Sample records for human vas deferens

  1. MR visualization of vas deferens

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    Manabe, Tomoko; Kaji, Yasushi; Maeda, Takaki; Kitamura, Yuri; Fujii, Masahiko; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine


    The pelvic MRI studies of 140 male patients were reviewed to evaluate the extent of the depiction of the vas deferens. These MRI examinations were originally intended for the evaluation of other pelvic parts, and therefore the vas deferens was fully assessable in only 101 cases. For convenience, the vas deferens was divided into seven segments. A letter was then assigned to each segment, starting from the ampulla (A) to the internal inguinal canal (G). The depiction rates for the different segments were 100%, 96%, 82.2%, 76.2%, 64.4%, 54.5% and 43.6% for A through G respectively. The diameter of the vas deferens was also measured, yielding the following results: segment A=5.9{+-}1.4 mm, B=4.3{+-}1.1 mm, C=3.2{+-}0.9 mm, D=2.5{+-}0.8 mm, E=2.0{+-}0.6 mm, F=1.8{+-}0.8 mm, and G=1.6{+-}0.4 mm. There were no significant differences in age, underlying disease, and treatment of the patients in the study. When looking at the relationship between the diameter and the T{sub 2}-weighted signal intensity, we found that the larger the diameter the higher the signal. We assume from this that larger diameters reflect the internal liquid signal intensity, while small diameters seem to indicate the vas deferens wall signal intensity. We believe that MR imaging can depict the vas deferens in its physiological state. In this study however, it was not possible to evaluate this structure for abnormalities. If the resolution MR imaging increases, diagnosis concerning vas deferens may become possible. (author)

  2. Micro-endoscopy of the human vas deferens: a feasibility study of a novel device in several ex vivo models. (United States)

    Trottmann, M; Sroka, R; Braun, C; Liedl, B; Schaaf, H; Graw, M; Becker, A J; Stief, C G; Khoder, W Y


    The aim of this study was to show limitation as well as potential of micro-endoscopy techniques as an innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approach in andrology. Two kinds of custom-made micro-endoscopes (ME) were tested in ex vivo vas deferens specimen and in post-mortem whole body. The semi-rigid ME included a micro-optic (0.9 mm outer diameter [OD], 10.000 pixels, 120° vision angle [VE], 3-20 mm field depth [FD]) and an integrated fibre-optic light source. The flexible ME was composed of a micro-optic (OD = 0.6 mm, 6.000 pixels, 120° VE, 3-20 mm FD). The ex vivo study included retrograde investigation of the vas deferens (surgical specimen n = 9, radical prostatectomy n = 3). The post-mortem investigation (n = 4) included the inspection of the vas deferens via both approaches. The results showed that antegrade and retrograde rigid endoscopy of the vas deferens were achieved as a diagnostic tool. The working channel enabled therapeutic use including biopsies or baskets. Using the flexible ME, the orifices of the ejaculatory ducts were identified. In vivo cadaveric retrograde cannulation of the orifices was successful. Post-mortem changes of verumontanum hindered the examinations beyond. Orifices were identified shaded behind a thin transparent membrane. Antegrade vasoscopy using flexible ME was possible up to the internal inguinal ring. Further advancement was impossible because of anatomical angle and lack adequate vision guidance. The vas deferens interior was clearly visible and was documented by pictures and movies. Altogether, the described ME techniques were feasible and effective, offering the potential of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for use in the genital tract. Several innovative indications could be expected. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  3. Ureteral Obstruction by the Vas Deferens after Urostomy

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    Subramanian Vaidyanathan


    Full Text Available A male patient with spina bifida and paraplegia, born in 1968, underwent urostomy in 1973. In 1999, he developed urine infections. Intravenous urography showed bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter. This patient continued to get recurrent urine infections. In 2009, computed tomography of the abdomen revealed dilatation of the ureters, but the ureters reverted to normal calibre as they passed forward through the anterior abdominal wall. The vas deferens on either side was crossing and kinking the ureter. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen confirmed that the level of obstruction in both ureters was at the site where the vas deferens crossed the ureter and kinked it. While performing urostomy, the ureters below the crossover by the vas deferens were detached from the bladder and attached to the skin for urinary diversion, thus causing the vas deferens to hook the lower end of the ureters. As the patient gained height and weight, thereby increasing abdominal girth, kinking of the ureters by the vas deferens was accentuated. In hindsight, bilateral midline cutaneous urostomy using the ureters below the crossover by the vas deferens represents a poor surgical technique for urinary diversion.

  4. Role of Ca2+-activated K+ channels and Na+-K+-ATPase in prostaglandin E1- and E2-induced inhibition of the adrenergic response in human vas deferens


    Medina Bessó, Pascual; Segarra Irles, Gloria Vicenta; Mauricio Aviñó, María Dolores; Vila Salinas, José María; Chuan Nuez, Pascual; Lluch López, Salvador


    Abstract We studied the role of K+ channels and Na+,K+-ATPase in the presynaptic inhibitory effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and PGE2 on the adrenergic responses of human vas deferens. Furthermore, we determined the effects of increasing extracellular K+ concentrations ([K+]o) and inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase on neurogenic and norepinephrine -induced contractile responses. Ring segments of the epididymal part of the vas deferens were taken from 45 elective vasectomies and mounted ...

  5. A case of congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens

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    Mo B


    Full Text Available Bi Mo,1 Vishnu Garla,2 Lawrence M Wyner1 1Department of Surgery, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA Background: Congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens occurs in 0.5%–1.0% of males. It has been associated with various genitourinary abnormalities, including renal agenesis. We report a case of congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens found incidentally during vasectomy in a patient with known unilateral renal agenesis. Case presentation: A 24-year-old male presented to our urology clinic requesting vasectomy. His past history was significant for left renal agenesis. Following successful right vasectomy, several attempts to locate the left vas deferens were unsuccessful. We diagnosed congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens. Follow-up semen analysis showed azoospermia. Conclusion: As vasectomies are increasingly performed in outpatient settings, it is imperative that physicians be aware of this condition, which can be recognized by a simple physical exam. Recognition could prevent unnecessary surgery and prompt providers to investigate for associated abnormalities. Keywords: vas deferens, embryology, abnormalities, surgery

  6. Ureteral Obstruction by the Vas Deferens after Urostomy


    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Hughes, Peter L.; Soni, Bakul M.; Singh, Gurpreet


    A male patient with spina bifida and paraplegia, born in 1968, underwent urostomy in 1973. In 1999, he developed urine infections. Intravenous urography showed bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter. This patient continued to get recurrent urine infections. In 2009, computed tomography of the abdomen revealed dilatation of the ureters, but the ureters reverted to normal calibre as they passed forward through the anterior abdominal wall. The vas deferens on either side was crossing and kinki...

  7. Interpositional substitution of free vas deferens segment autografts in rat: feasibility and potential implications


    Kadioglu, Teoman Cem; Temple-Smith, Peter D; Southwick, Graeme


    Background Insufficient vas length for performing a tension-free vasovasostomy is a problem occasionally encountered by microsurgeons. Herein we evaluated utilization of a non-vascularized vas deferens autograft in a rat model. Methods Segments of isolated vas deferens, 2.5 cm in length, were used as bilateral autografts in 15 rats. Each autograft was implanted between the two transected ends of vas deferens using end-to-end anastomosis. Fertility, sperm motility, and graft survival was evalu...

  8. Vas deferens and penis development in the imposex-exhibiting female rock shell, Thais clavigera. (United States)

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Jeong-Chae; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Shiraishi, Hiroaki


    The characteristics of the development of male genitalia (penis and vas deferens) in imposex-exhibiting female rock shells, Thais clavigera, were histologically examined using specimens from a wild population and tributyltin (TBT)-exposed females in the laboratory. A variety of vas deferens morphogenesis patterns were observed in wild female T. clavigera, and the characteristics were summarized. The immature vas deferens at an initial stage, however, was only observed beneath or behind the penis, and no vas deferens was observed close to the vaginal opening (i.e., vulva) of the capsule gland in TBT-exposed females, which was different from the characteristics of vas deferens formation observed in wild females. Taking into consideration both the observed results from wild female specimens and from TBT-exposed females in the laboratory, the vas deferens sequence (VDS) index for T. clavigera was proposed as VDS 1-6. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of capsaicin induced responses in mice vas deferens

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    Sheykhzade, Majid; Gupta, Saurabh; Sørensen, Tinne


    -depth in isolated preparations. The present study sets out to study and characterize the capsaicin as well as CGRP-induced responses in isolated mouse vas deferens. The effects of capsaicin and CGRP family of peptides were studied on electrically-induced twitch responses in the absence or presence of transient...... receptor potential cation channel vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) antagonist and CGRP receptor antagonists. Twitch responses were attenuated by capsaicin (1nM-30nM) and CGRP family of peptides. The potency order was CGRP>intermedin-long (IMDL)~[Cys(Et)(2,7)]aCGRP~adrenomedullin (AM)>[Cys(ACM)(2,7)]a......CGRP>amylin (AMY). These responses were disinhibited by the CGRP receptor antagonists and TRPV1 antagonists. The addition of CGRP receptor antagonists caused a transient potentiation of the twitch response and this potentiation was blocked by pretreatment with capsaicin and enhanced by incubation with exogenous...

  10. Duplicate Vas Deferens Encountered during Inguinal Hernia Repair: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Maxwell C. Breitinger


    Full Text Available Duplication of the vas deferens is a rare anomaly, defined as the presence of two distinct vasa deferentia within one spermatic cord, with only 28 cases reported worldwide since 1959. We report the case of a 63-year-old man with a duplicate vas deferens, presenting with abdominal pain from bowel obstruction secondary to incarcerated inguinal hernia. Spermatic cord dissection during hernioplasty revealed duplication of the vas deferens within the right spermatic cord. Doppler ultrasonography confirmed absence of waveforms in both vasa deferentia with arterial signal in the accompanying vessel. The hernia was repaired without complication. This report emphasizes recognition of duplicate vas deferens in avoiding iatrogenic injury and optimizing surgical outcome.

  11. Luminal fluid of epididymis and vas deferens contributes to sperm chromatin fragmentation. (United States)

    Gawecka, Joanna E; Boaz, Segal; Kasperson, Kay; Nguyen, Hieu; Evenson, Donald P; Ward, W Steven


    Do the luminal fluids of the epididymis and the vas deferens contribute to sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) in mice? The luminal fluids of both organs are required for activating SCF in mice, but the vas deferens luminal fluid does this more efficiently than that of the epididymis. Mice sperm have the ability to degrade their DNA in an apoptotic-like fashion when treated with divalent cations in a process termed SCF. SCF has two steps: the induction of reversible double-strand DNA breaks at the nuclear matrix attachment sites, followed by the irreversible degradation of DNA by nuclease. Single stranded DNA breaks accompany SCF. Luminal fluids from two reproductive organs of the mouse (B6D2F1 strain), the epididymis and vas deferens, were extracted and tested for SCF activation with divalent cations using four different combinations of the sperm and the surrounding luminal fluids: (i) in situ--sperm were kept in their luminal fluid and activated directly; (ii) reconstituted--sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in their luminal fluid before SCF activation; (iii) mixed--sperm were centrifuged and resuspended in the luminal fluid of the other organ; (iv) no luminal fluid--sperm were centrifuged and reconstituted in buffer. All four experiments were performed without (controls) and with divalent cations (resulting in SCF). For each experimental condition, two different mice were used and the analyses averaged. DNA damage by SCF was analyzed by three different methods, the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis and field inversion gel electrophoresis. In all three assays that we used, the vas deferens luminal fluid was much more efficient in stimulating SCF in the sperm from either source than that of the epididymis (P sperm were capable of initiating lower levels of SCF in the absence of luminal fluid (P sperm during their transit providing a mechanism to degrade the DNA. We

  12. Hypoosmotic swelling test in alpaca (Vicugna pacos spermatozoa recovered the vas deferens

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    Quispe HA


    Full Text Available The study objective was to evaluate the endosmotic reaction in 5 hypoosmotic solutions 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 mOsm/l (HOS test incubated 5 and 15 minutes using alpaca sperm recovered the vas deferens. We used 5 male alpacas with the vas deferens surgically diverted, recovering sperm 10 times for each animal; the microscopic characteristics were evaluated with ISAS®. Information’s hipoosmotic test was analyzed with a factorial arrangement in a random one-way model, the correlation between endosmosis and percentages of motility and vitality was analyzed with Spearman correlation. There were no significant differences (p>0,05 in incubation times; highly significant differences (p 0,05was found to endosmosis with percentages of sperm motility and vitality; in conclusion, a 125 mOsm/l solution with 5 minutes of incubation is sufficient to perform the hipoosmotic test in alpaca spermatozoa recovered the vas deferens.

  13. Noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens, in vivo (United States)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Jarow, Jonathan P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.


    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications (incision, bleeding, infection, and scrotal pain) and result in a more popular procedure. This study builds upon previously reported ex vivo tissue studies by exploring acute and short-term chronic in vivo canine studies. Isolation of the canine vas was achieved using a conventional vas ring clamp method. No perforation of the scrotal skin was necessary to occlude the vas. Laser radiation with a wavelength of 1075 nm, average power of 11.2 W, 500-ms pulse duration, 0.5 Hz pulse rate, and 3-mm-diameter spot was synchronized with cryogen spray cooling of the scrotal skin surface in a total of 8 dogs (n = 16 vasa) for a treatment time of 60 s. Burst pressure measurements were conducted at Days 0 and 21 (n = 8 vasa each day) to quantify the strength of vas closure. The vas was successfully thermally occluded in 15/16 (94%) procedures with 14/15 (93%) vas recording burst pressures above ejaculation pressure. One vas was not present, and another vas recorded a bursting pressure below ejaculation pressure. The coagulated vas bursting pressure averaged 283 +/- 34 mm Hg at Day 0 and 260 +/- 77 mm Hg at Day 21, significantly higher than reported vas ejaculation pressures of 136 +/- 29 mm Hg. Minor scrotal skin burns were observed during the recovery period. Noninvasive thermal occlusion of the vas is feasible in an in vivo canine model. Elimination of minor skin burns and longer term chronic in vivo canine studies are needed to confirm azospermia after vas occlusion without recanalization.

  14. Proteomic analysis of androgen-regulated protein expression in a mouse fetal vas deferens cell line

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    A. Umar (Arzu); T.M. Luider (Theo); C.A. Berrevoets (Cor); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)


    textabstractDuring sex differentiation, androgens are essential for development of the male genital tract. The Wolffian duct is an androgen-sensitive target tissue that develops into the epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicle. The present study aimed to identify

  15. Transverse testicular ectopia with a blind ending vas deferens

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    Anjan Kumar Dhua


    Full Text Available Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is an uncommon anomaly of testicular descent. Herein, we describe a case of TTE with blindly ending vas and persistent Mόllerian duct syndrome in a 2-year-old child. Orchidopexy could be done through the normal orthotopic route after separating it from the Mόllerian structure and dividing the peritoneal fold just distal to the blindly ending vas. The report highlights that laparoscopy is useful for identifying subtle anomalies in addition to its therapeutic role.

  16. Congenital absence of vas deferens and ectopic kidney

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    Alobaidi Salwan


    Conclusion: Congenital absence of the vas deference is a unique clinical entity due to its great association with a large variety of urogenital abnormalities, we present this case to stress the importance of including scrotal examination in the routine physical exam to reduce the late diagnosis of such abnormality and it associated comorbidities.

  17. Circadian rhythm of glycoprotein secretion in the vas deferens of the moth, Spodoptera littoralis

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    Gvakharia B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive systems of male moths contain circadian clocks, which time the release of sperm bundles from the testis to the upper vas deferens (UVD and their subsequent transfer from the UVD to the seminal vesicles. Sperm bundles are released from the testis in the evening and are retained in the vas deferens lumen overnight before being transferred to the seminal vesicles. The biological significance of periodic sperm retention in the UVD lumen is not understood. In this study we asked whether there are circadian rhythms in the UVD that are correlated with sperm retention. Results We investigated the carbohydrate-rich material present in the UVD wall and lumen during the daily cycle of sperm release using the periodic acid-Shiff reaction (PAS. Males raised in 16:8 light-dark cycles (LD showed a clear rhythm in the levels of PAS-positive granules in the apical portion of the UVD epithelium. The peak of granule accumulation occurred in the middle of the night and coincided with the maximum presence of sperm bundles in the UVD lumen. These rhythms persisted in constant darkness (DD, indicating that they have circadian nature. They were abolished, however, in constant light (LL resulting in random patterns of PAS-positive material in the UVD wall. Gel-separation of the UVD homogenates from LD moths followed by detection of carbohydrates on blots revealed daily rhythms in the abundance of specific glycoproteins in the wall and lumen of the UVD. Conclusion Secretory activity of the vas deferens epithelium is regulated by the circadian clock. Daily rhythms in accumulation and secretion of several glycoproteins are co-ordinated with periodic retention of sperm in the vas deferens lumen.

  18. Effects of long-term fluoxetine treatment on adrenergic plasticity in rat vas deferens

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    Cláudio Fontes Souza


    Full Text Available Chronic antidepressant administration increases neurotrophin levels in the central and peripheral nervous system, leading to an increase of neuronal sprouting, reestablishment of neural networks and neurotransmitter levels. Injured peripheral nerves regenerate at very slow rates. However, the recovery of the hypogastric nerve in rodents after injury is significantly improved with neurotrophin administration. Accordingly, our goal was to determine whether treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine affects catecholamine levels and neuronal function, after surgical denervation of the rat vas deferens. Noradrenaline levels in the denervated vas deferens were higher in fluoxetine-treated animals than in the vehicle-treated group, as measured by high performance liquid chromatography. In functional studies of smooth muscle contraction, the responses induced by phenylephrine or ATP, as well as pre-synaptic α2-adrenoceptor reactivity, were not modified by chronic treatment with the antidepressant. However, the contraction mediated by neuronal release of noradrenaline induced by tyramine was increased on days 7 and 21 after denervation in rats treated with fluoxetine. These data indicate that fluoxetine can improve functional recovery after rat vas deferens denervation.

  19. Testis and vas deferens morphology of the red-clawed mangrove tree crab (Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803

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    Garcia Tatiane Martins


    Full Text Available The present study describes the structure of the testes and vas deferens of the red-clawed mangrove tree crab, Goniopsis cruentata. Testes and vas deferens were fixed with cold Bouin's solution and submitted to histological routine examinations. Light microscopy showed the testis to be divided into three regions: anterior, containing the germinal zone; intermediary, including the collecting duct; and posterior. The vas deferens, which was continuous with the testes, could be divided into two regions: one corresponding to the expansions and another lined by cubical epithelium, collagenous fibers and a circular layer of muscle cells and containing the androgenic gland. Spermatophores were observed in both vas deferens regions suggesting that they participated in the maturation of the spermatozoids preparing the male functionally for fertilization.

  20. Three finger palpation technique of vas deferens for keyhole vasectomy in spotted (Axis axis) and sambar deer (Cervus unicolor)

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    .... A study was conducted to capture, neuter and release the deer with minimal hospitalization and stress by adopting three finger palpation technique of vas deferens and performing vasectomy through a key-hole incision...

  1. Three finger palpation technique of vas deferens for keyhole vasectomy in spotted (Axis axis and sambar deer (Cervus unicolor

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    B. J. William


    Full Text Available Aim: Vasectomy is performed in deer for population control, maintain pedigreed animals and prevent inbreeding. Conventional procedure of vasectomy required a long-term anesthesia and longer duration of hospitalization, which often result in stress, morbidity and mortality. A study was conducted to capture, neuter and release the deer with minimal hospitalization and stress by adopting three finger palpation technique of vas deferens and performing vasectomy through a key-hole incision. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on three spotted male deer and three sambar male deer, which were immobilized with a mixture of xylazine at the dose of 1.00 mg/kg and ketamine at the dose of 5.00 mg/kg. The vas deferens could be palpated as a piece of cooked spaghetti at the neck of the scrotum on the anterior aspect by three finger palpation technique and was able to fix the vas deferens between the thumb and middle finger. Through a key-hole incision of <5 mm length, the vas deferens was exteriorized and resected using electrocautery and the skin incision was sealed with methyl methacrylate. The deer were released on the same day, and no post-operative complication was noticed. Conclusion: The study revealed that three finger palpation technique of vas deferens provided guidance for easy access to vas deferens for vasectomy in deer with less hospitalization, and the deer could be released on the same day.

  2. Mitigating effects of Jambul against lead induced toxicity in epididymis and vas deferens of mice

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    Tahir Abbas


    Full Text Available Background: Precious fruits like jambul are neglected and wasted while environmental pollutants like lead intake remain overlooked. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Jambul pulp extract on lead detrimental effects in pseudostratified epithelium and the stereocilia of mice epididymis and vas deferens. Materials and Methods: Thirty young males mice (Mus musculus were distributed randomly in 3 groups (n= 10 called control, Pb (Lead and Pb-J (Lead-Jambul. The Pb and Pb-J were provided 50ppm Pb in drinking water ad libitum for 15 days and Pb free water for the next 5 days. The Pb-J group received 0.2ml jambul pulp extract on 12 hourly bases. Control group was not given any treatment. Organs (epididymis and vas deference were recovered on 21st day after euthanasia. The organs were finally processed for histological and micrometric studies. Results: Marked histologic and micrometric changes in both organs were noted in Pb group. These include significant (P ≤ 0.05 decrease in cross sectional area of caput and cauda epididymis folding tubing along with evident alterations of their endothelial thickness. Prominent signs of apoptosis (vacuolations in the corpus pseudostratified endothelium and the destruction of stereocilia of the epididymis and vas deferens in Pb compared to control group were observed. Evident signs of recovery, in both organs, such as proliferation and rearrangements in pseudostratified endothelium and the stereocilia along with convincing recovery in micrometric parameters were observed in Pb-J group. Conclusion: The results indicate that epididymis and vas deferens are highly sensitive to Pb exposure while Jambul pulp extract has shown rich mitigating potentials against such histopathologies.

  3. Action of pro-opiomelanocortin products on the rat vas deferens. (United States)

    Smock, T


    Behavioral study of pro-opiomelanocortin products indicates that beta-endorphin and corticotrophin-like peptides have antagonistic effects. However, these peptides have similar actions on the rat vas deferens. beta-endorphin, alpha-MSH and ACTH each inhibit electrically evoked contraction of the duct, but the corticotrophin derived peptides are tenfold more potent on a molar basis (ED50 = 9 nM). Pharmacological analysis shows that the action of corticotrophin-derived peptides does not involve an opiate receptor mechanism. The results are discussed in terms of the central action of the peptides.

  4. Effects of in vitro, acute and chronic treatment with fluoxetine on the sympathetic neurotransmission of rat vas deferens. (United States)

    Pedroso, Shaista Poppe; de Souza, Bruno Palmieri; Jurkiewicz, Aron; Juriewicz, Neide H; da Silva Junior, Edilson Dantas


    It is described that fluoxetine treatment is able to induce ejaculatory disorders. However, the exact mechanism is still not fully understood. Therefore, this study was carried out to further evaluate the anti-ejaculatory effects of fluoxetine, using different approaches (in vitro or in vivo treatments), on the sympathetic neurotransmission of the rat vas deferens. Vas deferens from male Wistar rats were used to check the in vitro effects of fluoxetine 10(-6)M, 3.10(-6)M or 10(-5)M. Animals were also acutely (20mg/kg, i.p. 4h or 24h) or chronically (10mg/kg, i.p., 30days) treated with fluoxetine or drug-free vehicle. The vas deferens from non-treated and treated animals were isolated and mounted in an isolated organ bath for the study of the contractions induced by adrenergic agonists, tyramine, 5-HT, Ca(2+) or electrical field stimulation. In vitro or acute treatment with fluoxetine decreased the contraction induced by agonists, Ca(2+) or electrical field stimulation. The chronic treatment with fluoxetine decreased the contractions induced agonists, tyramine or Ca(2+), but did not modify the contractions induced by electrical field stimulation. We have shown that in vitro or in vivo fluoxetine treatment is able to alter the sympathetic neurotransmission of the rat vas deferens which could be related to alterations in the calcium signalling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Excitatory effect of a new polypeptide (anthopleurin-B) from sea anemone on the guinea-pig vas deferens. (United States)

    Norton, T. R.; Ohizumi, Y.; Shibata, S.


    1 Anthopleurin-B (AP-B, greater than 3 x 10(-9) M), a newly isolated polypeptide from sea anemone (Anthopleura xanthogrammica), caused powerful rhythmic contractions in the guinea-pig isolated vas deferens. The other polypeptides anthopleurin-A from A. xanthogrammica and anthopleurin-C from A. elegantissima, elicited similar effects but in higher concentrations ( less than 5 x 10(-8) M). Toxin II (10(-6) M) isolated from the sea anemone, Anemonia sulcata, had no effect. 2 The rhythmic contractions induced by AP-B were inhibited by phentolamine, bretylium, guanethidine, reserpine, 6-hydroxydopamine, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and verapamil. Mecamylamine, atropine, methysergide, chlorpheniramine, and indomethacin had no effect. 3 AP-B (10(-8) M approximately 10(-5) M) caused a dose-dependent increase in the amount of endogenous noradrenaline (NA) released from the vas deferens. AP-B (10-5M) increased the amount of NA released to approximately 310 times (12 micrograms/g tissue) that of untreated tissues. 4 The AP-B-induced release of NA was inhibited or abolished by TTX, verapamil, or incubation in Ca-free medium. 5 These results suggest that the AP-B-induced rhythmic contraction of the vas deferens is mediated through the release of NA from adrenergic nerve endings; AP-B is one of the most potent substances in stimulating NA release from the vas deferens. PMID:7272600

  6. Correlation between CFTR gene mutations in Iranian men with congenital absence of the vas deferens and anatomical genital phenotype. (United States)

    Radpour, Ramin; Gourabi, Hamid; Gilani, Mohamad Ali Sadighi; Dizaj, Ahmad Vosough


    Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) and congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens (CUAVD) are 2 causes of male sterility; these phenotypes are found in 1%-2% of men investigated for infertility and approximately 10% of men with azoospermia. To study the correlation between genital phenotype and cystic fibrosis genotype in men lacking at least 1 vas deferens, we evaluated the role of different CFTR gene mutations in the morphologic genital phenotype of 119 infertile men with bilateral or unilateral absence of the vas deferens (112 CBAVD and 7 CUAVD patients). Renal, scrotal, and transrectal ultrasonography were systematically performed. CFTR mutations and (TG)m(T)n polymorphism were analyzed, and epididymal and seminal vesicular abnormalities and testicular volume were compared among men with 2, 1, or no CFTR gene mutation, with or without the 5T allele. Our results showed that patients with CBAVD and renal agenesis have the same reproductive tract abnormalities as those with CUAVD, and reproductive tract abnormalities were independent of the subtypes of CFTR genotype in patients with absence of the vas deferens and CFTR gene mutations. Seminal vesicles did not differ between patients with or without CFTR gene mutation, but epididymal abnormalities were more frequent in CBAVD men without the mutation. Low testicular volume was observed in CBAVD men without the CFTR and IVS8-5T mutations, so we can hypothesize that a testicular factor (genetic or environmental) rather than CFTR gene mutations plays a role in determining the phenotype. Further studies using common diagnostic criteria are required to confirm our observations.

  7. Sperm analysis of the vas deferens fluid after a long interval of unilateral percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration in vasectomized patients

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    Fernando Lorenzini


    Full Text Available Objectives Evaluation of the presence of spermatozoa in vas deferens fluid after a long interval of unilateral and homolateral percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA in vasectomized men. When found, the spermatozoa were evaluated including concentration and motility, in order to verify the patency of the epididymal tubules. Materials and Methods Four patients, numbered in a progressive order, from one to four, with 38, 40, 48 and 51 years old and vasectomy interval of 10, 10, 25 and 11 years, respectively, whose wives did not get pregnant using intracytoplasmic sperm injection of sperm obtained by unilateral PESA and decided to try only natural conception, were submitted to intrasurgical sperm analysis of the vas deferens fluid (ISAVDF during microsurgery for reconstruction of the seminal tract. Results Time interval between PESA and ISAVDF was 13.75 ± 11.12 months (x ± s varying from 3 to 29 months. Homolateral ISAVDF and PESA showed the presence of spermatozoa. Patients 1, 2 and 4 had a high concentration of 10 x 106, 64 x 106 and 45 x 106 spermatozoa/ mL; the first two had motile sperms and patient 3 had no sperms. Conclusions Three of four patients showed spermatozoa in the vas deferens fluid after a long interval of unilateral and homolateral PESA with high concentration, including motile forms. These findings support the concept that PESA may not result in late epipidymal tubule obstruction in vasectomized patients.

  8. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of opiates in the rat vas deferens: a dual mechanism of opiate action. (United States)

    Jacquet, Y F


    Both natural (-)-morphine and its unnatural enantiomer (+)-morphine exert an excitatory action on electrically stimulated contractions of rat vas deferens. Preexposure to (-)-morphine results in cross-tolerance to the inhibitory action of beta-endorphin. (-)-Naloxone and its stereoisomer (+)-naloxone also exert an excitatory action, but only (-)-naloxone bocks the inhibtory action of beta-endorphin. Thus morphine exerts a dual action on a peripheral organ: one an inhibitory action mediated by the stereospecific endorphin receptor that is blocked stereospecifically by naloxone, the other an excitatory action mediated by a nonstereospecific receptor that is not blocked by naloxone. The opiate abstinence syndrome is seen as due to the unmasking of the excitatory action of opiates when its concomitant inhibitory influence is removed by selective blockade by naloxone or weakened by selective tolerance. The view that the rat vas deferens is devoid of morphine receptors is now seen as arising from a reverse example of morphine's dual action: the masking of the inhibitory action of morphine by its concomitant and more potent excitatory action.

  9. An inhibition of post-ganglionic motor transmission in the mammalian vas deferens by D-lysergic acid diethylamide. (United States)

    Ambache, N; Dunk, L P; Verney, J; Zar, M A


    1. Under certain conditions D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 10(-9)-10(-6) g/ml., exerted an immediate, prolonged and slowly reversible inhibitory effect upon the post-ganglionic motor transmission in desheathed guinea-pig vas deferens preparations.2. The most critical factor influencing this action of LSD appeared to be the train length. With short trains of less than 4 or 5 pulses the twitch inhibition produced by LSD was often total. With longer trains (5-20 pulses), the degree of inhibition declined with increase in train length. These results suggest the existence of two components in the motor response to post-ganglionic stimulation, distinguished by their susceptibility to LSD.3. The inhibition of the LSD-susceptible component was related to the dose of LSD in the range 10(-9)-10(-6) g/ml., reaching a maximum at 0.5-1 x 10(-6) g/ml. The response remnants elicited by trains of more than 5 pulses under these conditions could not be reduced further by a ten- to twenty-fold increase in LSD concentration to 10(-5) g/ml. and were in fact slightly potentiated.4. The inhibition of post-ganglionic motor transmission by LSD was not explicable on the basis of an alpha-adrenoceptor blockade because it was not associated with any reduction in motor responses to noradrenaline.5. The use of propranolol excluded mediation of the LSD-inhibition by beta-adrenoceptors.6. The LSD effect was not due to a non-specific smooth muscle depression because it was not associated with any reduction in motor responses to acetylcholine, ATP or bradykinin.7. The inhibitory effect of LSD on post-ganglionic transmission resembled that of noradrenaline in that it was antagonized by phentolamine; another alpha-adrenoceptor blocking agent, phenoxybenzamine, was less effective than phentolamine in this respect.8. The LSD-inhibition was obtained in preparations taken from reserpinized guinea-pigs.9. The inhibition of motor transmission in the vas deferens by LSD was confirmed in rats, Meriones

  10. An inhibition of post-ganglionic motor transmission in the mammalian vas deferens by D-lysergic acid diethylamide (United States)

    Ambache, N.; Dunk, Linda P.; Verney, J.; Zar, M. Aboo


    1. Under certain conditions D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 10-9-10-6 g/ml., exerted an immediate, prolonged and slowly reversible inhibitory effect upon the post-ganglionic motor transmission in desheathed guinea-pig vas deferens preparations. 2. The most critical factor influencing this action of LSD appeared to be the train length. With short trains of less than 4 or 5 pulses the twitch inhibition produced by LSD was often total. With longer trains (5-20 pulses), the degree of inhibition declined with increase in train length. These results suggest the existence of two components in the motor response to post-ganglionic stimulation, distinguished by their susceptibility to LSD. 3. The inhibition of the LSD-susceptible component was related to the dose of LSD in the range 10-9-10-6 g/ml., reaching a maximum at 0·5-1 × 10-6 g/ml. The response remnants elicited by trains of more than 5 pulses under these conditions could not be reduced further by a ten- to twenty-fold increase in LSD concentration to 10-5 g/ml. and were in fact slightly potentiated. 4. The inhibition of post-ganglionic motor transmission by LSD was not explicable on the basis of an α-adrenoceptor blockade because it was not associated with any reduction in motor responses to noradrenaline. 5. The use of propranolol excluded mediation of the LSD-inhibition by β-adrenoceptors. 6. The LSD effect was not due to a non-specific smooth muscle depression because it was not associated with any reduction in motor responses to acetylcholine, ATP or bradykinin. 7. The inhibitory effect of LSD on post-ganglionic transmission resembled that of noradrenaline in that it was antagonized by phentolamine; another α-adrenoceptor blocking agent, phenoxybenzamine, was less effective than phentolamine in this respect. 8. The LSD-inhibition was obtained in preparations taken from reserpinized guinea-pigs. 9. The inhibition of motor transmission in the vas deferens by LSD was confirmed in rats, Meriones shawii and

  11. Seasonal reproductive activity and innervation of vas deferens and accessory male genital glands in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    G. Paino


    Full Text Available Autonomic nerves supplying mammalian male internal genital organs have an important role in the regulation of reproductive function. To find out the relationships between the neurochemical content of these nerves and the reproductive activity, we performed an immunohistochemical study in a species, the water buffalo, exhibiting a seasonal sexual behaviour. The distribution of noradrenergic and peptide-containing nerves was evaluated during the mating (autumn-winter and non-mating (spring-summer periods. During the mating period, a dense noradrenergic innervation was observed to supply the vas deferens as well as the accessory genital glands. Peptide-containing nerves were also observed but with a lower density. During the non-mating period noradrenergic nerves dramatically reduced. These results suggest that there is a neuro-endocrine interaction between androgen hormones and the autonomic nerve supply in the regulation of male water buffalo reproductive functions.

  12. Rat vas deferens SERCA2 is modulated by Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation

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    Rodriguez, J.B.R.; Muzi-Filho, H. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, R.H.F. [Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Quintas, L.E.M. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Noel, F. [Programa de Desenvolvimento de Fármacos, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Einicker-Lamas, M. [Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Biologia Estrutural e Bioimagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, V.M.N. [Programa de Farmacologia e Inflamação, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Ca{sup 2+} pumps are important players in smooth muscle contraction. Nevertheless, little information is available about these pumps in the vas deferens. We have determined which subtype of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase isoform (SERCA) is expressed in rat vas deferens (RVD) and its modulation by calmodulin (CaM)-dependent mechanisms. The thapsigargin-sensitive Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase from a membrane fraction containing the highest SERCA levels in the RVD homogenate has the same molecular mass (∼115 kDa) as that of SERCA2 from the rat cerebellum. It has a very high affinity for Ca{sup 2+} (Ca{sub 0.5} = 780 nM) and a low sensitivity to vanadate (IC{sub 50} = 41 µM). These facts indicate that SERCA2 is present in the RVD. Immunoblotting for CaM and Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) showed the expression of these two regulatory proteins. Ca{sup 2+} and CaM increased serine-phosphorylated residues of the 115-kDa protein, indicating the involvement of CaMKII in the regulatory phosphorylation of SERCA2. Phosphorylation is accompanied by an 8-fold increase of thapsigargin-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} accumulation in the lumen of vesicles derived from these membranes. These data establish that SERCA2 in the RVD is modulated by Ca{sup 2+} and CaM, possibly via CaMKII, in a process that results in stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} pumping activity.

  13. [Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens: From diagnosis to assisted reproductive techniques - the experience of three centers]. (United States)

    Beauvillard, D; Perrin, A; Drapier, H; Ravel, C; Fréour, T; Férec, C; De Braekeleer, M; Amice, V


    To review the management with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) of men with congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD), associated with cystic fibrosis or not, after surgical retrieval [epididymal aspiration (MESA) or testicular biopsy (TESE)]. Multicenter retrospective study made of 2 groups: CBAVD and cystic fibrosis (CF) or CBAVD only (CF-RD). Two centers performed MESA (Brest and Nantes) and one TESE (Rennes). Sperm numeration, motility, vitality, morphology and nuclear maturity were measured in both centers performing MESA. Fertilization rate (TF) and cumulated progressive pregnancy rate by retrieved oocyte (TGC) were compared between centers following ART. Ninety patients underwent surgical retrieval between January 1996 and March 2013, 30 in the CF group and 60 in the CF-RD group. Semen parameters were comparable between groups and centers. Fifty-eight (22 in the CF group and 36 in the CF-RD group) patients received ART between April 1996 and October 2014. TF was 50% and 52% and TGC 26% and 32% in the CF group and CF-RD groups, respectively. The results did not differ between groups but TGC was higher in Rennes than in the other two centers. Both semen parameters and ART results are comparable and similar to those reported in the literature. As shown by the results obtained in Rennes, TESE seems to be more effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrastructural aspects of spermatogenesis, testes, and vas deferens in the parthenogenetic tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), a carp parasite from Slovakia. (United States)

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Nebesářová, Jana; Oros, Mikuláš


    Spermatogenesis, testes, and vas deferens in the parthenogenetic monozoic tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) from Slovakia, parasitizing the carp Cyprinus carpio L., have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy for the first time. The present results show that helminths with parthenogenetic and normal reproduction may share some common spermatology features, e.g., dense cytoplasm of the peripherally localized spermatogonia or a rosette type of spermatogenesis. In contrast to tapeworms with normal reproduction, the most prominent ultrastructural characteristic of the spermatocytes of A. huronensis is fragmentation of their nuclei. This clear feature of cell degeneration might be a consequence of the aberrant first meiotic division. Peripheral cortical microtubules and a single centriole, indicators of the ongoing spermiogenesis, were observed only very rarely in the early spermatids. Characteristics of normal spermiogenesis, i.e., apical dense material in the zone of differentiation in early stages of spermiogenesis, flagellar rotation, and proximo-distal fusion, were never found in the present study. The testes follicles are surrounded by a thin cytoplasmic sheath underlined by a basal lamina. Vas deferens is lined by flat epithelium with numerous surface lamellae and cilia. Mature, functional spermatozoa were not observed in the vas deferens of A. huronensis from Slovakia.

  15. Exogenous 17beta-estradiol blocks alpha and mu but not pi class glutathione S-transferase immunoreactivity in epithelium of Syrian hamster vas deferens. (United States)

    Hudson, C E; DeHaven, J E; Schulte, B A; Norris, J S


    Members of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family of detoxification enzymes play a role in chemotherapy resistance in certain cancers but have not been directly implicated as agents whose absence may predispose tissues to hormonally induced tumorigenesis. Here we report the development of a polyclonal antiserum to a hamster mu class GST, and immunohistochemical analysis of alpha, mu, and pi class GSTs to study the effects of hormone treatment on their expression in reproductive tract tissues of male golden Syrian hamsters. These animals develop leiomyosarcomas in the vas deferens after treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) and 17beta-estradiol (E2). High levels of all three GST classes were detected throughout the reproductive tract epithelium of control animals. In 100% of the experimental animals, 4 weeks of treatment either with E2 alone, or with E2 plus TP promoted a complete loss of immunostaining for alpha and mu class GSTs, but not for pi class GSTs, only in the epithelial lining of the vas deferens. In contrast, treatment with TP alone resulted in moderate hyperplasia of smooth muscle in the proximal vas deferens, with no cellular atypia and no changes in immunoreactivity of any of the GST classes. The consistent and site-specific nature of these results strongly suggests a functional role for GSTs in hormonally induced carcinogenic process. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:91-98, 1999)

  16. The effects of lysergic acid diethylamide on the response to field stimulation of the rat vas deferens and the rat and cat anococcygeus muscles. (United States)

    Gillespie, J S; McGrath, J C


    1. The effect of lysergic acid diethylamid (LSD) on the response to field stimulation in vitro of the rat vas deferens and anococcygeus muscle was examined. 2. LSD in concentrations from 10(-9) to 10(-6) M caused an increase in tone or rhythmic activity in both tissues, effects identical to those produced by guanethidine or tyramine. The motor effects of all three drugs were abolished by phentolamine 2 x 10(-6) M. Methysergide 2 x 10(-7) M given before LSD reduced the motor effect but was ineffective once the LSD contraction had developed. 3. LSD 10(-9) to 10(-6) M reduced and eventually abolished the response to motor adrenergic nerve stimulation in the anococcygeus muscle with no effect on the response to noradrenaline (NA) and no evidence of differential sensitivity according to the number of stimulating pulses. In the vas deferens LSD abolished the initial twitch component with no effect on the secondary slow contraction. LSD had no effect on the response to inhibitory nerve stimulation in the anococcygeus. 4. These results suggest that in the anococcygeus LSD closely resembles guanethidine in its effects as an adrenergic neurone blocking drug with indirect sympathomimetic actions. In the vas deferens these properties would explain the block of the initial twitch component in the motor response to field stimulation and the increase in rhythmic activity but do not explain the resistance of the secondary slow component of the motor response.

  17. Heterogeneous spectrum of mutations in CFTR gene from Indian patients with congenital absence of the vas deferens and their association with cystic fibrosis genetic modifiers. (United States)

    Sharma, H; Mavuduru, R S; Singh, S K; Prasad, R


    CAVD. Moreover, this is the first study from the Indian population to investigate the association of CF genetic modifiers with penetrance of the CAVD phenotype. The observed association of the genetic modifiers TGF-β1 and EDNRA in the penetrance of CAVD further supports their involvement in genesis of the vas deferens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  18. Intermittent ATP release from nerve terminals elicits focal smooth muscle Ca2+ transients in mouse vas deferens (United States)

    Brain, Keith L; Jackson, V Margaret; Trout, Stephen J; Cunnane, Thomas C


    A confocal Ca2+ imaging technique has been used to detect ATP release from individual sympathetic varicosities on the same nerve terminal branch. Varicose nerve terminals and smooth muscle cells in mouse vas deferens were loaded with the Ca2+ indicator Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1. Field (nerve) stimulation evoked discrete, focal increases in [Ca2+] in smooth muscle cells adjacent to identified varicosities. These focal increases in [Ca2+] have been termed ‘neuroeffector Ca2+ transients’ (NCTs). NCTs were abolished by α,β-methylene ATP (1 μM), but not by nifedipine (1 μM) or prazosin (100 nm), suggesting that NCTs are generated by Ca2+ influx through P2X receptors without a detectable contribution from L-type Ca2+ channels or α1-adrenoceptor-mediated pathways. Action potential-evoked ATP release was highly intermittent (mean probability 0.019 ± 0.002; range 0.001-0.10) at 1 Hz stimulation, even though there was no failure of action potential propagation in the nerve terminals. Twenty-eight per cent of varicosities failed to release transmitter following more than 500 stimuli. Spontaneous ATP release was very infrequent (0.0014 Hz). No Ca2+ transient attributable to noradrenaline release was detected even in response to 5 Hz stimulation. There was evidence of local noradrenaline release as the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine increased the probability of occurrence of NCTs by 55 ± 21 % during trains of stimuli at 1 Hz. Frequency-dependent facilitation preferentially occurred at low probability release sites. The monitoring of NCTs now allows transmitter release to be detected simultaneously from each functional varicosity on an identified nerve terminal branch on an impulse-to-impulse basis. PMID:12068045

  19. Is aphallic vas deferens development in females related to the distance from organotin sources? A study with Stramonita haemastoma. (United States)

    Toste, R; Pessoa, I A; Dore, M P; Parahyba, M A; Fernandez, M A


    Imposex, a syndrome characterized by the appearance of a penis and/or vas deferens in female gastropods due the presence of organotins in environment, is still observed in Brazilian gastropod populations, as in other countries, even after the tributyltin (TBT) ban. Nevertheless, the progressive controls on the use of organotins in antifouling systems at national and international levels and the consequent reduction of their environmental concentrations have led to changes in the characteristics of imposex development observed in Stramonita haemastoma. Populations of this species were analyzed on the coast of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) between 2007 and 2008, and the developmental pathways associated with the syndrome were identified. Compared with previous works, it was noted that imposex expression was reduced in most of Guanabara Bay. Aphallic imposex development, on the other hand, showed a marked increase. The pathways of imposex development were also evaluated in a temporal data series from a fixed sampling station at Vermelha beach, and the incidence of aphallic imposex development was found to show a marked increase from 1998 onward. Furthermore, the observation of either the presence or absence of a penis in imposex-affected females may indicate that penis development is related to the contaminant exposure level and that the decreasing TBT concentrations in the local environment result in the predominance of an aphallic route of imposex development. These findings support the idea that imposex female aphally in this species could be a dose-dependent response, rather than a genetic anomaly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanisms involved in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-induced neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerve terminals in the mouse vas deferens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian J Williams

    Full Text Available Prejunctional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs amplify postganglionic sympathetic neurotransmission, and there are indications that intraterminal Ca(2+ stores might be involved. However, the mechanisms by which nAChR activation stimulates neurotransmitter release at such junctions is unknown. Rapid local delivery (picospritzing of the nAChR agonist epibatidine was combined with intracellular sharp microelectrode recording to monitor spontaneous and field-stimulation-evoked neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerve terminals in the mouse isolated vas deferens. Locally applied epibatidine (1 µM produced 'epibatidine-induced depolarisations' (EIDs that were similar in shape to spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (SEJPs and were abolished by nonselective nAChR antagonists and the purinergic desensitizing agonist α,β-methylene ATP. The amplitude distribution of EIDs was only slightly shifted towards lower amplitudes by the selective α7 nAChR antagonists α-bungarotoxin and methyllcaconitine, the voltage-gated Na(+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin or by blocking voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels with Cd(2+. Lowering the extracellular Ca(2+ concentration reduced the frequency of EIDs by 69%, but more surprisingly, the Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release blocker ryanodine greatly decreased the amplitude (by 41% and the frequency of EIDs by 36%. Ryanodine had no effect on electrically-evoked neurotransmitter release, paired-pulse facilitation, SEJP frequency, SEJP amplitude or SEJP amplitude distribution. These results show that activation of non-α7 nAChRs on sympathetic postganglionic nerve terminals induces high-amplitude junctional potentials that are argued to represent multipacketed neurotransmitter release synchronized by intraterminal Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release, triggered by Ca(2+ influx directly through the nAChR. This nAChR-induced neurotransmitter release can be targeted pharmacologically without affecting spontaneous or electrically

  1. pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan for receptors stimulated by neuronally released transmitter in the epididymal portion of rat isolated vas deferens.


    Mackay, D; Kengatharan, M


    1. A new method has been used to measure pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan against neuronally-released transmitter in the epididymal portion of the rat isolated vas deferens. The most reproducible results were obtained with a prolonged antagonist equilibration time (1 h). 2. Under these conditions the pKI of prazosin was practically unaffected by addition of alpha, beta-methylene-adenosine-5'-triphosphate (10 microM) to desensitize purinoceptors. Addition of desmethylimipramine (DMI) (0.3 m...

  2. Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study. (United States)

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin


    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC.

  3. CFTR Mutation Analysis of a Caucasian Father with Congenital Bilateral Absence of Vas Deferens, a Taiwanese Mother, and Twins Resulting from ICSI Procedure

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    Han-Sun Chiang


    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF, caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene, is one of the most common autosomal recessive diseases in Caucasians. We screened for the CFTR gene mutation in a Caucasian father with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD, a Taiwanese mother, and twins resulting from an intracytoplasmic single sperm injection (ICSI procedure. DNA fragments that showed abnormal banding patterns on temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis analysis followed by analysis of DNA sequence was used. The Caucasian father with CBAVD had ΔF508 and p.L375F mutations. The two children were heterozygous for the ΔF508 and p.L375F mutations, respectively. Mutation analysis of the CFTR gene should always be recommended for infertile couples seeking ICSI. The possibility of the children resulting from ICSI being a victim or carrier of CBAVD or CF, especially when the father is Caucasian with CBAVD, should be discussed during genetic counseling.

  4. pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan for receptors stimulated by neuronally released transmitter in the epididymal portion of rat isolated vas deferens. (United States)

    Mackay, D; Kengatharan, M


    1. A new method has been used to measure pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan against neuronally-released transmitter in the epididymal portion of the rat isolated vas deferens. The most reproducible results were obtained with a prolonged antagonist equilibration time (1 h). 2. Under these conditions the pKI of prazosin was practically unaffected by addition of alpha, beta-methylene-adenosine-5'-triphosphate (10 microM) to desensitize purinoceptors. Addition of desmethylimipramine (DMI) (0.3 microM) produced a small, but statistically non-significant, reduction. 3. The same method has been used to measure the pKI of prazosin against exogenous noradrenaline. In the latter case addition of DMI (0.3 microM) and corticosterone (30 microM) together produced a statistically significant reduction in the apparent pKI of prazosin. 4. The new method for estimating pKI values shows that DMI itself acts either pseudo-irreversibly or non-competitively and may be reducing the apparent pKI of prazosin. 5. The pKI values obtained for prazosin and idazoxan against neuronally-released transmitter are in good agreement with those obtained by other workers for the actions of these drugs on alpha-adrenoceptors.

  5. Intraoperative Retrograde Perfusion Sphincterometry to Evaluate Efficacy of Autologous Vas Deferens 6-Branch Suburethral Sling to Properly Restore Sphincteric Apparatus During Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy. (United States)

    Cestari, Andrea; Soranna, Davide; Zanni, Giuseppe; Zambon, Antonella; Zanoni, Matteo; Sangalli, Mattia; Ghezzi, Massimo; Fabbri, Fabio; Sozzi, Francesco; Dell'Acqua, Vincenzo; Rigatti, Patrizio


    The aim of this study is to describe (urodynamically) the effect of the use of a 6-branch autologous suburethral sling, made with absorbable sutures and vas deferens, to support the bladder neck and urethra during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) to improve early urinary continence (EUC) recovery. Retrograde leak point pressure (RLPP) was intraoperatively evaluated, by means of retrograde perfusion sphincterometry (RPS), in 77 patients (mean age ± standard deviation [SD]: 65.64 ± 7.23 years, mean body mass index ± SD: 26.69 ± 3.89) scheduled to undergo RALP at our institution. RLPP was evaluated before (RLPPb) and after pneumoperitoneum induction (RLPPp). RLPP was then evaluated after urethrovesical anastomosis (RLPPa) and after proper sling tensioning (RLPPs), with the aim to obtain the same pressure as after pneumoperitoneum induction. EUC recovery, defined as the use of no pad, was assessed 10 days, 30 days, and 6 months after catheter removal. RPS and proper autologous 6-branch sling positioning were feasible in all patients, without perioperative complications and negligible impact on overall operative time. Pneumoperitoneum induction increased, similarly, RLPP in all patients. An important decrease of sphincteric capability was evident after prostate removal and the following urethrovesical anastomosis, while proper sling tensioning allowed for restoration of sphincteric apparatus capability to its presurgical status (mean RLPPs 40.84 cmH2O vs RLPPp 40.39 cmH2O, p = 0.942). EUC recovery within 10 days after catheter removal was achieved in 59 (77%) patients and progressively improved over time. RPS, intraoperatively performed during RALP, allows for precise evaluation of the impact of the surgical procedure on sphincteric apparatus competence. Moreover, the use of the 6-branch suburethral sling, in association with RPS, allows for restoration of the proper supporting system to the urethral sphincter, similar to the

  6. Mutations in CFTR gene and clinical correlation in Argentine patients with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens Correlación de las características clínicas con mutaciones del gen CFTR en pacientes argentinos con ausencia bilateral congénita de vasos deferentes

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    Estrella M Levy


    Full Text Available Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD is a form of male infertility in which mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene have been identified. Here we identify different mutations of CFTR and the poly-T variant of intron 8 (IVS8 in Argentine patients and analyze sweat test values and clinical characteristic related to Cystic Fibrosis (CF. For counseling purposes the two most frequent mutations in Argentine CF population: DF508 and G542X were screened in wives. In all cases, it was possible to reduce the risk of CF/CBAVD descendants in these couples because none of the mutation were found in the 36 samples. Eight patients (23% showed abnormal chloride values (> 60 mmol/l. A second group of 6 patients (18% had borderline values of sweat chloride (40-59 mmol/l. We defined another group with 6 patients (18%, with normal sweat chloride levels (30-39 mmo/l and a fourth group of 14 (41% patients with sweat chloride below 30 mmol/l. DF508, the most frequent CF mutation in the Argentine population, was found on 15 of the 72 chromosomes (21%, R117H mutation was detected on 2 of 62 chromosomes (3%. Only one R347P allele was found on 28 chromosomes analyzed (2%. On a sample of 27 patients, IVS8 analysis showed a frequency of 6/56 chromosomes (11% of 5T allele. Even though these findings present an improvement in the detection of mutations related to clinical correlations in Argentine CBAVD population, the search for other common and uncommon mutations should be continued.La ausencia bilateral congénita de vasos deferentes (CBAVD es una forma de infertilidad masculina en la que se han identificado mutaciones en el gen de la conductancia transmembrana de la fibrosis quística (CFTR. Hemos estudiado en pacientes argentinos diferentes mutaciones en el CFTR y la variante poli T del intron 8 (IVS8 y analizado los valores de test del sudor y las características clínicas relacionadas a la Fibrosis Qu

  7. Vas deferens invasion: A neglected issue in the sampling of radical prostatectomy materials (United States)

    Yigit, Nuri; Karslioglu, Yildirim; Kurt, Bulent


    A radical prostatectomy affects the prostate, bilateral seminal vesicles (SV), and the distal parts of the bilateral vasa deferentia (VD). SV invasion (SVI) is associated with an increased risk of lymph node metastasis and recurrence. However, the significance of VD invasion (VDI), either with or without the involvement of their surgical margins, has not been fully appreciated. We think VDI might have an independent prognostic significance, as does SVI, and should be incorporated into the pathology guidelines and the staging systems of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Our case illustrates this. PMID:25210563

  8. Galectin-3 Is Associated with Prostasomes in Human Semen


    Jennifer L. Jones; Saraswati, Sarika; Block, Ashley S.; Lichti, Cheryl F.; Mahadevan, Maha; Diekman, Alan B.


    Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside-binding protein involved in immunomodulation, cell interactions, cancer progression, and pathogenesis of infectious organisms. We report the identification and characterization of galectin-3 in human semen. In the male reproductive tract, the ~30 kDa galectin-3 protein was identified in testis, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, seminal vesicle, and sperm protein extracts. In seminal plasma, galectin-3 was identified in the soluble fraction and in prostasomes, c...

  9. NASA's AVE/VAS program (United States)

    Hill, C. K.; Turner, R. E.


    A discussion is presented concerning the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE) which was conducted during the spring of 1982 as part of NASA's Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) demonstration. The AVE/VAS Ground Truth Field Experiment is examined in detail, which comprised the obtaining of rawinsonde observations during various meteorological conditions on four different days when VAS data were obtained. These experiments were performed over 24 hr periods in a mesoscale network of 24 National Weather Service rawinsonde sites and 13 NASA and NOAA special sites. The VAS, operating as a part of the GOES satellite system, was employed to provide two-dimensional cloud mapping capability during each of the AVE/VAS experiment periods. Among the goals of this AVE/VAS program, in addition to management of the acquisition and processing of the data, were to perform the research and development needed to produce data products from VAS radiances, to validate the data, and to assess the impact of the data on mesoscale meteorological forecasting and research requirements.

  10. Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD): Possible correlation between cystic fibrosis (CF) genotype and antisperm antibodies (ASA) phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupchick, G.S. [Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)]|[UniGen, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vazquez-Levin, M.H. [UniGen, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nagler, H.M. [Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)


    A large number of CBAVD patients have been found to carry at least one known CF mutation. Several of these individuals have been shown to be compound heterozygotes. It is likely that most CBAVD cases represent the milder end of the CF spectrum. However, in a given CBAVD patient with no known mutations found (within current screening capabilities), it is not possible to conclude a CF relationship. Since CBAVD patients have been successfully treated for infertility with epididymal aspiration techniques, there are reproductive and clinical implications regarding CF. We have studied seven CBAVD patients (P{sub 1}-P{sub 7}) with regards to presence and levels of ASA and their CF genotypes. An indirect immunobead binding test was used to measure ASA. ASA were found in 5/7 (71%) patients studied. High levels of IgG binding to sperm tail-tip were found in two cases (P{sub 2}, P{sub 4}); IgG binding to all sperm regions and IgA binding to sperm head were found in one case (P{sub 5}); IgM binding to tail-tip was found in two cases (P{sub 1}, P{sub 3}). Three patients (P{sub 1}, P{sub 3}, P{sub 4}) had a {triangle}F308 / ? and two (P{sub 2}, P{sub 5}) a W1282X / ? genotype. Interestingly, the two patients with no known mutation found (P{sub 6}, P{sub 7}) had negative ASA. The study of more patients could yield ASA as a potential indirect marker for relatedness of CBAVD to CF gene mutations.

  11. AVE/VAS experiment: Ground truth network (United States)

    Scoggins, J. R.


    The visible/infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) atmospheric sounder (VAS) rawinsonde field program is discussed. Specific items covered include: planning, personnel requirements and training, operational requirement and procedures, sounding times and dates, methods of data processing, data inventory, and status of data processing.

  12. AVE/VAS experiment: Synoptic summary and preliminary results (United States)

    Jedlovec, G. J.


    The AVE/VAS ground truth field experiment was conducted during the Spring of 1982 severe storms and weather research program. The experiment consisted of acquiring correlative ground truth measurements of rawinsonde data, corresponding to the time and space resolutions of VAS sounding data. The objectives of the AVE/VAS experiment are: (1) to acquire four dimensional data sets of the actual atmospheric structure down to the mesoscale; (2) to provide measurements for quantitative comparisons between ground based and VAS-derived atmospheric parameters; (3) to evaluate the impact of VAS data on diagnostic analysis of structural features and dynamical processes important to the development of mesoscale phenomena; (4) to evaluate the impact of VAS data on numerical model simulations, nowcasting, and other mesoscale forecasting systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In contrast to female sterilisation in India, a very less percentage of the couples opt for male sterilisation. This is in spite of male sterilisation being a shorter, simpler procedure fraught with lesser complications, having a shorter recovery time and has less failure rate. The barriers to adoption of male sterilisation in India are profound with reasons ranging from unfounded fears among males characterising vasectomy with physical weakness, loss of virility, manhood and inability to enjoy intercourse. The aim of the study is to compare the effectiveness of No-scalpel vasectomy (NSV with fascial interposition of the stumps of vas with non-interposition MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in the family planning unit of the Department of O & G, Govt. Medical College, Kottayam. The period of study was one year from November 2015 to October 2016. The number of vasectomies during this period was 46. Acceptors posted for vasectomy were divided into 2 groups on a one-to-one basis. Hence, 22 were without fascial interposition and 24 with fascial interposition of the stumps of vas. After the vas is excised to 1 cm, the ligature of the testicular end is cut. The cut ends are passed into the scrotum. The uncut ligature of the prostatic end is pulled out through the wound. With the dissecting forceps, the fascial sheath of the vas deferens is grasped. The fascial membrane is tied below the tie of the prostatic end and then the stump of the prostatic end is slipped back into the scrotum. Hence, the stump of the testicular end is inside the fascial sheath, while the prostatic end is outside. During followup, satisfaction with the procedure was measured on the following domains - pain involved, time required to return to work after the procedure, problems in sexual life, by a questionnaire. A semen analysis was also done after 3 months. RESULTS No significance in the acceptor’s satisfaction between the two groups in terms of pain

  14. Vides riski Daugavgrīvas dabas liegumā


    Deinate, Elīna


    Bakalaura darbā „Vides riski Daugavgrīvas daba liegumā” ir pētīti pašreizējie un potenciālie vides riski Daugavgrīvas dabas liegumā. Vislielākā uzmanība tiek veltīta dabas lieguma piekrastē notiekošo krasta procesu raksturam, to ietekme uz dabas liegumu. Pētījuma ietvaros tiek analizētas krasta līnijas izmaiņas Daugavgrīvas salā izmantojot kartogrāfisko materiālu un jūras krasta ģeoloģisko procesu monitoringa datus. Pētījuma rezultātā tiek veikti secinājumi par dabas lieguma teritorijas iespē...

  15. Exploration of Terminal Procedures Enabled by NASA Wake VAS Technologies (United States)

    Lunsford, Clark R.; Smith, Arthur P., III; Cooper, Wayne W., Jr.; Mundra, Anand D.; Gross, Amy E.; Audenaerd, Laurence F.; Killian, Bruce E.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) tasked The MITRE Corporation's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD) to investigate potential air traffic control (ATC) procedures that could benefit from technology used or developed in NASA's Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS). The task also required developing an estimate of the potential benefits of the candidate procedures. The main thrust of the investigation was to evaluate opportunities for improved capacity and efficiency in airport arrival and departure operations. Other procedures that would provide safety enhancements were also considered. The purpose of this investigation was to provide input to the WakeVAS program office regarding the most promising areas of development for the program. A two-fold perspective was desired: First, identification of benefits from possible procedures enabled by both incremental components and the mature state of WakeVAS technology; second identification of procedures that could be expected to evolve from the current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures. The evolution of procedures should provide meaningful increments of benefit and a low risk implementation of the WakeVAS technologies.

  16. X-Ray structural investigation of VAS-393 crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Martirosian, A H; Harurtjunian, V S


    X-ray structural study of VAS-393 crystals was performed. Investigations were carried out with the use of the Weissenberg rotating and powder (employing the Bjornstrem diagrams) methods. The lattice constants ''c'' and ''a''are calculated. The crystal is shown to belong to the trigonal syngony (medium category)

  17. Efeitos da tela de polipropileno no testículo, epidídimo e ducto deferente de cães Effects of the polypropilene mesh in the testicle, epididimus and ductus deferens of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Goldenberg


    after that, they were again anesthetized and underwent new operation when the ductus deferens and the testicle were removed and sent to histological analysis. The histological sections of the testicle showed a focal reduction of the spermatogenesis in 20 % and a degenerative process in 20 % of the animals. In the epididimus, chronic inflammation and seminiferous tubules dilatation were observed in 70 %. A chronic inflammatory process was found in 60 % of the vas deferens. The polypropilene mesh in direct contact with the spermatic funiculus in dogs causes histological alterations with minimal reduction on spermatogenesis.

  18. AVE/VAS 1: 25 mb sounding data (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.


    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS I (shakedown) experiment is described. Tabulated data at 25-mb intervals for the 13 special rawinsonde stations and 1 National Weather Service station participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 1200 and 1800 GMT on February 6, 1982, and at 0000 GMT on February 7, 1982. The method of processing soundings is discussed briefly, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  19. The AVE/VAS 2: The 25 mb sounding data (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.


    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS II experiment is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals, was an 18 hour period. An additional sounding was taken at the normal synoptic observation time. The processing soundings method is discussed, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the meso-beta-scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  20. AVE/VAS 3: 25-mb sounding data (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.


    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS 3 experiment is described. Tabulated data are presented at 25-mb intervals for the 24 National Weather Service stations and 14 special stations participating in the experiment. Soundings were taken at 3-hr intervals, beginning at 1200 GMT on March 27, 1982, and ending at 0600 GMT on March 28, 1982 (7 sounding times). An additional sounding was taken at the National Weather Service stations at 1200 GMT on March 28, 1982, at the normal synoptic observation time. The method of processing soundings is briefly discussed, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the mesos-beta-scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  1. Validation and Findings Comparing VAS vs. Likert Scales for Psychosocial Measurements (United States)

    Hasson, Dan; Arnetz, Bengt B.


    Context: Psychosocial exposures commonly show large variation over time and are usually assessed using multi-item Likert indices. A construct requiring a five-item Likert index could possibly be replaced by a single visual analogue scale (VAS). Objective: To: a) evaluate validity and relative reliability of a single VAS compared to previously…

  2. Cyclone energy: impact of inlet velocity and outlet évasé designs (United States)

    Because electricity generation produces emissions, reducing cyclone pressure drop has the potential to benefit the environment. Enhanced 1D3D cyclones common in the cotton ginning industry were tested with various évasés, over a range of inlet velocities. With évasés it was possible to reduce the ...

  3. Partial characterization of a novel endogenous opioid in human cerebrospinal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.E.; Lipman, J.J.; Byrne, W.L.


    Human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains many uncharacterized endogenous opioids, in addition to the known enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. These opioids may be separated by gel filtration chromatography and identified by radioreceptor assay for opioid activity. One region of the chromatographic elution profile, designated Peak B has previously been shown to be related to the pain status of chronic pain patients. The authors now report that human Peak B isolated from the CSF of pain-free elective surgery patients is present at a typical concentration equivalent in activity to 1.4 pmol of morphine sulfate per ml of CSF measured by radioreceptor assay. At a dose of 0.06 and 0.12 pmol morphine sulfate equivalents of CSF (MSE), injected into the cerebroventricular system of the mouse, Peak B produced an antinociceptive effect, the intensity and duration of which was dose-dependent and which was antagonized by naloxone. The mouse vas deferens (MVD) preparation was inhibited by Peak B in a manner that was sensitive to antagonism by naloxone only at low (< 1.0 but not at higher (>6.0 concentrations of the antagonist. Peak B activity in the MVD assay was unaffected by treatment with trypsin or ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin. 32 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  4. Development and psychometric testing of the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS). (United States)

    Bengtsson, Mariette; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ulander, Kerstin


    The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a short, patient-reported questionnaire to be used in clinical practice for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) questionnaire was designed to measure the treatment response of symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from IBS. The VAS-IBS was psychometrically tested for content and criterion validity, scale acceptability, item-reduction, internal reliability consistency, simplicity, and speed. Two samples were used. One expert panel (five physicians and four registered nurses), who gave their opinion on the content validity, and one of 71 patients with IBS (mean age 38 years SD +13, range 19-65), who completed the VAS-IBS, as well as the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and the Psychological General Well-Being Index for criterion validity. The items in the VAS-IBS capture the main physical concerns women with IBS might present and the psychometric testing confirmed that the VAS-IBS is an acceptable homogeneous patient-reported questionnaire indicated by Cronbach's alpha internal consistency reliability coefficient, with a value of 0.85. All correlations to test the criterion validity performed by using Pearson's correlation test, were statistically significant (p VAS-IBS is easy to complete and unproblematic to calculate. The VAS-IBS appears to be reliable and user-friendly, for patients as well as for health professionals. The final version of the VAS-IBS including nine items needs to be further tested in clinical practice cross-culturally in women as well as in men.

  5. Development and psychometric testing of the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS)


    Ohlsson Bodil; Bengtsson Mariette; Ulander Kerstin


    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a short, patient-reported questionnaire to be used in clinical practice for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) questionnaire was designed to measure the treatment response of symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from IBS. Methods The VAS-IBS was psychometrically tested for content and criterion validity, scale acceptability, it...

  6. The Visual Analogue WOMAC 3.0 scale - internal validity and responsiveness of the VAS version


    Tennant Alan; White Peter J; Kersten Paula


    Abstract Background Many people suffer with Osteoarthritis (OA) and subsequent morbidity. Therefore, measuring outcome associated with OA is important. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) has been a widely used patient reported outcome in OA. However, there is relatively little evidence to support the use of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) version of the scale. We aimed to explore the internal validity and responsiveness of this VAS version of the WOMAC....

  7. Development and psychometric testing of the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlsson Bodil


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a short, patient-reported questionnaire to be used in clinical practice for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS. The Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS questionnaire was designed to measure the treatment response of symptoms and well-being in patients suffering from IBS. Methods The VAS-IBS was psychometrically tested for content and criterion validity, scale acceptability, item-reduction, internal reliability consistency, simplicity, and speed. Two samples were used. One expert panel (five physicians and four registered nurses, who gave their opinion on the content validity, and one of 71 patients with IBS (mean age 38 years SD +13, range 19–65, who completed the VAS-IBS, as well as the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and the Psychological General Well-Being Index for criterion validity. Results The items in the VAS-IBS capture the main physical concerns women with IBS might present and the psychometric testing confirmed that the VAS-IBS is an acceptable homogeneous patient-reported questionnaire indicated by Cronbach's alpha internal consistency reliability coefficient, with a value of 0.85. All correlations to test the criterion validity performed by using Pearson's correlation test, were statistically significant (p Conclusion The VAS-IBS appears to be reliable and user-friendly, for patients as well as for health professionals. The final version of the VAS-IBS including nine items needs to be further tested in clinical practice cross-culturally in women as well as in men.

  8. Validation of a visual analogue score (LRTI-VAS) in non-CF bronchiectasis. (United States)

    Altenburg, Josje; Wortel, Kim; de Graaff, Casper S; van der Werf, Tjip S; Boersma, Wim G


    Quality of life in patients with non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis is largely defined by respiratory symptoms. To date, no disease-specific tool for symptom measurement in this patient group was available. We developed the lower respiratory tract infections - visual analogue scale (LRTI-VAS) in order to quickly and conveniently quantify symptoms in non-CF bronchiectasis. This study aimed to validate LRTI-VAS for use in non-CF bronchiectasis. This study included outpatients with radiologically proven bronchiectasis and no evidence of CF. Results of LRTI-VAS were compared with other markers of disease activity {lung function parameters, oxygen saturation and three health-related quality of life questionnaires [Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ)]} and validity, reliability and responsiveness were assessed. Thirty stable and 30 exacerbating participants completed the LRTI-VAS questionnaire. When testing for repeatability on two separate occasions, no statistically significant difference between total scores was found {1.4 [standard deviation (SD)] 5.3}, P = 0.16). Internal consistency was high across items (Cronbach's alpha 0.86). Correlation with SGRQ, SF-36 and LCQ total scores was high. Following antibiotic treatment, mean (SD) LRTI-VAS total score improved from 18.1 (SD 9.9) to 26.1 (SD 6.6) (P VAS showed excellent validity, reliability and responsiveness to change and therefore appears a reliable tool for symptom measurement in non-CF bronchiectasis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Volcanic alert system (VAS) developed during the 2011-2014 El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process (United States)

    García, Alicia; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, José M.; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramón


    The 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island illustrated the need for a Volcanic Alert System (VAS) specifically designed for the management of volcanic crises developing after long repose periods. The VAS comprises the monitoring network, the software tools for analysis of the monitoring parameters, the Volcanic Activity Level (VAL) management, and the assessment of hazard. The VAS presented here focuses on phenomena related to moderate eruptions, and on potentially destructive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides. We introduce a set of new data analysis tools, aimed to detect data trend changes, as well as spurious signals related to instrumental failure. When data-trend changes and/or malfunctions are detected, a watchdog is triggered, issuing a watch-out warning (WOW) to the Monitoring Scientific Team (MST). The changes in data patterns are then translated by the MST into a VAL that is easy to use and understand by scientists, technicians, and decision-makers. Although the VAS was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the methodologies may prove useful at other volcanic systems.

  10. Feed-forward neural network model for hunger and satiety related VAS score prediction. (United States)

    Krishnan, Shaji; Hendriks, Henk F J; Hartvigsen, Merete L; de Graaf, Albert A


    An artificial neural network approach was chosen to model the outcome of the complex signaling pathways in the gastro-intestinal tract and other peripheral organs that eventually produce the satiety feeling in the brain upon feeding. A multilayer feed-forward neural network was trained with sets of experimental data relating concentration-time courses of plasma satiety hormones to Visual Analog Scales (VAS) scores. The network successfully predicted VAS responses from sets of satiety hormone data obtained in experiments using different food compositions. The correlation coefficients for the predicted VAS responses for test sets having i) a full set of three satiety hormones, ii) a set of only two satiety hormones, and iii) a set of only one satiety hormone were 0.96, 0.96, and 0.89, respectively. The predicted VAS responses discriminated the satiety effects of high satiating food types from less satiating food types both in orally fed and ileal infused forms. From this application of artificial neural networks, one may conclude that neural network models are very suitable to describe situations where behavior is complex and incompletely understood. However, training data sets that fit the experimental conditions need to be available.

  11. Activation tagging of the two closely linked genes LEP and VAS independently affects vascular cell number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Keller, Beat


    TISSUE SIZE (VAS) and LEP. These genes are closely linked and arranged in tandem. Activation tagging of LEP only caused a specific increase in the number of xylem cells. This increased xylem cell number, together with the ectopic leaf blade formation, indicates that LEP functions as a cell division...

  12. Removal of phosphorus from water by using volcanic ash soil (VAS): batch and column experiments. (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Maeda, Morihiro


    Using low-cost and naturally available materials is considered an optimal adsorbent for removing phosphorus (P) from water due to its simplicity and economic efficiency. This study examined the removal of P from water using volcanic ash soil (VAS) by batch and column experiments. The maximum adsorption capacity of P was 2.94 mg g -1 , estimated from the batch experiment according to a Langmuir isotherm. The column study showed a higher adsorption capacity of 5.57 mg g -1 . The breakthrough curve showed that influent water containing 2 mg L -1 P was completely purified by VAS within 1,230 pore volumes (PV). The breakthrough and saturation points of the curves were 3,100 PV and 14,875 PV, respectively. After an adsorption column was loaded with 20,508 PV, a regeneration procedure was developed to determine whether an ion exchange of P with chloride occurred or adsorbed P in the columns could be eluted. Approximately 20% of P was recovered from columns by desorption tests, regardless of NaCl solution or deionized water. Specific surface area and mineral concentrations are both important characteristics that improve the adsorption capacity of VAS. The present study suggests that VAS is a promising adsorbent to remove P in water.

  13. Visual Attention Span and Optometric Conditions: Is There a Connection between a Poor VAS and an Optometric Diagnosis? (United States)

    Carroll, Emily


    This paper investigates whether there is a correlation between a poor Visual Attention Span (VAS) and the child's optometric status. Convergence excess impacts most upon a male achieving a VAS-3 more than 75 per cent of the time. Fifty per cent of females with eye-teaming problems are unlikely to achieve a VAS-3 more than 25 per cent of the time.…

  14. A comparison of vas occlusion techniques: cautery more effective than ligation and excision with fascial interposition


    Labrecque Michel; Chen-Mok Mario; Irsula Belinda; Sokal David; Barone Mark A


    Abstract Background Vasectomy techniques have been the subject of relatively few rigorous studies. The objective of this analysis was to compare the effectiveness of two techniques for vas occlusion: intraluminal cautery versus ligation and excision with fascial interposition. More specifically, we aimed to compare early failure rates, sperm concentrations, and time to success between the two techniques. Methods We compared semen analysis data from men following vasectomy using two occlusion ...

  15. Findings concerning testis, vas deference, and epididymis in adult cases with nonpalpable testes. (United States)

    Sahin, Coskun; Kalkan, Mehmet; Yalcinkaya, Soner


    In this study, we aimed to state the relationship between testis, epididymis and vas deference, in adult cases with nonpalpable testis. Between January 1996 and December 2009, we evaluated 154 adult cases with nonpalpable testes. Mean age was 23 years (20-27 years). Explorations were performed by open inguinal incision, laparoscopy, and by inguinal incision and laparoscopy together on 22, 131 and 1 patient, respectively. Of all the unilateral cases, 32 were accepted as vanishing testis. In five of these cases, vas deference was ending inside the abdomen, and in the others, it was ending inside the scrotum. In the remaining 99 unilateral and 22 bilateral cases, 143 testes were found in total. Testes were found in the inguinal canal as atrophic in one case, at the right renal pedicle level with dysmorphic testis in one case, and anterior to the internal ring between the bladder and the common iliac vessels at a smaller than normal size in 119 cases. One (0.69%) case did not have epididymis. While epididymis was attached to the testis only at the head and tail locations in 88 (61.53%) cases, it was totally attached to the testis in 54 (37.76%) cases. There is an obviously high incidence rate of testis and vas deference anomalies, where epididymis is the most frequent one. In cases with abdominal testes, this rate is highest for high localised abdominal testes.

  16. Absorption of the Wolffian duct and duplicated ureter by the urogenital sinus: morphological study using human fetuses and embryos. (United States)

    Naito, Michiko; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Aizawa, Shin; Fujisawa, Masato


    To describe the embryological origin of the duplicated ureter and to investigate whether the urogenital sinus absorbs not only the Wolffian duct (WD) but also the ureter. During studies using sections of human fetuses (45 specimens), we incidentally found a specific type of ureteric duplication (at ~7 weeks) in which two unilateral ureters joined at the vesico-ureteric junction, apparently representing a morphology arising at an intermediate stage between complete and partial ureteric duplication. The existing literature lacks any photographic representation of early development of the vesico-ureteric junction, and we therefore studied horizontal sections of 10 human embryos (at ~5-6 weeks' gestation) in which the ureter did not join the urogenital sinus (future bladder) but instead joined the WD (future vas deferens). The sinus consistently showed a reversed Y-shape, the arms of which extended posteriorly to receive the WD. When absorption of the duct into the sinus wall reached the distal end of the ureter, the arm-like parts appeared to enlarge posteriorly for further involvement of the duct, with little or no incorporation of the ureter; therefore, the future trigone of the bladder might develop from these arm-like parts of the sinus posterior wall. Consequently, in the case of ureteric duplication included in the present study, it is considered that the ureters would probably have merged with the WD at closely adjacent sites. The present study represents the first photographic illustration of the early development of the human vesico-ureteric junction. © 2014 The Authors BJU International © 2014 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Visual Analogue WOMAC 3.0 scale - internal validity and responsiveness of the VAS version (United States)


    Background Many people suffer with Osteoarthritis (OA) and subsequent morbidity. Therefore, measuring outcome associated with OA is important. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) has been a widely used patient reported outcome in OA. However, there is relatively little evidence to support the use of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) version of the scale. We aimed to explore the internal validity and responsiveness of this VAS version of the WOMAC. Methods Patients with chronic hip or knee pain of mechanical origin, waiting for a hip or knee joint replacement completed the WOMAC as part of a study to investigate the effects of acupuncture and placebo controls. Validity was tested using factor analysis and Rasch analysis, and responsiveness using standardised response means. Results Two hundred and twenty one patients (mean age 66.8, SD 8.29, 58% female) were recruited. Factor and Rasch analysis confirmed unidimensional Pain and Physical Functioning scales, capable of transformation to interval scaling and invariant over time. Some Differential Item Functioning (DIF) was observed, but this cancelled out at the test level. The Stiffness scale fitted the Rasch model but adjustments for DIF could not be made due to the shortness of the scale. Using the interval transformed data, Standardised Response Means were smaller than when using the raw, ordinal data. Conclusions The WOMAC Pain and Physical Functioning subscales satisfied unidimensionality and ordinal scaling tests, and the ability to transform to an interval scale. Some Differential Item Functioning was observed, but this cancelled out at the test level and, by doing so, at the same time removed the disturbance of unidimensionality. The scaling characteristics of sets of items which use VAS require further analysis, as it would appear that they can lead to spurious levels of responsiveness and scale compression because they exaggerate the distortion of the ordinal scale. Trial

  18. The Visual Analogue WOMAC 3.0 scale - internal validity and responsiveness of the VAS version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennant Alan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people suffer with Osteoarthritis (OA and subsequent morbidity. Therefore, measuring outcome associated with OA is important. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC has been a widely used patient reported outcome in OA. However, there is relatively little evidence to support the use of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS version of the scale. We aimed to explore the internal validity and responsiveness of this VAS version of the WOMAC. Methods Patients with chronic hip or knee pain of mechanical origin, waiting for a hip or knee joint replacement completed the WOMAC as part of a study to investigate the effects of acupuncture and placebo controls. Validity was tested using factor analysis and Rasch analysis, and responsiveness using standardised response means. Results Two hundred and twenty one patients (mean age 66.8, SD 8.29, 58% female were recruited. Factor and Rasch analysis confirmed unidimensional Pain and Physical Functioning scales, capable of transformation to interval scaling and invariant over time. Some Differential Item Functioning (DIF was observed, but this cancelled out at the test level. The Stiffness scale fitted the Rasch model but adjustments for DIF could not be made due to the shortness of the scale. Using the interval transformed data, Standardised Response Means were smaller than when using the raw, ordinal data. Conclusions The WOMAC Pain and Physical Functioning subscales satisfied unidimensionality and ordinal scaling tests, and the ability to transform to an interval scale. Some Differential Item Functioning was observed, but this cancelled out at the test level and, by doing so, at the same time removed the disturbance of unidimensionality. The scaling characteristics of sets of items which use VAS require further analysis, as it would appear that they can lead to spurious levels of responsiveness and scale compression because they exaggerate the distortion of

  19. Orbit/attitude estimation for the GOES spacecraft using VAS landmark data (United States)

    Sielski, H.; Hall, D.; Nankervis, R.; Koch, D.


    A software system is described which provides for batch least squares estimation of spacecraft orbit, attitude, and camera bias parameters using image data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The image data are obtained by the Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS). The resulting estimated parameters are used for absolute image registration. Operating in the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/70 computer, the FORTRAN system also includes the capabilities of image display and manipulations. An overview of the system is presented as well as some numerical results obtained from observations taken by the SMS-2 satellite over a 3 day interval in August 1975.

  20. High correlation of VAS pain scores after 2 and 6 weeks of treatment with VAS pain scores at 12 weeks in randomised controlled trials in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis : meta-analysis and implications


    Karabis, Andreas; Nikolakopoulos, Stavros; Pandhi, Shaloo; Papadimitropoulou, Katerina; Nixon, Richard; Chaves, Ricardo L.; Moore, R Andrew


    Background Researchers in clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) often measure pain levels with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Of interest to clinical practice and future clinical trial design are associations of change from baseline (CFB) between time points with predictive ability of earlier response for long-term treatment benefit. We assessed the association and predictive ability of CFB in VAS pain between 2, 6 and 12?weeks in randomised controlled trials (R...

  1. Visual analogue scale (VAS) as a monitoring tool for daily changes in asthma symptoms in adolescents: a prospective study. (United States)

    Rhee, Hyekyun; Belyea, Michael; Mammen, Jennifer


    Success in asthma management hinges on patients' competency to detect and respond to ever-changing symptom severity. Thus, it is crucial to have reliable, simple, and sustainable methods of symptom monitoring that can be readily incorporated into daily life. Although visual analogue scale (VAS) has been considered as a simple symptom assessment method, its utility as a daily symptom monitoring tool in adolescents is unknown. This study was to determine the concurrent validity of VAS in capturing diurnal changes in symptoms and to examine the relationships between VAS and asthma control and pulmonary function. Forty-two adolescents (12-17 years old) with asthma completed daily assessment of symptoms twice per day, morning and bedtime, for a week using VAS and 6-item symptom diary concurrently. Asthma control was measured at enrollment and 6 month later, and spirometry was conducted at enrollment. Pearson correlations, multilevel modeling and regression were conducted to assess the relationships between VAS and symptom diary, asthma control and FEV1. Morning and evening VAS was positively associated with symptom diary items of each corresponding time frame of the day (r = 0.41-0.58, p monitoring, which can provide invaluable information about current and future asthma control without substantially increasing self-monitoring burdens for adolescent patients. Clinical Trial Registration NCT01696357. Registered 18 September 2012.

  2. A Review of Transplantation Practice of the Urologic Organs: Is It Only Achievable for the Kidney? (United States)

    Donati-Bourne, Jack; Roberts, Harry W; Rajjoub, Yaseen; Coleman, Robert A


    Transplantation is a viable treatment option for failure of most major organs. Within urology, transplantation of the kidney and ureter are well documented; however, evidence supporting transplantation of other urologic organs is limited. Failure of these organs carries significant morbidity, and transplantation may have a role in management. This article reviews the knowledge, research, and literature surrounding transplantation of each of the urologic organs. Transplantation of the penis, testicle, urethra, vas deferens, and bladder is discussed. Transplantation attempts have been made individually with each of these organs. Penile transplantation has only been performed once in a human. Testicular transplantation research was intertwined with unethical lucrative pursuits. Interest in urethra, bladder, and vas deferens transplantation has decreased as a result of successful surgical reconstructive techniques. Despite years of effort, transplantations of the penis, testicle, urethra, vas deferens, and bladder are not established in current practice. Recent research has shifted toward techniques of reconstruction, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.

  3. At Completion of a Multidisciplinary Treatment Program, Are Psychophysical Variables Associated with a VAS Improvement of 30% or More, a Minimal Clinically Important Difference, or an Absolute VAS Score Improvement of 1.5 cm or More? (United States)

    Fishbain, David A; Gao, Jinrun; Lewis, John E; Zhang, Lei


    Objectives were to determine at completion of a multidisciplinary pain program: 1) what percentage of chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients had improved at 30% or more (minimal clinically important difference [MCID]) and by 1.5 cm or more (minimal important change [MIC]) on the visual analog scale (VAS) and 2) whether that improvement is associated with pain matching (PM), pain threshold (PTRE), and pain tolerance (PTOL) improvements. One hundred and six CLBP patients had admission and discharge scores for VAS, PM, PTRE, and PTOL. Improvement was determined by absolute, MCID, and MIC VAS improvement. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, race, education, psychoactive substance dependence, and depression was utilized to develop models for the dependent variables of improvement of overall VAS; of MCID of 50% or more; and of MIC with PM, PTOL, and PTRE as independent variables. Thirty-two percent and 35% of the CLBP patients were at MCID and MIC, respectively, at discharge (68% and 65% not at MCID and MIC, respectively), and 54.7% were improved overall. Of the improved patients, 59% were at MCID and 63.7% at MIC. PM was associated with overall VAS improvement, while PTRE and PM were associated with MCID improvement. MIC and 50% or above models could not be estimated. The VAS was treated as a ratio scale. A significant percentage of CLBP patients were at MCID and at MIC at completion of multidisciplinary treatment. PM was associated with overall VAS improvement, while PTRE and PM were associated with MCID. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  4. A comparison of vas occlusion techniques: cautery more effective than ligation and excision with fascial interposition

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    Labrecque Michel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasectomy techniques have been the subject of relatively few rigorous studies. The objective of this analysis was to compare the effectiveness of two techniques for vas occlusion: intraluminal cautery versus ligation and excision with fascial interposition. More specifically, we aimed to compare early failure rates, sperm concentrations, and time to success between the two techniques. Methods We compared semen analysis data from men following vasectomy using two occlusion techniques. Data on intraluminal cautery came from a prospective observational study conducted at four sites. Data on ligation and excision with fascial interposition came from a multicenter randomized controlled trial that evaluated the efficacy of ligation and excision with versus without fascial interposition. The surgical techniques used in the fascial interposition study were standardized. The surgeons in the cautery study used their customary techniques, which varied among sites in terms of type of cautery, use of fascial interposition, excision of a short segment of the vas, and use of an open-ended technique. Men in both studies had semen analyses two weeks after vasectomy and then approximately every four weeks. The two outcome measures for the analyses presented here are (a time to success, defined as severe oligozoospermia, or 10 million sperm/mL at week 12 or later. Results Vasectomy with cautery was associated with a significantly more rapid progression to severe oligozoospermia and with significantly fewer early failures (1% versus 5%. Conclusion The use of cautery improves vasectomy outcomes. Limitations of this comparison include (a the variety of surgical techniques in the cautery study and differences in methods of fascial interposition between the two studies, (b the uncertain correlation between sperm concentrations after vasectomy and the risk of pregnancy, and (c the use of historical controls and different study sites.

  5. Sampling Strategy for Soil Moisture Ground Measurements in the Campaigns of 2008 and 2009 at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) (United States)

    Antolin, M. Carmen; Millan-Scheiding, Cristina; Carbo, Ester; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto


    Knowledge of the distribution of soil moisture (SM) in semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystems, and of the environmental factors influencing it will enable the acquisition of in situ data simultaneous to the observations from SMOS in the area of the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS). In the Airborne Campaigns of 2008, 2009 and 2010 performed at the VAS site, different sample strategies have been followed with the objective of optimizing the work of acquisition of the necessary ground measurements for the validation of the airborne sensors and the relations with the environmental factors. The combined sampling designs used have enabled the estimation of SM values in larger areas, and the resulting SM maps are correlated with those produced by the airborne sensors. This confirms the use of these strategies for the calibration/validation of SMOS at the VAS.

  6. High correlation of VAS pain scores after 2 and 6 weeks of treatment with VAS pain scores at 12 weeks in randomised controlled trials in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis : meta-analysis and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karabis, Andreas; Nikolakopoulos, Stavros; Pandhi, Shaloo; Papadimitropoulou, Katerina; Nixon, Richard; Chaves, Ricardo L; Moore, R Andrew


    BACKGROUND: Researchers in clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) often measure pain levels with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Of interest to clinical practice and future clinical trial design are associations of change from baseline (CFB) between time points with

  7. Relaxin family peptide receptors Rxfp1 and Rxfp2: mapping of the mRNA and protein distribution in the reproductive tract of the male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto Catarina S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relaxin is the endogenous ligand of the G-protein coupled receptor RXFP1, previously known as LGR7. In humans relaxin can also activate, but with lower affinity, the closely related receptor for the insulin-like peptide from Leydig cells, RXFP2, previously known as LGR8. The lack of relaxin impairs male fertility but the precise distribution and the function of relaxin receptors in the male reproductive tract is not known. We investigated the distribution of Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 in the reproductive tract of the male rat and the function of relaxin in the vas deferens, a tissue with high expression of both receptors. Methods The presence of mRNA for Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 was investigated in testes, cultured Sertoli cells, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate, and spermatozoa by RT-PCR and Southern blot. Protein expression in the testis, vas deferens, primary culture of Sertoli cells, and spermatozoa was assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The role of relaxin in the vas deferens was evaluated by contractility studies and radioimmunoassay of cAMP production. The effect of relaxin on mRNA levels for metalloproteinase-7 was measured by Northern blot. Results Transcripts for Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 were present in almost all parts of the male reproductive tract, with high levels in testis and vas deferens. Both receptors were immunolocalized in late stage germ cells but not in mature spermatozoa, although mRNAs for both receptors were also present in mature spermatozoa. Rxfp1 but not Rxfp2 was detected in cultured Sertoli cells. Strong immunostaining for Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 was seen in muscular and epithelial layers of the vas deferens and in arteriolar walls. Relaxin did not affect contractility and cyclic AMP production of the vas deferens, but increased the levels of mRNA for metalloproteinase-7. Conclusion Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 are widely and similarly distributed throughout the male reproductive tract. Our results

  8. [Experience with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patient management at the Markusovszky Hospital, Vas County, Hungary]. (United States)

    Major, Gyöngyi Petra; Halász, Szabolcs; Simor, Tamás; Németh, Orsolya; Pothárn, Orsolya; Nagy, Lajos


    At the Markusovszky Hospital, Vas County, Hungary, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has been routinely used since July, 2009. In the majority of cases this method has been applied for the assessment of myocardial viability in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease and, in a smaller number of cases, for the evaluation of patients with myocarditis, cardiomyopathy and syncope with uncertain etiology in young athletes. The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in assessing the viability of affected myocardial regions due to chronic occlusion of major coronary arteries. Delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance examination was performed in 88 patients who had 103 myocardial regions affected with chronic occlusion of the coronary arteries. The number of affected myocardial regions which proved to be treatable with coronary artery intervention and the number of regions where revascularization strategy was based on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings were analyzed. Based on findings from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, revascularization strategy was set up in 88 myocardial regions corresponding to 83.5% of all affected myocardial regions included in this study. Delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging appears to be a powerful tool to choose the optimal reperfusion strategy in patients with chronic coronary occlusion. Although this diagnostic method is relatively expensive, its accuracy regarding the features of myocardial viability such as transmural extension of the lesion within the affected region is higher than that of other methods (e.g. myocardium scintigraphy or stress echocardiography).

  9. SPAM1 (PH-20 protein and mRNA expression in the epididymides of humans and macaques: utilizing laser microdissection/RT-PCR

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    Zhang Hong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sperm Adhesion Molecule 1 (SPAM1 is an important sperm surface hyaluronidase with at least three functions in mammalian fertilization. Previously our laboratory reported that in the mouse, in addition to its expression in the testis, Spam1 is synthesized in the epididymis where it is found in membranous vesicles in the principal cells of the epithelium in all three regions. Since SPAM1 is widely conserved among mammals the aim of the study was to determine if its expression pattern in the epididymis is conserved in rodents and primates. Methods We used laser microdissection (LM/RT-PCR on frozen and paraffin-embedded epididymal sections of humans (n = 3 and macaques (n = 2 as well as in situ transcript hybridization to determine if transcripts are present in the epididymal epithelium. Western analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to detect and confirm the protein expression, and hyaluronic acid substrate gel electrophoresis analyzed its hyaluronidase activity. An in silico analysis of the proximal promoter of SPAM1 was also performed to identify relevant putative transcription binding sites for the androgen receptor. Results We demonstrate that mRNA unique to SPAM1 is present in the principal cells of the epididymal epithelium in all individuals of both species studied. SPAM1 protein is present in all three regions of the epididymis, as well as the vas deferens, and is localized similarly to the transcripts. SPAM1 was shown to have hyaluronidase activity at pH 7.0. In the proximal promoter of SPAM1 were uncovered putative epididymal transcription factor binding sites including androgen receptor elements (AREs, consistent with epididymal expression. Conclusions These findings allow us to conclude that epididymal SPAM1 is conserved in at least two mammalian classes, rodents and primates. This conservation of expression suggests that the protein is likely to play an important function, possibly in sperm maturation.

  10. The Effects of Stretching with Lumbar Traction on VAS and Oswestry Scales of Patients with Lumbar 4–5 Herniated Intervertebral Disc


    Yang, Hae-sun; Yoo, Won-gyu


    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of stretching with lumbar traction on VAS and Oswestry scale scores of lumbar 4–5 herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) patients. [Subjects] We recruited 20 lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients. [Methods] We performed stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients during 4 weeks. The VAS and Oswestry scales were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention. [Results] The results showed a significant decrease in VAS scale scores for stretchin...

  11. Visual analogue scales (VAS): Measuring instruments for the documentation of symptoms and therapy monitoring in cases of allergic rhinitis in everyday health care


    Klimek, Ludger; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Biedermann, Tilo; Bousquet, Jean; Hellings, Peter; Jung, Kirsten; Merk, Hans; Olze, Heidi; Schlenter, Wolfgang; Stock, Philippe; Ring, Johannes; Wagenmann, Martin; Wehrmann, Wolfgang; M?sges, Ralph; Pfaar, Oliver


    Backround Visual analogue scales (VAS) are psychometric measuring instruments designed to document the characteristics of disease-related symptom severity in individual patients and use this to achieve a rapid (statistically measurable and reproducible) classification of symptom severity and disease control. VAS can also be used in routine patient history taking and to monitor the course of a chronic disease such as allergic rhinitis (AR). More specifically, the VAS has been used to assess ef...

  12. High correlation of VAS pain scores after 2 and 6 weeks of treatment with VAS pain scores at 12 weeks in randomised controlled trials in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: meta-analysis and implications. (United States)

    Karabis, Andreas; Nikolakopoulos, Stavros; Pandhi, Shaloo; Papadimitropoulou, Katerina; Nixon, Richard; Chaves, Ricardo L; Moore, R Andrew


    Researchers in clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) often measure pain levels with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Of interest to clinical practice and future clinical trial design are associations of change from baseline (CFB) between time points with predictive ability of earlier response for long-term treatment benefit. We assessed the association and predictive ability of CFB in VAS pain between 2, 6 and 12 weeks in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Aggregated VAS pain data at baseline and CFB at 2, 6 and 12 weeks were collected from a systematic literature review of 176 RCTs in OA and RA. The predictive ability of earlier assessments for longer-term pain reduction was estimated using correlation and regression analyses. Analysis was performed using the R software package for statistical programming, version 3.1.1. Appropriate data were available from 50 RCTs (22,854 patients). Correlations between time points were high (weighted correlation coefficients between 2 and 6 weeks, 0.84; between 2 and 12 weeks, 0.79; and between 6 and 12 weeks, 0.96). CFB at 6 weeks was highly predictive and close to CFB at 12 weeks (regression coefficient 0.9, 95 % confidence interval 0.9-1.0). CFB at 2 weeks was significantly associated with CFB at 12 (0.8, 0.7-0.8) and 6 weeks (0.9, 0.8-1.0). The results showed that early analgesic response measured by VAS for pain beyond 2 weeks of treatment with a particular NSAID is likely to be predictive of response at 12 weeks. Failure to achieve desired pain relief in OA and RA after 2 weeks should trigger reassessment of dosage and/or analgesic.

  13. A prospective cohort study comparing the VAS spine score and Roland-Morris disability questionnaire in patients with a type A traumatic thoracolumbar spinal fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebenga, J.; Leferink, V.J.M.; Segers, M.J.M.; Elzinga, M.J.; Bakker, F.C.; Ten, D.H.J.; Rommens, P.M.; Patka, P.


    The Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ-24) and the VAS spine score have been regularly used to measure functional outcome in patients with back pain. The RMDQ-24 is primarily used in degenerative disease of the spine and the VAS Spine is used in trauma patients. The aim of this study is to

  14. Evaluation of Efficacy and Sedative Profiles of H1 Antihistamines by Large-Scale Surveillance Using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Izumi


    Conclusions: The sedative properties of the H1 antihistamines obtained from VAS analysis were very similar to those of H1R occupancy from positron emission tomography (PET studies and PIR from meta-analysis. Our results indicate that large-scale surveillance using VAS might be useful to evaluate the profiles of H1 antihistamines.

  15. A prospective cohort study comparing the VAS spine score and Roland-Morris disability questionnaire in patients with a type a traumatic thoracolumbar spinal fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Siebenga (Joukje); V.J.M. Leferink (Vincent); M.J.M. Segers (Michiel); M.J. Elzinga (Matthijs); F.C. Bakker (Fred); D.H.J. ten Duis; P.M. Rommens (Pol); P. Patka (Peter)


    textabstractThe Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ-24) and the VAS spine score have been regularly used to measure functional outcome in patients with back pain. The RMDQ-24 is primarily used in degenerative disease of the spine and the VAS Spine is used in trauma patients. The aim of this

  16. Effect of on-site Coulomb interaction on electronic and transport properties of 100% spin polarized CoMnVAs (United States)

    Bhat, Tahir Mohiuddin; Gupta, Dinesh C.


    The structural, electronic, magnetic and transport properties of a new quaternary Heusler alloy CoMnVAs have been investigated by employing generalized gradient approximation (GGA), modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) and GGA with Hubbard U correction (GGA + U). The alloy is energetically more stable in ferromagnetic Y1 type structure. Elastic parameters reveal high anisotropy and ductile nature of the material. CoMnVAs shows half-metallic ferromagnet character with 100% spin polarization at Fermi level with band gap of 0.55 eV in the minority spin state. The alloy also possesses high electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients with 15 μVK-1 at room temperature, achieving a figure of merit of 0.65 at high temperatures. The high degree of ductility, 100% spin polarization and large Seebeck coefficient, makes it an attractive candidate to be used in spin voltage generators and thermoelectric materials.

  17. Visual analogue scale (VAS) as a monitoring tool for daily changes in asthma symptoms in adolescents: a prospective study


    Rhee, Hyekyun; Belyea, Michael; Mammen, Jennifer


    Background Success in asthma management hinges on patients? competency to detect and respond to ever-changing symptom severity. Thus, it is crucial to have reliable, simple, and sustainable methods of symptom monitoring that can be readily incorporated into daily life. Although visual analogue scale (VAS) has been considered as a simple symptom assessment method, its utility as a daily symptom monitoring tool in adolescents is unknown. This study was to determine the concurrent validity of VA...

  18. Reliability and validity of observer ratings of pain using the visual analog scale (VAS) in infants undergoing immunization injections. (United States)

    Taddio, Anna; O'Brien, Lisa; Ipp, Moshe; Stephens, Derek; Goldbach, Morton; Koren, Gideon


    We tested the reliability and validity of observer-rated pain in infants undergoing immunization using the visual analog scale (VAS). Pain was assessed in real time and later, from videotapes, in 120 1-year-old infants participating in a double-blind randomized controlled trial of amethocaine vs. placebo. Altogether, 2 (1 physician, 1 non-physician) of 4 raters [2 physicians, 2 non-physicians (nurse and graduate student)] independently assessed baseline and vaccine injection pain using a 100mm unmarked VAS line. Intra- and inter-rater reliability, assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), ranged from 0.69 to 0.91 and 0.55 to 0.97, respectively. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated no evidence of bias between real time and video assessments. When scores were dichotomized into 2 groups (no pain and pain) using a cut-off of >or=30mm, intra-rater reliability ranged from 0.35 to 0.92. The percent of scores deviating by >20mm was 4.5-14.29%. Criterion validity was demonstrated by correlations between the VAS and Modified Behavioural Pain Scale, a validated observational measure; (rho: 0.81-0.94). Injection scores were lower in the amethocaine group, when comparing difference (baseline-injection) or dichotomized scores; significance (pVAS as an outcome measure for acute procedural pain in infants. However, different conclusions may be reached about the effectiveness of analgesic interventions depending on the rater. Sources of variability include use of multiple raters, rater focus (procedure vs. child) and experience level.

  19. The Erectile Function Visual Analog Scale (EF-VAS): a disease-specific utility instrument for the assessment of erectile function. (United States)

    Casey, R; Tarride, J E; Keresteci, M A; Torrance, G W


    This article presents the responsiveness results of the Erectile Function Visual Analog Scale (EF-VAS) and reports, for the first time, utilities associated with erectile dysfunction (ED), as calculated by a disease-specific utility assessment. The EF-VAS is a new quality of life (QoL) instrument specific to ED that combines the strengths of the disease-specific approach to measuring QoL (greater disease relevance and responsiveness, with relevance to clinicians and patients) with those of preference-based assessments (generalizability and relevance to decision makers). The EF-VAS has demonstrated feasibility, reliability, and validity as reported in a recent publication. Standard instrument development methodology was utilized and the finalized content was integrated into a preference based scoring instrument comprised of two visual analogue scales (VAS). The EF-VAS was implemented in a clinical trial and data from the trial was subjected to validation analysis. Three methods were used to evaluate the responsiveness of the EF-VAS: Spearman correlations, effect size and standardized response means. VAS scores were converted to von Neumann-Morgenstern (vNM) utilities through a conversion curve. The EF-VAS was established to be responsive to changes in disease state within and between patients with ED. The EF-VAS allowed the calculation of vNM utility values and a significant increase in utility was observed in the sildenafil group compared to placebo at study end. The EF-VAS represents an important advance in the understanding of the impact of ED on patients' QoL and in providing a mechanism to allow the quantification of the health status that patients associate with ED. Based on its responsiveness, the EF-VAS will provide an important clinical tool to assess and contribute to the understanding of the impact of treatment for ED. The EF-VAS represents a major advance in the science of health-related quality of life (HRQol) assessment, as it is the first validated ED

  20. A prospective cohort study comparing the VAS spine score and Roland-Morris disability questionnaire in patients with a type a traumatic thoracolumbar spinal fracture


    Siebenga, Joukje; Leferink, Vincent; Segers, Michiel; Elzinga, Matthijs; Bakker, Fred; Duis, D.H.J.; Rommens, Pol; Patka, Peter


    textabstractThe Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ-24) and the VAS spine score have been regularly used to measure functional outcome in patients with back pain. The RMDQ-24 is primarily used in degenerative disease of the spine and the VAS Spine is used in trauma patients. The aim of this study is to compare these scores and to see if there is a correlation in patients with a traumatic thoracolumbar spinal fracture. Prospective cohort study comparing the RMDQ-24 and the VAS spine s...

  1. The visual analogue WOMAC 3.0 scale--internal validity and responsiveness of the VAS version. (United States)

    Kersten, Paula; White, Peter J; Tennant, Alan


    Many people suffer with Osteoarthritis (OA) and subsequent morbidity. Therefore, measuring outcome associated with OA is important. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) has been a widely used patient reported outcome in OA. However, there is relatively little evidence to support the use of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) version of the scale. We aimed to explore the internal validity and responsiveness of this VAS version of the WOMAC. Patients with chronic hip or knee pain of mechanical origin, waiting for a hip or knee joint replacement completed the WOMAC as part of a study to investigate the effects of acupuncture and placebo controls. Validity was tested using factor analysis and Rasch analysis, and responsiveness using standardised response means. Two hundred and twenty one patients (mean age 66.8, SD 8.29, 58% female) were recruited. Factor and Rasch analysis confirmed unidimensional Pain and Physical Functioning scales, capable of transformation to interval scaling and invariant over time. Some Differential Item Functioning (DIF) was observed, but this cancelled out at the test level. The Stiffness scale fitted the Rasch model but adjustments for DIF could not be made due to the shortness of the scale. Using the interval transformed data, Standardised Response Means were smaller than when using the raw, ordinal data. The WOMAC Pain and Physical Functioning subscales satisfied unidimensionality and ordinal scaling tests, and the ability to transform to an interval scale. Some Differential Item Functioning was observed, but this cancelled out at the test level and, by doing so, at the same time removed the disturbance of unidimensionality. The scaling characteristics of sets of items which use VAS require further analysis, as it would appear that they can lead to spurious levels of responsiveness and scale compression because they exaggerate the distortion of the ordinal scale. UKCRN study ID: 4881 ISRCTN78434638.

  2. Effect of on-site Coulomb interaction on electronic and transport properties of 100% spin polarized CoMnVAs

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    Bhat, Tahir Mohiuddin; Gupta, Dinesh C., E-mail:


    Highlights: • 100% spin-polarized material important for the application in spintronics. • Ferromagnetic nature. • Ductile in nature for mechanical applications. • Semiconducting behavior with a band gap of 0.55 eV in minority spin channel. • Possibly efficient thermoelectric material. - Abstract: The structural, electronic, magnetic and transport properties of a new quaternary Heusler alloy CoMnVAs have been investigated by employing generalized gradient approximation (GGA), modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) and GGA with Hubbard U correction (GGA + U). The alloy is energetically more stable in ferromagnetic Y{sub 1} type structure. Elastic parameters reveal high anisotropy and ductile nature of the material. CoMnVAs shows half-metallic ferromagnet character with 100% spin polarization at Fermi level with band gap of 0.55 eV in the minority spin state. The alloy also possesses high electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients with 15 μVK{sup −1} at room temperature, achieving a figure of merit of 0.65 at high temperatures. The high degree of ductility, 100% spin polarization and large Seebeck coefficient, makes it an attractive candidate to be used in spin voltage generators and thermoelectric materials.

  3. R + C Factors and Sacro Occipital Technique Orthopedic Blocking: a pilot study using pre and post VAS assessment. (United States)

    Blum, Charles L


    The concept of a systematic or predictive relationship between distant vertebral levels distinct from accumulative functional compensatory mechanisms, such as in scoliosis, has been perpetuated within chiropractic technique systems based on clinical observation and experience. This study seeks to investigate this relationship between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. Patients (experimental group n=26 and control group n=12) were selected from the patient base of one office, and were limited to patients that had sensitivity at specific cervical reflex points. Using a pre and post outcome measurement and sacro occipital technique R + C protocols, the related lumbar vertebra was adjusted in the direction indicated by the cervical vertebral sensitivity. Statistical analysis revealed there was a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-VAS measurements and found that the notable difference in mean change in VAS scores were statistically significantly different between the experimental and control groups (p < .001). The findings of this study suggest that further research into cervical and lumbar vertebra interrelationships, and the efficacy of orthopedic block treatment, may be warranted. Further studies are needed to confirm whether a causal relationship exists between lumbar manipulation and decreased cervical spine sensitivity.

  4. Comparing responsiveness of the EQ-5D-5L, EQ-5D-3L and EQ VAS in stroke patients. (United States)

    Golicki, Dominik; Niewada, Maciej; Karlińska, Anna; Buczek, Julia; Kobayashi, Adam; Janssen, M F; Pickard, A Simon


    To date, evidence to support the construct validity of the EQ-5D-5L has primarily focused on cross-sectional data. The aims of this study were to examine the responsiveness of EQ-5D-5L in patients with stroke and to compare it with responsiveness of EQ-5D-3L and visual analogue scale (EQ VAS). We performed an observational longitudinal cohort study of patients with stroke. At 1 week and 4 months post-stroke, patients were assessed with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel Index (BI) and were administered the EQ-5D-5L and EQ-5D-3L, including the EQ VAS. The EQ-5D-5L index scores were derived using the crosswalk methodology developed by the EuroQol Group. We classified patients according to two external criteria, based on mRS or BI, into 3 categories: 'improvement,' 'stable' or 'deterioration'. We assessed the responsiveness of each measure in each patient subgroup using: effect size (ES), standardized response mean (SRM), F-statistic, relative efficiency and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. A total of 112 patients (52% females; mean age 70.6 years; 93% ischemic stroke) completed all the instruments at both occasions. In subjects with clinical improvement, EQ-5D-5L was consistently responsive, showing moderate ES (0.51-0.71) and moderate to large SRM (0.69-0.86). In general, EQ-5D-3L index appeared to be more responsive (ES 0.63-0.82; SRM 0.77-1.06) and EQ VAS less responsive (ES 0.51-0.65; SRM 0.59-0.69) than EQ-5D-5L index. The EQ-5D-5L index, based on the crosswalk value set, seems to be appropriately responsive in patients with stroke, 4 months after disease onset. As far as EQ-5D-5L index is scored according to crosswalk approach, the EQ-5D-3L index appears to be more responsive in stroke population.

  5. Population-Based Preference Weights for the EQ-5D Health States Using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in Iran (United States)

    Goudarzi, Reza; Zeraati, Hojjat; Akbari Sari, Ali; Rashidian, Arash; Mohammad, Kazem


    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is used as a measure to valuate healthcare interventions and guide policy making. The EuroQol EQ-5D is a widely used generic preference-based instrument to measure Health-related quality of life. Objectives The objective of this study was to develop a value set of the EQ-5D health states for an Iranian population. Patients and Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of Iranian populations. Our sample from Iranian populations consists out of 869 participants, who were selected for this study using a stratified probability sampling method. The sample was taken from individuals living in the city of Tehran and was stratified by age and gender from July to November 2013. Respondents valued 13 health states using the visual analogue scale (VAS) of the EQ-5D. Several fixed effects regression models were tested to predict the full set of health states. We selected the final model based on the logical consistency of the estimates, the sign and magnitude of the regression coefficients, goodness of fit, and parsimony. We also compared predicted values with a value set from similar studies in the UK and other countries. Results Our results show that the HRQoL does not vary among socioeconomic groups. Models at the individual level resulted in an additive model with all coefficients being statistically significant, R2 = 0.55, a value of 0.75 for the best health state (11112), and a value of -0.074 for the worst health state (33333). The value set obtained for the study sample remarkably differs from those elicited in developed countries. Conclusions This study is the first estimate for the EQ-5D value set based on the VAS in Iran. Given the importance of locally adapted value set the use of this value set can be recommended for future studies in Iran and In the EMRO regions. PMID:27186384

  6. Sexual transmission of American trypanosomiasis in humans: a new potential pandemic route for Chagas parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla F Araujo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The Trypanosoma cruzi infection endemic in Latin America has now spread to several countries across four continents; this endemic involves triatomine vector-free protists. We hypothesised that the sexual transmission of T. cruzi contributes to the ongoing spread of Chagas disease. OBJECTIVES A short-term longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate this hypothesis. METHODS The study population comprised 109 subjects from four families, among whom 21 had been diagnosed with acute Chagas disease by direct parasitological analysis. Blood mononuclear cells and serum samples were obtained from each study subject once per year for three consecutive years. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence serological examinations were used to detect specific T. cruzi antibodies. Polymerase chain reaction of T. cruzi DNA revealed 188-nucleotide bands, which hybridised to a specific radiolabelled probe and were confirmed by cloning and sequencing. RESULTS Three independent assessments at different time points revealed T. cruzi nuclear DNA footprints in 76% (83/109 of the study population with active infection. In contrast, the ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assays detected the T. cruzi antibody in 28.4% (31/109 of the study samples. Moreover, the semen from 82.6% (19/23 of subjects people revealed harboured the 188- bp base pair T. cruzi footprint. Interestingly, the ejaculates of nuclear DNA-positive Chagas patient transmitted the T. cruzi upon peritoneal injection or infusion in the vagina of mice, and amastigotes were detected in the skeletal muscle, myocardium, vas deferens, and uterine tube. MAIN CONCLUSIONS T. cruzi infections can be transmitted from females or males to naïve mates through intercourse, and progeny showed discrepancies between the ratios of nuclear DNA footprints and specific antibody that can be explained by the tolerance attained during early embryo growth. Additional studies are needed to

  7. The Effects of Stretching with Lumbar Traction on VAS and Oswestry Scales of Patients with Lumbar 4-5 Herniated Intervertebral Disc. (United States)

    Yang, Hae-Sun; Yoo, Won-Gyu


    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of stretching with lumbar traction on VAS and Oswestry scale scores of lumbar 4-5 herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) patients. [Subjects] We recruited 20 lumbar 4-5 HIVD patients. [Methods] We performed stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4-5 HIVD patients during 4 weeks. The VAS and Oswestry scales were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention. [Results] The results showed a significant decrease in VAS scale scores for stretching with lumbar traction in lumbar 4-5 HIVD patients, from 18±1.29 to 2.1±1.35. The Oswestry scale scores also decreased significantly, from 20.35±2.01 to 3.5±2.84, after stretching with lumbar traction. [Conclusion] Thus, we suggest stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4-5 HIVD patients.

  8. Effects of the combined PNF and deep breathing exercises on the ROM and the VAS score of a frozen shoulder patient: Single case study. (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Ki


    This study was conducted to examine the influence of combined exercise using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and deep breathing exercise on range of motion (ROM) and visual analog scale (VAS) score in acute frozen shoulder patient. The subject of this study was woman complained disabilities in daily routine due as a frozen left shoulder. The exercise program was composed of 11 sessions and continued four weeks. The program was composed of PNF and deep breathing exercise, and the subject was compared by passive ROM (shoulder flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation) test and VAS score in shoulder movement before and after the exercise. The results showed that patient who practiced this program, the ROM of the shoulder joint increased and the VAS score decreased. Thus, this program was shown to be effective in suppressing pain and increasing the ROM of the shoulder joint in acute frozen shoulder patient.

  9. A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment (United States)

    Sarmah, Ajit K.; Meyer, Michael T.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.


    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely used in many countries worldwide to treat disease and protect the health of animals. They are also incorporated into animal feed to improve growth rate and feed efficiency. As antibiotics are poorly adsorbed in the gut of the animals, the majority is excreted unchanged in faeces and urine. Given that land application of animal waste as a supplement to fertilizer is often a common practice in many countries, there is a growing international concern about the potential impact of antibiotic residues on the environment. Frequent use of antibiotics has also raised concerns about increased antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. We have attempted in this paper to summarize the latest information available in the literature on the use, sales, exposure pathways, environmental occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics in animal agriculture. The review has focused on four important groups of antibiotics (tylosin, tetracycline, sulfonamides and, to a lesser extent, bacitracin) giving a background on their chemical nature, fate processes, occurrence, and effects on plants, soil organisms and bacterial community. Recognising the importance and the growing debate, the issue of antibiotic resistance due to the frequent use of antibiotics in food-producing animals is also briefly covered. The final section highlights some unresolved questions and presents a way forward on issues requiring urgent attention.

  10. Retrieving Vegetation Water Content from MODIS, High Resolution and Ground Data in the SMOS VAS Cal/Val Site (United States)

    Camacho, F.; Cernicharo, J.; Martinez, B.; Lopez-Baeza, E.


    Ground measurements are required to calibrate/validate remote sensing products. This work describes a method to derive vegetation water content (VWC) maps at medium resolution from ground data, applied to the VAS (Valencia Anchor Station) cal/val area for SMOS soil moisture products. The method is based on a transfer function that establishes an empirical relationship between in-situ data and reflectance values retrieved from high resolution (CHRIS/PROBA, TM/LANDSAT) and medium resolution (MODIS/TERRA+AQUA) imagery. The up-scaling process is developed in two steps: (1) by using in-situ values with CHRIS and TM data to derive high resolution ground based maps over small regions, and (2) using the high resolution maps with MODIS data to produce the medium resolution ground based maps over the whole region. The convex hull technique has been proposed to assess the transfer function interpolation quality. Results obtained by applying the selected band combination of bands show cross validation errors (RC=0.221 kg/m2 and RC=0.051 kg/m2 for high-resolution and RC=0.386 kg/m2 for medium resolution) lower than traditional spectral indices ones, good correlations with observed data and a high interpolation capacity (70% and 95%). VWC mean values at medium resolution range between 0.04 kg/m2, for non-irrigated areas, and 0.7 kg/m2, for irrigated crops.

  11. Minimal clinically important differences (MCID) and patient acceptable symptomatic state (PASS) for visual analog scales (VAS) measuring pain in patients treated for rotator cuff disease. (United States)

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Deloach, Julia; Porucznik, Christina A; Powell, Amy P


    The MCID is the smallest difference in an outcome score which a patient perceives as beneficial. The PASS is the score below which patients consider themselves well. The purpose of this study was to determine the MCID and PASS for a visual analog scale (VAS) measuring pain in patients treated for rotator cuff disease. 81 patients with rotator cuff disease were evaluated after 6 weeks of non-operative treatment with a VAS measuring pain and two transition questions utilized in determining the MCID and PASS. The MCID and PASS were estimated to be 1.4 cm (P = .0255) and 3 cm (95% CI - 22.69, 37.31) on a 10 cm VAS measuring pain, respectively. Age (P = .0492) and hand-dominance (P = .0325) affected the MCID while age (P = .0376) and duration of follow-up (P = .0131) affected the PASS. The MCID and PASS estimates provide the basis to determine if statistically significant changes in VAS pain scores after treatment are clinically important and if the treatment allowed patients to achieve a satisfactory state. Level 3; Nonconsecutive series of patients, diagnostic study.

  12. PETER. I. AZIBA * and OKUNOLA M. C.l

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    The Vas Deferens showed unstable contraction in depolarised medium. The result of this suggests that as membrane depolarisation increases contraction in Rat Vas Deferens smooth muscle declined, while Verapamil and Nifedipine were more sensitive in blocking K+ than Ach and NA induced contractions. Afr. J. Biomed.

  13. Structure of vasa deferentia and spermatophores in Parapenaeopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The structure of vasa deferentia and spermatophores has been described in Parapenaeopsis stylifera. The male reproductive system consists of two symmetrical halves; each half bears testis, vas deferens and an ejaculatory duct. Each testis comprised of two to three short, broad and milky white lobes; vas deferens is ...

  14. TOMS ozone data compared at mesoscale resolution to tropopause heights from the AVE radiosonde network and to VAS radiances over the south-central United States (United States)

    Chesters, Dennis; Uccellini, Louis; Larko, David


    Observations from 1982 are being compared between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE), and the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) across Texas and Oklahoma. TOMS data show a significant ozone maximum over northeastern Texas. AVE radiosonde analysis shows tropopause heights with the highest pressure (lowest altitudes) over central Oklahoma accompanied by a mid-level jet across northern Mexico exiting above the Texas-Gulf coast. Corresponding VAS radiances show a dry slot in the middle tropopause across central Texas accompanied by a secondary slot over Oklahoma. The maxima are separated by 100 to 500 km. The impact of TOMS data on tropopause analysis is preliminarily seen as insignificant because TOMS data is not registered with respect to AVE tropopause heights.

  15. Randomized Comparison of the Therapeutic Effect of Acupuncture, Massage, and Tachibana-Style-Method on Stiff Shoulders by Measuring Muscle Firmness, VAS, Pulse, and Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Tachibana


    Full Text Available To compare the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture, massage, and Tachibana-Ryojutsu (one of Japanese traditional body balance therapy techniques (SEITAI, on stiff shoulders, the subjects’ muscle firmness, blood pressure, pulse, VAS, and body temperature were measured before and after the treatment. Forty-seven volunteer subjects gave written informed consent to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups to receive acupuncture, massage, or Tachibana-Ryojutsu. Each therapy lasted for 90 seconds. The acupuncture treatment was applied by a retaining-needle at GB-21, massage was conducted softly on the shoulders, and Tachibana-Ryojutsu treated only the muscles and joints from the legs to buttocks without touching the shoulders or backs. The study indicated that the muscle firmness and VAS of the Tachibana-Ryojutsu group decreased significantly in comparison with the acupuncture and massage groups after treatment.

  16. Development of Toxicity Data for Munition Compounds to Support Toxicity Reference Value Derivations for Wildlife (United States)


    or IVOS) Sperm Analyzer, Version 12.1 Final Report, Toxicology Report No. 87-XE-06ED-05, January 2005−January 2010 7 (Hamilton-Thorne Research...vas deferens were not different across treatments (F = 1.46; df = 5, 48; p = 0.221, data not shown). Sperm counts calculated as number per vas...0.514, data not shown). Epididymal and vas deferens spermatozoan counts, motility, and progression exhibited a decreasing trend in the control

  17. QALY weights for diabetic retinopathy--a comparison of health state valuations with HUI-3, EQ-5D, EQ-VAS, and TTO. (United States)

    Heintz, Emelie; Wiréhn, Ann-Britt; Peebo, Beatrice Bourghardt; Rosenqvist, Ulf; Levin, Lars-Åke


    To estimate quality-adjusted life-year weights for patients with diabetic retinopathy by using various methods and to investigate the empirical validity of the different measures. The study population comprised 152 patients with diabetes in Östergötland County, Sweden. Participants were interviewed by telephone by using the time trade-off (TTO) method and a visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) (direct valuations) as well as the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and the health utilities index mark 3 (HUI-3) (indirect valuations). The quality-adjusted life-year weights were adjusted for potential confounders by using analysis of covariance. The empirical validity of the measures was examined by testing their ability to detect hypothetical differences between severity levels of diabetic retinopathy and by investigating the correlation between the measures and the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). All measures detected significant differences in scores between patient groups classified according to visual impairment in the better eye (analysis of covariance, P VAS detected significant differences between patient groups classified according to visual impairment or pathological progression in the worse eye. HUI-3 recorded a difference of 0.43 in values between normal vision and blindness in the better eye, which was more than twice the differences captured by the other measures (0.15-0.20). In addition, HUI-3 showed the highest correlation with NEI VFQ-25 (r = 0.54; P < 0.001). In cost-utility analyses, the choice of quality-adjusted life-year measure may affect whether an intervention is considered cost-effective. Furthermore, if decisions are to be based on values from the general public, HUI-3 can be recommended for cost-utility analyses of interventions directed at diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Endovascular Treatment of Pelvic Congestion Syndrome: Visual Analog Scale (VAS) Long-Term Follow-up Clinical Evaluation in 202 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, Alicia, E-mail:; Medrano, Joaquin, E-mail: [University of Zaragoza, Group of Research in Minimally Invasive Techniques Research (GITMI) (Spain); Blas, Ignacio de, E-mail: [University of Zaragoza, Edificio Hospital Veterinario, Department of Animal Pathology (Unit of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology) (Spain); Urtiaga, Ignacio, E-mail: [Hospital Clinico Universitario ' Lozano Blesa' , Department of Vascular Surgery (Spain); Carnevale, Francisco Cesar, E-mail: [University of Sao Paulo, Medical School, Interventional Radiology (Brazil); Gregorio, Miguel A. de, E-mail: [University of Zaragoza, Group of Research in Minimally Invasive Techniques Research (GITMI) (Spain)


    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the clinical outcome and patients' satisfaction after a 5 year follow-up period for pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) coil embolization in patients who suffered from chronic pelvic pain that initially consulted for lower limb venous insufficiency.MethodsA total of 202 patients suffering from chronic pelvic pain were recruited prospectively in a single center (mean age 43.5 years; range 27-57) where they were being treated for lower limb varices. Inclusion criteria were: lower limb varices and chronic pelvic pain (>6 months), >6 mm pelvic venous caliber in ultrasonography, and venous reflux or presence of communicating veins. Both ovarian and hypogastric veins were targeted for embolization. Pain level was assessed before and after embolotherapy and during follow-up using a visual analog scale (VAS). Technical and clinical success and recurrence of leg varices were studied. Patients completed a quality questionnaire. Clinical follow-up was performed at 1, 3, and 6 months and every year for 5 years.ResultsTechnical success was 100 %. Clinical success was achieved in 168 patients (93.85 %), with complete disappearance of symptoms in 60 patients (33.52 %). Pain score (VAS) was 7.34 {+-} 0.7 preprocedural versus 0.78 {+-} 1.2 at the end of follow-up (P < 0.0001). Complications were: groin hematoma (n = 6), coil migration (n = 4), and reaction to contrast media (n = 1). Twenty-three cases presented abdominal pain after procedure. In 24 patients (12.5 %), there was recurrence of their leg varices within the follow-up. The mean degree of patients' satisfaction was 7.4/9.ConclusionsCoil embolization of PCS is an effective and safe procedure, with high clinical success rate and degree of satisfaction.

  19. Expression and localization of cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) in the prepubertal and postpubertal male horse. (United States)

    Fedorka, C E; Scoggin, K E; Squires, E L; Ball, B A; Troedsson, M H T


    The seminal plasma protein, cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3), has been correlated with increased fertility and first-cycle conception rates, and has been suggested to be involved in the modulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and phagocytosis of spermatozoa during the inflammatory response to breeding in the horse. Previous research demonstrated that equine CRISP-3 is located in both the ampulla of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. However, this was done with nonquantitative laboratory techniques. In humans and rodents, CRISP-3 has been described as an androgen-dependent protein, but the effect of androgens on the expression of CRISP-3 has not been investigated in the horse. The objectives of this study were to (a) confirm and quantify the expression of CRISP-3 in the male equine reproductive tract, (b) describe the localization of CRISP-3 within the specific tissues which express it, and (c) determine if expression of CRISP-3 increases after puberty. We hypothesized that expression of CRISP-3 would be expressed in both the ampulla of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles, and expression would increase after puberty. Tissues were collected postmortem from three prepubertal colts (3 years). Tissue samples were collected from the ampulla of vas deferens, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral gland, prostate gland, testis, as well as the cauda, corpus, and caput aspects of the epididymis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed using an equine-specific CRISP-3 designed primer and monocolonal antibody. A mixed linear additive model was used to compare mRNA expression between age groups, and significance was set to P CRISP-3 mRNA was found primarily in the ampulla of vas deferens with lesser expression in the seminal vesicles. Expression of CRISP-3 was higher in the postpubertal stallion when compared with the prepubertal colt for the ampulla (P CRISP-3 is primarily located in the glandular

  20. Imposex in Voluta musica (Caenogastropoda: Volutidae) from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya, Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peralta, Ana Carolina; Miloslavich, Patricia; Bigatti, Gregorio


    Voluta musica is a dioecious marine gastropod endemic of the South Caribbean. Tributyltin (TBT) and copper (Cu) are potential inducers of imposex, an endocrine disorder by which females develop a penis and/or vas deferens...

  1. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... organs include the testes, epididymis, urethra, vas deferens, prostate gland, seminal vesicle, and penis. The testes are ... ducts toward the urethra, passing first by the prostate gland, where a milky fluid is added to ...

  2. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urethra, vas deferens, prostate gland, seminal vesicle, and penis. The testes are composed of coiled structures called ... this structure. The ejaculation process begins as the penis fills with blood and becomes erect. With sufficient ...

  3. Inhibitory effects of Ledebouria ovaltifolia (hyacithaceae) aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibitory effects of Ledebouria ovaltifolia (hyacithaceae) aqueous root extract on contractile responses of Rat Vas deferens to K and adrenaline, pendular movement of isolated rabbit jejunum and acetic acid induced pain in Mice.

  4. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to cause permanent sterility in a man by preventing the transport of sperm out of the testes. ... vas deferens is tied off and cut apart preventing sperm from being released within the ejaculate. The ...

  5. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available The key male reproductive organs include the testes, epididymis, urethra, vas deferens, prostate gland, seminal vesicle, and penis. The testes are composed of coiled structures called seminiferous tubules, which are the ...

  6. Surgical sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection as treatment of obstructive azoospermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Dohle (Gert); L. Ramos; M.H. Pieters; D.D.M. Braat (Didi); R.F.A. Weber (Robert)


    textabstractMale genital tract obstructions may result from infections, previous inguinal and scrotal surgery (vasectomy) and congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD). Microsurgery can sometimes be successful in treating the obstruction. In other cases


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Shilov


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the study of a little known homily of Meister Eckhart («Vas auri solidum» which he preached on Saint Augustine’s feast day in Paris. Before including the translation of this discourse, the author discusses the specific nature of the so-called academic homily. Preaching a homily was regarded as one of the obligations of a university professor of the time and this task was regulated according to strict guidelines and requirements. Such a homily possessed a specific structure. The author explains its main requirement. This type of homily was meant to explain and interpret a chosen text taken from Holy Scripture. Meister Eckhart actually planned to compose an extended three-part work combining elements of philosophy and theology which was to be known as his Opus tripartitum. One of its parts was to be a collection of model homilies (Opus sermonus. He began this work but did not finish it. Although we today possess only a few sketches and outlines of the Latin homilies of Meister Eckhart, which themselves are characterised by their lack of structure, they provide an excellent understanding of the mind of their author as well as rare insight into the place of Saint Augustine as a master of scholastic thought. In addition, this homily provides the only indication of the place of birth of the renowned mediaeval author. After an in-depth study of the text of the homily, the author concludes that Meister Eckhart borrowed his outline and system of classification from the School of Chartres and especially from Clarembald of Arras, an interpreter of Boethius. Using these sources, Eckhart formulated his idea of the two ways of knowing God: the way of ethics (Augustine and the way of metaphysics (Aristotle, Dionysius the Areopagite and Boethius

  8. Unilateral Complete Agenesis of Mesonephric Duct Derivatives in an 82-year-Old Male Cadaver: Embryology, Anatomy and Clinical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Darcy


    Full Text Available Development of urogenital anatomy in the human fetus is the result of a complex interplay between multiple different tissues. The time course of development is well documented and the morphologic outcomes of insults at various time points during development are predictable. We present a cadaveric case of unilateral agenesis of the left kidney, ureter, bladder hemitrigone, ureteric opening, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, and epididymis. Failure of development of the mesonephric duct early during embryogenesis, likely between the third and fifth week, caused ipsilateral urogenital organ agenesis.

  9. Canopy Water Content retrieval at different scales from empirical and physically-based remote sensing methods in the SMOS VAS cal/val site (United States)

    Camacho de Coca, Fernando

    The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) space mission from the European Space Agency (ESA) is aimed to observe soil moisture over the continents and sea surface salinity over the oceans with enough resolution to be used in global climatic studies. Calibration and validation of SMOS products is an essential activity due to the exploratory nature of the mission. After launch, intense field activities will collect in situ information simultaneous to SMOS obser-vations in order to improve the empirical aspects of retrieval algorithms and to validate the products generated from these observations. One of the cal/val site selected over land is the Valencia Anchor station site (with an extended area for SMOS of 125 x 125 km2), where soil moisture will be measure intensively in 2010. In order to validate the SMOS soil moisture algorithms is necessary to characterize the water content in the vegetation canopy layer. This paper describes the retrieval of the canopy water content (CWC) in the Valencia Anchor station site at different scales using high-resolution satellite sensors and low resolution MODIS data. Two different approaches has been used: (??) an empirical approach has been used for mapping CWC over the VAS site during field campaigns, (??) artificial neural network has been trained with radiative transfer model simulations to analyze the performance of this approach for mapping CWC. 1. Two field campaigns were carried out to collect CWC at ground level in the study area over vineyards and irrigated crops. Measured CWC values for vineyard crops ranged between 0.05 and 0.2 kg/m2, and over irrigated crops CWC ranged between 0.1 and 1,5 kg/m2, which correspond with the full range of expected variations in the study area. An empirical relationship based on a multivariate ordinary least squares algorithm between the collected ground dataset and concomitant reflectance values coming from high resolution (HR) satellite sensors has been selected to produce CWC HR maps

  10. Metabolic and clinical assessment of efficacy of cryoablation therapy on skeletal masses by {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and visual analogue scale (VAS): initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Bartolucci, Alberto D.; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [University Hospital Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Rome (Italy); Schillaci, Orazio; Calabria, Ferdinando [University Hospital Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Rome (Italy); I.R.C.C.S. Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Neuroradiology, Pozzilli (Italy); Policlinico Tor Vegata, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Rome (Italy)


    Various therapy modalities have been proposed as standard treatments in management of bone metastases. Radiation therapy remains the standard of care for patients with localized bone pain, but up to 30% of them do not experience notable pain relief. Percutaneous cryoablation is a minimally invasive technique that induces necrosis by alternately freezing and thawing a target tissue. This technique is successfully used to treat a variety of malignant and benign diseases in different sites. {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) is a single technique of imaging that provides in a ''single step'' both morphological and metabolic features of neoplastic lesions of the bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the cryosurgical technique on secondary musculoskeletal masses according to semi-quantitative PET analysis and clinical-test evaluation with the visual analogue scale (VAS). We enrolled 20 patients with painful bone lesions (score pain that exceeded 4 on the VAS) that were non-responsive to treatment; one lesion per patient was treated. All patients underwent a PET-CT evaluation before and 8 weeks after cryotherapy; maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) was measured before and after treatment for metabolic assessment of response to therapy. After treatment, 18 patients (90%) showed considerable reduction in SUV{sub max} value (>50%) suggestive of response to treatment; only 2 patients did not show meaningful reduction in metabolic activity. Our preliminary study demonstrates that quantitative analysis provided by PET correlates with response to cryoablation therapy as assessed by CT data and clinical VAS evaluation. (orig.)

  11. Zīmola vērtība no patērētāju perspektīvas sporta apģerbu un apavu tirgū.


    Kadakovska, Agnese


    Bakalaura darba tēma ir “Zīmola vērtība no patērētāju perspektīvas sporta apģērbu un apavu tirgū”. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir pamatojoties uz izpētīto teorētisko informāciju par zīmola vērtības no patērētāju perspektīvas veidošanu, identificēt patērētāju skatījumā vērtīgākos sporta apģērbu un apavu tirgus zīmolus Latvijā un izstrādāt priekšlikumus to vērtības palielināšanai. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no ievada, 3 nodaļām, secinājumiem un priekšlikumiem, izmantotās literatūras saraksta un pielikum...

  12. The adult boar testicular and epididymal transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyonnet Benoît


    information. Conclusion This study described for the first time the complete transcriptomes of the testis, the epididymis, the vas efferens and the vas deferens on the same species. It described new genes or genes not yet reported over-expressed in these boar tissues, as well as new control mechanisms. It emphasizes and fulfilled the gap between studies done in rodents and human, and provides tools that will be useful for further studies on the biochemical processes responsible for the formation and maintain of the epididymal regionalization and the development of a fertile spermatozoa.

  13. (H. Milne Edwards) (Decapoda: Penaeidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 24, 2014 ... The structure of vasa deferentia and spermatophores has been described in Parapenaeopsis stylifera. The male reproductive system consists of two symmetrical halves; each half bears testis, vas deferens and an ejaculatory duct. Each testis comprised of two to three short, broad and milky white lobes; vas.

  14. Retinoid X receptor gene expression and protein content in tissues of the rock shell Thais clavigera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro [Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)], E-mail:; Nishikawa, Tomohiro [Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Ohta, Yasuhiko [Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyamacho-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi [Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)


    To elucidate the role of retinoid X receptor (RXR) in the development of imposex caused by organotin compounds in gastropod molluscs, we investigated RXR gene expression and RXR protein content in various tissues of male and female wild rock shells (Thais clavigera). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry with a commercial antibody against human RXR {alpha} revealed that RXR gene expression was significantly higher in the penises of males and imposex-exhibiting females than in the penis-forming areas of normal females (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Western blotting demonstrated that the antibody could detect rock shell RXR and showed that the male penis had the highest content of RXR protein among the analyzed tissues of males and normal females. Immunohistochemical staining revealed nuclear localization of RXR protein in the epithelial and smooth muscle cells of the vas deferens and in the interstitial or connective tissues and epidermis of the penis in males and imposex-exhibiting females. RXR could be involved in the mechanism of induction of male-type genitalia (penis and vas deferens) by organotin compounds in female rock shells.

  15. Vitamin A deficiency impairs adaptive B and T cell responses to a prototype monovalent attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and virulent human rotavirus challenge in a gnotobiotic piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep S Chattha

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses (RV are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFNα cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12 and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10 cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2 and IFNγ (PID6 compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more

  16. Hospitālas urrīnceļu infekcijas profilakse un ārstēšana pie mazinvazīvas uroloģiskas iejaukšanās


    Ņemirovska, Irina


    Urīnceļu infekcija pacientiem pēc ureteroskopiskas operācijas (URS) pie nierakmeņu slimības (NAS) ir nozīmīga medicīniska problēma. URS ir ļoti bieža un droša ambulatorā procedūra. Tomēr komplikācijas ir un tās neaprobežojas ar infekciju. Pētījuma mērķis un metodes: Zinātniskā pētījuma primārais mērķis bija iegūt datus par urīnceļu infekciju biežumu pēc mazinvazīvas uroloģiskas iejaukšanas (pēc NAS) Latvijā PSKUS Uroloģijas nodaļā un izanalizēt urīnceļu infekcijas epidemioloģiju, riska ...

  17. Nākotnes perspektīvas suverēnās labklājības fondu darbībā Persijas Līča Sadarbības padomes reģionā


    Broka, Sintija


    Mana bakalaura darba tēma ir „Nākotnes perspektīvas suverēnās labklājības fondu darbībā Persijas Līča Sadarbības Padomes reģionā”. Mērķis ir izpētīt, suverēnās labklājības fondu attīstību nākotnē. Uzdevumi - starptautiskās finanšu sistēmas raksturojums, reģiona un turētājvalstu ekonomisko rādītāju, dokumentācijas un informācijas avotu analīze. Pētījums - trīs suverēnās labklājības fondu rādītāju analīze, stratēģiju noteikšana, darbības apjoma pieauguma radītāju analīze un secinājumu veidošan...

  18. Ultrastructure of male reproductive system of Eurydema ventrale Kolenati 1846 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye


    The male reproductive system of Eurydema ventrale Kolenati 1846 is studied morphologically and histologically by using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The reproductive system of the male E.ventrale consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands, a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, and differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens that is a specialized in sperm storage. Sperm have an elongated head and a tail (flagellum) with an axonema and two mitochondrial derivatives. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles are fine, long, and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius, which is balloon shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which is connected to the aedeagus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The morphology and histology of the male reproductive system in Dolycoris baccarum Linnaeus 1758 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)--light and scanning electron micoscope studies. (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye


    The male reproductive system of Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus 1758) is studied morphologically and histologically using both light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The reproductive system of the male D. baccarum consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands (mesadenia, ectadenia), a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The number of testicular follicles varies from four to six. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles, which are fine-long and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius which is balloon-shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which connected to the aedeagus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Visual analogue scales (VAS): Measuring instruments for the documentation of symptoms and therapy monitoring in cases of allergic rhinitis in everyday health care: Position Paper of the German Society of Allergology (AeDA) and the German Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), ENT Section, in collaboration with the working group on Clinical Immunology, Allergology and Environmental Medicine of the German Society of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DGHNOKHC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimek, Ludger; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Biedermann, Tilo; Bousquet, Jean; Hellings, Peter; Jung, Kirsten; Merk, Hans; Olze, Heidi; Schlenter, Wolfgang; Stock, Philippe; Ring, Johannes; Wagenmann, Martin; Wehrmann, Wolfgang; Mösges, Ralph; Pfaar, Oliver


    Visual analogue scales (VAS) are psychometric measuring instruments designed to document the characteristics of disease-related symptom severity in individual patients and use this to achieve a rapid (statistically measurable and reproducible) classification of symptom severity and disease control.

  1. Mapping health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) onto the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score with the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data. (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dam; Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Min-Young; Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hwajeong; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Kyung


    The aim of this study was to estimate the mapping model for EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility values using the health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) in a large, nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Korea. The KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data on 3557 patients with RA were used. Data were randomly divided into a modeling set (80 % of the data) and a validation set (20 % of the data). The ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and two-part model methods were employed to construct a model to map to the EQ-5D index. Using a combination of HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28, four model versions were examined. To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the models, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated using the validation dataset. A model that included HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 produced the highest adjusted R (2) as well as the lowest Akaike information criterion, RMSE, and MAE, regardless of the statistical methods used in modeling set. The mapping equation of the OLS method is given as EQ-5D = 0.95-0.21 × HAQ-DI-0.24 × pain VAS/100-0.01 × DAS28 (adjusted R (2) = 57.6 %, RMSE = 0.1654 and MAE = 0.1222). Also in the validation set, the RMSE and MAE were shown to be the smallest. The model with HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 showed the best performance, and this mapping model enabled the estimation of an EQ-5D value for RA patients in whom utility values have not been measured.

  2. Visual analogue scales (VAS): Measuring instruments for the documentation of symptoms and therapy monitoring in cases of allergic rhinitis in everyday health care: Position Paper of the German Society of Allergology (AeDA) and the German Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), ENT Section, in collaboration with the working group on Clinical Immunology, Allergology and Environmental Medicine of the German Society of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DGHNOKHC). (United States)

    Klimek, Ludger; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Biedermann, Tilo; Bousquet, Jean; Hellings, Peter; Jung, Kirsten; Merk, Hans; Olze, Heidi; Schlenter, Wolfgang; Stock, Philippe; Ring, Johannes; Wagenmann, Martin; Wehrmann, Wolfgang; Mösges, Ralph; Pfaar, Oliver


    Visual analogue scales (VAS) are psychometric measuring instruments designed to document the characteristics of disease-related symptom severity in individual patients and use this to achieve a rapid (statistically measurable and reproducible) classification of symptom severity and disease control. VAS can also be used in routine patient history taking and to monitor the course of a chronic disease such as allergic rhinitis (AR). More specifically, the VAS has been used to assess effectiveness of AR therapy in real life, both in intermittent and persistent disease. This position paper takes a detailed look at the historical development of VAS and its method-specific principles. Particular focus is put on aspects of practical application in daily routine and on a critical discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the individual methods. VAS are well validated for the measurement of AR symptoms and correlate well with the ARIA (allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma) severity classification and also correlated well with rTNSS and RQLQ. Moreover, several treatment studies on AR have used VAS as an evaluation parameter. Thanks to the use of new (real-life and real-time) communication technologies, such as smartphone apps, Discussion: VAS can be used relatively simply and highly effectively to assess disease control. The VAS lends itself very well to digitization and has now been incorporated into a smartphone app (called Allergy Diary) to assess AR control and direct treatment decisions as part of an AR clinical decision support system (CDSS). MASK Rhinitis has developed this app, which is currently available in 15 different languages.

  3. The image of war in the articles and notes of Vas. I. Nemirovich-Danchenko during the Russian-Turkish (1877—1878 and Russian-Japanese (1904—1905 wars: the stories and the social stereotypes which formed it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theme of forming the war image, in particular, considering the influence of Russian social stereotypes in the second half of 19th — early 20th century. The main sources of this work were the articles and notes that were creating by the famous journalist and writer Vas. I. Nemirovich-Danchenko. As a war correspondent he participated in almost all major conflicts of the second half of 19th — early 20th century and left a significant mark in j ournalism and literature. All ofthis works were written during Russian-Turkish (1877—1878 and Russian-Japanese (1904—1905 wars. These were not only main social fears and stereotypes of Russian society about coming war and enemy, but also the stories and collective images brought in the articles to make the stereotypes stronger or to deny it. Nemirovich-Danchenko developed his own personal collection of images and techniques, which he managed to convey the most delicate nuances necessary to achieve its objectives. Formed during the Russian-Turkish war this collection of images has undergone only minor changes. It enriched the author’s reflections on the theme of evolution wars that he had seen. Analysis of materials of this article was produced in accordance with modern views of the scientific community on the problems of formation of the images of war. The aim was to show the real influence of public attitudes and views on the development of stereotypes and their expression in the press. First of all it concerns the period immediately before the war and the development of pre-existing views. The author investigated the prognostic and simultaneous steps of forming the images of war, but left beyond reasoning retrospective (final view.

  4. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus. (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A


    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks' GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks' GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks' GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetuses that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences.

  5. Testicular morphometry and sperm reserves of local turkey toms fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphometry and sperm reserves of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens of three groups (n=5/ group) of sexually active adult local turkey toms fed isocaloric diet with varying levels (12 %, 16 %, 20 %) of protein were studied for sixteen weeks. The weights of the toms before treatment were between 3.5 – 4.5 kg, while ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    and ultrastructural changes in testis, prostate gland, vas deferens and cauda epididymal epithelial cell types (Kasturi et al., 2002;. Ghodesawar et al., 2004a, 2004b). Additionally, changes in spermatogenic pattern and ultrastructural changes in Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and cauda epididymal spermatozoa induced by A.

  7. Antifertility studies of Aegle marmelos Corr., an Indian medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment tested the antifertility effect of Aegle marmelos. Oral administration of aqueous extract to male rats brought about a highly significant decrease in the weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and vas deferens. Sperm motility as well as sperm density in the cauda epididymis was reduced ...

  8. Mutation frequency of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator is not increased in oligozoospermic male candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuerlings, J H; Mol, B; Kremer, J A; Looman, M; Meuleman, E J; te Meerman, G J; Buys, C H; Merkus, H M; Scheffer, H

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency of anomalies of the vas deferens and the frequency of mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene in male candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) who had severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. DESIGN: The clinical data for

  9. Effects of drugs and ionic variations on contractions of rat smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Rat Stomach Strip (RSS), and Rat Vas Deferens (RVD) using known Ca2+ channel and specific receptor blockers. Atropine and Phentolamine respectively blocked Ach and NA competitively. While effect on K+- induced contraction was unaffected. The Rat ileum and Rat Stomach Strip has more pool of intracellular Ca2+ ...

  10. Effects of methanolic root extract of ledebouria ovaltifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the receptor effects of methanolic root extract of ledebouria ovaltifolia on Acetylcholine and Potassium (K+) induced contractions in Rat stomach strip (RSS), Adrenaline and K+ (induce contractions) in rat vas deferens (RVD), and carbachol and K+ induced contractions in rat uterus (RUT). Effects of ...

  11. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    Lindane is a known endocrine disruptor in animals, and is associated with a range of serious effects on reproduction and development. These effects include testicular damage, reduced sperm production, inhibited testis steroidogenesis, atrophy of accessory sex organs, including epididymis, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, ...

  12. Simultaneous effects of Hall and convective conditions on peristaltic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Research Institute of Intelligent Control and Systems, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin,. 150080, People's ... ureters, food material through the digestive tract, semen in vas deferens, spermatozoa in ductus efferentes, blood ...... Appendix A. The conservation laws for the governing flow problems are as follows: ∂ ¯U.

  13. Mikrokirurgisk varicoceleoperation: en retrospektiv opgørelse af danske resultater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens; Mikines, Kári J


    of 132 patients were included in the study. Ten recurrences (8%) and ten complications (8%) were found (one lesion of the vas deferens, six haematomas, two hydroceles and one patient with haematoma/infection). Following surgery, two patients underwent orchiectomy due to a lack of blood flow and sustained...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The role of seminal fructose concentration does not only lie in the assessment of seminal vesicle dysfunction but in conjunction with other ... tory duct obstruction, seminal vesicle dysfunction or hy- poplasia (Aumuller and Riva, 1992). ..... tecting agenesis of seminal vesicles or the vas deferens. J Androl 21(2): 207-212.

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical history (e.g., previous genitourinary surgery). Toxin exposure. Physical examination. Genital infection (e.g., discharge, prostate tenderness). Hernia. Presence of vas deferens. Signs of androgen deficiency (e.g., increased body fat, decreased muscle mass, decreased facial and body hair, small testes, Tanner stage.

  16. Ovarian Stimulation and the Endometrium: New Approaches and Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. van der Gaast (Mark)


    textabstractWhen one considers the recognized 'causes' of infertility, problems with gamete quality and availability rank highly, as does the means of their transport, whether it be through the fallopian tubes in the female or vas deferens in the male. Conception is seen as the primary goal, and

  17. Protective role of vitamin C against lindane toxicity on the histo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the protective effects of vitamin C against the toxic effects of lindane on the epididymis and vas deferens of male mice. There were four treatments: controls (untreated), lindane (20 mg/kg), lindane plus vitamin C (10 mg/kg) and vitamin C only. Lindane induced histopathological alterations in the epididymis and ...

  18. Painful orgasm in an adolescent after seminal-sparing cystoprostatectomy: a puzzling symptom. (United States)

    Angelini, Lorenzo; Castagnetti, Marco; Rigamonti, Waifro


    An 18-year-old boy, followed up after seminal-sparing cystectomy for bladder rhabdomyosarcoma, presented complaining of recurrent episodes of left scrotal/inguinal pain arising after orgasms. Full work-up ruled out disease recurrence, but showed enlarged seminal vesicles. Ligation of the vas deferens was unsuccessful. The patient was started on α-blockers to reduce vas contractions with improvement of symptoms. The possible pathophysiology and treatments of this symptom are discussed. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Vibroacoustic stimulation in normal term human pregnancy. (United States)

    D'Elia, A; Pighetti, M; Vanacore, F; Fabbrocini, G; Arpaia, L


    To examine the effects of vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) on fetal heart rate (FHR) in term human fetuses by computerized carditocography system. FHR was analyzed 20 min before and 30 min after vibroacoustic stimulation using the Oxford Sonicaid System 8002 for computerized FHR measurement. Recordings were made in 31 uncomplicated pregnancies at 36-42 weeks' gestation. Vibroacustic stimulation of the fetus evoked a significant increase in all the parameters evaluated (number of fetal movements, of accelerations above 10 and 15 bpm, in high- and low-variability episodes, and in short-term variations). Concerning the effect of behavioural states on the response to VAS, some changes (FHR, high-variability episodes) occurred independently of behavioural states, while other parameters (accelerations >10 and 15 bpm: short-term variation) underwent statistically significant changes only for behavioural states 1F and 2F. Our study supports the hypothesis of a significant fetal response in normal term pregnancy, as clearly shown by computerized cardiotocography. The immediate response occurred independently of behavioural states, although some differences were present (mainly for F1 and F2 states) if the evaluation was extended in time.

  20. Vasectomy occlusion technique combining thermal cautery and fascial interposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Labrecque


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent research on vasectomy shows that combining cautery and fascial interposition (FI achieves the most effective occlusion of the vas and minimizes the risk of failure. We present a technique that combines cautery and FI and is suitable for low-resource settings. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The surgical technique consists of 1 exposing the vas with the no-scalpel approach; 2 cauterizing the epithelium of lumen of the vas using a portable battery-powered cautery device; 3 performing FI by grasping internal spermatic fascia and applying a free tie with suture material on the fascia to cover the prostatic stump of the vas and separate the two ends of the cut vas; and 4 excising a small 0.5 to 1 cm of the testicular stump. COMMENTS: To maximize vasectomy effectiveness, vasectomy providers should consider learning thermal cautery and FI to occlude vas deferens.

  1. AVE/VAS 5: 25-mb sounding data (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.


    The rawinsonde sounding program is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals for the 24 and 14 special stations participation in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals. The method of processing soundings is discussed briefly, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the meso beta scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  2. AVE/VAS 4: 25-mb sounding data (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.


    The rawinsonde sounding program is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals for the 24 stations and 14 special stations participating in the experiment is presented. Sounding were taken at 3 hr intervals. An additional sounding was taken at the normal synoptic observation time. Some soundings were computed from raw ordinate data, while others were interpolated from significant level data.

  3. Cryptosystem Based On Finger Vein Patterns Using Vas Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Cryptosystems based on biometrics authentication is developing areas in the field of modernize security schemes. Elastic distortion of fingerprints is one of the major causes for false non-match. While this problem affects all fingerprint identification function it is especially dangerous in opposite identification function such as note list and reduplication function. In such function malicious possessors may purposely distort their fingerprints to evade identification. Distortion rectification or equivalently distortion field estimation is viewed as a regression problem where the input is a distorted fingerprint and the output is the distortion field. The current document deals with the application of finger veins pattern as an approach for possessor confirmation and encryption key generation. The design of the optical imprison scheme by near infrared is described. We propose a step for the location of the vein crossing points and the quantification of the angles between the vein-branches this information is used to generate a personal key that allows the possessor to encrypt information after the confirmation is approved. In order to demonstrate the potential of the suggested approach and model of figure encryption is developed. All action biometric imprison figure presetting key generation and figure encryption are performed on the identical hidden platform adding an important portability and diminishing the execution time.

  4. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its two receptors in normal human endometrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 陈贵安


    Objectives: We try to demonstrate the expression of vascular endothelial growthfactor (VEGF) and its receptors, flt-1 and KDR, in normal human emdometrium duringthe menstrual cycle.Methods: Immunohistochemical method was used to observe the expression ofVEGF and its two receptors in emdometrium throughout the normal menstrual cyclemeanwhile the isoforms of VEGF were also detected by Western blot analysis. The en-dothelial cells of micro-vessels were marked with Ⅷ factor antibody.Results: VEGF and its receptors existed in endometrial glandular, stromal and vas-cular endothelial cells of human endometrium. Their expressions were higher in the mid-secretory phase of menstrual cycle and highest at menstruation. VEGF121 and VEGF165were the predominant isoforms in normal human endometrium.Conclusion: The expression of VEGF and its two receptors showed cycle-dependentin human endometrium, probably involved in embryonic implantation and endometrialproliferation and differentiation.

  5. More Human than Human. (United States)

    Lawrence, David


    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANDIA. I .N


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Growth population control on the animal population dwelling a restricted habitat is very important to decrease, especially the negative impact on its surrounding environment. This Community Service was conducted as an application of vasectomy on an adult male of long tailed macaque occupying the tourist destination of Sangeh. This was the choosen method to overcome the overcrowded population. Vasectomy is surgical division of all or part of the vas deferens to induce sterility. One selected adult male monkey was anesthetized successfully using blowpipe. Surgical resection of part of vas deferens used a bilateral slicing method. Vasectomy was fully done nearly in one hour, and the monkey was released to habitat in the following three days of captivity.

  7. Establishment of a polyclonal antibody against the retinoid X receptor of the rock shell Thais clavigera and its application to rock shell tissues for imposex research. (United States)

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Iguchi, Taisen; Shiraishi, Hiroaki


    In the chain of study to further elucidate the role of retinoid X receptor (RXR) in the development of imposex caused by organotin compounds in gastropod mollusks, we established a polyclonal antibody against RXR of the rock shell Thais clavigera. Immunoblotting demonstrated that this antibody could recognize T. clavigera RXR. In males and imposex-exhibiting females, immunohistochemical staining with the antibody revealed nuclear localization of RXR protein in the epithelial and smooth muscle cells of the vas deferens and in the interstitial and epidermal cells of the penis. These results suggest that the polyclonal antibody against T. clavigera RXR can specifically recognize RXR protein in tissues of T. clavigera and therefore is useful for evaluating RXR protein localization. Furthermore, RXR may be involved in the induction of male-type genitalia (penis and vas deferens) in normal male and organotin-exposed female rock shells.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Wandia


    Full Text Available Population growth and aggressiveness are important factors on macaque populations that their habitats are used as tourist destinations. Controlling those two factors may decrease the negative impact of the macaque population both to the environment and the internal circumstance of the population. This Community Service was packed as a vasectomy and canine cutting services on the adult male of long tailed macaques occupying a tourist destination of Pura Batu Pageh, Ungasan Village, Badung Regency. Vasectomy is a surgical division of all or part of vas deferens to induce sterility. Surgical resection of part of vas deferens used a midline slicing method. In this program, one selectively adult male was successfully vasectomized and the four canines were also cut successfully. Later inspection showed that there was no any problem with the individual that formerly subjected to medical treatments and even the wounds went to be healing completely.

  9. Double-stranded DNA breaks hidden in the neutral Comet assay suggest a role of the sperm nuclear matrix in DNA integrity maintenance


    Ribas-Maynou, J.; Gawecka, J.E.; Benet, J.; Ward, W.S.


    We used a mouse model in which sperm DNA damage was induced to understand the relationship of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks to sperm chromatin structure and to the Comet assay. Sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) produces dsDNA breaks located on the matrix attachment regions, between protamine toroids. In this model, epididymal sperm induced to undergo SCF can religate dsDNA breaks while vas deferens sperm cannot. Here, we demonstrated that the conventional neutral Comet assay underestim...

  10. Inhibition of noradrenaline release by lysergic acid diethylamide (United States)

    Hughes, J.


    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) inhibits the release of labelled noradrenaline from the guinea-pig vas deferens during intramural nerve stimulation and causes a corresponding reduction in the contractions of the smooth muscle. These effects of LSD are most prominent at low stimulus frequencies and they are prevented by treatment with phentolamine. It is concluded that LSD inhibits noradrenaline release by interacting with presynaptic α-adrenoceptors. PMID:4788042

  11. A first record of biphallia in imposexed female of Leucozonia nassa(Caenogastropoda: Fasciolariidae)


    Castro, Ítalo Braga de; Pinheiro, Jully Cristiny Lopes; Meirelles, Carlos Augusto Oliveira de


    imposex is characterized by the development of male characteristics, such as the penis and vas deferens, in female prosobranch gastropods, caused by organotin compounds contamination. In Brazil, imposex was observed in the muricids Stramonita haemastoma and Stramonita rustica and in the olivid Olivancillaria vesica. During the low tide, 54 adult individuals of Leucozonia nassa were manually collected in February 2004 at Ilha do Japonês tidal flat, Cabo Frio County, Rio de Janeiro ...

  12. Vesicular noradrenaline stores in peripheral nerves of the rat and their modification by tranylcypromine.


    Fillenz, M; Stanford, S. C.


    1 Vesicular noradrenaline stores were compared in the heart, salivary gland and vas deferens of the rat. 2 Noradrenaline storage vesicles in nerve terminals of different organs differed with respect to the amount of noradrenaline they contain in the endogenous store (content), the amount of exogenous noradrenaline they can take up from the circulation (uptake) and the amount of noradrenaline they contain when they are saturated (total storage capacity). 3 The data suggest that the vesicles in...

  13. ミューラー管嚢腫に開口した精管開口異常の1例


    三浦, 猛; 高橋, 剛


    A case of ectopic vas deferens opening into Mullerian duct cyst in a neonatal baby was reported. He was admitted to the Shizuoka children's Hospital on July 4, 1979 with growth retardation. At the first medical examination, abnormal murmur on left anterior chest wall (VSD & PH) and bilateral undescended testis (grade II) was recognized. However, external genitalia was normal. Urinalysis showed infectious findings. There existed a cystic mass located at the back and middle of posterior urethra...

  14. Toxicologic and Analytical Studies with T-2 and Related Trichothecene Mycotoxins (United States)


    1978; Frolich z’t al., 1980). Moreover, norepinephrine potentiates the in vitro biosynthesis of thromboxane (Wolfe, 1976). Feedback mechanisms...30. Stjarne, L. (1973). Al~pha-adrenoceptor mediated feedback control of sympathetic neurotransmitter secretion in guinea pig vas deferens. Nat. New...crossbred gilts . The ’Pigs were killed 24 or 48 hours after treatment and selected tissues were examined by light and electron microscopy. On gross

  15. Vasectomy and vasectomy reversal: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Ramasamy


    Full Text Available Vasectomy is an elective surgical sterilization procedure for men that is intended to obstruct or remove a portion of both vas deferens, thereby preventing sperm from moving from the testes to the ejaculatory ducts. Although intended for permanent sterilization, vasectomy can be reversed in most men seeking to restore their fertility due to a change in marital status or reproductive goals. The purpose of this document is to provided a synopsis of the latest techniques used in vasectomy and reversal.

  16. Vasectomy and vasectomy reversal: An update (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Schlegel, Peter N.


    Vasectomy is an elective surgical sterilization procedure for men that is intended to obstruct or remove a portion of both vas deferens, thereby preventing sperm from moving from the testes to the ejaculatory ducts. Although intended for permanent sterilization, vasectomy can be reversed in most men seeking to restore their fertility due to a change in marital status or reproductive goals. The purpose of this document is to provided a synopsis of the latest techniques used in vasectomy and reversal. PMID:21716894

  17. Estructura del aparato reproductor masculino de Uca uruguayensis (Decapoda, Ocypodidae)


    Cuartas,Elena Irene; Petriella,Ana María


    The structure of the male reproductive tract was described in Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901, by using histological methods, scanning electron microscopy techniques, and stereoscopic observations of fresh material. The aim of this work was to establish the functional changes associated with sexual maturation. The morphology of the first (G1) and second (G2) pair of gonopods was described. The male reproductive tract consists of paired organs: testes, and tubular and convoluted vas deferens (VD...

  18. Screening of Two Neighboring CFTR Mutations in Iranian Infertile Men with Non-Obstructive Azoospermia


    Somayeh Heidari; Zohreh Hojati; Majid Motovali-Bashi


    The genetic association between cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations and male infertility due to congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is well established. Mutant CFTR, however may also be involved in the etiology of male infertility in non-CBAVD cases. The present study was conducted to estimate the frequency of ?I507 and ?F508 CFTR gene mutations in Iranian infertile males. We undertook the first study of association between these CFTR mut...

  19. Effects of periodontal afferent inputs on corticomotor excitability in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Boudreau, S; Wang, M


    The aim of the present study was to determine in humans whether local anaesthesia (LA) or nociceptive stimulation of the periodontal ligaments affects the excitability of the face primary motor cortex (MI) related to the tongue and jaw muscles, as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS...... (MEP) stimulus-response curves and corticomotor maps were acquired for the tongue and masseter muscles before (baseline) and at 5, 30 and 60 min post-application of carbocain or capsaicin. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-MEP stimulus-response curves were also acquired at these time points...... for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) as an internal control. Burning pain intensity and mechanical sensitivity ratings to a von Frey filament applied to the application site were recorded on an electronic visual analogue scale (VAS). All subjects reported a decreased mechanical sensitivity (anova: P = 0...

  20. Rapid local anesthesia in humans using minimally invasive microneedles. (United States)

    Gupta, Jyoti; Denson, Donald D; Felner, Eric I; Prausnitz, Mark R


    This study tested the hypothesis that minimally invasive microneedles cause less pain during injection of lidocaine, but induce local anesthesia in humans with the same rapid onset and efficacy as intradermal lidocaine injection using hypodermic needles. This study was a randomized, single-blinded, within participants, controlled design. Hollow, 500-μm long microneedles were used to inject lidocaine to the forearm of 15 human participants. The associated pain was recorded using a visual analog (VAS) scale. The area and depth of numbness were determined at 0, 7.5, and 15 minutes after injection. Lidocaine was also injected to the dorsum of the hand near a vein, followed by placement of an intravenous catheter and measurement of associated pain. A 26-gauge intradermal bevel hypodermic needle similarly administered lidocaine on the opposite forearm/hand to serve as the positive control. VAS pain scores revealed that injection using microneedles was significantly less painful than hypodermic needles for both the forearm and dorsum of the hand injections. However, there was no significant difference in the area or depth of the resulting numbness between the 2 treatment methods at any time point (0, 7.5, and 15 min) indicating that microneedles had immediate onset and were as effective as hypodermic needles in inducing dermal anesthesia. Moreover, insertion of an intravenous catheter immediately after lidocaine injection on the dorsum of the hand led to comparable pain scores for the microneedle and hypodermic needle treated sites, further confirming efficacy of microneedles in inducing rapid local anesthesia. Lastly, 77% of the participants preferred microneedles and 80% indicated that they did not consider microneedles to be painful. This study demonstrates for the first time that microneedle-based lidocaine injection is as rapid and as effective as hypodermic injection in inducing local anesthesia while resulting in significantly less pain during injection.

  1. Disease spectrum and treatment patterns in a local male infertility clinic. (United States)

    Ho, K L; Tsu, James H L; Tam, P C; Yiu, M K


    To review disease spectrum and treatment patterns in a local male infertility clinic. Case series. Male infertility clinic in a teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Patients who were seen as new cases in a local male infertility clinic between January 2008 and December 2012. Infertility assessment and counselling on treatment options. Disease spectrum and treatment patterns. A total of 387 new patients were assessed in the male infertility clinic. The mean age of the patients and their female partners was 37.2 and 32.1 years, respectively. The median duration of infertility was 3 years. Among the patients, 36.2% had azoospermia, 8.0% had congenital absence of vas deferens, and 48.3% of patients had other abnormalities in semen parameters. The commonest causes of male infertility were unknown (idiopathic), clinically significant varicoceles, congenital absence of vas deferens, mumps after puberty, and erectile or ejaculatory dysfunction. Overall, 66.1% of patients chose assisted reproductive treatment and 12.4% of patients preferred surgical correction of reversible male infertility conditions. Altogether 36.7% of patients required either surgical sperm retrieval or correction of male infertility conditions. The present study provided important local data on the disease spectrum and treatment patterns in a male infertility clinic. The incidences of azoospermia and congenital absence of vas deferens were much higher than those reported in the contemporary literature. A significant proportion of patients required either surgical sperm retrieval or correction of reversible male infertility conditions.

  2. Mirabegron relaxes urethral smooth muscle by a dual mechanism involving β3 -adrenoceptor activation and α1 -adrenoceptor blockade. (United States)

    Alexandre, E C; Kiguti, L R; Calmasini, F B; Silva, F H; da Silva, K P; Ferreira, R; Ribeiro, C A; Mónica, F Z; Pupo, A S; Antunes, E


    This article is commented on by Michel, M. C., pp. 429-430 of this issue. To view this commentary visit Mirabegron is the first β3 -adrenoceptor agonist approved for treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the effects of β3 -adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron in mouse urethra. The possibility that mirabegron also exerts α1 -adrenoceptor antagonism was also tested in rat smooth muscle preparations presenting α1A - (vas deferens and prostate), α1D - (aorta) and α1B -adrenoceptors (spleen). Functional assays were carried out in mouse and rat isolated tissues. Competition assays for the specific binding of [(3) H]prazosin to membrane preparations of HEK-293 cells expressing each of the human α1 -adrenoceptors, as well as β-adrenoceptor mRNA expression and cyclic AMP measurements in mouse urethra, were performed. Mirabegron produced concentration-dependent urethral relaxations that were shifted to the right by the selective β3 -adrenoceptor antagonist L-748,337 but unaffected by β1 - and β2 -adrenoceptor antagonists (atenolol and ICI-118,551 respectively). Mirabegron-induced relaxations were enhanced by the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram, and the agonist stimulated cAMP synthesis. Mirabegron also produced rightward shifts in urethral contractions induced by the α1 -adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Schild regression analysis revealed that mirabegron behaves as a competitive antagonist of α1 -adrenoceptors in urethra, vas deferens and prostate (α1A -adrenoceptor, pA2  ≅ 5.6) and aorta (α1D -adrenoceptor, pA2  ≅ 5.4) but not in spleen (α1B -adrenoceptor). The affinities estimated for mirabegron in functional assays were consistent with those estimated in radioligand binding with human recombinant α1A - and α1D -adrenoceptors (pKi  ≅ 6.0). The effects of mirabegron in urethral smooth muscle are the result of β3 -adrenoceptor agonism together with α1A and α1D -adrenoceptor

  3. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de


    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  4. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security


    Gasper, D.R.


    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  5. Biochemical property and immunogenicity of mouse male reproductive tract CD52 (mrt-CD52). (United States)

    Ito, K; Hasegawa, A; Komori, S; Koyama, K


    Male reproductive tract CD52 (mrt-CD52) is known to be a pathogenic antigen for immunological infertility. Although human CD52 has been extensively investigated, the properties of mouse CD52 are not well elucidated. This study was conducted, therefore, to examine the tissue distribution, molecular composition and immunogenicity of mouse mrt-CD52. Immunohistological studies with an antibody to a synthetic peptide showed that mouse CD52 was localized mainly in the cauda epididymis and vas deferens, but not in the testis, liver, kidney or spleen. The molecule was composed of Asn (N)-linked and The/Ser (O)-linked carbohydrates as well as a glycosylphosphatidyl (GPI) anchor portion. Purified mrt-CD52 preparations produced antibodies by subcutaneous and intranasal immunization in both male and female mice. These antisera showed sperm-immobilizing activities with complement to mouse sperm. The research indicated mouse CD52 had similar biochemical and immunological properties to human CD52. This animal experiment is a good model for investigating human mrt-CD52 antibody detected in infertile patients.

  6. Letter: Vasectomy. (United States)

    Dodds, D J


    Comments on technique, permanency of sterility, and the doctor's legal liability are made in reference to an article by M.T. Richards " an office procedure" (Canadian Medical Association Journal 109: 394. 1973). An alternative method of holding the vas deferens if the scrotum is small and contracted or if the vas is short or not mobile is to push the vas forward with the middle finger and stretch the skin over it anteriorly with the thumb and index finger. Ths skin over the vas is stretched with a towel forceps and a small transverse incision is made, and the final incision is made longitudinally. Microscopic examination of semen at least 3 months postoperatively is the only method to prove sterility. Booklets for the patient and a signed statement that he has read and understood the booklet should eliminate misunderstandings.

  7. Ni-Al Protective Coating of Steel Electrodes in Dc Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production / Ni-Al Pārklājuma Ietekme Uz Tērauda Elektrodiem Līdzstrāvas Elektrolīzē Ūdeņraža Ražošanai (United States)

    Aizpurietis, P.; Vanags, M.; Kleperis, J.; Bajars, G.


    Hydrogen can be a good alternative to fossil fuels under the conditions of world's crisis as an effective energy carrier derived from renewable resources. Among all the known methods of hydrogen production, water electrolysis gives the ecologically purest hydrogen, so it is of importance to maximize the efficiency of this process. The authors consider the influence of plasma sprayed Ni-Al protective coating of 316L steel anode-cathode electrodes in DC electrolysis. In a long-term (24 h) process the anode corrodes strongly, losing Cr and Ni ions which are transferred to the electrolyte, while only minor corrosion of the cathode occurs. At the same time, the composition of anode and cathode electrodes protected by Ni-Al coating changes only slightly during a prolonged electrolysis. As the voltammetry and Tafel plots evidence, the Ni-Al coating protects both the anode and cathode from the corrosion and reduces the potential of hydrogen evolution. The results obtained show that such a coating works best in the case of steel electrodes. Darbā pētīts, kā līdzstrāvas elektrolīzē tērauda 316L elektrodus (anods un katods) ietekmē ar plazmas izputināšanas metodi iegūts Ni-Al pārklājums. Tikko uznestam pārklājumam ir mikrostrukturēta virsma, kas kodināšanas laikā mainās, gan pēc reljefa, gan elementu sastāva. Veicot ilgstošu (24 stundas elektrolīzi), atrasts, ka tikai tērauda elektrods anoda lomā intensīvi korodē un zaudē hroma un niķeļa jonus, kas pāriet elektrolītā, turpretī katods mainās relatīvi maz. Pārklājums Ni-Al pēc uznešanas tiek kodināts karstā sārmā, kad tiek izšķīdināta daļa sastāvā esošo elementu (Al, Si, Cd), bet ilgstošas elektrolīzes laikā pārklājuma sastāvs mainās maz gan anodam, gan katodam. Elektrodu elektroķīmiskie raksturlielumi noteikti ar voltamperometrijas un Tāfeļa līkņu analīzes metodēm. Atrasts, ka Ni-Al pārklājums aizsargā gan anodu, gan katodu no korozijas un samazina

  8. Human Monkeypox

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Mary E; Hughes, James M; McCollum, Andrea M; Damon, Inger K


    Human monkeypox is found primarily in forested areas of Central Africa. This article provides a basic review of the clinical, epidemiological, and biological factors that contribute to human disease...

  9. Human microbiomics


    Rajendhran, J.; Gunasekaran, P.


    The sequencing of the human genome has driven the study of human biology in a significant way and enabled the genome-wide study to elucidate the molecular basis of complex human diseases. Recently, the role of microbiota on human physiology and health has received much attention. The influence of gut microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microbiota) in obesity has been demonstrated, which may pave the way for new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies such as bacteriotherapy. The sig...

  10. Human Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstract‘Human development’ language spread gradually in circles of national and international development policy and planning from the 1970s and acquired a definitive form in the 1990s in the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Reports (HDRs). Human development was defined

  11. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152524096; Zaitch, Damian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183348486


    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  12. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent


    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul...... - is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact with the fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities...

  13. Human Parvoviruses. (United States)

    Qiu, Jianming; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S


    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Human Rights/Human Needs. (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia


    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  15. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels


    Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...... the humanities for decades, starting with research fields such as humanities computing or computational linguistics in the 1950s, and later new media studies and internet studies. The historical development of digital humanities has been characterized by a focus on three successive, but co-existing types...

  16. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre


    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins......, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become...

  17. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  18. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti


    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  19. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard


    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  20. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter


    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  1. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg


    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  2. Effects of heat stress on some reproductive parameters of male cavie (Cavia porcellus) and mitigation strategies using guava (Psidium guajava) leaves essential oil. (United States)

    Ngoula, Ferdinand; Guemdjo Tekam, Maryvonne; Kenfack, Augustave; Tadondjou Tchingo, Cyrille D'Alex; Nouboudem, Sandrine; Ngoumtsop, Herman; Tsafack, Borice; Teguia, Alexis; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Galeotti, Marco; Tchoumboue, Joseph


    Climate changes, particularly the increase of temperature are among the main causes behind the decline of fertility in humans as well as animals. In this study, the effects of heat stress on some reproductive parameters of male cavies and mitigation strategies using guava leaves essential oil (GLEO) were studied. For this purpose, 40 male cavies aged 2.5-3 months and weighing between 348 and 446g were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each and subjected to the following temperatures: Ambient temperature (20-25°C) for the control group, 35°C for group 1, 45°C for group 2 and 45°C+100µl GLEO/kg body weight, administered by gavage to animals for group 3. Exposure time of heat was 7h per day for 60 days. Results reveal that the relative weights of testes, epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles were hardly affected by the temperature levels considered (P>0.05). The mass and individual sperm motility was significantly lower (Pleaves essential oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mfsd14a (Hiat1) gene disruption causes globozoospermia and infertility in male mice. (United States)

    Doran, Joanne; Walters, Cara; Kyle, Victoria; Wooding, Peter; Hammett-Burke, Rebecca; Colledge, William Henry


    The Mfsd14a gene, previously called Hiat1, encodes a transmembrane protein of unknown function with homology to the solute carrier protein family. To study the function of the MFSD14A protein, mutant mice (Mus musculus, strain 129S6Sv/Ev) were generated with the Mfsd14a gene disrupted with a LacZ reporter gene. Homozygous mutant mice are viable and healthy, but males are sterile due to a 100-fold reduction in the number of spermatozoa in the vas deferens. Male mice have adequate levels of testosterone and show normal copulatory behaviour. The few spermatozoa that are formed show rounded head defects similar to those found in humans with globozoospermia. Spermatogenesis proceeds normally up to the round spermatid stage, but the subsequent structural changes associated with spermiogenesis are severely disrupted with failure of acrosome formation, sperm head condensation and mitochondrial localization to the mid-piece of the sperm. Staining for β-galactosidase activity as a surrogate for Mfsd14a expression indicates expression in Sertoli cells, suggesting that MFSD14A may transport a solute from the bloodstream that is required for spermiogenesis. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  5. Human phantom

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    This human phantom has been received by CERN on loan from the State Committee of the USSR for the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It is used by the Health Physics Group to study personel radiation doses near the accelerators.

  6. Human expunction (United States)

    Klee, Robert


    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  7. Human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, María Pía; Mulder, Maximilian; Gilman, Robert H.; Smits, Henk L.


    Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, such as the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of Brucella spp, the identification of markers for disease severity, progression, and treatment response, and the development of improved treatment regimens.

  8. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter


    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  9. Human ehrlichiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Milomir


    Full Text Available Background. Human ehrlichiosis is a newly recognized disease. It is a tick-borne disease caused by several bacterial species of the genhus Erlichia. These are small gram-negative pleomorphic cocci, that are obligatory intracellular bacteria. Tick Ixodes is the principle vector in Europe, and Amblyomma americanum in the United States. Bacterial organisms replicate in a tick, and are transmited from infected cells in a vector to the blood cells of animals or humans. Human ehrlichiosis is a name for a group of diseases caused by different species of Ehrlichia. One of them is the disease named human monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and the other is a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilia. Case report. We reported a 23-year-old patient admitted for the clinical treatment with the symptoms of high febrility (above 40 °C, headache, vomiting, general weakness and exhaustion, but without data on a tick bite. The patient was treated with trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole for a week when Ehrlichia chaffeensis was confirmed by the immunofluoroscence test, and the therapy contimed with doxacyclin. Conclusion. Human ehrlichiosis is also present in our country, so this disease should be considered everyday, especially in infectology practice.

  10. [Humanized childbirth]. (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen


    Childbirth is a major event in a family. The expectant parent's perception of the childbirth experience influences his or her development as a parent. Making childbirth a positive and satisfying experience for women is the responsibility of health care providers. Women want to have physical and emotional privacy during labor and delivery, and to experience both in a friendly, comfortable environment. For women expected to undergo normal deliveries, humanized childbirth is one accessible approach. This article explores the definition and evolution of humanized childbirth and the care practice that it involves. It also explores birth plans and birth experiences, and the improvements necessary to routine labor practices to enable women to participate in decision making about their childbirth experiences. The author emphasizes that when health-care providers recognize the value of humanized childbirth and make changes accordingly, the dignity of women's childbirth experiences will be enhanced.

  11. Human monkeypox. (United States)

    McCollum, Andrea M; Damon, Inger K


    Human monkeypox is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus with a presentation similar to smallpox. Clinical differentiation of the disease from smallpox and varicella is difficult. Laboratory diagnostics are principal components to identification and surveillance of disease, and new tests are needed for a more precise and rapid diagnosis. The majority of human infections occur in Central Africa, where surveillance in rural areas with poor infrastructure is difficult but can be accomplished with evidence-guided tools and educational materials to inform public health workers of important principles. Contemporary epidemiological studies are needed now that populations do not receive routine smallpox vaccination. New therapeutics and vaccines offer hope for the treatment and prevention of monkeypox; however, more research must be done before they are ready to be deployed in an endemic setting. There is a need for more research in the epidemiology, ecology, and biology of the virus in endemic areas to better understand and prevent human infections.

  12. Human mimicry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chartrand, T.L.; Baaren, R.B. van


    Human mimicry is ubiquitous, and often occurs without the awareness of the person mimicking or the person being mimicked. First, we briefly describe some of the major types of nonconscious mimicry—verbal, facial, emotional, and behavioral—and review the evidence for their automaticity. Next, we

  13. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje


    and self-reflective democracy. Contemporary humanities have adopted a new orientation towards practices, and it is not clear how this fits with the ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’. A possible theoretical framework for this orientation towards practices could be found in John Dewey’s pragmatic...

  14. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna


    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  15. Human Parasites


    Davis, Ryan S.; Hodgson, Erin W.


    Entomologists often get “bug” samples for identification, including those that accidentally infest residences. In the United States, we are fortunate to have very few arthropods (e.g., insects, spiders, mites, ticks, etc.) that actually infest or feed on humans.

  16. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego


    reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  17. Human Parechoviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Harvala, Heli; Midgley, Sofie


    Infections with human parechoviruses (HPeV) are highly prevalent, particularly in neonates, where they may cause substantial morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation of HPeV infection is often indistinguishable from that of enterovirus (EV) infection and may vary from mild disease...

  18. Nothing Human (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.


    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  19. Human Trafficking (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay


    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  20. Human monkeypox. (United States)

    Jezek, Z; Gromyko, A I; Szczeniowski, M V


    Human monkeypox, occurring in the tropical rainforest of west and central Africa, is regarded as the most important orthopoxvirus infection for epidemiological surveillance during the post-smallpox era. This disease, first recognized in Zaïre in 1970 resembles smallpox clinically but differs epidemiologically. Clinical features, their evolution and sequelae of monkeypox could be compared with discrete ordinary or modified type of smallpox. A case-fatality rate of 14% has been observed but some cases can be exceedingly mild or atypical and may easily remain undetected and unreported. Pronounced lymphadenopathy has been the only clinical feature found commonly in monkeypox but not in smallpox. Fifty-seven cases of human monkeypox have occurred since 1970, in the tropical rainforests in six west and central African countries, the majority of them (45) being reported from Zaïre. The disease appears to be more frequent in dry season. Children below ten years of age comprise 84% of the cases. Smallpox vaccination protects against monkeypox. Clusters of cases have been observed in certain areas within countries and within affected households. Human-to-human spread has possibly occurred seven times. No cases of possible tertiary spread were observed. The secondary attack rate among susceptible close household contacts was 10%, among all susceptible contacts 5%. This is much lower than that occurring with smallpox, which is between 25-40%. The limited avidity of monkeypox virus for human beings indicates that monkeypox is probably a zoonosis, although the animal reservoir(s) have not yet been identified. The low transmissibility, resulting in low frequency of disease in man indicates that monkeypox is not a public health problem. Human monkeypox has been a relatively newly recognized disease. Studies are in progress to identify the natural cycle of monkeypox virus and to define better its clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Special surveillance is maintained in

  1. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  2. Human Development Report 2000: Human Rights and Human Development


    United Nations Development Programme, UNDP


    The Human Development Report 2000 looks at human rights as an intrinsic part of development—and at development as a means to realizing human rights. It shows how human rights bring principles of accountability and social justice to the process of human development.

  3. Human Rights in the Humanities (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey


    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  4. A novel flow cytometry assay using dihydroethidium as redox-sensitive probe reveals NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of superoxide anion in human platelets exposed to amyloid peptide β. (United States)

    Abubaker, Aisha Alsheikh; Vara, Dina; Eggleston, Ian; Canobbio, Ilaria; Pula, Giordano


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is critical in the regulation of platelets, which has important implications in the modulation of hemostasis and thrombosis. Nonetheless, despite several assays have been described and successfully utilized in the past, the analysis of ROS generation in human platelets remains challenging. Here we show that dihydroethidium (DHE) allows the characterization of redox responses upon platelet activation by physiological and pathological stimuli. In particular, the flow cytometry assay that we describe here allowed us to confirm that thrombin, collagen-related peptide (CRP) and arachidonic acid but not adenosine diphosphate (ADP) stimulate superoxide anion formation in a concentration-dependent manner. 0.1unit/ml thrombin, 3 μg/ml CRP and 30 μM arachidonic acid are commonly used to stimulate platelets in vitro and here were shown to stimulate a significant increase in superoxide anion formation. The ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) abolished superoxide anion generation in response to all tested stimuli, but the pan-NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor VAS2870 only inhibited superoxide anion formation in response to thrombin and CRP. The involvement of NOXs in thrombin and CRP-dependent responses was confirmed by the inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by these stimuli by VAS2870, while platelet aggregation in response to arachidonic acid was insensitive to this inhibitor. In addition, the pathological platelet stimulus amyloid β (Aβ) 1-42 peptide induced superoxide anion formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Aβ peptide stimulated superoxide anion formation in a NOX-dependent manner, as proved by the use of VAS2870. Aβ 1-42 peptide displayed only moderate activity as an aggregation stimulus, but was able to significantly potentiate platelet aggregation in response to submaximal agonists concentrations, such as 0.03 unit/ml thrombin and 10 μM arachidonic acid. The inhibition of NOXs by 10 μM VAS2870 abolished

  5. Human Protothecosis (United States)

    Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mayr, Astrid


    Human protothecosis is a rare infection caused by members of the genus Prototheca. Prototheca species are generally considered to be achlorophyllic algae and are ubiquitous in nature. The occurrence of protothecosis can be local or disseminated and acute or chronic, with the latter being more common. Diseases have been classified as (i) cutaneous lesions, (ii) olecranon bursitis, or (iii) disseminated or systemic manifestations. Infections can occur in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, although more severe and disseminated infections tend to occur in immunocompromised individuals. Prototheca wickerhamii and Prototheca zopfii have been associated with human disease. Usually, treatment involves medical and surgical approaches; treatment failure is not uncommon. Antifungals such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B are the most commonly used drugs to date. Among them, amphotericin B displays the best activity against Prototheca spp. Diagnosis is largely made upon detection of characteristic structures observed on histopathologic examination of tissue. PMID:17428884

  6. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server


    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  7. Human Cloning (United States)


    research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public...United States. Although the company offered no proof of its claim, Dr . Brigette Boisselier, Managing Director of Clonaid, stated that genetic tests would...a year of the Dolly announcement, concerns over human cloning were heightened when Dr . Richard Seed, a Chicago scientist, announced on January 7

  8. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian


    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  9. Human Being Human: Culture and the Soul


    Hauke, Chris


    Human Being Human explores the classical question 'What is a human being?'\\ud \\ud In examining our human being, Christopher Hauke challenges the notion of human nature, questions the assumed superiority of human consciousness and rational thinking and pays close attention to the contradiction of living simultaneously as an autonomous individual and a member of the collective community. The main chapters include:\\ud \\ud who's in charge here?\\ud knowledge power and human being\\ud that thinking ...

  10. Color filters and human photon emission: implications for auriculomedicine. (United States)

    Van Wijk, Roeland; Ackerman, John M; Van Wijk, Eduard P A


    Color filters are commonly utilized in auriculotherapy and auriculomedicine, diagnostic procedures based on the vascular autonomic signal (VAS) of the radial artery. It was reported that such effects were detectable in complete darkness. The human body emits ultraweak photons. It is hypothesized that there is feedback regulation of emission from the hand, implying an exchange of information vis-à-vis light from both hand and filter. To develop a research protocol for evaluating a possible effect of dark-adapted color filters on ultraweak human photon emission. Photon emission of the hand was recorded before, during, and after the presence of color filters. The filters were dark adapted and placed in close proximity but not touching the hand of the dark-adapted subject. SETTING AND PARTICIPANT: A specially selected, low-noise, end window photomultiplier for recording ultraviolet and visible (200-650 nm) photon emission (with a very low background count rate) designed for manipulation in three directions was situated in a dark room. The technology in the initial pilot series study was utilized to record spontaneous photon emission of the hand of one human male subject. The same series was repeated on the same subject three months later. The change in photon emission of the hand after exposure to single color filters was the main outcome parameter. Data demonstrate very similar responses for each of three different color filters. Data from consecutive time series suggest initiation of a refractory emission reaction. The response was dependent on the size of color surface and was neither detected with colorless transparent filters nor with nontransparent material.

  11. Elastin-derived peptides are involved in the processes of human temporomandibular disorder by inducing inflammatory responses in synovial cells (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Jokaji, Rei; Miyazawa-Hira, Mayuko; Takatsuka, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Akira; Ooi, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Kawashiri, Shuichi


    Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) is a collection of clinical symptoms that involve masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Common symptoms include limited jaw motion and joint sound/pain, along with TMJ disc displacement. TMD is frequently associated with synovitis, a chronic inflammation of the synovium. Fibroblast-like synovial cells have been identified to produce several inflammatory mediators and may have an important role in the progression of TMJ inflammation. Degradation of the extracellular matrix molecule elastin may lead to the release of bioactive peptides. The present study aimed to explore the role of elastin-derived peptides (EDPs) in human temporomandibular disorders. Therefore, interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in the synovial fluid obtained from patients with TMD correlated significantly with two clinical parameters, specifically TMJ locking and pain/jaw function on a visual analog scale (VAS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine that the concentration of EDPs in synovial fluid from patients with TMD may also be significantly correlated with the duration of TMJ locking, the VAS score and IL-6 expression. In vitro, EDPs act on human TMJ synovial cells to promote upregulation of IL-6 and the elastin-degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12). The upregulation of IL-6 and MMP-12 expression by EDPs may be mediated through elastin-binding proteins (EBP) and a protein kinase A signalling cascade. These findings suggest a model for inflammation in the TMJ where EDPs are generated by harmful mechanical stimuli, induce both a pro-inflammatory cascade and increase expression of MMP-12 through activation of the EBP signalling cascade. This may lead to further increases in EDP levels, establishing a positive feedback loop leading to chronic inflammation in the TMJ. Therefore, significantly elevated levels of EDPs and IL-6 in the synovial fluid of the TMJ may be indicators of the pathological

  12. Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in vitro (United States)

    Thomas, A; Baillie, G L; Phillips, A M; Razdan, R K; Ross, R A; Pertwee, R G


    Background and purpose: A nonpsychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant, cannabidiol has been demonstrated to have low affinity for both cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. We have shown previously that cannabidiol can enhance electrically evoked contractions of the mouse vas deferens, suggestive of inverse agonism. We have also shown that cannabidiol can antagonize cannabinoid receptor agonists in this tissue with a greater potency than we would expect from its poor affinity for cannabinoid receptors. This study aimed to investigate whether these properties of cannabidiol extend to CB1 receptors expressed in mouse brain and to human CB2 receptors that have been transfected into CHO cells. Experimental approach: The [35S]GTPγS binding assay was used to determine both the efficacy of cannabidiol and the ability of cannabidiol to antagonize cannabinoid receptor agonists (CP55940 and R-(+)-WIN55212) at the mouse CB1 and the human CB2 receptor. Key results: This paper reports firstly that cannabidiol displays inverse agonism at the human CB2 receptor. Secondly, we demonstrate that cannabidiol is a high potency antagonist of cannabinoid receptor agonists in mouse brain and in membranes from CHO cells transfected with human CB2 receptors. Conclusions and implications: This study has provided the first evidence that cannabidiol can display CB2 receptor inverse agonism, an action that appears to be responsible for its antagonism of CP55940 at the human CB2 receptor. The ability of cannabidiol to behave as a CB2 receptor inverse agonist may contribute to its documented anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:17245363

  13. Introduction: Digital Humanities, Public Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Christie


    Full Text Available NANO: New American Notes Online: An Interdisciplinary Academic Journal for Big Ideas in a Small World. This special issue shows how both public and digital humanities research can be rendered more persuasive through engagement with cultures beyond the academy. More specifically, the aim of this special issue is to demonstrate how investments in technologies and computation are not necessarily antithetical to investments in critical theory and social justice.

  14. Human Computing, Virtual Humans and Artificial Imperfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Quek, F.; Yang, Y.


    In this paper we raise the issue whether imperfections, characteristic of human-human communication, should be taken into account when developing virtual humans. We argue that endowing virtual humans with the imperfections of humans can help making them more ‘comfortable’ to interact with. That is,

  15. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education (United States)

    Le Grange, L.


    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  16. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard


    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  17. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard


    The paper probes the background of the dire rhetoric of the Danish National Health Board’s 40 week anti-alcohol consumption campaign, in particular the model of communication implied by the campaign's strategy. Contrasting the campaign's strategy in 2011 with the results of evaluations of previous...... years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...

  18. Fertilization in vitro with spermatozoa from different mice increased variation in the developmental potential of embryos compared to artificial parthenogenetic activation. (United States)

    Miao, De-Qiang; Liang, Bo; Wang, Jun-Zuo; Wang, Hui-Li; Cui, Wei; Liu, Yong; Tan, Jing-He


    Although successful embryo development is dependent upon genetic and epigenetic contributions from both the male and female, the male potential to adversely affect embryo development has been scarcely studied. It is unclear whether the sperm variation among different males would affect the outcome of oocyte evaluation by embryo development following fertilization. In the present study, variation in the developmental potential of mouse embryos was first compared between in vitro fertilization with epididymal spermatozoa from different males and Sr(2+) parthenogenetic activation using oocytes of different qualities, and then the effect of male on fertilization and embryo development was examined using randomly chosen oocytes and spermatozoa from cauda epididymidis, vas deferens or electro-ejaculates. Rates of fertilization and blastocyst formation were significantly higher with spermatozoa from cauda epididymidis or vas deferens than with ejaculated spermatozoa. Rates of embryonic development differed significantly between different males, but not between different ejaculates of the same male. Analysis of standard errors of means and coefficients of variance indicated that as long as multiple males were involved, the variation in oocyte fertilization/activation and blastocyst formation was always higher after fertilization than after Sr(2+) parthenogenetic activation whether spermatozoa were collected from epididymidis, vas deferens or ejaculates and regardless of oocyte qualities. It is concluded that (1) epididymal mouse spermatozoa fertilize more oocytes than ejaculated spermatozoa under identical experimental conditions; (2) like farm animals, the mice also show a remarkable male effect on the developmental potential of in vitro produced embryos although they are supposed to be less genetically diverse; (3) parthenogenetic activation is recommended for assessment of oocyte quality to exclude the effect of male.

  19. Effect of Black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats. (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Nieto, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M


    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the Peruvian central Andes. The hypocotyls of this plant are traditionally used in the Andean region for their supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The hypocotyls have different colours. Of these, Black maca has better effects on spermatogenesis. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that Black maca has early effects during a spermatogenic cycle (12 days) of male rats. For this, testicular spermatid, epididymal sperm and vas deferens sperm counts were measured after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 days of treatment with Black maca. Aqueous extract of Black maca was given orally by daily gavage at a dose of 2 g kg(-1). In a spermatogenic cycle, compared with day 1, daily sperm production (DSP) was lower at day 7 (control), whereas with Black maca, the difference was observed at day 12. Epididymal sperm count was higher in rats treated with Black maca at days 1, 3 and 7, but similar to controls at days 5 and 12; similarly sperm counts in vas deferens was higher in rats treated with Black maca in days 3, 5 and 7, but similar to controls at days 1 and 12. From this, it is suggested that first action of Black maca was at epididymal level increasing sperm count after 1 day of treatment, whereas an increase in sperm count was observed in vas deferens at day 3 of treatment. Finally, an increase in DSP was observed after 7 days of treatment with Black maca. Testicular testosterone was not affected after 7 days treatment with Black maca. In conclusion, Black maca affects sperm count as early as 1 day after beginning of treatment.

  20. Imposex and butyltin concentrations in Bolinus brandaris (Gastropoda: Muricidae) from the northern Tunisian coast. (United States)

    Abidli, Sami; Lahbib, Youssef; Trigui El Menif, Najoua


    The imposex incidence and butyltin concentration i.e. tributyltin with its di- and mono-substituted metabolites were investigated in the muricid Bolinus brandaris sampled from two sites on the northern Tunisian coast (the Lagoon of Bizerta and the small Gulf of Tunis). Both populations had imposex, with stages of imposex development varying between VDS 1 and VDS 4.3. All imposex indices (imposex frequency (I %), female penis length, female vas deferens length, vas deferens sequence index, relative penis length index, and vas deferens length index) were significantly higher in snails from the Bizerta lagoon. Butyltins were detected in the whole tissues of both sexes from the two sites. TBT levels were higher in gastropods collected from the lagoon of Bizerta (12.65 ±1.48 ng Sn g( - 1) dw in female and 15.21 ±1.13 ng Sn g( - 1) dw in male) than in individuals from the Gulf of Tunis (10.71 ±1.26 ng Sn g( - 1) dw in female and 11.65 ±1.63 ng Sn g( - 1) dw in male), corroborating the data of imposex analysis. These results confirmed that B. brandaris could be used as a bioindicator species of butyltin pollution in the studied areas. In addition, this study provided baseline data that could serve for long-term monitoring of TBT pollution in Tunisia, since legislation to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints has not been introduced yet.

  1. Estudos anatômicos e histológicos sôbre a subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae: IX. parte: vaso deferente e mesadênias de Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho descreve-se o aparelho condutor, do testículo até o ductus ejaculatorius, incluindo as glândulas anexas, do macho de Triatoma infestans. O vas deferens compõem-se de três regiões: a parte proximal do vas deferens; b vesícula seminalis; c parte distal do vas deferens com uma região glândular no ponto de saída da vesícula seminalis. As partes finais do vas deferens desembocam nos lados internos de dois ramos terminais do ductus ejaculatorius. O sistema das glândulas anexas consta de 4 mesadênias. Estas são glândulas vesiculares das quais duas são ragiócrinas e duas lipócrinas. A terceira e a quarta glândula possuem a mesma formação e função, enquanto que a primeira se difere profundamente da segunda. As secreções das glândulas misturam-se num hilo de onde o líquido passa ao ductus glandularum que o conduz ao ductus ejeculatorius. Êste possui nos seus ramos terminais uma glândula mesodérmica de natureza ragiócrina (mesadênia modificada em posição extremamente distal e uma origem ectedérmica (ectadênia modificada em posição extremamente proximal. As secreções são expulsas das vesículas glandulares por contração da musculatura das suas paredes. O transporte dos líquidos misturados, através do ductus glandularum, verifica-se por ondas peristálticas da musculatura da membrana peritoneal do próprio ducto. As glândulas não possuem válvulas. Um refluxo das secreções é evitado pelo turgor das células epiteliais dos canais condutores. O esperma, ao entrar no ductus ejaculatorius, recebe uma mistura de 5 diferentes secreções, na qual o mesmo diluido, formando, finalmente, uma suspensão. Os aspectos histológicos estão apresentados nas figuras.

  2. Pugilina morio L., a new imposex exhibitor from south american estuarine environments: approach for a non-lethal method to evaluate imposex


    Azevedo, Deyse de; Rocha-Barreira,Cristina de Almeida; Matthews-Cascon, Helena; Castro, Ítalo Braga de


    This is the first report on imposex occurrence in Pugilina morio. Imposex levels in P. morio from Ceara River Estuary were assessed by a non-lethal method. The obtained imposex parameters were: percentage = 37.1 %, female penis length index (FPLI) = 0.93 mm, relative penis length index (RPLI) = 6.5 %, and vas deferens sequence index (VDSI) = 1.0. Because imposex is induced by tributyltin, and P. morio is widely distributed on the East coast of South America, the species can be used as a ...

  3. Laparoscopic sterilization vs. open method sterilization in dogs: a comparison of two techniques


    MAHALINGAM, Anburaja; Kumar, Naveen; MAITI, Swapan K.; Ashok K Sharma


    Ten clinically healthy, adult male dogs randomly equally divided into 2 groups (I and II) were subjected to laparoscopic sterilization and open method castration under xylazine-ketamine anesthesia. In group I laparoscopic vasectomy by cauterization and cutting of the vas deferens was performed and in group II conventional open castration by the pre-scrotal approach was done. Insufflation of the abdominal cavity was achieved with CO2 (2 L/min) at 10 mmHg pressure gradient. Two ports were need...

  4. Human Factors Planning Guidelines (United States)


    To ensure human factors considerations are fully incorporated in the system : development, the Integrated Product Team (IPT) or Program Manager initiates a : Human Factors Program (HFP) that addresses the human performance and human : resource parame...

  5. The analgesic effects of exogenous melatonin in humans. (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst


    The hormone, melatonin is produced with circadian rhythm by the pineal gland in humans. The melatonin rhythm provides an endogenous synchronizer, modulating e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, cortisol rhythm, sleep-awake-cycle, immune function and anti-oxidative defence. Interestingly, a number of experimental animal studies demonstrate significant dose-dependent anti-nociceptive effects of exogenous melatonin. Similarly, recent experimental- and clinical studies in humans indicate significant analgesic effects. In study I, we systematically reviewed all randomized studies investigating clinical effects of perioperative melatonin. Meta-analyses demonstrated significant analgesic and anxiolytic effects of melatonin in surgical patients, equating reductions of 20 mm and 19 mm, respectively on a VAS, compared with placebo. Profound heterogeneity between the included studies was, however, present. In study II, we aimed to investigate the analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous melatonin in a validated human inflammatory pain model, the human burn model. The study was performed as a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Primary outcomes were pain during the burn injury and areas of secondary hyperalgesia. No significant effects of exogenous melatonin were observed with respect to primary or secondary outcomes, compared to placebo. Study III and IV estimated the pharmacokinetic variables of exogenous melatonin. Oral melatonin demonstrated a t max value of 41 minutes. Bioavailability of oral melatonin was only 3%. Elimination t 1/2 were approximately 45 minutes following both oral and intravenous administration, respectively. High-dose intravenous melatonin was not associated with increased sedation, in terms of simple reaction times, compared to placebo. Similarly, no other adverse effects were reported. In Study V, we aimed to re-analyse data obtained from a randomized analgesic drug trial by a selection of

  6. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project (United States)

    Svensson, Patrik


    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  7. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.


    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  8. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn


    overgangen fra trykkekultur til digital kultur. For det første problemstillingen omkring digitalisering af litterær kulturarv med fokus på kodning og tagging af teksten samt organisering i hypertekststrukturer. For det andet reorganiseringen af det digitale dokument i dataelementer og database. For det......Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH......, der betragter DH som forbundet med "making" og "building" af digitale objekter og former. Dette kan også karakteriseres som DH som praktisk-produktiv vending. Artiklen har valgt tre typer af digitalisering. De er valgt ud fra, at de skal repræsentere forskellige måder at håndtere digitaliseringen på...

  9. Human Rhinoviruses (United States)

    Lamson, Daryl M.; St. George, Kirsten; Walsh, Thomas J.


    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work. Advances in molecular methods have enhanced our understanding of the genomic structure of HRV and have led to the characterization of three genetically distinct HRV groups, designated groups A, B, and C, within the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. HRVs are traditionally associated with upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and sinusitis. In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts. Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis. Indeed, whether the clinical manifestations of HRV are related directly to viral pathogenicity or secondary to the host immune response is the subject of ongoing research. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for HRVs, and treatment remains primarily supportive. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical epidemiology, and laboratory features of and treatment and prevention strategies for HRVs. PMID:23297263

  10. Melatonin MT1 and MT2 Receptors in the Ram Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta González-Arto


    Full Text Available Some melatonin functions in mammals are exerted through MT1 and MT2 receptors. However, there are no reports of their presence in the reproductive tract of the ram, a seasonal species. Thus, we have investigated their existence in the ram testis, epididymis, accessory glands and ductus deferens. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR revealed higher levels of m-RNA for both receptors in the testis, ampulla, seminal vesicles, and vas deferens, than in the other organs of the reproductive tract (p < 0.05. Western blot analyses showed protein bands compatible with the MT1 in the testis and cauda epididymis, and for the MT2 in the cauda epididymis and deferent duct. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed the presence of MT1 receptors in spermatogonias, spermatocytes, and spermatids, and MT2 receptors in the newly-formed spermatozoa in the testis, whereas both receptors were located in the epithelial cells of the ampulla, seminal vesicles, and ductus deferens. Indirect immunofluorescence showed significant differences in the immunolocation of both receptors in spermatozoa during their transit in the epididymis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that melatonin receptors are present in the ram reproductive tract. These results open the way for new studies on the molecular mechanism of melatonin and the biological significance of its receptors.

  11. Human Factors in Human-Systems Integration (United States)

    Fitts, David J.; Sandor, Aniko; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Tillman, Barry


    Any large organization whose mission is to design and develop systems for humans, and train humans needs a well-developed integration and process plan to deal with the challenges that arise from managing multiple subsystems. Human capabilities, skills, and needs must be considered early in the design and development process, and must be continuously considered throughout the development lifecycle. This integration of human needs within system design is typically formalized through a Human-Systems Integration (HSI) program. By having an HSI program, an institution or organization can reduce lifecycle costs and increase the efficiency, usability, and quality of its products because human needs have been considered from the beginning.

  12. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process (United States)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia


    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro experience we consider the objectivity of the Volcanic Activity Level a powerful tool to focus the discussions in a Scientific Committee on the activity forecast and on the expected scenarios, rather than on the multiple explanations of the data fluctuations, which is one of the main sources of conflict in the Scientific Committee discussions. Although the Volcanic Alert System was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the involved methodologies may be applied to other situations of unrest.

  13. HOMO SAPIENS ¿HACIA DONDE VAS? El reto para el futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rueda Pérez


    Full Text Available

    * Discurso de posesión como Miembro Honorario de la Corporación. Sesión solemne de Agosto 13 de 2009.

    El hombre, trasformado en el depredador más grande del mundo, que en el fugaz lapso de 50 años ha aumentado su número sobre la tierra de tres mil a seis mil quinientos millones de habitantes, en nuestra época, demandando elementos para su subsistencia en forma tal, que al contaminar su ambiente en forma exponencial, disminuye gradualmente su capacidad de subsistencia, agravada por la prolongación de su promedio de vida, que en ese mismo lapso ha alcanzado alrededor de los 80 años, haciendo prácticamente insostenible su espacio vital sobre este pequeño planeta en el que le tocó habitar.

    El acelerado desarrollo del hombre lo llevó, a mediados del Siglo XVIII a iniciar la llamada “Revolución Industrial”, que, al mismo tiempo que producía inmensos adelantos en sus medios de movilización, comunicación, relaciones internacionales, los separaba cada vez más ostensiblemente de los llamados países subdesarrollados, o del tercer mundo, que no sólo no se equiparaban a los pueblos desarrollados, sino que se constituían en el origen de mayor incidencia de desnutrición, de enfermedad y de muerte.

    Separación cada vez más notable, al extremo de llegar, en nuestro tiempo a programar reuniones de los representantes de los ocho o de los seis países más ricos del mundo como ha sucedido en los últimos tiempos, para equilibrar sus finanzas y para trazar sus metas de desarrollo y, como complemento, debatir las ayudas que puedan dar, misericordiosamente, a los indigentes de ese tercer mundo, para mejorar su desnutrición, sus epidemias, su ignorancia, su elevada morbimortalidad y su triste vida sin futuro ni esperanza.


  14. Cannibalism among Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae (Návas, 1914 (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane do Nascimento Lima


    Full Text Available Cannibalism is influenced by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the population, such as density, population structure, prey availability, habitat structure and famine. These factors acting either independently or in synergy determine the frequency of cannibalism. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effect of density and food availability on the occurrence of cannibalism among Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae. In the present study, the occurrence of cannibalism among M. brasiliensis larvae was greater in the treatments that simulated an absence of food in situations of both high and low density. The search for food makes a larva move about to forage, thereby increasing the risk of falling into the trap of a neighboring larva. Thus, the cannibalistic behavior of M. brasiliensis larvae may be associated with opportunity rather than a direct attempt to pray on the same species.

  15. Validation of a visual analogue score (LRTI-VAS) in non-CF bronchiectasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, Josje; Wortel, Kim; de Graaff, Casper S.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Boersma, Wim G.

    Background and AimQuality of life in patients with non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis is largely defined by respiratory symptoms. To date, no disease-specific tool for symptom measurement in this patient group was available. We developed the lower respiratory tract infections - visual

  16. Negociar lo que vas a negociar: el proceso de negociación


    Soleto Muñoz, Helena


    Uno de los momentos clave del proceso de negociación es el de programación, pues, dado que las partes suelen tener distintas formas de contemplar la negociación, es positivo que se dediquen a "negociar lo que se va a negociar", aclarando en lo posible la forma de las reuniones, la extensión de la negociación y las reglas básicas en la negociación.

  17. Slazte, gospoda, narod ot vas ustal! / Maksim Shmeljov, Aleksandr Tshaplõgin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shmeljov, Maksim


    Lätis algas allkirjade kogumine, et rahvas saaks õiguse algatada parlamendi laialisaatmine. Autorid küsivad ametiühingutelt, samuti parlamendiparteidelt seisukohta, kas meil ei oleks kasulik naabrite kogumus üle võtta

  18. Komerciālo ETL rīku alternatīvas


    Slišāns, Artūrs


    Uzņēmums vai persona var nokļūt situācijā, kad ir jāizvēlas, kādu ETL rīku izmantot, lai veiktu datu bāzu pārnešanu no vienas datu bāzu pārvaldības sistēmas uz otru vai ielādētu datu noliktavu datu analīzes veikšanai. Bakalaura darbā veiktais pētījums centīsies atbildēt uz jautājumu, vai ir ETL uzdevumi, kuru risināšanai nav nepieciešams iegādāties komerciālus ETL rīkus, un kurus var paveikt, izmantojot atvērtā koda ETL rīkus. Bakalaura darbā tiks apskatīti trīs atvērtā koda ETL rīki ,u...

  19. Anthro-Centric Multisensory Interface for Vision Augmentation/Substitution (ACMI-VAS) (United States)


    For example, deaf individuals show activation in the auditory cortex in response to visual stimuli ( Finney , Fine, & Dobkins, 2001), blind individuals...MIT Press. Finney , E. M., Fine, I., & Dobkins, K. R. (2001). Visual stimuli activate auditory cortex in the deaf. Nature Neuroscience, 4(12), 1171

  20. Value added statement (VAS of mining and metallurgical companies in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kijewska


    Full Text Available The article presents the concept of value added and value added statement. That report may provide an additional source of information for the company’s stakeholders such as employees, capital donors, State Budget and the company itself. According to the theory of stakeholders and corporate social responsibility the objective of the company is to deliver value to all stakeholders, not just shareholders. Hence the need for disclosure of information about the value added generated for all stakeholders. For internal analysis and for comparison purposes, several indicators based on value added should be elaborated. Calculations were carried out on the example of two Polish companies of the metallurgical and mining sectors for the years 2011-2013. This allowed for the evaluation of these two companies, to show the differences in the distribution of value added for stakeholders and evaluation of selected indicators.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rueda Pérez


    Full Text Available

    Señor Presidente:

    Permítame usted ante todo, manifestar la emoción que me han producido los amables, inmerecidos y exagerados elogios que ha hecho usted de mi vida como persona, como cirujano, como amigo y, por supuesto, como miembro de esta ilustre Institución. Le agradezco hondamente esta presentación que sé sincera y bondadosa y, repito: inmerecida.

    Quiero asimismo expresar mis sinceros agradecimientos al personal de empleados de la Academia quienes, con gran amabilidad y cortesía, me han ayudado a conr el presente trabajo: Carmiña, Susana, Sylvia, Gilberto: muchas gracias, y a Martha, artista del computador, gracias por su paciencia y su colaboración insuperable; así como a las Señoritas colaboradoras de la Clínica de Marly, Astrid y Luz Mery.

    Y, desde luego y más que a nadie, a mi querida familia.

    Héme aquí ante ustedes, queridos colegas, distinguido auditorio, embargado por la emoción y la gratitud que ojalá me permitan manifestar el agradecimiento inmenso por esta distinción, la más importante que otorga la ACADEMIA NACIONAL DE MEDICINA DE COLOMBIA, por el querer y el voto voluntario de sus miembros, que me enaltece y premia mi larga trayectoria que se inició en febrero de 1966, como Asociado, para ocupar en estos 43 años, posiciones en la Honorable Junta Directiva y haber gozado de todos los privilegios y enseñanzas que esta ilustre institución otorga.

  2. · Los of vas geskryf: die leksikograaf, die spelreels en die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wine) and rooiwyn. In same instances conflict exists between the spelling rules concerning this phenomenon and the language reality. The article dealS with the treatment of the conflict by Afri- kaans descriptive dictionaries. The lexicographic treatment of the conflict between spelling rules and language reality is determined ...

  3. Sultan Alp Arslan’ın Liderlik Vasıfları


    KESİK, Muharrem


    Sultan Alp Arslan of the Great Seljuk State is one of the foremost rulers of Turkish and World history. During his reign as sultan from 1063 to 1072, Alp Arslan achieved many successes but doutless the most important one was his victory at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. Although there were many factors that aided the sultan in gaining this victory, here is where Alp Arslan demonstrated most clearly his political and military qualities. These superior characteristics played a ...

  4. Humane Education: An Overview. (United States)

    Whitlock, Eileen S.; Westerlund, Stuart R.

    This booklet traces the historical development of human education as it has been instilled into the young people of America from colonial times to the present and provides a future prognosis of humaneness in the schools. Humane education promotes humane behavior and is an important part of the humane movement in the United States, although until…

  5. IVI human factors strategy (United States)


    This document focuses on human factors research that supports the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI). The status of the problem areas within categories used often by the human factors community to organize human factors process is discussed. A simi...

  6. Human Factors Job Aid (United States)


    The purpose of this Human Factors Job Aid is to serve as a desk reference for : human factors integration during system acquisition. The first chapter contains : an overview of the FAA human factors process in system acquisitions. The : remaining eig...

  7. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de


    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  8. Human-machine interactions (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM


    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  9. Effects of gabapentin in acute inflammatory pain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Perkins, F M; Holte, Kathrine


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, in a validated model of acute inflammatory pain. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Gabapentin 1...... stimuli (visual analog scale [VAS]), assessments of thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, and areas of secondary hyperalgesia. Side effects drowsiness and postural instability were assessed by subjective ratings (VAS). RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant primary and secondary hyperalgesia...... not significantly changed by gabapentin (P effect in normal skin, but may reduce primary mechanical allodynia in acute...

  10. Special Section: Human Rights (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others


    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  11. Duration and distribution of experimental muscular hyperalgesia in humans following combined infusions of serotonin and bradykinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babenko, Victor; Svensson, Peter; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas


    -infusions interval of 3 min. Infusions of isotonic saline (NaCl, 0.9%) were given as control. Pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and subjects drew the distribution of the pain areas on an anatomical map. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed with an electronic algometer...... min after infusions. The VAS-peak after BKN was significantly higher (PVAS after 5-HT+BKN was significantly longer (P

  12. Saw palmetto is an indirectly acting sympathomimetic in the rat-isolated prostate gland. (United States)

    Cao, Nga; Haynes, John M; Ventura, Sabatino


    To investigate whether saw palmetto that inhibits alpha1-adrenoceptor binding in vitro affects contractility of the rat prostate gland. The effects of a commercially available saw palmetto extract were examined on the contractility of rat-isolated prostate glands. The extract was tested in the presence and absence of phentolamine, prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol, hexamethonium, cocaine, desipramine, nifedipine, guanethidine, atropine, and alpha,beta-methylene ATP to evaluate the mechanism of action. Isolated preparations of rat vas deferens and bladder were used for comparison. Unexpectedly, saw palmetto extract caused contractions of the rat prostate gland that could be attenuated by prazosin, phentolamine, nifedipine, guanethidine, cocaine, and desipramine but not by any of the other pharmacological tools. Similar contractile effects were observed in rat-isolated vas deferens preparations but not in rat-isolated bladder preparations. In the rat prostate gland, saw palmetto extract causes indirect alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contractions via the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic neurons. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Clinical and prognostic importance of chromosomal abnormalities, Y chromosome microdeletions, and CFTR gene mutations in individuals with azoospermia or severe oligospermia. (United States)

    Ocak, Zeynep; Üyetüork, Uğur; Dinçer, Muhammet Murat


    To illustrate the importance of genetic screening in the assessment of fertility and the correct diagnosis in patients with azoospermia or severe oligospermia. This study examined 500 patients with reproductive failure, having fewer than 5 million sperm/mL detected in at least 2 consecutive spermiograms, who presented at a medical genetics polyclinic between 2008 and 2012. Metaphase preparations obtained from cell cultures were stained by trypsin-Giemsa banding. After DNA isolation, Y chromosome loci, including AZFa (SY84, SY86), AZFb (SY127, SY134), AZFc (SY254 SY255), and AZFd, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. Thirty-five patients with congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens or congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) and a positive cystic fibrosis family history were evaluated for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutations. No chromosomal abnormalities were noted in 440 (88%) of the 500 patients, whereas structural or numerical chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 60 patients (12%). Individuals with Y deletions made up 5.6% (n = 28) of the study sample. Three patients with no AZF deletion or chromosomal abnormality, but with CBAVD, were heterozygous for I148T, G1130A, or IVS3 406- 3T>C mutations. This study shows that genetic testing can make an important contribution to the treatment of patients planning in vitro fertilization due to azoospermia or severe oligospermia.

  14. Development of the male reproductive system in Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Brachyura: Portunidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Aparecida do Nascimento

    Full Text Available This study describes the histology and histochemistry of the male reproductive system in Callinectes ornatus, comparing juvenile and adult developmental stages. We also analyzed changes in the gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indices, and the weights of the testis and vas deferens during the development. The results showed that all stages, beginning with the juvenile (JUV, through developing (DEV and mature (MAT adult males of C. ornatus produce sperm and spermatophores. During development, testicular lobes showed the same characteristics of production and release of sperm into the seminiferous duct. The vas deferens showed little histological and histochemical change in the epithelium in juvenile and adult males. The differences consisted of the larger amount of secretion in MAT males compared to JUV and DEV ones. The chemical composition of the seminal fluid was similar, but MAT males produced a more homogeneous secretion. Morphological and physiological maturation are not synchronized in C. ornatus, since JUV males produced spermatophores similar to those in DEV and MAT males. However, these JUV are not yet able to reproduce, since they still have the abdomen attached to the cephalothoracic sternum. The increase of the GSI during development was significant for MAT males, and is related to the production of sufficient volume of seminal fluid to form the sperm "plug" in the female seminal receptacle. The HSI decreased from DEV to MAT adult stages, indicating that reserves from the hepatopancreas are used to develop the reproductive system after the pubertal molt.

  15. Expression of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the reproductive system of male mice. (United States)

    Marciniak, Marcin; Chruścicka, Barbara; Lech, Tomasz; Burnat, Grzegorz; Pilc, Andrzej


    Although the presence of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in the central nervous system is well documented, they have recently been found in peripheral and non-neuronal tissues. In the present study we investigated the expression of group III mGlu receptors in the reproductive system of male mice. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8 (but not mGlu4) receptor transcripts in testes and epididymides from adult mice. In addition, expression of mGlu6 (Grm6) and mGlu8 receptor (Grm8) mRNA was detected in spermatozoa isolated from the vas deferens. The vas deferens was found to contain only mGlu7 receptor (Grm7) mRNA, which was particularly intense in 21-day-old male mice. In penile homogenates, only the mGlu7 receptor signal was detected. Genetic ablation of the mGlu7 receptor in males led to fertility disorders manifested by decreased insemination capability as well as deterioration of sperm parameters, particularly sperm motility, vitality, sperm membrane integrity and morphology, with a simultaneous increase in sperm concentration. These results indicate that constitutively expressed mGlu receptors in the male reproductive system may play an important role in ejaculation and/or erection processes, as well as in the formation and maturation of spermatozoa.


    Groman, Joshua D.; Karczeski, Barbara; Sheridan, Molly; Robinson, Terry E.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Cutting, Garry R.


    Objective To determine which features of incomplete or “nonclassic” forms of cystic fibrosis (CF) are associated with deleterious CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) mutations, and to explore other etiologies for features not associated with deleterious CFTR mutations. Study design Clinical features were compared between 57 patients with deleterious mutations in each CFTR and 63 with no deleterious mutations. The Shwachman Bodian Diamond syndrome gene (SBDS) was sequenced to search for mutations in patients with no deleterious CFTR mutations and steatorrhea to determine if any had unrecognized Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). Results The presence of a common CF-causing mutation, absence of the vas deferens, and Pseudomona aeruginosa in the sputum correlated with the presence of two deleterious CFTR mutations, whereas sweat chloride concentration, diagnostic criteria for CF, and steatorrhea did not. However, sweat chloride concentration correlated with CFTR mutation status in patients infected with P aeruginosa. One patient had disease-causing mutations in each SBDS. Conclusions Presence of a common CF-causing mutation, absence of the vas deferens and/or P aeruginosa infection in a patient with features of nonclassic CF are predictive of deleterious mutations in each CFTR, whereas steatorrhea in the same context is likely to have etiologies other than CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction. PMID:15870673

  17. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge]. (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta


    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  18. Effect of butanolic fraction of yellow and black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on the sperm count of adult mice. (United States)

    Inoue, N; Farfan, C; Gonzales, G F


    Lepidium meyenii, known as maca, is a popular nutraceutical food which is grown over 4,000 m above sea level in the Peruvian central highlands. Maca contains alkaloids, but there are no studies on their biological effects. The butanol fraction obtained from methanol extract of maca hypocotyls contains alkaloids. The effects of butanol/aqueous fractions partitioned from methanol extract of yellow and black maca were examined. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl were used to evaluate maca fractions in vitro. Daily sperm production and sperm count in epididymis and vas deferens in mice were determined as biological effect of maca extracts in vivo. Yellow maca (21.7%±0.69) had better antioxidant capacity than black maca (18.2% ± 0.12; p maca. TPC is higher in the aqueous fraction than in the methanolic extract of yellow or black maca. Black maca administration resulted in higher concentration of sperm count in epididymis and vas deferens compared to yellow maca. A higher biological effect was observed in methanolic extract and in aqueous extract than in the butanol fraction of maca. In conclusion, better biological effect was observed in the methanolic extract of maca than in its partitioned fractions. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. A mixture of extracts from Peruvian plants (black maca and yacon) improves sperm count and reduced glycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Gasco, Manuel


    We investigated the effect of two extracts from Peruvian plants given alone or in a mixture on sperm count and glycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Normal or diabetic mice were divided in groups receiving vehicle, black maca (Lepidium meyenii), yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) or three mixtures of extracts black maca/yacon (90/10, 50/50 and 10/90%). Normal or diabetic mice were treated for 7 d with each extract, mixture or vehicle. Glycemia, daily sperm production (DSP), epididymal and vas deferens sperm counts in mice and polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity in each extract were assessed. Black maca (BM), yacon and the mixture of extracts reduced glucose levels in diabetic mice. Non-diabetic mice treated with BM and yacon showed higher DSP than those treated with vehicle (p maca/yacon increased DSP, and sperm count in vas deferens and epididymis with respect to non-diabetic and diabetic mice treated with vehicle (p maca, and this was associated with higher antioxidant activity. The combination of two extracts improved glycemic levels and male reproductive function in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin increased 1.43 times the liver weight that was reversed with the assessed plants extracts. In summary, streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in reduction in sperm counts and liver damage. These effects could be reduced with BM, yacon and the BM+yacon mixture.

  20. Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution. (United States)

    Cob, Zaidi Che; Arshad, Aziz; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan


    Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals. The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. A total of 32.81% of adult females showed imposex characteristics, with varying degrees of severity though. The relative penis size (RPS) index ranged from 1.74 to 33.29 (mean = 13.40 ± 2.27, n = 21), while the relative penis length (RPL) index ranged from 6.28 to 55.19 (mean = 25.83 ± 3.33, n = 21). The use of vas deferens sequence (VDS) index was however cannot be applied as the presence of egg groove obscured any vas deferens development in affected females. Sequence of imposex (male penis) development in female conch, from merely a small stump to an advance male penis homologous was therefore carefully analyzed and described, and an alternative imposex classification scheme was proposed. S. canarium can be a good indicator for monitoring of organotin pollution within the study area. However, more studies are needed in order to further develop and test its validity and application, such as its correlation with levels of pollutant within the tissues and the environment, as well as its application on other Strombus species.

  1. Temporal evolution of imposex in Nassarius reticulatus (L.) along the Portuguese coast: the efficacy of EC regulation 782/2003. (United States)

    Rato, Miléne; Ferreira, Nelson; Santos, José; Barroso, Carlos


    Imposex levels in Nassarius reticulatus (L.) were determined in 44 sites along the Portuguese coast in 2006 in order to describe spatial and temporal trends of TBT pollution in the area. The percentage of females with imposex across sites varied between 20 and 100, denoting the extent of this phenomenon throughout the Portuguese coast. The mean female penis length per site varied between 0.0-8.0 mm and the relative penis length index (mean female penis length x 100/mean male penis length) attained a maximum value of 92%, i.e., female penis never surpasses the size of the male penis but nevertheless it can almost approach the male dimensions. The vas deferens sequence index ranged from 0.2 to 4.5 and the oviduct convolution index varied between 0.0 and 1.3 across stations. The penis growth, the vas deferens development and the oviduct convolution were all correlated and constitute visible signs of a global virilisation progression in females in response to the proximity of harbours that constitute the main TBT pollution sources. The results indicate that about 95% of the surveyed sites were still exposed to TBT water concentrations above the OSPAR Environmental Assessment Criteria. Nevertheless, signs of recovery are shown by the significant reduction of VDSI levels in 2006 in comparison to 2003, which points to the efficacy of the EC Regulation 782/2003 in reducing TBT pollution levels in the Portuguese coast.

  2. Imposex in the dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus): 22-year monitoring around England and Wales. (United States)

    Nicolaus, E E Manuel; Barry, Jon


    Six imposex surveys in the dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) have been conducted over the past two decades to assess legislation effectiveness controlling the use of tri-butyl tin (TBT) by the maritime shipping industry. This study firstly analysed the results of the 2014 survey and secondly carried out a trend assessment of the same 88 sampled sites between 1997 and 2014 of which 65 showed statistically significant reductions. To highlight the magnitude of change, the Vas Deferens Sequence stages (VDS) of the same 56 sites sampled in 1997 and 2010 showed that the Vas Deferens Sequence Index (VDSI) reduced statistically significantly from 2.89 and 0.42, respectively. These data confirm that the legislation enacted, latterly through the International Maritime Organization (IMO) during 2003 to 2008, has been effective in progressively reducing the impact of TBT in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the 2014 results show that two of 18 sampled sites (Gurnard Bay and St. Mawes) are still above the Ecotoxicological Assessment Criteria (EAC) derived for TBT (VDSI ≤ 2).

  3. Sonographic Features of Vasectomy-Related Changes and Abnormalities in the Scrotum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hee Jae; Jung, Seung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Choi, Byung Gil [Seoul St. Mary s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This article presents changes in the testis and epididymis after a vasectomy as well as illustrate the various vasectomy-related abnormalities on sonographic examination. In patients with scrotal pain after a recent vasectomy, the sonographic findings include enlargement of the epididymis with an ill-defined border and hematoma, or a hematocele surrounding the testis and epididymis. Vasectomy-related changes are likely attributable to post-vasectomy obstructive changes and increased intraluminal pressure in the efferent ducts, epididymides, and vas deferens. The typical sonographic changes after a vasectomy primarily include epididymal thickening and epididymal tubular ectasia with diminished blood flow in the epididymis. Spermatoceles display various sonographic findings, from multilocular cysts, to cystic lesions with low-echo levels, to a solid mass. Sperm granulomas appear as well-circumscribed heterogeneous masses on sonography and are commonly found at the epididymis or the ends of the severed vas deferens. The hydrocele, varicocele, epididymal cysts, and testicular cysts can also be associated; however, these findings are nonspecific. When radiologists encounter abnormalities of the scrotum, it would be useful to obtain a history of vasectomy to enable a correct diagnosis. Understanding of sonographic features of vasectomy-related changes and abnormalities is essential for correct diagnosis and proper management

  4. Evaluation of different doses of mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum) on the reduction of sperm production, motility and morphology in adult male rats. (United States)

    Leiva-Revilla, J; Cárdenas-Valencia, I; Rubio, J; Guerra-Castañón, F; Olcese-Mori, P; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F


    Mashua is an edible-tuber crop that grows in the Andean region. Folk medicine describes the use of mashua to reduce reproductive function in men. The present study aimed: (i) to determine whether different doses of mashua (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 2 g kg(-1)) produced a dose-response reduction on sperm production and quality; and, (ii) to determine whether these anti-reproductive effects of mashua can be reversible after cessation of treatment (12 and 24 days of recovery time). Mashua-treated rats showed lower values of daily sperm production, epididymal and vas deferens sperm count and sperm motility; meanwhile, mashua increased the percentage of abnormal sperm morphology and epididymal sperm transit rate. The following variables follow a dose-response effect: sperm number in vas deferens, sperm motility and sperm transit rate. In addition, it was demonstrated that the reduction in reproduction function in male rats treated with mashua was reversible after 24 days of recovery time. Finally, lower doses mashua reduces sperm number and quality (motility and morphology), and these adverse effects on male reproductive system may be reversible after 24 days after cessation of the treatment. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Antispermatogenic and hormonal effects of Crotalaria juncea Linn. seed extracts in male mice. (United States)

    Vijaykumar, B; Sangamma, I; Sharanabasappa, A; Patil, Saraswati B


    To evaluate the antifertility activity of various extracts of Crotalaria juncea seeds in male mice. Adult male mice were gavaged the petroleum ether, benzene and ethanol extracts of C. juncea seeds, 25 mg x (100g)(-1) x day(-1) for 30 days. On day 31 the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland and levator ani were dissected out and weighed. The organs were processed for biochemical and histological examination. In petroleum ether, benzene and ethanol extracts treated rats, there was a decrease in the weights of testis and accessory reproductive organs. The diameters of the testis and seminiferous tubules were decreased. Spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids in the testis and the sperm count in cauda epididymis were also decreased. There was a significant reduction in the protein and glycogen contents and an increase in the cholesterol content in the testis, epididymis and vas deferens. Of the 3 extracts, the ethanol extract appeared to be the most potent in antispermatogenic activity. When the ethanol extract was tested in immature male mice, there was an antiandrogenic effect as the weights of accessory organs were reduced. The various extracts of C. juncea seeds arrest spermatogenesis and are likely to have an antiandrogenic activity.

  6. ISS Payload Human Factors (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan


    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  7. Germ cell and dose-dependent DNA damage measured by the comet assay in murine spermatozoaa after testicular X-irradiation. (United States)

    Haines, Grant A; Hendry, Jolyon H; Daniel, C Paul; Morris, Ian D


    The single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay has been widely used to measure DNA damage in human sperm in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. We investigated the effects of in vivo radiation, a known genotoxin, on spermatogenic cells of the mouse testis and examined sperm collected from the vas deferens using the neutral Comet assay. Irradiation of differentiating spermatogonia with 0.25-4 Gy X-rays produced a dose-related increase in DNA damage in sperm collected 45 days later. Increases were found when measuring Comet tail length and percentage of tail DNA, but the greatest changes were in tail moment (a product of tail length and tail DNA). Spermatids, spermatocytes, differentiating spermatogonia, and stem cell spermatogonia were also irradiated in vivo with 4 Gy X-rays. DNA damage was indirectly deduced to occur at all stages. The maximum increase was seen in differentiating spermatogonia. DNA damaged cells were, surprisingly, still detected 120 days after stem cell spermatogonia had been irradiated. The distribution of DNA damage among individual sperm cells after irradiation was heterogeneous. This was seen most clearly when changes in the Comet tail length were measured when there were discrete undamaged and damaged populations. After increasing doses of irradiation, an increasing proportion of cells were found in the damaged population. Because a proportion of undamaged sperm cells remains after all but the highest dose, the possibility of normal fertility remains. However, fertilization with a spermatozoa carrying high amounts of DNA damage could lead to effects as diverse as embryonic death and cancer susceptibility in the offspring.

  8. Gata3 acts downstream of beta-catenin signaling to prevent ectopic metanephric kidney induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grote


    Full Text Available Metanephric kidney induction critically depends on mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in the caudal region of the nephric (or Wolffian duct. Central to this process, GDNF secreted from the metanephric mesenchyme induces ureter budding by activating the Ret receptor expressed in the nephric duct epithelium. A failure to regulate this pathway is believed to be responsible for a large proportion of the developmental anomalies affecting the urogenital system. Here, we show that the nephric duct-specific inactivation of the transcription factor gene Gata3 leads to massive ectopic ureter budding. This results in a spectrum of urogenital malformations including kidney adysplasia, duplex systems, and hydroureter, as well as vas deferens hyperplasia and uterine agenesis. The variability of developmental defects is reminiscent of the congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT observed in human. We show that Gata3 inactivation causes premature nephric duct cell differentiation and loss of Ret receptor gene expression. These changes ultimately affect nephric duct epithelium homeostasis, leading to ectopic budding of interspersed cells still expressing the Ret receptor. Importantly, the formation of these ectopic buds requires both GDNF/Ret and Fgf signaling activities. We further identify Gata3 as a central mediator of beta-catenin function in the nephric duct and demonstrate that the beta-catenin/Gata3 pathway prevents premature cell differentiation independently of its role in regulating Ret expression. Together, these results establish a genetic cascade in which Gata3 acts downstream of beta-catenin, but upstream of Ret, to prevent ectopic ureter budding and premature cell differentiation in the nephric duct.

  9. Human Dignity, Three Human Rights, and Pedagogy. (United States)

    Vandenberg, Donald


    A general theory of value is outlined to show that moral agency is necessary to human dignity and that liberty, equality, and fraternity are necessary to moral agency. These ideals can be implemented in schools and human dignity can be at the core of the professional ethics of teaching. (MT)

  10. Human dignity, bioethics, and human rights. (United States)

    Häyry, Matti; Takala, Tuija


    The authors analyse and assess the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights published by UNESCO. They argue that the Draft has two main weaknesses. It unnecessarily confines the scope of bioethics to life sciences and their practical applications. And it fails to spell out the intended role of human dignity in international ethical regulation.

  11. [Humanization in health care]. (United States)

    Oliveira, Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de; Collet, Neusa; Viera, Cláudia Silveira


    This study aims to reflect on humanization in health care, recovering the history of understanding about mankind, the human and humanity, until humanization in humanity and health. We discuss the national humanization program in hospital care and reflect on this proposal and on the issue of humanization in Brazilian health care nowadays. Communication is indispensable to establish humanization, as well as technical and material conditions. Both users and health professionals need to be heard, building a network of dialogues to think and promote singular humanization actions. For this process to take effect, there is a need to involve the whole that makes up the health service. This group involves different professionals, such as managers, public policy makers, professional councils and education institutions.

  12. Modulation of neck muscle activity induced by intra-oral stimulation in humans. (United States)

    Torisu, Tetsurou; Tanaka, Mihoko; Murata, Hiroshi; Wang, Kelun; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; De Laat, Antoon; Svensson, Peter


    To investigate the effect of painful electrical stimuli applied to intra-oral tissues around the teeth on the neck muscle activity in healthy humans. Electromyographic (EMG) responses of the dorsal neck muscles evoked by intra-oral electrical stimulation were recorded before and after local anesthesia to the stimulus site in 17 healthy volunteers. Inhibition of dorsal neck muscle EMG activities on average 80% compared to baseline level was observed with a latency around 50 ms after the electrical stimulation before anesthesia, and the EMG activity inhibition decreased after anesthesia of the intra-oral stimulus site. The perceived intensity of the electrical stimuli as scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS) was 6.1 ± 0.4 cm before anesthesia and 1.5 ± 0.2 cm after anesthesia. Intra-oral stimulation can inhibit neck muscle activity. This modulation might be attributed mainly to nociceptive afferent nerves however, non-nociceptive fibers could also be responsible. Intra-oral information including nociceptive activity can inhibit neck muscle activity. From a clinical viewpoint, the present findings demonstrate the neural connectivity between the trigeminal region and the cervical region raising the possibility that orofacial pain conditions could influence head, neck and shoulder activity. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determining The Factors Causing Human Error Deficiencies At A Public Utility Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. W. Badenhorst


    Full Text Available According to Neff (1977, as cited by Bergh (1995, the westernised culture considers work important for industrial mental health. Most individuals experience work positively, which creates a positive attitude. Should this positive attitude be inhibited, workers could lose concentration and become bored, potentially resulting in some form of human error. The aim of this research was to determine the factors responsible for human error events, which lead to power supply failures at Eskom power stations. Proposals were made for the reduction of these contributing factors towards improving plant performance. The target population was 700 panel operators in Eskom’s Power Generation Group. The results showed that factors leading to human error can be reduced or even eliminated. Opsomming Neff (1977 soos aangehaal deur Bergh (1995, skryf dat in die westerse kultuur werk belangrik vir bedryfsgeestesgesondheid is. Die meeste persone ervaar werk as positief, wat ’n positiewe gesindheid kweek. Indien hierdie positiewe gesindheid geïnhibeer word, kan dit lei tot ’n gebrek aan konsentrasie by die werkers. Werkers kan verveeld raak en dit kan weer lei tot menslike foute. Die doel van hierdie navorsing is om die faktore vas te stel wat tot menslike foute lei, en wat bydra tot onderbrekings in kragvoorsiening by Eskom kragstasies. Voorstelle is gemaak vir die vermindering van hierdie bydraende faktore ten einde die kragaanleg se prestasie te verbeter. Die teiken-populasie was 700 paneel-operateurs in die Kragopwekkingsgroep by Eskom. Die resultate dui daarop dat die faktore wat aanleiding gee tot menslike foute wel verminder, of geëlimineer kan word.

  14. Global Law: Humanism and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Serratine Grubba


    Full Text Available This article discusses the ideal of human rights before globalizatórios inflows. It begins with a general statement about the legal globalization, comparing it with the Global Law in the political and economic implications. Later, it approaches the ideal predicted with transnationalism. Proposes a reflection on the present Human Rights. Also, rethinks the lines of the complex web of Global Law, its institutions and its actors, which circulate between the public and private plans. There is no sense in space maintenance of the ideal of human rights only in the state or territory in international treaties originally linked to the states.

  15. Human Resource Accounting System (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael J.


    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  16. Telling the Human Story. (United States)

    Richardson, Miles


    Proposes that one of the fundamental human attributes is telling stories. Explores the debate on whether Neanderthals possessed language ability. Discusses the role of the "human story" in teaching anthropology. (DH)

  17. Human Use Index (Future) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  18. Human Use Index (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  19. Immunology Taught by Humans


    Davis, Mark M


    After a half-century of mouse-dominated research, human immunology is making a comeback. Informed by mouse studies and powered by new techniques, human immune research is both advancing disease treatment and providing new insights into basic biology.

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open TOP

  1. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine: What You Need to Know (VIS) ... Why get vaccinated? HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with many ...

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  3. Human Parainfluenza Viruses (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  4. Human bites (image) (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  5. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español In Chamorro In Urdu In Vietnamese HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is ...

  6. Humane Education in Action. (United States)

    Savesky, Kathy


    Provides a brief history and description of a field test in the United States and Canada of the National Association for the Advancement of Humane Education's humane education curriculum guide for grades 1-6. (CS)

  7. Human papillomavirus molecular biology. (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Resource Management System


    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; Sangeetha, V.; Gopalakrishnan, S.


    The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standa...

  9. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton


    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  10. International Human Rights Kit. (United States)

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    Designed for students, educators, and citizens interested in human rights, the booklet presents resources for learning about the facts, perspectives, and existing procedures and institutions to promote human rights. Chapter one explores the relationship between human rights and war. Chapter two presents a self-survey to help readers clarify…

  11. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.


    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  12. Humanities Review Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humanities Review Journal is published in June and December by Humanities Research Forum. The Journal publishes original, well-researched papers, review essays, interviews, resume, and commentaries, which offer new insights into the various disciplines in the Humanities. The focus is on issues about Africa.

  13. A Human Rights Glossary. (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy


    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  14. Esprit: A Humanities Magazine. (United States)

    Parker, Donald G.; Capella, Barry John

    In March 1984, the first issue of "Esprit," a semi-annual humanities magazine for the 56 two-year colleges in New York State, was published. The magazine seeks to confront the apparent decline of student interest in the humanities, community doubts about the relevance of the humanities, and the seeming indifference to the special truths…

  15. Visible Human Project (United States)

    ... NLM Mobile Gallery Site Navigation Home The Visible Human Project ® Overview The Visible Human Project ® is an outgrowth of the NLM's 1986 ... dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. Acquisition of transverse CT, MR and cryosection ...

  16. Modeling Human Leukemia Immunotherapy in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Xia


    Full Text Available The currently available human tumor xenograft models permit modeling of human cancers in vivo, but in immunocompromised hosts. Here we report a humanized mouse (hu-mouse model made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue plus hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a leukemia-associated fusion gene MLL-AF9. In addition to normal human lymphohematopoietic reconstitution as seen in non-leukemic hu-mice, these hu-mice showed spontaneous development of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, which was transplantable to secondary recipients with an autologous human immune system. Using this model, we show that lymphopenia markedly improves the antitumor efficacy of recipient leukocyte infusion (RLI, a GVHD-free immunotherapy that induces antitumor responses in association with rejection of donor chimerism in mixed allogeneic chimeras. Our data demonstrate the potential of this leukemic hu-mouse model in modeling leukemia immunotherapy, and suggest that RLI may offer a safe treatment option for leukemia patients with severe lymphopenia.

  17. From Human Past to Human Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik


    Full Text Available This paper begins with a refutation of the orthodox model of final Pleistocene human evolution, presenting an alternative, better supported account of this crucial phase. According to this version, the transition from robust to gracile humans during that period is attributable to selective breeding rather than natural selection, rendered possible by the exponential rise of culturally guided volitional choices. The rapid human neotenization coincides with the development of numerous somatic and neural detriments and pathologies. Uniformitarian reasoning based on ontogenic homology suggests that the cognitive abilities of hominins are consistently underrated in the unstable orthodoxies of Pleistocene archaeology. A scientifically guided review establishes developmental trajectories defining recent changes in the human genome and its expressions, which then form the basis of attempts to extrapolate from them into the future. It is suggested that continuing and perhaps accelerating unfavorable genetic changes to the human species, rather than existential threats such as massive disasters, pandemics, or astrophysical events, may become the ultimate peril of humanity.

  18. Human Beings And Water


    Pakpahan, Putra Andika


    The writer of this paper on this writing is talking about the human beings and water. Water is one of the very fundamentally things that human beings need to keep their lives. Human beings sometimes do not realise that the water is very important for them because they actually cannot live their lives without the present of water. Human beings can keep their lives without rice, but cannot without water. For instances the use of water for human beings are domestic use, cooking, washing, bathing...

  19. Rethinking medical humanities. (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Boniolo, Giovanni


    This paper questions different conceptions of Medical Humanities in order to provide a clearer understanding of what they are and why they matter. Building upon former attempts, we defend a conception of Medical Humanities as a humanistic problem-based approach to medicine aiming at influencing its nature and practice. In particular, we discuss three main conceptual issues regarding the overall nature of this discipline: (i) a problem-driven approach to Medical Humanities; (ii) the need for an integration of Medical Humanities into medicine; (iii) the methodological requirements that could render Medical Humanities an effective framework for medical decision-making.

  20. Situating Human Sexual Conditioning. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Heather


    Conditioning is often thought of as a basic, automatic learning process that has limited applicability to higher-level human behavior. In addition, conditioning is seen as separable from, and even secondary to, "innate" processes. These ideas involve some misconceptions. The aim of this article is to provide a clearer, more refined sense of human sexual conditioning. After providing some background information and reviewing what is known from laboratory conditioning studies, human sexual conditioning is compared to sexual conditioning in nonhumans, to "innate" sexual responding, and to other types of human learning processes. Recommendations for moving forward in human sexual conditioning research are included.

  1. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.


    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  2. Oxytocin and Human Evolution. (United States)

    Carter, C Sue


    A small, but powerful neuropeptide, oxytocin coordinates processes that are central to both human reproduction and human evolution. Also embedded in the evolution of the human nervous system are unique pathways necessary for modern human sociality and cognition. Oxytocin is necessary for facilitating the birth process, especially in light of anatomical restrictions imposed by upright human locomotion, which depends on a fixed pelvis. Oxytocin, by facilitating birth, allowed the development of a large cortex and a protective bony cranium. The complex human brain in turn permitted the continuing emergence of social sensitivity, complex thinking, and language. After birth is complete, oxytocin continues to support human development by providing direct nutrition, in the form of human milk, and emotional and intellectual support through high levels of maternal behavior and selective attachment. Oxytocin also encourages social sensitivity and reciprocal attunement, on the part of both the mother and child, which are necessary for human social behavior and for rearing an emotionally healthy human child. Oxytocin supports growth during development, resilience, and healing across the lifespan. Oxytocin dynamically moderates the autonomic nervous system, and effects of oxytocin on vagal pathways allowing high levels of oxygenation and digestion necessary to support adaptation in a complex environment. Finally, oxytocin has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, helping to explain the pervasive adaptive consequences of social behavior for emotional and physical health.

  3. Human Capital and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs


    Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.

  4. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects the interp......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...... the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  5. Human Performance in Space (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna


    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  6. Bursty human dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo


    This book provides a comprehensive overview on emergent bursty patterns in the dynamics of human behaviour. It presents common and alternative understanding of the investigated phenomena, and points out open questions worthy of further investigations. The book is structured as follows. In the introduction the authors discuss the motivation of the field, describe bursty phenomena in case of human behaviour, and relate it to other disciplines. The second chapter addresses the measures commonly used to characterise heterogeneous signals, bursty human dynamics, temporal paths, and correlated behaviour. These definitions are first introduced to set the basis for the discussion of the third chapter about the observations of bursty human patterns in the dynamics of individuals, dyadic interactions, and collective behaviour. The subsequent fourth chapter discusses the models of bursty human dynamics. Various mechanisms have been proposed about the source of the heterogeneities in human dynamics, which leads to the in...

  7. Outsourcing in Human Resource


    Oliver Pamelan


    The research paper aimed to contribute to the literature of Human Resource Management Planning and employment through the widely used function of the outsourcing human resource. The research paper is based on the description of the process of outsourcing with the reference to the theories of outsourcing management activities. It also explained the effects of this function through measuring the benefits and drawbacks of the outsourcing human resource while planning the employment strategies. T...

  8. The Humanities Matter! Infographic


    Terras, M. M.; Priego, E.; Liu, A.; Rockwell, G.; Sinclair, S.; Henseler, C.; Thomas, L.


    The Humanities are academic disciplines that seek to understand and interpret the human experience, from individuals to entire cultures, engaging in the discovery, preservation, and communication of the past and present record to enable a deeper understanding of contemporary society. The Humanities encompass literature, classics, ancient and modern languages, history, philoso - phy, media studies, the fine and performing arts, and other related subjects. It can be a challenge to show the bene...

  9. Human Resource Planning


    Lache Cãtãlina


    The objective of human resource planning is to adapt the human capital needed to develop the enterprises’ activities and to accomplish their priority objectives on the medium and/or short term. Human resource planning is a dynamic activity, time being an essential variable, both in what regards the quantitative side (adapting the number of jobs according to the organisation’s evolution in time) and the qualitative side (harmonising the jobs’ complexity with technological changes). The quantit...

  10. Crimes against humanity


    Podlahová, Veronika


    57 Resumé "Crimes against humanity" (the thesis title) Crimes against humanity constitute one of the three integral parts of "crimes under international law." At the same time they represent the most severe form of infringement of fundamental human rights that are as the principle value protected by the international community and its peremptory rules. Although these crimes have not emerged during the 20th century for the first time, it was the World War II., which established the term "crime...

  11. Modern Human Capital Management


    Feldberger, Madita


    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  12. Human hemoglobin genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, G.R.; Adams, J.G.


    This book contains the following 10 chapters: Introduction; The Human Hemoglobins; The Human Globin Genes; Hemoglobin Synthesis and Globin Gene Expression; The Globin Gene Mutations - A. Mechanisms and Classification; The Globin Gene Mutations - B. Their Phenotypes and Clinical Expression; The Genetics of the Human Globin Gene Loci: Formal Genetics and Gene Linkage; The Geographic Distribution of Globin Gene Variation; Labortory Identification, Screening, Education, and Counseling for Abnormal Hemoglobins and Thalassemias; and Approaches to the Treatment of the Hemoglobin Disorders.

  13. Human Performance Research Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  14. Human cloning 2001. (United States)

    Healy, David L; Weston, Gareth; Pera, Martin F; Rombauts, Luk; Trounson, Alan O


    This review summaries human cloning from a clinical perspective. Natural human clones, that is, monozygotic twins, are increasing in the general community. Iatrogenic human clones have been produced for decades in infertile couples given fertility treatment such as ovulation induction. A clear distinction must be made between therapeutic cloning using embryonic stem cells and reproductive cloning attempts. Unlike the early clinical years of in vitro fertilization, with cloning there is no animal model that is safe and dependable. Until there is such a model, 'Dolly'-style human cloning is medically unacceptable.

  15. Robotics for Human Exploration (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria


    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  16. [Human physiology: kidney]. (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V


    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  17. Challenges for Virtual Humans in Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Huang, T; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    The vision of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) presumes a plethora of embedded services and devices that all endeavor to support humans in their daily activities as unobtrusively as possible. Hardware gets distributed throughout the environment, occupying even the fabric of our clothing. The environment


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives To determine whether raised levels of serum Beta -HCG) are associated with higher grade and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin ( -HCG in higher category tumors and whether in patients with raised levels of -HCG their sera the rise (above normal range) and the fall (to normal) in levels would correspond with ...

  19. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.


    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  20. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk


    ) article 'Visualizing the mind: Looking at Titian's Flaying of Marsyas', addressing features of the painting not commented on by Hart, and supplementing Hart's (Kleinian) theoretical frame by involving Didier Anzieu's 'skin ego', Slavoj Zizek's concept of the 'non-human', Giorgio Agamben's term...

  1. Human Resource Accounting (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert L., Jr.


    An interview is reported which discussed the implications for the hiring, recruiting, screening and development of employees in the light of human resource accounting, here defined as the identification, accumulation and dissemination of information about human resources in dollar terms. (SA)

  2. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian


    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  3. Human Mind Maps (United States)

    Glass, Tom


    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  4. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.


    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  5. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W


    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems...

  6. the human genome project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    have resulted in the biological diversity, both past and present, on this planet. RAJ RAMESAR. MSc, PhD. Professor and Head. Division of Human Genetics. Faculty of Health Sciences. University of Cape Town. Raj Ramesar serves as Director of the MRC. Human Genetics Research Unit and. CANSA's Colorectal Cancer ...

  7. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.


    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and

  8. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    Passive humans (sitting or standing) might well be present on flooring-systems, footbridges or other structures that carry humans. An active croud of people might generate structural vibrations, and these might be problematic. The passive crowd of people, however, will interact with the structura...

  9. Evaluating the Humanities (United States)

    Brody, Howard


    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  10. The Humanities' Value (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey Galt


    Why should society support the humanities when so many people are suffering from the effects of the economic crisis? What claim do the humanities, or scholarship generally, have on increasingly limited resources? Shouldn't such pursuits be considered luxuries at a time when people should be focusing on essentials? The alleviation of human…

  11. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically (United States)

    Odden, Allan


    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  12. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ... (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  13. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    Passive humans (sitting or standing) might well be present on flooring-systems, footbridges or other structures that carry humans. An active croud of people might generate structural vibrations, and these might be problematic. The passive crowd of people, however, will interact with the structural...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    Abstract. An up-to-date review on human paragonimiasis in Africa was carried out to determine the current geographical distribution of human cases and analyze the animal reservoir, snails and crustaceans which intervene in the local life cycle of Paragonimus species. Two countries, i.e., Cameroon and. Nigeria, were ...

  15. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James


    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  16. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  17. Fungi that Infect Humans. (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R


    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients-Candida, Pneumocystis, and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  18. Businesses’ human rights responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Lewis


    Full Text Available There is no international human rights law standard that expresslyprohibits businesses’ arbitrary displacement of persons. Businessesdo, however, have the responsibility to avoid infringements of humanrights that could lead to displacement and also to take actions toremedy their human rights violations that might lead to displacement.

  19. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: ...

  20. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, Japan (United States)

    Gaowa; Wuritu; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Wu, Dongxing; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Chiya, Seizou; Fukunaga, Kazutoshi; Funato, Toyohiko; Shiojiri, Masaaki; Nakajima, Hideki; Hamauzu, Yoshiji; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ando, Shuji; Kishimoto, Toshio


    We retrospectively confirmed 2 cases of human Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Patient blood samples contained unique p44/msp2 for the pathogen, and antibodies bound to A. phagocytophilum antigens propagated in THP-1 rather than HL60 cells. Unless both cell lines are used for serodiagnosis of rickettsiosis-like infections, cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis could go undetected. PMID:23460988

  1. Humane Education Projects Handbook. (United States)

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  2. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg


    , which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...

  3. Overophedning af det humane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper


    Anmelder Marius Gudmand-Høyer, Sverre Raffnsøe og Morten Raffnsøe-Møller (red.): "Den humane vending. En antologi", Aarhus Universitetsforlag......Anmelder Marius Gudmand-Høyer, Sverre Raffnsøe og Morten Raffnsøe-Møller (red.): "Den humane vending. En antologi", Aarhus Universitetsforlag...

  4. Effect of topical anaesthetics on interstitial colloid osmotic pressure in human subcutaneous tissue sampled by wick technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jørgen Timm Guthe

    Full Text Available To measure colloid osmotic pressure in interstitial fluid (COP(i from human subcutaneous tissue with the modified wick technique in order to determine influence of topical application of anaesthetics, dry vs. wet wick and implantation time on COP(i.In 50 healthy volunteers interstitial fluid (IF was collected by subcutaneous implantation of multi-filamentous nylon wicks. Study subjects were allocated to two groups; one for comparing COP(i obtained from dry and saline soaked wicks, and one for comparing COP(i from unanaesthetized skin, and skin after application of a eutectic mixture of local anaesthetic (EMLA®, Astra Zeneca cream. IF was sampled from the skin of the shoulders, and implantation time was 30, 60, 75, 90 and 120 min. Colloid osmotic pressure was measured with a colloid osmometer. Pain assessment during the procedure was compared for EMLA cream and no topical anaesthesia using a visual analogue scale (VAS in a subgroup of 10 subjects.There were no significant differences between COP(i obtained from dry compared to wet wicks, except that the values after 75 and 90 min. were somewhat higher for the dry wicks. Topical anaesthesia with EMLA cream did not affect COP(i values. COP(i decreased from 30 to 75 min. of implantation (23.2 ± 4.4 mmHg to 19.6 ± 2.9 mmHg, p = 0.008 and subsequently tended to increase until 120 min. EMLA cream resulted in significant lower VAS score for the procedure.COP(i from subcutaneous tissue was easily obtained and fluid harvesting was well tolerated when topical anaesthetic was used. The difference in COP(i assessed by dry and wet wicks between 75 min. and 90 min. of implantation was in accordance with previous reports. The use of topical analgesia did not influence COP(i and topical analgesia may make the wick technique more acceptable for subjects who dislike technical procedures, including NCT01044979.

  5. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

     Bent Fausing  "The Humane Technology", abstract (for The Two Cultures: Balancing Choices and Effects Oxford University July 20-26, 2008). The paper will investigate the use of technology in everyday aesthetics such as TV-commercials for mobile phones for Nokia, which slogan is, as it is well known...... for as a better humanity.      The paper will investigate how the two cultures are combined in this way in a TV-commercial. Technology points, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not to the often-motioned post-human condition.    ......, "Nokia - connecting people". Which function does this technology get in narratives, images, interactions and affects here?      The mobile phone and its digital camera are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get...

  6. Humanity at the Edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.; Gjødsbøl, Iben M.; Dam, Mie S.


    At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia...... nursing home, we follow practices of feeding precarious lives lacking most markers of human personhood, including the exercise of moral judgment. Despite the absence of such markers, laboratory researchers and caregivers in these three sites do not abstain from engaging in questions about the moral status...... of the piglets, infants, and people with dementia in their care. They continually negotiate how their charges belong to the human collectivity and thereby challenge the notion of ‘the human’ that is foundational to anthropology. Combining analytical approaches that do not operate with a fixed boundary between...

  7. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten


    rhythm and chronic atrial fibrillation tissues and was neither affected by changes in frequency (1 vs. 3Hz). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a preferentially voltage-dependent, rather than time-dependent, effect with respect to refractoriness at physiologically relevant rates in human atria. However...... drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...

  8. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei


    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  9. The human cell atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Lander, Eric S.


    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international...... collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells...... in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early...

  10. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...... Research Initiative supporting Roskilde University’s new Humanities and Technology bachelor programme (‘HumTek’), and its three dimensions: Design, Humanities, and Technology. The research initiative involves 70 researchers from different departments and research groups at Roskilde University through...

  11. Human Milk Banking. (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E


    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.


    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  13. Genetics of human hydrocephalus. (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Williams, Michael A; Rigamonti, Daniele


    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders.A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  14. Human exposure to aluminium. (United States)

    Exley, Christopher


    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  15. Aluminium in human sweat. (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher


    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Wear in human knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Wang


    Full Text Available Wear occurs in natural knee joints and plays a pivotal factor in causing articular cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis (OA processes. Wear particles are produced in the wear process and get involved in inflammation of human knees. This review presents progresses in the mechanical and surface morphological studies of articular cartilages, wear particles analysis techniques for wear studies and investigations of human knee synovial fluid in wear of human knees. Future work is also included for further understanding of OA symptoms and their relations which may shed light on OA causes.

  17. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office


    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  18. Human Capital and Development


    Rodolfo E. Manuelli


    Perhaps no question has attracted as much attention in the economics literature as “Why are some countries richer than others?” In this article, the author revisits the “development problem” and provides some estimates of the importance of human capital in accounting for cross-country differences in output per worker. His results suggest that human capital has a central role in determining the wealth of nations and that the quality of human capital varies systematically with the level of deve...

  19. Human pancreas development. (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A


    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš


    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  1. Sulfatases and human disease. (United States)

    Diez-Roux, Graciana; Ballabio, Andrea


    Sulfatases are a highly conserved family of proteins that cleave sulfate esters from a wide range of substrates. The importance of sulfatases in human metabolism is underscored by the presence of at least eight human monogenic diseases caused by the deficiency of individual sulfatases. Sulfatase activity requires a unique posttranslational modification, which is impaired in patients with multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) due to a mutation of the sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1). Here we review current knowledge and future perspectives on the evolution of the sulfatase gene family, on the role of these enzymes in human metabolism, and on new developments in the therapy of sulfatase deficiencies.

  2. Propelling medical humanities in China. (United States)

    Tang, Wei


    Advances in the study of the medical humanities and medical humanities education have been made over the past few decades. Many influential journals have published articles examining the role of medical humanities and medical humanities education, the development and evaluation of medical humanities, and the design of a curriculum for medical humanities education in Western countries. However, most articles related to medical humanities in China were published in Chinese, moreover, researchers have worked in relative isolation and published in disparate journals, so their work has not been systematically presented to and evaluated by international readers. The six companion articles featured in this issue describe the current status and challenge of medical humanities and medical humanities education in China in the hope of providing international readers with a novel and meaningful glimpse into medical humanities in China. This Journal is calling for greater publication of research on medical humanities and medical humanities education to propel medical humanities in China.

  3. Human Research Program (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  4. The human urine metabolome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S


    .... Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine...

  5. The bionic human


    Francalanza, Emmanuel;


    Faster, fitter and flawless? What would it take to build a Bionic Human? Emmanuel Francalanza delved into research at the Faculty of Engineering to see how Malta could contribute. 3D Art by Jean Claude Vancell.

  6. Human Resource Planning (United States)

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.


    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  7. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E


    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  8. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...... and international level, and in an attempt to bring something new to the table, the book examines both if states have extraterritorial obligations in regard to their corporations and what can be required of states under such an obligation. The complex issue of states and corporate respect for human rights cannot...... adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  9. Aerospace Human Factors (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin


    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  10. Journal of Humanities: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Japhet Bakuwa Copy and Production Editor Chancellor College Publications Journal of Humanities Chancellor College Publications PO Box 280 Zomba Malawi Email: ...

  11. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses dime...... business governance suggests that this form of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns.......This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...

  12. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael


    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  13. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee


    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  14. Strategic Human Resources Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marta Muqaj


    Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM) represents an important and sensitive aspect of the functioning and development of a company, business, institution, state, public or private agency of a country...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  16. Science and Humanism (United States)

    Auger, Pierre


    Science and humanism are separated so completely as to bring about the creation of two cultures quite distinct from each other within contemporary civilization. Pragmatic, rational attitudes are needed on both sides to bring them together. (DF)

  17. Human Capital Tracking Tool - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  18. Human Factors Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  19. Human Power Empirically Explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.


    Harvesting energy from the users’ muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan


    Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in human capital is strategic for any country that seeks to create a knowledge economy. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of investment in human capital, the types of investment, the factors of education investment and the entities interested in investing and their benefits.

  1. Human female meiosis revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Hoffmann, Eva R.; Cimadomo, Danilo


    in the female germline is a crucial step towards the development of new diagnostic approaches and, possibly, for the development of therapeutic targets and molecules. Here, we have reviewed emerging mechanisms that may drive human aneuploidy, in particular the maternal age effect. SEARCH METHODS We conducted...... a systematic search in PubMed Central of the primary literature from 1990 through 2016 following the PRISMA guidelines, using MeSH terms related to human aneuploidy. For model organism research, we conducted a literature review based on references in human oocytes manuscripts and general reviews related...... to chromosome segregation in meiosis and mitosis. OUTCOMES Advances in genomic and imaging technologies are allowing unprecedented insight into chromosome segregation in human oocytes. This includes the identification of a novel chromosome segregation error, termed reverse segregation, as well as sister...

  2. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  3. Pushing Human Frontiers (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert


    With human colonization of Mars, I think you will see a higher standard of civilization, just as America set a higher standard of civilization which then promulgated back into Europe. I think that if you want to maximize human potential, you need a higher standard of civilization, and that becomes an example that benefits everyone. Without an open frontier, closed world ideologies, such as the Malthus Theory, tend to come to the forefront. It is that there are limited resources; therefore, we are all in deadly competition with each other for the limited pot. The result is tyrannical and potentially genocidal regimes, and we've already seen this in the twentieth century. There s no truth in the Malthus Theory, because human beings are the creators of their resources. With every mouth comes a pair of hands and a brain. But if it seems to be true, you have a vector in this direction, and it is extremely unfortunate. It is only in a universe of infinite resources that all humans can be brothers and sisters. The fundamental question which affects humanity s sense of itself is whether the world is changeable or fixed. Are we the makers of our world or just its inhabitants? Some people have a view that they re living at the end of history within a world that s already defined, and there is no fundamental purpose to human life because there is nothing humans can do that matters. On the other hand, if humans understand their own role as the creators of their world, that s a much more healthy point of view. It raises the dignity of humans. Indeed, if we do establish a new branch of human civilization on Mars that grows in time and potency to the point where it cannot really settle Mars, but transforms Mars, and brings life to Mars, we will prove to everyone and for all time the precious and positive nature of the human species and every member of it.

  4. Human-Robot Biodynamics


    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.


    This paper presents the scientific body of knowledge behind the Human Biodynamics Engine (HBE), a human motion simulator developed on the concept of Euclidean motion group SE(3), with 270 active degrees of freedom, force-velocity-time muscular mechanics and two-level neural control - formulated in the fashion of nonlinear humanoid robotics. The following aspects of the HBE development are described: geometrical, dynamical, control, physiological, AI, behavioral and complexity, together with s...

  5. Reclaiming human machine nature


    Fass, Didier


    International audience; Extending and modifying his domain of life by artifact production is one of the main characteristics of humankind. From the first hominid, who used a wood stick or a stone for extending his upper limbs and augmenting his gesture strength, to current systems engineers who used technologies for augmenting human cognition, perception and action, extending human body capabilities remains a big issue. From more than fifty years cybernetics, computer and cog-nitive sciences ...

  6. Genetics of human hydrocephalus


    Zhang, Jun; Michael A. Williams; Rigamonti, Daniele


    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic co...

  7. Human ocular anatomy. (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M


    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution and human sexuality. (United States)

    Gray, Peter B


    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.



    Dr. M. Panneerselvam


    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  10. Human motricity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sérgio Vieira e Cunha


    Full Text Available If human motricity science intends to study motor conduct (or actions in which the human being pursues transcendence (or surmounting, it inevitably relates to the large realm of health. What are the aspects it evinces? Transdisciplinarity, solidarity among the various knowledge types (including poetical, complexity, (where the physical is integrated but surmounted and the firm belief that to be healthy is to have in ourselves, alive and working, the capacity for surmounting anything.

  11. Human Germline Genome Editing. (United States)

    Ormond, Kelly E; Mortlock, Douglas P; Scholes, Derek T; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C; Faucett, W Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E


    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Genetic Counselors. These groups, as well as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics, British Society for Genetic Medicine, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia, and Southern African Society for Human Genetics, endorsed the final statement. The statement includes the following positions. (1) At this time, given the nature and number of unanswered scientific, ethical, and policy questions, it is inappropriate to perform germline gene editing that culminates in human pregnancy. (2) Currently, there is no reason to prohibit in vitro germline genome editing on human embryos and gametes, with appropriate oversight and consent from donors, to facilitate research on the possible future clinical applications of gene editing. There should be no prohibition on making public funds available to support this research. (3) Future clinical application of human germline genome editing should not proceed unless, at a minimum, there is (a) a compelling medical rationale, (b) an evidence base that supports its clinical use, (c) an ethical justification, and (d) a transparent public process to solicit and incorporate stakeholder input. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.



    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan


    Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in hu...

  13. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik


    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  14. Proteomics of human mitochondria. (United States)

    Palmfeldt, Johan; Bross, Peter


    Proteomics have passed through a tremendous development in the recent years by the development of ever more sensitive, fast and precise mass spectrometry methods. The dramatically increased research in the biology of mitochondria and their prominent involvement in all kinds of diseases and ageing has benefitted from mitochondrial proteomics. We here review substantial findings and progress of proteomic analyses of human cells and tissues in the recent past. One challenge for investigations of human samples is the ethically and medically founded limited access to human material. The increased sensitivity of mass spectrometry technology aids in lowering this hurdle and new approaches like generation of induced pluripotent cells from somatic cells allow to produce patient-specific cellular disease models with great potential. We describe which human sample types are accessible, review the status of the catalog of human mitochondrial proteins and discuss proteins with dual localization in mitochondria and other cellular compartments. We describe the status and developments of pertinent mass spectrometric strategies, and the use of databases and bioinformatics. Using selected illustrative examples, we draw a picture of the role of proteomic analyses for the many disease contexts from inherited disorders caused by mutation in mitochondrial proteins to complex diseases like cancer, type 2 diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we speculate on the future role of proteomics in research on human mitochondria and pinpoint fields where the evolving technologies will be exploited. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Cytokines in human milk. (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto


    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  16. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)


    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram


    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  18. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer


    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  19. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  20. Human bites - self-care (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  1. Developing Human Performance Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Joe; Bruce Hallbert; Larry Blackwood; Donald Dudehoeffer; Kent Hansen


    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC’s risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: 1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, 2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  2. Interaction Between Humans and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars


    On structures two types of humans may be present. (1) Active humans and (2) passive humans (sitting or standing on the structure). The active humans can excite the structure and cause structural vibrations. The mass of the passive humans will interact with the structure and basically it changes...... the structural system (modal characteristics and structural vibration levels). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans present on the structure....

  3. Effects of Nicotine on the Neurophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Ketamine in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Mathalon


    Full Text Available Background: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its associated neurocognitive impairments. The high rate of cigarette smoking in schizophrenia raises questions about how nicotine modulates putative NMDA receptor hypofunction in the illness. Accordingly, we examined the modulatory effects of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR stimulation on NMDA receptor hypofunction by examining the interactive effects of nicotine, a nAChR agonist, and ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on behavioral and neurophysiological measures in healthy human volunteers.Methods: From an initial sample of 17 subjects (age range 18 - 55 years, 8 subjects successfully completed 4 test sessions, each separated by at least 3 days, during which they received ketamine or placebo and two injections of nicotine or placebo in a double-blind, counterbalanced manner. Schizophrenia-like effects (PANSS, perceptual alterations (CADSS, subjective effects (VAS and auditory event-related brain potentials (mismatch negativity, P300 were assessed during each test session.Results: Consistent with existing studies, ketamine induced transient schizophrenia-like behavioral effects. P300 was reduced and delayed by ketamine regardless of whether it was elicited by a target or novel stimulus, while nicotine only reduced the amplitude of P3a. Nicotine did not rescue P300 from the effects of ketamine; the interactions of ketamine and nicotine were not significant. While nicotine significantly reduced MMN amplitude, ketamine did not. Conclusion: Nicotine failed to modulate ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like effects in this preliminary study. Interestingly, ketamine reduced P3b amplitude and nicotine reduced P3a amplitude, suggesting independent roles of NMDA receptor and nAChR in the generation of P3b and P3a, respectively.

  4. Cryopreserved human amniotic membrane injection for plantar fasciitis: a randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study. (United States)

    Hanselman, Andrew E; Tidwell, John E; Santrock, Robert D


    Treatment options for plantar fasciitis have resulted in varied patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare a novel treatment, cryopreserved human amniotic membrane (c-hAM), to a traditional treatment, corticosteroid. Our hypothesis was that c-hAM would be safe and comparable to corticosteroids for plantar fasciitis in regard to patient outcomes. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, single-center pilot study was completed. Patients were randomized into one of 2 treatment groups: c-hAM or corticosteroid. Patients received an injection at their initial baseline visit with an option for a second injection at their first 6-week follow-up. Total follow-up was obtained for 12 weeks after the most recent injection. The primary outcome measurement was the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). The secondary outcome measurements were the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and verbally reported percentage improvement. Data were analyzed between groups for the 2 different cohorts (1 injection versus 2 injections). Twenty-three patients had complete follow-up. Fourteen were randomized to receive corticosteroid and 9 were randomized to receive c-hAM. Three patients in each group received second injections. With the numbers available, the majority of outcome measurements showed no statistical difference between groups. The corticosteroid did, however, have greater FHSQ shoe fit improvement (P = .0244) at 6 weeks, FHSQ general health improvement (P = .0132) at 6 weeks, and verbally reported improvement (P = .041) at 12 weeks in the one-injection cohort. Cryopreserved hAM had greater FHSQ foot pain improvement (P = .0113) at 18 weeks in the 2-injection cohort. Cryopreserved hAM injection may be safe and comparable to corticosteroid injection for treatment of plantar fasciitis. This is a pilot study and requires further investigation. Level I, prospective randomized trial. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Consequences of a Human TRPA1 Genetic Variant on the Perception of Nociceptive and Olfactory Stimuli (United States)

    Heimann, Dirk; Doehring, Alexandra; Walter, Carmen; Dimova, Violeta; Geisslinger, Gerd; Lötsch, Jörn


    Background TRPA1 ion channels are involved in nociception and are also excited by pungent odorous substances. Based on reported associations of TRPA1 genetics with increased sensitivity to thermal pain stimuli, we therefore hypothesized that this association also exists for increased olfactory sensitivity. Methods Olfactory function and nociception was compared between carriers (n = 38) and non-carriers (n = 43) of TRPA1 variant rs11988795 G>A, a variant known to enhance cold pain perception. Olfactory function was quantified by assessing the odor threshold, odor discrimination and odor identification, and by applying 200-ms pulses of H2S intranasal. Nociception was assessed by measuring pain thresholds to experimental nociceptive stimuli (blunt pressure, electrical stimuli, cold and heat stimuli, and 200-ms intranasal pulses of CO2). Results Among the 11 subjects with moderate hyposmia, carriers of the minor A allele (n = 2) were underrepresented (34 carriers among the 70 normosmic subjects; p = 0.049). Moreover, carriers of the A allele discriminated odors significantly better than non-carriers (13.1±1.5 versus 12.3±1.6 correct discriminations) and indicated a higher intensity of the H2S stimuli (29.2±13.2 versus 21±12.8 mm VAS, p = 0.006), which, however, could not be excluded to have involved a trigeminal component during stimulation. Finally, the increased sensitivity to thermal pain could be reproduced. Conclusions The findings are in line with a previous association of a human TRPA1 variant with nociceptive parameters and extend the association to the perception of odorants. However, this addresses mainly those stimulants that involve a trigeminal component whereas a pure olfactory effect may remain disputable. Nevertheless, findings suggest that future TRPA1 modulating drugs may modify the perception of odorants. PMID:24752136

  6. Towards a better understanding of human smuggling


    Heckmann, Friedrich


    Contents: What is human smuggling?; How can we know about human smuggling?; Human smuggling as a migration phenomenon; Human smuggling as a business; The social organizing of human smuggling; Fighting against human smuggling.

  7. Why Geo-Humanities (United States)

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin


    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  8. Humanity and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin


    Full Text Available So far our open access publishing company MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute has published mainly science, medicine and technology journals. To become a multidisciplinary publisher, we launched the journal Sustainability [1]. More recently, we started to run several social science journals, including Societies [2], Religions [3], Administrative Sciences [4] and Behavioral Sciences [5]. Today we published the first paper [6] of the inaugural issue of Humanities (ISSN 2076-0787. This will be an international open access journal, publishing scholarly papers of high quality across all humanities disciplines. As a publisher, I would like to publish journals surrounding the topics of sustainability and I believe the humanities as a discipline of academic studies are very important. As a scientist, I believed science and technology will only benefit human beings. I was raised in a small village, living a very primitive life in a peasant family: no electricity, no machines, of course no TV and no refrigerator. Now, the life of my children is completely different. Even my own life has completely changed. I have witnessed very rapid changes: more and more machines are used to consume mineral resources and energy and to pollute the environment, in order to produce more and more powerful machines (we are also launching a journal titled Machines, in which the relationship between Man and machine should be an interesting topic.. Machines are more and more like human individuals consuming resources themselves (we are launching a journal titled Resources. [...

  9. Human milk banking guidelines. (United States)

    Bharadva, Ketan; Tiwari, Satish; Mishra, Sudhir; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Yadav, Balraj; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Vishesh


    WHO and UNICEF state that the use of human milk from other sources should be the first alternative when it is not possible for the mother to breastfeed. Human milk banks should be made available in appropriate situations. The IYCF Chapter is actively concerned about the compelling use of formula feeds in the infants because of the non availability of human breast milk banks. A National Consultative Meet for framing guidelines was summoned by the IYCF Chapter and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India on 30th June, 2013, with representations from various stakeholders. The guidelines were drafted after an extensive literature review and discussions. Though these guidelines are based on the experiences and guidelines from other countries, changes have been made to suit the Indian setup, culture and needs, without compromising scientific evidence. To ensure quality of donated breast milk as a safe end product. Human Milk Banking Association should be constituted, and human milk banks should be established across the country. National coordination mechanism should be developed with a secretariat and technical support to follow-up on action in States. Budgetary provisions should be made available for the activities.

  10. The human serum metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Psychogios


    Full Text Available Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at

  11. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S


    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  12. Infants' Responses to Real Humans and Representations of Humans (United States)

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia


    Infants' responses to typical and scrambled human body shapes were assessed in relation to the realism of the human body stimuli presented. In four separate experiments, infants were familiarized to typical human bodies and then shown a series of scrambled human bodies on the test. Looking behaviour was assessed in response to a range of different…

  13. Medical practice, human experimentation and the sanctity of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... human health and the sanctity of human life. In checkmating these dangers, the paper recommends and canvasses for the adoption of the ethical principles of the Nuremberg code of 1947 in properly regulating human experimentation so as to maximize its benefits and at the same time respect the sanctity of human life.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study, rational differences of anthropometric measurements of people belonging low, medium and high socioeconomic status who are over 20 years old and living in Sivas (Turkey was investigated. Effects of environmental properties such as socioeconomic status for all age groups and gender were evaluated and compared with other studies done in our country. Also, it is thought that anthropometric data obtained in this study will contribute to various studies (health, education, e.g. related to this age groups. For this study, it was measured of 500 female and 500 male (total 1000 individuals living in city centre of Sivas. However for both gender, for every age group 50 individual were included in statistical measurement. According to International Biological Programme, 7 anthropometric measurements were taken: these include Weight, Height, Triceps, Biceps, Subscapular, Supraspinale and Calf Skinfold Thickness. The measurements of statistical analyses were made by SPSS 13.0 programme. With the help of these anthropometric measurements, Body Mass Index (kg/ m2 and waist circumference / hip circumference were calculated. Also, average values obtained with the help of SPSS programme was used to produce smooth graphs applying Kalidegraph™ 3.51 programme. According to our findings in female individuals average value of height is 1542.97 mm; in males this value is 1679.58 mm. With regard to height, discrimination of gender is clearly remarkable in all age of group. It was also determined that there is positive secular trend on height. In addition, while value of average weight is 72.08 kg in female individuals, this value is 78.94 kg in males. Body Mass Index is 30.43 kg/ m2 in female; it is 27.99 kg/m2 in males. Also, while value of average waist circumference / hip circumference is 0.83 in female individuals, this value is 0.93 in males. At this situation, our female and male individuals show that they have values closer to risk groups for obesity and disease. Consequently, it was determined that interaction of environmental conditions as socioeconomic structure, education level, climate and nutritional factors are affected by anthropometric characters at different levels. Also, we can say that anthropometric measurements of our individuals living city centre of Sivas differ from other region’s people.

  15. Movement coordination in applied human-human and human-robot interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubö, Anna; Vesper, Cordula; Wiesbeck, Mathey


    and describing human-human interaction in terms of goal-oriented movement coordination is considered an important and necessary step for designing and describing human-robot interaction. In the present scenario, trajectories of hand and finger movements were recorded while two human participants performed......The present paper describes a scenario for examining mechanisms of movement coordination in humans and robots. It is assumed that coordination can best be achieved when behavioral rules that shape movement execution in humans are also considered for human-robot interaction. Investigating...... coordination were affected. Implications for human-robot interaction are discussed....

  16. [Diagnosis of human toxocarosis]. (United States)

    Roldán, William H; Espinoza, Yrma A; Huapaya, Pedro E; Jiménez, Susana


    Human toxocarosis is an important parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Toxocara species, the roundworms from dogs and cats. Larval migration through different soft tissues in the human generates several clinical entities in the patient, such as visceral larva migrans, ocular toxocarosis, and neurotoxocarosis. Definitive diagnosis by histopathological methods is very difficult or almost impossible and, nowadays, the diagnosis is usually made by clinical signs/symptoms, epidemiological background of the patient and the use of hematological and immunological tests which finally help to confirm the clinical suspicion of the illness. The purpose of this paper was to update the available knowledge on the use of different tools for both the diagnosis and following up of human toxocarosis.

  17. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta


    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...... the world from others, to learn about other people, and to create a shared social world. Social signals can be processed automatically by the receiver and may be unconsciously emitted by the sender. These signals are non-verbal and are responsible for social learning in the first year of life. Social...... signals can also be processed consciously and this allows automatic processing to be modulated and overruled. Evidence for this higher-level social processing is abundant from about 18 months of age in humans, while evidence is sparse for non-human animals. We suggest that deliberate social signalling...

  18. Philanthropy and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind


    in Germany, England, France and USA. In each tradition is developed special features of the concept of philanthropy. The four traditions are summarized in the UN universal human rights, which has become the common normative reference for global philanthropy. In this way philanthropy has become, in a modern......, and normally utilized to promote one’s own prestige in the city-state. In Roman context, universal humanism, humanitas, was invented. This universal perspective was also supported by Christianity. It is this universal concept of philanthropy which is the foundation for the different philanthropic traditions...... sense, a charitable act with the aim to promote human happiness independent of gender, class, race, etc. This is the genealogy of the modern understanding of philanthropy, which will be developed in this paper....

  19. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens


    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  20. Abortion and human rights. (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy


    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Whither medical humanities? (United States)

    Singh, Navjeevan


    Understanding the medical humanities (MH) and their role in medical education is in its infancy in India. Students are initiated into professional (medical) education too early in life, usually at the expense of a basic grounding in the humanities, resulting in warped intellectual growth. The author, arguing against the wholesale import of foreign systems, advocates free inquiry by medical educators to evolve a humanities programme for medical students derived from our own cultural context. This essay describes the early experiences of efforts to make a beginning at the University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi. The author reviews the various strategies used and the challenges of introducing the subject to the current generation of medical students.

  2. Medical humanities ... almost. (United States)

    Dangayach, Neha


    Brought up in the traditional education system in a large teaching hospital in Mumbai, India, I moved on to do specialisation in neurology in the United States of America. The Indian system of pre-medical education mandates early choices between the humanities and the sciences and thus precludes a more well-rounded development of a student. Though medical humanities is not taught as a subject as part of the medical curriculum in India, listening to inspiring and learned teachers and the daily interaction with scores of patients who are willing to submit themselves to examination "in the cause of medical education" is a humbling experience to a sensitive student. I see similar willingness in patients in the United States. However, a formal course in the medical humanities, including arts, literature, and philosophy will surely enrich the experience of a larger number of undergraduates and postgraduates learning the core subjects and help in moulding a more rounded physician.

  3. Human-Robot Interaction (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta


    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  4. Humanities under Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Mittelstrass


    Full Text Available The Humanities have a problem with visibility both in the public sphere and in the academic system itself, and they have an organisational problem when compared with other sections of the academic system. They also have a funding problem, particularly in a European context, i.e., in the framework of the European research policy. The topic of this position paper is the essential role of the Humanities when dealing with the European project, the framing of Europe. In this respect, in contrast to the natural and social sciences, the Humanities need specific models of research funding, more individualised and of more interdisciplinary character. Additionally, they may need more multi-national centres for advanced studies on a European level, thus also solving their visibility and organisational problems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Miovska Spaseva


    Full Text Available The article examines the complex role and great responsibility of the education today in development of the moral strength and human values of the children and youth. At the beginning of the article the author reconsiders the pedagogical ideas of Maria Montessori and her concept of education for peace as an instrument for reconstruction of the society and for improvement of the human living. Than the analysis of the moral values in the contemporary society is made and several issues and dilemmas are discussed referring the value disorientation of the youth and the importance of the models of adult’s moral behavior in their search for personal identity. On the basis of this analysis, the human dimension of the education is elaborated enhancing the need for its understanding as support of development, which is based on several crucial elements: love, freedom and spirit of community.

  6. Human Relations-skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen


    Human Relations-skolen er en samlebetegnelse for to forskningsretninger, som tilsammen bidrog som nogle af de første til at indkredse og belyse de mellemmenneskelige relationers betydning for motivation og trivsel i arbejdslivet, og som skulle få stor ind"ydelse ikke bare på organisationsteorien......, men også arbejdssociologien, arbejdspsykologien og human resource development. Den første retning udsprang af de såkaldte Hawthorne-eksperimenter og psykologen Elton Mayos bearbejdelse af resultaterne derfra. Den anden er en løsere gruppering bestående af navne som Abraham Maslow og Frederick Herzberg......, som formulerede en række teorier og modeller om menneskets motivation, trivsel og behov i arbejdslivet. Selvom de ikke nødvendigvis relaterede sig til hinandens arbejde, er de forskellige bidragsydere i dag kendt som repræsentanter for den paradigmatiske betegnelse Human Relations. Undertiden skelnes...

  7. Defining Human Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana


    Emerging technologies open the prospect of extraordinary interventions on the human body. These may go beyond what is strictly necessary to sustain health and well-being. While responding to social and ethical challenges of such advances, the Law simultaneously faces the challenge of reflecting...... on the legitimacy to legislate and on whether the existing legal framework is appropriate to address the various concerns. In order to do so, it is crucial to establish clear legal definitions. Precise distinctions between interventions on the human body are intrinsically difficult to formulate. However, subject......-matter definitions are vital legal tools to determine what is currently regulated in established fields of law and whether there is room for a new legal field – Enhancement Law. This paper provides a reflection on the relevance of establishing a legal definition of human enhancement and to what extent different...

  8. The Human Centrifuge (United States)

    van Loon, Jack J. W. A.


    Life on Earth has developed at unit gravity, 9.81 m/s2, which was a major factor especially when vertebrates emerged from water onto land in the late Devonian, some 375 million years ago. But how would nature have evolved on a larger planet? We are able to address this question simply in experiments using centrifuges. Based on these studies we have gained valuable insights in the physiological process in plants and animals. They adapt to a new steady state suitable for the high-g environments applied. Information on mammalian adaptations to hyper-g is interesting or may be even vital for human space exploration programs. It has been shown in long duration animal hypergravity studies, ranging from snails, rats to primates, that various structures like muscles, bones, neuro-vestibular, or the cardio-vascular system are affected. However, humans have never been exposed to a hyper-g environment for long durations. Centrifuge studies involving humans are mostly in the order of hours. The current work on human centrifuges are all focused on short arm systems to apply short periods of artificial gravity in support of long duration space missions in ISS or to Mars. In this paper we will address the possible usefulness of a large human centrifuge on Earth. In such a centrifuge a group of humans can be exposed to hypergravity for, in principle, an unlimited period of time like living on a larger planet. The input from a survey under scientists working in the field of gravitational physiology, but also other disciplines, will be discussed.

  9. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro


    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  10. We Are Human Beings (United States)

    McGee, Andrew


    In this paper, I examine Jeff McMahan’s arguments for his claim that we are not human organisms, and the arguments of Derek Parfit to the same effect in a recent paper. McMahan uses these arguments to derive conclusions concerning the moral status of embryos and permanent vegetative state (PVS) patients. My claim will be that neither thinker has successfully shown that we are not human beings, and therefore these arguments do not establish the ethical conclusions that McMahan has sought to draw from the arguments in respect of the moral status of embryos and PVS patients. PMID:26810918

  11. Human Body Exergy Metabolism


    Mady, Carlos


    The exergy analysis of the human body is a tool that can provide indicators of health and life quality. To perform the exergy balance it is necessary to calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis, or metabolic exergy, although there is not yet consensus in its calculation procedure. Hence, the aim of this work is to provide a general method to evaluate this physical quantity for human body based on indirect calorimetry data. To calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis it is necessary to d...

  12. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin


    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...... of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns....

  13. Ayahuasca and human destiny. (United States)

    McKenna, Dennis J


    In this essay, the author shares his personal reflections gleaned from a lifetime of research with ayahuasca, and speculates on the societal, political, planetary, and evolutionary implications of humanity's aeons-old symbiosis with this shamanic plant. The thesis is developed that at this critical historical juncture, ayahuasca has developed a strategy to broadcast its message to a wider world--a reflection of the urgent need to avert global ecological catastrophe. While ayahuasca has much to teach us, the critical question is, will humanity hear it, and heed it, in time?

  14. When computers were human

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, David Alan


    Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term ""computer"" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology. Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider wo

  15. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine


    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...... by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...

  16. Experimental headache in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg


    The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose-dependent h......The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose...

  17. On human health. (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet


    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  18. The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination


    McClennen, Sophia A.


    In her paper "The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination" Sophia A. McClennen argues that understanding the relationship between culture and human rights depends on humanist perspectives attentive to the relationship between storytelling and identity, mass culture and ideology, text and audience, critical thinking and engaged citizenship. After briefly considering how the divide between the humanities and human rights advocates developed and how it might best be overcome, s...

  19. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim


    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  20. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis (United States)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim


    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  1. Human Rights: The Essential Reference. (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  2. Making IBM's Computer, Watson, Human (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard


    This essay uses the recent victory of an IBM computer (Watson) in the TV game, "Jeopardy," to speculate on the abilities Watson would need, in addition to those it has, to be human. The essay's basic premise is that to be human is to behave as humans behave and to function in society as humans function. Alternatives to this premise are considered…

  3. Humane Education and Global Education. (United States)

    Selby, David


    Presents and explains model representing four dimensions of global education: temporal, spatial, issues, and inner. Presents six principal areas covered by humane curricula; the relationships between humane education, environmental education, and human rights education; and two humane education activities for the secondary and elementary/secondary…

  4. Auditory distance coding in rabbit midbrain neurons and human perception: monaural amplitude modulation depth as a cue. (United States)

    Kim, Duck O; Zahorik, Pavel; Carney, Laurel H; Bishop, Brian B; Kuwada, Shigeyuki


    Mechanisms underlying sound source distance localization are not well understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that a novel mechanism can create monaural distance sensitivity: a combination of auditory midbrain neurons' sensitivity to amplitude modulation (AM) depth and distance-dependent loss of AM in reverberation. We used virtual auditory space (VAS) methods for sounds at various distances in anechoic and reverberant environments. Stimulus level was constant across distance. With increasing modulation depth, some rabbit inferior colliculus neurons increased firing rates whereas others decreased. These neurons exhibited monotonic relationships between firing rates and distance for monaurally presented noise when two conditions were met: (1) the sound had AM, and (2) the environment was reverberant. The firing rates as a function of distance remained approximately constant without AM in either environment and, in an anechoic condition, even with AM. We corroborated this finding by reproducing the distance sensitivity using a neural model. We also conducted a human psychophysical study using similar methods. Normal-hearing listeners reported perceived distance in response to monaural 1 octave 4 kHz noise source sounds presented at distances of 35-200 cm. We found parallels between the rabbit neural and human responses. In both, sound distance could be discriminated only if the monaural sound in reverberation had AM. These observations support the hypothesis. When other cues are available (e.g., in binaural hearing), how much the auditory system actually uses the AM as a distance cue remains to be determined. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355360-13$15.00/0.



    Şahbudak, Ercan; öztürk, meral


    Universitiesplay a special role in conducting scientific research at a universal level,producing information/technology and training qualified working power needed bythe societies as well as in transforming the social, cultural and economicalaspects of the region and the city where they are located. In order to increase the localcontributions of the universities, the integration of the university and thecity into each other should be provided and the perceptions of city dwellerstowards the un...

  6. Investigations of severe/tornadic thunderstorm development and evolution based on satellite and AVE/SESAME/VAS data (United States)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Purdom, J. F. W.


    Development of cloud relative tracking for severe thunderstorm identification and the beginning of the development of mesoscale airmass characteristics based on vertical atmospheric sounding data were accomplished.

  7. Electronic Health Records: VAs Efforts Raise Concerns about Interoperability Goals and Measures, Duplication with DOD, and Future Plans (United States)


    an enhanced graphical user interface and enterprise messaging infrastructure. However, a recent independent assessment of health information...of Veterans Affairs’ (VA) electronic health record system—the Veterans Health Information Systems and Technology Architecture (VistA)—and the...required the departments to jointly develop and implement fully interoperable electronic health record systems or capabilities in 2009. Yet, even

  8. Comparing responsiveness of the EQ-5D-5L, EQ-5D-3L and EQ VAS in stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Golicki (Dominik); M. Niewada (Maciej); A. Karlińska (Anna); J. Buczek (Julia); A. Kobayashi (Adam); M.F. Janssen (Bas); A.S. Pickard (Simon)


    textabstractAims: To date, evidence to support the construct validity of the EQ-5D-5L has primarily focused on cross-sectional data. The aims of this study were to examine the responsiveness of EQ-5D-5L in patients with stroke and to compare it with responsiveness of EQ-5D-3L and visual analogue

  9. ¿Por qué te vas?: Jóvenes españoles en Alemania


    Moldes Farelo, Rocío; Gómez Sota, Fátima; García Santacruz, María José; Flórez-Estrada Chassonnaud, Leticia


    Alemania es el país elegido por la llamada “nueva emigración española”, compuesta mayoritariamente por jóvenes con cualificación profesional y estudios especializados y que se inicia en 2008 con el comienzo de la crisis económica. Los objetivos de esta obra son identificar las causas de este nuevo fenómeno migratorio, definir las variables que determinan la elección del país de destino, analizar las dinámicas de acceso al mercado de trabajo alemán y averiguar qué tipos de redes de sociabilida...



    Ajay Kumar; Deepa Mathews


    BACKGROUND In contrast to female sterilisation in India, a very less percentage of the couples opt for male sterilisation. This is in spite of male sterilisation being a shorter, simpler procedure fraught with lesser complications, having a shorter recovery time and has less failure rate. The barriers to adoption of male sterilisation in India are profound with reasons ranging from unfounded fears among males characterising vasectomy with physical weakness, loss of virility, ma...

  11. Speciālo skolu absolventu turpmākās dzīves perspektīvas


    Lipska, Vija


    Bērnu ar speciālām vajadzībām audzināšanas, mācīšanas un attīstības būtība ir šo bērnu sagatavošana patstāvīgai, pilnvērtīgai dzīvei, spējai darboties sabiedrībā. Lai izpētītu pusaudžu intereses un reālās iespējas speciālās izglītības iestāžu absolventiem, diplomdarba ietvaros tika aptaujāti pusaudži vecumā no 14 – 18 gadiem. Tika izstrādāta anketa ar kuras palīdzību darba autore noskaidroja vispārējās izglītības iestāžu un speciālo izglītības iestāžu skolēnu vēlmes pēc skolas beigšanas. ...

  12. SU-E-T-469: Implementation of VAs Web-Based Radiotherapy Incident Reporting and Analysis System (RIRAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, R; Palta, J; Hagan, M [Veteran Health Administration, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Malik, G [TSG Innovations Inc. (United States)


    Purpose: This Web-based Radiotherapy Incident Reporting and Analysis System (RIRAS) is a tool to improve quality of care for radiation therapy patients. This system is an important facet of continuing effort by our community to maintain and improve safety of radiotherapy.Material and Methods: VA’s National Radiation Oncology Program office has embarked on a program to electronically collect adverse events and good-catch data of radiation treatment of over 25,000 veterans treated with radiotherapy annually. This VA-Intranet based software design has made use of dataset taxonomies and data dictionaries defined in AAPM/ASTRO reports on error reporting. We used proven industrial and medical event reporting techniques to avoid several common problems faced in effective data collection such as incomplete data due to data entry fatigue by the reporters, missing data due to data difficult to obtain or not familiar to most reporters, missing reports due to fear of reprisal etc. This system encompasses the entire feedback loop of reporting an incident, analyzing it for salient details, and developing interventions to prevent it from happening again. The analysis reports with corrective, learning actions are shared with the reporter/facility and made public to the community (after deidentification) as part of the learning process. Results: Till date 50 incident/good catches have been reported in RIRAS and we have completed analysis on 100% of these reports. This is done due to the fact that each reported incidents is investigated and a complete analysis/patient-safety-work-product report is generated by radiation oncology domain-experts. Conclusions Because of the completeness of the data, the system has enabled us to analyze process steps and track trends of major errors which in the future will lead to implementing system wide process improvement steps and safe standard operating procedures for each radiotherapy treatment modality/technique and fulfills our goal of “Effecting Quality While Treating Safely”. RIRAS developed and copyrighted by TSG Innovations Inc.

  13. Simulating Virtual Terminal Area Weather Data Bases for Use in the Wake Vortex Avoidance System (Wake VAS) Prediction Algorithm (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang


    During the research project, sounding datasets were generated for the region surrounding 9 major airports, including Dallas, TX, Boston, MA, New York, NY, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, Atlanta, GA, Miami, FL, San Francico, CA, and Los Angeles, CA. The numerical simulation of winter and summer environments during which no instrument flight rule impact was occurring at these 9 terminals was performed using the most contemporary version of the Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS) model nested from 36 km to 6 km to 1 km horizontal resolution and very detailed vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. The soundings from the 1 km model were archived at 30 minute time intervals for a 24 hour period and the vertical dependent variables as well as derived quantities, i.e., 3-dimensional wind components, temperatures, pressures, mixing ratios, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rates were then interpolated to 5 m vertical resolution up to 1000 m elevation above ground level. After partial validation against field experiment datasets for Dallas as well as larger scale and much coarser resolution observations at the other 8 airports, these sounding datasets were sent to NASA for use in the Virtual Air Space and Modeling program. The application of these datasets being to determine representative airport weather environments to diagnose the response of simulated wake vortices to realistic atmospheric environments. These virtual datasets are based on large scale observed atmospheric initial conditions that are dynamically interpolated in space and time. The 1 km nested-grid simulated datasets providing a very coarse and highly smoothed representation of airport environment meteorological conditions. Details concerning the airport surface forcing are virtually absent from these simulated datasets although the observed background atmospheric processes have been compared to the simulated fields and the fields were found to accurately replicate the flows surrounding the airport where coarse verification data were available as well as where airport scale datasets were available.

  14. Humanism in Education (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael


    This is the text of Michael Armstrong's address to the Brian Simon Centenary conference, held at the Institute of Education on 26 March 2015. Michael Armstrong celebrates the humanism that underlay Brian's belief in a common system of education, democratic and non-selective, and finds its counterpart in the creative practice of school children.

  15. Hauntings of Human Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias


    The central conflicts of Stephen King’s horror novel The Shining are rooted in human nature and reflect evolutionarily recurrent adaptive problems—the problem of balancing conflicting evolved motives, such as motives for selfish status striving versus motives for affiliative nurturing behavior...

  16. Human Resource Outsourcing Success


    Hasliza Abdul-Halim; Elaine Ee; T. Ramayah; Noor Hazlina Ahmad


    The existing literature on partnership seems to take the relationship between partnership quality and outsourcing success for granted. Therefore, this article aims at examining the role of service quality in strengthening the relationship between partnership quality and human resource (HR) outsourcing success. The samples were obtained from 96 manufacturing organizations in Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that par...

  17. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van


    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  18. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha


    introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  19. Animal and human influenzas. (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L


    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  20. Human social genomics. (United States)

    Cole, Steven W


    A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.

  1. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)


    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  2. Humanities Review Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Papers for Humanities Review Journal should be submitted in English and should not exceed 25 pages typed double-spaced on A4 paper. References should be listed alphabetically at the end of the paper. Two copies of the paper, plus a 3_ diskette in Microsoft Word should be submitted. Neither ...

  3. Human Learning and Memory (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.


    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  4. Human Memory: The Basics (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.


    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  5. Home heating & human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Sophie


    Human health is influenced by pollutants in the air. Since people spend over 80% of their time indoors, indoor air quality may be more related to health problems than outdoor air qual-ity. Indoor air quality is deteriorating because of energy conservation

  6. Children Are Human Beings (United States)

    Bossard, James H. S.


    The basic assumption underlying this article is that the really significant changes in human history are those that occur, not in the mechanical gadgets which men use nor in the institutionalized arrangements by which they live, but in their attitudes and in the values which they accept. The revolutions of the past that have had the greatest…

  7. Is human fecundity changing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smarr, Melissa M; Sapra, Katherine J; Gemmill, Alison


    Fecundity, the biologic capacity to reproduce, is essential for the health of individuals and is, therefore, fundamental for understanding human health at the population level. Given the absence of a population (bio)marker, fecundity is assessed indirectly by various individual-based (e.g. semen ...

  8. The Humanization of Science. (United States)

    Larson, James H.


    Describes an exercise which focuses on the ethical and human aspects of science. Outlines the approach and components of a writing assignment based on a literary and humanistic analysis of "The Double Helix" by James Watson. Provides sample questions and examples of integrative literary works. (ML)

  9. Dermatophilus congolensis human infection. (United States)

    Towersey, L; Martins, E de C; Londero, A T; Hay, R J; Soares Filho, P J; Takiya, C M; Martins, C C; Gompertz, O F


    Four cases of human dermatophilosis observed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are reported. Data that suggest nail infection by Dermatophilus congolensis are presented. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranged from an asymptomatic infection to a pustular eruption. Our findings suggest that epidermal Langerhans cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the infection.

  10. Marketing Human Resource Development. (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.


    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  11. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  12. Lessons in Human Relations. (United States)

    Glenn, Joanne Lozar


    Explores the importance of relationship literacy--the ability to create good relationships with others--in the next economy and offers perspectives on how business education instructors can help students develop and improve their human relations skills for business success. (Author/JOW)

  13. Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Humanities is a theoretical journal which aims to challenge, provoke and excite thinking in the areas of the classics, fine performing arts, literature and orature, linguistics, theology and philosophy. The journal appears annually and is sponsored by the Research and Publications Committee of the Univeristy of ...

  14. Human paragonimiasis in Africa. (United States)

    Aka, N'Da A; Adoubryn, Koffi; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles


    An up-to-date review on human paragonimiasis in Africa was carried out to determine the current geographical distribution of human cases and analyze the animal reservoir, snails and crustaceans which intervene in the local life cycle of Paragonimus species. Two countries, i.e., Cameroon and Nigeria, were mainly affected by this disease, while the distribution of human cases in the other eight states of the intertropical zone was scattered. Infected patients were currently few in number and two Poragonimus species: P. africanus and P. uterobilateralis, were found. The animal reservoir is mainly constituted by crab-eating mammals. The identity of the host snail remains doubtful and was either a prosobranch, or a land snail. Seven crab species belonging to Callinectes, Liberonautes and Sudononautes genera are able to harbour paragonimid metacercariae. Due to the current low prevalence of human paragonimiasis recorded in Africa and the high cost of wide-scale screenings for this disease, training of technicians in anti-tuberculosis centers would be the most realistic attitude to detect mycobacteria and/or Paragonimus eggs during the same sputum examination.

  15. Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Greer, L.L.; van Kleef, G.A.; Shalvi, S.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.


    Human ethnocentrism—the tendency to view one's group as centrally important and superior to other groups—creates intergroup bias that fuels prejudice, xenophobia, and intergroup violence. Grounded in the idea that ethnocentrism also facilitates within-group trust, cooperation, and coordination, we

  16. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph


    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  17. Radar: Human Safety Net (United States)

    Ritz, John M.


    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  18. Superintelligence, Humans, and War (United States)


    artificial intelligence. “The Navy’s Aegis Combat System is a computerized command, decision, and weapon-control program conceived because humans were no...continues to invest in highly technological weapons systems ...perform tasks that were only imagined 10 years ago. For example, Apple’s Siri will provide answers to verbally asked questions. There are driving

  19. Antihumanism in the Humanities. (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel


    Analyzes the antihumanistic elements of Jacques Derrida's theory of deconstruction. Argues that the modern French intellectuals, including Foucault, Derrida, and Lacan, have had an antihumanistic effect on the American social sciences and humanities by rejecting the existence of truth, morality, and rationality. (FMW)

  20. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian


    , a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving...