups are tabulated based on functions that provide mobility to different joints of lower limbs. Finally, for a particular movement action of lower extremity, muscles are also grouped and tabulated to have a better understanding on functions of individual muscle. Basically the study presents an overview of the structure of human lower limbs by characterizing and classifying skeletal and muscular systems.KEYWORDS:   Musculoskeletal system; Human lower limbs; Muscle groups; Joint motion; Biomechatronics; Rehabilitation.

  19. Students' Conceptions about Energy and the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael; Treagust, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Students' understanding of energy has been primarily within the domain of physics. This study sought to examine students' understanding of concepts relating to energy and the human body using pencil and paper questionnaires administered to 610 students in Years 8-12. From students' responses to the questionnaires, conceptual patterns were…

  20. Of Human Bodies in Scientific Communication and Enculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, SungWon; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    How do students become enculturated and come to enact culture in ways that are new to them? This study probes the dialectical processes of enculturation, the central aspect of which is the role of human bodies in communication. For students, as for any individual, culture exists in terms of action possibilities that presuppose their…

  1. Science Teachers' Drawings of What Is inside the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia G.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report United States of America (USA) science teachers' understandings of the internal structures of the human body. The 71 science teachers who participated in this study attended a frog/pig, two-hour dissection workshop at the 2004 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) conference in Atlanta, Georgia. The…

  2. Language Functions and Medical Communication: The Human Body as Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantz, Deirdre; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a field experiment in medical English with first-year medical students at the University of Pavia, Northern Italy. Working in groups of 8-10, the students were asked to produce a corpus of medical texts in English demonstrating how the human body is itself a meaningful text (Baldry and Thibault 2006: Ch. 1).…

  3. Embalmment: a veritable source of human body preservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embalmment is the process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of microorganisms, in order to retard organic decomposition and restore acceptable physical appearance. This paper presents a synopsis of the historical aspect of embalming and the various documented ...

  4. Electromagnetic Fields at the Surface of Human-Body Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization. The results show that the material assumption when modeling the human body as a homogeneous material is very important. Furthermore, it is shown that one assumption might lead to higher fields for a specific polarization, angle of incidence...

  5. Finite element crash simulations of the human body: Passive and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Conventional dummy based testing procedures suffer from known limitations. This report addresses issues in finite element human body models in evaluating pedestrian and occupant crash safety measures. A review of material properties of soft tissues and characterization methods show a scarcity of material.

  6. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    Full Text Available Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  7. Human Vocal Attractiveness as Signaled by Body Size Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Lee, Albert; Wu, Wing-Li; Liu, Xuan; Birkholz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language. PMID:23638065

  8. Evaluation of human body comfortableness under vibrate condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To efficiently evaluate the influences on human body comfortableness under different vibrative condition, the paper comprehensively applied the surface electromyography (SEMG) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology and obtained the relationship between mean power frequency (MPF) and regional tissue ...

  9. embalmment: a veritable source of human body preservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. Embalmment is the process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of microorganisms, in order to retard organic decomposition and restore acceptable physical appearance. This paper presents a synopsis of the historical aspect of embalming and the ...

  10. Finite element crash simulations of the human body: Passive and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conventional dummy based testing procedures suffer from known limitations. This report addresses issues in finite element human body models in evaluating pedestrian and occupant crash safety measures. A review of material properties of soft tissues and characterization methods show a scarcity of material properties for ...

  11. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same.

  12. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  13. Human body donation in Thailand: Donors at Khon Kaen University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techataweewan, N; Panthongviriyakul, C; Toomsan, Y; Mothong, W; Kanla, P; Chaichun, A; Amarttayakong, P; Tayles, N

    2018-03-01

    Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ∼ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira® reconstruction and cinema 4D® remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the ‘closure’ of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body. PMID:26467243

  15. The Bugs Within Our Body: The Human Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, D J; Piquette-Miller, M

    2016-06-01

    The human microbiota is the ecological community of microorganisms that live within our bodies. Emerging evidence has revealed that dysregulation of the host-microbe symbiotic relationship contributes to the pathogenesis of a vast number of human diseases and impacts the efficacy and toxicity of therapeutic drugs. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the human microbiota is crucial to the development of therapeutic interventions that target the microbiota and also provides fundamental insights towards understanding intersubject variability in therapeutic outcomes. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  16. Mutations in the T (brachyury) gene cause a novel syndrome consisting of sacral agenesis, abnormal ossification of the vertebral bodies and a persistent notochordal canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, A V; Alders, M; Sylva, M; Bilardo, C M; Pajkrt, E; van Rijn, R R; Schulte-Merker, S; Bulk, S; Stefanovic, S; Ilgun, A; Barnett, P; Mannens, M M A M; Moorman, A F M; Oostra, R J; van Maarle, M C

    BACKGROUND: The T gene (brachyury gene) is the founding member of the T-box family of transcription factors and is vital for the formation and differentiation of the mesoderm and the axial development of all vertebrates. RESULTS: We report here on four patients from three consanguineous families

  17. Equivalent dose rate by muons to the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Băcioiu, I

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the relative sensitivity from different human tissues of the human body, at a ground level, from muon cosmic radiation has been studied. The aim of this paper was to provide information on the equivalent dose rates received from atmospheric muons to human body, at the ground level. The calculated value of the effective dose rate by atmospheric muons plus the radiation levels of the natural annual background radiation dose, at the ground level, in the momentum interval of cosmic ray muon (0.2-120.0 GeV/c) is about 2.106±0.001 mSv/y, which is insignificant in comparison with the values of the doses from the top of the atmosphere.

  18. Human males and females body thermoregulation: perfusion effect analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Saraswati; Gurung, D B; Saxena, V P

    2014-10-01

    Skin temperature is a common physiological parameter that reflects thermal responses. Blood perfusion is an important part of the physiological processes that the human body undergoes in order to maintain homeostasis. This study focuses on the effect of perfusion on the temperature distribution in human males and females body in different thermal environment. The study has been carried out for one dimensional steady cases using finite element method. The input parameter of the model is the blood perfusion or volumetric flow rate within the tissue. The appropriate physical and physiological parameters together with suitable boundary conditions that affect the heat regulations have been incorporated in the model. The study is to have a better understanding that how does thermoregulation change in human males and females skin layered due to perfusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A New Approach and Analysis of Modeling the Human Body in RFID-Enabled Body-Centric Wireless Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Karoliina Koski; Toni Björninen; Lauri Sydänheimo; Leena Ukkonen; Yahya Rahmat-Samii

    2014-01-01

    Body-centric wireless systems demand wearable sensor and tag antennas that have robust impedance matching and provide enough gain for a reliable wireless communication link. In this paper, we discuss a novel and practical technique for the modeling of the human body in UHF RFID body-centric wireless systems. What makes this technique different is that we base the human model on measured far-field response from a reference tag attached to the human body. Hereby, the human body model accounts f...

  20. Targeting ADAM12 in human disease: head, body or tail?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, J; Wewer, U M

    2009-01-01

    properties. This functional trinity is reflected in the structure of ADAM12, which can be divided into head, body, and tail. The head of the protein (consisting of the pro and catalytic domains) mediates processing of growth factors and cytokines and has been implicated in epidermal growth factor (EGF......) and insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling. The body of the protein (consisting of the disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and EGF-like domains) is involved in contacts with the extracellular matrix and other cells through interactions with integrins and syndecans. Finally, the tail of the protein (consisting...... the possible approaches to targeting ADAM12 in human disease....

  1. Aging human body: changes in bone, muscle and body fat with consequent changes in nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JafariNasabian, Pegah; Inglis, Julia E; Reilly, Wendimere; Kelly, Owen J; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2017-07-01

    Aging affects almost all physiological processes, but changes in body composition and body phenotype are most observable. In this review, we focus on these changes, including loss of bone and muscle and increase in body fat or redistribution of the latter, possibly leading to osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome. We also address low-grade chronic inflammation, prevalent in aging adults and a cause of many disorders including those associated with body composition. Changes in dietary intake and nutritional requirements of older individuals, that all may lead to some disturbances on tissue and organ levels, are discussed as well. Finally, we discuss the hormonal changes in the aging body, considering each of the tissues, bone, muscle and fat as separate endocrine organs, but yet in the continuous interface and communication with each other. Although there are still many unanswered questions in this field, this review will enable the readers to better understand the aging human body and measures needing to be implemented toward reducing impaired health and disability in older individuals. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  3. Forward dynamics simulation of human body under tilting perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, D.; Pasha Zanoosi, A. A.; Sadeghi-Mehr, M.

    2012-02-01

    Human body uses different strategies to maintain its stability and these strategies vary from fixed-foot strategies to strategies which foot is moved in order to increase the support base. Tilting movement of foot is one type of the perturbations usually is exposed to human body. In the presence of such perturbations human body must employ appropriate reactions to prevent threats like falling. But it is not clear that how human body maintains its stability by central nervous system (CNS). At present study it is tried that by presenting a musculoskeletal model of human lower extremity with four links, three degrees of freedom (DOF) and eight skeletal muscles, the level of muscle activations causes the maintenance of stability, be investigated. Using forward dynamics solution, leads to a more general problem, rather than inverse dynamics. Hence, forward dynamics solution by forward optimization has been used for solving this highly nonlinear problem. To this end, first the system's equations of motion has been derived using lagrangian dynamics. Eight Hill-type muscles as actuators of the system were modeled. Because determination of muscle forces considering their number is an undetermined problem, optimization of an appropriate goal function should be practiced. For optimization problem, the characteristics of genetic algorithms as a method based on direct search, and the direct collocation method, has been profited. Also by considering requirements of problem, some constraints such as conservation of model stability are entered into optimization procedure. Finally to investigate validation of model, the results from optimization and experimental data are compared and good agreements are obtained.

  4. Effects of preexisting microdamage, collagen cross-links, degree of mineralization, age, and architecture on compressive mechanical properties of elderly human vertebral trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follet, Helene; Viguet-Carrin, Stéphanie; Burt-Pichat, Brigitte; Dépalle, Baptiste; Bala, Yohann; Gineyts, Evelyne; Munoz, Francoise; Arlot, Monique; Boivin, Georges; Chapurlat, Roland D; Delmas, Pierre D; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the mechanical properties of trabecular bone are determined by bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and microarchitecture. The purpose of this study was to explore other possible determinants of the mechanical properties of vertebral trabecular bone, namely collagen cross-link content, microdamage, and mineralization. Trabecular bone cores were collected from human L2 vertebrae (n = 49) from recently deceased donors 54-95 years of age (21 men and 27 women). Two trabecular cores were obtained from each vertebra, one for preexisting microdamage and mineralization measurements, and one for BV/TV and quasi-static compression tests. Collagen cross-link content (PYD, DPD, and PEN) was measured on surrounding trabecular bone. Advancing age was associated with impaired mechanical properties, and with increased microdamage, even after adjustment by BV/TV. BV/TV was the strongest determinant of elastic modulus and ultimate strength (r²  = 0.44 and 0.55, respectively). Microdamage, mineralization parameters, and collagen cross-link content were not associated with mechanical properties. These data indicate that the compressive strength of human vertebral trabecular bone is primarily determined by the amount of trabecular bone, and notably unaffected by normal variation in other factors, such as cross-link profile, microdamage and mineralization. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  5. Internal morphology of human facet joints: comparing cervical and lumbar spine with regard to age, gender and the vertebral core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Zanker, Daniel; Wolfram, Uwe

    2012-03-01

    Back pain constitutes a major problem in modern societies. Facet joints are increasingly recognised as a source of such pain. Knowledge about the internal morphology and its changes with age may make it possible to include the facets more in therapeutic strategies, for instance joint replacements or immobilisation. In total, 168 facets from C6/7 and L4/5 segments were scanned in a micro-computed tomography. Image analysis was used to investigate the internal morphology with regard to donor age and gender. Additional data from trabecular bone of the vertebral core allowed a semi-quantitative comparison of the morphology of the vertebral core and the facets. Porosity and pore spacing of the cortical sub-chondral bone does not appear to change with age for either males or females. In contrast, bone volume fraction decreases in females from approximately 0.4 to 0.2 , whereas it is constant in males. Trabecular thickness decreases during the ageing process in females and stays constant in males , whereas trabecular separation increases during the ageing process in both genders. The results of this study may help to improve the understanding of pathophysiological changes in the facet joints. Such results could be of value for understanding back pain and its treatment. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  6. The body republic: social order and human body in Renaissance medical thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barona, J L

    1993-01-01

    The representation of the human body built by medicine had historical references and analogical relations with other compounds of the culture of each particular period. The organic model, the coordinated and hierarchical dependence of the body parts, its subordination to a prevailing element (the brain or the heart, depending on the authors and times) guided directly by a soul infused by God... These are some of the aspects which reflect the relation between the image of the body and the justification of the ideological and social order, as a natural one. Among the numerous sources of Renaissance medicine that could bring significant facts about this theme, the present work is based on anatomical treatises and books of natural philosophy like those written by Bernardino Montaña de Monserrate, Alonso de Fuentes, Realdo Colombo, Hieronimus Montaltus, Andrea Cesalpino and Miguel Sabuco, all of whom are good exponents of Renaissance anatomy and physiological thought.

  7. On the dynamics of a human body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, R. L.; Passerello, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Equations of motion for a model of the human body are developed. Basically, the model consists of an elliptical cylinder representing the torso, together with a system of frustrums of elliptical cones representing the limbs. They are connected to the main body and each other by hinges and ball and socket joints. Vector, tensor, and matrix methods provide a systematic organization of the geometry. The equations of motion are developed from the principles of classical mechanics. The solution of these equations then provide the displacement and rotation of the main body when the external forces and relative limb motions are specified. Three simple example motions are studied to illustrate the method. The first is an analysis and comparison of simple lifting on the earth and the moon. The second is an elementary approach to underwater swimming, including both viscous and inertia effects. The third is an analysis of kicking motion and its effect upon a vertically suspended man such as a parachutist.

  8. Air temperature investigation in microenvironment around a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the temperature boundary layer around a human body in a quiescent indoor environment. The air temperature, mean in time and standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations around a breathing thermal manikin are examined in relation to the room temperature...... to the surface of the body. The large standard deviation of air temperature fluctuations, up to 1.2°C, was recorded in the region of the chest, and up to 2.9°C when the exhalation was applied. The manikin leaned backwards increased the air temperature in the breathing zone, which was opposite from the forward...... body inclination. Exhalation through the mouth created a steady air temperature drop with increased distance from the mouth without disturbing the region of the chest. Exhalation through the nose did not affect the air temperature in front of the chest due to physics of the jets flow from the nose...

  9. EFFECTS OF LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDON THE HUMAN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRICA POPOV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International standardization institutions, which play an important role in assessing the effects o f the field and determining the need to take protective measures for the human factor, developed safety standards on human exposure to electromagnetic field, differentiated for electric and magnetic fields of low frequency ( near fields, as well as to ele ctromagnetic radiation fields (far fields. Until recently, many studies has shown that the main harmful effect on the human body was produced by high frequency electromagnetic field, but in recent years, more and more information also reveals that the serious damage can be caused by low frequency electric and magnetic fields. These low -frequency electromagnetic fields interact with human tissue causing harmful effects, the degree of destruction depending on factors such as: intensity, frequency, energy f ield level and duration of exposure.

  10. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system.

  11. Investigation and Modeling of Capacitive Human Body Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Qi; Guo, Yong-Xin; Wu, Wen

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a systematic investigation of the capacitive human body communication (HBC). The measurement of HBC channels is performed using a novel battery-powered system to eliminate the effects of baluns, cables and instruments. To verify the measured results, a numerical model incorporating the entire HBC system is established. Besides, it is demonstrated that both the impedance and path gain bandwidths of HBC channels is affected by the electrode configuration. Based on the analysis of the simulated electric field distribution, an equivalent circuit model is proposed and the circuit parameters are extracted using the finite element method. The transmission capability along the human body is also studied. The simulated results using the numerical and circuit models coincide very well with the measurement, which demonstrates that the proposed circuit model can effectively interpret the operation mechanism of the capacitive HBC.

  12. A topological multilayer model of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeito, Antonio; Painho, Marco; Cabral, Pedro; O'Neill, João

    2015-11-04

    Geographical information systems deal with spatial databases in which topological models are described with alphanumeric information. Its graphical interfaces implement the multilayer concept and provide powerful interaction tools. In this study, we apply these concepts to the human body creating a representation that would allow an interactive, precise, and detailed anatomical study. A vector surface component of the human body is built using a three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction methodology. This multilayer concept is implemented by associating raster components with the corresponding vector surfaces, which include neighbourhood topology enabling spatial analysis. A root mean square error of 0.18 mm validated the three-dimensional reconstruction technique of internal anatomical structures. The expansion of the identification and the development of a neighbourhood analysis function are the new tools provided in this model.

  13. [Anatomia sacra. Religiously motivated interventions on human or animal bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladigow, B

    1995-01-01

    Controlled surgery in the interior of human or animal bodies in classical antiquity was allowed only under certain circumstances. Bloody animal sacrifice and its rules for the interpretation of entrails as well as the rare examples of 'ritual anatomy' presented a religious framework for the opening of bodies. Greek mythology provided several examples of medical operations, for example, the Caesarean section, transplantations and plastic surgery. Great cultic significance was given to organ votives or reproductions of human inner organs which were offered in temples ex voto or with request for their curing. The anatomical knowledge transported along with these offerings represents a separate tradition different from the state of anatomical knowledge found in medical literature of the period.

  14. Towards whole-body fluorescence imaging in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie K Piper

    Full Text Available Dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (DNIF whole-body imaging of small animals has become a popular tool in experimental biomedical research. In humans, however, the field of view has been limited to body parts, such as rheumatoid hands, diabetic feet or sentinel lymph nodes. Here we present a new whole-body DNIF-system suitable for adult subjects. We explored whether this system (i allows dynamic whole-body fluorescence imaging and (ii can detect modulations in skin perfusion. The non-specific fluorescent probe indocyanine green (ICG was injected intravenously into two subjects, and fluorescence images were obtained at 5 Hz. The in- and out-flow kinetics of ICG have been shown to correlate with tissue perfusion. To validate the system, skin perfusion was modulated by warming and cooling distinct areas on the chest and the abdomen. Movies of fluorescence images show a bolus passage first in the face, then in the chest, abdomen and finally in the periphery (~10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds, respectively. When skin perfusion is augmented by warming, bolus arrives about 5 seconds earlier than when the skin is cooled and perfusion decreased. Calculating bolus arrival times and spatial fitting of basis time courses extracted from different regions of interest allowed a mapping of local differences in subcutaneous skin perfusion. This experiment is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-body dynamic fluorescence imaging in humans. Since the whole-body approach demonstrates sensitivity to circumscribed alterations in skinperfusion, it may be used to target autonomous changes in polyneuropathy and to screen for peripheral vascular diseases.

  15. The Role of Human Body Movements in Mate Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Hugill

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is common scientific knowledge, that most of what we say within a conversation is not only expressed by the words' meaning alone, but also through our gestures, postures, and body movements. This non-verbal mode is possibly rooted firmly in our human evolutionary heritage, and as such, some scientists argue that it serves as a fundamental assessment and expression tool for our inner qualities. Studies of nonverbal communication have established that a universal, culture-free, non-verbal sign system exists, that is available to all individuals for negotiating social encounters. Thus, it is not only the kind of gestures and expressions humans use in social communication, but also the way these movements are performed, as this seems to convey key information about an individual's quality. Dance, for example, is a special form of movement, which can be observed in human courtship displays. Recent research suggests that people are sensitive to the variation in dance movements, and that dance performance provides information about an individual's mate quality in terms of health and strength. This article reviews the role of body movement in human non-verbal communication, and highlights its significance in human mate preferences in order to promote future work in this research area within the evolutionary psychology framework.

  16. The role of human body movements in mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugill, Nadine; Fink, Bernhard; Neave, Nick

    2010-02-18

    It is common scientific knowledge, that most of what we say within a conversation is not only expressed by the words' meaning alone, but also through our gestures, postures, and body movements. This non-verbal mode is possibly rooted firmly in our human evolutionary heritage, and as such, some scientists argue that it serves as a fundamental assessment and expression tool for our inner qualities. Studies of nonverbal communication have established that a universal, culture-free, non-verbal sign system exists, that is available to all individuals for negotiating social encounters. Thus, it is not only the kind of gestures and expressions humans use in social communication, but also the way these movements are performed, as this seems to convey key information about an individual's quality. Dance, for example, is a special form of movement, which can be observed in human courtship displays. Recent research suggests that people are sensitive to the variation in dance movements, and that dance performance provides information about an individual's mate quality in terms of health and strength. This article reviews the role of body movement in human non-verbal communication, and highlights its significance in human mate preferences in order to promote future work in this research area within the evolutionary psychology framework.

  17. Perspective of the Human Body in Sasang Constitutional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney. Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies found in SCM.

  18. The Role of Human Body Movements in Mate Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Hugill, Nadine; Fink, Bernhard; Neave, Nick

    2010-01-01

    It is common scientific knowledge, that most of what we say within a conversation is not only expressed by the words’ meaning alone, but also through our gestures, postures, and body movements. This non-verbal mode is possibly rooted firmly in our human evolutionary heritage, and as such, some scientists argue that it serves as a fundamental assessment and expression tool for our inner qualities. Studies of nonverbal communication have established that a universal, culture-free...

  19. [Meteorology and the human body: two hundred years of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrai, Judit

    2010-07-04

    Modern meteorology was started in the 18th century, with the establishment of observer networks through countries. Since then, temperature, pressure and purity of air, quantity of powder have been measured and the effects of changes on the human body have been studied. New theories have been set relating to the atmospheric properties of microorganisms. Changes of pathogens in the context of climatic changes have been also studied.

  20. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1983-08-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components.

  1. Lordose lombar: estudo dos valores angulares e da participação dos corpos vertebrais e discos intervertebrais Lumbar lordosis: a study of angle values and of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Fonseca Damasceno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado, em indivíduos normais, o valor angular da lordose lombar e a participação dos corpos vertebrais e discos intervertebrais na sua composição. Foram avaliadas as radiografias da coluna lombar de 350 indivíduos normais e assintomáticos com a idade variando de 18 a 50 anos (média 29,0 anos ± 8,24, sendo 143 homens e 207 mulheres. Foram medidas a curvatura lombossacra (L1S1 e a curvatura lombolombar (L1L5. As medidas das curvaturas lombares e dos seus componentes apresentaram grande variabilidade. Foram observados valores médios de -61° para a curvatura lombossacra e de -45° para a curvatura lombolombar. As medidas dos corpos vertebrais apresentaram valores cifóticos para L1, neutros para L2, e progressivamente lordóticos de L3 a L5. Os discos intervertebrais apresentaram angulação lordótica progressiva desde L1-L2. Os elementos caudais da curvatura, discos intervertebrais L4-L5 e L5-S1 e o corpo vertebral L5 corresponderam a quase 60% medida angular da curvatura lombossacra. Foi observada diferença significante entre os sexos masculino e feminino para as medidas das curvaturas lombares, e dos corpos vertebrais L2 e L4, tendo sido observados valores maiores no sexo feminino. Foram observadas diferenças relacionadas à idade na medida das curvaturas lombares e dos corpos vertebrais.The angular value of lumbar lordosis and the role of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in its constitution were studied in normal individuals. X-Ray images of lumbar spine were studied in 350 normal and asymptomatic individuals, ages ranging from 18 to 50 years old (average 29.0 years old ± 8.24, being 143 males and 207 females. The lumbosacral (L1S1 and the lumbolumbar (L1L5 curves were measured. Measurements for lumbar curves and their components presented a large variation. Average values of -61º were seen for lumbosacral curve and of -45º for lumbolumbar curve. Vertebral bodies measurements presented kyphotic values for L1

  2. Ghrelin receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eKaiya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R was discovered in humans and pigs in 1996. The endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was discovered three years later, in 1999, and our understanding of the physiological significance of the ghrelin system in vertebrates has grown steadily since then. Although the ghrelin system in non-mammalian vertebrates is a subject of great interest, protein sequence data for the receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates has been limited until recently, and related biological information has not been well organized. In this review, we summarize current information related to the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates.

  3. Impact injury prediction by FE human body model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynčík L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The biomechanical simulations as powerful instruments are used in many areas such as traffic, medicine, sport, army etc. The simulations are often performed with models, which are based on the Finite Element Method. The great ability of FE deformable models of human bodies is to predict the injuries during accidents. Due to its modular implementation of thorax and abdomen FE models, human articulated rigid body model ROBBY, which was previously developed at the University of West Bohemia in cooperation with ESI Group (Engineering Simulation for Industry, can be used for this purpose. ROBBY model representing average adult man is still being improved to obtain more precise model of human body with the possibility to predict injuries during accidents. Recently, new generated thoracic model was embedded into ROBBY model and this was subsequently satisfactorily validated. In this study the updated ROBBY model was used and injury of head and thorax were investigated during frontal crashes simulated by virtue of two types of sled tests with various types of restraint system (shoulder belt, lap belt and airbag. The results of the simulation were compared with the experimental ones.

  4. In-to-out body path loss for wireless radio frequency capsule endoscopy in a human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, G; Tanghe, E; Thielens, A; Martens, L; Joseph, W

    2016-08-01

    Physical-layer characterization is important for design of in-to-out body communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs). This paper numerically investigates the path loss of an in-to-out body radio frequency (RF) wireless link between an endoscopy capsule and a receiver outside the body using a 3D electromagnetic solver. A spiral antenna in the endoscopy capsule is tuned to operate in the Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) band at 402 MHz, accounting for the properties of the human body. The influence of misalignment, rotation of the capsule, and human body model are investigated. Semi-empirical path loss models for various homogeneous tissues and 3D realistic human body models are provided for manufacturers to evaluate the performance of in-to-out-body WBAN systems.

  5. A novel method for estimating the entropy generation rate in a human body

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman Azizur Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to show a method for calculating entropy generation (Sgen) in a human body under various environmental and physiological conditions. The Sgen in a human body is a measure of activeness of motions, reactions, and irreversibility of processes occurring in a body and is a kind of holistic and thermodynamic index, which characterizes a human body as a whole. Human body at healthier and normal condition generates the least amount of Sgen. Heat transfer over a hu...

  6. On the Interaction between a Nanoparticulate System and the Human Body in Body Area Nanonetworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Loscrí

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the interaction of a nanoparticulate system for nanomedicine applications with the biological environment, i.e., the human body. Following the molecular communication paradigm, we assess how our nanoparticulate system model is suitable for coexistence in a biological environment. Specifically, we assume the presence of the human immune system that can affect the optimal behavior of nanoparticles, aiming to locally deliver drug inside the human body. When a flow of nanoparticles is injected into the blood, the interference due to the immune system can provide a strong decrease of the nanoparticle concentration, by means of “humoral immunity”, the phagocytosis process, etc. As a consequence, the correct drug delivery will occur with a lower probability. Since the mechanism behind the biological immune system is very complicated, in this paper, we start from a simplistic nanoparticulate model, where the nanoparticles and the cells of the immune system are subject to the diffusion laws. Finally, we derive the end-to-end physical model of our nanoparticulate nanomedicine system with the presence of the human immune system cells. The error analysis is then investigated in terms of how these errors can affect the performance of the system, i.e., nanoparticle survival probability.

  7. Global analysis of human duplicated genes reveals the relative importance of whole-genome duplicates originated in the early vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Debarun; Ghosh, Tapash C

    2016-01-22

    Gene duplication is a genetic mutation that creates functionally redundant gene copies that are initially relieved from selective pressures and may adapt themselves to new functions with time. The levels of gene duplication may vary from small-scale duplication (SSD) to whole genome duplication (WGD). Studies with yeast revealed ample differences between these duplicates: Yeast WGD pairs were functionally more similar, less divergent in subcellular localization and contained a lesser proportion of essential genes. In this study, we explored the differences in evolutionary genomic properties of human SSD and WGD genes, with the identifiable human duplicates coming from the two rounds of whole genome duplication occurred early in vertebrate evolution. We observed that these two groups of duplicates were also dissimilar in terms of their evolutionary and genomic properties. But interestingly, this is not like the same observed in yeast. The human WGDs were found to be functionally less similar, diverge more in subcellular level and contain a higher proportion of essential genes than the SSDs, all of which are opposite from yeast. Additionally, we explored that human WGDs were more divergent in their gene expression profile, have higher multifunctionality and are more often associated with disease, and are evolutionarily more conserved than human SSDs. Our study suggests that human WGD duplicates are more divergent and entails the adaptation of WGDs to novel and important functions that consequently lead to their evolutionary conservation in the course of evolution.

  8. Vertebral contour in spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Rho, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Choi, H. Y.; Kim, B. K. [Wallace memorial Baptist Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    The defect in the pars interarticularis of spondylolisthesis may be dependent on contributing factors related to trauma and stress to which the neural arch is subjected, superimposed on a hereditary diasthesis. Posterior wedging of 5th lumber vertebral body in lumbosacral spondylolisthesis together with the degree of slip have been measured. The average wedging in spondylolisthesis is significantly greater than patient without this condition, and forms a characteristic radiological sign. The degree of wedging and slip show a statistically valid correlation. The diagnosis of spondylolisthesis is becoming more prevalent as the complexity of our society result in the increasing use of roentgenography of the lumbar spine. Isolated lateral deviation and rotation of spinous process seen in anteroposterior radiographs of the lumbar spine seems to be associated with pathology in the pars interarticularis.

  9. Height restoration of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures using different intravertebral reduction devices: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Antonio; Oberkircher, Ludwig; Figiel, Jens; Floßdorf, Felix; Bolzinger, Florent; Noriega, David C; Ruchholtz, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures using transpedicular cement augmentation has grown significantly during the past two decades. Balloon kyphoplasty was developed to restore vertebral height and improve sagittal alignment. Several studies have shown these theoretical improvements cannot be transferred universally to the clinical setting. The aim of the current study is to evaluate two different procedures used for percutaneous augmentation of vertebral compression fractures with respect to height restoration: balloon kyphoplasty and SpineJack. Twenty-four vertebral bodies of two intact, fresh human cadaveric spines (T6-L5; donor age, 70 years and 60 years; T-score -6.8 points and -6.3 points) were scanned using computed tomography (CT) and dissected into single vertebral bodies. Vertebral wedge compression fractures were created by a material testing machine (Universal testing machine, Instron 5566, Darmstadt, Germany). The axial load was increased continuously until the height of the anterior edge of the vertebral body was reduced by 40% of the initial measured values. After 15 minutes, the load was decreased manually to 100 N. After postfracture CT, the clamped vertebral bodies were placed in a custom-made loading frame with a preload of 100 N. Twelve vertebral bodies were treated using SpineJack (SJ; Vexim, Balma, France), the 12 remaining vertebral bodies were treated with balloon kyphoplasty (BKP; Kyphon, Medtronic, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The load was maintained during the procedure until the cement set completely. Posttreatment CT was performed. Anterior, central, and posterior height as well as the Beck index were measured prefracture and postfracture as well as after treatment. For anterior height restoration (BKP, 0.14±1.48 mm; SJ, 3.34±1.19 mm), central height restoration (BKP, 0.91±1.04 mm; SJ, 3.24±1.22 mm), and posterior restoration (BKP, 0.37±0.57 mm; SJ, 1.26±1.05), as well as the Beck index (BKP, 0.00±0.06 mm; SJ, 0

  10. Principle of relative positioning of structures in the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Buliang; Pang, Ailan; Li, Ming

    2013-03-25

    The arrangement of various biological structures should generally ensure the safety of crucial structures and increase their working efficiency; however, other principles governing the relative positions of structures in humans have not been reported. The present study therefore investigated other principles using nerves and their companion vessels in the human body as an example. Nerves and blood vessels usually travel together and in the most direct way towards their targets. Human embryology, histology, and gross anatomy suggest that there are many possible positions for these structures during development. However, for mechanical reasons, tougher or stronger structures should take priority. Nerves are tougher than most other structures, followed by arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels. Nerves should therefore follow the most direct route, and be followed by the arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels. This general principle should be applicable to all living things.

  11. Multi-modal RGB–Depth–Thermal Human Body Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmero, Cristina; Clapés, Albert; Bahnsen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of human body segmentation from multi-modal visual cues as a first stage of automatic human behavior analysis. We propose a novel RGB-Depth-Thermal dataset along with a multi-modal seg- mentation baseline. The several modalities are registered us- ing a calibration...... device and a registration algorithm. Our baseline extracts regions of interest using background sub- traction, defines a partitioning of the foreground regions into cells, computes a set of image features on those cells us- ing different state-of-the-art feature extractions, and models the distribution...... to other state-of-the-art meth- ods, obtaining an overlap above 75% on the novel dataset when compared to the manually annotated ground-truth of human segmentations....

  12. Tool use induces complex and flexible plasticity of human body representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R; Serino, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    Plasticity of body representation fundamentally underpins human tool use. Recent studies have demonstrated remarkably complex plasticity of body representation in humans, showing that such plasticity (1) occurs flexibly across multiple time scales and (2) involves multiple body representations responding differently to tool use. Such findings reveal remarkable sophistication of body plasticity in humans, suggesting that Vaesen may overestimate the similarity of such mechanisms in humans and non-human primates.

  13. Modeling of interactions of electromagnetic fields with human bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputa, Krzysztof

    Interactions of electromagnetic fields with the human body have been a subject of scientific interest and public concern. In recent years, issues in power line field effects and those of wireless telephones have been in the forefront of research. Engineering research compliments biological investigations by quantifying the induced fields in biological bodies due to exposure to external fields. The research presented in this thesis aims at providing reliable tools, and addressing some of the unresolved issues related to interactions with the human body of power line fields and fields produced by handheld wireless telephones. The research comprises two areas, namely development of versatile models of the human body and their visualisation, and verification and application of numerical codes to solve selected problems of interest. The models of the human body, which are based on the magnetic resonance scans of the body, are unique and differ considerably from other models currently available. With the aid of computer software developed, the models can be arranged to different postures, and medical devices can be accurately placed inside them. A previously developed code for modeling interactions of power line fields with biological bodies has been verified by rigorous, quantitative inter-laboratory comparison for two human body models. This code has been employed to model electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the magnetic field with implanted cardiac pacemakers. In this case, the correct placement and representation of the pacemaker leads are critical, as simplified computations have been shown to result in significant errors. In modeling interactions of wireless communication devices, the finite difference time domain technique (FDTD) has become a de facto standard. The previously developed code has been verified by comparison with the analytical solution for a conductive sphere. While previously researchers limited their verifications to principal axes of the sphere

  14. Teaching practices epistemologically differentiated about human body learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Maria Ribeiro de Aragão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How could we teach about THE HUMAN BODY as a different way, in both epistemological and pedagogical approaches? How could we leave behind stagnant as well as stagnating aspects of traditional way of teaching, such as the fragmentation/segmentation of contents, the far away reality, the excessive use of details or else, whenever learning about our own body? These are some of the questions we have considered when trying to escape the bad influence which came from our "environment formation" - putting it on all the marks we have acquired inside or even outside school - trying to overview as meaning our body working...in constant interaction with the surrounding ambient. Among those pointed kind of formation marks we frequently acquire from studying at the University - which need to be transcended —here we come to detach those innumerable contacts with both anatomized and misfigurated supposed human bodies' which didn't even look like actual human bodies, because they could never seem to have sheltered life inside themselves. They were inert as well as static bodies, only used as a such of vain "didactic materials" that could/can permit many teachers on their educational formation to focus a certain teaching approach which only seeks both the students' memorization of an infinitude of "complicated words", and to structure the systems -by several procedures of nouns definition and/or classification - as part of the so called biological organism. In order to do a different way of teaching, we have based our approach on three alternative teaching methodologies which focus these matters under a constructive perspective. On those three focused studies, it is possible to observe that some very principles of a present day teaching approach were there considered to achieve some of them: the respect for the students' previous ideas; the understanding about knowledge as something that is not established for good but as ever changeable and, at last, the

  15. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

  16. Research study on neck injury lessening with active head restraint using human body FE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Junji

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the active head restraint system in reducing neck injury risk of car occupants in low-speed rear impacts. A human body FE model "THUMS" was used to simulate head and neck kinematics of the occupant and to evaluate loading to the neck. Joint capsule strain was calculated to predict neck injury risk as well as NIC. The validity of the model was confirmed comparing its mechanical responses to those in human subjects in the literatures. Seat FE models were also prepared representing one with a fixed head restraint and the other one with an active head restraint system. The active head restraint system was designed to move the head restraint forward and upward when the lower unit was lower unit was loaded by the pelvis. Rear impact simulations were performed assuming a triangular acceleration pulse at a delta-V of 25 km/h. The model reproduced similar head and neck motions to those measured in the human volunteer test, except for active muscular responses. The calculated joint capsule strain also showed a good match with those of PMHS tests in the literature. A rear-impact simulation was conducted using the model with the fixed head restraint. The result revealed that NIC was strongly correlated with the relative acceleration between the head and the torso and that its maximum peak appeared when the head contacted the head restraint. It was also found that joint capsule strain grew in later timing synchronizing with the relative displacement. Another simulation with the active head restraint system showed that both NIC and joint capsule strain were lowered owing to the forward and upward motion of the head restraint. A close investigation of the vertebral motion indicated that the active head restraint reduced the magnitude of shear deformation in the facet joint, which contributed to the strain growth in the fixed head restraint case. Rear-impact simulations were conducted using a human body FE model, THUMS

  17. Parametric Human Body Reconstruction Based on Sparse Key Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ke-Li; Tong, Ruo-Feng; Tang, Min; Qian, Jing-Ye; Sarkis, Michel

    2016-11-01

    We propose an automatic parametric human body reconstruction algorithm which can efficiently construct a model using a single Kinect sensor. A user needs to stand still in front of the sensor for a couple of seconds to measure the range data. The user's body shape and pose will then be automatically constructed in several seconds. Traditional methods optimize dense correspondences between range data and meshes. In contrast, our proposed scheme relies on sparse key points for the reconstruction. It employs regression to find the corresponding key points between the scanned range data and some annotated training data. We design two kinds of feature descriptors as well as corresponding regression stages to make the regression robust and accurate. Our scheme follows with dense refinement where a pre-factorization method is applied to improve the computational efficiency. Compared with other methods, our scheme achieves similar reconstruction accuracy but significantly reduces runtime.

  18. A review of the development of two types of human skeletal muscle infections from microsporidia associated with pathology in invertebrates and cold-blooded vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cali, Ann; Weiss, Louis M; Takvorian, Peter M

    2005-05-01

    skeletal muscle are presented. While Encephalitozoon cuniculi has been known as both an animal (mammal) and human parasite, the idea of human microsporidial infections derived from cold-blooded vertebrates and invertebrates has only been suggested by microsporidian phylogeny based on small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences but has not been appreciated. The morphological data presented here demonstrate these relationships. Additionally, water, as a link that connects microsporidial spores in the environment to potential host organisms, is diagrammatically presented.

  19. Pedicle screw fixation with kyphoplasty decreases the fracture risk of the treated and adjacent non-treated vertebral bodies: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Huan-Wen; Liu, Jian; Ye, Lin-Qiang; Xiao, Jin; Tu, Qiang; Yang, Tao; Wang, Fei; Sun, Guo-Gang

    2016-12-01

    Adjacent vertebral fractures are common in patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) after kyphoplasty. This finite element study was to examine whether short segment pedicle screw fixation (PSF) with kyphoplasty may decrease the fracture risk of the treated and adjacent non-treated vertebrae after kyphoplasty for OVCFs. By simulating cement augmentation with or without short segment pedicle screw fixation (PSF), two tridimensional, anatomically detailed finite element models of the T10-L2 functional spinal junction were developed. The insertion of pedicle screws into the intact vertebra apparently decreased the stress distribution of the treated vertebra in vertical compression and other load situations. The stress distribution in the bone structures of the intact vertebra adjacent to the intact-screwed vertebra was much less than that in the one adjacent to the treated vertebra. The insertion of pedicle screws into the intact vertebra greatly decreased the maximum displacement of the cortical bones and cancellous bones of the vertebrae. Our results indicated that short segment PSF with kyphoplasty may decrease the fracture risk of the treated and adjacent non-treated vertebrae in the management of OVCFs.

  20. Quantification of human body fat tissue percentage by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Raudies, Florian; Unrath, Alexander; Neumann, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The MRI-based evaluation of the quantity and regional distribution of adipose tissue is one objective measure in the investigation of obesity. The aim of this article was to report a comprehensive and automatic analytical method for the determination of the volumes of subcutaneous fat tissue (SFT) and visceral fat tissue (VFT) in either the whole human body or selected slices or regions of interest. Using an MRI protocol in an examination position that was convenient for volunteers and patients with severe diseases, 22 healthy subjects were examined. The software platform was able to merge MRI scans of several body regions acquired in separate acquisitions. Through a cascade of image processing steps, SFT and VFT volumes were calculated. Whole-body SFT and VFT distributions, as well as fat distributions of defined body slices, were analysed in detail. Complete three-dimensional datasets were analysed in a reproducible manner with as few operator-dependent interventions as possible. In order to determine the SFT volume, the ARTIS (Adapted Rendering for Tissue Intensity Segmentation) algorithm was introduced. The advantage of the ARTIS algorithm was the delineation of SFT volumes in regions in which standard region grow techniques fail. Using the ARTIS algorithm, an automatic SFT volume detection was feasible. MRI data analysis was able to determine SFT and VFT volume percentages using new analytical strategies. With the techniques described, it was possible to detect changes in SFT and VFT percentages of the whole body and selected regions. The techniques presented in this study are likely to be of use in obesity-related investigations, as well as in the examination of longitudinal changes in weight during various medical conditions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A statistical frame based TDMA protocol for human body communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zedong; Li, Zhao; Huang, Renwei; Liu, Yuhang; Li, Jingzhen; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-09

    Human body communication (HBC) using the human body as the transmission medium, which has been regarded as one of the most promising short-range communications in wireless body area networks (WBAN). Compared to the traditional wireless networks, two challenges are existed in HBC based WBAN. (1) Its sensor nodes should be energy saving since it is inconvenient to replace or recharge the battery on these sensor nodes; (2) the coordinator should be able to react dynamically and rapidly to the burst traffic triggered by sensing events. Those burst traffic conditions include vital physical signal (electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram etc.) monitoring, human motion detection (fall detection, activity monitoring, gesture recognition, motion sensing etc.) and so on. To cope with aforementioned challenges, a statistical frame based TDMA (S-TDMA) protocol with multi-constrained (energy, delay, transmission efficiency and emergency management) service is proposed in this paper. The scenarios where burst traffic is often triggered rapidly with low power consumption and low delay is handled in our proposed S-TDMA. A beacon frame with the contained synchronous and poll information is designed to reduce the possibility of collisions of request frames. A statistical frame which broadcasts the unified scheduling information is adopted to avoid packet collisions, idle listening and overhearing. Dynamic time slot allocation mechanism is presented to manage the burst traffic and reduce the active period in each beacon period. An emergency mechanism is proposed for vital signals to be transmitted. The theory analysis is proceed and the result is evaluated in the hardware platform. To verify its feasibility, S-TDMA was fully implemented on our independently-developed HBC platform where four sensor nodes and a coordinator are fastened on a human body. Experiment results show that S-TDMA costs 89.397 mJ every 20 s when the payload size is 122 bytes, 9.51% lower than Lightweight MAC

  2. Lead poisoning due to bullets lodged in the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner Garcés, Juan Bernardo; Manotas Artuz, Rafael Ignacio

    2012-07-01

    With the increased violence and use of firearms in Colombia, we may see more cases of lead poisoning in our environment, and must be prepared to diagnose and treat them. Subtle signs and symptoms as unexplained anemia, gastro-intestinal discomfort and abdominal cramps, as well as severe signs such as changes in behavior and neurological status, nephropathy, and unexplained death, may be associated with a history of gunshot wounds and bullets in the human body. We must offer the patient knowledge and management strategies of pathology.

  3. Investigation and analysis of human body thermal comfort in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xue

    2017-05-01

    In this survey, we selected the 11th building of North China Electric Power University as the research object. Data were measured and distributed on each floor. We record the temperature of the classroom, humidity, wind speed, average radiation temperature and other environmental parameters. And we used spare time to create a questionnaire survey of the subjective feeling of the survey, to get everyone in the classroom TSV (hot feeling vote value) and TCV (thermal comfort vote). We analyzed the test data and survey data. What's more we discuss and reflect on the thermal comfort of the human body in different indoor temperature atmospheres.

  4. Sonifying the Shape of Human Body Motion using Motiongrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Refsum Jensenius

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents sonomotiongram, a technique for the creation of auditory displays of human body motion based on motiongrams. A motiongram is a visual display of motion, based on frame differencing and reduction of a regular video recording. The resultant motiongram shows the spatial shape of the motion as it unfolds in time, somewhat similar to the way in which spectrograms visualise the shape of (musical sound. The visual similarity of motiongrams and spectrograms is the conceptual starting point for the sonomotiongram technique, which explores how motiongrams can be turned into sound using "inverse FFT". The paper presents the idea of shape-sonification, gives an overview of the sonomotiongram technique, and discusses sonification examples of both simple and complex human motion.

  5. Human body micro-environment: The benefits of controlling airflow interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the micro-environment around a human body, and especially on its interaction with the surrounding environment. Research on the free convection flow generated by a human body (including the convective boundary layer around the body and the thermal plume above the body), its...

  6. Dynamic Propagation Channel Characterization and Modeling for Human Body Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zedong; Ma, Jingjing; Li, Zhicheng; Chen, Hong; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC). In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000) were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = −10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of −4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks. PMID:23250278

  7. Dynamic propagation channel characterization and modeling for human body communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zedong; Ma, Jingjing; Li, Zhicheng; Chen, Hong; Wang, Lei

    2012-12-18

    This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC). In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000) were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = -10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of -4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks.

  8. Dynamic Propagation Channel Characterization and Modeling for Human Body Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC. In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000 were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = −10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of −4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks.

  9. The vertebral biomechanic previous and after kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, V; Piazzolla, Andrea; Moretti, L; Carlucci, S; Parato, C; Maxy, P; Moretti, B

    2013-10-01

    The biomechanical understanding of increasing anterior column load with progressing kyphosis leading to subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) established the basic rationale for kyphoplasty. The lumbar spine can support an effort of 500 kg in the axis of the vertebral body, and a bending moment of 20 Nm in flexion. Consequently, if this effort is forward deviated of only 10 cm, the acceptable effort will be reduced to 20 kg so it is important to restore the vertebral anterior wall after a VCF: the authors describe the biomechanical modifications in the spine after kyphoplasty.

  10. [Morphometric evaluation of relative adipose tissue content in the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the mathematical models of the human body composition revealed main shortcomings of body mass index (A. Quetelet, 1832). This allowed to offer more accurate body mass index (BMI = M/H3), body build index [BBI = (BMI)1/2] and body fatness index (BFI = M/HC2), where (M), (H) and (C) signified the mass, height and wrist circumference correspondingly.

  11. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  12. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Du

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Physiological Background of Differences in Quantitative Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Between Acute Malignant and Benign Vertebral Body Fractures: Correlation of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient With Quantitative Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using the 2-Compartment Exchange Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geith, Tobias; Biffar, Andreas; Schmidt, Gerwin; Sourbron, Steven; Dietrich, Olaf; Reiser, Maximilian; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in vertebral bone marrow of benign and malignant fractures is related to the volume of the interstitial space, determined with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with acute benign (n = 24) and malignant (n = 19) vertebral body fractures were examined at 1.5 T. A diffusion-weighted single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequence (b = 100 to 600 s/mm) and DCE turbo-FLASH sequence were evaluated. Regions of interest were manually selected for each fracture. Apparent diffusion coefficient was determined with a monoexponential decay model. The DCE magnetic resonance imaging concentration-time curves were analyzed using a 2-compartment tracer-kinetic model. Apparent diffusion coefficient showed a significant positive correlation with interstitial volume in the whole study population (Pearson r = 0.66, P correlation between ADC and the permeability-surface area product could be observed when analyzing the whole study population (Spearman rs = 0.40, P = 0.008), but not when separately examining the subgroups. Plasma flow showed a significant correlation with ADC in benign fractures (Pearson r = 0.23, P = 0.03). Plasma volume did not show significant correlations with ADC. The results support the hypothesis that the ADC of a lesion is inversely correlated to its cellularity. This explains previous observations that ADC is reduced in more malignant lesions.

  14. Lamprey: a model for vertebrate evolutionary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, Yang; ZHU, Si-Wei; LI, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Lampreys belong to the superclass Cyclostomata and represent the most ancient group of vertebrates. Existing for over 360 million years, they are known as living fossils due to their many evolutionally conserved features. They are not only a keystone species for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrates, but also one of the best models for researching vertebrate embryonic development and organ differentiation. From the perspective of genetic information, the lamprey genome remains primitive compared with that of other higher vertebrates, and possesses abundant functional genes. Through scientific and technological progress, scientists have conducted in-depth studies on the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems of lampreys. Such research has significance for understanding and revealing the origin and evolution of vertebrates, and could contribute to a greater understanding of human diseases and treatments. This review presents the current progress and significance of lamprey research. PMID:27686784

  15. [Prognosis of basic somatic characteristics of humans in expert examination of fragments of human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Grigor'eva, M A

    2006-01-01

    To develop a method of assessing human body somatometric parameters by its fragmentation, we used individual data on the series G. van Vark (1975) from corpses of 62 males and 39 females aged from 23 to 95 years. Statistical processing with SPSS package calculated regression equations allowing prediction of head size, length of the upper and lower limbs and their segments. The data can be used in forensic medicine in expert examination of dismembered corpses and in emergency situations with mass human victims.

  16. Estudo anatômico do trajeto da artéria vertebral na coluna cervical inferior humana Anatomical study of the vertebral artery path in human lower cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Hur Junitiro Kajimoto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da utilização de novas técnicas e materiais de síntese para o tratamento cirúrgico de afecções da coluna cervical baixa foi acompanhado da crescente preocupação em relação às complicações que podem ocorrer. A técnica de fixação transpedicular, amplamente utilizada para os outros níveis da coluna vertebral, quando realizada na coluna cervical, apesar de conferir maior estabilidade quando comparada a outras técnicas, pode cursar com complicações graves como lesão da artéria vertebral, lesão de raiz nervosa, além de lesão da articulação facetária. A vértebra C7, no entanto, é considerada mais segura para a realização de tal procedimento, já que, na grande maioria das pessoas, segundo os estudos anatômicos disponíveis, esta não possui a artéria vertebral dentro de seu forame transverso, pois este vaso irá penetrar tal estrutura apenas na vértebra C6. Como hoje existem apenas estudos de imagem para avaliação do trajeto desta artéria e suas variações anatômicas, realizamos este estudo anatômico dissecando 40 artérias vertebrais de cadáveres para avaliar a incidência das variações anatômicas. Encontramos 3 casos onde a artéria vertebral penetrou o forame transverso já em C7 (7,5%, o que aumentaria o risco de uma técnica transpedicular neste nível. O restante das peças anatômicas possuíam anatomia habitual.The increasing use of new techniques and materials for surgical treatment of lower cervical spine conditions has come along with an increasing concern regarding potential complications that might occur. The transpedicular fixation technique, frequently used in other spine levels, is used on the cervical spine, while providing more stability than other techniques, it may cause serious complications such as vertebral artery injury, nervous root injury, or facet joint injuries. However, the C7 vertebra is considered safer for performing this procedure, since, in the vast majority of

  17. Triglycerides in the human kidney cortex: relationship with body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Alexandru Bobulescu

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with increased risk for kidney disease and uric acid nephrolithiasis, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning these associations are incompletely understood. Animal experiments have suggested that renal lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity may play a role, but whether lipid accumulation occurs in humans with increasing body mass index (BMI is unknown. The association between obesity and abnormal triglyceride accumulation in non-adipose tissues (steatosis has been described in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and pancreas, but not in the human kidney. We used a quantitative biochemical assay to quantify triglyceride in normal kidney cortex samples from 54 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma. In subsets of the study population we evaluated the localization of lipid droplets by Oil Red O staining and measured 16 common ceramide species by mass spectrometry. There was a positive correlation between kidney cortex trigyceride content and BMI (Spearman R = 0.27, P = 0.04. Lipid droplets detectable by optical microscopy had a sporadic distribution but were generally more prevalent in individuals with higher BMI, with predominant localization in proximal tubule cells and to a lesser extent in glomeruli. Total ceramide content was inversely correlated with triglycerides. We postulate that obesity is associated with abnormal triglyceride accumulation (steatosis in the human kidney. In turn, steatosis and lipotoxicity may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated kidney disease and nephrolithiasis.

  18. Transport of gaseous pollutants around a human body in quiescent indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mioduszewski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    (CBL) to transport the pollution in quiescent indoor environment. A human body is resembled by a thermal manikin with a body shape and surface temperature distribution of a real person. The objective of the study is to examine the impact of the pollutant location around the human body on the pollution...... concentration levels in the breathing zone. The results show that the location of the pollution source has a considerable influence of the breathing zone concentrations. This is contributed to the human CBL, as it pulls the pollution emitted close to the human body and transports it to the breathing zone...... the human body should be recognized in ventilation design practice....

  19. The Ideal of Human Body and its Portrayal in the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Vaněk, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    The ideal of the human body and it's portrayal in the media The bachelor thesis named "The ideal of the human body and it's portrayal in the media" compares the differences between the approach to the human body in the Holy scripture and modern media, how the media presents it, especially in women's magazines. This also points to more serious problems, which can be caused by the portrayal of the human body presented in modern media. Key words: Ideal, human body, person, media, the beauty, the...

  20. Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Alexis; Hamel, Olivier; Perret, Christophe; Bord, Eric; Robert, Roger; Buffenoir, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy are rare, as only 27 cases have been reported in the literature since 1948. However, symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas can be responsible for spinal cord compression, in which case they constitute a medical emergency, which raises management difficulties in the context of pregnancy. Pregnancy is a known factor responsible for deterioration of these vascular tumors. In this paper, the authors report 2 clinical cases of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas during pregnancy, including 1 case of spontaneous fracture that has never been previously reported in the literature. The authors then present a brief review of the literature to discuss emergency management of this condition. The first case was a 28-year-old woman at 35 weeks of gestation, who presented with paraparesis. Spinal cord MRI demonstrated a vertebral hemangioma invading the body and posterior arch of T-3 with posterior epidural extension. Laminectomy and vertebroplasty were performed after cesarean section, allowing neurological recovery. The second case involved a 35-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous fracture of T-7 at 36 weeks of gestation, revealing a vertebral hemangioma with no neurological deficit, but it was responsible for pain and local instability. Treatment consisted of postpartum posterior interbody fusion. With a clinical and radiological follow-up of 2 years, no complications and no modification of the hemangiomas were observed. A review of the literature reveals discordant management of these rare cases, which is why the treatment course must be decided by a multidisciplinary team as a function of fetal gestational age and maternal neurological features.

  1. Human Body Size in Military Aircraft and Personal Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-06-01

    over the isohial tuberosities . The pilot in a very short while becomes unduly cramped in his legs and sore over the area upon which he is forced to sit...lying over the isohial tuberosities and decreasing values in all directions from these two points. The vertebral column itself will show the greatest...Horizontal antero-posterior dirension at nipple level. Contact to sternum ( breast bone); fixed arm of anthroporeter in spinal groove. 10. Abdominal

  2. Contorted and ordinary body postures in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cross, E.S.; Mackie, E.C.; Wolford, G.; Hamilton, A.F.D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Social interaction and comprehension of non-verbal behaviour requires a representation of people's bodies. Research into the neural underpinnings of body representation implicates several brain regions including extrastriate and fusiform body areas (EBA and FBA), superior temporal sulcus (STS),

  3. Experimental investigation of biodynamic human body models subjected to whole-body vibration during a vehicle ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Yener; Hacioglu, Yuksel; Ortes, Faruk; Karabulut, Derya; Arslan, Yunus Ziya

    2018-02-06

    In this study, responses of biodynamic human body models to whole-body vibration during a vehicle ride were investigated. Accelerations were acquired from three different body parts, such as the head, upper torso and lower torso, of 10 seated passengers during a car ride while two different road conditions were considered. The same multipurpose vehicle was used during all experiments. Additionally, by two widely used biodynamic models in the literature, a set of simulations were run to obtain theoretical accelerations of the models and were compared with those obtained experimentally. To sustain a quantified comparison between experimental and theoretical approaches, the root mean square acceleration and acceleration spectral density were calculated. Time and frequency responses of the models demonstrated that neither of the models showed the best prediction performance of the human body behaviour in all cases, indicating that further models are required for better prediction of the human body responses.

  4. Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Song, Alex Y; Catrysse, Peter B; Liu, Chong; Peng, Yucan; Xie, Jin; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2016-09-02

    Thermal management through personal heating and cooling is a strategy by which to expand indoor temperature setpoint range for large energy saving. We show that nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) is transparent to mid-infrared human body radiation but opaque to visible light because of the pore size distribution (50 to 1000 nanometers). We processed the material to develop a textile that promotes effective radiative cooling while still having sufficient air permeability, water-wicking rate, and mechanical strength for wearability. We developed a device to simulate skin temperature that shows temperatures 2.7° and 2.0°C lower when covered with nanoPE cloth and with processed nanoPE cloth, respectively, than when covered with cotton. Our processed nanoPE is an effective and scalable textile for personal thermal management. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. The human kidney as a regulator of body cytokine homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bonanni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating that the human kidney is a major site for the removal of several cytokines and growth factors, which can accumulate in body pools in patients with acute and chronic kidney disease (CKD. In addition, progressive renal failure and the increase in circulating proinflammatory cytokines are associated with mortality, suggesting that altered cytokines handling by the kidney is associated with worse outcome. Also, the kidney itself may be damaged by signals arising by endothelia and peripheral tissues during the course of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this paper we provide a review of kidney handling of several adipokines and myokines, with special emphasis to interleukin-6 (IL-6, leptin, resistin and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta.

  6. Treatment model of dengue hemorrhagic fever infection in human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, D.; Nuraini, N.; Primasari, N.; Wijaya, K. P.

    2014-03-01

    The treatment model of DHF presented in this paper involves the dynamic of five time-dependent compartments, i.e. susceptible, infected, free virus particle, immune cell, and haematocrit level. The treatment model is investigated based on normalization of haematocrit level, which is expressed as intravenous fluid infusion control. We analyze the stability of the disease free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium. The numerical simulations will explain the dynamic of each compartment in human body. These results show particularly that infected compartment and free virus particle compartment are tend to be vanished in two weeks after the onset of dengue virus. However, these simulation results also show that without the treatment, the haematocrit level will decrease even though not up to the normal level. Therefore the effective haematocrit normalization should be done with the treatment control.

  7. EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON THE HUMAN BODY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Hafeez Kazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine is the widely consumed substance all over the world. It is found in coffee, tea, cocoa, etc. Caffeine (CF is rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; peak plasma concentration reaches in about 15 to 120 min after oral ingestion in humans without any significant first-pass effect. There are some drugs which are responsible for the inhibition of metabolism of CF. It also exerts its effect in higher doses on different body organs like neuro, gastrointestinal, renal, respiration, skeletal muscle, cardiovascular systems. Those who are regular consumer of tea, coffee, or CF containing beverages are at the higher risk for the development of CF toxicity which can lead even to death of an individual. The dependence and withdrawal side effects of CF include anxiety, insomnia, restlessness, nervousness, tremors, gastrointestinal upset, tachycardia, psychomotor agitation, etc.

  8. Study of human phonation in a full-body domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, Shakti; Bodony, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The generation and propagation of the human voice is studied in two-dimensions using a full-body domain, using direct numerical simulation. The fluid/air in the vocal tract is modeled as a compressible and viscous fluid interacting with the non-linear, viscoelastic vocal folds (VF). The VF tissue material properties are multi-layered, with varying stiffness, and a finite-strain model is utilized and implemented in a quadratic finite element code. The fluid-solid domains are coupled through a boundary-fitted interface and utilize a Poisson equation-based mesh deformation method. The full-body domain includes the near VF region, the vocal tract, a simplified model of the soft palate and mouth, and extends out into the acoustic far-field. A new kind of inflow boundary condition based upon a quasi-one-dimensional formulation with constant sub-glottal volume velocity, which is linked to the VF movement, has been adopted. The sound pressure levels (SPL) measured are realistic and we analyze their connection to the VF dynamics and glottal and vocal tract geometries. Supported by the National Science Foundation (CAREER award number 1150439).

  9. Foreign bodies associated with peri-implantitis human biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas G; Valderrama, Pilar; Burbano, Maria; Blansett, Jonathan; Levine, Robert; Kessler, Harvey; Rodrigues, Danieli C

    2015-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory condition that can lead to implant loss. The aim of this descriptive retrospective study is to describe the histopathologic findings in soft tissue biopsies of implants with peri-implantitis. Thirty-six human peri-implantitis biopsies were analyzed using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of foreign materials found in the tissues was assessed using an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. At the LM level, the inflammatory lesion of peri-implantitis was in most cases a mixture of subacute and chronic inflammation dominated by plasma cells. At the SEM level, radiopaque foreign bodies were identified in 34 of the 36 biopsies. The predominant foreign bodies found were titanium and dental cement. These foreign materials were surrounded by inflammatory cells. At present, the exact mechanism for introduction of these materials and their role in peri-implantitis is unknown. Further research is warranted to determine their etiology and potential role in pathogenesis.

  10. Chronobiological methods of human body self-regulation reserve evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Zaguskin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims Chronodiagnostical methods for evaluating reserve and unfavourable responses of human cardiac function and under prolonged stress load. Materials and methods 24-h ECG R–R interval recording of Holter-monitoring ECG recording and 1-h IPI and RespI recordings of healthy young and elderly subjects, post- MI patients, subjects suffered from chronic cerebral ischemia leading to a cognitive decline, healthy subjects following post-stress load, as well as R– R intervals recordings of the AHA ECG database of heart failure and AF. Chronodiagnostics, using non-linear symbolic dynamics method and redundancy quotient of ECG PI, RespI and R– R intervals; differential temperature survey to evaluate cellular immunity; biocontrolled laser therapy. Results Self-regulation reserve reduction of oxygen transfer body systems and increase in unfavourable response probability under stress load are accompanied by the amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient in the ECG IPI, RespI and R–R intervals, as well as increase of hierarchical desynchronosis with dominating sympathicotonia and vagotonia, decrease in cellular immunity, reduction in rate spectrum of the ECG IPI and R–R intervals. Conclusion Symbolic dynamics method provides distinction between age-related and abnormal changes in hierarchy of cardiac rhythms. The amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient indicates the increase of control intensity with oxygen transfer body systems and predicts the reduction of self-regulation reserve in cardiac rhythms and unfavourable response probability.

  11. Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts

  12. Human flourishing through body, creative imagination and reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Titchen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:A new methodological framework for human flourishing as the ends and means of transformational action research and practice development has recently been published. Located in the critical creativity paradigmatic synthesis, the framework is one of the outcomes of our shared journey as practice development facilitators and researchers. Aims and objectives: The aim of this paper is to show how methodological development can be an outcome of practice development. The first objective is to show, through an exemplar story, how our human flourishing was achieved through learning experientially about the new framework at a retreat in the Australian Grampian Mountains. The second objective is to indicate how we exposed the developing framework to national and international artistic and cognitive critique. Design:Part of a co-operative inquiry under the auspices of the International Practice Development Collaborative, including retreats, workshops and conference presentations. Methods: Imbued by the philosophical and theoretical frameworks for human flourishing, the methodological framework was used at the retreat to create conditions for human flourishing through nature, the body, creative imagination, reflection and reflexivity. Data on the impact of using the framework were collected and synthesised through a variety of methods, including dialogue, contemplative walks, dance, landscape art and reflection. Further synthesis was undertaken through experiential workshops and scholarly/creative writing. Results: Findings show how the methodology was further evaluated and refined whilst simultaneously enabling others to flourish as they gained confidence in using the methods of critical creativity as critical companions. Thereby the interrelatedness of methodology and methods of critical creativity is illustrated. Conclusions: This outcome of our practice development journey offers a potential addition to critical social science methodologies in

  13. Why the way we consider the body matters Reflections on four bioethical perspectives on the human body

    OpenAIRE

    Schicktanz, Silke

    2007-01-01

    Background: Within the context of applied bioethical reasoning, various conceptions of the human body are focused upon by the author in relation to normative notions of autonomy. Results: The author begins by descriptively exploring some main positions in bioethics from which the "body" is conceptualized. Such positions conflict: the body is that which is constitutive of the individual's experience and perception, or it is conceived of materially or mechanistically; or as a constructed locus,...

  14. Why the way we consider the body matters – Reflections on four bioethical perspectives on the human body

    OpenAIRE

    Schicktanz Silke

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Within the context of applied bioethical reasoning, various conceptions of the human body are focused upon by the author in relation to normative notions of autonomy. Results The author begins by descriptively exploring some main positions in bioethics from which the "body" is conceptualized. Such positions conflict: the body is that which is constitutive of the individual's experience and perception, or it is conceived of materially or mechanistically; or as a constructed...

  15. A novel method for estimating the entropy generation rate in a human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Azizur Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to show a method for calculating entropy generation (Sgen in a human body under various environmental and physiological conditions. The Sgen in a human body is a measure of activeness of motions, reactions, and irreversibility of processes occurring in a body and is a kind of holistic and thermodynamic index, which characterizes a human body as a whole. Human body at healthier and normal condition generates the least amount of Sgen. Heat transfer over a human body, activity (at rest, Sgen = 0.21J/sK or exercise, Sgen=2.19 J/sK or at death, Sgen = 0J/sK, ambient, body and mean radiant temperatures, emissivity and absorbity of human skin, internal heat elimination, body weight and height, and air speed effect much more on the Sgen in a human body compared to the effects of mass exchange into and out of the body, internal heat production, cross-sectional area of human body, clothing, altitude, and relative humidity of the surrounding air. Among these factors entropy production due to heat transfer over a human body plays a significant role in the total entropy generation rate. .

  16. Cross-sectional neck response of a total human body FE model during simulated frontal and side automobile impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas A; Moreno, Daniel P; Gayzik, F Scott; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Human body finite element (FE) models are beginning to play a more prevalent role in the advancement of automotive safety. A methodology has been developed to evaluate neck response at multiple levels in a human body FE model during simulated automotive impacts. Three different impact scenarios were simulated: a frontal impact of a belted driver with airbag deployment, a frontal impact of a belted passenger without airbag deployment and an unbelted side impact sled test. Cross sections were created at each vertebral level of the cervical spine to calculate the force and moment contributions of different anatomical components of the neck. Adjacent level axial force ratios varied between 0.74 and 1.11 and adjacent level bending moment ratios between 0.55 and 1.15. The present technique is ideal for comparing neck forces and moments to existing injury threshold values, calculating injury criteria and for better understanding the biomechanical mechanisms of neck injury and load sharing during sub-injurious and injurious loading.

  17. Measurement of caesium-137 in the human body using a whole body counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elessawi, Elkhadra Abdulmula

    Gamma radiation in the environment is mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclides. However, there is also a contribution from anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs which originate from nuclear fission processes. Since 1986, the accident at the Chernobyl power plant has been a significant source of artificial environmental radioactivity. In order to assess the radiological impact of these radionuclides, it is necessary to measure their activities in samples drawn from the environment and in plants and animals including human populations. The whole body counter (WBC) at the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff makes in vivo measurements of gamma emitting radionuclides using a scanning ring of six large-volume thallium-doped sodium iodide (Nal(Tl)) scintillation detectors. In this work the WBC was upgraded by the addition of two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The performance and suitability of the detection systems were evaluated by comparing the detection limits for Cs. Sensitivities were measured using sources of known activity in a water filled anthropomorphic phantom and theoretical minimum detectable count-rates were estimated from phantom background pulse height spectra. The theoretical minimum detectable activity was about 24 Bq for the combination of six Nal(Tl) detectors whereas for the individual HPGe detectors it was 64 Bq and 65 Bq, despite the much improved energy resolution Activities of 137Cs in the human body between 1993 and 2007 were estimated from the background Nal(Tl) spectra of 813 patients and compared with recent measurements in 14 volunteers. The body burden of Cs in Cardiff patients increased from an average of about 60 Bq in the early and mid 1990s to a maximum of about 100 Bq in 2000. By 2007 it had decreased to about 40 Bq. This latter value was similar to that of Cardiff residents at the time of the Chernobyl accident and to that of the volunteers measured in 2007 (51 Bq). However, it was less than the mean activity of

  18. Noninvasive, three-dimensional full-field body sensor for surface deformation monitoring of human body in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; He, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Jialin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Jinlin

    2017-09-01

    Noninvasive, three-dimensional (3-D), full-field surface deformation measurements of the human body are important for biomedical investigations. We proposed a 3-D noninvasive, full-field body sensor based on stereo digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) for surface deformation monitoring of the human body in vivo. First, by applying an improved water-transfer printing (WTP) technique to transfer optimized speckle patterns onto the skin, the body sensor was conveniently and harmlessly fabricated directly onto the human body. Then, stereo-DIC was used to achieve 3-D noncontact and noninvasive surface deformation measurements. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed body sensor were verified and discussed by considering different complexions. Moreover, the fabrication of speckle patterns on human skin, which has always been considered a challenging problem, was shown to be feasible, effective, and harmless as a result of the improved WTP technique. An application of the proposed stereo-DIC-based body sensor was demonstrated by measuring the pulse wave velocity of human carotid artery. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  19. Noninvasive, three-dimensional full-field body sensor for surface deformation monitoring of human body in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; He, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Jialin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Jinlin

    2017-09-01

    Noninvasive, three-dimensional (3-D), full-field surface deformation measurements of the human body are important for biomedical investigations. We proposed a 3-D noninvasive, full-field body sensor based on stereo digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) for surface deformation monitoring of the human body in vivo. First, by applying an improved water-transfer printing (WTP) technique to transfer optimized speckle patterns onto the skin, the body sensor was conveniently and harmlessly fabricated directly onto the human body. Then, stereo-DIC was used to achieve 3-D noncontact and noninvasive surface deformation measurements. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed body sensor were verified and discussed by considering different complexions. Moreover, the fabrication of speckle patterns on human skin, which has always been considered a challenging problem, was shown to be feasible, effective, and harmless as a result of the improved WTP technique. An application of the proposed stereo-DIC-based body sensor was demonstrated by measuring the pulse wave velocity of human carotid artery.

  20. A novel human body exergy consumption formula to determine indoor thermal conditions for optimal human performance in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel human body exergy consumption formula was derived strictly according to Gagge's two-node thermal transfer model. The human body exergy consumption calculated by the formula was compared with values calculated using Shukuya's formula for a typical office environment....... The results show that human body exergy consumption calculated by either of these formulas reaches a minimum under the same thermal condition. It is shown that this is in accordance with expectation. The relation between human performance and human body exergy consumption was studied by analyzing the data...... obtained in simulated office environments in winter. The results show that human body exergy consumption and human performance are inversely as operative temperature changes from 17 to 28°C or human thermal sensation changes from −1.0 to +1.4, and that optimum thermal comfort cannot be expected to lead...

  1. Evaluating morphometric body mass prediction equations with a juvenile human test sample: accuracy and applicability to small-bodied hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher S; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Sridhar, Shilpa; Cameron, Noël; Churchill, Steven E

    2018-02-01

    Body mass is an ecologically and biomechanically important variable in the study of hominin biology. Regression equations derived from recent human samples allow for the reasonable prediction of body mass of later, more human-like, and generally larger hominins from hip joint dimensions, but potential differences in hip biomechanics across hominin taxa render their use questionable with some earlier taxa (i.e., Australopithecus spp.). Morphometric prediction equations using stature and bi-iliac breadth avoid this problem, but their applicability to early hominins, some of which differ in both size and proportions from modern adult humans, has not been demonstrated. Here we use mean stature, bi-iliac breadth, and body mass from a global sample of human juveniles ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 530 age- and sex-specific group annual means from 33 countries/regions) to evaluate the accuracy of several published morphometric prediction equations when applied to small humans. Though the body proportions of modern human juveniles likely differ from those of small-bodied early hominins, human juveniles (like fossil hominins) often differ in size and proportions from adult human reference samples and, accordingly, serve as a useful model for assessing the robustness of morphometric prediction equations. Morphometric equations based on adults systematically underpredict body mass in the youngest age groups and moderately overpredict body mass in the older groups, which fall in the body size range of adult Australopithecus (∼26-46 kg). Differences in body proportions, notably the ratio of lower limb length to stature, influence predictive accuracy. Ontogenetic changes in these body proportions likely influence the shift in prediction error (from under- to overprediction). However, because morphometric equations are reasonably accurate when applied to this juvenile test sample, we argue these equations may be used to predict body mass in small-bodied hominins

  2. Visual Coding of Human Bodies: Perceptual Aftereffects Reveal Norm-Based, Opponent Coding of Body Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Boeing, Alexandra; Calder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the discovery of body-selective neural areas in occipitotemporal cortex, little is known about how bodies are visually coded. We used perceptual adaptation to determine how body identity is coded. Brief exposure to a body (e.g., anti-Rose) biased perception toward an identity with opposite properties (Rose). Moreover, the size of this…

  3. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  4. Human Thyroid Cancer-1 (TC-1 is a vertebrate specific oncogenic protein that protects against copper and pro-apoptotic genes in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie K. Jones

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human Thyroid Cancer-1 (hTC-1 protein, also known as C8orf4 was initially identified as a gene that was up-regulated in human thyroid cancer. Here we show that hTC-1 is a peptide that prevents the effects of over-expressing Bax in yeast. Analysis of the 106 residues of hTC-1 in available protein databases revealed direct orthologues in jawed-vertebrates, including mammals, frogs, fish and sharks. No TC-1 orthologue was detected in lower organisms, including yeast. Here we show that TC-1 is a general pro-survival peptide since it prevents the growth- and cell death-inducing effects of copper in yeast. Human TC-1 also prevented the deleterious effects that occur due to the over-expression of a number of key pro-apoptotic peptides, including YCA1, YBH3, NUC1, and AIF1. Even though the protective effects were more pronounced with the over-expression of YBH3 and YCA1, hTC-1 could still protect yeast mutants lacking YBH3 and YCA1 from the effects of copper sulfate. This suggests that the protective effects of TC-1 are not limited to specific pathways or processes. Taken together, our results indicate that hTC-1 is a pro-survival protein that retains its function when heterologously expressed in yeast. Thus yeast is a useful model to characterize the potential roles in cell death and survival of cancer related genes.

  5. A finite-element simulation of galvanic coupling intra-body communication based on the whole human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Hao, Qun; Hu, Lanxin; Wang, Jingwen; Shang, Fuzhou

    2012-10-09

    Simulation based on the finite-element (FE) method plays an important role in the investigation of intra-body communication (IBC). In this paper, a finite-element model of the whole body model used for the IBC simulation is proposed and verified, while the FE simulation of the galvanic coupling IBC with different signal transmission paths has been achieved. Firstly, a novel finite-element method for modeling the whole human body is proposed, and a FE model of the whole human body used for IBC simulation was developed. Secondly, the simulations of the galvanic coupling IBC with the different signal transmission paths were implemented. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method was verified by using in vivo measurements within the frequency range of 10 kHz-5 MHz, whereby some important conclusions were deduced. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer significant advantages in the investigation of the galvanic coupling intra-body communication.

  6. Feasibility study of in vivo partial body potassium determination in the human body using gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Lisa Marie

    This work investigates partial body potassium determination in the human body using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Potassium is an essential element in the human body that controls many of the enzyme systems and intra- and extra-cellular water flow. Potassium is symptomatic to several disease cases and has gender and ethnic variability. This work assesses the feasibility to measure partial body potassium in three specific regions: brain, arm, and leg, that are of interest to multiple sclerosis, chronic renal failure, and spinal cord injury, respectively. Three detector systems were constructed and their capabilities assessed. System characterization and analytical procedure for potassium evaluation and determination are presented together with experimental and initial clinical results. The results indicate that partial body potassium measurement is viable, statistically reproducible, and has potential clinical significance.

  7. Endplates Changes Related to Age and Vertebral Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando P. S. Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endplate separations are defined as the presence of a space between the hyaline cartilage and the cortical bone of the adjacent vertebral body. This study evaluates endplate separations from the vertebral body and intervertebral discs and verifies if endplate separation is related to age and the spinal level. Groups were formed based on age (20–40 and 41–85 years old and the vertebral segment (T7-T8 and L4-L5 segments. Histological analysis included assessment of the length of the vertebral endplates, the number and dimensions of the separations, and orientation of the collagen fibers, in the mid-sagittal slice. Two indexes were created: the separation index (number of separations/vertebral length and separation extension index (sum of all separations/vertebral length. The results of the study demonstrated a direct relationship between the density of separations in the endplate and two variables: age and spinal level.

  8. Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. Holmes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36 (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3] is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Single Fraction of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Compared With Single Fraction of External Beam Radiation Therapy for Palliation of Vertebral Bone Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hayeon, E-mail: kimh2@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Beriwal, Sushil; Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Smith, Kenneth J. [Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been proposed for the palliation of painful vertebral bone metastases because higher radiation doses may result in superior and more durable pain control. A phase III clinical trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0631) comparing single fraction SBRT with single fraction external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in palliative treatment of painful vertebral bone metastases is now ongoing. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare these strategies. Methods and Materials: A Markov model, using a 1-month cycle over a lifetime horizon, was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of SBRT (16 or 18 Gy in 1 fraction) with that of 8 Gy in 1 fraction of EBRT. Transition probabilities, quality of life utilities, and costs associated with SBRT and EBRT were captured in the model. Costs were based on Medicare reimbursement in 2014. Strategies were compared using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), and effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). To account for uncertainty, 1-way, 2-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Strategies were evaluated with a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $100,000 per QALY gained. Results: Base case pain relief after the treatment was assumed as 20% higher in SBRT. Base case treatment costs for SBRT and EBRT were $9000 and $1087, respectively. In the base case analysis, SBRT resulted in an ICER of $124,552 per QALY gained. In 1-way sensitivity analyses, results were most sensitive to variation of the utility of unrelieved pain; the utility of relieved pain after initial treatment and median survival were also sensitive to variation. If median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT cost <$100,000 per QALY gained. Conclusion: SBRT for palliation of vertebral bone metastases is not cost-effective compared with EBRT at a $100,000 per QALY gained WTP threshold. However, if median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT costs ≤$100

  10. Topographic representation of the human body in the occipitotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Makin, Tamar R; Zohary, Ehud

    2010-11-04

    Large-scale topographic representations of the body have long been established in the somatosensory and motor cortices. Using functional imaging, we identified a topographically organized body part map within the occipitotemporal cortex (OTC), with distinct clusters of voxels showing clear preference for different visually presented body parts. This representation was consistent both across hemispheres and participants. Using converging methods, the preference for specific body parts was demonstrated to be robust and did not merely reflect shape differences between the categories. Finally, execution of (unseen) movements with different body parts resulted in a limited topographic representation of the limbs and trunk, which partially overlapped with the visual body part map. This motor-driven activation in the OTC could not be explained solely by visual or motor imagery of the body parts. This suggests that visual and motor-related information converge within the OTC in a body part specific manner. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Zygotic Genome Activation in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukam, David; Shariati, S Ali M; Skotheim, Jan M

    2017-08-21

    The first major developmental transition in vertebrate embryos is the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) when maternal mRNAs are degraded and zygotic transcription begins. During the MZT, the embryo takes charge of gene expression to control cell differentiation and further development. This spectacular organismal transition requires nuclear reprogramming and the initiation of RNAPII at thousands of promoters. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is mechanistically coordinated with other embryonic events, including changes in the cell cycle, chromatin state, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic component ratios. Here, we review progress in understanding vertebrate ZGA dynamics in frogs, fish, mice, and humans to explore differences and emphasize common features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Body futures: the case against marketing human organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, C J

    1987-06-01

    Creation of a market for the buying and selling of human organs for transplantation, even if it did allow supply to match demand, would be a serious mistake. Even if the market were fairly constructed, it might not dramatically increase the supply of transplantable organs, since donations likely would decrease if selling were allowed. Such a market would create a relative disadvantage for the poor, who would feel disproportionately greater pressure to sell their organs than would the wealthy. The possibility of realizing a profit from the organs of the dead could provide an incentive for murder or for doing less than we might to save lives. An organ market, where parts of a person are viewed as commodities, could lead to a general cheapening and coarsening of human relationships. Any organ selling system would create an economic relationship between buyer and seller, rather than a charitable one, raising quality control problems. The economic system, would drive out the volunteer donor system, sapping the altruistic bond that draws people together. Finally, an organ market presents a metaphysical threat in that it demeans our bodies to the status of articles to trade. An alternative to the current voluntary donor system and an organ market is to presume passive consent to organ donation with the right to informed refusal. Unless a record of the decedent's opposition to organ removal exists, the next of kin objects on being informed of the intent to remove organs, or the decedent was a member of a group known to oppose organ removal, we should presume a person's willingness to donate organs after death to save another person's life.

  13. An Impact of Thermodynamic Processes in Human Bodies on Performance Reliability of Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Smalko Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the problem of the influence of thermodynamic factors on human fallibility in different zones of thermal discomfort. Describes the processes of energy in the human body. Been given a formal description of the energy balance of the human body thermoregulation. Pointed to human reactions to temperature changes of internal and external environment, including reactions associated with exercise. The methodology to estimate and determine the reliability of indicators of human b...

  14. Evaluation of Propagation Characteristics Using the Human Body as an Antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingzhen; Nie, Zedong; Liu, Yuhang; Wang, Lei; Hao, Yang

    2017-12-11

    In this paper, an inhomogeneous human body model was presented to investigate the propagation characteristics when the human body was used as an antenna to achieve signal transmission. Specifically, the channel gain of four scenarios, namely, (1) both TX electrode and RX electrode were placed in the air, (2) TX electrode was attached on the human body, and RX electrode was placed in the air, (3) TX electrode was placed in the air, and RX electrode was attached on the human body, (4) both the TX electrode and RX electrode were attached on the human body, were studied through numerical simulation in the frequency range 1 MHz to 90 MHz. Furthermore, the comparisons of input efficiency, accepted efficiency, total efficiency, absorption power of human body, and electric field distribution of different distances of four aforementioned scenarios were explored when the frequency was at 44 MHz. In addition, the influences of different human tissues, electrode position, and the distance between electrode and human body on the propagation characteristics were investigated respectively at 44 MHz. The results showed that the channel gain of Scenario 4 was the maximum when the frequency was from 1 MHz to 90 MHz. The propagation characteristics were almost independent of electrode position when the human body was using as an antenna. However, as the distance between TX electrode and human body increased, the channel gain decreased rapidly. The simulations were verified by experimental measurements. The results showed that the simulations were in agreement with the measurements.

  15. Evaluation of Propagation Characteristics Using the Human Body as an Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhen Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an inhomogeneous human body model was presented to investigate the propagation characteristics when the human body was used as an antenna to achieve signal transmission. Specifically, the channel gain of four scenarios, namely, (1 both TX electrode and RX electrode were placed in the air, (2 TX electrode was attached on the human body, and RX electrode was placed in the air, (3 TX electrode was placed in the air, and RX electrode was attached on the human body, (4 both the TX electrode and RX electrode were attached on the human body, were studied through numerical simulation in the frequency range 1 MHz to 90 MHz. Furthermore, the comparisons of input efficiency, accepted efficiency, total efficiency, absorption power of human body, and electric field distribution of different distances of four aforementioned scenarios were explored when the frequency was at 44 MHz. In addition, the influences of different human tissues, electrode position, and the distance between electrode and human body on the propagation characteristics were investigated respectively at 44 MHz. The results showed that the channel gain of Scenario 4 was the maximum when the frequency was from 1 MHz to 90 MHz. The propagation characteristics were almost independent of electrode position when the human body was using as an antenna. However, as the distance between TX electrode and human body increased, the channel gain decreased rapidly. The simulations were verified by experimental measurements. The results showed that the simulations were in agreement with the measurements.

  16. Evaluation of Propagation Characteristics Using the Human Body as an Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingzhen; Liu, Yuhang; Hao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an inhomogeneous human body model was presented to investigate the propagation characteristics when the human body was used as an antenna to achieve signal transmission. Specifically, the channel gain of four scenarios, namely, (1) both TX electrode and RX electrode were placed in the air, (2) TX electrode was attached on the human body, and RX electrode was placed in the air, (3) TX electrode was placed in the air, and RX electrode was attached on the human body, (4) both the TX electrode and RX electrode were attached on the human body, were studied through numerical simulation in the frequency range 1 MHz to 90 MHz. Furthermore, the comparisons of input efficiency, accepted efficiency, total efficiency, absorption power of human body, and electric field distribution of different distances of four aforementioned scenarios were explored when the frequency was at 44 MHz. In addition, the influences of different human tissues, electrode position, and the distance between electrode and human body on the propagation characteristics were investigated respectively at 44 MHz. The results showed that the channel gain of Scenario 4 was the maximum when the frequency was from 1 MHz to 90 MHz. The propagation characteristics were almost independent of electrode position when the human body was using as an antenna. However, as the distance between TX electrode and human body increased, the channel gain decreased rapidly. The simulations were verified by experimental measurements. The results showed that the simulations were in agreement with the measurements. PMID:29232905

  17. Analysis of non-linear response of the human body to vertical whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Marco; Solbiati, Stefano; Moschioni, Giovanni; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The human response to vibration is typically studied using linear estimators of the frequency response function, although different literature works evidenced the presence of non-linear effects in whole-body vibration response. This paper analyses the apparent mass of standing subjects using the conditioned response techniques in order to understand the causes of the non-linear behaviour. The conditioned apparent masses were derived considering models of increasing complexity. The multiple coherence function was used as a figure of merit for the comparison between the linear and the non-linear models. The apparent mass of eight male subjects was studied in six configurations (combinations of three vibration magnitudes and two postures). The contribution of the non-linear terms was negligible and was endorsed to the change of modal parameters during the test. Since the effect of the inter-subject variability was larger than that due to the increase in vibration magnitude, the biodynamic response should be more meaningfully modelled using a linear estimator with uncertainty rather than looking for a non-linear modelling.

  18. Radiation between segments of the seated human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    2002-01-01

    Detailed radiation properties for a thermal manikin were predicted numerically. The view factors between individual body-segments and between the body-segments and the outer surfaces were tabulated. On an integral basis, the findings compared well to other studies and the results showed...... that situations exist for which radiation between individual body segments is important....

  19. Constraint, natural selection, and the evolution of human body form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Kristen R R; Auerbach, Benjamin M; Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-23

    Variation in body form among human groups is structured by a blend of natural selection driven by local climatic conditions and random genetic drift. However, attempts to test ecogeographic hypotheses have not distinguished between adaptive traits (i.e., those that evolved as a result of selection) and those that evolved as a correlated response to selection on other traits (i.e., nonadaptive traits), complicating our understanding of the relationship between climate and morphological distinctions among populations. Here, we use evolutionary quantitative methods to test if traits previously identified as supporting ecogeographic hypotheses were actually adaptive by estimating the force of selection on individual traits needed to drive among-group differentiation. Our results show that not all associations between trait means and latitude were caused by selection acting directly on each individual trait. Although radial and tibial length and biiliac and femoral head breadth show signs of responses to directional selection matching ecogeographic hypotheses, the femur was subject to little or no directional selection despite having shorter values by latitude. Additionally, in contradiction to ecogeographic hypotheses, the humerus was under directional selection for longer values by latitude. Responses to directional selection in the tibia and radius induced a nonadaptive correlated response in the humerus that overwhelmed its own trait-specific response to selection. This result emphasizes that mean differences between groups are not good indicators of which traits are adaptations in the absence of information about covariation among characteristics.

  20. The Influence of Human Body Orientation on Distance Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard eJung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available People maintain larger distances to other peoples’ front than to their back. We investigated if humans also judge another person as closer when viewing their front than their back. Participants watched animated virtual characters (avatars and moved a virtual plane towards their location after the avatar was removed. In Experiment 1, participants judged avatars, which were facing them as closer and made quicker estimates than to avatars looking away. In Experiment 2, avatars were rotated in 30 degree steps around the vertical axis. Observers judged avatars roughly facing them (i.e., looking max. 60 degrees away as closer than avatars roughly looking away. No particular effect was observed for avatars directly facing and also gazing at the observer. We conclude that body orientation was sufficient to generate the asymmetry. Sensitivity of the orientation effect to gaze and to interpersonal distance would have suggested involvement of social processing, but this was not observed. We discuss social and lower-level processing as potential reasons for the effect.

  1. Wearable thermoelectric generator for harvesting human body heat energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Lee, Seok; Kim, Chulki; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the realization of a wearable thermoelectric generator (TEG) in fabric for use in clothing. A TEG was fabricated by dispenser printing of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 and Bi2Se0.3Te2.7 in a polymer-based fabric. The prototype consisted of 12 thermocouples connected by conductive thread over an area of 6 × 25 mm2. The device generated a power of 224 nW for a temperature difference of 15 K. When the TEG was used on the human body, the measured output power was 224 nW in an ambient temperature of 5 °C. The power of the TEG was affected by the movement of the wearer. A higher voltage was maintained while walking than in a stationary state. In addition, the device did not deform after it was bent and stretched several times. The prospect of using the TEG in clothing applications was confirmed under realistic conditions.

  2. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Marcia, S. [Section of Radiology—Santissima Trinità Hospital, Cagliari (Italy); Guarnieri, G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Pereira, V. [Unit of Interventional Neuroradiology–HUG, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications.

  3. Height and body mass influence on human body outlines: a quantitative approach using an elliptic Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Ferdy, Jean Baptiste; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel; Claude, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Many studies use representations of human body outlines to study how individual characteristics, such as height and body mass, affect perception of body shape. These typically involve reality-based stimuli (e.g., pictures) or manipulated stimuli (e.g., drawings). These two classes of stimuli have important drawbacks that limit result interpretations. Realistic stimuli vary in terms of traits that are correlated, which makes it impossible to assess the effect of a single trait independently. In addition, manipulated stimuli usually do not represent realistic morphologies. We describe and examine a method based on elliptic Fourier descriptors to automatically predict and represent body outlines for a given set of predicted variables (e.g., sex, height, and body mass). We first estimate whether these predictive variables are significantly related to human outlines. We find that height and body mass significantly influence body shape. Unlike height, the effect of body mass on shape differs between sexes. Then, we show that we can easily build a regression model that creates hypothetical outlines for an arbitrary set of covariates. These statistically computed outlines are quite realistic and may be used as stimuli in future studies.

  4. A proposed radiographic classification scheme for congenital thoracic vertebral malformations in brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Guevar, Julien; Stalin, Catherine; Faller, Kiterie; Yeamans, Carmen; Penderis, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations are common in brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dog breeds such as French bulldogs, English bulldogs, Boston terriers, and pugs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether a radiographic classification scheme developed for use in humans would be feasible for use in these dog breeds. Inclusion criteria were hospital admission between September 2009 and April 2013, neurologic examination findings available, diagnostic quality lateral and ventro-dorsal digital radiographs of the thoracic vertebral column, and at least one congenital vertebral malformation. Radiographs were retrieved and interpreted by two observers who were unaware of neurologic status. Vertebral malformations were classified based on a classification scheme modified from a previous human study and a consensus of both observers. Twenty-eight dogs met inclusion criteria (12 with neurologic deficits, 16 with no neurologic deficits). Congenital vertebral malformations affected 85/362 (23.5%) of thoracic vertebrae. Vertebral body formation defects were the most common (butterfly vertebrae 6.6%, ventral wedge-shaped vertebrae 5.5%, dorsal hemivertebrae 0.8%, and dorso-lateral hemivertebrae 0.5%). No lateral hemivertebrae or lateral wedge-shaped vertebrae were identified. The T7 vertebra was the most commonly affected (11/28 dogs), followed by T8 (8/28 dogs) and T12 (8/28 dogs). The number and type of vertebral malformations differed between groups (P = 0.01). Based on MRI, dorsal, and dorso-lateral hemivertebrae were the cause of spinal cord compression in 5/12 (41.6%) of dogs with neurologic deficits. Findings indicated that a modified human radiographic classification system of vertebral malformations is feasible for use in future studies of brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  5. Investigation of human body potential measured by a non-contact measuring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Norimitsu

    2016-12-07

    A human body is occasionally electrified in a room. This charged object will be a source of electrostatic accidents, including the malfunction of electronic equipment. Hence, prevention of these accidents is required. Accidents occasionally occur, even though antistatic clothes and shoes are used. One of the causes for these accidents is that there is a lack of the preventive measures. This situation occurs when using, for example, unconductive wax. In this study, human body potential (voltage) is measured using a non-contact measuring system. An investigation of the human body's voltage when using this system is conducted. The result demonstrates that the voltage of a human body wearing antistatic clothes and shoes or light clothes and slippers exceeds a malfunctioning voltage of a microelectronics device when the body walks on floors. Thus, accidents may occur even if a human body wearing the antistatic clothes walks on flooring. These results will be useful in estimating determination whether electrostatic accidents occur or not.

  6. Evolutionary study of vertebrate and invertebrate members of the dystrophin and utrophin gene family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.G.; Nicholson, L.; Bobrow, M. [Paediatric Research Unit, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Vertebrates express two members of the dystrophin gene family. The prototype, dystrophin, is expressed in muscle and neural tissue, and is defective in the human disorders Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD, BMD). The dystrophin homologue utrophin is more generally expressed but has not yet been associated with a genetic disorder. The function of neither protein is clear. A comparison of human utrophin with the known dystrophins (human, mouse, chicken, Torpedo) suggests that dystrophin and utrophin diverged before the vertebrate radiation. We have used reverse-transcript PCR (RT-PCR) directed by degenerate primers to characterize dystrophin and utrophin transcripts from a range of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Our results suggest that the duplication leading to distinct dystrophin and utrophin genes occurred close to the point of divergence of urochordates from the cephalochordate-vertebrate lineage. This divergence may have occurred to fulfill a novel role which arose at this point, or may reflect a need for separate regulation of the neuromuscular and other functions of the ancient dystrophin. Our data include sequences of the first non-human utrophins to be characterized, and show these to be substantially more divergent than their cognate dystrophins. In addition, our results provide a large body of information regarding the tolerance of amino acid positions in the cysteine-rich and C-terminal domains to substitution. This will aid the interpretations of DMD and BMD missense mutations in these regions.

  7. Serological prevalence of human parvovirus B19 in diseases or disordersrelated to different human body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Osman; Aydin, Hakan; Uslu, Hakan

    2016-02-17

    Human parvovirus B19 is a pathogen that affects different parts of the body. We planned this study because of the lack of data on B19 seroprevalence based on different body-system diseases. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 antibodies was investigated retrospectively in 1239 patients by review of medical records from 2009-2012, according to their diseases classified under general titles in compliance with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Parvovirus B19-specific antibodies were detected by quantitative enzyme immunoassays. The positivity rate was 27.8% for only IgG, 8.5% for only IgM, and 2.6% for both IgG and IgM. The highest positivity for IgG alone was found in musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases (55.9%), while the highest positivity for IgM was found in neoplasms (16.4%). The highest positivity for IgG was seen in rheumatoid arthritis (72.2%) and pregnancy (52.6%), and the highest positivity for total IgM was found in upper respiratory tract disease (21.0%) and hepatic failure (17.1%). Parvovirus B19 seroprevalence was relatively low in northeastern Anatolia compared to most serological studies conducted in other regions. We think that this study has provided the first wide-ranging information on the seroprevalence of B19 in diseases and disorders of the major human body systems.

  8. Physiological models of body composition and human obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapses Sue A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI is the standard parameter for predicting body fat fraction and for classifying degrees of obesity. Currently available regression equations between BMI and fat are based on 2 or 3 parameter empirical fits and have not been validated for highly obese subjects. We attempt to develop regression relations that are based on realistic models of body composition changes in obesity. These models, if valid, can then be extrapolated to the high fat fraction of the morbidly obese. Methods The analysis was applied to 3 compartment (density and total body water measurements of body fat. The data was collected at the New York Obesity Research Center, Body Composition Unit, as part of ongoing studies. A total of 1356 subjects were included, with a BMI range of 17 to 50 for males and 17 to 65 for females. The body composition model assumes that obese subjects can be represented by the sum of a standard lean reference subject plus an extra weight that has a constant adipose, bone and muscle fraction. Results There is marked age and sex dependence in the relationship between BMI and fat fraction. There was no significant difference among Caucasians, Blacks and Hispanics while Asians had significantly greater fat fraction for the same BMI. A linear relationship between BMI and fat fraction provides a good description for men but overestimates the fat fraction in morbidly obese women for whom a non-linear regression should be used. New regression relations for predicting body fat just from experimental measurements of body density are described that are more accurate then those currently used. From the fits to the experimental BMI and density data, a quantitative description of the bone, adipose and muscle body composition of lean and obese subjects is derived. Conclusion Physiologically realistic models of body composition provide both accurate regression relations and new insights about changes in body composition in

  9. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giannì, Maria; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    .... Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life...

  10. A review of the volatiles from the healthy human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B; Amann, A; Al-Kateb, H; Flynn, C; Filipiak, W; Khalid, T; Osborne, D; Ratcliffe, N M

    2014-03-01

    A compendium of all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from the human body (the volatolome) is for the first time reported. 1840 VOCs have been assigned from breath (872), saliva (359), blood (154), milk (256), skin secretions (532) urine (279), and faeces (381) in apparently healthy individuals. Compounds were assigned CAS registry numbers and named according to a common convention where possible. The compounds have been grouped into tables according to their chemical class or functionality to permit easy comparison. Some clear differences are observed, for instance, a lack of esters in urine with a high number in faeces. Careful use of the database is needed. The numbers may not be a true reflection of the actual VOCs present from each bodily excretion. The lack of a compound could be due to the techniques used or reflect the intensity of effort e.g. there are few publications on VOCs from blood compared to a large number on VOCs in breath. The large number of volatiles reported from skin is partly due to the methodologies used, e.g. collecting excretions on glass beads and then heating to desorb VOCs. All compounds have been included as reported (unless there was a clear discrepancy between name and chemical structure), but there may be some mistaken assignations arising from the original publications, particularly for isomers. It is the authors' intention that this database will not only be a useful database of VOCs listed in the literature, but will stimulate further study of VOCs from healthy individuals. Establishing a list of volatiles emanating from healthy individuals and increased understanding of VOC metabolic pathways is an important step for differentiating between diseases using VOCs.

  11. The effects of regular physical exercise on the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrić Fahrudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical activities should be an integral part of an active lifestyle and the proper use of one's time. Programs including such activities are more effectively being applied in the prevention and elimination of health problems, especially those that are the result of decreased movement, inadequate nutrition and excessive nervous tension. Numerous studies have revealed new information about the link between physical activity and quality of life. Each person would have to be involved in physical activity of moderate intensity most days for 30 to 60 minutes, because active people are more healthier and have higher endurance levels, have a positive attitude towards work and cope with everyday stress better. Activity helps you look better, makes you happier and more vital. Studies have clearly shown that physical activity affects health and reduces the risk of many diseases. An active life increases energy, vitality, helps change bad habits, improves health, and strengthens one's energy and desire for life. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of regular physical activity on the human body. The subject matter of this study is the collection and analysis of results which the authors of various studies have obtained. The reviewed literature was collected using a web browser, and consisted of research work available in the Kobson database, through Google Scholar and in journals available in the field of sports science. The method of treatment is descriptive because the studies involved a variety of training programs, people of different ages, and tests carried out by different measuring instruments, so there is no possibility of a comparison of the results by other means.

  12. Human perceptual overestimation of whole body roll tilt in hypergravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Torin K; Newman, Michael C; Oman, Charles M; Merfeld, Daniel M; Young, Laurence R

    2015-04-01

    Hypergravity provides a unique environment to study human perception of orientation. We utilized a long-radius centrifuge to study perception of both static and dynamic whole body roll tilt in hypergravity, across a range of angles, frequencies, and net gravito-inertial levels (referred to as G levels). While studies of static tilt perception in hypergravity have been published, this is the first to measure dynamic tilt perception (i.e., with time-varying canal stimulation) in hypergravity using a continuous matching task. In complete darkness, subjects reported their orientation perception using a haptic task, whereby they attempted to align a hand-held bar with their perceived horizontal. Static roll tilt was overestimated in hypergravity, with more overestimation at larger angles and higher G levels, across the conditions tested (overestimated by ∼35% per additional G level, P < 0.001). As our primary contribution, we show that dynamic roll tilt was also consistently overestimated in hypergravity (P < 0.001) at all angles and frequencies tested, again with more overestimation at higher G levels. The overestimation was similar to that for static tilts at low angular velocities but decreased at higher angular velocities (P = 0.006), consistent with semicircular canal sensory integration. To match our findings, we propose a modification to a previous Observer-type canal-otolith interaction model. Specifically, our data were better modeled by including the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. This modified model was able to simulate quantitatively both the static and the dynamic roll tilt overestimation in hypergravity measured experimentally. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. [Ibogaine - structure, influence on human body, clinical relevance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Kuszczak, Bartłomiej; Olszak, Natalia

    2016-07-29

    Ibogaine is a natural chemical compound, which belongs to the indole alkaloid family. It can be naturally found within the root bark of african plant Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine plays a significant role among tribal cultures. Ibogaine, in small amount, causes reduction of hunger, thirst and exhaustion. In bigger amount, however, it can cause intensive visions. Other effects include reduction or complete disappearance of absitnence symptoms visible in people addicted to the nicotine, alcohol, methamphetamine, cocaine or opioids, what has been scientifically proven after the tests on animals and small groups of people. After oral application, 80% of ibogaine is subjected to the Odemethylation into noribogaine; main catalyzing enzyme is cytochrome CYP2D6. Research suggests, that ibogaine acts in many places within central nervous system. NMDA receptors seem to play main role in its anti-addiction properties. It is important to mention the side effects of the compound, which are cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity, what makes it harder to use its beneficial properties. Because of this, Ibogaine is included among the dangerous substance. However, there are a few clinics in the world which specializes in the use of the compound in order to interrupt the sypmtoms acute opioid withdrawal syndrome as well as a substance benficial in curing other addictions. There is more hope with synthetic derivatives of ibogaine, which although are less toxic still keep their anti-addiction properties. The aim is to collect the available knowledge related to the structure and effects on human body of alkaloid Tabernanthe iboga and consider the possibility of commercial medical use. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  14. Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of human foetuses. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Cervical parts of vertebral canal in 30 normal human foetuses was exposed in coronal plane and were divided in groups 1 and 2 which correspond with 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy respectively. Groups 1 ...

  15. Human body perception and higher-level person perception are dissociated in early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Developmental data support the proposal that human body perceptual processing is distinct from other aspects of person perception. Infants are sensitive to human bodily motion and attribute goals to human arm movements before they demonstrate recognition of human body structure. The developmental data suggest the possibility of bidirectional linkages between EBA- and FBA-mediated representations and these higher-level elements of person perception.

  16. Quantitative, 3D Visualization of the Initiation and Progression of Vertebral Fractures Under Compression and Anterior Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Timothy M; Hussein, Amira I; Curtiss, Cameron; Fein, Paul M; Camp, Anderson; De Barros, Lidia; Morgan, Elise F

    2016-04-01

    The biomechanical mechanisms leading to vertebral fractures are not well understood. Clinical and laboratory evidence suggests that the vertebral endplate plays a key role in failure of the vertebra as a whole, but how this role differs for different types of vertebral loading is not known. Mechanical testing of human thoracic spine segments, in conjunction with time-lapsed micro-computed tomography, enabled quantitative assessment of deformations occurring throughout the entire vertebral body under axial compression combined with anterior flexion ("combined loading") and under axial compression only ("compression loading"). The resulting deformation maps indicated that endplate deflection was a principal feature of vertebral failure for both loading modes. Specifically, the onset of endplate deflection was temporally coincident with a pronounced drop in the vertebra's ability to support loads. The location of endplate deflection, and also vertebral strength, were associated with the porosity of the endplate and the microstructure of the underlying trabecular bone. However, the location of endplate deflection and the involvement of the cortex differed between the two types of loading. Under the combined loading, deflection initiated, and remained the largest, at the anterior central endplate or the anterior ring apophysis, depending in part on health of the adjacent intervertebral disc. This deflection was accompanied by outward bulging of the anterior cortex. In contrast, the location of endplate deflection was more varied in compression loading. For both loading types, the earliest progression to a mild fracture according to a quantitative morphometric criterion occurred only after much of the failure process had occurred. The outcomes of this work indicate that for two physiological loading modes, the vertebral endplate and underlying trabecular bone are critically involved in vertebral fracture. These outcomes provide a strong biomechanical rationale for

  17. Prevalence of Vertebral Fractures in Children with Suspected Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Andreas; Shepherd, Sheila; Mason, Avril; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2016-12-01

    To explore the prevalence and anatomic distribution of vertebral fractures in disease groups investigated for primary and secondary osteoporosis, using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). VFA was performed independently by 2 nonradiologists, in 165 children (77 males, 88 females) as part of their investigation for osteoporosis. Vertebral bodies from T6 to L4 were assessed for vertebral fractures using the Genant scoring system. The common readings for the presence of vertebral fractures were used for evaluating the prevalence and anatomic distribution of vertebral fractures. The median age of the subjects was 13.4 years (range, 3.6, 18). Of the 165 children, 24 (15%) were being investigated for primary bone disease, and the remainder had a range of chronic diseases known to affect bone health. Vertebral fractures were identified in 38 (23%) children. The distribution of the vertebral fractures was bimodal, with vertebral fractures peaks centered at T9 and L4. Conditions associated with increased odds for vertebral fractures were inflammatory bowel disease (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4, 8.0; P = .018) and osteogenesis imperfecta (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.04, 5.8; P = .022). Among children with vertebral fractures, those with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (P = .015) and osteogenesis imperfecta (P = .023) demonstrated higher number of vertebral fractures than the other disease groups. VFA identified the presence of vertebral fractures, in a bimodal distribution, in both primary bone disease and chronic disease groups. VFA is a practical screening tool for identification of vertebral fractures in children and adolescents at risk of fragility fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility Study of a Standardized Novel Animal Model for Cervical Vertebral Augmentation in Sheep Using a PTH Derivate Bioactive Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Klein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic local treatment involving percutaneous vertebral augmentation using bioactive materials is a new treatment strategy in spine surgery in humans for vertebral bodies at risk. Standardized animal models for this procedure are almost non-existent. The purpose of this study was to: (i prove the efficacy of PTH derivate bioactive materials for new bone formation; and (ii create a new, highly standardized cervical vertebral augmentation model in sheep. Three different concentrations of a modified form of parathyroid hormone (PTH covalently bound to a fibrin matrix containing strontium carbonate were used. The same matrix without PTH and shams were used as controls. The bioactive materials were locally injected. Using a ventral surgical approach, a pre-set amount of material was injected under fluoroscopic guidance into the intertrabecular space of three vertebral bodies. Intravital fluorescent dyes were used to demonstrate new bone formation. After an observation period of four months, the animals were sacrificed, and vertebral bodies were processed for µCT, histomorphometry, histology and sequential fluorescence evaluation. Enhanced localized bone activity and new bone formation in the injected area could be determined for all experimental groups in comparison to the matrix alone and sham with the highest values detected for the group with a medium concentration of PTH.

  19. an unusual foreign body in human oesophagus – case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    ABSTRACT. We report a case of a 65year old. Nigerian male with an unusual foreign body, a fishing hook in the oesophagus. This was confirmed with a plain radiograph of the chest done on a routine medical check-up, although patient was asymptomatic. The foreign body was removed via a rigid oesphagoscopy without ...

  20. An Unusual Foreign Body In Human Oesophagus – Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of a 65year old Nigerian male with an unusual foreign body, a fishing hook in the oesophagus. This was confirmed with a plain radiograph of the chest done on a routine medical check-up, although patient was asymptomatic. The foreign body was removed via a rigid oesphagoscopy without any ...

  1. Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Chatziioannou, Sofia N; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S

    2010-11-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned causes. Over a 2-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 154 vertebral levels were performed in 75 patients undergoing kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures. All patients received a preoperative workup that included plain radiographs, MRI, whole body bone scan, and laboratory examinations. Bone specimens were obtained from affected vertebral bodies and submitted for histologic evaluation to identify the prevalence of an underlying cause. All specimens demonstrated fragmented bone with variable amounts of unmineralised bone, signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing. In 11 patients underlying pathology other than osteoporosis was identified (prostate cancer, 1; pancreatic cancer, 1; colon cancer, 1; breast cancer, 2; multiple myeloma, 3; leukemia, 1; and lung cancer, 2). In all but one patient the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis suspected from the preoperative workup. For the last patient, namely the one with pancreatic cancer, the workup did not identify the origin of the primary tumor, although the patient was considered to have a compression fracture secondary to metastatic disease of unknown origin, the vertebral biopsy suggested the presence of adenocarcinoma which eventually was proven to be pancreatic cancer. In augmentation procedures for vertebral compression fractures, bone biopsy should be reserved for the patients where the preoperative evaluation raises the suspicion of a non-osteoporotic etiology.

  2. A pictorial classification atlas of cement extravasation with vertebral augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lador, Ran; Dreiangel, Niv; Ben-Galim, Peleg J; Hipp, John A

    2010-12-01

    Minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) have been in use since the mid-1980s. A mixture of liquid monomer and powder is introduced through a needle into one or both pedicles, and it polymerizes within the vertebral body in an exothermic chemical reaction. The interaction between cement and the fractured vertebral body determines whether and how the cement stabilizes the fragments, alters morphology, and extravasates. The cement is intended to remain within the vertebral body. However, some studies have reported cement leakage in more than 80% of the procedures. Although cement leakage can have no or minimal clinical consequences, adverse events, such as paraplegia, spinal cord and nerve root compression, cement pulmonary embolisms, or death, can occur. The details of how the cement infiltrates a vertebral body or extravasates out of the body are poorly understood and may help to identify strategies to reduce complications and improve clinical efficacy. Apply novel techniques to demonstrate the cement spread inside vertebrae as well as the points and pattern of cement extravastation. Ex vivo assessment of vertebral augmentation procedures. Vertebrae from six fresh whole human cadaver spines were used to create 24 specimens of three vertebrae each. The specimens were placed in a pneumatic testing system, designed to create controlled anterior wedge compression fractures. Unipedicular augmentation was performed on the central vertebra of 24 specimens using polymethylmethacrylate/barium sulfate Vertebroplastic cements (DePuy Spine, Raynham, MA, USA). The volume of cement injected into each vertebra was recorded. Fine-cut computed tomography (CT) scans of all segments were obtained (Brilliance 64; Philips Medical Imaging, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Using multiplanar reconstructions and volume compositing three-dimensional imaging (Osirix, www.osirix-viewer.com), each specimen was carefully assessed for cement

  3. Representational Momentum for the Human Body: Awkwardness Matters, Experience Does Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret; Lancaster, Jessy; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of the human body appears to involve predictive simulations that project forward to track unfolding body-motion events. Here we use representational momentum (RM) to investigate whether implicit knowledge of a learned arbitrary system of body movement such as sign language influences this prediction process, and how this compares to…

  4. Optimal frequency range for medical radar measurements of human heartbeats using body-contact radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovoll, Sverre; Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the optimal frequency range for heartbeat measurements using body-contact radar is experimentally evaluated. A Body-contact radar senses electromagnetic waves that have penetrated the human body, but the range of frequencies that can be used are limited by the electric properties of the human tissue. The optimal frequency range is an important property needed for the design of body-contact radar systems for heartbeat measurements. In this study heartbeats are measured using three different antennas at discrete frequencies from 0.1 - 10 GHz, and the strength of the received heartbeat signal is calculated. To characterize the antennas, when in contact with the body, two port S-parameters(†) are measured for the antennas using a pork rib as a phantom for the human body. The results shows that frequencies up to 2.5 GHz can be used for heartbeat measurements with body-contact radar.

  5. Transport of gaseous pollutants by convective boundary layer around a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the ability of the human convective boundary layer to transport pollution in a quiescent indoor environment. The impact of the source location in the vicinity of a human body is examined in relation to pollution distribution in the breathing zone and the thickness...... of the pollution boundary layer. The study, in addition, evaluates the effects of the room air temperature, table positioning, and seated body inclination. The human body is represented by a thermal manikin that has a body shape, size, and surface temperature that resemble those of a real person. The results show...... at the upper back or behind the chair. The results also indicate that a decrease in personal exposure to pollutants released from or around the human body increases the extent to which the pollution spreads to the surroundings. Reducing the room air temperature or backward body inclination intensifies...

  6. Human body motion tracking based on quantum-inspired immune cloning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hong; Yue, Lichuan; Jiao, Licheng; Wu, Xing

    2009-10-01

    In a static monocular camera system, to gain a perfect 3D human body posture is a great challenge for Computer Vision technology now. This paper presented human postures recognition from video sequences using the Quantum-Inspired Immune Cloning Algorithm (QICA). The algorithm included three parts. Firstly, prior knowledge of human beings was used, the key joint points of human could be detected automatically from the human contours and skeletons which could be thinning from the contours; And due to the complexity of human movement, a forecasting mechanism of occlusion joint points was addressed to get optimum 2D key joint points of human body; And then pose estimation recovered by optimizing between the 2D projection of 3D human key joint points and 2D detection key joint points using QICA, which recovered the movement of human body perfectly, because this algorithm could acquire not only the global optimal solution, but the local optimal solution.

  7. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    , it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...... the exergy concept to the built indoor environment, additional results are going to be explored. By using the data available so far of operative temperature (to), the human body exergy consumption rates increase as to increases above 24°C or decreases below 22°C at relative humidity (RH) lower than 50...

  8. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  9. [Some traditional representations of the human body in Basque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvert, Michel

    2008-01-01

    This work is a selection of ethnographic data chiefly collected in the North of the Basque Country. It suggests restoring the traditional image of body and proposes interpretation of "historical meanings".

  10. Cervical vertebral fusion with anterior meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mathew J; Chavredakis, Emmanuel; Carter, David; Bhojak, Manesh; Jenkinson, Michael D; Clark, Simon R

    2015-04-01

    We present the first described case of cervical vertebral fusion associated with anterior meningocele and syringomyelia. A 45-year-old woman presented with minor trauma, and plain cervical spine radiographs highlighted a congenital deformity of the cervical vertebral bodies. She had a normal neurological examination; however, further imaging revealed a meningocele and syringomyelia. This case highlights the importance of thorough imaging investigation when presented with a congenital deformity in order to detect and prevent development of degenerative spinal cord pathologies. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Using and respecting the dead human body: an anatomist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth

    2014-09-01

    In his stimulating article enquiring into what the living owe the dead, Wilkinson (2013, Clin. Anat. DOI: 10.1002/ca.22263) sought to unpack a range of ethical questions of considerable interest to anatomists. In this, he looked closely at the extent to which we are or are not to respect all the prior wishes of the deceased, and the implications of this for the role of the family in providing consent, the use of unclaimed bodies, and the public display of bodies. Some of his conclusions challenge widely encountered views by anatomists. In this response I have re-visited these topics in an attempt to ground his arguments in the experience of anatomists, by emphasizing the many intimate connections that exist between each of these areas. The following emerge as issues for further debate. I accept that the wishes of the deceased are preeminent, so that authorities should make every effort to abide by these. This reiterates the importance of body bequests over against unclaimed bodies, and provides a context for assessing the role of family consent. This has repercussions for all activities employing dead bodies, from the dissecting room to public plastination exhibitions. In determining the extent to which the wishes of the deceased are followed the input of other interested parties is a relevant consideration. An ethical assessment of the public display of bodies needs to take into account the nature of the plastination process. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Brazilian legal and bioethical approach about donation for research and patents of human body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Márcia Santana; Silla, Lúcia; Goldim, José Roberto; Martins-Costa, Judith

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why the Brazilian legal system does not accept commercialization or commodification of human body parts, including genes or cells. As a consequence, in Brazil, the donation of human body parts for research-including basic or translational-must be made altruistically. For the same reason, the Brazilian patent system cannot be applied to human parts, cells or genes. Here, we present a qualitative analysis of juridical, bioethical, and social reasoning related to the legal status of human body parts especially in biobanks, as well as a description of the Brazilian legal system for clarification. Our aim is to discuss the responsibility of researchers for making available the scientific information resulting from scientific research and biobank storage of human body parts and to ensure the free utilization of knowledge in human health research.

  13. Effect of clothing material on thermal responses of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengzhi, Li; Yi, Li

    2005-09-01

    The influence of clothing material on thermal responses of the human body are investigated by using an integrated model of a clothed thermoregulatory human body. A modified 25-nodes model considering the sweat accumulation on the skin surface is applied to simulate the human physiological regulatory responses. The heat and moisture coupled transfer mechanisms, including water vapour diffusion, the moisture evaporation/condensation, the moisture sorbtion/desorption by fibres, liquid sweat transfer under capillary pressure, and latent heat absorption/release due to phase change, are considered in the clothing model. On comparing prediction results with the experimental data in the literature, the proposed model seems able to predict dynamic heat and moisture transfer between the human body and the clothing system. The human body's thermal responses and clothing temperature and moisture variations are compared for different clothing materials during transient periods. We concluded that the hygroscopicity of clothing materials influences the human thermoregulation process significantly during environmental transients.

  14. Influence of physical activity on vertebral strength during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junno, Juho-Antti; Paananen, Markus; Karppinen, Jaro; Tammelin, Tuija; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Niskanen, Markku; Nieminen, Miika T; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Takatalo, Jani; Tervonen, Osmo; Tuukkanen, Juha

    2013-02-01

    Reduced vertebral strength is a clear risk factor for vertebral fractures. Men and women with vertebral fractures often have reduced vertebral size and bone mineral density (BMD). Vertebral strength is controlled by both genetic and developmental factors. Malnutrition and low levels of physical activity are commonly considered to result in reduced bone size during growth. Several studies have also demonstrated the general relationship between BMD and physical activity in the appendicular skeleton. In this study, we wanted to clarify the role of physical activity on vertebral bodies. Vertebral dimensions appear to generally be less pliant than long bones when lifetime changes occur. We wanted to explore the association between physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength parameters such as cross-sectional size and BMD. The association between physical activity and vertebral strength was explored by measuring vertebral strength parameters and defining the level of physical activity during adolescence. The study population consisted of 6,928 males and females who, at 15 to 16 and 19 years of age, responded to a mailed questionnaire inquiring about their physical activity. A total of 558 individuals at the mean age of 21 years underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We measured the dimensions of the fourth lumbar vertebra from the MRI scans of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 and performed T2* relaxation time mapping, reflective of BMD. Vertebral strength was based on these two parameters. We analyzed the association of physical activity on vertebral strength using the analysis of variance. We observed no association between the level of physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength at 21 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Redesigning Human Body Systems: Effective Pedagogical Strategy for Promoting Active Learning and STEM Education

    OpenAIRE

    Cherif, Abour H.; Dianne M. Jedlicka; Tracey E. Colyer; Farahnaz Movahedzadeh; William B. Phillips

    2012-01-01

    The human body is a remarkable biological machine maintained by interdependent body systems and organized biochemical reactions. Evolution has worked on humans for hundreds of thousands of years, yet the current pace of technological and social change have radically affected our life style and have exposed possible human frailties. This raises the question of whether or not nature’s work could be improved upon. We provide two-sided perspectives as a rationale for the need for the redesign of ...

  16. Factors Associated With Body Image Perception Among Brazilian Students From Low Human Development Index Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Thábyta Silva; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; de Almeida, Paulo César; Martins, Mariana Cavalcante; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual factors associated with body image perception in a sample of adolescents from schools in low Human Development Index areas in Brazil. This cross-sectional study included 609 boys and 573 girls (aged 11-17 years). Body image perception (nine-silhouettes scale) and sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual variables were included. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. Most boys (76.9%) and girls (77.5%) were dissatisfied with their body image. Body mass index status and healthy body image evaluation were significantly associated with body image dissatisfaction in both boys and girls ( p body image dissatisfaction only in boys ( p = .035). Education and health care focused on body image can pay special attention to young people from vulnerable areas with unhealthy nutritional status and focus on strategies that enable improving the perception of a healthy body and a healthy diet.

  17. Mid-Holocene (4200 kyr BP) mass mortalities in Mauritius (Mascarenes) : Insular vertebrates resilient to climatic extremes but vulnerable to human impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.; Zinke, Jens; de Louw, Perry G. B.; Hume, Julian P.; van der Plicht, Hans (J); Hooghiemstra, Henry; Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Vonhof, Hubert B.; Porch, Nick; Florens, F. B. Vincent; Baider, Claudia; van Geel, Bas; Brinkkemper, Joost; Vernimmen, Tamara; Janoo, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    In the light of the currently increasing drought frequency and water scarcity on oceanic islands, it is crucial for the conservation of threatened insular vertebrates to assess how they will be affected. A 4000 yr old fossil assemblage in the Mare Aux Songes (MAS), southwest Mauritius, Mascarene

  18. Diagram of Calcium Movement in the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This diagram shows the normal pathways of calcium movement in the body and indicates changes (green arrows) seen during preliminary space flight experiments. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts have participated in a study of calcium kinetics -- that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  19. The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other important risk factors for vertebral artery injury include facet joint dislocations and fractures of the first to the third cervical vertebral bodies. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury on CT angiography (CTA) in patients with cervical spine fractures. Method.

  20. Computational modeling of blast wave interaction with a human body and assessment of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X. G.; Przekwas, A. J.; Gupta, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    The modeling of human body biomechanics resulting from blast exposure poses great challenges because of the complex geometry and the substantial material heterogeneity. We developed a detailed human body finite element model representing both the geometry and the materials realistically. The model includes the detailed head (face, skull, brain and spinal cord), the neck, the skeleton, air cavities (lungs) and the tissues. Hence, it can be used to properly model the stress wave propagation in the human body subjected to blast loading. The blast loading on the human was generated from a simulated C4 explosion. We used the highly scalable solvers in the multi-physics code CoBi for both the blast simulation and the human body biomechanics. The meshes generated for these simulations are of good quality so that relatively large time-step sizes can be used without resorting to artificial time scaling treatments. The coupled gas dynamics and biomechanics solutions were validated against the shock tube test data. The human body models were used to conduct parametric simulations to find the biomechanical response and the brain injury mechanism due to blasts impacting the human body. Under the same blast loading condition, we showed the importance of inclusion of the whole body.

  1. Computational modeling of blast wave interaction with a human body and assessment of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X. G.; Przekwas, A. J.; Gupta, R. K.

    2017-11-01

    The modeling of human body biomechanics resulting from blast exposure poses great challenges because of the complex geometry and the substantial material heterogeneity. We developed a detailed human body finite element model representing both the geometry and the materials realistically. The model includes the detailed head (face, skull, brain and spinal cord), the neck, the skeleton, air cavities (lungs) and the tissues. Hence, it can be used to properly model the stress wave propagation in the human body subjected to blast loading. The blast loading on the human was generated from a simulated C4 explosion. We used the highly scalable solvers in the multi-physics code CoBi for both the blast simulation and the human body biomechanics. The meshes generated for these simulations are of good quality so that relatively large time-step sizes can be used without resorting to artificial time scaling treatments. The coupled gas dynamics and biomechanics solutions were validated against the shock tube test data. The human body models were used to conduct parametric simulations to find the biomechanical response and the brain injury mechanism due to blasts impacting the human body. Under the same blast loading condition, we showed the importance of inclusion of the whole body.

  2. [Human body meridian spatial decision support system for clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    The spatial position and distribution of human body meridian are expressed limitedly in the decision support system (DSS) of acupuncture and moxibustion at present, which leads to the failure to give the effective quantitative analysis on the spatial range and the difficulty for the decision-maker to provide a realistic spatial decision environment. Focusing on the limit spatial expression in DSS of acupuncture and moxibustion, it was proposed that on the basis of the geographic information system, in association of DSS technology, the design idea was developed on the human body meridian spatial DSS. With the 4-layer service-oriented architecture adopted, the data center integrated development platform was taken as the system development environment. The hierarchical organization was done for the spatial data of human body meridian via the directory tree. The structured query language (SQL) server was used to achieve the unified management of spatial data and attribute data. The technologies of architecture, configuration and plug-in development model were integrated to achieve the data inquiry, buffer analysis and program evaluation of the human body meridian spatial DSS. The research results show that the human body meridian spatial DSS could reflect realistically the spatial characteristics of the spatial position and distribution of human body meridian and met the constantly changeable demand of users. It has the powerful spatial analysis function and assists with the scientific decision in clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion. It is the new attempt to the informatization research of human body meridian.

  3. Ambulatory assessment of human body kinematics and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Traditional human movement analysis systems consist of an optical position measurement system with one or more 6D force plates mounted in a laboratory. Although clinically accepted as `the golden standard' for the assessment of human movement, the restriction to a laboratory environment with its

  4. An Impact of Thermodynamic Processes in Human Bodies on Performance Reliability of Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smalko Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the problem of the influence of thermodynamic factors on human fallibility in different zones of thermal discomfort. Describes the processes of energy in the human body. Been given a formal description of the energy balance of the human body thermoregulation. Pointed to human reactions to temperature changes of internal and external environment, including reactions associated with exercise. The methodology to estimate and determine the reliability of indicators of human basal acting in different zones of thermal discomfort. The significant effect of thermodynamic factors on the reliability and security ofperson.

  5. Human++: Wireless autonomous sensor technology for body area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Francisco, R. de; Pflug, H.; Santana, J.; Visser, H.; Vullers, R.; Groot, H. de; Gyselinckx, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in ultra-low-power circuits and energy harvesters are making self-powered body wireless autonomous transducer solutions (WATS) a reality. Power optimization at the system and application level is crucial in achieving ultra-low-power consumption for the entire system. This paper deals

  6. Carbon offers advantages as implant material in human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, J.

    1969-01-01

    Because of such characteristics as high strength and long-term biocompatability, aerospace carbonaceous materials may be used as surgical implants to correct pathological conditions in the body resulting from disease or injury. Examples of possible medical uses include bone replacement, implantation splints and circulatory bypass implants.

  7. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. [Inclusion Bodies are Formed in SFTSV-infected Human Macrophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cong; Song, Jingdong; Han, Ying; Li, Chuan; Qiu, Peihong; Liang, Mifang

    2016-01-01

    The severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a new member in the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae identified in China. The SFTSV is also the causative pathogen of an emerging infectious disease: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy, the intracellular distribution of nucleocapsid protein (NP) in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells was investigated with serial doses of SFTSV at different times after infection. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrafine intracellular structure of SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells at different times after infection. SFTSV NP could form intracellular inclusion bodies in infected THP-1 cells. The association between NP-formed inclusion bodies and virus production was analyzed: the size of the inclusion body formed 3 days after infection was correlated with the viral load in supernatants collected 7 days after infection. These findings suggest that the inclusion bodies formed in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells could be where the SFTSV uses host-cell proteins and intracellular organelles to produce new viral particles.

  9. Effect of the environmental stimuli upon the human body in winter outdoor thermal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin

    2013-01-01

    the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses...... of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation....... The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect...

  10. Why the way we consider the body matters – Reflections on four bioethical perspectives on the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schicktanz Silke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the context of applied bioethical reasoning, various conceptions of the human body are focused upon by the author in relation to normative notions of autonomy. Results The author begins by descriptively exploring some main positions in bioethics from which the "body" is conceptualized. Such positions conflict: the body is that which is constitutive of the individual's experience and perception, or it is conceived of materially or mechanistically; or as a constructed locus, always historically and culturally transformed. The author goes on to suggest a methodological approach that dialectically considers embodiment from four different perspectives: as bodily self-determination, as respect for the bodily unavailability of the other, as care for bodily individuality; and lastly, as acknowledgement of bodily-constituted communities. These four perspectives encompass autonomy in two of its main interpretations: as the capability of a person to act independent of external forces, and as the moral ideal of pursuing individual wishes by means of role distance, self-limitation and universalization. Various bioethical cases are utilized to show how the four perspectives on the body can complement one another. Conclusion The way we consider the body matters. The author's dialectical method allows a premise-critical identification and exploration of bioethical problems concerning the body. The method is potentially applicable to other bioethical problems.

  11. Why the way we consider the body matters – Reflections on four bioethical perspectives on the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicktanz, Silke

    2007-01-01

    Background Within the context of applied bioethical reasoning, various conceptions of the human body are focused upon by the author in relation to normative notions of autonomy. Results The author begins by descriptively exploring some main positions in bioethics from which the "body" is conceptualized. Such positions conflict: the body is that which is constitutive of the individual's experience and perception, or it is conceived of materially or mechanistically; or as a constructed locus, always historically and culturally transformed. The author goes on to suggest a methodological approach that dialectically considers embodiment from four different perspectives: as bodily self-determination, as respect for the bodily unavailability of the other, as care for bodily individuality; and lastly, as acknowledgement of bodily-constituted communities. These four perspectives encompass autonomy in two of its main interpretations: as the capability of a person to act independent of external forces, and as the moral ideal of pursuing individual wishes by means of role distance, self-limitation and universalization. Various bioethical cases are utilized to show how the four perspectives on the body can complement one another. Conclusion The way we consider the body matters. The author's dialectical method allows a premise-critical identification and exploration of bioethical problems concerning the body. The method is potentially applicable to other bioethical problems. PMID:18053201

  12. Why the way we consider the body matters - reflections on four bioethical perspectives on the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicktanz, Silke

    2007-12-04

    Within the context of applied bioethical reasoning, various conceptions of the human body are focused upon by the author in relation to normative notions of autonomy. The author begins by descriptively exploring some main positions in bioethics from which the "body" is conceptualized. Such positions conflict: the body is that which is constitutive of the individual's experience and perception, or it is conceived of materially or mechanistically; or as a constructed locus, always historically and culturally transformed. The author goes on to suggest a methodological approach that dialectically considers embodiment from four different perspectives: as bodily self-determination, as respect for the bodily unavailability of the other, as care for bodily individuality; and lastly, as acknowledgement of bodily-constituted communities. These four perspectives encompass autonomy in two of its main interpretations: as the capability of a person to act independent of external forces, and as the moral ideal of pursuing individual wishes by means of role distance, self-limitation and universalization. Various bioethical cases are utilized to show how the four perspectives on the body can complement one another. The way we consider the body matters. The author's dialectical method allows a premise-critical identification and exploration of bioethical problems concerning the body. The method is potentially applicable to other bioethical problems.

  13. Vertebral Fracture Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral Fracture Prediction A method of processing data derived from an image of at least part of a spine is provided for estimating the risk of a future fracture in vertebraeof the spine. Position data relating to at least four neighbouring vertebrae of the spine is processed. The curvature...

  14. A Balanced-Fed Dual Inverted-F Antenna with Reduced Human Body Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Wang-Sang Lee; Hyun-Sung Tae; Kyoung-Sub Oh; Jong-Won Yu

    2013-01-01

    A balanced-fed dual inverted-F antenna with reduced human body effects for WLAN applications at 2.45 GHz is presented. In order to reduce the influence by a close proximity or a touch of a human body, the proposed antenna employs an impedance matching using a lumped LC-balun which has the simple and compact structure applying for mobile handsets. The resonant frequency of the proposed antenna is fixed at 2.45 GHz regardless of the close proximity of a human body. By applying for the L-shape g...

  15. Data Fusion Research of Triaxial Human Body Motion Gesture based on Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Zhou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development status of human body motion gesture data fusion domestic and overseas has been analyzed. A triaxial accelerometer is adopted to develop a wearable human body motion gesture monitoring system aimed at old people healthcare. On the basis of a brief introduction of decision tree algorithm, the WEKA workbench is adopted to generate a human body motion gesture decision tree. At last, the classification quality of the decision tree has been validated through experiments. The experimental results show that the decision tree algorithm could reach an average predicting accuracy of 97.5 % with lower time cost.

  16. Representations of the human body in the production and imitation of complex movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwoebel, John; Buxbaum, Laurel J; Coslett, H Branch

    2004-03-01

    Previous investigations suggest that there are at least three distinct types of representation of the human body. One representation codes structural information about body part location (body structural description), the second codes knowledge about body parts (body semantics or body image), and the third provides a dynamic mapping of the current positions of body parts relative to one another (body schema) (Buxbaum & Coslett, 2001; Schwoebel, Coslett, & Buxbaum, 2001; Sirigu, Grafman, Bressler, & Sunderland, 1991). In this study we used an influential "two route" model of gesture performance (Gonzalez Rothi, Ochipa, & Heilman, 1991) to derive predictions about the body representations expected to underlie the production and imitation of meaningful and meaningless movements. The relationships between these measures were examined in 55 patients with unilateral left-hemisphere lesions. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that performance on body semantics and body schema tasks were significant and unique predictors of meaningful gesture performance, whereas the body schema measure alone predicted imitation of meaningless movements. Body structural descriptions did not enter into any of the models. These findings are consistent with performance of meaningful actions via a semantic route that accesses body semantics and other action knowledge, and performance of meaningless movements via a "direct" route that bypasses this information.

  17. Cervical vertebral strain measurements under axial and eccentric loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, F A; Yoganandan, N; Pesigan, M; Reinartz, J; Sances, A; Cusick, J F

    1995-11-01

    The mid to lower cervical spine is a common site for compression related injury. In the present study, we determined the patterns of localized strain distribution in the anterior aspect of the vertebral body and in the lateral masses of lower cervical three-segment units. Miniature strain gages were mounted to human cadaveric vertebrae. Each preparation was line-loaded using a knife-edge oriented in the coronal plane that was moved incrementally from anterior to posterior to induce compression-flexion or compression-extension loading. Uniform compressive loading and failure runs were also conducted. Failure tests indicated strain shifting to "restabilize" the preparation after failure of a component. Under these various compressive loading vectors, the location which resulted in the least amount of deformation for a given force application (i.e., stiffest axis) was quantified to be in the region between 0.5- 1.0 cm anterior to the posterior longitudinal ligament. The location in which line-loading produced no rotation (i.e., balance point) was in this region; it was also close to where the vertebral body strains change from compressive to tensile. Strain values from line loading in this region produced similar strains as recorded under uniform compressive loading, and this was also the region of minimum strain. The region of minimum strain was also more pronounced under higher magnitudes of loading, suggesting that as the maximum load carrying capacity is reached the stiffest axis becomes more well defined.

  18. The evolution of body size and shape in the human career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungers, William L; Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Richmond, Brian G

    2016-07-05

    Body size is a fundamental biological property of organisms, and documenting body size variation in hominin evolution is an important goal of palaeoanthropology. Estimating body mass appears deceptively simple but is laden with theoretical and pragmatic assumptions about best predictors and the most appropriate reference samples. Modern human training samples with known masses are arguably the 'best' for estimating size in early bipedal hominins such as the australopiths and all members of the genus Homo, but it is not clear if they are the most appropriate priors for reconstructing the size of the earliest putative hominins such as Orrorin and Ardipithecus The trajectory of body size evolution in the early part of the human career is reviewed here and found to be complex and nonlinear. Australopith body size varies enormously across both space and time. The pre-erectus early Homo fossil record from Africa is poor and dominated by relatively small-bodied individuals, implying that the emergence of the genus Homo is probably not linked to an increase in body size or unprecedented increases in size variation. Body size differences alone cannot explain the observed variation in hominin body shape, especially when examined in the context of small fossil hominins and pygmy modern humans.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siepel, Adam; Bejerano, Gill; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2005-01-01

    We have conducted a comprehensive search for conserved elements in vertebrate genomes, using genome-wide multiple alignments of five vertebrate species (human, mouse, rat, chicken, and Fugu rubripes). Parallel searches have been performed with multiple alignments of four insect species (three spe...... for RNA secondary structure....

  20. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index 123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Background Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. Objective We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity–body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). Design This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n = 411; organs = 76) and the other a larger DXA database (n = 1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Results Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of ≈2 (all P 2 (2.31–2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with height in women. AT scaled weakly to height with powers of ≈2, and adiposity was independent of height. Brain mass scaled to height with a power of 0.83 (P = 0.04) in men and nonsignificantly in women; the fraction of weight as brain was inversely related to height in women (P = 0.002). Conclusions These observations suggest that short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies. PMID:17616766

  1. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity-body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n=411; organs=76) and the other a larger DXA database (n=1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of approximately 2 (all P2 (2.31-2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with height in women. AT scaled weakly to height with powers of approximately 2, and adiposity was independent of height. Brain mass scaled to height with a power of 0.83 (P=0.04) in men and nonsignificantly in women; the fraction of weight as brain was inversely related to height in women (P=0.002). These observations suggest that short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies.

  2. Human-motion energy harvester for autonomous body area sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, M.; Boisseau, S.; Perez, M.; Gasnier, P.; Willemin, J.; Ait-Ali, I.; Perraud, S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports on a method to optimize an electromagnetic energy harvester converting the low-frequency body motion and aimed at powering wireless body area sensors. This method is based on recorded accelerations, and mechanical and transduction models that enable an efficient joint optimization of the structural parameters. An optimized prototype of 14.8 mmØ × 52 mm, weighting 20 g, has generated up to 4.95 mW in a resistive load when worn at the arm during a run, and 6.57 mW when hand-shaken. Among the inertial electromagnetic energy harvesters reported so far, this one exhibits one of the highest power densities (up to 730 μW cm-3). The energy harvester was finally used to power a bluetooth low energy wireless sensor node with accelerations measurements at 25 Hz.

  3. Inversion Reveals Perceptual Asymmetries in the Configural Processing of Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Daniele; Lucafò, Chiara; Padulo, Caterina; Prete, Giulia; Giacinto, Laura; Tommasi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguous human bodies performing unimanual/unipedal actions are perceived more frequently as right-handed/footed rather than left-handed/footed, which suggests a perceptual and attentional bias toward the right side of others' body. A bias toward the right arm of human bodies could be adaptive in social life, most social interactions occurring with right-handed individuals, and the implicit knowledge that the dominant hand of humans is usually placed on their right side might also be included in body configural information. Given that inversion disrupts configural processing for human bodies, we investigated whether inversion reduces the bias toward the right side of human bodies. Consistent with our hypothesis, when presented with ambiguous stimuli depicting humans performing lateralized actions or movements, participants perceived a greater proportion of right-handed figures when the stimuli were shown upright than when the stimuli were shown inverted. The present findings seem to confirm our hypothesis that body configural information may include some form of knowledge about the probable handedness of other individuals, although alternative accounts involving the role of experience cannot be ruled out.

  4. Inversion Reveals Perceptual Asymmetries in the Configural Processing of Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Marzoli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguous human bodies performing unimanual/unipedal actions are perceived more frequently as right-handed/footed rather than left-handed/footed, which suggests a perceptual and attentional bias toward the right side of others’ body. A bias toward the right arm of human bodies could be adaptive in social life, most social interactions occurring with right-handed individuals, and the implicit knowledge that the dominant hand of humans is usually placed on their right side might also be included in body configural information. Given that inversion disrupts configural processing for human bodies, we investigated whether inversion reduces the bias toward the right side of human bodies. Consistent with our hypothesis, when presented with ambiguous stimuli depicting humans performing lateralized actions or movements, participants perceived a greater proportion of right-handed figures when the stimuli were shown upright than when the stimuli were shown inverted. The present findings seem to confirm our hypothesis that body configural information may include some form of knowledge about the probable handedness of other individuals, although alternative accounts involving the role of experience cannot be ruled out.

  5. [Immobilization and skeletal system of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisała, Aleksander; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Shaping the process of evolution musculoskeletal and nervous systems in animals has allowed these organisms steady increase mobility and mastery of new environments to life. Movement is the essence of life and health. But health is not a permanent condition. Its absence often results in limited mobility of the body. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of immobilization on the state of the skeletal system and the evaluation of the effectiveness of various measures to reduce this impact.

  6. Delayed Post-traumatic Vertebral Collapse: MR Categorization and MR-Pathology Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chong Suh; Yu, Je-Wook; Chung, Sung Soo; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Ahn, Geunghwan; Ahn, Joong Mo

    2007-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To categorize the MR appearance of ischemic vertebral collapse and to correlate surgical and histologic findings. Overview of Literature X-ray and MRI findings of delayed posttraumatic vertebral collapse shows several patterns. Histopathologic signs of osteonecrosis were present only in minor portion of cases sampled for biopsy of delayed post-traumatic vertebral collapse in the literature. Methods Twenty-one patients (22 vertebral bodies), with sur...

  7. The human body retention time of environmental organically bound tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John; Bailey, Trevor [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Reese, Allan [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, The Nothe, Barrack Road, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: john.hunt@cefas.co.uk

    2009-03-15

    Tritium in the UK environment causes low radiation doses to the public, but uncertainty exists in the dose coefficient for the organically bound component of tritium (OBT). This can affect the assessment of effective doses to representative persons. Contributing to that uncertainty is poor knowledge of the body retention time of OBT and how this varies for different OBT compounds in food. This study was undertaken to measure the retention time of tritium by volunteers after eating sole from Cardiff Bay, which may contain OBT from discharges from the GE Healthcare Ltd plant. Five volunteers provided samples of excreta over periods up to 150 days after intake. The results, which are presented in raw form to allow independent analysis, suggest retention of total tritium with body half-times ranging from 4 to 11 days, with no evidence (subject to experimental noise) of a significant contribution due to retention with a longer half-time. This range covers the half-time of 10 days used by the ICRP for tritiated water. The short timescale could be due to rapid hydrolysis in body tissues of the particular form of OBT used in this study. Implications for the dose coefficient for OBT are that the use of the ICRP value of 4.2 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} may be cautious in this specific situation. These observations on dose coefficients are separate from any implications of recent discussion on whether the tritium radiation weighting factor should be increased from 1 to 2.

  8. Comparison of forced-air warming systems with upper body blankets using a copper manikin of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, A; English, M J M; Steinmetz, N; Lorenz, N; Perl, T; Braun, U; Weyland, W

    2002-09-01

    Forced-air warming with upper body blankets has gained high acceptance as a measure for the prevention of intraoperative hypothermia. However, data on heat transfer with upper body blankets are not yet available. This study was conducted to determine the heat transfer efficacy of eight complete upper body warming systems and to gain more insight into the principles of forced-air warming. Heat transfer of forced-air warmers can be described as follows: Qdot;=h. DeltaT. A, where Qdot;= heat flux [W], h=heat exchange coefficient [W m-2 degrees C-1], DeltaT=temperature gradient between the blanket and surface [ degrees C], and A=covered area [m2]. We tested eight different forced-air warming systems: (1) Bair Hugger and upper body blanket (Augustine Medical Inc. Eden Prairie, MN); (2) Thermacare and upper body blanket (Gaymar Industries, Orchard Park, NY); (3) Thermacare (Gaymar Industries) with reusable Optisan upper body blanket (Willy Rüsch AG, Kernen, Germany); (4) WarmAir and upper body blanket (Cincinnati Sub-Zero Products, Cincinnati, OH); (5) Warm-Gard and single use upper body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB, Upplands Väsby, Sweden); (6) Warm-Gard and reusable upper body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB); (7) WarmTouch and CareDrape upper body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc., St. Luis, MO); and (8) WarmTouch and reusable MultiCover trade mark upper body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc.) on a previously validated copper manikin of the human body. Heat flux and surface temperature were measured with 11 calibrated heat flux transducers. Blanket temperature was measured using 11 thermocouples. The temperature gradient between the blanket and surface (DeltaT) was varied between -8 and +8 degrees C, and h was determined by linear regression analysis as the slope of DeltaT vs. heat flux. Mean DeltaT was determined for surface temperatures between 36 and 38 degrees C, as similar mean skin surface temperatures have been found in volunteers. The covered area was estimated to be 0

  9. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? Part I: Critical appraisal of the evidence for the presence, biosynthesis and uptake of steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander P

    2012-11-01

    The consensus view is that vertebrate-type steroids are present in mollusks and perform hormonal roles which are similar to those that they play in vertebrates. Although vertebrate steroids can be measured in molluscan tissues, a key question is 'Are they formed endogenously or they are picked up from their environment?'. The present review concludes that there is no convincing evidence for biosynthesis of vertebrate steroids by mollusks. Furthermore, the 'mollusk' genome does not contain the genes for key enzymes that are necessary to transform cholesterol in progressive steps into vertebrate-type steroids; nor does the mollusk genome contain genes for functioning classical nuclear steroid receptors. On the other hand, there is very strong evidence that mollusks are able to absorb vertebrate steroids from the environment; and are able to store some of them (by conjugating them to fatty acids) for weeks to months. It is notable that the three steroids that have been proposed as functional hormones in mollusks (i.e. progesterone, testosterone and 17β-estradiol) are the same as those of humans. Since humans (and indeed all vertebrates) continuously excrete steroids not just via urine and feces, but via their body surface (and, in fish, via the gills), it is impossible to rule out contamination as the sole reason for the presence of vertebrate steroids in mollusks (even in animals kept under supposedly 'clean laboratory conditions'). Essentially, the presence of vertebrate steroids in mollusks cannot be taken as reliable evidence of either endogenous biosynthesis or of an endocrine role. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling and characterization of different channels based on human body communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingzhen Li; Zedong Nie; Yuhang Liu; Lei Wang

    2017-07-01

    Human body communication (HBC), which uses the human body as a transmission medium for electrical signals, provides a prospective communication solution for body sensor networks (BSNs). In this paper, an inhomogeneous model which includes the tissue layers of skin, fat, and muscle is proposed to study the propagation characteristics of different HBC channels. Specifically, the HBC channels, namely, the on-body to on-body (OB-OB)channel, on-body to in-body (OB-IB) channel, in-body to on-body (IB-OB) channel, and in-body to in-body (IB-IB)channel, are studied over different frequencies (from 1MHz to 100MHz) through numerical simulations with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results show that the gain of OB-IB channel and IB-OB channel is almost the same. The gain of IB-IB channel is greater than other channels in the frequency range 1MHz to 70MHz. In addition, the gain of all channels is associated with the channel length and communication frequency. The simulations are verified by experimental measurements in a porcine tissue sample. The results show that the simulations are in agreement with the measurements.

  11. Plantar flexor stretch reflex responses to whole body loading/unloading during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; van Doornik, Johannes; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    perturbation during human walking. Three body load conditions were investigated: normal body load, a 30% increase in body load, and a 30% decrease in body load. Healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at approximately 3.6 km/h with the left ankle attached to a portable stretching device. Dorsiflexion......Numerous animal and human studies have shown that afferent information from the periphery contributes to the control of walking. In particular, recent studies have consistently shown that load receptor input is an important element of the locomotion control mechanism. The objective of this study...... electrodes. Stretch reflex responses were observed in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles for all of the body load conditions; however, increasing or decreasing the body load did not affect the timing and magnitude of the responses. This study provides evidence that load receptor input does not contribute...

  12. Changes of blood flow velocity indicating mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries during rotation of the head in the normal human measured with transcranial Doppler sonography

    OpenAIRE

    Rossiti, Sandro; Volkmann, Reinhard

    1995-01-01

    The dynamical changes of blood flow velocity of the intracranial vertebral arteries (VA's) and proximal basilar artery (BA) provoked by rotation of the head in normal volunteers were measured using pulsed-wave transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD). In another group both VA's were examined simultaneously with 2-channel TCD. Blood flow velocities diminished compared to the neutral position in all vessels, independently of die side. Total obstruction of the flow was not observed. Our findings re...

  13. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax With Body Armor From a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human thorax with a protective body armor system so that the model can adequately determine the thorax's biodynamical response...

  14. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax with Body Armor from a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human thorax with a protective body armor system so that the model can adequately determine the thorax's biodynamical response...

  15. Ambulatory Sensing of the Dynamic interaction between the human body and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Schepers, H. Martin; Cooper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate power transfer between the human body and the environment during short interactions and relatively arbitrary movements with net displacement and varying loads (mass and spring), and appeared to be accurate within 4%.

  16. A Science and Technology Excursion-based Unit of Work: The Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Laura

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unit of work based on a few systems of the human body. Stretches students' learning beyond the classroom into the local community by going on an excursion to Kalgoorlie Regional Hospital. (ASK)

  17. Scaling of human body mass with height: the body mass index revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, N J

    2010-03-03

    We adapt a biomechanical argument of Rashevsky, which places limits on the stress experienced by a torso supported by the legs, to deduce that body mass m of growing children should scale as the p th power of height h with 7/3 < p < 8/3. Further arguments based on stability and heat loss suggest that p should be close to 8/3. The arguments are extended to suggest that waist circumference w should scale as hq with q near the lower end of 2/3 < or = q < or = 1. Data from Hong Kong and British children are consistent with these hypotheses. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cajal body number and nucleolar size correlate with the cell body mass in human sensory ganglia neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berciano, Maria T; Novell, Mariona; Villagra, Nuria T; Casafont, Iñigo; Bengoechea, Rocio; Val-Bernal, J Fernado; Lafarga, Miguel

    2007-06-01

    This paper studies the cell size-dependent organization of the nucleolus and Cajal bodies (CBs) in dissociated human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons from autopsy tissue samples of patients without neurological disease. The quantitative analysis of nucleoli with an anti-fibrillarin antibody showed that all neurons have only one nucleolus. However, the nucleolar volume and the number of fibrillar centers per nucleolus significantly increase as a function of cell body size. Immunostaining for coilin demonstrated the presence of numerous CBs in DRG neurons (up to 20 in large size neurons). The number of CBs per neuron correlated positively with the cell body volume. Light and electron microscopy immunocytochemical analysis revealed the concentration of coilin, snRNPs, SMN and fibrillarin in CBs of DRG neurons. CBs were frequently associated with the nucleolus, active chromatin domains and PML bodies, but not with telomeres. Our results support the view that the nucleolar volume and number of both fibrillar centers and CBs depend on the cell body mass, a parameter closely related to transcriptional and synaptic activity in mammalian neurons. Moreover, the unusual large number of CBs could facilitate the transfer of RNA processing components from CBs to nucleolar and nucleoplasmic sites of RNA processing.

  19. Value of recombinant human epidermal growth factor in corneal wound repair after corneal foreign body elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Jie Han

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the repair efficacy of recombinant human epidermal growth factor on corneal epithelium after corneal foreign body eliminating operation. METHODS: There were 102 patients with corneal foreign body(188 affected eyes)chosen for the study. All patients were divided into treatment group and control group according to the random number table. Both groups received corneal foreign body elimination by slit lamp. Postoperatively, the treatment group was given eye drops containing ep...

  20. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students' Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learnin...

  1. 1-D blood flow modelling in a running human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Viktor; Halász, Gábor

    2017-07-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to simulate blood flow in a mobile human arterial network, specifically, in a running human subject. In order to simulate the effect of motion, a previously published immobile 1-D model was modified by including an inertial force term into the momentum equation. To calculate inertial force, gait analysis was performed at different levels of speed. Our results show that motion has a significant effect on the amplitudes of the blood pressure and flow rate but the average values are not effected significantly.

  2. Contact-free determination of human body segment parameters by means of videometric image processing of an anthropomorphic body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatze, Herbert; Baca, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    The development of noninvasive techniques for the determination of biomechanical body segment parameters (volumes, masses, the three principal moments of inertia, the three local coordinates of the segmental mass centers, etc.) receives increasing attention from the medical sciences (e,.g., orthopaedic gait analysis), bioengineering, sport biomechanics, and the various space programs. In the present paper, a novel method is presented for determining body segment parameters rapidly and accurately. It is based on the video-image processing of four different body configurations and a finite mass-element human body model. The four video images of the subject in question are recorded against a black background, thus permitting the application of shape recognition procedures incorporating edge detection and calibration algorithms. In this way, a total of 181 object space dimensions of the subject's body segments can be reconstructed and used as anthropometric input data for the mathematical finite mass- element body model. The latter comprises 17 segments (abdomino-thoracic, head-neck, shoulders, upper arms, forearms, hands, abdomino-pelvic, thighs, lower legs, feet) and enables the user to compute all the required segment parameters for each of the 17 segments by means of the associated computer program. The hardware requirements are an IBM- compatible PC (1 MB memory) operating under MS-DOS or PC-DOS (Version 3.1 onwards) and incorporating a VGA-board with a feature connector for connecting it to a super video windows framegrabber board for which there must be available a 16-bit large slot. In addition, a VGA-monitor (50 - 70 Hz, horizontal scan rate at least 31.5 kHz), a common video camera and recorder, and a simple rectangular calibration frame are required. The advantage of the new method lies in its ease of application, its comparatively high accuracy, and in the rapid availability of the body segment parameters, which is particularly useful in clinical practice

  3. Psychological stress and body temperature changes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, D; Di Muro, A; Castrogiovanni, P

    1992-08-01

    We investigated the possible changes in body temperature, heart frequency, and blood pressure in 22 residents sitting for the yearly exam at the Specialty School of Psychiatry at Pisa University. All subjects were then evaluated 2 or 3 weeks later, in calm situations. In a subgroup, a specific plasmatic diazepam binding inhibitor (BBIA), previously described, was also measured. The results showed that all subjects underwent significant stress-related changes in the parameters studied, which suggest the involvement of different mechanisms in preexam stress.

  4. Automatic identification of inertial sensor placement on human body segments during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Baten, Christian T.M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel method for the automatic identification of inertial sensors on human body segments during walking. This method allows the user to place (wireless) inertial sensors on arbitrary body segments. Next, the user walks for just a few seconds and the segment to which each sensor is

  5. Ideas about the Human Body among Secondary Students in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granklint Enochson, Pernilla; Redfors, Andreas; Dempster, Edith R.; Tibell, Lena A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we focus on how South African students' ideas about the human body are constituted in their descriptions of three different scenarios involving the pathway of a sandwich, a painkiller and a glass of water through the body. In particular, we have studied the way in which the students transferred ideas between the sandwich and the…

  6. Cognitive Analysis of Chinese-English Metaphors of Animal and Human Body Part Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meiying

    2009-01-01

    Metaphorical cognition arises from the mapping of two conceptual domains onto each other. According to the "Anthropocentrism", people tend to know the world first by learning about their bodies including Apparatuses. Based on that, people begin to know the material world, and the human body part metaphorization emerges as the times…

  7. Coming to Know about the Body in Human Movement Studies Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, Valeria; Tinning, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how a group of undergraduate Human Movement Studies (HMS) students learnt to know about the body during their four-year academic programme at an Australian university. When students begin an undergraduate programme in HMS they bring with them particular constructions, ideas and beliefs about their own bodies and about the body…

  8. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (phantoms, despite good BMD and BMC agreement, did not detect substantial lean and fat differences observed using BBCP and in vivo assessments. Consequently, spine phantoms are inadequate for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry whole body composition cross-calibration. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. The Thermal Plume above a Standing Human Body Exposed to Different Air Distribution Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Li, Yuguo

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the impact of air distribution on the thermal plume above a human body in indoor environment. Three sets of measurements are conducted in a full-scale test room with different ventilation conditions. One breathing thermal manikin standing in the room is used to simulate...... the human body. Long-time average air velocity profiles at locations closely above the manikin are taken to identify the wandering thermal plume....

  10. Bacterial Community Variation in Human Body Habitats Across Space and Time

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Elizabeth K.; Lauber, Christian L.; Hamady, Micah; Fierer, Noah; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Knight, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Elucidating the biogeography of bacterial communities on the human body is critical for establishing healthy baselines from which to detect differences associated with diseases. To obtain an integrated view of the spatial and temporal distribution of the human microbiota, we surveyed bacteria from up to 27 sites in 7–9 healthy adults on four occasions. We found that community composition was determined primarily by body habitat. Within habitats, interpersonal variability was high, while indiv...

  11. Human cells lacking coilin and Cajal bodies are proficient in telomerase assembly, trafficking and telomere maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanlian; Deng, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Shuai; Hu, Qian; Liu, Haiying; Songyang, Zhou; Ma, Wenbin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The RNA component of human telomerase (hTR) localizes to Cajal bodies, and it has been proposed that Cajal bodies play a role in the assembly of telomerase holoenzyme and telomerase trafficking. Here, the role of Cajal bodies was examined in Human cells deficient of coilin (i.e. coilin-knockout (KO) cells), in which no Cajal bodies are detected. In coilin-KO cells, a normal level of telomerase activity is detected and interactions between core factors of holoenzyme are preserved, indicating that telomerase assembly occurs in the absence of Cajal bodies. Moreover, dispersed hTR aggregates and forms foci specifically during S and G2 phase in coilin-KO cells. Colocalization of these hTR foci with telomeres implies proper telomerase trafficking, independent of Cajal bodies. Therefore, telomerase adds similar numbers of TTAGGG repeats to telomeres in coilin-KO and controls cells. Overexpression of TPP1-OB-fold blocks cell cycle-dependent formation of hTR foci and inhibits telomere extension. These findings suggest that telomerase assembly, trafficking and extension occur with normal efficiency in Cajal bodies deficient human cells. Thus, Cajal bodies, as such, are not essential in these processes, although it remains possible that non-coilin components of Cajal bodies and/or telomere binding proteins (e.g. TPP1) do play roles in telomerase biogenesis and telomere homeostasis. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Osteomielitis vertebral piógena Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Perrotti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La osteomielitis vertebral piógena (OVP es una localización poco frecuente (2-7% Se confirma con el aislamiento de un microorganismo de una vértebra, disco intervertebral, absceso epidural o paravertebral. Se describe una serie de casos por la infrecuente presentación de esta enfermedad, que puede ser consulta inicial en los servicios de clínica médica y por su sintomatología inespecífica que supone una dificultad diagnóstica. Tanto la columna lumbar como la dorsal fueron los sitios más afectados. El dolor dorsolumbar y la paraparesia fueron los síntomas más frecuentes de presentación. En ocho pacientes se aislaron Staphylococcus aureus, en uno Escherichia coli y en el restante Haemophylus sp. Se observó leucocitosis sólo en tres pacientes, y en dos velocidad de sedimentación globular mayor de 100 mm/h. Los diez pacientes presentaron imágenes características de osteomielitis vertebral piógena en la resonancia nuclear magnética. Dentro de las complicaciones, los abscesos paravertebrales y epidurales fueron los más frecuentes (en cinco enfermos. Además, un paciente presentó empiema pleural. De los diez pacientes de esta serie, siete recibieron inicialmente tratamiento médico empírico y luego específico para el germen aislado. En los restantes el tratamiento fue guiado de acuerdo al antibiograma. A dos enfermos fue necesario realizarles laminectomía descompresiva por compromiso de partes blandas y a otros dos estabilización quirúrgica por inestabilidad espinal, observándose buena evolución en todos los casos. Esta serie demuestra que, ante un paciente con dolor dorsolumbar y síntomas neurológicos se deberá tener en cuenta esta entidad para evitar un retraso en el tratamiento.Pyogenic osteomyelitis seldom affects the spine (2-7%. It is diagnosed by the isolation of a bacterial agent in the vertebral body, the intervertebral disks or from paravertebral or epidural abscesses. We report a retrospective study of ten

  13. Body, thought, being-human and artificial intelligence: Merleau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus then shifts to Merleau-Ponty in order to demonstrate the remarkable extent to which his understanding of human embodiment and related issues such as perception and creativity, paved the way for the work of, among others, Lyotard, and anticipated the critique of artificial intelligence on the part of the latter.

  14. Automatic Identification of Inertial Sensors on the Human Body Segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    In the last few years, inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) in combination with magnetic sensors was proven to be a suitable ambulatory alternative to traditional human motion tracking systems based on optical position measurements. While accurate full 6 degrees of freedom information is

  15. Review-Research on the physical training model of human body based on HQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjie, Liu

    2016-11-01

    Health quotient (HQ) is the newest health culture and concept in the 21st century, and the analysis of the human body sports model is not enough mature at present, what's more, the purpose of this paper is to study the integration of the two subjects the health quotient and the sport model. This paper draws the conclusion that physical training and education in colleges and universities can improve the health quotient, and it will make students possess a more healthy body and mind. Then through a new rigid body model of sports to simulate the human physical exercise. After that this paper has an in-depth study on the dynamic model of the human body movement on the basis of establishing the matrix and equation. The simulation results of the human body bicycle riding and pole throwing show that the human body joint movement simulation can be realized and it has a certain operability as well. By means of such simulated calculation, we can come to a conclusion that the movement of the ankle joint, knee joint and hip joint's motion law and real motion are basically the same. So it further verify the accuracy of the motion model, which lay the foundation of other research movement model, also, the study of the movement model is an important method in the study of human health in the future.

  16. Simulation study on transient electric shock characteristics of human body under high voltage ac transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Zou, Yanhui; Lv, Jianhong; Yang, Jinchun; Tao, Li; Zhou, Jianfei

    2017-09-01

    Human body under high-voltage AC transmission lines will produce a certain induced voltage due to the electrostatic induction. When the human body contacts with some grounded objects, the charges transfer from the body to the ground and produce contact current which may cause transient electric shock. Using CDEGS and ATP/EMTP, the paper proposes a method for quantitatively calculating the transient electric shock characteristics. It calculates the human body voltage, discharge current and discharge energy under certain 500kV compact-type transmission lines and predicts the corresponding human feelings. The results show that the average root value of discharge current is less than 10mA when the human body is under the 500kV compact-type transmission lines and the human body is overall safe if the transmission lines satisfy the relevant design specifications. It concludes that the electric field strength above the ground should be limited to 4kV/m through the residential area for the purpose of reducing the electromagnetic impact.

  17. Quasi-static modeling of human limb for intra-body communications with experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Sio Hang; Gao, Yue Ming; Mak, PengUn; Vai, Mang I; Du, Min

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, the increasing number of wearable devices on human has been witnessed as a trend. These devices can serve for many purposes: personal entertainment, communication, emergency mission, health care supervision, delivery, etc. Sharing information among the devices scattered across the human body requires a body area network (BAN) and body sensor network (BSN). However, implementation of the BAN/BSN with the conventional wireless technologies cannot give optimal result. It is mainly because the high requirements of light weight, miniature, energy efficiency, security, and less electromagnetic interference greatly limit the resources available for the communication modules. The newly developed intra-body communication (IBC) can alleviate most of the mentioned problems. This technique, which employs the human body as a communication channel, could be an innovative networking method for sensors and devices on the human body. In order to encourage the research and development of the IBC, the authors are favorable to lay a better and more formal theoretical foundation on IBC. They propose a multilayer mathematical model using volume conductor theory for galvanic coupling IBC on a human limb with consideration on the inhomogeneous properties of human tissue. By introducing and checking with quasi-static approximation criteria, Maxwell's equations are decoupled and capacitance effect is included to the governing equation for further improvement. Finally, the accuracy and potential of the model are examined from both in vitro and in vivo experimental results.

  18. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V

  19. Domestic horses (Equus caballus) prefer to approach humans displaying a submissive body posture rather than a dominant body posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy Victoria; Wilson, Clara; McComb, Karen; Proops, Leanne

    2017-10-13

    Signals of dominance and submissiveness are central to conspecific communication in many species. For domestic animals, sensitivities to these signals in humans may also be beneficial. We presented domestic horses with a free choice between two unfamiliar humans, one adopting a submissive and the other a dominant body posture, with vocal and facial cues absent. Horses had previously been given food rewards by both human demonstrators, adopting neutral postures, to encourage approach behaviour. Across four counterbalanced test trials, horses showed a significant preference for approaching the submissive posture in both the first trial and across subsequent trials, and no individual subject showed an overall preference for dominant postures. There was no significant difference in latency to approach the two postures. This study provides novel evidence that domestic horses may spontaneously discriminate between, and attribute communicative significance to, human body postures of dominance; and further, that familiarity with the signaller is not a requirement for this response. These findings raise interesting questions about the plasticity of social signal perception across the species barrier.

  20. Scaling of free-ranging primate energetics with body mass predicts low energy expenditure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmen, Bruno; Darlu, Pierre; Hladik, Claude Marcel; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Studies of how a mammal's daily energy expenditure scales with its body mass suggest that humans, whether Westerners, agro-pastoralists, or hunter-gatherers, all have much lower energy expenditures for their body mass than other mammals. However, non-human primates also differ from other mammals in several life history traits suggestive of low energy use. Judging by field metabolic rates of free-ranging strepsirhine and haplorhine primates with different lifestyle and body mass, estimated using doubly labeled water, primates have lower energy expenditure than other similar-sized eutherian mammals. Daily energy expenditure in humans fell along the regression line of non-human primates. The results suggest that thrifty energy use could be an ancient strategy of primates. Although physical activity is a major component of energy balance, our results suggest a need to revise the basis for establishing norms of energy expenditure in modern humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 23Na-magnetic resonance imaging of the human lumbar vertebral discs: in vivo measurements at 3.0 T in healthy volunteers and patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneder, Stefan; Ong, Melissa M L; Budjan, Johannes M; Schmidt, René; Konstandin, Simon; Morelli, John N; Schad, Lothar R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Kerl, Ulrich H

    2014-07-01

    1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine can rule out common causes of low back pain (LBP), such as disc protrusions or nerve root compression; however, no significant causal relation exists between morphology and the extent of symptoms. Functional MRI techniques, such as 23Na, may provide additional information, allowing indirect assessment of vertebral glycosaminoglycan concentrations, decreases in which are associated with early degenerative changes. To evaluate 23Na-MRI of asymptomatic healthy volunteers and symptomatic patients with LPB and correlate the results to the Pfirrmann classification of MRI disc morphology. Retrospective cohort study at an academic medical center. Two groups were studied: (1) 55 healthy volunteers (31 men, 24 women; mean age 28.8 years) and (2) 12 patients (6 men, 6 women; mean age: 35.3 years) with a recent history of LBP. Lumbar spines of the aforementioned groups were examined on a 3.0 T MRI scanner with morphological 1H and 23Na imaging. Intervertebral disc (IVD) 23Na at each level was normalized (23Nanorm). Distribution and differences between mean 23Nanorm corresponding to each Pfirrmann classification were evaluated in the two study groups (analysis of variance). Linear correlations between 23Nanorm, body mass index (BMI), and age were assessed (Pearson correlation coefficient). Gender-dependent differences were evaluated (paired t test). Physiological measure: IVD 23Nanorm as determined by 23Na-MRI. A normal distribution of 23Nanorm was confirmed for both groups (p=.072 and p=.073, respectively). The mean Pfirrmann score statistically significantly differed between them (pvolunteers and patients (.469human IVDs and affirm, in a large cohort, decreases in 23Na IVD content

  2. Vision Influence on Whole-Body Human Vibration Comfort Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Maria Lúcia Machado; de Brito Pereira, Matheus

    2006-01-01

    The well being of people needs to be a priority in the modern world. In that respect, vibration cannot be one more cause of stress. Besides that, vibration comfort is very important, since high levels may cause health or even tasks' accomplishment problems. Several parameters may influence the levels of vibration a human being supports. Among them, one can mention the influence of gender, age, corporeal mass index (CMI), temperature, humor, anxiety, hearing, posture, vision, etc. The first th...

  3. Human Activity Recognition With Two Body-Worn Accelerometer Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hessen, Hans-Olav; Tessem, Astrid Johnsen

    2016-01-01

    Data used in studies about physical activity is primarily collected from questionnaires and other subjective methods, which may lead to biased and inaccurate data. As subjective data collection methods have shown to be unreliable, enhancing or even replacing these methods with objective methods like the use of wearable technology and human activity recognition (HAR) systems, will lead to more accurate data. HAR systems are systems that can recognize what kind of activity a subject is performi...

  4. The effect of grounding the human body on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Gaétan

    2015-04-01

    Earthing (grounding) refers to bringing the body in contact with the Earth. Health benefits were previously reported, but no study exists about mood. This study was conducted to assess if Earthing improves mood. 40 adult participants were either grounded or sham-grounded (no grounding) for 1 hr. while relaxing in a comfortable recliner chair equipped with a conductive pillow, mat, and patches connecting them to the ground. This pilot project was double-blinded and the Brief Mood Introspection Scale (comprising 4 mood scales) was used. Pleasant and positive moods statistically significantly improved among grounded-but not sham-grounded-participants. It is concluded that the 1-hr. contact with the Earth improved mood more than expected by relaxation alone. More extensive studies are, therefore, warranted.

  5. The human body and weightlessness operational effects, problems and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, William

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on all of the major problems associated with the absence of body weight in space, by analyzing effects, adaption, and re-adaptation upon returning to Earth, using sound scientific principles embedded in a historical context. Serious problems for space travelers range from Space Motion Sickness (SMS) to recently discovered ocular effects that may permanently impair vision. Fluid loss and shifts, spinal changes, and bone and muscle loss are also all results of weightlessness. Starting with a brief definition and history of weightlessness, the authors then address in detail each problem as well as the countermeasures aimed at alleviating them. In some cases, alternative hypotheses regarding what can and should be attempted are also presented. As plans for long-term missions to the Moon and Mars develop, it will be essential to find countermeasures to weightlessness that are effective for missions that could span years.

  6. Mission Opportunities for Human Exploration of Nearby Planetary Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    We characterize mission profiles for human expeditions to near-Earth asteroids, Venus, and Mars. Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are the closest destinations beyond cis-lunar space and present a compelling target with capabilities already under development by NASA and its partners. We present manned NEO mission options that would require between 90 days and one year. We next consider planetary flyby missions for Venus along the lines of plans that were first drafted during the Apollo program for human exploration of Venus. We also characterize a Mars flyby, and a double-flyby variant that would include close passes to both Venus and Mars. Finally, we consider orbital missions to Venus and Mars with capability for rendezvous with Phobos or Deimos. This would be a truly new class of mission for astronauts and could serve as a precursor to a human landing on Mars. We present launch opportunities, transit time, requisite {\\Delta}V, and approximate radiation environment parameters for each mission class. We find that {\\...

  7. Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouakaze Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations. This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia. Results High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. Conclusion We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today.

  8. Mineral oil paraffins in human body fat and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concin, Nicole; Hofstetter, Gerda; Plattner, Barbara; Tomovski, Caroline; Fiselier, Katell; Gerritzen, Kerstin; Fessler, Siegfried; Windbichler, Gudrun; Zeimet, Alain; Ulmer, Hanno; Siegl, Harald; Rieger, Karl; Concin, Hans; Grob, Koni

    2008-02-01

    Paraffins of mineral oil origin (mineral paraffins) were analyzed in tissue fat collected from 144 volunteers with Caesarean sections as well as in milk fat from days 4 and 20 after birth of the same women living in Austria. In the tissue samples, the composition of the mineral paraffins was largely identical and consisted of an unresolved mixture of iso- and cycloalkanes, in gas chromatographic retention times ranging from n-C(17) to n-C(32) and centered at n-C(23)/C(24). Since the mineral oil products we are exposed to range from much smaller to much higher molecular mass and may contain prominent n-alkanes, the contaminants in the tissue fat must be a residue from selective uptake, elimination by evaporation and metabolic degradation. Concentrations varied between 15 and 360 mg/kg fat, with an average of 60.7 mg/kg and a median of 52.5 mg/kg. Mineral paraffins might be the largest contaminant of our body, widely amounting to 1g per person and reaching 10 g in extreme cases. If food were the main source, exposure data would suggest the mineral paraffins being accumulated over many years or even lifetime. The milk samples of day 4 contained virtually the same mixture of mineral paraffins as the tissue fat at concentrations between 10 and 355 mg/kg (average, 44.6 mg/kg; median, 30 mg/kg). The fats from the day 20 milks contained paraffins (average, 21.7; median, 10mg/kg), whereby almost all elevated concentrations were linked with a modified composition, suggesting a new source, such as the use of breast salves. The contamination of the milk fat with mineral paraffins seems to decrease more rapidly than for other organic contaminants, and the transfer of mineral paraffins to the baby amounts to only around 1% of that in the body of the mother.

  9. Digitization of the human body in the present-day economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report on the historic development of human body digitization and on the actual state of commercially available technology. Complete systems for the digitization of the human body exist since more than ten years. One of the main users of this technology was the entertainment industry. Every new movie excited with attractive visual effects, but only few people knew that the most thrilling cuts were realized by using virtual persons. The faces and bodies of actors were digitized and the "virtual twin" replaced the actor in the movie. Nowadays, the state of the human body digitization is so high that it is not possible any more to distinguish the real actor from the virtual one. Indeed, for the rush technical development has to be thanked the movie industry, which was one of the strong economic motors for this technology. Today, with the possibility of a massive cost reduction given by new technologies, methods for digitization of the human body are used also in other fields of application, such as ergonomics, medical applications, computer games, biometry and anthropometrics. With the time, this technology becomes interesting also for sport, fitness, fashion and beauty. A large expansion of human body digitization is expected in the near future. To date, different technologies are used commercially for the measurement of the human body. They can be divided into three distinguished groups: laser-scanning, projection of light patterns, combination modeling and image processing. The different solutions have strengths and weaknesses that profile their suitability for specific applications. This paper gives an overview of their differences and characteristics and expresses clues for the selection of the adequate method. Practical examples of commercial exploitation of human body digitization are also presented and new interesting perspectives are introduced.

  10. Comparison of forced-air warming systems with lower body blankets using a copper manikin of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, A; English, M J M; Lorenz, N; Steinmetz, N; Perl, T; Braun, U; Weyland, W

    2003-01-01

    Forced-air warming has gained high acceptance as a measure for the prevention of intraoperative hypothermia. However, data on heat transfer with lower body blankets are not yet available. This study was conducted to determine the heat transfer efficacy of six complete lower body warming systems. Heat transfer of forced-air warmers can be described as follows:[1]Qdot;=h.DeltaT.A where Qdot; = heat transfer [W], h = heat exchange coefficient [W m-2 degrees C-1], DeltaT = temperature gradient between blanket and surface [ degrees C], A = covered area [m2]. We tested the following forced-air warmers in a previously validated copper manikin of the human body: (1) Bair Hugger and lower body blanket (Augustine Medical Inc., Eden Prairie, MN); (2) Thermacare and lower body blanket (Gaymar Industries, Orchard Park, NY); (3) WarmAir and lower body blanket (Cincinnati Sub-Zero Products, Cincinnati, OH); (4) Warm-Gard(R) and lower body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB, Upplands Väsby, Sweden); (5) Warm-Gard and reusable lower body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB); and (6) WarmTouch and lower body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc., St. Luis, MO). Heat flux and surface temperature were measured with 16 calibrated heat flux transducers. Blanket temperature was measured using 16 thermocouples. DeltaT was varied between -10 and +10 degrees C and h was determined by a linear regression analysis as the slope of DeltaT vs. heat flux. Mean DeltaT was determined for surface temperatures between 36 and 38 degrees C, because similar mean skin temperatures have been found in volunteers. The area covered by the blankets was estimated to be 0.54 m2. Heat transfer from the blanket to the manikin was different for surface temperatures between 36 degrees C and 38 degrees C. At a surface temperature of 36 degrees C the heat transfer was higher (between 13.4 W to 18.3 W) than at surface temperatures of 38 degrees C (8-11.5 W). The highest heat transfer was delivered by the Thermacare system (8.3-18.3 W), the

  11. Prótesis de cuerpo vertebral JR: dispositivo modular, anatómico y expandible, con función de jaula y placa diseñada ad hoc para estabilizar la columna después de corpectomía Prótese do corpo vertebral JR: dispositivo modular, anatômico e expansível, com função de jaula e placa desenhada ad hoc para estabilizar a coluna depois da corpectomia JR vertebral body prosthesis: a modular, anatomical and expandable device, with cage function and plate dual designed ad hoc for spine stabilization after corpectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Ramírez Jiménez

    2009-06-01

    função de jaula e placa separadamente, uma vez que o desenho da prótese permite aplicar força axial e fixação lateral ao mesmo tempo, por meio de um só implante. Os resultados da colocação do implante no paciente foram satisfatórios.INTRODUCTION: due to the unsatisfactory results obtained with posterior instrumentations in cases of vertebral tumors and to the economical limitations of our patients for acquiring the systems available in the market, a vertebral body prosthesis to stabilize the spine after corpectomy was designed. OBJECTIVE: to describe the structural and functional characteristics of the JR prosthesis, the biomechanical assays in cadaver and the surgical technique on the patient. METHODS: firstly, it was performed a detailed anatomical study of the vertebral bodies. A design of a modular, anatomical and expandable device was obtained. Its components once assembled make an implant with expandable cage and plate dual function. Afterwards, a biomechanical assay was performed in a cadaver and the device was implanted in a patient with vertebral body metastasis. RESULTS: the radiographs extracted from the cadaver after implant location did not show loss of fixation. When the cadaver was raised, flexion moments were generated laterally with levers 80 cm long; therefore, the prosthesis was demanded in its most vulnerable point with a force of approximately 588 N. With rotation, flexion and extensions forced, stability was preserved and no movement was observed. The device was implanted in a 50-year-old woman with metastatic thyroid cancer affecting L3. Pain improved in the postoperative immediate, as well as its motor function, which allowed her to walk with a stable and painless spine for seven years. No implant failure was observed. CONCLUSION: the dual cage function and plate integrated in a single device offers a mechanical advantage, compared with the cages and plates used separately, since the prosthesis design permits to apply a distraction

  12. Delayed coupling theory of vertebrate segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli, Luis G.; Ares, Saúl; Herrgen, Leah; Schröter, Christian; Jülicher, Frank; Andrew C. Oates

    2008-01-01

    Rhythmic and sequential subdivision of the elongating vertebrate embryonic body axis into morphological somites is controlled by an oscillating multicellular genetic network termed the segmentation clock. This clock operates in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), generating dynamic stripe patterns of oscillatory gene-expression across the field of PSM cells. How these spatial patterns, the clock’s collective period, and the underlying cellular-level interactions are related is not understood. A th...

  13. Vertebral involvement in SAPHO syndrome: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, A.; Cardinal, E.; Bureau, N.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Sainte-Marie, L.G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Milette, F. [Department of Pathology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    1999-03-01

    We report on the MRI findings in the vertebrae and surrounding soft tissues in two patients with the SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis). The MRI findings include abnormal bone marrow signal, either focal or diffuse, of the vertebral bodies and posterior elements; hyperintense paravertebral soft tissue swelling and abnormal signal of the intervertebral discs. These changes are consistent with discitis and osteitis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 17 refs.

  14. Image metaphors in Serbian and English: From fruit and vegetables to human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Dragana M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with some of the image metaphors which are encoded in lexemes themselves, i.e. Serbian and English (standard names for different kinds of fruit and vegetables; moreover, these are repeated metaphors since the perceived similarities between two different entities 'belong' either to the whole language community or some of its groups. The study includes both dead and living metaphors, as well as old and newly-created ones, mostly in slang. The domain of human body, subdivided into parts of the body, body fluids, and changes on/in the body, is the only target domain observed.

  15. Current Applications of Chromatographic Methods in the Study of Human Body Fluids for Diagnosing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwik, Jagoda; Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, analysis of various human body fluids is one of the most essential and promising appro