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Sample records for human trophoblast function

  1. Control of human trophoblast function

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    Biondi Carla

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The trophoblast, i.e. the peripheral part of the human conceptus, exerts a crucial role in implantation and placentation. Both processes properly occur as a consequence of an intimate dialogue between fetal and maternal tissues, fulfilled by membrane ligands and receptors, as well as by hormone and local factor release. During blastocyst implantation, generation of distinct trophoblast cell types begins, namely the villous and the extravillous trophoblast, the former of which is devoted to fetal-maternal exchanges and the latter binds the placental body to the uterine wall. Physiological placentation is characterized by the invasion of the uterine spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblast cells arising from anchoring villi. Due to this invasion, the arterial structure is replaced by amorphous fibrinoid material and endovascular trophoblastic cells. This transformation establishes a low-resistance, high-capacity perfusion system from the radial arteries to the intervillous space, in which the villous tree is embedded. The physiology of pregnancy depends upon the orderly progress of structural and functional changes of villous and extravillous trophoblast, whereas a derangement of such processes can lead to different types of complications of varying degrees of gravity, including possible pregnancy loss and maternal life-threatening diseases. In this review we describe the mechanisms which regulate trophoblast differentiation, proliferation, migration and invasiveness, and the alterations in these mechanisms which lead to pathological conditions. Furthermore, based on the growing evidence that proper inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are needed for successful gestation, we explain the mechanisms by which agents able to influence such processes may be useful in the prevention and treatment of pregnancy disorders.

  2. Human trophoblast function during the implantation process

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    Staun-Ram Elsebeth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The implantation process involves complex and synchronized molecular and cellular events between the uterus and the implanting embryo. These events are regulated by paracrine and autocrine factors. Trophoblast invasion and migration through the uterine wall is mediated by molecular and cellular interactions, controlled by the trophoblast and the maternal microenvironment. This review is focused on the molecular constituents of the human trophoblast, their actions and interactions, including interrelations with the uterine endometrium.

  3. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

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    Zhou, Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Jianyun [Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Feixue [Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Organ Development and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliue@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  4. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions.

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    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing

    2016-05-05

    Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Human Trophoblast Cell Functions In Vitro

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    Yajing Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophoblast cell dysfunction is involved in many disorders during pregnancy such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Few treatments exist, however, that target improving trophoblast cell function. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs are capable of self-renewing, can undergo multilineage differentiation, and have homing abilities; in addition, they have immunomodulatory effects and paracrine properties and thus are a prospective source for cell therapy. To identify whether hUCMSCs can regulate trophoblast cell functions, we treated trophoblast cells with hUCMSC supernatant or cocultured them with hUCMSCs. Both treatments remarkably enhanced the migration and invasion abilities of trophoblast cells and upregulated their proliferation ability. At a certain concentration, hUCMSCs also modulated hCG, PIGF, and sEndoglin levels in the trophoblast culture medium. Thus, hUCMSCs have a positive effect on trophoblast cellular functions, which may provide a new avenue for treatment of placenta-related diseases during pregnancy.

  6. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions

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    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant. PMID:26186596

  7. Function of caspase-14 in trophoblast differentiation

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    Charles Adrian K

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the human placenta, the cytotrophoblast consists of a proliferative pool of progenitor cells which differentiate to replenish the overlying continuous, multi-nucleated syncytiotrophoblast, which forms the barrier between the maternal and fetal tissues. Disruption to trophoblast differentiation and function may result in impaired fetal development and preeclampsia. Caspase-14 expression is limited to barrier forming tissues. It promotes keratinocyte differentiation by cleaving profilaggrin to stabilise keratin intermediate filaments, and indirectly providing hydration and UV protection. However its role in the trophoblast remains unexplored. Methods Using RNA Interference the reaction of control and differentiating trophoblastic BeWo cells to suppressed caspase-14 was examined for genes pertaining to hormonal, cell cycle and cytoskeletal pathways. Results Transcription of hCG, KLF4 and cytokeratin-18 were increased following caspase-14 suppression suggesting a role for caspase-14 in inhibiting their pathways. Furthermore, hCG, KLF4 and cytokeratin-18 protein levels were disrupted. Conclusion Since expression of these molecules is normally increased with trophoblast differentiation, our results imply that caspase-14 inhibits trophoblast differentiation. This is the first functional study of this unusual member of the caspase family in the trophoblast, where it has a different function than in the epidermis. This knowledge of the molecular underpinnings of trophoblast differentiation may instruct future therapies of trophoblast disease.

  8. Galectin-1 is part of human trophoblast invasion machinery--a functional study in vitro.

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    Nikola Kolundžić

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interactions of glycoconjugates with endogenous galectins, have been long proposed to participate in several reproductive processes including implantation. In human placenta gal-1, gal-3, gal-8, and gal-13 proteins are known to be present. Each of them has been proposed to play multiple functions, but so far no clear picture has emerged. We hypothesized that gal-1 participates in trophoblast invasion, and conducted Matrigel invasion assay using isolated cytotrophoblast from first trimester placenta and HTR-8/SVneo cell line to test it. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Function blocking anti-gal-1 antibody was employed to assess participation of endogenous gal-1 in cell adhesion, cell invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells. When gal-1 was blocked in isolated trophoblast cell invasion was reduced to 75% of control (SEM ± 6.3, P<0.001 and to 66% of control (SEM ± 1.7, P<0.001 in HTR-8/SVneo cell line. Increased availability of gal-1, as two molecular forms of recombinant human gal-1 (CS-gal-1 and Ox-gal-1, resulted in increased cell invasion by cytotrophoblast to 151% (SEM ± 16, P<0.01 with 1 ng/ml of CS-gal-1, and to 192% (SEM ± 51, P<0.05 with 1 µg/ml of Ox-gal-1. Stimulation was also observed in HTR-8/SVneo cells, to 317% (SEM ± 58, P<0.001 by CS-gal-1, and to 200% (SEM ± 24, P<0.001 by Ox-gal-1 at 1 µg/ml. Both sets of results confirmed involvement of gal-1 in trophoblast invasion. Galectin profile of isolated cytotrophoblast and HTR-8/SVneo cells was established using RT-PCR and real-time PCR and found to consist of gal-1, gal-3 and gal-8 for both cell types. Only gal-1 was located at the trophoblast cell membrane, as determined by FACS analysis, which is consistent with the results of the functional tests. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: These findings qualify gal-1 as a member of human trophoblast cell invasion machinery.

  9. Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

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    Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V.R. [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Knott, Jason G. [Developmental Epigenetics Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University (United States); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Epithelial-like phenotype of trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells. •Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells exhibit trophoblast function. •Trophoblasts from iPS cells provides a proof-of-concept in regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: Background: During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm attaches to the endometrial epithelium and continues to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, which are the major components of a placenta. Aberrant trophoblast proliferation and differentiation are associated with placental diseases. However, due to ethical and practical issues, there is almost no available cell or tissue source to study the molecular mechanism of human trophoblast differentiation, which further becomes a barrier to the study of the pathogenesis of trophoblast-associated diseases of pregnancy. In this study, our goal was to generate a proof-of-concept model for deriving trophoblast lineage cells from induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells from human fibroblasts. In future studies the generation of trophoblast lineage cells from iPS cells established from patient’s placenta will be extremely useful for studying the pathogenesis of individual trophoblast-associated diseases and for drug testing. Methods and results: Combining iPS cell technology with BMP4 induction, we derived trophoblast lineage cells from human iPS cells. The gene expression profile of these trophoblast lineage cells was distinct from fibroblasts and iPS cells. These cells expressed markers of human trophoblasts. Furthermore, when these cells were differentiated they exhibited invasive capacity and placental hormone secretive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Conclusion: Trophoblast lineage cells can be successfully derived from human iPS cells, which provide a proof-of-concept tool to recapitulate pathogenesis of patient placental trophoblasts in vitro.

  10. The term basal plate of the human placenta as a source of functional extravillous trophoblast cells.

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    Borbely, Alexandre U; Sandri, Silvana; Fernandes, Isabella R; Prado, Karen M; Cardoso, Elaine C; Correa-Silva, Simone; Albuquerque, Renata; Knöfler, Martin; Beltrão-Braga, Patricia; Campa, Ana; Bevilacqua, Estela

    2014-01-28

    Extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells are of pivotal importance in human embryo implantation and homeostasis of the maternal fetal interface. Invasion of the endometrium by EVT contributes to placental anchorage, spiral artery remodeling, immunological defense, tolerogenic responses, and several collaborative cross talks involved in establishing and maintaining a successful pregnancy. We report here an improved protocol for the isolation of fully differentiated EVT cells from the basal plate of the human term placenta. The basal plate was carefully dissected from the villous tissue and the amniochorion membrane prior to enzymatic digestion. Term basal EVT cells were isolated using a 30 and 60% Percoll gradient. A panel of markers and characteristics of the isolated cells were used to confirm the specificity and efficiency of the method so that their potential as an investigative tool for placental research could be ascertained. Isolated cells were immunoreactive for cytokeratin-7 (CK-7), placental growth factor, placental alkaline phosphatase, human leukocyte antigen G1 (HLA-G1), and α1 and α5 integrins, similarly to the EVT markers from first trimester placental villi. Around 95% of the isolated cells labeled positively for CK-7 and 82% for HLA-G1. No significant change in viability was observed during 48 h of EVT culture as indicated by propidium iodide incorporation and trypan blue test exclusion. Genes for metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP9 (positive regulators of trophoblast invasiveness) were expressed up to 48 h of culturing, as also the gelatinolytic activity of the isolated cells. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, which inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of first-trimester EVT cells, also reduced invasion of isolated term EVT cells in transwell assays, whereas epidermal growth factor was a positive modulator. Term basal plate may be a viable source of functional EVT cells that is an alternative to villous explant-derived EVT cells and

  11. Microvesicles of women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia affect human trophoblast fate and endothelial function.

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    Shomer, Einat; Katzenell, Sarah; Zipori, Yaniv; Sammour, Rami N; Isermann, Berend; Brenner, Benjamin; Aharon, Anat

    2013-11-01

    Microvesicles shedding from cell membrane affect inflammation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. We hypothesize that microvesicles of women with gestational vascular complications reflect pathophysiological state of the patients and affect their endothelial and trophoblast cell function. Microvesicles of healthy pregnant women, women with gestational hypertension, mild, or severe preeclampsia/toxemia, were characterized, and their effects on early-stage or term trophoblasts and endothelial cells were evaluated using apoptosis, migration, and tube formation assays. Patient subgroups differed significantly only in proteinuria levels, therefore their microvesicles were assessed as 1 group, demonstrating higher levels of inflammatory and angiogenic proteins compared with those of healthy pregnant women. In endothelial cells, microvesicles of healthy pregnant women reduced caspase 3/7 activity, increased migration, and induced tube formation. These processes were suppressed by microvesicles of women with gestational vascular complications. In early-stage trophoblasts, microvesicles of healthy pregnant women decreased apoptosis compared with untreated cells (6±5% versus 13.8±5.8%; Papoptosis compared with cells exposed to microvesicles of healthy pregnant women (15.1±3.3% versus 6.5±2.1%; P<0.001) and inhibited early-stage trophoblasts migration (21.4±18.5 versus 39.7±10.1 mm2; P<0.001). In conclusion, microvesicle content and effects on endothelial and trophoblast cells vary according to the physiological/pathological state of a pregnant woman. Microvesicles seem to play a pivotal role in the course of pregnancy, which could potentially result in gestational vascular complications.

  12. Investigation of the possible functions of PACAP in human trophoblast cells.

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    Horvath, G; Reglodi, D; Brubel, R; Halasz, M; Barakonyi, A; Tamas, A; Fabian, E; Opper, B; Toth, G; Cohen, M; Szereday, L

    2014-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide having a widespread distribution both in the nervous system and peripheral organs including the female reproductive system. Both the peptide and its receptors have been shown in the placenta but its role in placental growth, especially its human aspects, remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PACAP on invasion, proliferation, cell survival, and angiogenesis of trophoblast cells. Furthermore, cytokine production was investigated in human decidual and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. For in vitro studies, human invasive proliferative extravillous cytotrophoblast (HIPEC) cells and HTR-8/SVneo human trophoblast cells were used. Both cell types were used for testing the effects of PACAP on invasion and cell survival in order to investigate whether the effects of PACAP in trophoblasts depend on the examined cell type. Invasion was studied by standardized invasion assay. PACAP increased proliferation in HIPEC cells, but not in HTR-8 cells. Cell viability was examined using MTT test, WST-1 assay, and annexin V/propidium iodide flow cytometry assay. Survival of HTR-8/SVneo cells was studied under oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide. PACAP as pretreatment, but not as co-treatment, significantly increased the number of surviving HTR-8 cells. Viability of HIPEC cells was investigated using methotrexate (MTX) toxicity, but PACAP1-38 could not counteract its toxic effect. Angiogenic molecules were determined both in the supernatant and the cell lysate by angiogenesis array. In the supernatant, we found that PACAP decreased the secretion of various angiogenic markers, such as angiopoietin, angiogenin, activin, endoglin, ADAMTS-1, and VEGF. For the cytokine assay, human decidual and peripheral blood lymphocytes were separated and treated with PACAP1-38. Th1 and Th2 cytokines were analyzed with CBA assay and the results showed

  13. Punicalagin promotes human villous trophoblast differentiation.

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    Chen, Baosheng; Longtine, Mark S; Costa, Maria Laura; Nelson, D Michael

    2016-08-01

    Poor differentiation of trophoblasts is associated with placental dysfunction, predisposing women to multiple pregnancy disorders. Punicalagin, a prominent ellagitannin in pomegranate juice has been shown to exert anti-apoptosis and anti-oxidative effects in human trophoblasts. We hypothesized that punicalagin modulates trophoblast differentiation. We found that punicalagin-treated primary trophoblast showed reduced E-cadherin, higher Syncytin 1, more β-hCG, and increased GCM1, an upstream regulator of β-hCG. Punicalagin exposure of villous explants enhanced the number of cytotrophoblasts expressing the proliferation marker Ki67. We conclude that punicalagin enhances trophoblast differentiation and speculate that punicalagin might be used therapeutically in pregnancies at risk for placental dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. What Is Trophoblast? A Combination of Criteria Define Human First-Trimester Trophoblast

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    Cheryl Q.E. Lee; Gardner, Lucy; Turco, Margherita; Zhao, Nancy; Murray, Matthew J.; Coleman, Nicholas; Rossant, Janet; Hemberger, Myriam; Moffett, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Summary Controversy surrounds reports describing the derivation of human trophoblast cells from placentas and embryonic stem cells (ESC), partly due to the difficulty in identifying markers that define cells as belonging to the trophoblast lineage. We have selected criteria that are characteristic of primary first-trimester trophoblast: a set of protein markers, HLA class I profile, methylation of ELF5, and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) from the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC). We test...

  15. Transcriptional and functional studies of Human Endogenous Retrovirus envelope EnvP(b) and EnvV genes in human trophoblasts

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    Vargas, Amandine, E-mail: amandine.vargas@voila.fr; Thiery, Maxime, E-mail: thiery.maxime@courrier.uqam.ca; Lafond, Julie, E-mail: lafond.julie@uqam.ca; Barbeau, Benoit, E-mail: barbeau.benoit@uqam.ca

    2012-03-30

    HERV (Human Endogenous Retrovirus)-encoded envelope proteins are implicated in the development of the placenta. Indeed, Syncytin-1 and -2 play a crucial role in the fusion of human trophoblasts, a key step in placentation. Other studies have identified two other HERV env proteins, namely EnvP(b) and EnvV, both expressed in the placenta. In this study, we have fully characterized both env transcripts and their expression pattern and have assessed their implication in trophoblast fusion. Through RACE analyses, standard spliced transcripts were detected, while EnvV transcripts demonstrated alternative splicing at its 3 Prime end. Promoter activity and expression of both genes were induced in forskolin-stimulated BeWo cells and in primary trophoblasts. Although we have confirmed the fusogenic activity of EnvP(b), overexpression or silencing experiments revealed no impact of this protein on trophoblast fusion. Our results demonstrate that both env genes are expressed in human trophoblasts but are not required for syncytialization.

  16. Identification of Epigenetic Factor Proteins Expressed in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Trophoblasts and in Human Placental Trophoblasts.

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    Sarkar, Prasenjit; Mischler, Adam; Randall, Shan M; Collier, Timothy S; Dorman, Karen F; Boggess, Kim A; Muddiman, David C; Rao, Balaji M

    2016-08-05

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been used to derive trophoblasts through differentiation in vitro. Intriguingly, mouse ESCs are prevented from differentiation to trophoblasts by certain epigenetic factor proteins such as Dnmt1, thus necessitating the study of epigenetic factor proteins during hESC differentiation to trophoblasts. We used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and quantitative proteomics to study changes in the nuclear proteome during hESC differentiation to trophoblasts and identified changes in the expression of 30 epigenetic factor proteins. Importantly, the DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B were downregulated. Additionally, we hypothesized that nuclear proteomics of hESC-derived trophoblasts may be used for screening epigenetic factor proteins expressed by primary trophoblasts in human placental tissue. Accordingly, we conducted immunohistochemistry analysis of six epigenetic factor proteins identified from hESC-derived trophoblasts-DNMT1, DNMT3B, BAF155, BAF60A, BAF57, and ING5-in 6-9 week human placentas. Indeed, expression of these proteins was largely, though not fully, consistent with that observed in 6-9 week placental trophoblasts. Our results support the use of hESC-derived trophoblasts as a model for placental trophoblasts, which will enable further investigation of epigenetic factors involved in human trophoblast development.

  17. The first trimester human trophoblast cell line ACH-3P: a novel tool to study autocrine/paracrine regulatory loops of human trophoblast subpopulations--TNF-alpha stimulates MMP15 expression.

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    Hiden, Ursula; Wadsack, Christian; Prutsch, Nicole; Gauster, Martin; Weiss, Ursula; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Ulrike; Fast-Hirsch, Christa; Hengstschläger, Markus; Pötgens, Andy; Rüben, Angela; Knöfler, Martin; Haslinger, Peter; Huppertz, Berthold; Bilban, Martin; Kaufmann, Peter; Desoye, Gernot

    2007-12-19

    The trophoblast compartment of the placenta comprises various subpopulations with distinct functions. They interact among each other by secreted signals thus forming autocrine or paracrine regulatory loops. We established a first trimester trophoblast cell line (ACH-3P) by fusion of primary human first trimester trophoblasts (week 12 of gestation) with a human choriocarcinoma cell line (AC1-1). Expression of trophoblast markers (cytokeratin-7, integrins, matrix metalloproteinases), invasion abilities and transcriptome of ACH-3P closely resembled primary trophoblasts. Morphology, cytogenetics and doubling time was similar to the parental AC1-1 cells. The different subpopulations of trophoblasts e.g., villous and extravillous trophoblasts also exist in ACH-3P cells and can be immuno-separated by HLA-G surface expression. HLA-G positive ACH-3P display pseudopodia and a stronger expression of extravillous trophoblast markers. Higher expression of insulin-like growth factor II receptor and human chorionic gonadotropin represents the basis for the known autocrine stimulation of extravillous trophoblasts. We conclude that ACH-3P represent a tool to investigate interaction of syngeneic trophoblast subpopulations. These cells are particularly suited for studies into autocrine and paracrine regulation of various aspects of trophoblast function. As an example a novel effect of TNF-alpha on matrix metalloproteinase 15 in HLA-G positive ACH-3P and explants was found.

  18. The first trimester human trophoblast cell line ACH-3P: A novel tool to study autocrine/paracrine regulatory loops of human trophoblast subpopulations – TNF-α stimulates MMP15 expression

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    Knöfler Martin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trophoblast compartment of the placenta comprises various subpopulations with distinct functions. They interact among each other by secreted signals thus forming autocrine or paracrine regulatory loops. We established a first trimester trophoblast cell line (ACH-3P by fusion of primary human first trimester trophoblasts (week 12 of gestation with a human choriocarcinoma cell line (AC1-1. Results Expression of trophoblast markers (cytokeratin-7, integrins, matrix metalloproteinases, invasion abilities and transcriptome of ACH-3P closely resembled primary trophoblasts. Morphology, cytogenetics and doubling time was similar to the parental AC1-1 cells. The different subpopulations of trophoblasts e.g., villous and extravillous trophoblasts also exist in ACH-3P cells and can be immuno-separated by HLA-G surface expression. HLA-G positive ACH-3P display pseudopodia and a stronger expression of extravillous trophoblast markers. Higher expression of insulin-like growth factor II receptor and human chorionic gonadotropin represents the basis for the known autocrine stimulation of extravillous trophoblasts. Conclusion We conclude that ACH-3P represent a tool to investigate interaction of syngeneic trophoblast subpopulations. These cells are particularly suited for studies into autocrine and paracrine regulation of various aspects of trophoblast function. As an example a novel effect of TNF-α on matrix metalloproteinase 15 in HLA-G positive ACH-3P and explants was found.

  19. The first trimester human trophoblast cell line ACH-3P: A novel tool to study autocrine/paracrine regulatory loops of human trophoblast subpopulations – TNF-α stimulates MMP15 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiden, Ursula; Wadsack, Christian; Prutsch, Nicole; Gauster, Martin; Weiss, Ursula; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Ulrike; Fast-Hirsch, Christa; Hengstschläger, Markus; Pötgens, Andy; Rüben, Angela; Knöfler, Martin; Haslinger, Peter; Huppertz, Berthold; Bilban, Martin; Kaufmann, Peter; Desoye, Gernot

    2007-01-01

    Background The trophoblast compartment of the placenta comprises various subpopulations with distinct functions. They interact among each other by secreted signals thus forming autocrine or paracrine regulatory loops. We established a first trimester trophoblast cell line (ACH-3P) by fusion of primary human first trimester trophoblasts (week 12 of gestation) with a human choriocarcinoma cell line (AC1-1). Results Expression of trophoblast markers (cytokeratin-7, integrins, matrix metalloproteinases), invasion abilities and transcriptome of ACH-3P closely resembled primary trophoblasts. Morphology, cytogenetics and doubling time was similar to the parental AC1-1 cells. The different subpopulations of trophoblasts e.g., villous and extravillous trophoblasts also exist in ACH-3P cells and can be immuno-separated by HLA-G surface expression. HLA-G positive ACH-3P display pseudopodia and a stronger expression of extravillous trophoblast markers. Higher expression of insulin-like growth factor II receptor and human chorionic gonadotropin represents the basis for the known autocrine stimulation of extravillous trophoblasts. Conclusion We conclude that ACH-3P represent a tool to investigate interaction of syngeneic trophoblast subpopulations. These cells are particularly suited for studies into autocrine and paracrine regulation of various aspects of trophoblast function. As an example a novel effect of TNF-α on matrix metalloproteinase 15 in HLA-G positive ACH-3P and explants was found. PMID:18093301

  20. 2005 Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Defects in the keratin cytoskeleton disrupt normal murine placental development and trophoblast cell function.

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    Watson, E D

    2007-04-01

    The keratin cytoskeleton is present in all trophoblast cell subtypes of the mouse and human placenta and is required to maintain the structural integrity of these cells. Recently, various genetic mouse models have shown that a normal keratin network is necessary for placental development. Keratin-deficiency leads to trophoblast giant cell fragility, breaking the barrier between the conceptus and the maternal blood circulation. Alternatively, keratin aggregation prevents chorioallantoic attachment, a key developmental milestone required for the formation of the labyrinth within the mouse placenta. These models give us insight into cytokeratin function in human trophoblast cell subtypes and suggest that defects in the keratin cytoskeleton may result in intrauterine growth restriction or miscarriage.

  1. What Is Trophoblast? A Combination of Criteria Define Human First-Trimester Trophoblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Q.E. Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds reports describing the derivation of human trophoblast cells from placentas and embryonic stem cells (ESC, partly due to the difficulty in identifying markers that define cells as belonging to the trophoblast lineage. We have selected criteria that are characteristic of primary first-trimester trophoblast: a set of protein markers, HLA class I profile, methylation of ELF5, and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs from the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC. We tested these criteria on cells previously reported to show some phenotypic characteristics of trophoblast: bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-treated human ESC and 2102Ep, an embryonal carcinoma cell line. Both cell types only show some, but not all, of the four trophoblast criteria. Thus, BMP-treated human ESC have not fully differentiated to trophoblast. Our study identifies a robust panel, including both protein and non-protein-coding markers that, in combination, can be used to reliably define cells as characteristic of early trophoblast.

  2. What Is Trophoblast? A Combination of Criteria Define Human First-Trimester Trophoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheryl Q E; Gardner, Lucy; Turco, Margherita; Zhao, Nancy; Murray, Matthew J; Coleman, Nicholas; Rossant, Janet; Hemberger, Myriam; Moffett, Ashley

    2016-02-09

    Controversy surrounds reports describing the derivation of human trophoblast cells from placentas and embryonic stem cells (ESC), partly due to the difficulty in identifying markers that define cells as belonging to the trophoblast lineage. We have selected criteria that are characteristic of primary first-trimester trophoblast: a set of protein markers, HLA class I profile, methylation of ELF5, and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) from the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC). We tested these criteria on cells previously reported to show some phenotypic characteristics of trophoblast: bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-treated human ESC and 2102Ep, an embryonal carcinoma cell line. Both cell types only show some, but not all, of the four trophoblast criteria. Thus, BMP-treated human ESC have not fully differentiated to trophoblast. Our study identifies a robust panel, including both protein and non-protein-coding markers that, in combination, can be used to reliably define cells as characteristic of early trophoblast. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human placental trophoblast invasion and differentiation: a particular focus on Wnt signalling

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    Martin eKnöfler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wingless ligands, a family of secreted proteins, are critically involved in organ development and tissue homeostasis by ensuring balanced rates of stem cell proliferation, cell death and differentiation. Wnt signalling components also play crucial roles in murine placental development controlling trophoblast lineage determination, chorioallantoic fusion and placental branching morphogenesis. However, the role of the pathway in human placentation, trophoblast development and differentiation is only partly understood. Here, we summarize our present knowledge about Wnt signalling in the human placenta and discuss its potential role in physiological and aberrant trophoblast invasion, gestational diseases and choriocarcinoma formation. Differentiation of proliferative first trimester cytotrophoblasts into invasive extravillous trophoblasts is associated with nuclear recruitment of β-catenin and induction of Wnt-dependent T-cell factor 4 suggesting that canonical Wnt signalling could be important for the formation and function of extravillous trophoblasts. Indeed, activation of the pathway was shown to promote trophoblast invasion in different in vitro trophoblast model systems as well as trophoblast cell fusion. Methylation-mediated silencing of inhibitors of Wnt signalling provided evidence for epigenetic activation of the pathway in placental tissues and choriocarcinoma cells. Similarly, abundant nuclear expression of β-catenin in invasive trophoblasts of complete hydatidiform moles suggested a role for hyper-activated Wnt signalling. In contrast, upregulation of Wnt inhibitors was noticed in placentae of women with preeclampsia, a disease characterized by shallow trophoblast invasion and incomplete spiral artery remodelling. Moreover, changes in Wnt signalling have been observed upon cytomegalovirus infection and in recurrent abortions. In summary, the current literature suggests a critical role of Wnt signalling in physiological and abnormal

  4. Intrauterine trophoblast migration: A comparative view of humans and rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juneo F.; Serakides, Rogéria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trophoblast migration and invasion through the decidua and maternal uterine spiral arteries are crucial events in placentation. During this process, invasive trophoblast replace vascular endothelial cells as the uterine arteries are remodeled to form more permissive vessels that facilitate adequate blood flow to the growing fetus. Placentation failures resulting from either extensive or shallow trophoblastic invasion can cause pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, placenta creta, gestational trophoblastic disease and even maternal or fetal death. Consequently, the use of experimental animal models such as rats and mice has led to great progress in recent years with regards to the identification of mechanisms and factors that control trophoblast migration kinetics. This review aims to perform a comparative analysis of placentation and the mechanisms and factors that coordinate intrauterine trophoblast migration in humans, rats and mice under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:26743330

  5. Activation of Protein C in Human Trophoblasts in Culture and Downregulation of Trophoblast Endothelial Protein C Receptor by TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faioni, E M; Fontana, G; Razzari, C; Avagliano, L; Bulfamante, G; Calvi, E; Doi, P; Marconi, A M

    2015-08-01

    In mice, trophoblasts are equipped with a potent anticoagulant mechanism, the protein C pathway. In human placenta, no functional studies of the protein C pathway are available. Human first-trimester trophoblasts (CK(++) HLA-G(+/-) Vim(-)) were isolated and kept in culture for a maximum of 48 hours. Activation of protein C on trophoblasts was at least as efficient as in endothelial cells (4.43 × 10 (-) (7) nmol/L/min/cell). Endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) was expressed in syncytiotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts. Downregulation of the messenger RNA of trophoblast EPCR occurred when trophoblasts were challenged with tumor necrosis factor α, and it could be prevented by unfractionated heparin but not by low-molecular-weight heparin at therapeutic doses. In conclusion, there is a functional protein C pathway on human first-trimester trophoblasts which can be modulated by inflammation. This finding has implications for the pathogenesis and prevention of placenta-mediated obstetric complications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award lecture: Molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells--focus on leptin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Y P; Maymó, J L; Pérez Pérez, A; Calvo, J C; Sánchez-Margalet, V; Varone, C L

    2012-02-01

    The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol is an estrogen that influences multiple aspects of placental function and fetal development in humans. During early pregnancy it plays a role in the regulation of blastocyst implantation, trophoblast differentiation and invasiveness, remodeling of uterine arteries, immunology and trophoblast production of hormones such as leptin. Estradiol exerts some effects through the action of classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which act as ligand-activated transcription factors and regulate gene expression. In addition, estradiol can elicit rapid responses from membrane-associated receptors, like activation of protein-kinase pathways. Thus, the cellular effects of estradiol will depend on the specific receptors expressed and the integration of their signaling events. Leptin, the 16,000MW protein product of the obese gene, was originally considered an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule for the central control of metabolism. However, pleiotropic effects of leptin have been identified in reproduction and pregnancy. The leptin gene is expressed in placenta, where leptin promotes proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells. Expression of leptin in placenta is highly regulated by key pregnancy molecules as hCG and estradiol. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells; focusing on mechanisms involved in estradiol regulation of placental leptin expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptomic signature of trophoblast differentiation in a human embryonic stem cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Melanie; Horcajadas, Jose A; Esteban, Francisco J; McElroy, Sohyun Lee; Fisher, Susan J; Giudice, Linda C

    2011-06-01

    Identification of genes involved in trophoblast differentiation is of great interest in understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in placental development and is relevant clinically to fetal development, fertility, and maternal health. Herein, we investigated differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) down the trophoblast lineage by culture with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) over a 10-day period. Within 2 days, the stemness markers POU5F1 and NANOG were markedly down-regulated, followed temporally by up-regulation of the CDX2, KRT7, HLA-G, ID2, CGA, and CGB trophoblast markers. To understand, on a global scale, changes in the transcriptome during the differentiation of hESCs down the trophoblast lineage, a large-scale microarray analysis was performed. Through whole-genome analysis, more than 3800 genes displayed statistically significant and 2-fold or greater changes in expression during the time course. Of those genes that showed the largest increases, many were involved in processes associated with trophoblast biology; however, novel genes were also identified. Some of them are hypothesized to be associated mainly with extracellular matrix remodeling (e.g., NID2) and cell migration and invasion (e.g., RAB25). Using Ingenuity pathways analysis software to identify signaling pathways involved in trophoblast differentiation or function, we discovered that many genes are involved in WNT/beta-catenin, ERK/MAPK, NFKB, and calcium signaling pathways, suggesting potential roles for these families in trophoblast development. This work provides an in vitro functional genomic model with which to identify genes involved in trophoblast development.

  8. Function of survivin in trophoblastic cells of the placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Muschol-Steinmetz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide and its pathogenesis is not totally understood. As a member of the chromosomal passenger complex and an inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin is a well-characterized oncoprotein. Its roles in trophoblastic cells remain to be defined. METHODS: The placental samples from 16 preeclampsia patients and 16 well-matched controls were included in this study. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were carried out with placental tissues. Primary trophoblastic cells from term placentas were isolated for Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation, cell cycle analysis and immunofluorescence staining were performed in trophoblastic cell lines BeWo, JAR and HTR-8/SVneo. RESULTS: The survivin gene is reduced but the protein amount is hardly changed in preeclamptic placentas, compared to control placentas. Upon stress, survivin in trophoblastic cells is phosphorylated on its residue serine 20 by protein kinase A and becomes stabilized, accompanied by increased heat shock protein 90. Depletion of survivin induces chromosome misalignment, abnormal centrosome integrity, and reduced localization and activity of Aurora B at the centromeres/kinetochores in trophoblastic metaphase cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that survivin plays pivotal roles in cell survival and proliferation of trophoblastic cells. Further investigations are required to define the function of survivin in each cell type of the placenta in the context of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration and invasion.

  9. Hyperthyroidism and human chorionic gonadotrophin production in gestational trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkington, L; Webster, J; Hancock, B W; Everard, J; Coleman, R E

    2011-05-24

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a rare complication of pregnancy, ranging from molar pregnancy to choriocarcinoma. Patients with persistent disease require treatment with chemotherapy. For the vast majority, prognosis is excellent. Occasionally, GTD is complicated by hyperthyroidism, which may require treatment. This is thought to occur due to molecular mimicry between human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and hence cross-reactivity with the TSH receptor. Hyperthyroidism usually resolves as the GTD is successfully treated and correspondingly HCG levels normalise. This paper reviews cases of GTD treated over a 5-year period at one of the three UK centres and identifies the prevalence of hyperthyroidism in this population. Four cases with clinical hyperthyroidism are discussed. On review of the 196 patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia treated with chemotherapy in Sheffield since 2005, 14 (7%) had biochemical hyperthyroidism. Of these, four had evidence of clinical hyperthyroidism. Concomitant biochemical thyroid disease in patients with GTD is relatively common, and measurement of thyroid function in patients with persistent GTD is, therefore, important. The development of hyperthyroidism is largely influenced by the level of HCG and disease burden, and usually settles with treatment of the persistent GTD. However, rarely the thyroid stimulation can have potentially life-threatening consequences.

  10. Type III Interferons Produced by Human Placental Trophoblasts Confer Protection against Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Avraham; Lennemann, Nicholas J; Ouyang, Yingshi; Bramley, John C; Morosky, Stefanie; Marques, Ernesto Torres De Azeved; Cherry, Sara; Sadovsky, Yoel; Coyne, Carolyn B

    2016-05-11

    During mammalian pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier between the maternal and fetal compartments. The recently observed association between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during human pregnancy and fetal microcephaly and other anomalies suggests that ZIKV may bypass the placenta to reach the fetus. This led us to investigate ZIKV infection of primary human trophoblasts (PHTs), which are the barrier cells of the placenta. We discovered that PHT cells from full-term placentas are refractory to ZIKV infection. In addition, medium from uninfected PHT cells protects non-placental cells from ZIKV infection. PHT cells constitutively release the type III interferon (IFN) IFNλ1, which functions in both a paracrine and autocrine manner to protect trophoblast and non-trophoblast cells from ZIKV infection. Our data suggest that for ZIKV to access the fetal compartment, it must evade restriction by trophoblast-derived IFNλ1 and other trophoblast-specific antiviral factors and/or use alternative strategies to cross the placental barrier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Trophoblastic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kate-Booij, M.J. ten; Lok, C.A.; Verheijen, R.H.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Trommel, N.E. van

    2008-01-01

    Hydatidiform mole is the most frequently-occurring gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). Patients with GTD have elevated human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) produced by the trophoblast. After evacuation of the mole, weekly serum HCG determinations can be used to assess whether the trophoblast is

  12. Adrenomedullin 2/intermedin regulates HLA-G in human trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Madhu; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yallampalli, Uma; Endsley, Janice; Hankins, Gary D V; Theiler, Regan; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2011-12-01

    Adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2), also referred to as intermedin (IMD), is expressed in trophoblast cells in human placenta and enhances the invasion and migration of first-trimester HTR-8SV/neo cells. Further infusion of ADM2 antagonist in pregnant rat causes fetoplacental growth restriction, suggesting a role for ADM2 in maintaining a successful pregnancy. This study was undertaken to assess whether ADM2 protein is present in decidual tissue and colocalized with HLA-G-positive cytotrophoblast cells and natural killer cells; to assess whether ADM2 regulates expression of HLA-G in trophoblast cells; and to identify whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved in ADM2-induced trophoblast cell invasion and migration. Using immunohistochemical methods and RT-PCR, this study shows that ADM2 protein is colocalized with HLA-G-expressing cytotrophoblast cells as well as with NCAM1 (CD56) immunoreactivity in human first-trimester decidual tissue, and that ADM2 mRNA is expressed in peripheral blood natural killer cells. Further, ADM2 dose dependently increases the expression of HLA-G antigen in HTR-8SV/neo cells as well as in term placental villi explants, suggesting involvement of ADM2 in the regulation of HLA-G in trophoblast cells. In addition, interference with the activity of RAF and MAPK3/1 by their inhibitors, manumycin and U0126, respectively, reduces ADM2-induced HTR-8SV/neo cell invasion and migration. In summary, this study suggests a potential involvement for ADM2 in regulating HLA-G antigen at the maternal-fetal interface in human pregnancy and facilitating trophoblast invasion and migration via MAPK3/1 phosphorylation.

  13. Preeclampsia associates with RECK-dependent decrease in human trophoblasts migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Jaime; Aedo, Alejandro; Mora, Jacob; Maldonado, Jorge; Salsoso, Rocío; Toledo, Fernando; Farías, Marcelo; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis

    2017-11-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by reduced invasion capacity of trophoblasts involving lower matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. Cell invasion is reduced by reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), a plasma membrane protein that inhibits MMP in several cell types. However, it is unknown whether this mechanism happens in the human placenta from preeclampsia. The hypothesis of this study sustains that RECK expression is increased leading to reduced trophoblasts invasion in preeclampsia. RECK expression in the human first trimester trophoblast cell line HTR8/SvNeo and in placentas from normal (n = 4) and preeclampsia (n = 4) pregnancies was evaluated by Western blot and immunofluorescence. MMP-dependent gelatin hydrolyzation was measured by in situ zymography and gelatinase assay in placental and cell extracts. RECK was overexpressed (plasmidial vector transfection) or partially reduced (shRNA) to evaluate its role in HTR8/SVneo cell migration and invasion. RECK was expressed in trophoblasts layer in human placentas. Preeclampsia resulted in higher placental RECK protein abundance, reduced MMP function, and higher level of fibronectin (a MMP substrate) compared with placentas from normal pregnancies. RECK is also expressed in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Reduced RECK expression resulted in higher MMP-dependent gelatin hydrolyzation, associated to higher migration and invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells. However, RECK overexpression associated with reduced hydrolyzation, cell migration and invasion. RECK is overexpressed in human trophoblasts from preeclampsia and may be responsible of this disease-associated lower migration and invasion of this cell type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Live cell imaging of in vitro human trophoblast syncytialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Dang, Yan-Li; Zheng, Ru; Li, Yue; Li, Weiwei; Lu, Xiaoyin; Wang, Li-Juan; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Wang, Hongmei

    2014-06-01

    Human trophoblast syncytialization, a process of cell-cell fusion, is one of the most important yet least understood events during placental development. Investigating the fusion process in a placenta in vivo is very challenging given the complexity of this process. Application of primary cultured cytotrophoblast cells isolated from term placentas and BeWo cells derived from human choriocarcinoma formulates a biphasic strategy to achieve the mechanism of trophoblast cell fusion, as the former can spontaneously fuse to form the multinucleated syncytium and the latter is capable of fusing under the treatment of forskolin (FSK). Live-cell imaging is a powerful tool that is widely used to investigate many physiological or pathological processes in various animal models or humans; however, to our knowledge, the mechanism of trophoblast cell fusion has not been reported using a live- cell imaging manner. In this study, a live-cell imaging system was used to delineate the fusion process of primary term cytotrophoblast cells and BeWo cells. By using live staining with Hoechst 33342 or cytoplasmic dyes or by stably transfecting enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and DsRed2-Nuc reporter plasmids, we observed finger-like protrusions on the cell membranes of fusion partners before fusion and the exchange of cytoplasmic contents during fusion. In summary, this study provides the first video recording of the process of trophoblast syncytialization. Furthermore, the various live-cell imaging systems used in this study will help to yield molecular insights into the syncytialization process during placental development. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Roles of CDX2 and EOMES in human induced trophoblast progenitor cells

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    Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Gong, Yun Guo; Khoo, Sok Kean [Genomic Microarray Core Facility, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► CDX2 and EOMES play critical roles in human induced trophoblast progenitors (iTP). ► iTP cells directly transformed from fibroblasts. ► Differentiation of iTP cells into extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. -- Abstract: Abnormal trophoblast lineage proliferation and differentiation in early pregnancy have been associated with the pathogenesis of placenta diseases of pregnancy. However, there is still a gap in understanding the molecular mechanisms of early placental development due to the limited primary trophoblast cultures and fidelity of immortalized trophoblast lines. Trophoblasts stem (TS) cells, an in vitro model of trophectoderm that can differentiate into syncytiotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts, can be an attractive tool for early pregnancy research. TS cells are well established in mouse but not in humans due to insufficient knowledge of which trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors are involved in human trophectoderm (TE) proliferation and differentiation. Here, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell technique to investigate the human trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors. We established human induced trophoblast progenitor (iTP) cells by direct reprogramming the fibroblasts with a pool of mouse trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors consisting of CDX2, EOMES, and ELF5. The human iTP cells exhibit epithelial morphology and can be maintained in vitro for more than 2 months. Gene expression profile of these cells was tightly clustered with human trophectoderm but not with human neuron progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells, or endoderm cells. These cells are capable of differentiating into cells with an invasive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts. They also form multi-nucleated cells which secrete human chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol, consistent with a syncytiotrophoblast phenotype. Our results provide the evidence that transcription factors CDX2 and

  16. BMP4-directed trophoblast differentiation of human embryonic stem cells is mediated through a ΔNp63+ cytotrophoblast stem cell state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchun; Moretto-Zita, Matteo; Soncin, Francesca; Wakeland, Anna; Wolfe, Lynlee; Leon-Garcia, Sandra; Pandian, Raj; Pizzo, Donald; Cui, Li; Nazor, Kristopher; Loring, Jeanne F; Crum, Christopher P; Laurent, Louise C; Parast, Mana M

    2013-10-01

    The placenta is a transient organ that is necessary for proper fetal development. Its main functional component is the trophoblast, which is derived from extra-embryonic ectoderm. Little is known about early trophoblast differentiation in the human embryo, owing to lack of a proper in vitro model system. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) differentiate into functional trophoblast following BMP4 treatment in the presence of feeder-conditioned media; however, this model has not been widely accepted, in part owing to a lack of proof for a trophoblast progenitor population. We have previously shown that p63, a member of the p53 family of nuclear proteins, is expressed in proliferative cytotrophoblast (CTB), precursors to terminally differentiated syncytiotrophoblast (STB) in chorionic villi and extravillous trophoblast (EVT) at the implantation site. Here, we show that BMP4-treated hESCs differentiate into bona fide CTB by direct comparison with primary human placental tissues and isolated CTB through gene expression profiling. We show that, in primary CTB, p63 levels are reduced as cells differentiate into STB, and that forced expression of p63 maintains cyclin B1 and inhibits STB differentiation. We also establish that, similar to in vivo events, hESC differentiation into trophoblast is characterized by a p63(+)/KRT7(+) CTB stem cell state, followed by formation of functional KLF4(+) STB and HLA-G(+) EVT. Finally, we illustrate that downregulation of p63 by shRNA inhibits differentiation of hESCs into functional trophoblast. Taken together, our results establish that BMP4-treated hESCs are an excellent model of human trophoblast differentiation, closely mimicking the in vivo progression from p63(+) CTB stem cells to terminally differentiated trophoblast subtypes.

  17. PD-L1 Expression in Human Placentas and Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Emanuela; Kurman, Robert J; Wang, Tian-Li; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2017-03-01

    One of the major immune checkpoints responsible for immune evasion in cancer cells is the interaction between programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1). As human trophoblastic cells display many of the features of malignant cells such as the ability to invade normal tissue including blood vessels and are apparently not eradicated by the host immune system, we undertook the present study to determine whether PD-L1 was upregulated in different types of trophoblastic cells during normal pregnancy and in gestational trophoblastic diseases. Immunohistochemistry using an anti-PD-L1-specific antibody demonstrated that in early and term normal placentas, PD-L1 was highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblast and to a much lower extent in intermediate trophoblastic cells located in the chorion laeve and implantation site. PD-L1 immunoreactivity was undetectable in cytotrophoblastic cells. This staining pattern in normal placenta was recapitulated in various types of gestational trophoblastic disease. PD-L1 was highly expressed by syncytiotrophoblast in complete moles and choriocarcinomas. The intermediate trophoblastic neoplasms, placental site trophoblastic tumors, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors showed variable PD-L1 immunoreactivity but at a lower intensity than in the neoplastic syncytiotrophoblast in choriocarcinoma. In addition, we observed PD-1-positive lymphocytes located within the implantation site and in trophoblastic tumors. In summary, this study describes a novel mechanism for trophoblastic cells to create a tolerogenic feto-maternal interface by upregulating PD-L1 in syncytiotrophoblast and in intermediate trophoblast. Trophoblastic tumors may also use PD-L1 expression to evade the host immune response thereby promoting their survival.

  18. Activin/nodal signaling switches the terminal fate of human embryonic stem cell-derived trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Prasenjit; Randall, Shan M; Collier, Timothy S; Nero, Anthony; Russell, Teal A; Muddiman, David C; Rao, Balaji M

    2015-04-03

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been routinely treated with bone morphogenetic protein and/or inhibitors of activin/nodal signaling to obtain cells that express trophoblast markers. Trophoblasts can terminally differentiate to either extravillous trophoblasts or syncytiotrophoblasts. The signaling pathways that govern the terminal fate of these trophoblasts are not understood. We show that activin/nodal signaling switches the terminal fate of these hESC-derived trophoblasts. Inhibition of activin/nodal signaling leads to formation of extravillous trophoblast, whereas loss of activin/nodal inhibition leads to the formation of syncytiotrophoblasts. Also, the ability of hESCs to form bona fide trophoblasts has been intensely debated. We have examined hESC-derived trophoblasts in the light of stringent criteria that were proposed recently, such as hypomethylation of the ELF5-2b promoter region and down-regulation of HLA class I antigens. We report that trophoblasts that possess these properties can indeed be obtained from hESCs. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Activin/Nodal Signaling Switches the Terminal Fate of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Trophoblasts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Prasenjit; Randall, Shan M.; Collier, Timothy S.; Nero, Anthony; Russell, Teal A.; Muddiman, David C.; Rao, Balaji M.

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been routinely treated with bone morphogenetic protein and/or inhibitors of activin/nodal signaling to obtain cells that express trophoblast markers. Trophoblasts can terminally differentiate to either extravillous trophoblasts or syncytiotrophoblasts. The signaling pathways that govern the terminal fate of these trophoblasts are not understood. We show that activin/nodal signaling switches the terminal fate of these hESC-derived trophoblasts. Inhibition of activin/nodal signaling leads to formation of extravillous trophoblast, whereas loss of activin/nodal inhibition leads to the formation of syncytiotrophoblasts. Also, the ability of hESCs to form bona fide trophoblasts has been intensely debated. We have examined hESC-derived trophoblasts in the light of stringent criteria that were proposed recently, such as hypomethylation of the ELF5-2b promoter region and down-regulation of HLA class I antigens. We report that trophoblasts that possess these properties can indeed be obtained from hESCs. PMID:25670856

  20. HCG-Activated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) Promote Trophoblast Cell Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqin; Guo, Yue; Zhou, Danni; Xu, Mei; Ding, Jinli; Yang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Successful embryo implantation and placentation depend on appropriate trophoblast invasion into the maternal endometrial stroma. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that abundantly expresses hCG receptors. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of human embryo–secreted hCG on PBMC function and investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of activated PBMC in trophoblast invasion. Blood samples were collected from women undergoing benign gynecological surgery during the mid-secretory phase. PBMC were isolated and stimulated with or without hCG for 0 or 24 h. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expressions in PBMC were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The JAR cell line served as a model for trophoblast cells and was divided into four groups: control, hCG only, PBMC only, and PBMC with hCG. JAR cell invasive and proliferative abilities were detected by trans-well and CCK8 assays and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells were detected by western blotting and real-time PCR analysis. We found that hCG can remarkably promote IL-1β and LIF promotion in PBMC after 24-h culture. PBMC activated by hCG significantly increased the number of invasive JAR cells in an invasion assay without affecting proliferation, and hCG-activated PBMC significantly increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF and decreased TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that hCG stimulates cytokine secretion in human PBMC and could stimulate trophoblast invasion. PMID:26087261

  1. Sildenafil Prevents Apoptosis of Human First-Trimester Trophoblast Cells Exposed to Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Jay M.; Kilburn, Brian A.; Bolnick, Alan D.; Diamond, Michael P.; Singh, Manvinder; Hertz, Michael; Dai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Human first-trimester trophoblast cells proliferate at low O2, but survival is compromised by oxidative stress, leading to uteroplacental insufficiency. The vasoactive drug, sildenafil citrate (Viagra, Sigma, St Louis, Missouri), has proven useful in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes. An important biological function of this pharmaceutical is its action as an inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase type 5 activity, which suggests that it could have beneficial effects on trophoblast survival. To investigate whether sildenafil can prevent trophoblast cell death, human first-trimester villous explants and the HTR-8/SVneo cytotrophoblast cell line were exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) to generate oxidative stress, which induces apoptosis. Apoptosis was optimally inhibited during H/R by 350 ng/mL sildenafil. Sildenafil-mediated survival was reversed by l-NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride or cGMP antagonist, indicating a dependence on both nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP. Indeed, either a cGMP agonist or an NO generator was cytoprotective independent of sildenafil. These findings suggest a novel intervention route for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss or obstetrical placental disorders. PMID:25431453

  2. Kisspeptin regulation of genes involved in cell invasion and angiogenesis in first trimester human trophoblast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor A Francis

    Full Text Available The precise regulation of extravillous trophoblast invasion of the uterine wall is a key process in successful pregnancies. Kisspeptin (KP has been shown to inhibit cancer cell metastasis and placental trophoblast cell migration. In this study primary cultures of first trimester human trophoblast cells have been utilized in order to study the regulation of invasion and angiogenesis-related genes by KP. Trophoblast cells were isolated from first trimester placenta and their identity was confirmed by immunostaining for cytokeratin-7. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that primary trophoblast cells express higher levels of GPR54 (KP receptor and KP mRNA than the trophoblast cell line HTR8Svneo. Furthermore, trophoblast cells also expressed higher GPR54 and KP protein levels. Treating primary trophoblast cells with KP induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, while co-treating the cells with a KP antagonist almost completely blocked the activation of ERK1/2 and demonstrated that KP through its cognate GPR54 receptor can activate ERK1/2 in trophoblast cells. KP reduced the migratory capability of trophoblast cells in a scratch-migration assay. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that KP treatment reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 14 and VEGF-A, and increased the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 and 3. These results suggest that KP can inhibit first trimester trophoblast cells invasion via inhibition of cell migration and down regulation of the metalloproteinase system and VEGF-A.

  3. Kisspeptin Regulation of Genes Involved in Cell Invasion and Angiogenesis in First Trimester Human Trophoblast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjila, Mushi; Millar, Robert P.; Katz, Arieh A.

    2014-01-01

    The precise regulation of extravillous trophoblast invasion of the uterine wall is a key process in successful pregnancies. Kisspeptin (KP) has been shown to inhibit cancer cell metastasis and placental trophoblast cell migration. In this study primary cultures of first trimester human trophoblast cells have been utilized in order to study the regulation of invasion and angiogenesis-related genes by KP. Trophoblast cells were isolated from first trimester placenta and their identity was confirmed by immunostaining for cytokeratin-7. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that primary trophoblast cells express higher levels of GPR54 (KP receptor) and KP mRNA than the trophoblast cell line HTR8Svneo. Furthermore, trophoblast cells also expressed higher GPR54 and KP protein levels. Treating primary trophoblast cells with KP induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, while co-treating the cells with a KP antagonist almost completely blocked the activation of ERK1/2 and demonstrated that KP through its cognate GPR54 receptor can activate ERK1/2 in trophoblast cells. KP reduced the migratory capability of trophoblast cells in a scratch-migration assay. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that KP treatment reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 14 and VEGF-A, and increased the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 and 3. These results suggest that KP can inhibit first trimester trophoblast cells invasion via inhibition of cell migration and down regulation of the metalloproteinase system and VEGF-A. PMID:24923321

  4. Decorin-Mediated Inhibition of Human Trophoblast Cells Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion and Promotion of Apoptosis In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfen Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a unique complication of pregnancy, the pathogenesis of which has been generally accepted to be associated with the dysfunctions of extravillous trophoblast (EVT including proliferation, apoptosis, and migration and invasion. Decorin (DCN has been proved to be a decidua-derived TGF-binding proteoglycan, which negatively regulates proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblast cells. In this study, we identified a higher expression level of decorin in severe PE placentas by both real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC. And an inhibitory effect of decorin on proliferation, migration, and invasion and an enhanced effect on apoptosis in trophoblast cells HTR-8/SVneo and JEG-3 were validated in vitro. Also the modulations of decorin on trophoblast cells’ metastasis and invasion functions were detected through regulating the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2 and MMP9. Thus, we suggested that the contribution of decorin to the modulation of trophoblast cells might have implications for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  5. The psychoactive compound of Cannabis sativa, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits the human trophoblast cell turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M A; Fonseca, B M; Marques, F; Teixeira, N A; Correia-da-Silva, G

    2015-08-06

    The noxious effects of cannabis consumption for fertility and pregnancy outcome are recognized for years. Its consumption during gestation is associated with alterations in foetal growth, low birth weight and preterm labor. The main psychoactive molecule of cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs the production of reproductive hormones and is also able to cross the placenta barrier. However, its effect on the main placental cells, the trophoblasts, are unknown. Actually, the role of THC in cell survival/death of primary human cytotrophoblasts (CTs) and syncytiotrophoblasts (STs) and in the syncytialization process remains to be explored. Here, we show that THC has a dual effect, enhancing MTT metabolism at low concentrations, whereas higher doses decreased cell viability, on both trophoblast phenotypes, though the effects on STs were more evident. THC also diminished the generation of oxidative and nitrative stress and the oxidized form of glutathione, whereas the reduced form of this tripeptide was increased, suggesting that THC prevents ST cell death due to an antioxidant effect. Moreover, this compound enhanced the mitochondrial function of STs, as observed by the increased MTT metabolism and intracellular ATP levels. These effects were independent of cannabinoid receptors activation. Besides, THC impaired CT differentiation into STs, since it decreased the expression of biochemical and morphological biomarkers of syncytialization, through a cannabinoid receptor-dependent mechanism. Together, these results suggest that THC interferes with trophoblast turnover, preventing trophoblast cell death and differentiation, and contribute to disclose the cellular mechanisms that lead to pregnancy complications in women that consume cannabis-derived drugs during gestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. First trimester human endovascular trophoblast cells express both HLA-C and HLA-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröll, J; Blaschitz, A; Hutter, H; Dohr, G

    1999-07-01

    In human pregnancies, trophoblasts, in contrast to placental connective tissue and the fetus itself, come into direct contact with the maternal allorecognizing system at special sites. Villous syncytiotrophoblasts washed around by maternal blood lack HLA class I proteins, whereas extravillous trophoblasts, which deeply invade maternal uterine tissues, express high amounts of HLA-G and also HLA-C, the latter to a lesser degree, however. A subpopulation of extravillous trophoblasts, the endovascular trophoblast, enters maternal spiral artery lumen and, like syncytiotrophoblast, comes into direct contact with maternal blood. Less is known about HLA class I distribution on this endovascular trophoblast subpopulation. A comparative immununohistochemical analysis was done on decidual cryo-sections containing trophoblast-invaded spiral arteries using different anti-HLA class I monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a peroxidase-labeled streptavidinbiotin detection system. MAbs W6/32 (anti-HLA-A, -B, -C, -G), HCA2 (anti-HLA-A, -G) G233 and 87G (both anti-HLA-G) resulted in strong positivity on endovascular trophoblasts. L31 (anti-HLA-C) and HC10 (anti-HLA-B, -C) revealed clear positivity, whereas TU149 (anti-HLA-B, -C, some -A) produced a heterogeneous staining pattern, faintly positive on some endovascular trophoblastic cells and negative on others. MAb LA45 (anti-HLA-A, -B) did not bind to any endovascular trophoblast, neither did BFL.1 (anti-HLA-G) nor 16G1 (anti-HLA-G, soluble). This study shows that trophoblastic cells belonging to the endovascular subpopulation express considerable amounts of HLA-G and slightly less HLA-C.

  7. Integrin α8 Is Abundant in Human, Rat, and Mouse Trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdl, Sebastian; Huebner, Hanna; Volkert, Gudrun; Marek, Ines; Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Noegel, Stephanie C; Ruebner, Matthias; Rascher, Wolfgang; Hartner, Andrea; Fahlbusch, Fabian B

    2017-10-01

    Integrins exert regulatory functions in placentogenesis. Null mutation of certain integrin α subunits leads to placental defects with subsequent fetal growth restriction or embryonic lethality in mice. So far, the placental role of α8 integrin remains to be determined. Localization of α8 integrin and its ligands, fibronectin (FN) and osteopontin (OPN), was studied by immunohistochemistry in human, rat, and mouse placenta. The vascularization of the placental labyrinth layer of α8 integrin-deficient mice was determined by CD31 staining. In humans, α8 integrin expression was assessed via real-time polymerase chain reaction in healthy placentas, in the placental pathologies such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preeclampsia, and HELLP-syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count), as well as in primary extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) and villous trophoblasts. In humans, α8 integrin was detected in first and third trimester syncytiotrophoblast and EVT. Although OPN showed the same localization, FN was observed in EVT only. No expressional changes in α8 integrin were detected in the placental pathologies studied. Rodent placenta showed α8 integrin expression in giant cells and in the labyrinth layer. The localization of OPN and FN, however, showed species-specific differences. Knockout of α8 integrin in mice did not cause IUGR, despite some reduction in labyrinth layer vascularization. α8 Integrin is expressed in functional placental compartments among its ligands, OPN and/or FN, across species. Although this may point to a regulatory role in trophoblast function, our data from α8 integrin-deficient mice indicated only mild placental pathology. Thus, the lack of placental α8 integrin seems to be largely compensated for.

  8. Human HLA-G+ extravillous trophoblasts: Immune-activating cells that interact with decidual leukocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamara Tilburgs; Ângela C. Crespo; Anita van der Zwan; Basya Rybalov; Towfique Raj; Barbara Stranger; Lucy Gardner; Ashley Moffett; Jack L. Strominger

    2015-01-01

    Invading human leukocyte antigen-G+ (HLA-G+) extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) are rare cells that are believed to play a key role in the prevention of a maternal immune attack on foreign fetal tissues...

  9. Conformation of human leucocyte antigen-C molecules at the surface of human trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Richard; Gardner, Lucy; Hiby, Sue E; Sharkey, Andrew M; Moffett, Ashley

    2008-07-01

    Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-C is expressed at lower levels than other classical HLA-I molecules on somatic cells. Surface HLA-C proteins can occur as conventionally beta(2)-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated complexes or as open conformers dissociated from peptide and/or beta(2)m. We investigated the conformation of HLA-C molecules on normal human trophoblast cells, which invade the maternal decidua during placentation. A panel of monoclonal antibodies to different conformations of HLA-I molecules was used in flow cytometry and surface immunoprecipitation experiments. On the surface of trophoblast cells only beta(2)m-associated complexes of HLA-C molecules were detected. In contrast, both open conformers and beta(2)m-associated HLA-C could be detected on other cells from the decidua, HLA-C-transfectants and cell lines. The levels of HLA-C expressed on primary trophoblast cells could be detected by antibodies specific to non-beta(2)m-associated conformations because binding was seen after acid-induced denaturation of surface proteins. In contrast to HLA-G molecules on trophoblasts, we found no evidence for the presence of disulphide-linked multimers of HLA-C complexes. These results show that most HLA-C molecules present at the trophoblast cell surface are in the conventional beta(2)m-associated conformation. These findings have implications regarding the stability of trophoblast HLA-C molecules and how they interact with receptors on decidual leucocytes during placentation.

  10. Interaction of human trophoblast cells with gland-like endometrial spheroids: a model system for trophoblast invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, V U; Gellersen, B; Leube, R E; Classen-Linke, I

    2015-04-01

    Do maternal endometrial epithelial cell (EEC) differentiation and polarity impact the invasive capacity of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells during early human implantation? In a three dimensional (3D) confrontation co-culture the invasiveness of the human trophoblast cell line AC-1M88 was inversely correlated with the degree of differentiation and polarization of human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell spheroids. In a previous study desmosomal and adherens junction proteins were shown to spread from a subapically restricted lateral position to the entire lateral membrane in human glandular EECs during the implantation window of the menstrual cycle. Whether this change in EEC junction localization has an impact on the interaction of EVT cells with glandular EECs during early human implantation is not known. A new 3D cell culture system was developed in order to mimic early implantation events in humans. As a model for the invasion of endometrial glands by EVT cells, spheroids of three differently differentiated and polarized endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines were confronted with an EVT cell line in co-culture experiments. Three human adenocarcinoma EEC lines were chosen for this study because of their differences in differentiation and polarization: HEC-1-A, which is well differentiated and highly polarized, Ishikawa, which is well differentiated and moderately polarized, and RL95-2, which is moderately differentiated and poorly polarized. When the cell lines were grown in reconstituted basement membrane, they formed gland-like, multicellular spheroids. The degree of polarization within the different EEC spheroids was assessed by 3D confocal immunofluorescence microscopy detecting the basal membrane protein integrin α6, the apical tight junction-associated protein ZO-1 and the desmosomal plaque protein desmoplakin 1/2 (Dsp). Cells of the human EVT cell line AC-1M88, which is a fusion cell line of primary EVT cells and choriocarcinoma-derived JEG-3 cells, were

  11. Human HLA-G+ extravillous trophoblasts: Immune-activating cells that interact with decidual leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburgs, Tamara; van der Zwan, Anita; Rybalov, Basya; Raj, Towfique; Stranger, Barbara; Gardner, Lucy; Moffett, Ashley; Strominger, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Invading human leukocyte antigen-G+ (HLA‐G+) extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) are rare cells that are believed to play a key role in the prevention of a maternal immune attack on foreign fetal tissues. Here highly purified HLA‐G+ EVT and HLA‐G− villous trophoblasts (VT) were isolated. Culture on fibronectin that EVT encounter on invading the uterus increased HLA‐G, EGF-Receptor-2, and LIF-Receptor expression on EVT, presumably representing a further differentiation state. Microarray and functional gene set enrichment analysis revealed a striking immune-activating potential for EVT that was absent in VT. Cocultures of HLA‐G+ EVT with sample matched decidual natural killer cells (dNK), macrophages, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were established. Interaction of EVT with CD4+ T cells resulted in increased numbers of CD4+CD25HIFOXP3+CD45RA+ resting regulatory T cells (Treg) and increased the expression level of the Treg-specific transcription factor FOXP3 in these cells. However, EVT did not enhance cytokine secretion in dNK, whereas stimulation of dNK with mitogens or classical natural killer targets confirmed the distinct cytokine secretion profiles of dNK and peripheral blood NK cells (pNK). EVT are specialized cells involved in maternal–fetal tolerance, the properties of which are not imitated by HLA‐G–expressing surrogate cell lines. PMID:26015573

  12. Human HLA-G+ extravillous trophoblasts: Immune-activating cells that interact with decidual leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburgs, Tamara; Crespo, Ângela C; van der Zwan, Anita; Rybalov, Basya; Raj, Towfique; Stranger, Barbara; Gardner, Lucy; Moffett, Ashley; Strominger, Jack L

    2015-06-09

    Invading human leukocyte antigen-G+ (HLA-G+) extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) are rare cells that are believed to play a key role in the prevention of a maternal immune attack on foreign fetal tissues. Here highly purified HLA-G+ EVT and HLA-G- villous trophoblasts (VT) were isolated. Culture on fibronectin that EVT encounter on invading the uterus increased HLA-G, EGF-Receptor-2, and LIF-Receptor expression on EVT, presumably representing a further differentiation state. Microarray and functional gene set enrichment analysis revealed a striking immune-activating potential for EVT that was absent in VT. Cocultures of HLA-G+ EVT with sample matched decidual natural killer cells (dNK), macrophages, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were established. Interaction of EVT with CD4+ T cells resulted in increased numbers of CD4+CD25(HI)FOXP3+CD45RA+ resting regulatory T cells (Treg) and increased the expression level of the Treg-specific transcription factor FOXP3 in these cells. However, EVT did not enhance cytokine secretion in dNK, whereas stimulation of dNK with mitogens or classical natural killer targets confirmed the distinct cytokine secretion profiles of dNK and peripheral blood NK cells (pNK). EVT are specialized cells involved in maternal-fetal tolerance, the properties of which are not imitated by HLA-G-expressing surrogate cell lines.

  13. Fibulin-5 is upregulated in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells and promotes primary human extravillous trophoblast outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Amy; Cuman, Carly; Rainczuk, Katarzyna; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between the highly invasive trophoblasts and the maternal uterine decidual extracellular matrix (ECM) are crucial in the determination of a successful pregnancy. Fibulin-5 (FBLN5) is a member of the fibulin family that alters cell adhesive and invasive properties and is expressed in human villous cytotrophoblasts. We aimed to determine the expression and immunolocalization of FBLN5 in human first trimester decidua and examine the effect of FBLN5 in trophoblast invasion in vitro using a first trimester placental villous outgrowth assay. We demonstrated that FBLN5 mRNA expression is upregulated in response to cAMP-mediated decidualization of primary human endometrial stromal cells, although FBLN5 itself does not enhance decidualization. We reported for the first time, FBLN5 protein production in first trimester decidual cells and also co-localization to HLAG-positive EVTs in first trimester decidua. Consequently, we investigated the effects of exogenous FBLN5 on placental villous outgrowth in vitro and demonstrated that FBLN5 promotes EVT migration/invasion. This is the first study to identify FBLN5 in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells, first trimester decidua and EVT and determine a functional role for FBLN5 in human EVTs, suggesting that decidual and or EVT-derived FBLN5 regulates EVT invasion and placentation in women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin D promotes human extravillous trophoblast invasion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S Y; Susarla, R; Canovas, D; Vasilopoulou, E; Ohizua, O; McCabe, C J; Hewison, M; Kilby, M D

    2015-04-01

    Incomplete human extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion of the decidua and maternal spiral arteries is characteristic of pre-eclampsia, a condition linked to low maternal vitamin D status. It is hypothesized that dysregulated vitamin D action in uteroplacental tissues disrupts EVT invasion leading to malplacentation. This study assessed the effects of the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3), and its precursor, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-D3), on primary human EVT isolated from first trimester pregnancies. Expression of EVT markers (cytokeratin-7, HLA-G), the vitamin D-activating enzyme (CYP27B1) and 1,25-D3 receptor (VDR) was assessed by immunocytochemistry. EVT responses following in vitro treatment with 1,25-D3 (0-10 nM) or 25-D3 (0-100 nM) for 48-60 h were assessed using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of key target genes. Effects on EVT invasion through Matrigel(®) were quantified alongside zymographic analysis of secreted matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Effects on cell viability were assessed by measurement of MTT. EVT co-expressed mRNA and protein for CYP27B1 and VDR, and demonstrated induction of mRNA encoding vitamin D-responsive genes, 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and cathelicidin following 1,25-D3 treatment. EVT could respond to 1,25-D3 and 25-D3, both of which significantly increased EVT invasion, with maximal effect at 1 nM 1,25-D3 (1.9-fold; p < 0.01) and 100 nM 25-D3 (2.2-fold; p < 0.05) respectively compared with untreated controls. This was accompanied by increased pro-MMP2 and pro-MMP9 secretion. The invasion was independent of cell viability, which remained unchanged. These data support a role for vitamin D in EVT invasion during human placentation and suggest that vitamin D-deficiency may contribute to impaired EVT invasion and pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. HLA-G Orchestrates the Early Interaction of Human Trophoblasts with the Maternal Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Silvia; Amodio, Giada; Quattrone, Federica; Panina-Bordignon, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) play a central role in educating maternal leukocytes, endometrial stromal and endothelial cells to generate a receptive decidual microenvironment tailored to accept the semi-allogeneic fetus. HLA-G, a non-classical HLA class I molecule endowed with immune-regulatory functions, is primarily expressed on EVTs lining the placenta and on the naturally occurring tolerogenic dendritic cells, named DC-10, which are enriched in the human first trimester decidua. Decidual DC-10 are involved in HLA-G-mediated tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface. EVTs not only establish a tolerogenic microenvironment through the interaction with maternal innate and adaptive cells but also orchestrate placenta vascular and tissue remodeling, leading to a successful pregnancy. Here, we discuss the potential implications of the HLA-G-mediated cross-talk among the cells present at the maternal-fetal interface, and its role in maintaining a positive relationship between the mother and the fetus.

  16. Hypericum caprifoliatum and Hypericum connatum affect human trophoblast-like cells differentiation and Ca2+ influx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline O. da Conceição

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: The results indicated that these two Hypericum species extracts can interfere on trophoblast differentiation and Ca2+ influx, according to their molecular diversity. Although in vivo experiments are necessary to establish their action on placental formation and function, this study suggests that attention must be paid to the potential toxic effect of these plants.

  17. TCDD Induces the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF-1α Regulatory Pathway in Human Trophoblastic JAR Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Ling Liao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to dioxin can compromise pregnancy outcomes and increase the risk of preterm births. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD has been demonstrated to induce placental hypoxia at the end of pregnancy in a rat model, and hypoxia has been suggested to be the cause of abnormal trophoblast differentiation and placental insufficiency syndromes. In this study, we demonstrate that the non-hypoxic stimulation of human trophoblastic cells by TCDD strongly increased hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α stabilization. TCDD exposure induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide. TCDD-induced HIF-1α stabilization and Akt phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor or N-acetylcysteine (a ROS scavenger. The augmented HIF-1α stabilization by TCDD occurred via the ROS-dependent activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Additionally, a significant increase in invasion and metallomatrix protease-9 activity was found in TCDD-treated cells. The gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor was induced upon TCDD stimulation, whereas the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, PPARγ coactivator-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor, and uncoupling protein 2 were decreased. Our results indicate that an activated HIF-1α pathway, elicited oxidative stress, and induced metabolic stress contribute to TCDD-induced trophoblastic toxicity. These findings may provide molecular insight into the TCDD-induced impairment of trophoblast function and placental development.

  18. Soluble human leukocyte antigen-g5 activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling and stimulates trophoblast invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YiFan Guo

    Full Text Available Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G is a non-classical class Ib HLA molecule that is secreted from blastocysts. Soluble HLA-G modulates the immune tolerance of the mother and can be used as a prognostic factor for the clinical pregnancy rate. However, the underlying mechanism of how soluble HLA-G5 affects pregnancy remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that soluble HLA-G5 promotes successful implantation and pregnancy by modulating trophoblast invasion through receptor binding and activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK signaling pathway. Recombinant HLA-G5 protein over-expressed in E. coli BL21 was purified to near homogeneity. We studied the expression of HLA-G5 and its receptors, the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B1 (LILRB1 and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4 (KIR2DL4, in primary trophoblasts and trophoblastic (JAr and JEG-3 cell lines by florescence-labeled HLA-G5. HLA-G5 was detected in the primary trophoblasts and JEG-3 cells. The LILRB1 and KIR2DL4 receptors were expressed in both primary trophoblasts and trophoblastic cell lines. HLA-G5 stimulated cell invasion (p<0.05 and increased urokinase (uPA and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs transcripts and their activity (p<0.05 in trophoblastic cells. HLA-G5 activated the ERK signaling pathway and induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the trophoblastic cell lines. Addition of ERK inhibitors (U0126 and PD98059 nullified the stimulatory effect of HLA-G5 on trophoblastic cell invasion. Taken together, HLA-G5 induced trophoblast invasion by binding to KIR2DL4 and LILRB1, by increasing uPA and MMPs expressions and by activating the ERK signaling pathway.

  19. Complete and unidirectional conversion of human embryonic stem cells to trophoblast by BMP4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amita, Mitsuyoshi; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Alexenko, Andrei P; Sinha, Sunilima; Schust, Danny J; Schulz, Laura C; Roberts, R Michael; Ezashi, Toshihiko

    2013-03-26

    Human ES cells (hESC) exposed to bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) in the absence of FGF2 have become widely used for studying trophoblast development, but the soundness of this model has been challenged by others, who concluded that differentiation was primarily toward mesoderm rather than trophoblast. Here we confirm that hESC grown under the standard conditions on a medium conditioned by mouse embryonic fibroblasts in the presence of BMP4 and absence of FGF2 on a Matrigel substratum rapidly convert to an epithelium that is largely KRT7(+) within 48 h, with minimal expression of mesoderm markers, including T (Brachyury). Instead, they begin to express a series of trophoblast markers, including HLA-G, demonstrate invasive properties that are independent of the continued presence of BMP4 in the medium, and, over time, produce extensive amounts of human chorionic gonadotropin, progesterone, placental growth factor, and placental lactogen. This process of differentiation is not dependent on conditioning of the medium by mouse embryonic fibroblasts and is accelerated in the presence of inhibitors of Activin and FGF2 signaling, which at day 2 provide colonies that are entirely KRT7(+) and in which the majority of cells are transiently CDX2(+). Colonies grown on two chemically defined media, including the one in which BMP4 was reported to drive mesoderm formation, also differentiate at least partially to trophoblast in response to BMP4. The experiments demonstrate that the in vitro BMP4/hESC model is valid for studying the emergence and differentiation of trophoblasts.

  20. Mtd Bok takes a swing: proapoptotic Mtd Bok regulates trophoblast cell proliferation during human placental development and in preeclampsia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray, J E; Garcia, J; Jurisicova, A; Caniggia, I

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that matador/Bcl-2 ovarian killer (Mtd/Bok), a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, regulates human trophoblast apoptosis and that its levels are elevated in severe preeclamptic pregnancy...

  1. Establishment of an immortalized human extravillous trophoblast cell line by retroviral infection of E6/E7/hTERT and its transcriptional profile during hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Aikou; Nikaido, Takashi; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Rie; Umehara, Nagayoshi; Sugiura, Kentaro; Saito, Misato; Kiyono, Tohru; Tanaka, Tadao

    2009-02-01

    Investigation into the function of human trophoblasts has been largely restricted by a lack of suitable cell models. We aimed to produce normal human trophoblast cell lines with a long lifespan and to provide an ideal in vitro cell model. Primary human trophoblast cells were derived from a placenta that had undergone elective abortion at the 7th week of gestation. The cells were immortalized by infection with retroviral expression vectors containing the type 16 human papillomaviruses E6 and E7 in combination with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Characterization of the cell line was performed by immunocytochemistry using a panel of antibodies, Western blotting, real-time RT-PCR, an invasion assay, gelatin zymography, karyotype analysis and a nude mouse assay. Gene expression profiles under hypoxia (1% O2, 1 h) and subsequent reoxygenation (20% O2, 6 h) were analyzed using cDNA microarray. Immunocytochemistry revealed an extravillous trophoblastic phenotype by positive staining for hCGbeta, cytokeratin 7, HLA-G and CD9. A transwell insert invasion assay showed the invasiveness of this cell line and gelatin zymography detected the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Karyotype analysis exhibited an almost normal chromosomal number which ranged from 46 to 48 and the cells showed no tumorigenecity in a nude mouse assay. Forty-three genes showing reversible up- or down-regulation during hypoxia were detected using an oligonucleotide array. This newly immortalized cell line, HChEpC1b, is a useful model for the study of extravillous trophoblast function.

  2. Efficient production of trophoblast lineage cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Junya; Fukuda, Atsushi; Taira, Hayato; Kawasaki, Tomoyuki; Ito, Hiroe; Kuji, Naoaki; Isaka, Keiichi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Akutsu, Hidenori

    2017-10-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are potentially useful in both clinical applications and basic biological research. hiPSCs can differentiate into extra-embryonic cells in the presence of BMP4. However, the differentiation potential of hiPSCs can be affected by culture conditions or genetic variation. In this study, we investigated the effect of various BMP4 concentrations on the expression states of trophoblast markers and the optimal conditions for trophoblast induction. A high-fidelity gene expression assay using hiPSC lines showed that the expression levels of various trophoblast marker genes, such as KRT7, GCM1, CGB, and HLA-G, were upregulated by BMP4 in a dose-dependent manner in all types of hiPSCs used in this study. Treatment with high doses of BMP4 for prolonged periods increased the ratio of cells with trophoblast markers irrespective of the presence of bFGF. We found that the expression states of major pluripotency- and differentiation-related protein-coding genes in BMP4-treated cells depended on culture conditions rather than donor cell types. However, miRNA expression states were affected by donor cell types rather than BMP4 dose. Furthermore, the effect of the presence of bFGF on differentiation potential of KRT7-positive cells differed among iPSC types. Mechanistically, chromatin states around KRT7 promoter regions were comparable among the iPSC types used in this study, indicating that hiPSC chromatin state at these regions is not a parameter for cytotrophoblast differentiation potential. In conclusion, the optimal conditions for trophoblast differentiation from hiPSCs differ according to parental cell line.

  3. Jak Inhibitors Modulate Production of Replication Competent Zika Virus in Human Hofbauer, Trophoblasts, and Neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gavegnano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika Virus (ZIKV is a Flavivirus that has been implicated in brain deformations, birth defects, and microcephaly of unborn fetuses and associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome.  Mechanisms responsible for transmission of ZIKV across the placenta to the fetus are incompletely understood.  Herein, we define key events modulating infection in clinically relevant cells, including primary placental macrophages (human hofbauer cells; HC, trophoblasts, and neuroblastoma cells. Consistent with previous findings, HC and trophoblasts are permissive to ZIKV infection. Decrease of interferon signaling by Jak 1/2 inhibition (via ruxolitinib significantly increased ZIKV replicationin HC, trophoblasts, and neuroblasts. Enhanced ZIKV production in ruxolitinib treated HC was associated with increased expression of HLA-DR and DC-SIGN. Nucleoside analogs blocked ruxolitinib-mediated production of extracellular virus. Although low-level ZIKV infection occurred in untreated HC and trophoblasts, the produced virus was incapable of infecting naïve Vero cells.  These deficient virions from untreated HC present “thin-coats” suggesting immature virion structure. Blocking Jak 1/2 signaling (with ruxolitinib restored replication competence as virions produced under these conditions confer CPE in naïve Vero cells.  These data demonstrate that Jak-STAT signaling directly impacts the ability of primary placental cells to produce replication competent virus and is a key gatekeeper in production of mature virions in clinically relevant cells including HC and trophoblasts. Design of targeted agents to prevent ZIKV replication in the placenta should consider Jak 1/2 signaling and the impact of its block on ZIKV infection and subsequent transmission to the fetus.

  4. Isolation of primitive endoderm, mesoderm, vascular endothelial and trophoblast progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, Micha; Tang, Chad; Ardehali, Reza; Rinkevich, Yuval; Seita, Jun; Lee, Andrew S; Mosley, Adriane R; Weissman, Irving L; Soen, Yoav

    2012-05-27

    To identify early populations of committed progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we screened self-renewing, BMP4-treated and retinoic acid-treated cultures with >400 antibodies recognizing cell-surface antigens. Sorting of >30 subpopulations followed by transcriptional analysis of developmental genes identified four distinct candidate progenitor groups. Subsets detected in self-renewing cultures, including CXCR4(+) cells, expressed primitive endoderm genes. Expression of Cxcr4 in primitive endoderm was confirmed in visceral endoderm of mouse embryos. BMP4-induced progenitors exhibited gene signatures of mesoderm, trophoblast and vascular endothelium, suggesting correspondence to gastrulation-stage primitive streak, chorion and allantois precursors, respectively. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo confirmed that ROR2(+) cells produce mesoderm progeny, APA(+) cells generate syncytiotrophoblasts and CD87(+) cells give rise to vasculature. The same progenitor classes emerged during the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). These markers and progenitors provide tools for purifying human tissue-regenerating progenitors and for studying the commitment of pluripotent stem cells to lineage progenitors.

  5. Infidelity of translation of encephalomyocarditis viral RNA with tRNA from human malignant trophoblastic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, O.K.; Kuchino, Y.

    1977-09-23

    We have investigated tRNA from the human malignant trophoblastic cells (BeWo cell) and human chorionic tissue for the translation of specific mRNAs, in a tRNA-dependent protein synthesizing system from Ehrlich ascites cells. BeWo cell tRNA and chorionic tRNA supported oviduct mRNA or encephalomyocarditis (EMC) viral RNA directed amino acid incorporation into polypeptides equally effectively. Polypeptides synthesized with oviduct mRNA and tRNA from both sources were identical upon sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. But the EMC RNA directed polypeptides synthesized with BeWo cell tRNA were different from those synthesized with chorionic tRNA. A polypeptide (molecular weight 58,000) was apparently not synthesized and the synthesis of a faster moving component (molecular weight, 14,000) was enhanced when BeWo cell tRNA was used. These results imply a functional difference in tRNA from human malignant cells compared to their normal counterpart.

  6. Human pluripotent stem cells as a model of trophoblast differentiation in both normal development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Mariko; Li, Yingchun; Wakeland, Anna K; Pizzo, Donald P; Nelson, Katharine K; Sabatini, Karen; Laurent, Louise Chang; Liu, Ying; Parast, Mana M

    2016-07-05

    Trophoblast is the primary epithelial cell type in the placenta, a transient organ required for proper fetal growth and development. Different trophoblast subtypes are responsible for gas/nutrient exchange (syncytiotrophoblasts, STBs) and invasion and maternal vascular remodeling (extravillous trophoblasts, EVTs). Studies of early human placental development are severely hampered by the lack of a representative trophoblast stem cell (TSC) model with the capacity for self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into both STBs and EVTs. Primary cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) isolated from early-gestation (6-8 wk) human placentas are bipotential, a phenotype that is lost with increasing gestational age. We have identified a CDX2(+)/p63(+) CTB subpopulation in the early postimplantation human placenta that is significantly reduced later in gestation. We describe a reproducible protocol, using defined medium containing bone morphogenetic protein 4 by which human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can be differentiated into CDX2(+)/p63(+) CTB stem-like cells. These cells can be replated and further differentiated into STB- and EVT-like cells, based on marker expression, hormone secretion, and invasive ability. As in primary CTBs, differentiation of hPSC-derived CTBs in low oxygen leads to reduced human chorionic gonadotropin secretion and STB-associated gene expression, instead promoting differentiation into HLA-G(+) EVTs in an hypoxia-inducible, factor-dependent manner. To validate further the utility of hPSC-derived CTBs, we demonstrated that differentiation of trisomy 21 (T21) hPSCs recapitulates the delayed CTB maturation and blunted STB differentiation seen in T21 placentae. Collectively, our data suggest that hPSCs are a valuable model of human placental development, enabling us to recapitulate processes that result in both normal and diseased pregnancies.

  7. Comparison of extravillous trophoblast cells derived from human embryonic stem cells and from first trimester human placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telugu, B P; Adachi, K; Schlitt, J M; Ezashi, T; Schust, D J; Roberts, R M; Schulz, L C

    2013-07-01

    Preeclampsia and other placental pathologies are characterized by a lack of spiral artery remodeling associated with insufficient invasion by extravillous trophoblast cells (EVT). Because trophoblast invasion occurs in early pregnancy when access to human placental tissue is limited, there is a need for model systems for the study of trophoblast differentiation and invasion. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) treated with BMP4- differentiate to trophoblast, and express HLA-G, a marker of EVT. The goals of the present study were to further characterize the HLA-G(+) cells derived from BMP4-treated hESC, and determine their suitability as a model. HESC were treated with BMP4 under 4% or 20% oxygen and tested in Matrigel invasion chambers. Both BMP4-treated hESC and primary human placental cells were separated into HLA-G(+) and HLA-G(-)/TACSTD2(+) populations with immunomagnetic beads and expression profiles analyzed by microarray. There was a 10-fold increase in invasion when hESC were BMP4-treated. There was also an independent, stimulatory effect of oxygen on this process. Invasive cells expressed trophoblast marker KRT7, and the majority were also HLA-G(+). Gene expression profiles revealed that HLA-G(+), BMP4-treated hESC were similar to, but distinct from, HLA-G(+) cells isolated from first trimester placentas. Whereas HLA-G(+) and HLA-G(-) cells from first trimester placentas had highly divergent gene expression profiles, HLA-G(+) and HLA-G(-) cells from BMP4-treated hESC had somewhat similar profiles, and both expressed genes characteristic of early trophoblast development. We conclude that hESC treated with BMP4 provide a model for studying transition to the EVT lineage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Endometrial Exosomes Contain Hormone-Specific Cargo Modulating Trophoblast Adhesive Capacity: Insights into Endometrial-Embryo Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, David W; Nguyen, Hong P T; Elgass, Kirstin; Simpson, Richard J; Salamonsen, Lois A

    2016-02-01

    Embryo implantation into receptive endometrium requires synergistic endometrial-blastocyst interactions within the uterine cavity and is essential for establishing pregnancy. We demonstrate that exosomes (40-150 nm nanovesicles) released from endometrial epithelial cells are an important component of these interactions. We defined the proteome of purified endometrial epithelial-derived exosomes (Exos) influenced by menstrual cycle hormones estrogen (E; proliferative phase) and estrogen plus progesterone (EP; receptive phase) and examined their potential to modify trophoblast function. E-/EP-Exos were uniquely enriched with 254 and 126 proteins, respectively, with 35% newly identified proteins not previously reported in exosome databases. Importantly, EP-Exos protein cargo was related to fundamental changes in implantation: adhesion, migration, invasion, and extracellular matrix remodeling. These findings from hormonally treated ECC1 endometrial cancer cells were validated in human primary uterine epithelial cell-derived exosomes. Functionally, exosomes were internalized by human trophoblast cells and enhanced their adhesive capacity, a response mediated partially through active focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling. Thus, exosomes contribute to the endometrial-embryo interactions within the human uterine microenvironment essential for successful implantation. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  9. Soluble human leukocyte antigen-g5 activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling and stimulates trophoblast invasion.

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    Guo, YiFan; Lee, Cheuk-Lun; So, Kam-Hei; Gao, Jing; Yeung, William S B; Yao, YuanQing; Lee, Kai-Fai

    2013-01-01

    Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non-classical class Ib HLA molecule that is secreted from blastocysts. Soluble HLA-G modulates the immune tolerance of the mother and can be used as a prognostic factor for the clinical pregnancy rate. However, the underlying mechanism of how soluble HLA-G5 affects pregnancy remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that soluble HLA-G5 promotes successful implantation and pregnancy by modulating trophoblast invasion through receptor binding and activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Recombinant HLA-G5 protein over-expressed in E. coli BL21 was purified to near homogeneity. We studied the expression of HLA-G5 and its receptors, the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B1 (LILRB1) and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4 (KIR2DL4), in primary trophoblasts and trophoblastic (JAr and JEG-3) cell lines by florescence-labeled HLA-G5. HLA-G5 was detected in the primary trophoblasts and JEG-3 cells. The LILRB1 and KIR2DL4 receptors were expressed in both primary trophoblasts and trophoblastic cell lines. HLA-G5 stimulated cell invasion (ptrophoblastic cells. HLA-G5 activated the ERK signaling pathway and induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the trophoblastic cell lines. Addition of ERK inhibitors (U0126 and PD98059) nullified the stimulatory effect of HLA-G5 on trophoblastic cell invasion. Taken together, HLA-G5 induced trophoblast invasion by binding to KIR2DL4 and LILRB1, by increasing uPA and MMPs expressions and by activating the ERK signaling pathway.

  10. Adrenomedullin 2/Intermedin Regulates HLA-G in Human Trophoblasts1

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Madhu; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yallampalli, Uma; Endsley, Janice; HANKINS, Gary D.V; Theiler, Regan; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2), also referred to as intermedin (IMD), is expressed in trophoblast cells in human placenta and enhances the invasion and migration of first-trimester HTR-8SV/neo cells. Further infusion of ADM2 antagonist in pregnant rat causes fetoplacental growth restriction, suggesting a role for ADM2 in maintaining a successful pregnancy. This study was undertaken to assess whether ADM2 protein is present in decidual tissue and colocalized with HLA-G-positive cytotrophoblast cells ...

  11. Regulation of HBEGF by Micro-RNA for Survival of Developing Human Trophoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Chandni V; Jessmon, Philip; Kilburn, Brian A; Jodar, Meritxell; Sendler, Edward; Krawetz, Stephen A; Armant, D Randall

    2016-01-01

    The growth factor HBEGF is upregulated post-transcriptionally in the low O2 environment of the human placenta during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy. We have examined the possible roles of HBEGF turnover and micro-RNA (miRNA) in its regulation by O2 in human first trimester trophoblast. HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells were cultured at 2% or 20% O2. The cells were transfected with a dual luciferase reporter construct (psiCHECK-2) containing no insert (control), the HBEGF 3' untranslated region (3'UTR), or sub-regions of the 3'UTR, as well as with siRNA for DGCR8. RNA was extracted from trophoblast cells cultured at 2% O2 for 0-4 h for next-generation sequencing. HBEGF was quantified by ELISA. HBEGF, DGCR8, and β-actin were examined by western blotting. Protein turnover studies, using 10 μg/ml cyclohexamide, 1 μg/ml lactocystin, or 100 μg/ml MG132, demonstrated faster HBEGF degradation at 20% O2 than 2% O2, mediated by the proteasome. However, proteasome inhibition failed to initiate HBEGF accumulation at 20% O2. Reporter assays, comparing to empty vector, demonstrated that the intact HBEGF 3' UTR inhibited expression (0.26), while fragments containing only its flanking regions increased reporter activity (3.15; 3.43). No differential expression of miRNAs was found in trophoblast cells cultured at 2% and 20% O2. Nevertheless, HBEGF upregulation at 2% O2 was blocked when the miRNA-processing protein DGCR8 was silenced, suggesting a role for miRNA. Our findings suggest involvement of flanking regions of the 3'UTR in activating HBEGF protein synthesis in response to 2% O2, possibly through a miRNA-mediated mechanism.

  12. Downregulation of SPARC expression inhibits the invasion of human trophoblast cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahong Jiang

    Full Text Available Successful pregnancy depends on the precise regulation of extravilloustrophoblast (EVT invasion into the uterine decidua. SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine is a matricellular glycoprotein that plays critical roles in the pathologies associated with obesity and diabetes, as well as tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of SPARC in the process of trophoblast invasion which shares many similarities with tumor cell invasion. By Western blot, higher expression of SPARC was observed in mouse brain, ovary and uterus compared to other mouse tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a spatio-temporal expression of SPARC in mouse uterus in the periimplantation period. At the implantation site of d8 pregnancy, SPARC mainly accumulated in the secondary decidua zone (SDZ, trophoblast cells and blastocyst. The expression of SPARC was also detected in human placental villi and trophoblast cell lines. In a Matrigel invasion assay, we found SPARC-specific RNA interference significantly reduced the invasion of human extravilloustrophoblast HTR8/SVneo cells. Microarray analysis revealed that SPARC depletion upregulated the expression of interleukin 11 (IL11, KISS1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP4, collagen type I alpha 1 (COLIA1, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9, and downregulated the expression of the alpha polypeptide of chorionic gonadotropin (CGA, MMP1, gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1, et al. The gene array result was further validated by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The present data indicate that SPARC may play an important role in the regulation of normal placentation by promoting the invasion of trophoblast cells into the uterine decidua.

  13. The chemokine CXCL6 restricts human trophoblast cell migration and invasion by suppressing MMP-2 activity in the first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Hou, L; Li, C M; Zhang, W Y

    2013-09-01

    Can the chemokine CXCL6 affect trophoblast cell migration and invasion in human first-trimester placenta? Chemokine CXCL6 inhibits trophoblast cell migration and invasion by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity in human first-trimester placenta. Several chemokines including CXCL8, CXCL12, CXCL14, CXCL16, CX3CL1, CCL14 and CCL4 can promote or inhibit trophoblast cell migration and invasion in human first-trimester placenta. We used the trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo cells, primary trophoblast cells and villi explants to investigate the effect of rhCXCL6 on trophoblast cell migration and invasion. First, the CXCL6 RNA transcript level was detected in HTR8/SVneo cells derived from human first-trimester, second-trimester and third-trimester placenta by RT-PCR. Protein expression of CXCL6 and its receptors was tested in first-trimester placenta by immunohistochemistry. Secreted CXCL6 protein was detected in HTR8/SVneo cell supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Secondly, the effect of rhCXCL6 on HTR8/SVneo cell proliferation was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Thirdly, the effect of rhCXCL6 on cell migration and invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells, primary trophoblast cells and villi explants was tested by transwell migration and invasion assays, respectively. Last, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the supernatants of HTR8/SVneo and primary trophoblast cells treated by rhCXCL6 in the invasion assay was assessed by gelatin zymography. Abundance of the CXCL6 RNA transcript increased with pregnancy development. CXCL6 and its receptor were expressed in several cells at the human maternal-fetal interface. RhCXCL6 inhibited trophoblast cell migration and invasion by suppressing MMP-2 activity. These experiments are only in vitro. According to the literature, CXCL6 could promote tumour cell migration and invasion by accelerating MMP-9 activity. However, CXCL6 inhibited trophoblast cell migration and

  14. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after achieving a nondetectable serum human chorionic gonadotrophin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, M; Kane-Gueye, S M; Ndiaye-Gueye, M D; Mbaye, M; Diouf, A A; Niang, M M; Diallo, M; Moreau, J C

    2014-10-01

    To determine the risk of recurrent trophoblastic disease after normalisation of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels in women with hydatidiform mole. A retrospective review of data from a national gestational trophoblastic disease centre. The Trophoblastic Disease Unit, Dakar, Senegal. Women with pregnancies affected by hydatidiform mole registered between 2006 and 2012. The women were followed up in accordance with the hospital protocol 'Score de Dakar'. For women who progressed to gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) the time to onset of GTN, treatment and evolution were evaluated. The rate of evolution to GTN after normalisation of hCG was determined. Rate of occurrence of GTN after chemotherapy for hydatidiform mole. Five hundred and thirty-one women were diagnosed to have molar pregnancies. According to the hospital's protocol, 107 (20.2%) of these had chemotherapy and 224 (42.2%) had prophylactic chemotherapy. Five hundred and thirteen women (96.4%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 95.05-98.14%) achieved remission. Eighteen women (3.4%; 95% CI 1.86-4.94%) developed GTN (11 before remission and seven after remission). Seven women out of the 18 developed GTN after hCG normalisation (1.3%). Five of these seven were diagnosed beyond the recommended period of follow up. The mean interval to diagnosis of GTN was 18.7 months. These seven women underwent combination chemotherapy: five achieved complete remission whereas two died from GTN. Cytotoxic therapy for hydatidiform mole does not prevent GTN, it delays its diagnosis and promotes GTN after normalisation of hCG. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Intermedin/adrenomedullin 2 is associated with implantation and placentation via trophoblast invasion in human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemann, Dara; Balakrishnan, Meena; Borahay, Mostafa; Theiler, Regan; Jennings, Kristofer; Endsley, Janice; Phelps, John; Hankins, Gary D V; Yallampalli, Chandra; Chauhan, Madhu

    2013-02-01

    Intermedin (IMD) is a novel peptide expressed in trophoblast cells in human placenta and enhances the invasion, migration, and human leukocyte antigen class I, G (HLA-G) expression in first-trimester HTR-8SV/neo cells. We recently reported that infusion of IMD antagonist in pregnant rats is detrimental to pregnancy outcome, resulting in impaired fetoplacental growth and deformed placental vasculature. This study was undertaken to assess expression of IMD and its involvement in human implantation and early placentation and assess whether its expression is altered in spontaneous abortion. We demonstrate for the first time that IMD is present in day 5 embryonic secretome; villous and decidual expression of IMD is higher at 6-8 weeks after a decline as gestation advances toward the second trimester; first-trimester spontaneous abortion is associated with a lower expression of IMD in serum, villi, and decidua; IMD stimulates the invasive capacity of first-trimester primary Extravillous cytotrophoblast cells; and IMD decreases elevated levels of tumor suppressor Kangia-1 in decidual explants from first-trimester spontaneous abortion. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate a potential involvement of IMD in human embryo implantation and placental development via regulation of trophoblast invasion at the maternal-fetal interface and suggests a physiological role for this novel peptide in establishment of human pregnancy.

  16. Control of human endometrial stromal cell motility by PDGF-BB, HB-EGF and trophoblast-secreted factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Schwenke

    Full Text Available Human implantation involves extensive tissue remodeling at the fetal-maternal interface. It is becoming increasingly evident that not only trophoblast, but also decidualizing endometrial stromal cells are inherently motile and invasive, and likely contribute to the highly dynamic processes at the implantation site. The present study was undertaken to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the regulation of endometrial stromal cell motility and to identify trophoblast-derived factors that modulate migration. Among local growth factors known to be present at the time of implantation, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF triggered chemotaxis (directed locomotion, whereas platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB elicited both chemotaxis and chemokinesis (non-directed locomotion of endometrial stromal cells. Supernatants of the trophoblast cell line AC-1M88 and of first trimester villous explant cultures stimulated chemotaxis but not chemokinesis. Proteome profiling for cytokines and angiogenesis factors revealed neither PDGF-BB nor HB-EGF in conditioned media from trophoblast cells or villous explants, while placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and PDGF-AA were identified as prominent secretory products. Among these, only PDGF-AA triggered endometrial stromal cell chemotaxis. Neutralization of PDGF-AA in trophoblast conditioned media, however, did not diminish chemoattractant activity, suggesting the presence of additional trophoblast-derived chemotactic factors. Pathway inhibitor studies revealed ERK1/2, PI3 kinase/Akt and p38 signaling as relevant for chemotactic motility, whereas chemokinesis depended primarily on PI3 kinase/Akt activation. Both chemotaxis and chemokinesis were stimulated upon inhibition of Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase. The chemotactic response to trophoblast secretions was not blunted by inhibition of isolated signaling cascades, indicating

  17. Human cytomegalovirus infection interferes with the maintenance and differentiation of trophoblast progenitor cells of the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Takako; Petitt, Matthew; Zydek, Martin; Fang-Hoover, June; Larocque, Nicholas; Tsuge, Mitsuru; Gormley, Matthew; Kauvar, Lawrence M; Pereira, Lenore

    2015-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of birth defects that include severe neurological deficits, hearing and vision loss, and intrauterine growth restriction. Viral infection of the placenta leads to development of avascular villi, edema, and hypoxia associated with symptomatic congenital infection. Studies of primary cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) revealed that HCMV infection impedes terminal stages of differentiation and invasion by various molecular mechanisms. We recently discovered that HCMV arrests earlier stages involving development of human trophoblast progenitor cells (TBPCs), which give rise to the mature cell types of chorionic villi-syncytiotrophoblasts on the surfaces of floating villi and invasive CTBs that remodel the uterine vasculature. Here, we show that viral proteins are present in TBPCs of the chorion in cases of symptomatic congenital infection. In vitro studies revealed that HCMV replicates in continuously self-renewing TBPC lines derived from the chorion and alters expression and subcellular localization of proteins required for cell cycle progression, pluripotency, and early differentiation. In addition, treatment with a human monoclonal antibody to HCMV glycoprotein B rescues differentiation capacity, and thus, TBPCs have potential utility for evaluation of the efficacies of novel antiviral antibodies in protecting and restoring placental development. Our results suggest that HCMV replicates in TBPCs in the chorion in vivo, interfering with the earliest steps in the growth of new villi, contributing to virus transmission and impairing compensatory development. In cases of congenital infection, reduced responsiveness of the placenta to hypoxia limits the transport of substances from maternal blood and contributes to fetal growth restriction. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a leading cause of birth defects in the United States. Congenital infection can result in permanent neurological defects, mental retardation, hearing loss, visual

  18. Effects of vitamin C, vitamin E, and molecular hydrogen on the placental function in trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhong; Li, Huai-Fang; Guo, Li-Li; Yang, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of three different antioxidants, namely vitamin C, vitamin E, and molecular hydrogen, on cytotrophoblasts in vitro. Two trophoblast cell lines, JAR and JEG-3, were exposed to different concentrations of vitamin C (0, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 μmol/L), vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000 μmol/L), and molecular hydrogen (0, 25, 50, 100, 500 μmol/L) for 48 h. The cell viability was detected using the MTS assay. The secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assessed and the expression of TNF-α mRNA was observed by real-time RT-PCR. Cell viability was significantly suppressed by 500 μmol/L vitamins C and E (P 0.05). The expression of TNF-α was increased by 100 μmol/L vitamin C and 50 μmol/L vitamins E, separately or combined (P vitamin C and E, separately or combined. High levels of antioxidant vitamins C and E may have significant detrimental effects on placental function, as reflected by decreased cell viability and secretion of hCG; and placental immunity, as reflected by increased production of TNF-a. Meanwhile hydrogen showed no such effects on cell proliferation and TNF-α expression, but it could affect the level of hCG, indicating hydrogen as a potential candidate of antioxidant in the management of preeclampsia (PE) should be further studied.

  19. Human stem cells from single blastomeres reveal pathways of embryonic or trophoblast fate specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravkovic, Tamara; Nazor, Kristopher L; Larocque, Nicholas; Gormley, Matthew; Donne, Matthew; Hunkapillar, Nathan; Giritharan, Gnanaratnam; Bernstein, Harold S; Wei, Grace; Hebrok, Matthias; Zeng, Xianmin; Genbacev, Olga; Mattis, Aras; McMaster, Michael T; Krtolica, Ana; Valbuena, Diana; Simón, Carlos; Laurent, Louise C; Loring, Jeanne F; Fisher, Susan J

    2015-12-01

    Mechanisms of initial cell fate decisions differ among species. To gain insights into lineage allocation in humans, we derived ten human embryonic stem cell lines (designated UCSFB1-10) from single blastomeres of four 8-cell embryos and one 12-cell embryo from a single couple. Compared with numerous conventional lines from blastocysts, they had unique gene expression and DNA methylation patterns that were, in part, indicative of trophoblast competence. At a transcriptional level, UCSFB lines from different embryos were often more closely related than those from the same embryo. As predicted by the transcriptomic data, immunolocalization of EOMES, T brachyury, GDF15 and active β-catenin revealed differential expression among blastomeres of 8- to 10-cell human embryos. The UCSFB lines formed derivatives of the three germ layers and CDX2-positive progeny, from which we derived the first human trophoblast stem cell line. Our data suggest heterogeneity among early-stage blastomeres and that the UCSFB lines have unique properties, indicative of a more immature state than conventional lines. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Pomegranate juice and punicalagin attenuate oxidative stress and apoptosis in human placenta and in human placental trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baosheng; Tuuli, Methodius G; Longtine, Mark S; Shin, Joong Sik; Lawrence, Russell; Inder, Terrie; Michael Nelson, D

    2012-05-15

    The human placenta is key to pregnancy outcome, and the elevated oxidative stress present in many complicated pregnancies contributes to placental dysfunction and suboptimal pregnancy outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that pomegranate juice, which is rich in polyphenolic antioxidants, limits placental trophoblast injury in vivo and in vitro. Pregnant women with singleton pregnancies were randomized at 35∼38 wk gestation to 8 oz/day of pomegranate juice or apple juice (placebo) until the time of delivery. Placental tissues from 12 patients (4 in the pomegranate group and 8 in the control group) were collected for analysis of oxidative stress. The preliminary in vivo results were extended to oxidative stress and cell death assays in vitro. Placental explants and cultured primary human trophoblasts were exposed to pomegranate juice or glucose (control) under defined oxygen tensions and chemical stimuli. We found decreased oxidative stress in term human placentas from women who labored after prenatal ingestion of pomegranate juice compared with apple juice as control. Moreover, pomegranate juice reduced in vitro oxidative stress, apoptosis, and global cell death in term villous explants and primary trophoblast cultures exposed to hypoxia, the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride, and the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. Punicalagin, but not ellagic acid, both prominent polyphenols in pomegranate juice, reduced oxidative stress and stimulus-induced apoptosis in cultured syncytiotrophoblasts. We conclude that pomegranate juice reduces placental oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro while limiting stimulus-induced death of human trophoblasts in culture. The polyphenol punicalagin mimics this protective effect. We speculate that antenatal intake of pomegranate may limit placental injury and thereby may confer protection to the exposed fetus.

  1. Pomegranate juice and punicalagin attenuate oxidative stress and apoptosis in human placenta and in human placental trophoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuli, Methodius G.; Longtine, Mark S.; Shin, Joong Sik; Lawrence, Russell; Inder, Terrie; Michael Nelson, D.

    2012-01-01

    The human placenta is key to pregnancy outcome, and the elevated oxidative stress present in many complicated pregnancies contributes to placental dysfunction and suboptimal pregnancy outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that pomegranate juice, which is rich in polyphenolic antioxidants, limits placental trophoblast injury in vivo and in vitro. Pregnant women with singleton pregnancies were randomized at 35∼38 wk gestation to 8 oz/day of pomegranate juice or apple juice (placebo) until the time of delivery. Placental tissues from 12 patients (4 in the pomegranate group and 8 in the control group) were collected for analysis of oxidative stress. The preliminary in vivo results were extended to oxidative stress and cell death assays in vitro. Placental explants and cultured primary human trophoblasts were exposed to pomegranate juice or glucose (control) under defined oxygen tensions and chemical stimuli. We found decreased oxidative stress in term human placentas from women who labored after prenatal ingestion of pomegranate juice compared with apple juice as control. Moreover, pomegranate juice reduced in vitro oxidative stress, apoptosis, and global cell death in term villous explants and primary trophoblast cultures exposed to hypoxia, the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride, and the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. Punicalagin, but not ellagic acid, both prominent polyphenols in pomegranate juice, reduced oxidative stress and stimulus-induced apoptosis in cultured syncytiotrophoblasts. We conclude that pomegranate juice reduces placental oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro while limiting stimulus-induced death of human trophoblasts in culture. The polyphenol punicalagin mimics this protective effect. We speculate that antenatal intake of pomegranate may limit placental injury and thereby may confer protection to the exposed fetus. PMID:22374759

  2. Differential expression patterns of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) -1, -4, -5, and -14 in human placenta and gestational trophoblastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Young; Lee, Hyang-Sin; Gil, Minchan; Kim, Chong Jai; Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Kyu-Rae; Park, Chan-Sik

    2014-05-01

    The ability of intermediate trophoblasts to invade maternal tissue during placentation depends on how well they can degrade the extracellular matrix. Invasion into the extracellular matrix requires many complex proteases. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) is a novel family of secreted metalloproteinases. The ADAMTS-1, -4, -5, and -14 subtypes are known to be expressed in human placenta, but little is understood about their expression patterns. To examine the expression patterns of ADAMTS-1, -4, -5, and -14 in specific human placenta cell types during gestation and in gestational trophoblastic diseases. Placental tissues were obtained from 25 pregnant women and 21 cases of gestational trophoblastic diseases (10 early complete moles, 3 placental site trophoblastic tumors, 4 invasive moles, and 4 choriocarcinomas). The expression of the 4 ADAMTS was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. ADAMTS-1, -4, -5, and -14 were differentially expressed by the human placenta throughout gestation in a time-specific and cell type-specific manner, as well as in gestational trophoblastic diseases. ADAMTS-1 showed gradually strong staining intensity in gestational trophoblastic diseases according to the invasive potential but showed consistent strong intensity throughout normal placenta. ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 exhibited higher and restricted expression in first-trimester intermediate trophoblasts. They also exhibited comparably strong expression in gestational trophoblastic diseases. However, ADAMTS-14 expression remained unchanged throughout gestation. The restricted expression pattern of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 and their increased expression in gestational trophoblastic diseases suggest that these 2 ADAMTS subtypes are associated with a biological phenotype of trophoblasts involved in human placentation and the development of gestational trophoblastic diseases.

  3. The human leukocyte antigen G promotes trophoblast fusion and β-hCG production through the Erk1/2 pathway in human choriocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-meng; Zhao, Hong-xi; Wang, Li; Gao, Zhi-ying; Yao, Yuan-qing

    2013-05-10

    The human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is expressed on the fetal-maternal interface and plays a role in protecting fetal-derived trophoblasts from the maternal immune response, allowing trophoblasts to invade the uterus. However, HLA-G also possesses immune suppressing-independent functions. We found that HLA-G expressing BeWo choriocarcinoma cells increased cell-cell fusion compared to control BeWo cells under forskolin treatment. Regardless of forskolin treatment, the expression of fusogenic gene mRNAs, including syncytin-1, the transcription factor glial cell missing 1 (Gcm1), and beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) were elevated. HLA-G up-regulates β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cells because HLA-G knockdown in JEG-3 cells induces a dramatic decrease in β-hCG compared with control cells. The defect in β-hCG production in HLA-G knocked-down cells could not be completely overcome by stimulating hCG production through increasing intracellular cAMP levels. HLA-G expressing cells have increased phosphorylation levels for extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) in BeWo cells. The Erk1/2 pathway is inactivated after the inhibition of HLA-G expression in JEG-3 cells. Finally, Erk1/2 inhibition was able to suppress the increased hCG production induced by HLA-G expression. Together, these data suggest novel roles for HLA-G in regulating β-hCG production via the modulation of the Erk1/2 pathway and by inducing trophoblast cell fusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sildenafil Prevents Apoptosis of Human First-Trimester Trophoblast Cells Exposed to Oxidative Stress: Possible Role for Nitric Oxide Activation of 3',5'-cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Jay M; Kilburn, Brian A; Bolnick, Alan D; Diamond, Michael P; Singh, Manvinder; Hertz, Michael; Dai, Jing; Armant, D Randall

    2015-06-01

    Human first-trimester trophoblast cells proliferate at low O2, but survival is compromised by oxidative stress, leading to uteroplacental insufficiency. The vasoactive drug, sildenafil citrate (Viagra, Sigma, St Louis, Missouri), has proven useful in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes. An important biological function of this pharmaceutical is its action as an inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase type 5 activity, which suggests that it could have beneficial effects on trophoblast survival. To investigate whether sildenafil can prevent trophoblast cell death, human first-trimester villous explants and the HTR-8/SVneo cytotrophoblast cell line were exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) to generate oxidative stress, which induces apoptosis. Apoptosis was optimally inhibited during H/R by 350 ng/mL sildenafil. Sildenafil-mediated survival was reversed by l-N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride or cGMP antagonist, indicating a dependence on both nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP. Indeed, either a cGMP agonist or an NO generator was cytoprotective independent of sildenafil. These findings suggest a novel intervention route for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss or obstetrical placental disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Quantified colocalization reveals heterotypic histocompatibility class I antigen associations on trophoblast cell membranes: relevance for human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Asma; Miranda-Sayago, José Maria; Obara, Boguslaw; Spencer, Patrick Simon; Dealtry, Gill Barbara; Hayrabedyan, Soren; Shaikly, Valerie; Laissue, Pierre Philippe; Fernández, Nelson

    2013-10-01

    Human placental syncytiotrophoblasts lack expression of most types of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II molecules; this is thought to contribute to a successful pregnancy. However, the HLA class Ib antigens HLA-G, -E, and -F and the HLA class Ia antigen HLA-C are selectively expressed on extravillous trophoblast cells, and they are thought to play a major role in controlling feto-maternal tolerance. We have hypothesized that selective expression, coupled with the preferential physical association of pairs of HLA molecules, contribute to the function of HLA at the feto-maternal interface and the maternal recognition of the fetus. We have developed a unique analytical model that allows detection and quantification of the heterotypic physical associations of HLA class I molecules expressed on the membrane of human trophoblast choriocarcinoma cells, ACH-3P and JEG-3. Automated image analysis was used to estimate the degree of overlap of HLA molecules labeled with different fluorochromes. This approach yields an accurate measurement of the degree of colocalization. In both JEG-3 and ACH-3P cells, HLA-C, -E, and -G were detected on the cell membrane, while the expression of HLA-F was restricted to the cytoplasm. Progesterone treatment alone induced a significant increase in the expression level of the HLA-G/HLA-E association, suggesting that this heterotypic association is modulated by this hormone. Our data shows that the cell-surface HLA class I molecules HLA-G, -E, and -C colocalize with each other and have the potential to form preferential heterotypic associations.

  6. Proteomic analysis of knock-down HLA-G in invasion of human trophoblast cell line JEG-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyan; Liu, Xueyuan; Jin, Hong; Yang, Fengying; Gu, Weirong; Li, Xiaotian

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies showed that aberrant HLA-G expression in trophoblast cells plays important roles in trophoblast invasion; however, the mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, we found that suppressed HLA-G expression could dramatically decrease the mRNA and protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9, and in the proteome assay, there were 3 identified proteins namely, prefoldin 1, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 and malate dehydrogenase 2, which were verified by Western blot and known to be associated with invasion, cell cycle and cell metabolism, respectively. Collectively, our study indicated a potential involvement of HLA-G in autocrine networks that may regulate prefoldin, MMPs and trophoblast invasion at the maternal-fetal interface in human pregnancy.

  7. Characterization and functional capacity in women with breast cancer, gynaecological cancer and gestational trophoblastic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Cristina Elias

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the social, demographic and clinical profile, and functional capacity of women diagnosed with gynecological cancer, breast cancer and gestational trophoblastic disease during chemotherapy. Method: longitudinal retrospective study that evaluated the records of women treated in hospital clinics from January 2000 to December 2012. Results: they evaluated the records of 438 women. The analysis showed that were not able to perform their daily activities, limited to the activities of self-care. Older patients had greater functional impairment during therapy. Conclusions: the sample was women 41 to 50 years, diagnosed with breast cancer (50.9% and made use of anthracycline based protocols (47%; the scores of the functional capacity of the sample fell from 78.22 to 73.57. It is evident that nursing care should focus on the control of signs and symptoms that impact the functional capacity of women under chemotherapy.

  8. Function of the corpus luteum, the endometrium and the trophoblast after treatment of tubal pregnancy by prostaglandin F2 alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejtorp, M; Sørensen, Steen; Ruge, S

    1993-01-01

    The activity of the corpus luteum, the endometrium and the trophoblast was studied after local medical treatment of 31 women with tubal pregnancy. We measured the serum concentration of progesterone, the secretory endometrial protein placental protein 14 (PP14), and human chorionic gonadotrophin...

  9. IL-27 Activates Human Trophoblasts to Express IP-10 and IL-6: Implications in the Immunopathophysiology of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanlin Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effects of IL-27 on human trophoblasts and the underlying regulatory signaling mechanisms in preeclampsia. Methods. The expression of IL-27 and IL-27 receptor (WSX-1 was studied in the placenta or sera from patients with preeclampsia. In vitro, we investigated the effects of IL-27 alone or in combination with inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α on the proinflammatory activation of human trophoblast cells (HTR-8/SVneo and the underlying intracellular signaling molecules. Results. The expression of IL-27 and IL-27 receptor α (WSX-1 was significantly elevated in the trophoblastic cells from the placenta of patients with preeclampsia compared with control specimens. In vitro, IL-27 could induce the expression of inflammatory factors IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (CXCL10/IP-10 and IL-6 in trophoblasts, and a synergistic effect was observed in the combined treatment of IL-27 and TNF-α on the release of IP-10 and IL-6. Furthermore, the production of IP-10 and IL-6 stimulated by IL-27 was differentially regulated by intracellular activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase-AKT, p38MAPK, and JAK/STAT pathways. Conclusions. These results provide a new insight into the IL-27-activated immunopathological effects mediated by distinct intracellular signal transduction molecules in preeclampsia.

  10. Comparison of 2 Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Immunoassays Commercially Available for Monitoring Patients With Gestational Trophoblastic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Juliana Maria Quinalha; Braga, Antonio; Sanches Dos Santos, Rafael; Ramos, Marcos Montanha; Cortés-Charry, Rafael; Maestá, Izildinha

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in patients with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) using 2 commercially available hCG immunoassays. Serum samples were obtained from patients with GTD attending the Botucatu Medical School Trophoblastic Diseases Center of São Paulo State University (UNESP), from November 2014 to October 2015. Serum hCG levels were measured with both Architect i2000SR and Immulite 2000 XPi chemiluminescence assays. Serum hCG levels were compared against the null hypothesis. Agreement in clinical management decisions based on the hCG results was determined by comparing baseline hCG measurements and the hCG curves obtained with both assays. Seventy-three patients with GTD were included in the analysis. Of these, 45 had hydatidiform mole and spontaneous remission, whereas 28 had gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). There was a perfect (zero difference) agreement in mean hCG levels between Immulite 2000 XPi and Architect i2000 when hCG is less than 100 mIU/mL. For hCG values greater than 100 mIU/mL, there was a significant difference between assays (P < 0.05), with levels measured via Architect i2000SR being higher than those measured by Immulite 2000 XPi in patients with hydatidiform mole/spontaneous remission (R = 90%, P < 0.01) and GTN (R = 98%, P < 0.01). Baseline clinical management decisions showed agreement in 100% (73/37) of cases (κ = 1.0, P < 0.001), whereas decisions based on hCG curve agreed in 98% (71/72) of cases (κ = 0.93, P < 0.001). Immulite 2000 XPi is the most frequently recommended assay for diagnosing and monitoring patients with GTD. However, our results suggest that because Immulite 2000 XPi and Architect i2000 show very similar performance in measuring hCG levels and in determining clinical management, Architect may be used as an alternative.

  11. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clotting problems caused by the HM. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease ( ... the future. Stages of Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors and Neoplasia Key Points After gestational trophoblastic neoplasia has been ...

  12. The human leukocyte antigen G promotes trophoblast fusion and β-hCG production through the Erk1/2 pathway in human choriocarcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ji-meng [School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhao, Hong-xi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); Gao, Zhi-ying, E-mail: gaozy301@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); Yao, Yuan-qing, E-mail: yqyao@126.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •HLA-G expression promotes BeWo cells fusion and fusogenic gene expression. •HLA-G is capable of inducing β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cell lines. •Up-regulation of β-hCG production by HLA-G is mediated via the Erk1/2 pathway. -- Abstract: The human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is expressed on the fetal–maternal interface and plays a role in protecting fetal-derived trophoblasts from the maternal immune response, allowing trophoblasts to invade the uterus. However, HLA-G also possesses immune suppressing-independent functions. We found that HLA-G expressing BeWo choriocarcinoma cells increased cell–cell fusion compared to control BeWo cells under forskolin treatment. Regardless of forskolin treatment, the expression of fusogenic gene mRNAs, including syncytin-1, the transcription factor glial cell missing 1 (Gcm1), and beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) were elevated. HLA-G up-regulates β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cells because HLA-G knockdown in JEG-3 cells induces a dramatic decrease in β-hCG compared with control cells. The defect in β-hCG production in HLA-G knocked-down cells could not be completely overcome by stimulating hCG production through increasing intracellular cAMP levels. HLA-G expressing cells have increased phosphorylation levels for extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) in BeWo cells. The Erk1/2 pathway is inactivated after the inhibition of HLA-G expression in JEG-3 cells. Finally, Erk1/2 inhibition was able to suppress the increased hCG production induced by HLA-G expression. Together, these data suggest novel roles for HLA-G in regulating β-hCG production via the modulation of the Erk1/2 pathway and by inducing trophoblast cell fusion.

  13. The soluble pool of HLA-G produced by human trophoblasts does not include detectable levels of the intron 4-containing HLA-G5 and HLA-G6 isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschitz, A; Juch, H; Volz, A; Hutter, H; Daxboeck, C; Desoye, G; Dohr, G

    2005-10-01

    In the context of implantation and pregnancy, several immunomodulating functions have been attributed to the different HLA-G isoforms. Increasing attention is now being addressed to the actively secreted soluble forms, because they might have a systemic function or could be useful as diagnostic tools. However, the cellular source of secretion, even during pregnancy, where HLA-G expression level is known to be highest, is still under debate. To elucidate the conflicting results, we investigated the isoform distribution in human first trimester and term placentas in situ and in vitro. Results obtained by applying immunohistochemistry, western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR show that (1) all of the alpha1 domain-containing HLA-G isoforms are restrictedly expressed in the extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVCTs) and very few first-trimester syncytiotrophoblasts, which directly cover cell columns, whereas mesenchymal cells of the villous chorion do not express HLA-G; (2) as demonstrated in western blots, trophoblasts express only the HLA-G1 isoform; (3) HLA-G5 and -G6 transcripts could be detected in human term placenta and isolated first-trimester trophoblasts but levels are extremely low; and (4) conditioned media of primary first-trimester trophoblasts, and the chorion laeve-derived trophoblastic cell line AC1-M59 do contain HLA-G1 fragments shed from the cell surface. Our data provide substantial evidence that none of the intron 4-containing isoforms, the so-called actively secreted, soluble HLA-G5 or -G6, are produced by human trophoblasts in situ or in vitro.

  14. Disturbed Placental Imprinting in Preeclampsia Leads to Altered Expression of DLX5, a Human-Specific Early Trophoblast Marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadora, Julianna; Singh, Manvendra; Herse, Florian; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine; Golic, Michaela; Yung, Hong Wa; Huppertz, Berthold; Cartwright, Judith E; Whitley, Guy; Johnsen, Guro M; Levi, Giovanni; Isbruch, Annette; Schulz, Herbert; Luft, Friedrich C; Müller, Dominik N; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Hurst, Laurence D; Dechend, Ralf; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2017-11-07

    Preeclampsia is a complex and common human-specific pregnancy syndrome associated with placental pathology. The human specificity provides both intellectual and methodological challenges, lacking a robust model system. Given the role of imprinted genes in human placentation and the vulnerability of imprinted genes to loss of imprinting changes, there has been extensive speculation, but no robust evidence, that imprinted genes are involved in preeclampsia. Our study aims to investigate whether disturbed imprinting contributes to preeclampsia. We first aimed to confirm that preeclampsia is a disease of the placenta by generating and analyzing genome-wide molecular data on well-characterized patient material. We performed high-throughput transcriptome analyses of multiple placenta samples from healthy controls and patients with preeclampsia. Next, we identified differentially expressed genes in preeclamptic placentas and intersected them with the list of human imprinted genes. We used bioinformatics/statistical analyses to confirm association between imprinting and preeclampsia and to predict biological processes affected in preeclampsia. Validation included epigenetic and cellular assays. In terms of human specificity, we established an in vitro invasion-differentiation trophoblast model. Our comparative phylogenetic analysis involved single-cell transcriptome data of human, macaque, and mouse preimplantation embryogenesis. We found disturbed placental imprinting in preeclampsia and revealed potential candidates, including GATA3 and DLX5 , with poorly explored imprinted status and no prior association with preeclampsia. As a result of loss of imprinting, DLX5 was upregulated in 69% of preeclamptic placentas. Levels of DLX5 correlated with classic preeclampsia markers. DLX5 is expressed in human but not in murine trophoblast. The DLX5 high phenotype resulted in reduced proliferation, increased metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-response activation in

  15. Methylation status and transcriptional expression of the MHC class I loci in human trophoblast cells from term placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaudeux, T.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Girr, M. [University Hospital Center Purpan, Toulouse (France)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Of the various molecular regulatory mechanisms that may be used by human trophoblast cells to down-regulate expression of HLA class I genes, we chose to investigate the methylation of DNA, generally associated with inhibition of transcription. We analyzed the methylation status of different HLA class I loci in villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells and in vitro-differentiated syncytiotrophoblast, purified from human term placenta, as well as in the human trophoblast-derived JAR and JEG-3 cell lines. We then compared methylation status and transcriptional activity. An inverse relationship was established between JAR and JEG-3: HLA-A, -B, and -G are methylated and repressed in JAR, whereas in JEG-3, HLA-A is methylated and repressed but HLA-B and -G are partially methylated and transcribed. HLA-E is unmethylated and transcribed in both cell lines. Apart from HLA-E, which is always unmethylated and transcribed, no such relationship exists for the other class I loci in trophoblast cells. Whereas nonclassical HLA-G and classical HLA-A and -B class I genes are undermethylated in both cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast, they are clearly transcribed in the former but minimally transcribed in the latter subpopulation. Thus, the down-regulation of class I gene expression in the in vitro-differentiated synctiotrophoblast is unlikely to be caused by DNA methylation. Furthermore, there is no detectable expression of any class I molecule at the cell surface of either trophoblast cell subpopulation, suggesting a negative control on translation and/or on the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. 50 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Unique properties of decidual T cells and their role in immune regulation during human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburgs, T; Claas, F H J; Scherjon, S A

    2010-03-01

    Maternal lymphocytes at the fetal-maternal interface play a key role in the immune acceptance of the allogeneic fetus. Most studies focus on decidual NK cells and their interaction with fetal trophoblasts, whereas limited data are available on the mechanisms of fetus specific immune recognition and immune regulation by decidual T cells at the fetal-maternal interface. The aim of this review is to describe the phenotypic characteristics of decidual T cell subsets present at the fetal-maternal interface, their interaction with HLA-C expressed by fetal trophoblasts and their role in immune recognition and regulation at the fetal-maternal interface during human pregnancy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Roles of the insulinlike growth factor family in nonpregnant human endometrium and at the decidual: trophoblast interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudice, L C; Irwin, J C

    1999-01-01

    The insulinlike growth factor (IGF) family is believed to be important in endometrial development during the menstrual cycle and in the process of implantation. The mitogenic, differentiative, and antiapoptotic properties of the IGFs and their binding proteins, as well as their spatial and temporal expression in cycling endometrium, suggest that they may participate in endometrial growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and perhaps angiogenesis. IGFBP proteases, which increase IGF bioavailability, have been localized to endometrial stromal cells and to the human cytotrophoblast and likely play important roles in endometrial, decidual, and trophoblast physiology. IGFBP-1 is a major protein product of nonpregnant endometrium during the mid-late secretory phase and occurs in abundance in decidua. Its roles as an IGF-binding protein and as a trophoblast integrin ligand suggest that it may have multiple roles in endometrial development and in interactions between the decidua and the invading trophoblast. Recent evidence suggests that it may have a role in the process of shallow implantation in the clinical disorder of preclampsia. In contrast to knowledge about the roles of IGF peptides, IGFBP proteases, and IGFBPs in normal endometrial development and early human pregnancy, little information is available regarding this family in abnormal endometrial development, in occult endometrial defects, and in uterine receptivity and nonreceptivity.

  18. Effect of steroids on transcription and secretion of Gal-1 by the human trophoblast cell line in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćujić Danica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Galectin-1 (Gal-1 is a lectin with recently documented pro-invasive function in trophoblasts in vitro, whose regulation is currently insufficiently known. The potential involvement of steroid hormones, synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX, the sex steroid progesterone (PRG and mifepristone (RU486 in the regulation of Gal-1 in the trophoblast-derived cell line HTR-8/SVneo was investigated. Gal-1 mRNA levels were assessed by real-time PCR. The effect on secretion of Gal-1 into the culture media was followed using the SELDI-TOF protein chip array. We present evidence that DEX and RU486 significantly reduced Gal-1 in the HTR-8/SVneo cell line at the mRNA level. In addition, trophoblast-derived HTR-8/SVneo cells were shown to secrete detectable Gal-1 protein, which was only slightly increased by PRG. The potential clinical relevance of these findings remains to be determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173004

  19. Comparative studies of placentation and immunology in non-human primates suggest a scenario for the evolution of deep trophoblast invasion and an explanation for human pregnancy disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2011-04-01

    Deep trophoblast invasion in the placental bed has been considered the hallmark of human pregnancy. It occurs by two routes, interstitial and endovascular, and results in transformation of the walls of the spiral arteries as they traverse the decidua and the inner third of the myometrium. Disturbances in this process are associated with reproductive disorders such preeclampsia. In contrast, trophoblast invasion in Old World monkeys occurs only by the endovascular route and seldom reaches the myometrium. Recently, it was shown that this pattern is maintained in gibbons, but that the human arrangement also occurs in chimpanzee and gorilla. There is an interesting parallel with results from placental immunology regarding the evolution of the major histocompatability complex class I antigen HLA-C and its cognate receptors. HLA-C is not present in Old World monkeys or gibbons. It emerged in the orangutan and became polymorphic in the lineage leading to gorilla, bonobo, chimpanzee, and human. Interaction between HLA-C1 and HLA-C2 on the surface of trophoblast and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed by uterine natural killer cells are important regulators of trophoblast invasion. Evolution of this system in great apes may have been one prerequisite for deep trophoblast invasion but seems to have come at a price. The evidence now suggests that certain combinations of maternal genotype for KIRs and fetal genotype for HLA-C imply an increased risk of preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and recurrent abortion. The fetal genotype is in part derived from the father providing an explanation for the paternal contribution to reproductive disorders.

  20. Laeverin/aminopeptidase Q induces trophoblast invasion during human early placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Akihito; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Sato, Yukiyasu; Suginami, Koh; Matsumoto, Hisanori; Maruyama, Masato; Konishi, Ikuo; Hattori, Akira

    2012-05-01

    In primate placenta, extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invades maternal tissue in temporally- and spatially-regulated fashions. We previously identified a novel placenta-specific cell-surface aminopeptidase, laeverin/aminopeptidase Q, which is expressed on EVT-lineage cells in the fetal membrane. Laeverin possesses a peptide-binding site that is evolutionally unique to primates, suggesting possible involvement of laeverin in a primate-specific phenomenon during placentation. Thus, this study was designed to elucidate the molecular characteristics and physiological roles of laeverin in human EVT. Placental tissues of various developmental stages were subjected to immunostaining and western blotting. Effects of siRNA and a soluble form of recombinant laeverin on EVT cells isolated from primary villous explant cultures were examined using Matrigel invasion assays and cell proliferation assays. Laeverin was specifically immunolocalized to HLA-G-positive EVT in placentas from early and term pregnancy. In primary villous explant cultures, laeverin expression was induced on the cell surface of the outgrowing EVT. In western blotting, laeverin protein was detected as two distinct bands at 130 and 160 kDa along with a broad band ranging from 200 to 270 kDa. De-glycosylation treatment showed that these native laeverin isotypes are N-linked glycoproteins sharing a common 115-kDa core protein. In invasion assays, the reduction of laeverin expression by siRNA suppressed migration of the isolated EVT, while the soluble form of recombinant laeverin enhanced its migration. Laeverin is a specific cell-surface marker for human EVT and plays a regulatory role in EVT migration.

  1. Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase modulation of trophoblast cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Lindsey N

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trophoblast lineage arises as the first differentiation event during embryogenesis. Trophoblast giant cells are one of several end-stage products of trophoblast cell differentiation in rodents. These cells are located at the maternal-fetal interface and are capable of invasive and endocrine functions, which are necessary for successful pregnancy. Rcho-1 trophoblast stem cells can be effectively used as a model for investigating trophoblast cell differentiation. In this report, we evaluated the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway in the regulation of trophoblast cell differentiation. Transcript profiles from trophoblast stem cells, differentiated trophoblast cells, and differentiated trophoblast cells following disruption of PI3K signaling were generated and characterized. Results Prominent changes in gene expression accompanied the differentiation of trophoblast stem cells. PI3K modulated the expression of a subset of trophoblast cell differentiation-dependent genes. Among the PI3K-responsive genes were those encoding proteins contributing to the invasive and endocrine phenotypes of trophoblast giant cells. Conclusions Genes have been identified with differential expression patterns associated with trophoblast stem cells and trophoblast cell differentiation; a subset of these genes are regulated by PI3K signaling, including those impacting the differentiated trophoblast giant cell phenotype.

  2. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) expression of primary trophoblast cells and placental cell lines, determined using single antigen beads to characterize allotype specificities of anti-HLA antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Richard; Murphy, Shawn P; Fernando, Raymond; Gardner, Lucy; Ahad, Tashmeeta; Moffett, Ashley

    2009-05-01

    Human trophoblast cells express an unusual repertoire of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) molecules which has been difficult to define. Close homology between and extreme polymorphism at the classical HLA class-I (HLA-I) loci has made it difficult to generate locus-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The problem of defining an antibody's reactivity against the thousands of existing HLA-I allotypes has often made it impossible to determine the HLA bound by a mAb in biological samples from a normal outbred population. Here we have used commercially available beads coated with individual HLA-I to characterize experimentally the reactivity of nine mAb against 96 common HLA-I allotypes. In conjunction with donor HLA-I genotyping, we could then define the specific HLA molecules bound by these antibodies in normal individuals. We used this approach to analyse the HLA expression of primary trophoblast cells from normal pregnancies; the choriocarcinoma cells JEG-3 and JAR; and the placental cell lines HTR-8/SVneo, Swan-71 and TEV-1. We confirm that primary villous trophoblast cells are HLA null whereas extravillous trophoblast cells express HLA-C, HLA-G and HLA-E, but not HLA-A, HLA-B or HLA-DR molecules in normal pregnancy. Tumour-derived JEG-3 and JAR cells reflect extravillous and villous trophoblast HLA phenotypes, respectively, but the HLA repertoire of the in vitro derived placental cell lines is not representative of either in vivo trophoblast phenotype. This study raises questions regarding the validity of using the placental cell lines that are currently available as model systems for immunological interactions between fetal trophoblast and maternal leucocytes bearing receptors for HLA molecules.

  3. Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatment Modulates the Production of Cytokines and Improves Trophoblast Function in an in Vitro Model of Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagodage, Shanika; Yong, Hannah E J; Da Silva Costa, Fabricio; Borg, Anthony J; Kalionis, Bill; Brennecke, Shaun P; Murthi, Padma

    2016-12-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), a serious hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, remains a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Perturbed trophoblast function and impaired placental development early in pregnancy are key features. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (LDA) administered before 16 weeks' gestation significantly reduces the risk for PE. However, the exact mechanisms of action of LDA, particularly on trophoblast function, are unclear. We hypothesized that LDA influences placental trophoblast function and reverses PE-associated abnormalities. This study aimed to determine the effects of serum from normotensive women and from those with PE with or without LDA treatment on a model of placental syncytium. On cytokine profiling, LDA increased placental growth factor production and selectively restored PE serum-induced alterations in levels of cytokines [activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, CXCL-16, and ErbB3] to those in normotensive serum-treated cells. PE serum-induced increases in the apoptotic markers P53 mRNA expression, IKBKE mRNA expression, caspase 3 activity, and decreased BIRC8 mRNA expression, were attenuated by LDA treatment. LDA treatment also reduced abnormal differentiation caused by PE serum administration. Possible mechanisms by which LDA influences PE-affected trophoblast cells in vitro are by modulating cytokine secretion, reducing apoptosis to levels seen in normotensive serum-treated cells, and preventing the premature trophoblast differentiation commonly observed in PE. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after spontaneous human chorionic gonadotropin normalization following molar pregnancy evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Antonio; Maestá, Izildinha; Matos, Michelle; Elias, Kevin M; Rizzo, Julianna; Viggiano, Maurício Guilherme Campos

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after spontaneous human chorionic gonadotropin normalization in postmolar follow-up. Retrospective chart review of 2284 consecutive cases of hydatidiform mole with spontaneous normalization of hCG following uterine evacuation treated at one of five Brazilian reference centers from January 2002 to June 2013. After hCG normalization, GTN occurred in 10/2284 patients (0.4%; 95% CI 0.2%-0.8%). GTN developed in 9/1424 patients (0.6%; 95% CI 0.3%-1.2%) after a complete hydatidiform mole, in 1/849 patients (0.1%; 95% CI<0.01%-0.7%) after a partial hydatidiform mole, and in 0/13 patients (0%; 95% CI 0%-27%) after a twin molar pregnancy. The median time to GTN diagnosis after hCG normalization was 18months, and no diagnoses were made before six months of postmolar surveillance. Patients who required more than 56days to achieve a normal hCG value had a ten-fold increased risk of developing GTN after hCG normalization (9/1074; 0.8%; 95% CI 0.4%-1.6%) compared to those who reached a normal hCG level in fewer than 56days (1/1210;0.08%; 95% CI<0.01%-0.5%; p=0.008). All patients presented with symptoms at the time of GTN diagnosis. GTN after spontaneous hCG normalization following molar pregnancy is exceedingly rare, and the few patients who do develop GTN after achieving a normal hCG value are likely to be diagnosed after completing the commonly recommended six months of postmolar surveillance. Current recommendations for surveillance after hCG normalization should be revisited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of urokinase receptors by human trophoblast. A histochemical and ultrastructural analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Mazar, A; Cines, D B

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Through their ability to invade endometrium, remodel the uterine spiral arteries, and sustain placental blood fluidity, trophoblast cells play a central role in establishing and maintaining the integrity of the uteroplacental vasculature. The expression of urokinase receptors by troph...... a physiologic adaptation to diminish local fibrinolysis and limit hemorrhage at parturition....

  6. Glibenclamide inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in human trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Gen; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Ohneda, Wakana; Nakai, Akihito; Takeshita, Toshiyuki; Tachikawa, Eiichi

    2017-10-01

    Infection-associated pregnancy complications cause premature delivery. Caspase-1 is involved in the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β, which is activated by the NLRP3 inflammasome. To characterize the significance of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in the placenta, the effects of activators and inhibitors on NLRP3-related molecules were examined using isolated primary trophoblasts. Caspase-1 and IL-1β mRNA expression was markedly increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toll-like receptor (TLR)4 ligand. Treatment with the potassium ionophore nigericin significantly increased the level of activated caspase-1. Treatment with either LPS or nigericin stimulated IL-1β secretion, whereas pretreatment with the ATP-sensitive K + channel inhibitor glibenclamide, the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase inhibitor Y-27632, or a caspase-1 inhibitor significantly decreased nigericin-induced IL-1β secretion. In addition, dibutyryl-cAMP, which induces trophoblast differentiation, decreased expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β. These findings suggest that trophoblasts can secrete IL-1β through the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway, which is suppressed by glibenclamide, and that the TLR4-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome pathway is more likely to be stimulated in undifferentiated than differentiated trophoblasts. Our data support the hypothesis that inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome can suppress placental inflammation-associated disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Soluble Human Leukocyte Antigen-G5 Activates Extracellular Signal-Regulated Protein Kinase Signaling and Stimulates Trophoblast Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    YiFan Guo; Cheuk-Lun Lee; Kam-Hei So; Jing Gao; Yeung, William S. B.; YuanQing Yao; Kai-Fai Lee

    2013-01-01

    Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non-classical class Ib HLA molecule that is secreted from blastocysts. Soluble HLA-G modulates the immune tolerance of the mother and can be used as a prognostic factor for the clinical pregnancy rate. However, the underlying mechanism of how soluble HLA-G5 affects pregnancy remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that soluble HLA-G5 promotes successful implantation and pregnancy by modulating trophoblast invasion through receptor binding and ac...

  8. Expression pattern alterations of the serine protease HtrA1 in normal human placental tissues and in gestational trophoblastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzioni, Daniela; Quaranta, Alexia; Lorenzi, Teresa; Morroni, Manrico; Crescimanno, Caterina; De Nictolis, Michele; Toti, Paolo; Muzzonigro, Giovanni; Baldi, Alfonso; De Luca, Antonio; Castellucci, Mario

    2009-10-01

    HtrA1 is a secreted protein which behaves as a molecular chaperone at low temperatures and as a serine protease at high temperatures. When the placenta escapes the normal growth control mechanisms, which are present during normal pregnancy, it may develop trophoblastic diseases, such as hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. The aim of the study is to investigate the expression of HtrA1 in these gestational trophoblastic diseases and evaluate whether different HtrA1 expression might be associated with increasingly severe forms of disease. We used immunohistochemistry to assess the expression of HtrA1 in normal human placenta, hydatidiform mole (partial and complete) and choriocarcinoma. In addition to that we used the western blotting technique to quantify HtrA1 immunoreaction in normal human placentas. The most striking finding of our investigation is the decrease in immunostaining of this protease with increasing severity of gestational trophoblastic disease. For instance, in partial and complete moles HtrA1 is weakly expressed in the trophoblast. Moreover, absence of immunoreaction for HtrA1 is observable in the choriocarcinoma cells. In conclusion, we suggest that HtrA1 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinomas, and that HtrA1 may play an important role during the normal development of the placenta, as well as in trophoblastic diseases.

  9. A role for uric acid and the Nalp3 inflammasome in antiphospholipid antibody-induced IL-1β production by human first trimester trophoblast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J Mulla

    Full Text Available Women with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS are at risk of recurrent pregnancy loss and obstetrical disorders, such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL directly target the placenta by binding beta2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI expressed on the trophoblast. We recently demonstrated in human first trimester trophoblast cells that anti-β2GPI antibodies (Abs induce the secretion of IL-1β in a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4-dependent manner. IL-1β secretion requires processing of pro-IL-1β and this is mediated by the inflammasome, a complex of Nalp3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC and caspase-1. The objective of this study was to determine if aPL induce IL-1β production in trophoblast via the inflammasome. Using a human first trimester trophoblast cell line, we demonstrated that a mouse anti-β2GPI mAb and human polyclonal aPL-IgG induce IL-1β processing and secretion, which was partially blocked upon caspase-1 inhibition. Nalp3 and ASC knockdown also attenuated anti-β2GPI Ab-induced IL-1β secretion. Furthermore, aPL stimulated the production of uric acid in a TLR4-dependent manner; and inhibition of uric acid prevented aPL-induced IL-1β production by the trophoblast. These findings demonstrate that aPL, via TLR4 activation, induce a uric acid response in human trophoblast, which in turn activates the Nalp3/ASC inflammasome leading to IL-1β processing and secretion. This novel mechanism may account for the inflammation at the maternal-fetal interface, which causes placental dysfunction and increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in patients with APS.

  10. Human parvovirus B19 antibodies induce altered membrane protein expression and apoptosis of BeWo trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzang, Bor-Show; Chiang, Szu-Yi; Chan, Hsu-Chin; Liu, Chung-Hsien; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2016-11-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is harmful during pregnancy since it can be vertically transmitted to the developing fetus. In addition, the anti‑B19 antibodies induced by B19 infection are believed to have a cytopathic role in B19 transmission; however, knowledge regarding the effects of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy is limited. To investigate the possible roles of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy, the present study examined the effects of anti‑B19‑VP1 unique region (VP1u), anti‑B19‑VP2 and anti‑B19‑nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies on BeWo trophoblasts. Briefly, BeWo trophoblasts were incubated with purified IgG against B19‑VP1u, B19‑VP2 and B19‑NS1. Subsequently, the expression of surface proteins and apoptotic molecules were assessed in BeWo trophoblasts using flow cytometry, ELISA and western blotting. The expression levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)‑G were significantly increased on BeWo trophoblasts treated with rabbit anti‑B19‑VP1u IgG, and were unchanged in those treated with rabbit anti‑B19‑NS1 and anti‑B19‑VP2 IgG, as compared with the control group. Furthermore, the expression levels of globoside (P blood group antigen) and cluster of differentiation (CD)29 (β1 integrin) were significantly increased in BeWo trophoblasts treated with rabbit anti‑B19‑NS1 and anti‑B19‑VP2 IgG, whereas only CD29 was also significantly increased in cells treated with anti‑B19‑VP1u IgG. In addition, the number of cells at sub‑G1 phase; caspase‑3 activity; and the expression of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic molecules, including Fas‑associated death domain protein, activated caspase‑8, activated caspase‑3, B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein, cytochrome c, apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 and activated caspase‑9, were significantly increased in BeWo trophoblasts treated with anti‑B19‑VP1u and anti‑B19‑NS1 IgG. In conclusion, the present

  11. Nicotine promotes vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions and improves the proliferation and tube formation capacity of human umbilical endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongbo; Wu, Lanxiang; Wang, Yahui; Zhou, Jiayi; Li, Ruixia; Zhou, Jiabing; Wang, Zehua; Xu, Congjian

    2017-04-01

    Pre-eclampsia, characterized as defective uteroplacental vascularization, remains the major cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated that cigarette smoking reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, it is demonstrated that a low dose of nicotine decreased soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt1) secretion in human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions. Nicotine was then observed to promote vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by reducing sFlt1 secretion and increasing VEGF mRNA transcription. Further data showed that nicotine enhanced hypoxia-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and HIF-1α small interfering RNA abrogated nicotine-induced VEGF secretion, indicating that HIF-1α may be responsible for nicotine-mediated VEGF transcription under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, conditioned medium from human trophoblast cells treated with nicotine under hypoxic conditions promoted the proliferation and tube formation capacity of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) by promoting VEGF secretion. These findings indicate that nicotine may promote VEGF secretion in human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions by reducing sFlt1 secretion and up-regulating VEGF transcription and improve the proliferation and tube formation of HUVEC cells, which may contribute to elucidate the protective effect of cigarette smoking against pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Gestational trophoblastic disease--literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Vera; Lazović, Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease is characterized by abnormal proliferation of pregnancy-associated trophoblastic tissue with malignant potential. Gestational trophoblastic disease covers a spectrum of conditions including hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumour. It is very important to understand the pathophysiology and natural history of the disease in order to achieve faster recognition and effective treatment. The presence and course of the disease can be monitored with quantitative levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin in all cases. Clinical signs and symptoms are usually insufficient to diagnose and predict the extent of disease. Nowadays, gestational trophoblastic diseases are the best treated gynaecological malignancy thanks to modern technology. This review covers various aspects of gestational trophoblastic disease: its development, epidemiology, aetiology and pathogenesis, as well as its classification, clinical manifestations and diagnostic methods.

  13. Trophoblasts, invasion and micro RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine eDoridot

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have recently become essential actors in various fields of physiology and medicine, especially as easily accessible circulating biomarkers, or as modulators of cell differentiation. To this respect, terminal differentiation of trophoblasts (the characteristic cells of the placenta in Therian mammals into syncytiotrophoblast, villous trophoblast or extravillous trophoblast constitutes a good example of such a choice, where miRNAs have recently been shown to play an important role. The aim of this review is to provide a snapshot of what is known today in placentation mechanisms that are mediated by miRNA, under the angles of materno-foetal immune dialogue regulation, trophoblast differentiation and angiogenesis at the materno-foetal interface. Also, two aspects of regulation of these issues will be highlighted: the part played by oxygen concentration and the specific function of imprinted genes in the developing placenta.

  14. Identification of signaling pathways mediating cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in human trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroaki; Kuboniwa, Masae; Sugita, Hideyuki; Lamont, Richard J; Amano, Atsuo

    2012-08-01

    Epidemiological and interventional studies of humans have revealed a close association between periodontal diseases and preterm delivery of low-birth-weight infants. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, can translocate to gestational tissues following oral-hematogenous spread. We previously reported that P. gingivalis invades extravillous trophoblast cells (HTR-8) derived from the human placenta and inhibits proliferation through induction of arrest in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. The purpose of the present study was to identify signaling pathways mediating cellular impairment caused by P. gingivalis. Following P. gingivalis infection, the expression of Fas was induced and p53 accumulated, responses consistent with response to DNA damage. Ataxia telangiectasia- and Rad3-related kinase (ATR), an essential regulator of DNA damage checkpoints, was shown to be activated together with its downstream signaling molecule Chk2, while the p53 degradation-related protein MDM2 was not induced. The inhibition of ATR prevented both G(1) arrest and apoptosis caused by P. gingivalis in HTR-8 cells. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of p53 abrogated both G(1) arrest and apoptosis. The regulation of apoptosis was associated with Ets1 activation. HTR-8 cells infected with P. gingivalis exhibited activation of Ets1, and knockdown of Ets1 with siRNA diminished both G(1) arrest and apoptosis. These results suggest that P. gingivalis activates cellular DNA damage signaling pathways that lead to G(1) arrest and apoptosis in trophoblasts.

  15. Gestational trophoblastic tumours: an update for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeling, Fieke E M; Seckl, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease describes a variety of pregnancy-related diseases including the premalignant conditions of a partial and complete hydatidiform mole and the malignant disorders of invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and the rare placental-site trophoblastic tumour and epithelioid trophoblastic tumour. The availability of a highly sensitive tumour marker in the form of human chorionic gonadotrophin, the chemosensitive character of the disease with effective treatment strategies and centralization of care of a rare group of diseases has resulted in excellent survival rates, which can exceed 98 %. This review gives a general overview of gestational trophoblastic disease, the most recent insights in aetiology and pathology and a summary of the different management strategies.

  16. Comparative studies of placentation and immunology in non-human primates suggest a scenario for the evolution of deep trophoblast invasion and an explanation for human pregnancy disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2011-01-01

    Deep trophoblast invasion in the placental bed has been considered the hallmark of human pregnancy. It occurs by two routes, interstitial and endovascular, and results in transformation of the walls of the spiral arteries as they traverse the decidua and the inner third of the myometrium. Disturb......Deep trophoblast invasion in the placental bed has been considered the hallmark of human pregnancy. It occurs by two routes, interstitial and endovascular, and results in transformation of the walls of the spiral arteries as they traverse the decidua and the inner third of the myometrium....... Disturbances in this process are associated with reproductive disorders such preeclampsia. In contrast, trophoblast invasion in Old World monkeys occurs only by the endovascular route and seldom reaches the myometrium. Recently, it was shown that this pattern is maintained in gibbons, but that the human...... arrangement also occurs in chimpanzee and gorilla. There is an interesting parallel with results from placental immunology regarding the evolution of the major histocompatability complex class I antigen HLA-C and its cognate receptors. HLA-C is not present in Old World monkeys or gibbons. It emerged...

  17. Activities for leptin in bovine trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C K; Xie, M M; McCoski, S R; Ealy, A D

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin influences placental development and function in cattle are poorly understood. This work was completed to explore how leptin regulates hormone, cytokine and metalloprotease transcript abundance, and cell proliferation in cultured bovine trophoblast cells. In the first set of studies, cells were cultured in the presence of graded recombinant bovine leptin concentrations (0, 10, 50, 250 ng/mL) for 6 or 24 h. Transcript profiles were examined from extracted RNA. Leptin supplementation did not affect abundance of the maternal recognition of pregnancy factor, interferon-tau (IFNT), but leptin increased (P leptin. Transcript abundance of the remodeling factor, metalloprotease 2 (MMP2), was greater (P leptin-treated cells at 24 h but not at 6 h. The 24 h MMP2 response was greatest (P leptin treatment. In a separate set of studies, cell proliferation assays were completed. Leptin supplementation did not affect bovine trophoblast cell line proliferation at any dose tested. In conclusion, leptin supplementation did not affect bovine trophoblast cell proliferation or IFNT expression, but leptin increases CSH2 and MMP2 transcript abundance. Both of these factors are involved with peri-implantation and postimplantation placental development and function, and this implicates leptin as a potential mediator of early placental development and function in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential effect of DDT, DDE, and DDD on COX-2 expression in the human trophoblast derived HTR-8/SVneo cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Lopez, Pablo; Diaz-Cueto, Laura; Olivares, Aleida; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Arechavaleta-Velasco, Fabian

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), 1,1-bis-(chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (DDE), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD) isomers on COX-2 expression in a human trophoblast-derived cell line. Cultured HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells were exposed to DDT isomers and its metabolites for 24 h, and COX-2 mRNA and protein expression were assessed by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA. Prostaglandin E₂ production was also measured by ELISA. Both COX-2 mRNA and protein were detected under control (unexposed) conditions in the HTR-8/SVneo cell line. COX-2 protein expression and prostaglandin E₂ production but not COX-2 mRNA levels increased only after DDE and DDD isomers exposure. It is concluded that DDE and DDD exposure induce the expression of COX-2 protein, leading to increased prostaglandin E2 production. Interestingly, the regulation of COX-2 by these organochlorines pesticides appears to be at the translational level. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Human trophoblast cells induced MDSCs from peripheral blood CD14(+) myelomonocytic cells via elevated levels of CCL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Qu, Daiwei; Sun, Jintang; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Qingjie; Shao, Qianqian; Kong, Beihua; Zhang, Yun; Qu, Xun

    2016-09-01

    Successful human pregnancy requires the maternal immune system to recognize and tolerate the semi-allogeneic fetus. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which are capable of inhibiting T-cell responses, are highly increased in the early stages of pregnancy. Although recent reports indicate a role for MDSCs in fetal-maternal tolerance, little is known about the expansion of MDSCs during pregnancy. In the present study, we demonstrated that the trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo could instruct peripheral CD14(+) myelomonocytic cells toward a novel subpopulation of MDSCs, denoted as CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells, with suppressive activity and increased expression of IDO1, ARG-1, and COX2. After interaction with HTR8/SVneo cells, CD14(+) myelomonocytic cells secrete high levels of CCL2, promoting the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. We utilized a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to reveal the prominent role of CCL2 in the induction of CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs. In combination, the results of the present study support a novel role for the cross-talk between the trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo and maternal CD14(+) myelomonocytic cells in initiating MDSCs induction, prompting a tolerogenic immune response to ensure a successful pregnancy.

  20. AOPPs (advanced oxidation protein products) promote apoptosis in trophoblastic cells through interference with NADPH oxidase signaling: implications for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo-shi; Huang, Qi-tao; Zhong, Mei; Yin, Qian

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of placental advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE). Expression of AOPPs in human placental tissues collected from women with or without PE was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effect of AOPPs on in vitro trophoblast cell function was also examined. Specifically, we exposed trophoblastic cells to AOPPs and measured the production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as well as their invasion capacity using an in vitro Transwell invasion assay. We also investigated the effect of AOPPs on trophoblastic apoptosis and whether this effect could be mediated through interference in NADPH oxidase signaling. AOPPs were expressed in placental tissues, and were significantly increased in placentas from women with PE versus normotensive controls. AOPPs also affected trophoblast cell function in vitro by significantly reducing β-HCG production and inhibiting trophoblas cell invasive capacity. Exposure to AOPPs significantly increased apoptosis in trophoblastic cells, which was mediated through the NADPH oxidase pathway. AOPPs expression is increased in PE placentas and exposure to AOPPs adversely affects trophoblast cell function, which may contribute to the shallow trophoblast invasion that characterizes this disorder. Additional studies are needed to investigate further to determine whether AOPPs can be used as a biomarker for PE.

  1. Differential transcription of exon 1 of the human c-fms gene in placental trophoblasts and monocytes

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    Visvader, J.; Verma, I.M. (Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, San Diego, CA (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Structural analysis of the 5' end of the human c-fms gene revealed that a large intron of about 25 kilobases separates an upstream noncoding exon (exon 1) from the signal peptide-containing exon (exon 2). Northern (RNA) blot analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, and primer extensions showed that exon 1 is transcribed in placenta but not in cells of the monocytic lineage. This is due to the differential usage or promoters, separated by approximately 25 kilobases, in cell-specific manner. One major c-fms transcript was observed in U-937 cells, whereas multiple initiation sites for transcription appeared to be utilized in placental cells. Nucleotide sequence comparisons showed that the 3' end of the human platelet-derived growth factor receptor gene lies approximately 350 base pairs upstream of the major initiation sites for c-fms transcription in placental trophoblasts.

  2. Differential transcription of exon 1 of the human c-fms gene in placental trophoblasts and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvader, J; Verma, I M

    1989-01-01

    Structural analysis of the 5' end of the human c-fms gene revealed that a large intron of about 25 kilobases separates an upstream noncoding exon (exon 1) from the signal peptide-containing exon (exon 2). Northern (RNA) blot analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, and primer extensions showed that exon 1 is transcribed in placenta but not in cells of the monocytic lineage. This is due to the differential usage of promoters, separated by approximately 25 kilobases, in a cell-specific manner. One major c-fms transcript was observed in U-937 cells, whereas multiple initiation sites for transcription appeared to be utilized in placental cells. Nucleotide sequence comparisons showed that the 3' end of the human platelet-derived growth factor receptor gene lies approximately 350 base pairs upstream of the major initiation sites for c-fms transcription in placental trophoblasts. Images PMID:2524648

  3. [Long noncoding RNA HOTAIR modulates the function of trophoblast cells in pre-eclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan-fen; Sun, Li-zhou

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the expression of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR in pre-eclampsia (PE) placentas and its effect on trophoblast cells proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis. The expression of HOTAIR was determined by qPCR for 23 severe PE and 23 normal pregnant women. qRT-PCR was used to detect the efficiency of overexpression and knock-down after the HTR-8/SVneo cells were transfected with HOTAIR overexpression and siRNAs targeting HOTAIR for 24-48 h, respectively. MTT and colony formation assays were used to test the proliferation of HTR-8/SVneo cells transfected. Transwell assay was used to show the migration and invasion ability of HTR-8/SVneo cells transfected. Flow cytometry assay was used to detect the cell apoptosis rate after treatment. Western blot assay was applied to detect the expression level of apoptotic proteins Caspase-3 and BCL-2. The level of HOTAIR in severe pre-eclampsia groups was significantly increased compared to normal pregnant placentas (Papoptosis rate in cells transfected with HOTAIR overexpression was apparently more than that of control, while less in cells treated with si-HOTAIR. Western blot assay showed that the Caspase-3 showed an obvious increase in HOTAIR overexpression group while decreased in si-HOTAIR group. And BCL-2 presented an opposite trend. HOTAIR is probably involved in the onset of preeclampsia by regulating proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of trophoblast cells.

  4. Human placental growth hormone: a potential new biomarker in gestational trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübener, Christoph; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Wu, Zida; Diebold, Joachim; Delius, Maria; Friese, Klaus; Strasburger, Christian J; Hasbargen, Uwe

    2015-02-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) involves a spectrum of abnormal proliferations arising from the placental villous trophoblast. Although the incidence is low, a biomarker with short serum half-life would be a major clinical advance to monitor surgical and medical treatment reducing the socioeconomic burden of multiple control visits as well as patient's anxiety. Placental growth hormone (hGH-V) plays an important role in the regulation of normal placental growth and has shown angiogenic effects. We aimed to determine by immunohistochemistry (IHC) whether hGH-V is expressed in GTD and whether it can be detected in the patient's blood for potential monitoring of surgical or medical treatment procedures. Tissue and sera were collected from women undergoing treatment for GTD in a tertiary care university hospital. We evaluated partial and complete hydatidiform moles, invasive moles and choriocarcinoma, n=16. Trophoblast specimens were examined by a newly developed IHC set-up for hGH-V in addition to gross morphologic and histopathological examination. Serum samples were analyzed by a highly sensitive hGH-V specific immunoassay. hGH-V was localized in all entities of GTD to the syncytiotrophoblast by immunohistochemistry. Serum hGH-V was detected for the first time in GTD and was present in a high percentage of all analyzed entities. hGH-V can be detected in all entities of GTD by IHC as well as by serum analysis and may therefore serve as a novel biomarker for the disease. Its clinical utility in diagnosis of GTD and monitoring surgical or medical treatment needs to be determined in further studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 promotes migration and invasion of human trophoblast cells through activation of MAPK, PI3K and NOTCH signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimiani, M; Vecchione, L; Piccirilli, D; Spitalieri, P; Amati, F; Salvi, S; Ferrazzani, S; Stuhlmann, H; Campagnolo, L

    2015-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (Egfl7) is a gene that encodes a partially secreted protein and whose expression is largely restricted to the endothelia. We recently reported that EGFL7 is also expressed by trophoblast cells in mouse and human placentas. Here, we investigated the molecular pathways that are regulated by EGFL7 in trophoblast cells. Stable EGFL7 overexpression in a Jeg3 human choriocarcinoma cell line resulted in significantly increased cell migration and invasiveness, while cell proliferation was unaffected. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways showed that EGFL7 promotes Jeg3 cell motility by activating both pathways. We show that EGFL7 activates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in Jeg3 cells, resulting in downstream activation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs). In addition, we provide evidence that EGFL7-triggered migration of Jeg3 cells involves activation of NOTCH signaling. EGFL7 and NOTCH1 are co-expressed in Jeg3 cells, and blocking of NOTCH activation abrogates enhanced migration of Jeg3 cells overexpressing EGFL7. We also demonstrate that signaling through EGFR and NOTCH converged to mediate EGFL7 effects. Reduction of endogenous EGFL7 expression in Jeg3 cells significantly decreased cell migration. We further confirmed that EGFL7 stimulates cell migration by using primary human first trimester trophoblast (PTB) cells overexpressing EGFL7. In conclusion, our data suggest that in trophoblast cells, EGFL7 regulates cell migration and invasion by activating multiple signaling pathways. Our results provide a possible explanation for the correlation between reduced expression of EGFL7 and inadequate trophoblast invasion observed in placentopathies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Decreased Cyr61 under hypoxia induces extravillous trophoblasts apoptosis and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Yanyan; Xu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Hanping

    2011-04-01

    During placental development, oxygen environment is not only critical for trophoblasts migration and invasion, but also fundamental for appropriate placental perfusion. Cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61, CCN1) was expressed in the extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) and decreased in preeclampsia. Its regulatory properties in human first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line (TEV-1 cells) upon a low oxygen tension were investigated. The present study examined functional changes involved in adaptation to hypoxia of the TEV-1 cells, using cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) as hypoxic mimic. It was found that hypoxia inhibited growth of TEV-1 cells and induced the increase of cell apoptosis (Papoptosis has been implicated in the failure of trophoblasts to fully invade and modify the uterine environment and Cyr61 down-regulation, potentially leading to preeclampsia.

  7. Toll-like Receptor 4 Expression in Decidual cells and Interstitial Trophoblasts across Human Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Frederic; Kayisli, Umit A.; Vatandaslar, Emre; Ocak, Nehir; Guller, Seth; Abrahams, Vikki M.; Krikun, Graciela; Lockwood, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Problem Toll receptor-4 (TLR-4) protects against gram-negative bacteria expressed lipopolysaccharide and “danger signals” from injured or dying cells. Although decidual cells (DCs) and interstitial trophoblasts (ITs) are in close contact, TLR-4 has been studied extensively only in ITs. Method of Study Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded serial sections of endometrium in follicular and luteal phases and deciduas from first and second trimester elective terminations and third trimester normal deliveries were immunostained for TLR-4, trophoblast-specific cytokeratin and DC-specific vimentin. HSCORE assessed TLR-4 immunostaining in DCs vs. ITs. Results TLR-4 HSCORES were significantly higher in: 1) first trimester DCs than luteal phase pre-decidual stromal cells; 2) first and third vs. second trimester DCs, but similar between third trimester deciduas parietalis and basalis; 3) first vs. second trimester ITs; 4) DCs vs. ITs across gestation. Conclusion Higher TLR-4 in DCs than ITs suggests DCs as primary targets for gram negative bacteria and/or inflammation-related danger signals. PMID:22564191

  8. DREAM mediated regulation of GCM1 in the human placental trophoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczyk, Dora; Kibschull, Mark; Mellstrom, Britt; Levytska, Khrystyna; Rivas, Marcos; Drewlo, Sascha; Lye, Stephen J; Naranjo, Jose R; Kingdom, John C P

    2013-01-01

    The trophoblast transcription factor glial cell missing-1 (GCM1) regulates differentiation of placental cytotrophoblasts into the syncytiotrophoblast layer in contact with maternal blood. Reduced placental expression of GCM1 and abnormal syncytiotrophoblast structure are features of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy--preeclampsia. In-silico techniques identified the calcium-regulated transcriptional repressor--DREAM (Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator)--as a candidate for GCM1 gene expression. Our objective was to determine if DREAM represses GCM1 regulated syncytiotrophoblast formation. EMSA and ChIP assays revealed a direct interaction between DREAM and the GCM1 promoter. siRNA-mediated DREAM silencing in cell culture and placental explant models significantly up-regulated GCM1 expression and reduced cytotrophoblast proliferation. DREAM calcium dependency was verified using ionomycin. Furthermore, the increased DREAM protein expression in preeclamptic placental villi was predominantly nuclear, coinciding with an overall increase in sumolylated DREAM and correlating inversely with GCM1 levels. In conclusion, our data reveal a calcium-regulated pathway whereby GCM1-directed villous trophoblast differentiation is repressed by DREAM. This pathway may be relevant to disease prevention via calcium-supplementation.

  9. Syncytial Knots, Sprouts, Apoptosis, and Trophoblast Deportation from the Human Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J. Burton

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The syncytiotrophoblast (STB that forms the epithelial covering of the placental villous tree has a unique cell biology on account of its syncytial nature. The tissue is in a terminally-differentiated, postmitotic state, and expands through the recruitment by fusion of underlying progenitor cytotrophoblast cells. This process occurs from the time of implantation until term, and so its nuclei will be of various ages, producing a spectrum of contrasting appearances; whilst some are euchromatic, others display dense condensations of heterochromatin, the latter often aggregating to form clusters referred to as syncytial knots. These appearances have led to the suggestion that knots are apoptotic, and a hypothesis has developed that the nuclei are transcriptionally inactive and transit through the STB before being shed into the maternal circulation. Here, we review the evidence for this hypothesis, looking at the morphology of the nuclei, their number throughout gestation, evidence of transcriptional activity, and trophoblast deportation. We conclude that there is little evidence to support the concept that turnover of syncytial nuclei takes place in the normal placenta, or that this occurs through an apoptotic-related process. Instead, we suggest that a proportion of syncytial nuclei are transcriptionally active, that epigenetic modifications underlie the changes in chromatin appearance, and that syncytial nuclei continue to accumulate until term. We recognize that apoptotic changes can occur in pathologic pregnancies, but consider the deportation of trophoblast that has been linked to preeclampsia to be most likely of necrotic origin following ischemic injury.

  10. DREAM mediated regulation of GCM1 in the human placental trophoblast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Baczyk

    Full Text Available The trophoblast transcription factor glial cell missing-1 (GCM1 regulates differentiation of placental cytotrophoblasts into the syncytiotrophoblast layer in contact with maternal blood. Reduced placental expression of GCM1 and abnormal syncytiotrophoblast structure are features of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy--preeclampsia. In-silico techniques identified the calcium-regulated transcriptional repressor--DREAM (Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator--as a candidate for GCM1 gene expression. Our objective was to determine if DREAM represses GCM1 regulated syncytiotrophoblast formation. EMSA and ChIP assays revealed a direct interaction between DREAM and the GCM1 promoter. siRNA-mediated DREAM silencing in cell culture and placental explant models significantly up-regulated GCM1 expression and reduced cytotrophoblast proliferation. DREAM calcium dependency was verified using ionomycin. Furthermore, the increased DREAM protein expression in preeclamptic placental villi was predominantly nuclear, coinciding with an overall increase in sumolylated DREAM and correlating inversely with GCM1 levels. In conclusion, our data reveal a calcium-regulated pathway whereby GCM1-directed villous trophoblast differentiation is repressed by DREAM. This pathway may be relevant to disease prevention via calcium-supplementation.

  11. Thoracotomy in refractory gestational trophoblastic neoplasia with lung metastasis after normalization of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) with salvage chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fengzhi; Hu, Huiying; Wu, Lei; Ren, Tong; Wan, Xirun; Xiang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the need for pulmonary surgery in the treatment of refractory gestational trophoblastic neoplasia with lung metastasis after normalization of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level with salvage chemotherapy. Materials and methods A review of medical records of patients with refractory gestational trophoblastic neoplasia who underwent pulmonary surgery and received combined chemotherapy between January 1995 and December 2008 at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital was retrospectively performed. The positive pathologic findings in surgical specimens were defined as trophoblastic cells documented in the specimen. Pathologic findings were reported. Results There were 21 patients with preoperative normal β-hCG. Of 21 patients, six (28.6%) had positive pathologic findings. The positive pathologic findings remained at 27.3% in 11 patients who had received no less than two cycles of consolidation chemotherapy before pulmonary surgery. Univariate analysis found that no variables in patient characteristics were associated with pathologic findings. At the median follow-up of 78 months (9–186 months), 85.7% (18 of 21) patients were alive, and no statistical difference was observed in the disease-free survival between the patients with positive and negative pathologic findings. The 5-year overall survival was 72.2%. Conclusion Pulmonary surgery is valuable in the treatment of refractory patients with lung metastasis after normalization of serum β-hCG level following salvage chemotherapy, irrespective of viable trophoblasts in surgical specimens. Further study will be necessary to clarify the importance of this observation. PMID:24511240

  12. mTOR mediates human trophoblast invasion through regulation of matrix-remodeling enzymes and is associated with serine phosphorylation of STAT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Susann [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Renaud, Stephen J. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada); Schleussner, Ekkehard [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Graham, Charles H. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L3N6 (Canada); Markert, Udo R., E-mail: markert@med.uni-jena.de [Placenta-Lab, Department of Obstetrics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany)

    2009-06-10

    The intracellular signaling molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is essential for cell growth and proliferation. It is involved in mouse embryogenesis, murine trophoblast outgrowth and linked to tumor cell invasiveness. In order to assess the role of mTOR in human trophoblast invasion we analyzed the in vitro invasiveness of HTR-8/SVneo immortalized first-trimester trophoblast cells in conjunction with enzyme secretion upon mTOR inhibition and knockdown of mTOR protein expression. Additionally, we also tested the capability of mTOR to trigger signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 by its phosphorylation status. Rapamycin inhibited mTOR kinase activity as demonstrated with a lower phosphorylation level of the mTOR substrate p70 S6 kinase (S6K). With the use of rapamycin and siRNA-mediated mTOR knockdown we could show that cell proliferation, invasion and secretion of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, urokinase-like plasminogen activator (uPA) and its major physiological uPA inhibitor (PAI)-1 were inhibited. While tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 was unaffected by mTOR inhibition and knockdown, serine phosphorylation was diminished. We conclude that mTOR signaling is one major mechanism in a tightly regulated network of intracellular signal pathways including the JAK/STAT system to regulate invasion in human trophoblast cells by secretion of enzymes that remodel the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) such as MMP-2, -9, uPA and PAI-1. Dysregulation of mTOR may contribute to pregnancy-related pathologies caused through impaired trophoblast invasion.

  13. [Expression of HLA-G protein in trophoblast cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-qiu; Chen, Shi-ling; Xing, Fu-qi

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the expression of human leucocyte antigen protein G (HLA-G) in different trophoblast cells and different stages of pregnancy. The expression of HLA-G protein in normal placenta and trophoblasts of different trimesters was detected using immunohistochemical method (SP). HLA-G protein expression exhibited spatio-temporal changes, which located in the extravillous trophoblast (EVT) and was higher in the placenta of the first and second trimesters while lower in the third trimester (PHLA-G protein expression in different stages of pregnancy and different trophoblasts may be related to the controlled invasion of the trophoblast.

  14. Gestational trophoblastic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007333.htm Gestational trophoblastic disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of conditions in which ...

  15. Identification of differences in gene expression in primary cell cultures of human endometrial epithelial cells and trophoblast cells following their interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Mette; Islin, Henrik; Møller, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between the cell types was simulated in vitro by growing primary cell cultures of human endometrial epithelial cells and trophoblast cells together (co-culture) and separately (control cultures). Gene expression in the cell cultures was compared using the Differential Display method and confirmed...... using a modified Northern Blot method. Results Twelve transcripts were identified as being differentially expressed following the interaction between trophoblast and endometrial cells. Some of these sequences show homology to known human genes while other sequences are coding for potential novel genes......: (1) one sequence was homologous to the to Homer 1 gene, (2) one identical to the mRNA for XP-G factor, (3) one similar to a hypothetical protein, (4) transcripts showing homologies to a mRNA coding for a cellular proapoptotic protein, and (5) sequences homologous to regions on human chromosomes 5...

  16. Thoracotomy in refractory gestational trophoblastic neoplasia with lung metastasis after normalization of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG with salvage chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng FZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fengzhi Feng, Huiying Hu, Lei Wu, Tong Ren, Xirun Wan, Yang XiangDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaObjective: To assess the need for pulmonary surgery in the treatment of refractory gestational trophoblastic neoplasia with lung metastasis after normalization of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG level with salvage chemotherapy.Materials and methods: A review of medical records of patients with refractory gestational trophoblastic neoplasia who underwent pulmonary surgery and received combined chemotherapy between January 1995 and December 2008 at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital was retrospectively performed. The positive pathologic findings in surgical specimens were defined as trophoblastic cells documented in the specimen. Pathologic findings were reported.Results: There were 21 patients with preoperative normal β-hCG. Of 21 patients, six (28.6% had positive pathologic findings. The positive pathologic findings remained at 27.3% in 11 patients who had received no less than two cycles of consolidation chemotherapy before pulmonary surgery. Univariate analysis found that no variables in patient characteristics were associated with pathologic findings. At the median follow-up of 78 months (9–186 months, 85.7% (18 of 21 patients were alive, and no statistical difference was observed in the disease-free survival between the patients with positive and negative pathologic findings. The 5-year overall survival was 72.2%.Conclusion: Pulmonary surgery is valuable in the treatment of refractory patients with lung metastasis after normalization of serum β-hCG level following salvage chemotherapy, irrespective of viable trophoblasts in surgical specimens. Further study will be necessary to clarify the importance of this observation.Keywords: gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, refractory, pulmonary surgery

  17. Invasión trofoblástica en el embarazo normal (II: Placentación profunda (Trophoblastic invasion in normal pregnancy (II: Deep placentation

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    Eduardo Reyna-Villasmil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep placentation in human pregnancy is done by deep invasion of the placental bed by the extravillous trophoblast, involving the decidua and the inner (junctional zone myometrium. Interstitial invasion of the stroma and endovascular trophoblast invasion of the spiral arteries both occur. Deep endovascular trophoblast invasion into the myometrial segments of spiral arteries is important for proper placental functioning. Decidua-associated vascular remodeling, which includes swelling and disorganization of the vascular smooth muscle, occurs during a period of rising placental oxygen. This early remodeling step may accommodate the progressively increasing maternal blood flow to the developing placenta. The subsequent trophoblast-associated remodeling step enhances and stabilizes the widening of the vessels, whereas the vascular smooth muscle and elastic lamina are replaced by a fibrinoid matrix with embedded trophoblast

  18. Pleiotropic actions of forskolin result in phosphatidylserine exposure in primary trophoblasts.

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    Meghan R Riddell

    Full Text Available Forskolin is an extract of the Coleus forskholii plant that is widely used in cell physiology to raise intracellular cAMP levels. In the field of trophoblast biology, forskolin is one of the primary treatments used to induce trophoblastic cellular fusion. The syncytiotrophoblast (ST is a continuous multinucleated cell in the human placenta that separates maternal from fetal circulations and can only expand by fusion with its stem cell, the cytotrophoblast (CT. Functional investigation of any aspect of ST physiology requires in vitro differentiation of CT and de novo ST formation, thus selecting the most appropriate differentiation agent for the hypothesis being investigated is necessary as well as addressing potential off-target effects. Previous studies, using forskolin to induce fusion in trophoblastic cell lines, identified phosphatidylserine (PS externalization to be essential for trophoblast fusion and showed that widespread PS externalization is present even after fusion has been achieved. PS is a membrane phospholipid that is primarily localized to the inner-membrane leaflet. Externalization of PS is a hallmark of early apoptosis and is involved in cellular fusion of myocytes and macrophages. We were interested to examine whether PS externalization was also involved in primary trophoblast fusion. We show widespread PS externalization occurs after 72 hours when fusion was stimulated with forskolin, but not when stimulated with the cell permeant cAMP analog Br-cAMP. Using a forskolin analog, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, which stimulates membrane transporters but not adenylate cyclase, we found that widespread PS externalization required both increased intracellular cAMP levels and stimulation of membrane transporters. Treatment of primary trophoblasts with Br-cAMP alone did not result in widespread PS externalization despite high levels of cellular fusion. Thus, we concluded that widespread PS externalization is independent of trophoblast fusion

  19. Transvaginal ultrasonography in persistent trophoblastic tumor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mangili, G; Spagnolo, D; Valsecchi, L; Maggi, R

    1993-01-01

    ... in the management of such neoplasia. Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed in six women with gestational trophoblastic tumor at initial diagnosis, during the cytotoxic course when negative beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels...

  20. Cell Adhesion Minimization by a Novel Mesh Culture Method Mechanically Directs Trophoblast Differentiation and Self-Assembly Organization of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeyo, Kennedy Omondi; Kurosawa, Osamu; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Oana, Hidehiro; Kotera, Hidetoshi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Washizu, Masao

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical methods for inducing differentiation and directing lineage specification will be instrumental in the application of pluripotent stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that minimization of cell-substrate adhesion can initiate and direct the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into cyst-forming trophoblast lineage cells (TLCs) without stimulation with cytokines or small molecules. To precisely control cell-substrate adhesion area, we developed a novel culture method where cells are cultured on microstructured mesh sheets suspended in a culture medium such that cells on mesh are completely out of contact with the culture dish. We used microfabricated mesh sheets that consisted of open meshes (100∼200 μm in pitch) with narrow mesh strands (3-5 μm in width) to provide support for initial cell attachment and growth. We demonstrate that minimization of cell adhesion area achieved by this culture method can trigger a sequence of morphogenetic transformations that begin with individual hiPSCs attached on the mesh strands proliferating to form cell sheets by self-assembly organization and ultimately differentiating after 10-15 days of mesh culture to generate spherical cysts that secreted human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone and expressed caudal-related homeobox 2 factor (CDX2), a specific marker of trophoblast lineage. Thus, this study demonstrates a simple and direct mechanical approach to induce trophoblast differentiation and generate cysts for application in the study of early human embryogenesis and drug development and screening.

  1. Syndecan-1 Acts as an Important Regulator of CXCL1 Expression and Cellular Interaction of Human Endometrial Stromal and Trophoblast Cells

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    Dunja Maria Baston-Buest

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful implantation of the embryo into the human receptive endometrium is substantial for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. This study focusses on the role of Syndecan-1 at the embryo-maternal interface, the multitasking coreceptor influencing ligand concentration, release and receptor presentation, and cellular morphology. CXC motif ligand 1, being involved in chemotaxis and angiogenesis during implantation, is of special interest as a ligand of Syndecan-1. Human endometrial stromal cells with and without Syndecan-1 knock-down were decidualized and treated with specific inhibitors to evaluate signaling pathways regulating CXC ligand 1 expression. Western blot analyses of MAPK and Wnt members were performed, followed by analysis of spheroid interactions between human endometrial cells and extravillous trophoblast cells. By mimicking embryo contact using IL-1β, we showed less ERK and c-Jun activation by depletion of Syndecan-1 and less Frizzled 4 production as part of the canonical Wnt pathway. Additionally, more beta-catenin was phosphorylated and therefore degraded after depletion of Syndecan-1. Secretion of CXC motif ligand 1 depends on MEK-1 with respect to Syndecan-1. Regarding the interaction of endometrial and trophoblast cells, the spheroid center-to-center distances were smaller after depletion of Syndecan-1. Therefore, Syndecan-1 seems to affect signaling processes relevant to signaling and intercellular interaction at the trophoblast-decidual interface.

  2. Constitutive intracellular expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DO and HLA-DR but not HLA-DM in trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranella, Anthi; Vassiliadis, Simon; Mastora, Chrisa; Valentina, Michailidou; Dionyssopoulou, Eva; Athanassakis, Irene

    2005-01-01

    The nonclassic human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DM molecules have been proved to positively regulate antigen presentation in classic antigen-presenting cells, whereas in B lymphocytes HLA-DO have been identified as negative regulators of the process. The present report examines whether the negative expression of classic class II molecules in trophoblasts implies negative regulation by HLA-DO. It was revealed by immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, and subcellular fractionation techniques that human trophoblasts, although not expressing any surface HLA-DR antigens, constitutively express intracellular HLA-DR, HLA-DO, and CD74, but not HLA-DM. Administration of interferon-gamma to the cell culture increased HLA-DR and CD74, induced HLA-DM, but did not alter the expression of HLA-DO and induced HLA-DR release from the cells. These results were confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis except that HLA-DM mRNA was detected in control cells, indicating a posttranscriptional regulation. Under the same experimental conditions, human monocytes/macrophages were not expressing intracellular HLA-DO while exhibiting significant levels of HLA-DR, HLA-DM, and CD74. The results presented here reveal for the first time expression of HLA-DO in trophoblasts, which can be of great importance in maintaining the class II-negative state in these cells and consequently protecting the fetus from maternal immune attack.

  3. Proteomic analysis of knock-down HLA-G in invasion of human trophoblast cell line JEG-3

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haiyan; Liu, Xueyuan; Jin, Hong; Yang, Fengying; Gu, Weirong; Li, Xiaotian

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies showed that aberrant HLA-G expression in trophoblast cells plays important roles in trophoblast invasion; however, the mechanisms remain to be explored. In this study, we found that suppressed HLA-G expression could dramatically decrease the mRNA and protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9, and in the proteome assay, there were 3 identified proteins namely, prefoldin 1, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 and malate dehydr...

  4. [Effect of hydrogen peroxide on human leukocyte antigen-G expression in placental trophoblasts in pre-eclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Sun, Li-zhou; Yin, Yin

    2010-05-01

    To explore the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) in placental trophoblasts in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. Forty pregnant women, delivered through cesarean section in the Department of Obstetrics of and Gynecology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from October 2008 to October 2009, were enrolled, including 20 women with pre-eclampsia and 20 healthy gravidas (control group). Colorimetry and western blot were applied, respectively, to determine the level of H2O2 and the expression of HLA-G protein in placental tissues and the correlation between them were analyzed. After 24 hours of seeding, JEG-3 cells (the HLA-G positive cell line of choriocarcinoma) were divided into two groups: intervention group (exposure to 175 micromol/L H2O2) and control group (without H2O2). Immunofluorescence and western blot were used to investigate the expression of HLA-G protein in JEG-3 cells at 24 hours and 48 hours after incubation. (1) The level of H2O2 in placenta in the pre-eclampsia group was significantly higher than that in control group [(105+/-13) nmolxmg(-1)xprot(-1) vs (62+/-18) nmol.mg(-1)xprot(-1), PHLA-G protein in placenta of the pre-eclampsia group was reduced by 88% compared with that of the control (0.20+/-0.08 vs 1.67+/-0.65, PHLA-G level and H2O2 expression in the placenta in both groups (r=-0.895, P=0.000). (4) Compared with the control group, the expression of HLA-G protein in JEG-3 cells, after 24 hours and 48 hours exposure to H2O2, reduced by 39% and 80%, respectively, (3.21+/-0.33 vs 1.95+/-0.25 and 0.65+/-0.08, PHLA-G in JEG-E cells in the intervention group at 48 hours compared to the control group (PHLA-G expression in the placental trophoblasts in pre-eclampsia which may be involved in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

  5. Outer Membrane Protein 25 of Brucella Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signal Pathway in Human Trophoblast Cells

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    Jing Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Outer membrane protein 25 (OMP25, a virulence factor from Brucella, plays an important role in maintaining the structural stability of Brucella. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal pathway widely exists in eukaryotic cells. In this study, human trophoblast cell line HPT-8 and BALB/c mice were infected with Brucella abortus 2308 strain (S2308 and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant strain. The expression of cytokines and activation of MAPK signal pathway were detected. We found that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, and interleukin-10 (IL-10 were increased in HPT-8 cells infected with S2308 and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant. S2308 also activated p38 phosphorylation protein, extracellular-regulated protein kinases (ERK, and Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK from MAPK signal pathway. 2308ΔOmp25 could not activate p38, ERK, and JNK branches. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that S2308 was able to activate phosphorylation of p38 and ERK in BABL/c mice. However, 2308ΔOmp25 could weakly activate phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. These results suggest that Omp25 played an important role in the process of Brucella activation of the MAPK signal pathway.

  6. Differences in collagen ultrastructure of human first trimester decidua basalis and parietalis: implications for trophoblastic invasion of the placental bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai Talaulikar, Vikram; Kronenberger, Katrin; Bax, Bridget E; Moss, Raymond; Manyonda, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The human embryo-maternal interface in the first trimester of pregnancy is an area of extensive tissue remodeling. Because collagen is the most abundant constituent of the extracellular matrix of the placental bed, successful invasion must involve its rapid turnover. We compared the nature and distribution of collagen fibrils in decidua basalis and parietalis. We used a direct-vision hysteroscopic technique to obtain biopsies of the decidua basalis and parietalis from 11 women undergoing pregnancy termination in the first trimester. The biopsies were subjected to light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical studies using mouse monoclonal antibodies against cytokeratin 7 and collagen types I, III and V. Collagen fibrils in the stroma of decidua basalis were significantly thicker when compared to those in decidua parietalis (56.48 ± 1.37 nm vs 45.64 ± 0.85 nm; P collagen fibrils between basalis and parietalis, with thicker and disrupted fibrils within abundant amorphous tissue in basalis, and thinner uniform fibrils in parietalis. These differences may reflect an adaptive response by decidua or a direct consequence of the invading trophoblast cells. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Ectopic pregnancy-derived human trophoblastic stem cells regenerate dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway to treat parkinsonian rats.

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    Tony Tung-Yin Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy is a potential strategy to treat patients with Parkinson's disease (PD; however, several practical limitations remain. As such, finding the appropriate stem cell remains the primary issue in regenerative medicine today. We isolated a pre-placental pluripotent stem cell from the chorionic villi of women with early tubal ectopic pregnancies. Our objectives in this study were (i to identify the characteristics of hTS cells as a potential cell source for therapy; and (ii to test if hTS cells can be used as a potential therapeutic strategy for PD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: hTS cells expressed gene markers of both the trophectoderm (TE and the inner cell mass (ICM. hTS cells exhibited genetic and biological characteristics similar to that of hES cells, yet genetically distinct from placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells. All-trans retinoic acid (RA efficiently induced hTS cells into trophoblast neural stem cells (tNSCs in 1-day. Overexpression of transcription factor Nanog was possibly achieved through a RA-induced non-genomic c-Src/Stat3/Nanog signaling pathway mediated by the subcellular c-Src mRNA localization for the maintenance of pluripotency in tNSCs. tNSC transplantation into the lesioned striatum of acute and chronic PD rats not only improved behavioral deficits but also regenerated dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway, evidenced by immunofluorescent and immunohistological analyses at 18-weeks. Furthermore, tNSCs showed immunological advantages for the application in regenerative medicine. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully isolated and characterized the unique ectopic pregnancy-derived hTS cells. hTS cells are pluripotent stem cells that can be efficiently induced to tNSCs with positive results in PD rat models. Our data suggest that the hTS cell is a dynamic stem cell platform that is potentially suitable for use in disease models, drug discovery, and cell therapy such as PD.

  8. Placental site trophoblastic tumor

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    Jean eBouquet De Jolinière

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Trophoblastic tumors of placental site (PSTT are rare. They represent a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease. (GTD. They occur mainly in women who have a history of miscarriage, termination of pregnancy, or even a normal or pathological ongoing pregnancy. The clinical course is unpredictable. This malignancy has different characteristics from other gestational trophoblastic tumors.Following a clinical case that we encountered and treated, we conducted a literary research and review, focusing primarily on prognostic factors and treatment.

  9. p63 inhibits extravillous trophoblast migration and maintains cells in a cytotrophoblast stem cell-like state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchun; Moretto-Zita, Matteo; Leon-Garcia, Sandra; Parast, Mana M

    2014-12-01

    Proper differentiation of placental epithelial cells, called trophoblast, is required for implantation. Early during placentation, trophoblast cell columns help anchor the developing embryo in the uterine wall. Although proximally continuous with villous cytotrophoblast (CTB) distally, these cells differentiate into invasive extravillous trophoblast. We previously reported that p63, a p53 family member, is highly expressed in proliferative villous CTB and required for induction of the trophoblast lineage in human pluripotent stem cells. We now further explore its function in human trophoblast by using both primary CTB from the early placenta and established trophoblast cell lines. We show that p63 is expressed in epidermal growth factor receptor-positive CTB and that its expression decreases with differentiation into HLA-G(+) extravillous trophoblast. In trophoblast cell lines, p63 is expressed in JEG3 cells but absent from HTR8 cells. Overexpression of p63 in both cell lines enhances cell proliferation and significantly reduces cell migration; conversely, down-regulation of p63 in JEG3 cells reduces cell proliferation and restores cell migration. Analysis of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell adhesion, and matrix degradation pathways shows that p63 blocks epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, promotes a CTB-specific cell adhesion profile, and inhibits expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Taken together, these data show that p63 maintains the proliferative CTB state, at least partially through regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell adhesion, and matrix degradation pathways. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unusual combination of gestational trophoblastic neoplasias: case report

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    Irina Dulce Tapadinhas Matos Ramilo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic disease comprises a heterogeneous group of lesions arising from abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic cells. An elevation of human chorionic gonadotropin after evacuation of a molar pregnancy should suggest the hypothesis of a persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. We present a rare case of coexistence of choriocarcinoma and placental-site trophoblastic tumor in the same tumor, whose diagnosis was made based on the correlation of morphological, microscopic and immunocytochemical studies, due to the difficulty in diagnosing these mixed tumors based on conventional histology only.

  11. Isolation and characterization of human trophoblast side-population (SP) cells in primary villous cytotrophoblasts and HTR-8/SVneo cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Tomoka; Asanoma, Kazuo; Kato, Kiyoko; Fukushima, Kotaro; Tsunematsu, Ryosuke; Hirakawa, Toshio; Matsumura, Sueo; Seki, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Satoru; Wake, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have identified that immature cell populations including stem cells and progenitor cells can be found among "side-population" (SP) cells. Although SP cells isolated from some adult tissues have been reported elsewhere, isolation and characterization of human trophoblast SP remained to be reported. In this study, HTR-8/SVneo cells and human primary villous cytotrophoblasts (vCTBs) were stained with Hoechst 33342 and SP and non-SP (NSP) fractions were isolated using a cell sorter. A small population of SP cells was identified in HTR-8/SVneo cells and in vCTBs. SP cells expressed several vCTB-specific markers and failed to express syncytiotrophoblast (STB) or extravillous cytotrophopblast (EVT)-specific differentiation markers. SP cells formed colonies and proliferated on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells or in MEF conditioned medium supplemented with heparin/FGF2, and they also showed long-term repopulating property. SP cells could differentiate into both STB and EVT cell lineages and expressed several differentiation markers. Microarray analysis revealed that IL7R and IL1R2 were exclusively expressed in SP cells and not in NSP cells. vCTB cells sorted as positive for both IL7R and IL1R2 failed to express trophoblast differentiation markers and spontaneously differentiated into both STB and EVT in basal medium. These features shown by the SP cells suggested that IL7R and IL1R2 are available as markers to detect the SP cells and that vCTB progenitor cells and trophoblast stem cells were involved in the SP cell population.

  12. Caffeine reduces 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in human trophoblast cells through the adenosine A(2B receptor.

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    Saina Sharmin

    Full Text Available Maternal caffeine consumption is associated with reduced fetal growth, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Since there is evidence that decreased placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2 is linked to fetal growth restriction, we hypothesized that caffeine may inhibit fetal growth partly through down regulating placental 11β-HSD2. As a first step in examining this hypothesis, we studied the effects of caffeine on placental 11β-HSD2 activity and expression using our established primary human trophoblast cells as an in vitro model system. Given that maternal serum concentrations of paraxanthine (the primary metabolite of caffeine were greater in women who gave birth to small-for-gestational age infants than to appropriately grown infants, we also studied the effects of paraxanthine. Our main findings were: (1 both caffeine and paraxanthine decreased placental 11β-HSD2 activity, protein and mRNA in a concentration-dependent manner; (2 this inhibitory effect was mediated by the adenosine A(2B receptor, since siRNA-mediated knockdown of this receptor prevented caffeine- and paraxanthine-induced inhibition of placental 11β-HSD2; and (3 forskolin (an activator of adenyl cyclase and a known stimulator of 11β-HSD2 abrogated the inhibitory effects of both caffeine and paraxanthine, which provides evidence for a functional link between exposure to caffeine and paraxanthine, decreased intracellular levels of cAMP and reduced placental 11β-HSD2. Taken together, these findings reveal that placental 11β-HSD2 is a novel molecular target through which caffeine may adversely affect fetal growth. They also uncover a previously unappreciated role for the adenosine A(2B receptor signaling in regulating placental 11β-HSD2, and consequently fetal development.

  13. Persistent trophoblastic tumors

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    M. N. Tikhonovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent trophoblastic tumors (PTT are the most common trofhoblastic tumors, which develop in women when proliferative trophoblastic activ- ity remains after evacuation of hydatidiform mole. The term persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD is also widely used in the world literature. When PTD develops, new tissue is often not obtained. PTD is defined as a plateau or rise of serum β-hCG concentrations in tree subsequent weekly blood samples for 2 consecutive weeks (1, 8, 15 measurement days, the detection of β-hCG rise 6 months after hydatidiform mole evacu- ation. β-hCG is a glycoprotein hormone produced by trophoblastic tissue and a key tumor marker of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD with almost 100 % sensitivity and specificity. A persistent trophoblastic tumor may have the histological features of invasive hydatidiform mole, cho- riocarcinoma or rare forms of trophoblastic disease. PTD is a fatal disease, which occurs in women of reproductive age. PTT is nowadays typi- cally treated with chemotherapy according to international standards for GTD management. In the case of early identification and adequate treatment of PTT the cure rates approach 100 %.

  14. The differential expression of Kiss1, MMP9 and angiogenic regulators across the feto-maternal interface of healthy human pregnancies: implications for trophoblast invasion and vessel development.

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    Mushi Matjila

    Full Text Available Genes involved in invasion of trophoblast cells and angiogenesis are crucial in determining pregnancy outcome. We therefore studied expression profiles of these genes in both fetal and maternal tissues to enhance our understanding of feto-maternal dialogue. We investigated the expression of genes involved in trophoblast invasion, namely Kiss1, Kiss1 Receptor (Kiss1R and MMP9 as well as the expression of angiogenic ligands Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A and Prokineticin-1 (PROK1 and their respective receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and PROK1R across the feto-maternal interface of healthy human pregnancies. The placenta, placental bed and decidua parietalis were sampled at elective caesarean delivery. Real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate transcription, while immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses were utilized to study protein expression. We found that the expression of Kiss1 (p<0.001, Kiss1R (p<0.05 and MMP9 (p<0.01 were higher in the placenta compared to the placental bed and decidua parietalis. In contrast, the expression of VEGF-A was highest in the placental bed (p<0.001. While VEGFR1 expression was highest in the placenta (p<0.01, the expression of VEGFR2 was highest in the placental bed (p<0.001. Lastly, both PROK1 (p<0.001 and its receptor PROK1R (p<0.001 had highest expression in the placenta. Genes associated with trophoblast invasion were highly expressed in the placenta which could suggest that the influence on invasion capacity may largely be exercised at the fetal level. Furthermore, our findings on angiogenic gene expression profiles suggest that angiogenesis may be regulated by two distinct pathways with the PROK1/PROK1R system specifically mediating angiogenesis in the fetus and VEGFA/VEGFR2 ligand-receptor pair predominantly mediating maternal angiogenesis.

  15. Stages of Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors and Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clotting problems caused by the HM. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease ( ... the future. Stages of Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors and Neoplasia Key Points After gestational trophoblastic neoplasia has been ...

  16. General Information about Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clotting problems caused by the HM. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease ( ... the future. Stages of Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors and Neoplasia Key Points After gestational trophoblastic neoplasia has been ...

  17. MTA3 regulates CGB5 and Snail genes in trophoblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Miyazaki, Jun [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Nishizawa, Haruki [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Kurahashi, Hiroki [Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai, E-mail: Kai.Wang@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Impaired MTA3, raised CGB5 and Snail expression are associated with preeclampsia. •Knock-down of MTA3 causes up-regulation of CGB5 and Snail genes in BeWo cells. •MTA3 occupies CGB5 and Snail gene promoters in BeWo cells. -- Abstract: Secreted by the placental trophoblast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important hormone during pregnancy and is required for the maintenance of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that dys-regulation of hCG expression is associated with preeclampsia. However, the exact relationship between altered hCG levels and development of preeclampsia is unknown. Metastasis associated protein 3 (MTA3), a chromatin remodeling protein, is abundantly expressed in the placental trophoblasts, but its function is unknown. In breast cancer, MTA3 has been shown to repress the expression of Snail and cell migration. However, whether MTA3 acts similarly in the trophoblast has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of MTA3 in regulating the hCG β-subunit gene (gene name: CGB5) and Snail expression in the trophoblast cell line, BeWo, as well as its relevance to the high hCG expression levels seen in preeclampsia. First, we investigated MTA3 expression in preeclamptic placenta as compared to normal control placenta via gene expression microarray and qRT-PCR and found that MTA3 was significantly down-regulated, whereas both CGB5 and Snail were up-regulated in preeclamptic placenta. Secondly, we knocked down MTA3 gene in trophoblast cell line BeWo and found Snail and hCG were both up-regulated, suggesting that MTA3 represses Snail and hCG gene expression in trophoblasts. Next, we cloned the CGB5 and Snail promoters into the pGL3-basic vector individually and found that silencing of MTA3 by siRNA resulted in an increase of both CGB5 and Snail promoter activities. To confirm that this MTA3 inhibition is a direct effect, we performed a chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay and found that MTA3

  18. Gestational Trophoblastic Disorders: An Update in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, F T; Katzorke, N; Tempfer, C; Kreimer, U; Bizjak, G I; Fleisch, M C; Fehm, T N

    2015-10-01

    Gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) are a group of pregnancy-related disorders representing rare human tumours. They encompass premalignant disorders including complete (CHM), partial hydatidiform mole (PHM), exaggerated placental site (EPS), and placental-site nodule (PSN) as well as malignant disorders (also known as "gestational trophoblastic neoplasia [GTN]") including invasive mole, choriocarcinoma (CC), placenta-site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT), and epitheloid trophoblastic tumours (ETT) (Fig. 1). Originally, GTD develop from abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue and form botryoid arranged vesicles. Premalignant moles are usually treated by suction curettage while persistent and recurrent moles and malignant forms require systemic therapy with methotrexate or combination chemotherapy consisting of etoposide, actimomycin D, methotrexate, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (EMA-CO). β-human chorion gonadotropin (β-hCG) plays a crucial role in diagnosis and monitoring therapeutic effects. Since the definitive diagnosis cannot be obtained by histology in most cases, persistent or recurrent disease is diagnosed by elevated or persistent serum levels of β-hCG. While curing rates are described to be as high as 98 %, GTD may initially present, recur, or end up as a metastasising systemic disease. This underlines the importance of a regular and consistent follow-up after treatment.

  19. Inhibition of HLA-G expression via RNAi abolishes resistance of extravillous trophoblast cell line TEV-1 to NK lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L J; Han, Z Q; Zhou, H; Zou, L; Zou, P

    2010-06-01

    Remodelling of uterine spiral arteries occurs in the first trimester of pregnancy and involves an expanded and activated population of maternal natural killer (NK) cells in the decidua and extravillous trophoblast cells. Invasive trophoblasts encounter maternal NK cells during their invasion into the uterine tissue, posing the problem of susceptibility to NK lysis. Studies in vitro and in vivo suggested that the expression of HLA-G by invasive extravillous trophoblasts might provide invulnerability to NK cells, while there is still lack of direct evidence of HLA-G knockdown effect on trophoblast/NK interaction. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of down-regulated HLA-G on extravillous trophoblasts. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) vector targeting HLA-G was constructed and transfected into the human first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line TEV-1. Western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that in HLA-G shRNA transfected cells, the expression of HLA-G was significantly decreased. HLA-G expression was also visualised by confocal imaging. The HLA phenotype of TEV-1 cells and inhibitory receptors expression in NK cells were analysed by flow cytometry. A comparison between HLA-G knockdown and non-knockdown cells showed a significant difference in the HLA expression profile without altering HLA-C and HLA-E. Both primary NK cells and NK-92 cell line exhibited potent cytotoxicity against HLA-G knockdown cells via standard 4-h (51)Cr release assays. Expression of ILT2, ILT4 and KIR2DL4 in NK cells was unchanged after 4h of co-culture, while KIR2DL4 expression increased after 48h. We conclude that HLA-G contributes to trophoblast/NK interaction, acting as a key regulator of NK cytolysis in this human extravillous trophoblast cell model. In addition, TEV-1 cells share common HLA phenotype characters with extravillous trophoblast cells, and thus might be used as a good cell model. HLA-C expression in trophoblasts

  20. Glial Cells Missing Homologue 1 Is Induced in Differentiating Equine Chorionic Girdle Trophoblast Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Amanda M.; Miller, Donald; Roberson, Mark S.; Liford, Jenny; Chizmar, Lisay C.; McLaughlin, Kristin E.; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify transcription factors associated with differentiation of the chorionic girdle, the invasive form of equine trophoblast. The expression patterns of five transcription factors were determined on a panel of conceptus tissues from early horse pregnancy. Tissues from Days 15 through 46 were tested. Eomesodermin (EOMES), glial cells missing homologue 1 (GCM1), heart and neural crest derivatives expressed transcript 1 (HAND1), caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), and distal-less homeobox 3 (DLX3) were detected in horse trophoblast, but the expression patterns for these genes varied. EOMES had the most restricted distribution, while DLX3 CDX2, and HAND1 were widely expressed. GCM1 seemed to increase in the developing chorionic girdle, and this was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR assays. GCM1 expression preceded a striking increase in expression of equine chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) in the chorionic girdle, and binding sites for GCM1 were discovered in the promoter region of the CGB gene. GCM1, CGB, and CGA mRNA were expressed preferentially in binucleate cells as opposed to uninucleate cells of the chorionic girdle. Based on these findings, it is likely that GCM1 has a role in differentiation and function of the invasive trophoblast of the equine chorionic girdle and endometrial cups. The equine binucleate chorionic girdle (CG) secreting trophoblast shares molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics with human syncytiotrophoblast and represents a model for studies of human placental function. PMID:18971425

  1. Trophoblastic infiltration in tubal pregnancy evaluated by immunohistochemistry and correlation with variation of Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Danyelle Farias; Elito Júnior, Julio; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Stavale, João Norberto; Camano, Luiz; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate trophoblastic cell proliferation and angiogenesis in tubal pregnancy assessed by immunohistochemical study and their correlation with an average variation of β -hCG in an interval of 48 hours before surgery. Methods. A prospective study was conducted on 18 patients with a diagnosis of tubal pregnancy. The patients were divided into two groups of ectopic pregnancy of which 11 showed rise of β -hCG levels and 7 patients showed declining β -hCG levels in an interval of 48 hours prior to surgery. Trophoblastic cell proliferation and angiogenesis were assessed by Ki-67 and VEGF, respectively. Trophoblastic cell proliferation was assessed by Ki-67 and was classified into three groups (grade I: less than 1/3 of stained nuclei, grade II: 1/3 to 2/3 of the stained nuclei, and grade III: more than 2/3 of the nuclei stained). The cases analyzed for VEGF were divided into three groups (grade I: less than 1/3 of the stained cytoplasm; grade II: 1/3 to 2/3 of the stained cytoplasm; grade III: more than 2/3 of the stained cytoplasm). Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. The mean variation in the serum β -hCG levels in 48 hours in tubal pregnancy patients correlated with trophoblastic cell proliferation assessed by Ki-67 and showed a decline of 13.46% in grade I, a rise of 45.99% in grade II, and ascension of 36.68% in grade III (P = 0.030). The average variation in the serum β -hCG in 48 hours, where angiogenesis was evaluated by VEGF, showed a decline of 18.35% in grade I, a rise of 32.95% in grade II, and ascension of 37.55% in grade III (P = 0.047). Conclusions. Our observations showed a direct correlation of increased levels of serum β -hCG in 48h period prior to surgery with higher trophoblastic cell proliferation assessed by Ki-67 and angiogenesis assessed by VEGF in tubal pregnancy.

  2. Trophoblastic Infiltration in Tubal Pregnancy Evaluated by Immunohistochemistry and Correlation with Variation of Beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Farias Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate trophoblastic cell proliferation and angiogenesis in tubal pregnancy assessed by immunohistochemical study and their correlation with an average variation of β-hCG in an interval of 48 hours before surgery. Methods. A prospective study was conducted on 18 patients with a diagnosis of tubal pregnancy. The patients were divided into two groups of ectopic pregnancy of which 11 showed rise of β-hCG levels and 7 patients showed declining β-hCG levels in an interval of 48 hours prior to surgery. Trophoblastic cell proliferation and angiogenesis were assessed by Ki-67 and VEGF, respectively. Trophoblastic cell proliferation was assessed by Ki-67 and was classified into three groups (grade I: less than 1/3 of stained nuclei, grade II: 1/3 to 2/3 of the stained nuclei, and grade III: more than 2/3 of the nuclei stained. The cases analyzed for VEGF were divided into three groups (grade I: less than 1/3 of the stained cytoplasm; grade II: 1/3 to 2/3 of the stained cytoplasm; grade III: more than 2/3 of the stained cytoplasm. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. The mean variation in the serum β-hCG levels in 48 hours in tubal pregnancy patients correlated with trophoblastic cell proliferation assessed by Ki-67 and showed a decline of 13.46% in grade I, a rise of 45.99% in grade II, and ascension of 36.68% in grade III (P=0.030. The average variation in the serum β-hCG in 48 hours, where angiogenesis was evaluated by VEGF, showed a decline of 18.35% in grade I, a rise of 32.95% in grade II, and ascension of 37.55% in grade III (P=0.047. Conclusions. Our observations showed a direct correlation of increased levels of serum β-hCG in 48h period prior to surgery with higher trophoblastic cell proliferation assessed by Ki-67 and angiogenesis assessed by VEGF in tubal pregnancy.

  3. [Gestational trophoblastic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allias, Fabienne; Bolze, Pierre-Adrien; Gaillot-Durand, Lucie; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan

    2014-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease encompresses a group of interrelated diseases, following a pregnancy after a variable period of time. Hydatiform mole corresponds to premalignant disorders composed of villi with excess of paternal genetic material, with a malignant potential more important for complete mole than partial mole. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblatic tumor and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. Their histological diagnosis may be problematic on curettage material and needs to be correlated to serum hCG level and radiological findings. The use of chemotherapy has dramatically improved the prognosis of these lesions. All patients with this rare disease need to be registered in the national service for gestational trophoblastic disease (http://www.mole-chorio.com), which coordinates their management at the national level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel bridge between oxidative stress and immunity: the interaction between hydrogen peroxide and human leukocyte antigen G in placental trophoblasts during preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Guo-ying; Wang, Jue; Lu, Shou-lian; Cao, Jun; Sun, Li-zhou

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between hydrogen peroxide and human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) in preeclampsia. We explored the correlation between HLA-G and hydrogen peroxide in preeclamptic (n = 30) and normotensive (n = 30) placentas, which was confirmed by in vitro experiments. Furthermore, RNA interference was used to explore the influence of HLA-G on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. We found an inverse correlation between hydrogen peroxide and HLA-G expression in preeclamptic placentas. High levels of hydrogen peroxide could down-regulate HLA-G expression in HTR-8/SVneo. Compared with HLA-G knockdown HTR-8/SVneo, increased proliferation inhibition, higher apoptosis, and decreased cell invasion were found in the cell expressing HLA-G when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Our findings highlight that high levels of hydrogen peroxide can down-regulate HLA-G expression in trophoblasts during preeclampsia and trophoblasts expressing HLA-G are vulnerable to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. H3N2 influenza A virus replicates in immortalized human first trimester trophoblast cell lines and induces their rapid apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Quang Duy; Izumi, Yasuyuki; Komine-Aizawa, Shihoko; Shibata, Toshikatsu; Shimotai, Yoshitaka; Kuroda, Kazumichi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Mor, Gil; Hayakawa, Satoshi

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological data suggested that pandemic influenza increased the risks of spontaneous abortion and premature labor, while seasonal influenza also increased the risk of schizophrenia in adolescence. However, their pathogenesis is so far unknown. The first trimester trophoblast cell lines, namely, Swan71 and HTR8 cells were challenged with A/Udorn/72 influenza virus (H3N2). At indicated time points, cells were examined for expression of influenza proteins. Viral replication in culture media, apoptosis and the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G were also examined. Intracellular localization of viral proteins was observed. Twenty-four hours after inoculation, virus was detected in culture media while most cells fell into apoptosis. During apoptosis, expression of HLA-G was unchanged. We revealed replication of low pathogenic influenza virus in the first trimester trophoblast cell lines. Placental damages are likely to be induced by direct cytopathic effects of influenza virus and subsequent apoptosis rather than down regulation of HLA-G expression and subsequent rejection by maternal immune system.

  6. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression normograms for patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia treated with EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and vincristine) chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lybol, C.; Westerdijk, K.; Sweep, F.C.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background We present normograms for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression in patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) successfully treated with multiagent chemotherapy in order to predict treatment resistance. Patients and methods We collected data for 46 patients

  7. Proteasome-independent degradation of HIV-1 in naturally non-permissive human placental trophoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barré-Sinoussi Françoise

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human placenta-derived cell line BeWo has been demonstrated to be restrictive to cell-free HIV-1 infection. BeWo cells are however permissive to infection by VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1, which enters cells by a receptor-independent mechanism, and to infection by HIV-1 via a cell-to-cell route. Results Here we analysed viral entry in wild type BeWo (CCR5+, CXCR4+ and BeWo-CD4+ (CD4+, CCR5+, CXCR4+ cells. We report that HIV-1 internalisation is not restricted in either cell line. Levels of internalised p24 antigen between VSV-G HIV-1 pseudotypes and R5 or X4 virions were comparable. We next analysed the fate of internalised virions; X4 and R5 HIV-1 virions were less stable over time in BeWo cells than VSV-G HIV-1 pseudotypes. We then investigated the role of the proteasome in restricting cell-free HIV-1 infection in BeWo cells using proteasome inhibitors. We observed an increase in the levels of VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 infection in proteasome-inhibitor treated cells, but the infection by R5-Env or X4-Env pseudotyped virions remains restricted. Conclusion Collectively these results suggest that cell-free HIV-1 infection encounters a surface block leading to a non-productive entry route, which either actively targets incoming virions for non-proteasomal degradation, and impedes their release into the cytoplasm, or causes the inactivation of mechanisms essential for viral replication.

  8. Heat-killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG modulates urocortin and cytokine release in primary trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, E; Torricelli, M; Novembri, R; Borges, L E; Carrarelli, P; Reis, F M; Petraglia, F

    2010-10-01

    A number of studies are showing that probiotic treatment induces an anti-inflammatory state. Intrauterine infection can lead to preterm delivery by modulating immune function and efforts to prevent this condition are ongoing nowadays. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is a probiotic known to ameliorate inflammation by increasing local anti-inflammatory mediators in urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. The present study then analyzed the effect of heat-killed LGG over β-hCG, progesterone, interleukins (IL) 4 and 10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortin (Ucn) release by primary trophoblast cells. Normal human term placentas (n = 6) were collected and purified trophoblast cells were incubated in the presence of LGG, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or either LGG + LPS during 3 h, after which the target substances were quantified by ELISA and real-time PCR. LGG did not affect β-hCG, progesterone, or CRH secretion. Conversely, LGG increased IL-4 protein and mRNA expression (P release at both protein (P release from trophoblast cells, with no change in β-hCG or progesterone release, suggesting that this probiotic may play a role as an immunomodulatory agent in human placenta without altering basic trophoblast functions. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Selenium supplementation induces mitochondrial biogenesis in trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Alisha; Dong, Lan-Feng; Holland, Olivia; Vanderlelie, Jessica; Pasdar, Elham A; Neuzil, Jiri; Perkins, Anthony V

    2015-08-01

    Placental oxidative stress has been implicated in pregnancy complications and previous work has shown that selenium can protect trophoblast mitochondria from oxidative stress. This report examines mitochondrial function and content in trophoblasts supplemented with selenium. Swan-71, JEG-3 and BeWo cells and placental tissue were incubated with sodium selenite or selenomethionine. Mitochondrial function was examined in a respirometer. Mitochondrial content was determined using RT-PCR. The levels of the mitochondrial biogenesis markers selenoprotein H, PGC-1α and NRF-1 was examined by western blotting. Mitochondrial respiration was significantly enhanced post selenium supplementation in cells and tissues. Selenium supplementation increased mitochondrial content and up-regulated mitochondrial biogenesis mediators in cells. These results emphasise the importance of selenium in mitochondrial regeneration in trophoblasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human papillomavirus infects placental trophoblast and Hofbauer cells, but appears not to play a causal role in miscarriage and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambühl, Lea M M; Leonhard, Anne K; Widen Zakhary, Carina; Jørgensen, Annemette; Blaakaer, Jan; Dybkaer, Karen; Baandrup, Ulrik; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Suzette

    2017-10-01

    Recently, an association between human papillomavirus infection and both spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm delivery was suggested. However, the reported human papillomavirus prevalence in pregnant women varies considerably and reliable conclusions are difficult. We aimed to investigate human papillomavirus infection in placental tissue of a Danish study cohort. Furthermore, we studied the cellular localization of human papillomavirus. In this prospective case-control study, placental tissue was analyzed for human papillomavirus infection by nested PCR in the following four study groups: full-term delivery (n = 103), spontaneous preterm delivery (n = 69), elective abortion (n = 54), and spontaneous abortion (n = 44). Moreover, human papillomavirus cellular target was identified using in situ hybridization. Human papillomavirus prevalence in placental tissue was 8.7% in full-term deliveries, 8.8% in spontaneous preterm deliveries, 10.9% in spontaneous abortions, and 20.4% in elective abortions. Twelve different human papillomavirus types were detected, and placental human papillomavirus infection was associated to a disease history of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus DNA was identified in trophoblast cells, cells of the placental villi mesenchyme including Hofbauer cells, and in parts of the encasing endometrium. Placental human papillomavirus infections are not likely to constitute a risk factor for spontaneous preterm labor or spontaneous abortions in the Danish population, although an effect of human papillomavirus DNA in placental cells cannot be excluded. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. [Cells of immune system of mother and trophoblast cells: constructive cooperation for the sake of achievement of the joint purpose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aĭlamazian, E K; Stepanova, O I; Sel'kov, S A; Sokolov, D I

    2013-01-01

    In the present review modern data about change of morfo-functional properties of a trophoblast during pregnancy, and also about influence of the cytokines produced by cells of a microenvironment, including leucocytes of mother, on a functional state of trophoblast is cited. Features of interaction between trophoblast and immune cells of mother are described within physiological pregnancy and within pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia.

  12. GABA A receptor π subunit promotes apoptosis of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblastic cells: Implications in preeclampsia.

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    Lu, Junjie; Zhang, Qian; Tan, Dongmei; Luo, Wenping; Zhao, Hai; Ma, Jing; Liang, Hao; Tan, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions primarily as an inhibitory neurotransmitter through its receptors in the mature central nervous system. The GABA type A receptor π subunit (GABRP) has been identified in the tissues of the reproductive system, particularly in the uterus. In addition, we have previously detected GABRP expression in both human and mouse placentas. To examine the role of GABRP in trophoblastic cell invasion, we constructed a pIRES2-GABRP-EGFP plasmid which was used for the transfection of a human placental cell line derived from first trimester extravillous trophoblasts (HTR-8/SVneo). The number of invaded cells was decreased by GABRP overexpression. Notably, the decrease in the invasive cell number may be due to the increased apoptosis of the HTR-8/SVneo cells following GABRP transfection, which was further confirmed by flow cytometry, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. Based on the increased apoptosis of trophoblastic cells in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE) and the fact that GABRP promotes the apoptosis of trophoblastic cells, we hypothesized that GABRP expression is increased in the placental tissues from patients with PE compared with that in the normal groups and this hypothesis was confirmed by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Taken together, these findings imply that GABRP plays an important role in placentation and this pathway may be a promising molecular target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for PE.

  13. Development of Non-Viral, Trophoblast-Specific Gene Delivery for Placental Therapy.

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    Noura Abd Ellah

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is associated with both short term problems and the fetal programming of adult onset diseases, including an increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Placental insufficiency leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR contributes to the prevalence of diseases with developmental origins. Currently there are no therapies for IUGR or placental insufficiency. To address this and move towards development of an in utero therapy, we employ a nanostructure delivery system complexed with the IGF-1 gene to treat the placenta. IGF-1 is a growth factor critical to achieving appropriate placental and fetal growth. Delivery of genes to a model of human trophoblast and mouse placenta was achieved using a diblock copolymer (pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA complexed to hIGF-1 plasmid DNA under the control of trophoblast-specific promoters (Cyp19a or PLAC1. Transfection efficiency of pEGFP-C1-containing nanocarriers in BeWo cells and non-trophoblast cells was visually assessed via fluorescence microscopy. In vivo transfection and functionality was assessed by direct placental-injection into a mouse model of IUGR. Complexes formed using pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA and CYP19a-923 or PLAC1-modified plasmids induce trophoblast-selective transgene expression in vitro, and placental injection of PLAC1-hIGF-1 produces measurable RNA expression and alleviates IUGR in our mouse model, consequently representing innovative building blocks towards human placental gene therapies.

  14. Overexpression of the Parkinson disease protein DJ-1 and its regulator PTEN in gestational trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Juan; Siu, Michelle Kwan-Yee; Jiang, Li-Li; Mak, Victor Chun-Yin; Ngan, Hextan Yuen-Sheung; Cheung, Annie Nga-Yin

    2010-09-01

    DJ-1 is found to be important in human neurodegenerative diseases and cancers by regulating oxidative damage and apoptosis. DJ-1 is also a regulator of PTEN, a frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in cancers. In this study, we investigated the expression of DJ-1 and PTEN in normal placentas and gestational trophoblastic disease in relation to apoptotic indices and p53 status. A total of 95 trophoblastic samples were retrieved for immunohistochemical study whereas 79 trophoblastic samples, 3 normal trophoblastic and 2 choriocarcinoma cell lines were collected for quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection. There was a significant correlation between DJ-1 and PTEN immunostaining indices in the trophoblastic samples (P=0.013). Significantly higher DJ-1 and PTEN immunoreactivity indices were found in the complete mole (Pgestational trophoblastic disease. Overexpressed DJ-1 may play a role in regulating apoptotic activities of trophoblasts in relation to PTEN and p53.

  15. Is Doppler ultrasound useful for evaluating gestational trophoblastic disease?

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    Lawrence H. Lin

    Full Text Available Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive method for evaluating vascularization and is widely used in clinical practice. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes a group of highly vascularized malignancies derived from placental cells. This review summarizes data found in the literature regarding the applications of Doppler ultrasound in managing patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane and LILACS databases were searched for articles published in English until 2014 using the following keywords: “Gestational trophoblastic disease AND Ultrasonography, Doppler.” Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were separated into the 4 following groups according to the aim of the study. (1 Doppler ultrasound does not seem to be capable of differentiating partial from complete moles, but it might be useful when evaluating pregnancies in which a complete mole coexists with a normal fetus. (2 There is controversy in the role of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. (3 Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia because abnormal myometrial vascularization and lower uterine artery Doppler indices seem to be correlated with invasive disease. (4 Lower uterine artery Doppler indices in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are associated with methotrexate resistance and might play a role in prognosis. CONCLUSION: Several studies support the importance of Doppler ultrasound in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, particularly the role of Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of trophoblastic neoplasia and the chemoresistance of trophoblastic tumors. Doppler findings should be used as ancillary tools, along with human chorionic gonadotropin assessment, in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  16. Is Doppler ultrasound useful for evaluating gestational trophoblastic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lawrence H; Bernardes, Lisandra S; Hase, Eliane A; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana P V

    2015-12-01

    Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive method for evaluating vascularization and is widely used in clinical practice. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes a group of highly vascularized malignancies derived from placental cells. This review summarizes data found in the literature regarding the applications of Doppler ultrasound in managing patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane and LILACS databases were searched for articles published in English until 2014 using the following keywords: "Gestational trophoblastic disease AND Ultrasonography, Doppler." Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were separated into the 4 following groups according to the aim of the study. (1) Doppler ultrasound does not seem to be capable of differentiating partial from complete moles, but it might be useful when evaluating pregnancies in which a complete mole coexists with a normal fetus. (2) There is controversy in the role of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. (3) Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia because abnormal myometrial vascularization and lower uterine artery Doppler indices seem to be correlated with invasive disease. (4) Lower uterine artery Doppler indices in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are associated with methotrexate resistance and might play a role in prognosis. Several studies support the importance of Doppler ultrasound in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, particularly the role of Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of trophoblastic neoplasia and the chemoresistance of trophoblastic tumors. Doppler findings should be used as ancillary tools, along with human chorionic gonadotropin assessment, in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  17. Telomeric NAP1L4 and OSBPL5 of the KCNQ1 cluster, and the DECORIN gene are not imprinted in human trophoblast stem cells.

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    Jennifer M Frost

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomic imprinting of the largest known cluster, the Kcnq1/KCNQ1 domain on mChr7/hChr11, displays significant differences between mouse and man. Of the fourteen transcripts in this cluster, imprinting of six is ubiquitous in mice and humans, however, imprinted expression of the other eight transcripts is only found in the mouse placenta. The human orthologues of the latter eight transcripts are biallelically expressed, at least from the first trimester onwards. However, as early development is less divergent between species, placental specific imprinting may be present in very early gestation in both mice and humans.Human embryonic stem (hES cells can be differentiated to embryoid bodies and then to trophoblast stem (EB-TS cells. Using EB-TS cells as a model of post-implantation invading cytotrophoblast, we analysed allelic expression of two telomeric transcripts whose imprinting is placental specific in the mouse, as well as the ncRNA KCNQ1OT1, whose imprinted expression is ubiquitous in early human and mouse development. KCNQ1OT1 expression was monoallelic in all samples but OSBPL5 and NAP1L4 expression was biallelic in EB-TS cells, as well as undifferentiated hES cells and first trimester human fetal placenta. DCN on hChr12, another gene imprinted in the mouse placenta only, was also biallelically expressed in EB-TS cells. The germline maternal methylation imprint at the KvDMR was maintained in both undifferentiated hES cells and EB-TS cells.The question of placental specific imprinting in the human has not been answered fully. Using a model of human trophoblast very early in gestation we show a lack of imprinting of two telomeric genes in the KCNQ1 region and of DCN, whose imprinted expression is placental specific in mice, providing further evidence to suggest that humans do not exhibit placental specific imprinting. The maintenance of both differential methylation of the KvDMR and monoallelic expression of KCNQ1OT1 indicates that the

  18. Effect of hypoxia on endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NO production, intracellular survival signaling (p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT) and apoptosis in human term trophoblast.

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    Park, Mi-Hye; Galan, Henry L; Arroyo, Juan A

    2011-04-01

    Hypoxia is commonly associated with complicated pregnancies such as intrauterine growth restriction. We evaluated the effects of hypoxia on phospho (p)-eNOS, p-ERK, p-AKT and apoptosis in human trophoblast. Isolated trophoblast were cultured in 21% oxygen or 2% oxygen for 24, 48 and 72 hr. p-eNOS, p-ERK and p-AKT protein were assessed by Western blot and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. NOx was determined in the culture media. Compared to controls, hypoxia-exposed CT showed the following: (1) decreased eNOS at 48 and 72 hr, (2) increased p-eNOS at 48 hr, (3) no differences in total NOx production, (4) increased p-ERK at 24, 48 and 72 hr, (5) increased p-AKT at 24 hr (P Hypoxia increases activation of p-ERK and induces apoptosis of cultured trophoblast. Hypoxia decreases overall total eNOS but increases p-eNOS, which may allow for NO production to be maintained in trophoblast cells. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Up-regulation of lymphocyte antigen 6 complex expression in side-population cells derived from a human trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo.

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    Inagaki, Tetsunori; Kusunoki, Soshi; Tabu, Kouichi; Okabe, Hitomi; Yamada, Izumi; Taga, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Akemi; Makino, Shintaro; Takeda, Satoru; Kato, Kiyoko

    2016-01-01

    The continual proliferation and differentiation of trophoblasts are critical for the maintenance of pregnancy. It is well known that the tissue stem cells are associated with the development of tissues and pathologies. It has been demonstrated that side-population (SP) cells identified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) are enriched with stem cells. The SP cells in HTR-8/SVneo cells derived from human primary trophoblast cells were isolated by FACS. HTR-8/SVneo-SP cell cultures generated both SP and non-SP (NSP) subpopulations. In contrast, NSP cell cultures produced NSP cells and failed to produce SP cells. These SP cells showed self-renewal capability by serial colony-forming assay. Microarray expression analysis using a set of HTR-8/SVneo-SP and -NSP cells revealed that SP cells overexpressed several stemness genes including caudal type homeobox2 (CDX2) and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus D (LY6D) gene was the most highly up-regulated in HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. LY6D gene reduced its expression in the course of a 7-day cultivation in differentiation medium. SP cells tended to reduce its fraction by treatment of LY6D siRNA indicating that LY6D had potential to maintain cell proliferation of HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. On ontology analysis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway was involved in the up-regulated genes on microarray analysis. HTR-SVneo-SP cells showed enhanced migration. This is the first report that LY6D was important for the maintenance of HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. EMT was associated with the phenotype of these SP cells.

  20. Novel expression of EGFL7 in placental trophoblast and endothelial cells and its implication in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Lauretta A; Massimiani, Micol; Sones, Jenny L; Hurtado, Romulo; Salvi, Silvia; Ferrazzani, Sergio; Davisson, Robin L; Campagnolo, Luisa; Stuhlmann, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    The mammalian placenta is the site of nutrient and gas exchange between the mother and fetus, and is comprised of two principal cell types, trophoblasts and endothelial cells. Proper placental development requires invasion and differentiation of trophoblast cells, together with coordinated fetal vasculogenesis and maternal vascular remodeling. Disruption in these processes can result in placental pathologies such as preeclampsia (PE), a disease characterized by late gestational hypertension and proteinuria. Epidermal Growth Factor Like Domain 7 (EGFL7) is a largely endothelial-restricted secreted factor that is critical for embryonic vascular development, and functions by modulating the Notch signaling pathway. However, the role of EGFL7 in placental development remains unknown. In this study, we use mouse models and human placentas to begin to understand the role of EGFL7 during normal and pathological placentation. We show that Egfl7 is expressed by the endothelium of both the maternal and fetal vasculature throughout placental development. Importantly, we uncovered a previously unknown site of EGFL7 expression in the trophoblast cell lineage, including the trophectoderm, trophoblast stem cells, and placental trophoblasts. Our results demonstrate significantly reduced Egfl7 expression in human PE placentas, concurrent with a downregulation of Notch target genes. Moreover, using the BPH/5 mouse model of PE, we show that the downregulation of Egfl7 in compromised placentas occurs prior to the onset of characteristic maternal signs of PE. Together, our results implicate Egfl7 as a possible factor in normal placental development and in the etiology of PE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trophoblast expression dynamics of the tumor suppressor gene gastrokine 2.

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    Fahlbusch, Fabian B; Ruebner, Matthias; Huebner, Hanna; Volkert, Gudrun; Bartunik, Hannah; Winterfeld, Ilona; Hartner, Andrea; Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Noegel, Stephanie C; Marek, Ines; Wachter, David; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kehl, Sven; Rascher, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Gastrokines (GKNs) were originally described as stomach-specific tumor suppressor genes. Recently, we identified GKN1 in extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) of human placenta. GKN1 treatment reduced the migration of the trophoblast cell line JEG-3. GKN2 is known to inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells and may interact with GKN1. Recently, GKN2 was detected in the placental yolk sac of mice. We therefore aimed to further characterize placental GKN2 expression. By immunohistochemistry, healthy first-trimester placenta showed ubiquitous staining for GKN2 at its early gestational stage. At later gestational stages, a more differentiated expression pattern in EVT and villous cytotrophoblasts became evident. In healthy third-trimester placenta, only EVT retained strong GKN2 immunoreactivity. In contrast, HELLP placentas showed a tendency of increased levels of GKN2 expression with a more prominent GKN2 staining in their syncytiotrophoblast. Choriocarcinoma cell lines did not express GKN2. Besides its trophoblastic expression, we found human GKN2 in fibrotic villi, in amniotic membrane and umbilical cord. GKN2 co-localized with smooth muscle actin in villous myofibroblasts and with HLA-G and GKN1 in EVT. In the rodent placenta, GKN2 was specifically located in the spongiotrophoblast layer. Thus, the gestational age-dependent and compartment-specific expression pattern of GKN2 points to a role for placental development. The syncytial expression of GKN2 in HELLP placentas might represent a reduced state of functional differentiation of the syncytiotrophoblast. Moreover, the specific GKN2 expression in the rodent spongiotrophoblast layer (equivalent to human EVT) might suggest an important role in EVT physiology.

  2. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: Clinical and Imaging Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Akram M; Rezvani, Maryam; Haroun, Reham R; Kennedy, Anne M; Elsayes, Khaled M; Olpin, Jeffrey D; Salama, Mohamed E; Foster, Bryan R; Menias, Christine O

    2017-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a spectrum of both benign and malignant gestational tumors, including hydatidiform mole (complete and partial), invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. The latter four entities are referred to as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). These conditions are aggressive with a propensity to widely metastasize. GTN can result in significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Early diagnosis of GTD is essential for prompt and successful management while preserving fertility. Initial diagnosis of GTD is based on a multifactorial approach consisting of clinical features, serial quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) titers, and imaging findings. Ultrasonography (US) is the modality of choice for initial diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole and can provide an invaluable means of local surveillance after treatment. The performance of US in diagnosing all molar pregnancies is surprisingly poor, predominantly due to the difficulty in differentiating partial hydatidiform mole from nonmolar abortion and retained products of conception. While GTN after a molar pregnancy is usually diagnosed with serial β-hCG titers, imaging plays an important role in evaluation of local extent of disease and systemic surveillance. Imaging also plays a crucial role in detection and management of complications, such as uterine and pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas. Familiarity with the pathogenesis, classification, imaging features, and treatment of these tumors can aid in radiologic diagnosis and guide appropriate management. (©)RSNA, 2017.

  3. Enrofloxacin and Toltrazuril Are Able to Reduce Toxoplasma gondii Growth in Human BeWo Trophoblastic Cells and Villous Explants from Human Third Trimester Pregnancy

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    Rafaela J. da Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Classical treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis is based on combination of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine plus folinic acid. Due to teratogenic effects and bone marrow suppression caused by pyrimethamine, the establishment of new therapeutic strategies is indispensable to minimize the side effects and improve the control of infection. Previous studies demonstrated that enrofloxacin and toltrazuril reduced the incidence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of enrofloxacin and toltrazuril in the control of T. gondii infection in human trophoblast cells (BeWo line and in human villous explants from the third trimester. BeWo cells and villous were treated with several concentrations of enrofloxacin, toltrazuril, sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, or combination of sulfadiazine+pyrimethamine, and the cellular or tissue viability was verified. Next, BeWo cells were infected by T. gondii (2F1 clone or the ME49 strain, whereas villous samples were only infected by the 2F1 clone. Then, infected cells and villous were treated with all antibiotics and the T. gondii intracellular proliferation as well as the cytokine production were analyzed. Finally, we evaluated the direct effect of enrofloxacin and toltrazuril in tachyzoites to verify possible changes in parasite structure. Enrofloxacin and toltrazuril did not decrease the viability of cells and villous in lower concentrations. Both drugs were able to significantly reduce the parasite intracellular proliferation in BeWo cells and villous explants when compared to untreated conditions. Regardless of the T. gondii strain, BeWo cells infected and treated with enrofloxacin or toltrazuril induced high levels of IL-6 and MIF. In villous explants, enrofloxacin induced high MIF production. Finally, the drugs increased the number of unviable parasites and triggered damage to tachyzoite structure. Taken together, it can be concluded that

  4. Enrofloxacin and Toltrazuril Are Able to Reduce Toxoplasma gondii Growth in Human BeWo Trophoblastic Cells and Villous Explants from Human Third Trimester Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rafaela J; Gomes, Angelica O; Franco, Priscila S; Pereira, Ariane S; Milian, Iliana C B; Ribeiro, Mayara; Fiorenzani, Paolo; Dos Santos, Maria C; Mineo, José R; da Silva, Neide M; Ferro, Eloisa A V; de Freitas Barbosa, Bellisa

    2017-01-01

    Classical treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis is based on combination of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine plus folinic acid. Due to teratogenic effects and bone marrow suppression caused by pyrimethamine, the establishment of new therapeutic strategies is indispensable to minimize the side effects and improve the control of infection. Previous studies demonstrated that enrofloxacin and toltrazuril reduced the incidence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of enrofloxacin and toltrazuril in the control of T. gondii infection in human trophoblast cells (BeWo line) and in human villous explants from the third trimester. BeWo cells and villous were treated with several concentrations of enrofloxacin, toltrazuril, sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, or combination of sulfadiazine+pyrimethamine, and the cellular or tissue viability was verified. Next, BeWo cells were infected by T. gondii (2F1 clone or the ME49 strain), whereas villous samples were only infected by the 2F1 clone. Then, infected cells and villous were treated with all antibiotics and the T. gondii intracellular proliferation as well as the cytokine production were analyzed. Finally, we evaluated the direct effect of enrofloxacin and toltrazuril in tachyzoites to verify possible changes in parasite structure. Enrofloxacin and toltrazuril did not decrease the viability of cells and villous in lower concentrations. Both drugs were able to significantly reduce the parasite intracellular proliferation in BeWo cells and villous explants when compared to untreated conditions. Regardless of the T. gondii strain, BeWo cells infected and treated with enrofloxacin or toltrazuril induced high levels of IL-6 and MIF. In villous explants, enrofloxacin induced high MIF production. Finally, the drugs increased the number of unviable parasites and triggered damage to tachyzoite structure. Taken together, it can be concluded that enrofloxacin and

  5. ApoE Receptor 2 Mediation of Trophoblast Dysfunction and Pregnancy Complications Induced by Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Victoria; Gelber, Shari E; Vukelic, Milena; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Herz, Joachim; Urbanus, Rolf T; de Groot, Philip G; Natale, David R; Harihara, Anirudha; Redecha, Patricia; Abrahams, Vikki M; Shaul, Philip W; Salmon, Jane E; Mineo, Chieko

    2016-03-01

    Pregnancies in women with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are frequently complicated by fetal loss and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). How circulating antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) cause pregnancy complications in APS is poorly understood. We sought to determine whether the low-density lipoprotein receptor family member apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) mediates trophoblast dysfunction and pregnancy complications induced by aPL. Placental and trophoblast ApoER2 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Normal human IgG and aPL were purified from healthy individuals and APS patients, respectively. The role of ApoER2 in aPL-induced changes in trophoblast proliferation and migration and in kinase activation was assessed using RNA interference in HTR-8/SVneo cells. The participation of ApoER2 in aPL-induced pregnancy loss and IUGR was evaluated in pregnant ApoER2(+/+) and ApoER2(-/-) mice injected with aPL or normal human IgG. We found that ApoER2 is abundant in human and mouse placental trophoblasts and in multiple trophoblast-derived cell lines, including HTR-8/SVneo cells. ApoER2 and its interaction with the cell surface protein β2 -glycoprotein I were required for aPL-induced inhibition of cultured trophoblast proliferation and migration. In parallel, aPL antagonism of Akt kinase activation by epidermal growth factor in trophoblasts was mediated by ApoER2. Furthermore, in a murine passive-transfer model of pregnancy complications of APS, ApoER2(-/-) mice were protected from both aPL-induced fetal loss and aPL-induced IUGR. ApoER2 plays a major role in the attenuation of trophoblast function by aPL, and the receptor mediates aPL-induced pregnancy complications in vivo in mice. ApoER2-directed interventions can now potentially be developed to combat the pregnancy complications associated with APS. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Azithromycin treatment is able to control the infection by two genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii in human trophoblast BeWo cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mayara; Franco, Priscila Silva; Lopes-Maria, Janice Buiate; Angeloni, Mariana Bodini; Barbosa, Bellisa de Freitas; Gomes, Angelica de Oliveira; Castro, Andressa Silva; Silva, Rafaela José da; Oliveira, Fernanda Chaves de; Milian, Iliana Claudia Balga; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Ietta, Francesca; Mineo, José Roberto; Ferro, Eloisa Amália Vieira

    2017-10-01

    Trophoblast infection by Toxoplasma gondii plays a pivotal role in the vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis. Here, we investigate whether the antibiotic therapy with azithromycin, spiramycin and sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine are effective to control trophoblast infection by two Brazilian T. gondii genotypes, TgChBrUD1 or TgChBrUD2. Two antibiotic protocols were evaluated, as follow: i) pre-treatment of T. gondii-tachyzoites with selected antibiotics prior trophoblast infection and ii) post-treatment of infected trophoblasts. The infection index/replication and the impact of the antibiotic therapy on the cytokine milieu were characterized. It was observed that TgChBrUD2 infection induced lower infection index/replication as compared to TgChBrUD1. Regardless the therapeutic protocol, azithromycin was more effective to control the trophoblast infection with both genotypes when compared to conventional antibiotics. Azithromycin induced higher IL-12 production in TgChBrUD1-infected cells that may synergize the anti-parasitic effect. In contrast, the effectiveness of azithromycin to control the TgChBrUD2-infection was not associated with the IL-12 production. BeWo-trophoblasts display distinct susceptibility to T. gondii genotypes and the azithromycin treatment showed to be more effective than conventional antibiotics to control the T. gondii infection/replication regardless the parasite genotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inconformity of CXCL3 plasma level and placenta expression in preeclampsia and its effect on trophoblast viability and invasion.

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    Shunping Gui

    Full Text Available As a member of the chemokine family, CXCL3 was previously known to participate in many pathophysiological events. However, whether CXCL3 stimulates trophoblast invasion as a key process of preeclampsia pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis and determine the effect of CXCL3 on the first trimester trophoblast. Seventy gravidas were included in this study. ELISA was used to detect CXCL3 plasma levels on preeclampsia and normal pregnant groups. CXCL3 protein and mRNA levels were detected via Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR analysis after immunolocalized in human placenta. Moreover, the CXCL3 function in HTR-8/Svneo was analyzed via WST-1 assay, flow cytometry and invasion test. The plasma CXCL3 level in preeclampsia was significantly higher than that in normal pregnancy. CXCL3 expression was observed in the cytoplasm of placental trophoblasts and vascular endothelium in all groups without significant difference between maternal and fetal sides. In addition, placenta CXCL3 expression in severe preeclampsia was significantly lower than those in normal and mild PE groups. Moreover, exogenous CXCL3 can promote the proliferation and invasion of HTR-8/Svneo; however, its effect on apoptosis remains unclear. In summary, a significant abnormality of plasma CXCL3 level and placental CXCL3 expression was discovered in severe preeclampsia; CXCL3 had a function in trophoblast invasion, which indicated its participation in shallow implantation. Therefore CXCL3 might be involved in severe preeclampsia pathogenesis.

  8. Inconformity of CXCL3 plasma level and placenta expression in preeclampsia and its effect on trophoblast viability and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Shunping; Ni, Shanshan; Jia, Jin; Gong, Yunhui; Gao, Linbo; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Rong

    2014-01-01

    As a member of the chemokine family, CXCL3 was previously known to participate in many pathophysiological events. However, whether CXCL3 stimulates trophoblast invasion as a key process of preeclampsia pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis and determine the effect of CXCL3 on the first trimester trophoblast. Seventy gravidas were included in this study. ELISA was used to detect CXCL3 plasma levels on preeclampsia and normal pregnant groups. CXCL3 protein and mRNA levels were detected via Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR analysis after immunolocalized in human placenta. Moreover, the CXCL3 function in HTR-8/Svneo was analyzed via WST-1 assay, flow cytometry and invasion test. The plasma CXCL3 level in preeclampsia was significantly higher than that in normal pregnancy. CXCL3 expression was observed in the cytoplasm of placental trophoblasts and vascular endothelium in all groups without significant difference between maternal and fetal sides. In addition, placenta CXCL3 expression in severe preeclampsia was significantly lower than those in normal and mild PE groups. Moreover, exogenous CXCL3 can promote the proliferation and invasion of HTR-8/Svneo; however, its effect on apoptosis remains unclear. In summary, a significant abnormality of plasma CXCL3 level and placental CXCL3 expression was discovered in severe preeclampsia; CXCL3 had a function in trophoblast invasion, which indicated its participation in shallow implantation. Therefore CXCL3 might be involved in severe preeclampsia pathogenesis.

  9. IGF-II Y LA GONADOTROPINA CORIÓNICA REGULAN LA PROLIFERACIÓN, MIGRACIÓN E INVASIÓN DE CÉLULAS DE TROFOBLASTO HUMANO IGF-II and Chorionic Gonadotropin Regulate Proliferation, Migration and Invasion of Human Trophoblast Cells

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    RICARDO CABEZAS-PEREZ

    Full Text Available Son conocidas las propiedades del factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina tipo II (IGF-II y de la hormona gonadotropina coriónica (hCG en implantación y migración trofoblástica; sin embargo, los mecanismos moleculares a través de los cuales ejercen sus efectos no están completamente caracterizados. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la interacción potencial entre los efectos funcionales de hCG e IGF-II en la regulación de la proliferación, migración e invasión trofoblástica. Utilizando la línea celular HTR-8/SVneo de trofoblasto extravelloso se estableció que IGF-II promueve la proliferación celular y de manera novedosa se demostró que hCG, a concentraciones elevadas, es capaz de estimular la proliferación trofoblástica, a través de un mecanismo independiente al empleado por IGF-II. En contraste, la capacidad invasiva del trofoblasto fue regulada por IGF-II y hCG, planteando la existencia de un efecto aditivo en sus acciones. En conclusión, nuestros resultados demuestran el papel de hCG e IGF-II en la regulación de la proliferación e invasión del trofoblasto y plantean la existencia de interacciones a nivel de sus acciones biológicas, contribuyendo a un mejor entendimiento de la biología del trofoblasto y sus patologías.Both IGF-II and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG are important regulators of human trophoblast migration and implantation; however the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential cross-talk between functional effects of hCG and IGF-II in the regulation of trophoblast proliferation, migration and invasion. Using the HTR-8/SVneo trophobast cell line we found that IGF-II stimulates cell proliferation and, for the first time we demonstrate that hCG at high doses is able to promote trophoblast proliferation through a mechanism independent of IGF-II. In contrast, trophoblast invasiveness was regulated by both IGF-II and hCG and an additive

  10. Apoptotic index for prediction of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Antonio; Maestá, Izildinha; Rocha Soares, Renan; Elias, Kevin M; Custódio Domingues, Maria Aparecida; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2016-09-01

    Although 85% of patients with a complete hydatidiform mole achieve spontaneous remission after a few months, 15% of them will experience gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, which requires chemotherapy. To date, there is no biomarker to predict post-molar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia before the initiation of human chorionic gonadotropin surveillance. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the expression of apoptosis markers in the molar villous trophoblasts and the subsequent development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after the evacuation of a complete hydatidiform mole. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with complete hydatidiform mole who were diagnosed, treated, and followed at the Center of Trophoblastic Diseases (Botucatu/São Paulo State and Rio de Janeiro/Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) from 1995-2014. Patients were divided temporally into derivation (1995-2004) and validation (2005-2014) cohorts. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine tissue expression of the apoptosis inhibitor survivin or the pro-apoptotic enzyme caspase-3. Survivin stains for cytoplasmic and nuclear expression were evaluated independently. Caspase-3 expression was measured as an apoptotic index of positive staining cells over negative staining cells multiplied by 100. Receiver operating characteristic curves were then constructed, and the area under the curve was calculated to test the performance characteristics of the staining to predict the subsequent development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The final study population comprised 780 patients, with 390 patients in each temporal cohort: 590 patients entered spontaneous remission, and 190 patients experienced post-molar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Neither nuclear nor cytoplasmic survivin expression performed well as a predictor of subsequent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The caspase-3 apoptotic index was a strong risk factor for subsequent gestational

  11. Soluble HLA-G regulates motility and invasion of the trophoblast-derived cell line SGHPL-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, James; Whitley, Guy St J; Le Bouteiller, Philippe; Cartwright, Judith E

    2009-06-01

    Soluble human leucocyte antigen-G (sHLA-G) is secreted by extravillous trophoblast (EVT) and has roles in regulating immune cells within the decidua. HLA-G expression on EVT increases as they approach uterine spiral arteries and we have suggested that sHLA-G may be important in the remodelling of these vessels. The autocrine role of sHLA-G in regulating trophoblast function at this critical phase has not been studied. We aimed to investigate the effects of sHLA-G on trophoblast motility, invasion and survival. The human EVT line, SGHPL-4, was stably transfected to over-express sHLA-G (SGHPL-4sG1). Motility and apoptosis were assessed by time-lapse microscopy. Cells were cultured on microcarrier beads embedded in fibrin gels to assess invasion. The effect of sHLA-G expression on motility, invasion and apoptosis in response to stimulation with either hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) was determined. There was no difference in the motility of either SGHPL-4 cells or SGHPL-4sG1 cells in the absence of stimulation. However, sHLA-G inhibited HGF-induced EVT motility. HGF- and EGF-induced invasions were significantly inhibited in SGHPL-4sG1 compared with SGHPL-4 cells. Increased expression of HLA-G had no significant effect on tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha/actinomycin-induced apoptosis. Growth factor-stimulated trophoblast motility and invasion are regulated by sHLA-G, indicating a novel autocrine role. The inhibition of trophoblast invasion at the spiral artery may be important to allow interactions leading to vascular remodelling.

  12. Human papillomavirus infects placental trophoblast and Hofbauer cells, but appears not to play a causal role in miscarriage and preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Leonhard, Anne Katrine; Zakhary, Carina Widen

    2017-01-01

    deliveries, 10.9% in spontaneous abortions, and 20.4% in elective abortions. 12 different HPV-types were detected and placental HPV infection was associated to a disease history of cervical cancer. HPV DNA was identified in trophoblast cells, cells of the placental villi mesenchyme including Hofbauer cells...

  13. Transient DNA damage induced by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1.8 GHz) in the human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cell line evaluated with the alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzellitti, Silvia; Valbonesi, Paola; Ciancaglini, Nicola; Biondi, Carla; Contin, Andrea; Bersani, Ferdinando; Fabbri, Elena

    2010-01-05

    One of the most controversial issue regarding high-frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) is their putative capacity to affect DNA integrity. This is of particular concern due to the increasing use of HF-EMF in communication technologies, including mobile phones. Although epidemiological studies report no detrimental effects on human health, the possible disturbance generated by HF-EMF on cell physiology remains controversial. In addition, the question remains as to whether cells are able to compensate their potential effects. We have previously reported that a 1-h exposure to amplitude-modulated 1.8 GHz sinusoidal waves (GSM-217 Hz, SAR=2 W/kg) largely used in mobile telephony did not cause increased levels of primary DNA damage in human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells. Nevertheless, further investigations on trophoblast cell responses after exposure to GSM signals of different types and durations were considered of interest. In the present work, HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed for 4, 16 or 24h to 1.8 GHz continuous wave (CW) and different GSM signals, namely GSM-217 Hz and GSM-Talk (intermittent exposure: 5 min field on, 10 min field off). The alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate primary DNA damages and/or strand breaks due to uncompleted repair processes in HF-EMF exposed samples. The amplitude-modulated signals GSM-217 Hz and GSM-Talk induced a significant increase in comet parameters in trophoblast cells after 16 and 24h of exposure, while the un-modulated CW was ineffective. However, alterations were rapidly recovered and the DNA integrity of HF-EMF exposed cells was similar to that of sham-exposed cells within 2h of recovery in the absence irradiation. Our data suggest that HF-EMF with a carrier frequency and modulation scheme typical of the GSM signal may affect the DNA integrity.

  14. Genetics and molecular markers in gestational trophoblastic disease with special reference to their clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takao; Wake, Norio

    2003-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) encompasses a diverse group of lesions with specific cytogenetic and molecular pathogenesis. Although cytogenetic studies have been extensively reported, the molecular pathogenesis is poorly understood. We will summarize some of the recent molecular observations and correlate them with the pathology of GTD. Complete mole is androgenetic in origin. Thus, if a monoallelic contribution can be shown in complete mole, this would render the gene susceptible to functional inactivation by 'one-hit' kinetics. Alternatively, uniparental transmission of genes that are subject to parental imprinting in humans would impair their regulation. Loss of NECC1 expression, biallelic deletions at the critical (7p12-7q11.23) region and enhanced H19 expression in choriocarcinoma would reflect the genetic features exhibited by the putative forerunner, complete mole. In addition to the unique genetic features shown in GTD, alterations in gene expression profiles accompanied by malignant conversion of trophoblasts would facilitate the development of choriocarcinogenesis from complete mole. With recent advances in molecular techniques, further work is still necessary to provide a better understanding and useful markers for persistent trophoblastic disease. These may provide useful prognostic indications that may guide the different diagnosis of GTD.

  15. A homodimeric complex of HLA-G on normal trophoblast cells modulates antigen-presenting cells via LILRB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Richard; Gardner, Lucy; Sharkey, Andrew M; Holmes, Nick; Moffett, Ashley

    2007-07-01

    In healthy individuals, the non-classical MHC molecule HLA-G is only expressed on fetal trophoblast cells that invade the decidua during placentation. We show that a significant proportion of HLA-G at the surface of normal human trophoblast cells is present as a disulphide-linked homodimer of the conventional beta(2)m-associated HLA-I complex. HLA-G is a ligand for leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR), which bind much more efficiently to dimeric HLA-G than to conventional HLA-I molecules. We find that a LILRB1-Fc fusion protein preferentially binds the dimeric form of HLA-G on trophoblast cells. We detect LILRB1 expression on decidual myelomonocytic cells; therefore, trophoblast HLA-G may modulate the function of these cells. Co-culture with HLA-G(+) cells does not inhibit monocyte-derived dendritic cell up-regulation of HLA-DR and costimulatory molecules on maturation, but did increase production of IL-6 and IL-10. Furthermore, proliferation of allogeneic lymphocytes was inhibited by HLA-G binding to LILRB1/2 on responding antigen-presenting cells (APC). As HLA-G is the only HLA-I molecule that forms beta(2)m-associated dimers with increased avidity for LILRB1, this interaction could represent a placental-specific signal to decidual APC. We suggest that the placenta is modulating maternal immune responses locally in the uterus through HLA-G, a trophoblast-specific, monomorphic signal present in almost every pregnancy. See accompanying commentary: (http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.200737515).

  16. Clinical utility of hyperglycosylated hCG in serum taken before hydatidiform mole evacuation to predict persistent trophoblastic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duc, H.N.; Trommel, N.E. van; Sweep, C.G.J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is widely used in the management of hydatidiform mole and persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). Studies on hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (invasive trophoblast antigen, ITA) in PTD are limited. In serum samples taken before evacuation

  17. Differences in collagen ultrastructure of human first trimester decidua basalis and parietalis: Implications for trophoblastic invasion of the placental bed

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai Talaulikar, V; Kronenberger, K; Bax, BE; Moss, R; Manyonda, I

    2014-01-01

    AIM:\\ud The human embryo-maternal interface in the first trimester of pregnancy is an area of extensive tissue remodeling. Because collagen is the most abundant constituent of the extracellular matrix of the placental bed, successful invasion must involve its rapid turnover. We compared the nature and distribution of collagen fibrils in decidua basalis and parietalis.\\ud METHODS:\\ud We used a direct-vision hysteroscopic technique to obtain biopsies of the decidua basalis and parietalis from 1...

  18. The Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Importance of metzincin proteases in trophoblast biology and placental development: a focus on ADAM12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Mahroo; Beristain, Alexander G

    2015-04-01

    Placental development is a highly regulated process requiring signals from both fetal and maternal uterine compartments. Within this complex system, trophoblasts, placental cells of epithelial lineage, form the maternal-fetal interface controlling nutrient, gas and waste exchange. The commitment of progenitor villous cytotrophoblasts to differentiate into diverse trophoblast subsets is a fundamental process in placental development. Differentiation of trophoblasts into invasive stromal- and vascular-remodeling subtypes is essential for uterine arterial remodeling and placental function. Inadequate placentation, characterized by defects in trophoblast differentiation, may underlie the earliest cellular events driving pregnancy disorders such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Molecularly, invasive trophoblasts acquire characteristics defined by profound alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization and production of proteolytic factors. To date, most studies have investigated the importance of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their ability to efficiently remodel components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it is now becoming clear that besides MMPs, other related proteases regulate trophoblast invasion via mechanisms other than ECM turnover. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of trophoblast invasion by members of the metzincin family of metalloproteinases. Specifically, we will discuss the emerging roles that A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) play in placental development, with a particular focus on the ADAM subtype, ADAM12. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasm and women living with HIV and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-03

    Jul 3, 2015 ... License. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasm and women living with HIV and/or AIDS. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or mobile device to read online. Introduction. Infection with the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa affected an estimated 22.5 million people, ...

  20. Gestational trophoblastic disease: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchek, Ruth; Wiedaseck, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the different disease entities that fall under the classification of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). The conditions included range from molar pregnancy to the malignant forms of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN). These disorders all arise from abnormal placental trophoblastic development. The different types of GTD, symptomatology, and diagnostic modalities are examined. The various methods of treatment are reviewed. Although the management of GTD and GTN falls outside the scope of midwifery practice, midwives need to be aware of the incidence, risk factors, and symptoms for specific types of GTD in order to be able to diagnose and refer for treatment in a timely manner. Psychosocial aspects that affect the woman who has not only had a pregnancy loss but also may be faced with a life-threatening illness are examined. The role of the midwife in the management, counseling, and follow-up of GTD and GTN is discussed. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  1. Blastocyst elongation, trophoblastic differentiation, and embryonic pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Leann; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi; Viebahn, Christoph

    2008-02-01

    The molecular basis of ungulate and non-rodent conceptus elongation and gastrulation remains poorly understood; however, use of state-of-the-art genomic technologies is beginning to elucidate the mechanisms regulating these complicated processes. For instance, transcriptome analysis of elongating porcine concepti indicates that protein synthesis and trafficking, cell growth and proliferation, and cellular morphology are major regulated processes. Furthermore, potential autocrine roles of estrogen and interleukin-1-beta in regulating porcine conceptus growth and remodeling and metabolism have become evident. The importance of estrogen in pig is emphasized by the altered expression of essential steroidogenic and trophoblast factors in lagging ovoid concepti. In ruminants, the characteristic mononucleate trophoblast cells differentiate into a second lineage important for implantation, the binucleate trophoblast, and transcriptome profiling of bovine concepti has revealed a gene cluster associated with rapid trophoblast proliferation and differentiation. Gene cluster analysis has also provided evidence of correlated spatiotemporal expression and emphasized the significance of the bovine trophoblast cell lineage and the regulatory mechanism of trophoblast function. As a part of the gastrulation process in the mammalian conceptus, specification of the germ layers and hence definitive body axes occur in advance of primitive streak formation. Processing of the transforming growth factor-beta-signaling molecules nodal and BMP4 by specific proteases is emerging as a decisive step in the initial patterning of the pre-gastrulation embryo. The topography of expression of these and other secreted molecules with reference to embryonic and extraembryonic tissues determines their local interaction potential. Their ensuing signaling leads to the specification of axial epiblast and hypoblast compartments through cellular migration and differentiation and, in particular, the

  2. The art of identification of extravillous trophoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, G; Orendi, K; Gauster, M; Siwetz, M; Helige, C; Huppertz, B

    2011-02-01

    Immunohistochemical staining with specific markers for the respective cell type facilitates tracking and identification of cells such as extravillous trophoblast in the uterine wall. Cytokeratin has been recommended as a marker for all kinds of trophoblasts and is commonly used as a marker to identify interstitial as well as endovascular trophoblast. With immunohistochemical double staining of specimens of first trimester placental bed we show that staining with anti-cytokeratin alone is not sufficient to track all routes of trophoblast invasion. Endovascular trophoblasts can be easily mixed up with endoglandular trophoblasts. Thus, additional application of specific markers for extravillous trophoblast such as anti-HLA-G is strongly recommended, ideally in combination with other markers in immunohistochemical or immunofluorescence double staining. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Down-regulated long non-coding RNA MEG3 and its effect on promoting apoptosis and suppressing migration of trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zou, Yanfen; Wang, Wenqi; Zuo, Qing; Jiang, Ziyan; Sun, Ming; De, Wei; Sun, Lizhou

    2015-04-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria twenty weeks into pregnancy. Failure of uterine spiral artery remodeling contributes to preeclampsia's development. The development might be associated with trophoblast cells functioning abnormally. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in many diseases. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3), one of these lncRNAs, might function as a tumor suppressor. Aberrant expression of MEG3 induces prenatal death, and little is known of MEG3's role in preeclampsia. This study aims to identify the role of lncRNA MEG3 on apoptosis and the migration of human trophoblast cells, and to investigate the involvement of lncRNA MEG3 in pathogenic mechanisms underlying preeclampsia. In this study, we found MEG3 levels were down-regulated by approximately 80% in placental samples collected from preeclamptic patients (n = 30) compared to samples collected from normotensive patients (n = 30) by qRT-PCR analysis. By designing RNA interference species to suppress MEG3 and specific plasmids designed to over-express MEG3, we explored the role of MEG3 on the functions of two trophoblast cell-lines, HTR-8/SVneo and JEG3 cells. Over-expression of MEG3 reduced apoptosis and promoted migration of HTR-8/SVneo and JEG3 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of endogenous MEG3 increased apoptosis and decreased migration of HTR-8/SVneo and JEG3 cells. Additionally, lncRNA MEG3 influenced expression of NF-κB, Caspase-3, and Bax protein expressions in trophoblast cells. Our findings highlight that abnormal levels of lncRNA MEG3 might lead to aberrant conditions in HTR-8/SVneo and JEG3 trophoblast cells, which might be associated with uterine spiral artery remodeling failure and its contribution to preeclampsia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Integrin αVβ3 and αVβ5 are required for leukemia inhibitory factor-mediated the adhesion of trophoblast cells to the endometrial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Wook; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hee-Jung; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-01-22

    The embryo implantation including adhesion between trophoblast and endometrium is a crucial process for the successful pregnancy. LIF and adhesion molecules including integrins are known as significant factors for embryo implantation. However, the function of LIF on the regulation of adhesion molecule expression and promotion of trophoblast adhesion to endometrial cells has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that LIF significantly induced mRNA expression of ITGAV, ITGB3, and ITGB5 in endometrial cells, as evidenced by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analysis. Based on the results from treatment of antagonist for LIF receptor (hLA), LIF positively regulates expression of integrin αV, β3, and β5, and adhesion of the human trophectoderm-derived JAr cells to endometrial Ishikawa cells. Furthermore, the adhesion between trophoblastic cells and LIF-stimulated endometrial cells was significantly reduced by neutralization of LIF-mediated integrin β3 and β5 expression on endometrial cell surface with integrin subunit β3 and β5 antibodies. Taken together, we firstly demonstrate that LIF enhances the adhesion of trophoblastic cells to endometrial cells by up-regulating expression of integrin heterodimer αVβ3 and αVβ5, indicating the promotion of endometrial receptivity for embryo implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ADAM28 localizes to HLA-G+ trophoblasts and promotes column cell outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, L C; Le, H T; Mara, D L; Beristain, A G

    2017-07-01

    Trophoblast progenitor cell differentiation towards the extravillous trophoblast (EVT) lineage initiates within proximal regions of anchoring columns of first trimester placental villi. While molecular processes controlling the initial stages of progenitor cell differentiation along the EVT pathway have been described, much remains unknown about factors important in distal column cell differentiation into invasive EVTs. ADAMs are proteases that regulate growth factor signaling, cell-matrix adhesion, and matrix proteolysis, and thus impact many processes relevant in placentation. Global gene expression studies identified the ADAM subtype, ADAM28, to be highly expressed in EVT-like trophoblasts, suggesting that it may play a role in EVT function. This study aims to test the functional importance of ADAM28 in column cell outgrowth and maintenance. ADAM28 mRNA levels and protein localization were determined by qPCR and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses in purified placental villi cell populations and tissues. ADAM28 function in trophoblast column outgrowth was examined using ADAM28-targetting siRNAs in Matrigel-imbedded placental explant cultures. Within placental villi, ADAM28 mRNA levels were highest in HLA-G+ column trophoblasts, and consistent with this, ADAM28 was preferentially localized to HLA-G+ trophoblasts within distal anchoring columns and decidual tissue. siRNA-directed loss of ADAM28 impaired trophoblast column outgrowth and resulted in increased apoptosis in matrix-invading trophoblasts. Our findings suggest that ADAM28 promotes column outgrowth by providing survival cues within anchoring column cells. This study also provides insight into a possible role for ADAM28 in driving differentiation of column trophoblasts into invasive HLA-G+ EVT subsets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quo vadis, trophoblast? Exploring the new ways of an old cell lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewlo, Sascha; Armant, D Randall

    2017-12-01

    Trophoblast cells are the first embryonic lineage to differentiate during human development, and are needed to sustain fetal life through their role in constructing a placenta. As the fetus grows, the trophoblast rapidly expands and further differentiates to produce an extravillous subtype that invades the maternal tissues. Some of the extravillous trophoblast cells find their way into the reproductive tract, and can be safely captured by noninvasive collection from the endocervical canal, similarly to a Pap smear. We are developing a new technology for investigating trophoblast cells residing in the cervix to better understand their development, and to glean information from them about pregnancy status. Trophoblast retrieval and isolation from the cervix (TRIC) efficiently isolates hundreds of trophoblast cells without limitations due to early gestational age, maternal obesity, or uteroplacental insufficiency disorders. Cells that appear to be extravillous trophoblast, based on their molecular phenotype, can be purified from Pap smears obtained between 5 and 20 weeks of gestation, using magnetic nanoparticles coupled to an antibody recognizing HLA-G that they specifically produce. Information about fetal genotype and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been obtained using TRIC, and could one day provide assessment of maternal and fetal risk of disease. As perinatal interventions for placental disorders and inherited congenital disorders emerge, TRIC could provide a key diagnostic tool for personalize precision pregnancy management. Copyright © 2017 IFPA, Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide suppresses the migration and invasion of human extravillous trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells by down-regulating MMP2 through inhibition of FAK/SRC/PI3K/AKT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Wang, Weiping; Ao, Lin; Wang, Zhi; Hao, Xianglin; Zhang, Huidong

    2017-07-01

    Moderate invasion of trophoblasts into the endometrium is crucial for successful pregnancy. Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) is a carcinogenic metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene which causes various diseases. We investigated the effects of BPDE on migration and invasion of trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells. Migration and invasion of cells exposed to 0.25-1.0μM BPDE for 24h were significantly inhibited. Moreover, tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) was also significantly reduced after incubation with HTR-8/SVneo cells treated with 0.5-1.0μM BPDE. The protein and mRNA levels of FAK, SRC, PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and its activity, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) significantly decreased with increasing BPDE concentration. The presence of SC79, activator of AKT, partially attenuates the inhibition effect of BPDE on migration and invasion, confirming the involvement of AKT pathway. Thus, BPDE suppresses migration and invasion of human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells by inhibiting the expression of FAK, SRC and PI3K, consequently down-regulating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This study reveals the mechanism of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-inhibited migration and invasion of trophoblast, and enhanced our experimental understanding of the adverse effects of PAHs on embryo implantation in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The isolation and characterization of a novel telomerase immortalized first trimester trophoblast cell line, Swan 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straszewski-Chavez, S L; Abrahams, V M; Alvero, A B; Aldo, P B; Ma, Y; Guller, S; Romero, R; Mor, G

    2009-11-01

    Studies using first trimester trophoblast cells may be limited by the inability to obtain patient samples and/or adequate cell numbers. First trimester trophoblast cell lines have been generated by SV40 transformation or similar methods, however, this approach is known to induce phenotypic and karyotypic abnormalities. The introduction of telomerase has been proposed to be a viable alternative for the immortalization of primary human cells. To investigate whether telomerase-induced immortalization might be a more feasible approach for the generation of first trimester trophoblast cell lines, we isolated primary trophoblast cells from a 7-week normal placenta and infected the cells with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Although this hTERT-infected first trimester trophoblast cell line, which we have named Swan 71, has been propagated for more than 100 passages, it still has attributes that are characteristic of primary first trimester trophoblast cells. The Swan 71 cells are positive for the expression of cytokeratin 7, vimentin and HLA-G, but do not express CD45, CD68 or the Fibroblast Specific Antigen (FSA), CD90/Thy-1. In addition, we also demonstrated that the Swan 71 cells secrete fetal fibronectin (FFN) as well as low levels of human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG). Moreover, the Swan 71 cells exhibit a cytokine and growth factor profile that is similar to primary trophoblast cells and are resistant to Fas, but not TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. This suggests that the Swan 71 cells may represent a valuable model for future in vitro trophoblast studies.

  9. The role of surgery in the management of women with gestational trophoblastic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LANA DE LOURDES AGUIAR LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Gestational Trophoblastic Disease includes an interrelated group of diseases originating from placental tissue, with distinct behaviors concerning local invasion and metastasis. The high sensitivity of the serial dosages of human chorionic gonadotrophin, combined with advances in chemotherapy treatment, have made gestational trophoblastic neoplasia curable, most often through chemotherapy. However, surgery remains of major importance in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease, improving their prognosis. Surgery is necessary in the control of the disease's complications, such as hemorrhage, and in cases of resistant/relapsed neoplasia. This review discusses the indications and the role of surgical interventions in the management of women with molar pregnancy and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  10. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more...... invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma...... into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion...

  11. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease - Clinicopathological Study at Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Sunil Vitthalrao; Aher, Vidhya; Gadhiya, Suchi; Jagtap, Swati Sunil

    2017-08-01

    Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is a term used for a group of pregnancy-related tumours. These consist of various tumours and tumour like lesions characterized by proliferation of trophoblastic tissue. Amongst GTD, hydatidiform moles are the most common form. These lesions sometimes may develop into invasive moles, or, in rare cases, into choriocarcinoma. To study the clinicopathologic characteristics and prevalence of different forms of gestational trophoblastic disease in a tertiary care hospital. The present study was descriptive, observational, analytical type done in Department of Pathology at tertiary care hospital from May 2012 to April 2016. All cases clinically suspected of GTD were included and confirmation was done by histopathological study on H&E stained slides. The cases of GTD were classified according to WHO classification. Detailed histomorphological features and beta human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) levels were correlated. During study period, 18345 deliveries were reported; out of which 77 cases were diagnosed as GTD. Almost 97.40% cases were of hydatidiform moles, 1.30% cases of choriocarcinoma and 1.30% cases of Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumour (PSTT). Among the cases of hydatidiform mole 57.34% were complete mole and 41.33% cases were of partial mole. The common clinical presentation was per vaginal bleeding and amenorrhea. The blood group A was most commonly observed in patient (49.35%). In majority of cases beta hCG levels were between 50,000 to 100000 mIU/ml. The correlation between beta hCG level and GTD were done. Pregnant females clinically presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding must be evaluated for GTD. Histopathological examination is helpful for confirmatory diagnosis. Follow up of such patients is essential for early detection of malignant trophoblastic tumours.

  12. Early and late half-life of human chorionic gonadotropin as a predictor of persistent trophoblast after laparoscopic conservative surgery for an ectopic pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Billieux, Marie-Hélène

    2003-01-01

    Cette étude a été effectuée dans le but de déterminer si le calcul de la 1ère ou 2ème demi-vie de l'hormone chorionogonadotrophique (hCG) permettait d'identifier la présence de trophoblaste persistant après traitement chirurgical conservateur de grossesse extra-utérine par laparoscopie. Après un abortus ou un accouchement, l'hCG décroît, dans la circulation sanguine, selon une cinétique de 1er ordre, caractérisée par une disparition rapide (1ère demi-vie) puis plus lente (2ème demi-vie). Entr...

  13. Early and late half-life of human chorionic gonadotropin as a predictor of persistent trophoblast after laparoscopic conservative surgery for an ectopic pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Billieux, Marie-Hélène; Bischof, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Cette étude a été effectuée dans le but de déterminer si le calcul de la 1ère ou 2ème demi-vie de l'hormone chorionogonadotrophique (hCG) permettait d'identifier la présence de trophoblaste persistant après traitement chirurgical conservateur de grossesse extra-utérine par laparoscopie. Après un abortus ou un accouchement, l'hCG décroît, dans la circulation sanguine, selon une cinétique de 1er ordre, caractérisée par une disparition rapide (1ère demi-vie) puis plus lente (2ème demi-vie). Entr...

  14. Radiology of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, S.D. [Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Lim, A.K. [Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Seckl, M.J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Blunt, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mitchell, A.W. [Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: amitchell@hhnt.org

    2006-04-15

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) encompasses a broad spectrum of placental lesions from the pre-malignant hydatidiform mole (complete and partial) through to the malignant invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and rare placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT). Ultrasound remains the radiological investigation of choice for initial diagnosis, and it can also predict invasive and recurrent disease. Magnetic resonance imaging is of invaluable use in assessing extra-uterine tumour spread, tumour vascularity, and overall staging. Positron emission tomography and computed tomography undoubtedly have a role in recurrent and metastatic disease, while angiography has a place in disease and complication management. This review will describe the relevant pathophysiology and natural history of GTN, and the use of imaging techniques in the diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  15. Uterine Natural Killer Cells: Functional Distinctions and Influence on Pregnancy in Humans and Mice

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    Francesco Colucci

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of development and function of natural killer (NK cells has progressed significantly in recent years. However, exactly how uterine NK (uNK cells develop and function is still unclear. To help investigators that are beginning to study tissue NK cells, we summarize in this review our current knowledge of the development and function of uNK cells, and what is yet to be elucidated. We compare and contrast the biology of human and mouse uNK cells in the broader context of the biology of innate lymphoid cells and with reference to peripheral NK cells. We also review how uNK cells may regulate trophoblast invasion and uterine spiral arterial remodeling in human and murine pregnancy.

  16. Fatal Cases of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia in a National Trophoblastic Disease Reference Center in Dakar Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Mamour; Ndiaye-Gueye, Mame Diarra; Kane Gueye, Serigne Modou; Moreau, Jean Charles

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze deaths after gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and to determine the factors of treatment failure. This is a retrospective study in Aristide Le Dantec teaching Hospital in Dakar, Senegal, between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2014. We took into account socio-epidemiological characteristics of patients, initial diagnosis, time between uterine evacuation and admission, time to onset of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), treatment received (deadlines, protocols), difficulties experienced in the diagnosis and the initiation of treatment and survival. In total, 1044 patients were admitted during the study period; 164 cases of GTN were diagnosed (15.7%); and 21 deaths occurred leading to a specific lethality of 12.8%. The average age was 30 years. Almost all patients (n = 18; 85.7%) had low income or no income. Eight out of 21 patients (38.1%) were seen in our department after GTN onset. The mean time to onset of GTN of all patients was 22.1 weeks. For 66.6%, histology was not available; the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole was made on the clinical history and sonographic features and GTN on human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) evolution and ultrasound findings. None of the patients had regular chemotherapy due to financial reasons. Patients who died within 3 months after diagnosis had metastatic tumors (7 of 21). All these women had resistance to treatment or progressed after three courses of chemotherapy. Ten of the 12 women with high-risk GTN were not treated with multi-agent chemotherapy (EMA-CO) for purely financial reasons. The high incidence and mortality require a profound reorganization of our health system and a high awareness of practitioners to refer to time or to declare all suspected cases of hydatidiform mole or gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  17. Trophoblast subtype-specific EGFR/ERBB4 expression correlates with cell cycle progression and hyperplasia in complete hydatidiform moles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Valerie; Plessl, Kerstin; Fuchs, Roman; Dekan, Sabine; Milla, Stephanie K; Haider, Sandra; Fiala, Christian; Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Do trophoblast subtypes differ in their expression of erythroblastic leukaemia viral oncogene homologue (ERBB) receptor family members and responsiveness towards specific growth factor ligands? Our data reveal a reciprocal expression pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ERBB4 in proliferative and ERBB2/ERBB3 in invasive trophoblast subtypes, as well as a restricted responsiveness to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heparin-binding (HB)-EGF. EGFR is expressed by villous cytotrophoblasts (vCTBs), but absent from extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs), which specifically up-regulate ERBB2. Tissue samples of human first trimester placentae (n = 50) and deciduae (n = 5) obtained from elective pregnancy terminations were used to study trophoblast subtype-specific ERBB receptor expression and responsiveness to recombinant human EGF and HB-EGF. Age-matched complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) placentae (n = 12) were assessed for EGFR and ERBB4 expression in proliferation-competent regions. ERBB receptor expression was analysed in primary trophoblast cell isolates by means of microarray, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, as well as immunofluorescence stainings of placental and decidual tissue sections. EGF and HB-EGF were tested for their potential to activate ERBB receptors in purified EGFR(+) and HLA-G(+) trophoblasts. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assays were performed to study the effect of both ligands on the proliferative capacity of primary trophoblasts as well as of vCTBs and proximal cell column trophoblasts (pCCTs) in placental floating explants. Finally, the average number of EGFR(+) vCTB and pCCT layers was determined in CHM placentae and compared with healthy age-matched controls. Proliferative vCTBs and pCCTs co-express EGFR and ERBB4, but are devoid of ERBB2 and ERBB3. In contrast, HLA-G(+) trophoblast subtypes exhibit an EGFR/ERBB4(-) and ERBB2/ERBB3(+) phenotype. EGF and HB-EGF activate EGFR, ERBB4, AKT and extracellular signal

  18. Placental Trophoblast Responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis Mediated by Toll-like Receptor-2 and -4

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    Banun Kusumawardani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Trophoblast participates in preventing allorecognition and controlling pathogens that compromise fetal wellbeing. Toll-like receptors recognize conserved sequences on the pathogens surface and trigger effector cell functions. Porphyromonas gingivalis is thought to spread to the umbilical cord and cause fetal growth restriction. Objective: To characterize expression and function of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in trophoblast cells from Porphyromonas gingivalisinfected pregnant rats. Methods: Live Porphyromonas gingivalis were challenged into the maxillary first molar subgingival sulcus of female rats before and/or during pregnancy and sacrified on gestational day (GD 14 and 20. Porphyromonas gingivalis was detected by API-ZYM system in the maternal blood of the retro-orbital venous plexus and the umbilical cord. TLR-2 and TLR-4 expressions in trophoblast cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: Porphyromonas gingivalis was first detected in the maternal blood and finally spread to the umbilical cord. Syncytiotrophoblast, spongitrophoblast and trophoblastic giant cell in treated groups had significantly higher expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 than control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Syncytiotrophoblast, spongitrophoblast and trophoblastic giant cell are able to recognize Porphyromonas gingivalis through TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression. The ligation of TLR-2 and TLR-4 promoted cytokine production and induced trophoblast cell death. These findings strengthen links between periodontal disease and fetal growth restriction.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.150

  19. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells and extracts derived from the placenta on trophoblast invasion and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Ho; Jung, Jieun; Na, Kyu-Hwan; Cho, Kyung Jin; Yoon, Tae Ki; Kim, Gi Jin

    2014-01-15

    Tightly regulated trophoblast invasion and immunomodulation at the feto-maternal interface is important during implantation and fetal development. Although trophoblasts as a pregnancy-specific cell has been reported to be a key factor capable of regulating certain events during implantation, however, its regulatory mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the effects of chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CP-MSCs) and human placenta extract (hPE) isolated from human normal placentas on trophoblasts invasion and immune responses. We investigated the effects of CP-MSCs, hPE treatment, and their combination on trophoblasts invasion and on T-cells suppression through human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) expression. Trophoblasts invasion was significantly increased by co-culture of CP-MSCs or by hPE treatment (Ptrophoblasts and T-cells depending on CP-MSCs co-culture and hPE treatment. Interestingly, the concentration of soluble HLA-G was increased by CP-MSCs co-culture, by hPE treatment and by combination of them on trophoblasts and activated T-cells (Ptrophoblasts invasion and T-cell by alteration of HLA-G expression. These results will provide understandings of trophoblasts invasion and the immunological network at the feto-maternal interface during pregnancy and contribute to the foundation of a new treatment strategy for pregnancy disorders.

  20. A placental protective role for trophoblast-derived TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, X; Williams, J L R; Greenwood, S L; Baker, P N; Aplin, J D; Crocker, I P

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies show that apoptosis, programmed cell death, plays an important role in the normal development of the human placenta and that an altered balance between proliferation and apoptosis of villous trophoblasts is associated with abnormal pregnancies. The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a molecule belonging to TNF superfamily. The role of TRAIL and its Death Receptor 5 (DR5) in regulating villous trophoblast cell turnover in normal and pathologic pregnancies remains to be explored. In order to elucidate the role of TRAIL in the regulation of placental growth, primary cytotrophoblast cells were isolated from normal term placentas (n=13) and cultured for 18 and 66h to generate mononucleate and multinucleate trophoblasts, respectively. The protein expression and localisation of TRAIL and DR5 were determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Secreted sTRAIL was also measured by ELISA. Trophoblast apoptosis was measured by TUNEL in the presence of recombinant TRAIL (rTRAIL), and DR5 relocalisation was assessed by immunostaining after 18h exposure to TNFalpha. We demonstrated that TRAIL protein expression and the secretion of soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) were down-regulated in syncytialised villous trophoblasts and that sTRAIL was independent of biochemical differentiation, as TRAIL-neutralizing antibody (2E5) failed to influence hCG production. TRAIL immunoreactivity was detected in mono- and multinucleated trophoblast cells and localised to the cytoplasm and cellular membranes -- more intense staining was associated with apoptotic nuclei. rTRAIL failed to induce apoptosis in trophoblasts cells owing to the nuclear localisation of DR5. However, TNFalpha treatment caused the redistribution of intracellular DR5 to the cell surface, potentiating apoptotic susceptibly to exogenously administered rTRAIL. These findings highlight a mechanism by which TRAIL and DR5 serve to protective trophoblasts in normal development, but may be activated in

  1. Mechanisms of trophoblast migration, endometrial angiogenesis in preeclampsia: The role of decorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Peeyush K; Nandi, Pinki

    2016-03-03

    The objective of the present review is to synthesize the information on the cellular and molecular players responsible for maintaining a homeostatic balance between a naturally invasive human placenta and the maternal uterus in pregnancy; to review the roles of decorin (DCN) as a molecular player in this homeostasis; to list the common maladies associated with a break-down in this homeostasis, resulting from a hypo-invasive or hyper-invasive placenta, and their underlying mechanisms. We show that both the fetal components of the placenta, represented primarily by the extravillous trophoblast, and the maternal component represented primarily by the decidual tissue and the endometrial arterioles, participate actively in this balance. We discuss the process of uterine angiogenesis in the context of uterine arterial changes during normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. We compare and contrast trophoblast growth and invasion with the processes involved in tumorigenesis with special emphasis on the roles of DCN and raise important questions that remain to be addressed. Decorin (DCN) is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan produced by stromal cells, including dermal fibroblasts, chondrocytes, chorionic villus mesenchymal cells and decidual cells of the pregnant endometrium. It contains a 40 kDa protein core having 10 leucine-rich repeats covalently linked with a glycosaminoglycan chain. Biological functions of DCN include: collagen assembly, myogenesis, tissue repair and regulation of cell adhesion and migration by binding to ECM molecules or antagonising multiple tyrosine kinase receptors (TKR) including EGFR, IGF-IR, HGFR and VEGFR-2. DCN restrains angiogenesis by binding to thrombospondin-1, TGFβ, VEGFR-2 and possibly IGF-IR. DCN can halt tumor growth by antagonising oncogenic TKRs and restraining angiogenesis. DCN actions at the fetal-maternal interface include restraint of trophoblast migration, invasion and uterine angiogenesis. We demonstrate that DCN overexpression in

  2. Villous explant culture using early gestation tissue from ongoing pregnancies with known normal outcomes: the effect of oxygen on trophoblast outgrowth and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeho, S K M; Park, J H; Rowe, J; Morris, J M; Gallery, E D M

    2008-05-01

    Early placental and embryo development occur in a physiologically low oxygen environment, with a rise in oxygen tension within the placenta towards the end of the first trimester. Oxygen is implicated in the regulation of trophoblast differentiation and invasion. This study examined the effects of oxygen tension on extravillous trophoblast outgrowth and migration from normal pregnancies free of significant pathology. Early gestation villous tissue (11-14 weeks gestation), obtained by chorionic villus sampling, was cultured in 3 or 20% oxygen. Maternal and fetal outcomes were ascertained for all samples. The frequency and amount of trophoblast outgrowth and migration from villi were measured for up to 192 h. Significantly fewer explants produced outgrowths in 3% compared with 20% oxygen. The number of sites of trophoblast outgrowth and the extent of migration were also significantly less in 3% compared with 20% oxygen. In vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation further reduced trophoblast growth compared with 3% oxygen alone. HLA-G expression in extravillous trophoblasts was not affected by oxygen tension, with HLA-G positive extravillous trophoblasts being universally Ki67 negative. Human placental villi and extravillous trophoblasts in the late first trimester of pregnancy are sensitive to oxygen tension, with low oxygen inhibiting extravillous trophoblast outgrowth and migration.

  3. Optimal management of low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S; Horowitz, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    Low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is a highly curable form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that arises largely from molar pregnancy and, on rare occasions, from other types of gestations. Risk is defined as the risk of developing drug resistance as determined by the WHO Prognostic Scoring System. All patients with non-metastatic disease and patients with risk scores disease. The sequential use of methotrexate and actinomycin D is associated with a complete remission rate of 80%. The most commonly utilized regimen for the treatment of patients resistant to single-agent chemotherapy is a multiagent regimen consisting of etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, vincristine and cyclophosphamide. The measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin provides an accurate and reliable tumor marker for diagnosis, monitoring the effects of chemotherapy and follow-up to determine recurrence. Pregnancy is allowed after 12 months of normal serum tumor marker. Pregnancy outcomes are similar to those of normal population.

  4. Management of Chemoresistant and Quiescent Gestational Trophoblastic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Siew-Fei; Chan, Karen K L

    2014-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is highly chemosensitive and has a high cure rate. Since the introduction of chemotherapy, reliable measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels, and individualised risk-based therapy into the management of GTN, almost all low-risk and more than 80 % of high-risk GTN cases are curable. However, approximately 25 % of high-risk GTN developed resistance to chemotherapy or relapsed after completion of initial therapy, which often necessitate salvage combination chemotherapy. On the other end of the spectrum, a proportion of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) have persistently low levels of hCG, without clinical or radiological evidence of disease, a condition called quiescent GTD. Recently, measurement of hyperglycosylated hCG has been proposed for the management of patients with quiescent GTD. Although representing a small proportion of GTD cases, the management of patients with chemoresistant and quiescent GTD often poses challenges to medical practitioners.

  5. Presentation of Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumor with Amenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Behnamfar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental site throphoblastic tumor (PSTT is a rare manifestation of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that may complicate any type of pregnancy. The disease is unique from other type, and is defined by slow growth, low human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG serum levels, the late-onset metastatic potential, and most significantly, insensitivity to chemotherapy. We describe a case of a 31-year-old woman with prolonged amenorrhea and slightly elevated serum beta hCG (βhCG level, referred for termination of abnormal pregnancy. During curettage, necrotic tissue was removed and severs vaginal bleeding was controlled with medical therapy. Histology examination showed neoplastic intermediate trophoblastic cells with invasion to the vessel wall compatible with PSTT. After that, hysterectomy was down and serum βhCG declined to undetectable level 2 weeks after surgery and was followed for 2 years without complication.

  6. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Diagnosis Delayed by the Hook Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormano, Julia; Mackay, Gillian; Holschneider, Christine

    2015-10-01

    A "hook effect" resulting from saturation of antibodies used in pregnancy tests can occur at human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels above 500,000 milliinternational units/mL, resulting in falsely negative values. A 34-year-old woman, gravida 5 para 3, presented to the emergency department after heavy bleeding. Ultrasonogram revealed a uterine mass, urine pregnancy test result was negative, and endometrial biopsy inconclusive. The patient was discharged and presented 10 days later with recurrent bleeding. Urine pregnancy test result was again negative, but serum hCG was 581 milliinternational units/mL. Serial dilution revealed an actual hCG higher than 5 million milliinternational units/mL. She was diagnosed with gestational trophoblastic disease. Awareness of the risk of a false-negative pregnancy test result when hCG levels are extremely high may prevent delayed diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease.

  7. Downregulated miR-195 detected in preeclamptic placenta affects trophoblast cell invasion via modulating ActRIIA expression.

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    Yang Bai

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a pregnancy-specific syndrome manifested by on-set of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Abnormal placenta development has been generally accepted as initial cause of the disorder. Recently, miR-195 was found to be down-regulated in preeclamptic placentas compared with normal pregnant ones, indicating possible association of this small molecule with placental pathology of preeclampsia. By far the function of miR-195 in the development of placenta remains unknown.Bioinformatic assay predicted ActRIIA as one of the targets for miR-195. By using Real-time PCR, Western blotting and Dual Luciferase Assay, we validated that ActRIIA was the direct target of miR-195 in human trophoblast cells. Transwell insert invasion assay showed that miR-195 could promote cell invasion in trophoblast cell line, HTR8/SVneo cells, and the effect could be abrogated by overexpressed ActRIIA. In preeclamptic placenta tissues, pri-miR-195 and mature miR-195 expressions were down-regulated, whereas ActRIIA level appeared to be increased when compared with that in gestational-week-matched normal placentas.This is the first report on the function of miR-195 in human placental trophoblast cells which reveals an invasion-promoting effect of the small RNA via repressing ActRIIA. Aberrant expression of miR-195 may contribute to the occurrence of preeclampsia through interfering with Activin/Nodal signaling mediated by ActRIIA in human placenta.

  8. A Grhl2-dependent gene network controls trophoblast branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walentin, Katharina; Hinze, Christian; Werth, Max; Haase, Nadine; Varma, Saaket; Morell, Robert; Aue, Annekatrin; Pötschke, Elisabeth; Warburton, David; Qiu, Andong; Barasch, Jonathan; Purfürst, Bettina; Dieterich, Christoph; Popova, Elena; Bader, Michael; Dechend, Ralf; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Yurtdas, Zeliha Yesim; Kilic, Ergin; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M

    2015-03-15

    Healthy placental development is essential for reproductive success; failure of the feto-maternal interface results in pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. We found that grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2), a CP2-type transcription factor, is highly expressed in chorionic trophoblast cells, including basal chorionic trophoblast (BCT) cells located at the chorioallantoic interface in murine placentas. Placentas from Grhl2-deficient mouse embryos displayed defects in BCT cell polarity and basement membrane integrity at the chorioallantoic interface, as well as a severe disruption of labyrinth branching morphogenesis. Selective Grhl2 inactivation only in epiblast-derived cells rescued all placental defects but phenocopied intraembryonic defects observed in global Grhl2 deficiency, implying the importance of Grhl2 activity in trophectoderm-derived cells. ChIP-seq identified 5282 GRHL2 binding sites in placental tissue. By integrating these data with placental gene expression profiles, we identified direct and indirect Grhl2 targets and found a marked enrichment of GRHL2 binding adjacent to genes downregulated in Grhl2(-/-) placentas, which encoded known regulators of placental development and epithelial morphogenesis. These genes included that encoding the serine protease inhibitor Kunitz type 1 (Spint1), which regulates BCT cell integrity and labyrinth formation. In human placenta, we found that human orthologs of murine GRHL2 and its targets displayed co-regulation and were expressed in trophoblast cells in a similar domain as in mouse placenta. Our data indicate that a conserved Grhl2-coordinated gene network controls trophoblast branching morphogenesis, thereby facilitating development of the site of feto-maternal exchange. This might have implications for syndromes related to placental dysfunction. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Gestational trophoblastic disease I: epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease, and management of hydatidiform mole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurain, John R

    2010-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease includes hydatidiform mole (complete and partial) and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor). The epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of each of these trophoblastic disease variants are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to management of hydatidiform mole, including evacuation, twin mole/normal fetus pregnancy, prophylactic chemotherapy, and follow-up. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Paternal MHC expression on mouse trophoblast affects uterine vascularization and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeja, Zofia; Yadi, Hakim; Apps, Richard; Boulenouar, Selma; Roper, Stephen J; Gardner, Lucy; Moffett, Ashley; Colucci, Francesco; Hemberger, Myriam

    2011-03-08

    The mammalian fetus represents a semiallograft within the maternal uterus yet is not rejected. This situation is particularly pronounced in species with a hemochorial type of placentation, such as humans and rodents, where maternal tissues and blood are in direct contact with fetal trophoblast and thus potentially with paternal antigens. The main polymorphic antigens responsible for graft rejection are MHC antigens. In humans the trophoblast cells invading into the decidua have a unique pattern of MHC class I expression characterized by both classical (HLA-C) and nonclassical (HLA-G and HLA-E) molecules. Whether such an unusual MHC repertoire on the surface of trophoblast is a conserved feature between species with hemochorial placentation has not been resolved. Here we demonstrate, using a range of methods, that C57BL/6 mouse trophoblast predominantly expresses only one MHC class I antigen, H2-K, at the cell surface of giant cells but lacks expression of nonclassical MHC molecules. Antigenic disparity between parental MHCs affects trophoblast-induced transformation of the uterine vasculature and, consequently, placental and fetal gowth. Maternal uterine blood vessels were more dilated, allowing for increased blood supply, in certain combinations of maternal and paternal MHC haplotypes, and these allogeneic fetuses and placentas were heavier at term compared with syngeneic controls. Thus, maternal-fetal immune interactions are instrumental to optimize reproductive success. This cross-talk has important implications for human disorders of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.

  11. IL-10 reduces levels of apoptosis in Toxoplasma gondii-infected trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingdong; Zhang, Ruijin; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Haixia; Zhai, Xiaoyu; Hu, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the effects of IL-10 on the HLA-G expression and the apoptosis of trophoblasts infected with Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii-infected or uninfected human trophoblasts and immortalized human placental BeWo cells were cultured with or without human IL-10. Uninfected and infected cells without IL-10 cells served as controls. HLA-G expression was measured by real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Cells apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis associated moleculars were measured by real-time PCR and Western bolt. HLA-G expression was increased in the infected trophoblasts and BeWo cells compared to uninfected cells. Treatment of infected cells with IL-10 decreased HLA-G expression compared to infected cells while no change in treatment of uninfected cells compared with uninfected cells. Levels of apoptosis and apoptosis associated caspase-3 and caspase-8 decreased and c-FLIP levels increased in treated infected cells with IL-10 compared to infected cells and no difference in IL-10 treated uninfected cells compared to uninfected cells. IL-10 regulates HLA-G expression in T. gondii-infected trophoblasts. IL-10 treatment of infected trophoblasts reduced levels of apoptosis. This may contribute to the improvement in pregnancy outcomes when women infected with T. gondii treated with IL-10.

  12. A CRE/AP-1-like motif is essential for induced syncytin-2 expression and fusion in human trophoblast-like model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirine Toufaily

    Full Text Available Syncytin-2 is encoded by the envelope gene of Endogenous Retrovirus-FRD (ERVFRD-1 and plays a critical role in fusion of placental trophoblasts leading to the formation of the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Its expression is consequently regulated in a strict manner. In the present study, we have identified a forskolin-responsive region located between positions -300 to -150 in the Syncytin-2 promoter region. This 150 bp region in the context of a minimal promoter mediated an 80-fold induction of promoter activity following forskolin stimulation. EMSA analyses with competition experiments with nuclear extracts from forskolin-stimulated BeWo cells demonstrated that the -211 to -177 region specifically bound two forskolin-induced complexes, one of them containing a CRE/AP-1-like motif. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CRE/AP-1 binding site in the context of the Syncytin-2 promoter or a heterologous promoter showed that this motif was mostly essential for forskolin-induced promoter activity. Transfection experiments with dominant negative mutants and constitutively activated CREB expression vectors in addition to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation suggested that a CREB family member, CREB2 was binding and acting through the CRE/AP-1 motif. We further demonstrated the binding of JunD to this same motif. Similar to forskolin and soluble cAMP, CREB2 and JunD overexpression induced Syncytin-2 promoter activity in a CRE/AP-1-dependent manner and Syncytin-2 expression. In addition, BeWo cell fusion was induced by both CREB2 and JunD overexpression, while being repressed following silencing of either gene. These results thereby demonstrate that induced expression of Syncytin-2 is highly dependent on the interaction of bZIP-containing transcription factors to a CRE/AP-1 motif and that this element is important for the regulation of Syncytin-2 expression, which results in the formation of the peripheral syncytiotrophoblast layer.

  13. Ultrasonography analysis of trophoblastic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeon Kee; Jo, In Su; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Jong Yull; Choi, Hang Yong; Kim, Bong Kee [Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    The authors analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 112 cases of trophoblastic diseases which were confirmed by D and E or hysterectomy at Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital from September 1980 to December 1984. The results were as follows; 1. Of all 112 cases, hydatidiform moles were 99 cases, invasive moles were 3 cases and choriocarcinomas were 10 cases. 2. 81 cases (72%) occurred in 3rd decades. 3. The size of uterus was large for gestational weeks in 65 cases (56%) and smaller in 13 cases (13%). 4. The contour of uterus was globular in 59 cases (53%), diffuse in 49 cases (44%) and nodular in 4 cases (3%). 5. The internal echopatterns of uterus revealed numerous small vesicular snowstorm patterns in all cases, and revealed internal degeneration on 67 cases (60%). 6. Uterine walls 89 cases (79%) were well delineated but uterine walls in 23 cases (21%) were poor delineated. 7. Multisepatated ovarian theca lutein cysts were seen in 36 cases (32%). 8. Invasive trophoblastic diseases (invasive moles 3 cases and choriocarcinoma 10 cases) revealed similar ultrasonographic findings with H-mole, but more irregular internal echoes and irregular echoes in uterine wall. 9. Diagnostic accuracy was diagnostic in 98 cases (88%), nonspecific in 11 cases (10%) and error in 3 cases (2%)

  14. Coexisting epithelioid trophoblastic tumor and placental site trophoblastic tumor of the uterus following a term pregnancy: report of a case and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaofei; zhou, Caiyun; Yu, Minghua; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2015-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms are a group of fetal trophoblastic tumors including choriocarcinomas, epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETTs), and placental site trophoblastic tumors (PSTTs). Mixed gestational trophoblastic neoplasms are extremely rare. The existence of mixed gestational trophoblastic neoplasms that were composed of choriocarcinoma and/or PSTT and/or ETT was also reported. Herein, we present a case of uterine mixed gestational trophoblastic neoplasm which is ETT admixed w...

  15. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anthony M; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-03-05

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma. In later stages of pregnancy, especially in Old World monkeys and apes, cytotrophoblast plays a greater role in the invasive process. Columns of trophoblast cells advance to the base of the implantation site where they spread out to form a cytotrophoblastic shell. In addition, cytotrophoblasts advance into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion that extends remodelling of the spiral arteries to segments in the inner myometrium evolved in the common ancestor of gorilla, chimp and human. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Retrieval of trophoblast cells from the cervical canal for prediction of abnormal pregnancy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imudia, Anthony N; Suzuki, Yoko; Kilburn, Brian A; Yelian, Frank D; Diamond, Michael P; Romero, Roberto; Armant, D Randall

    2009-09-01

    Fetal cells are shed from the regressing chorionic villi and it is possible to retrieve extravillous cytotrophoblast cells by transcervical sampling. The abundance of trophoblast cells in transcervical samples suggests that this non-invasive approach could distinguish between normal and abnormal pregnancies, such as an ectopic pregnancy (EP) and blighted ovum (BO). We aim to identify and quantify fetal trophoblast cells in the cervical canal during the first trimester to assess their usefulness to predict an abnormal pregnancy. Patients, age 18-45, presenting with a normal intrauterine pregnancy (IUP; n = 37), diagnosis of EP (n = 10) or BO (n = 5) were enrolled for collection of transcervical specimens using a cytobrush and fixative rinse. Non-pregnant, nulliparous women (n = 7) were included as negative controls. Cells were cleared of mucus by acidification, prepared on microscope slides and labeled with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the trophoblast marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G. HLA-G positive and negative cells were counted to calculate the ratio of trophoblast cells to total cervical cells. Trophoblast cells were observed in 35/37 normal IUP, 6/10 EP and 4/5 BO specimens. The average frequency of HLA-G positive cells in the normal IUP cervical samples was approximately 1 in 2000, which was 4-fold higher than samples from patients with EP or BO (P trophoblast cells can be reliably obtained and identified among cervical cells in the first trimester by immunohistochemical staining for HLA-G, and suggests for the first time that abnormal pregnancies may be predictable based on the abundance of trophoblast cells in the cervical canal.

  17. Drugs Approved for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gestational trophoblastic disease. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Villous trophoblast apoptosis is elevated and restricted to cytotrophoblasts in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, IUGR, or preeclampsia with IUGR

    OpenAIRE

    Longtine, M. S.; Chen, B; Odibo, A.O.; Zhong, Y.; D. M. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Human placental villi are surfaced by an outer multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast and underlying mononucleated cytotrophoblasts. Conflicting data have attributed one, or the other, of these villous trophoblast phenotypes to undergo enhanced apoptosis in complicated pregnancies, compared to term, normotensive pregnancies. We use high-resolution confocal microscopy after co-staining for E-cadherin, as a trophoblast plasma membrane marker, and for the cleavage products of cytokeratin 18 and PARP...

  19. Deep trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling in the placental bed of the lowland gorilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pijnenborg, R; Vercruysse, L; Carter, Anthony Michael

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to baboon or rhesus macaque, trophoblast invasion in the human placental bed occurs by the interstitial as well as the endovascular route and reaches as deep as the inner myometrium. We here describe two rare specimens of gorilla placenta. In the light of recent findings in the chimpa......In contrast to baboon or rhesus macaque, trophoblast invasion in the human placental bed occurs by the interstitial as well as the endovascular route and reaches as deep as the inner myometrium. We here describe two rare specimens of gorilla placenta. In the light of recent findings...

  20. Regulation of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2 in a human placental trophoblast cell line (BeWo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christians Julian K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2 is an insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP protease expressed at high levels in the placenta and upregulated in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and HELLP (Hemolytic anemia, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelet count syndrome. However, it is unclear whether elevated PAPPA2 expression causes abnormal placental development, or whether upregulation compensates for placental pathology. In the present study, we investigate whether PAPPA2 expression is affected by hypoxia, oxidative stress, syncytialization factors or substances known to affect the expression of PAPPA2's paralogue, PAPPA. Methods BeWo cells, a model of placental trophoblasts, were treated with one of the following: hypoxia (2% O2, oxidative stress (20 microM hydrogen peroxide, forskolin (10 microM and 100 microM, TGF-beta (10 and 50 ng/mL, TNF-alpha (100 ng/mL, IL-1beta (100 ng/mL or PGE2 (1 microM. We used quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to quantify the mRNA levels of PAPPA2, as well as those of PAPPA and ADAM12 since these proteases have similar substrates and are also highly expressed in the placenta. Where we observed significant effects on PAPPA2 mRNA levels, we tested for effects at the protein level using an in-cell Western assay. Results Hypoxia, but not oxidative stress, caused a 47-fold increase in PAPPA2 mRNA expression, while TNF-alpha resulted in a 6-fold increase, and both of these effects were confirmed at the protein level. PGE2 resulted in a 14-fold upregulation of PAPPA2 mRNA but this was not reflected at the protein level. Forskolin, TGF-beta and IL-1beta had no significant effect on PAPPA2 mRNA expression. We observed no effects of any treatment on PAPPA or ADAM12 expression. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that factors previously known to be highly expressed in preeclamptic placentae (PGE2 and TNF-alpha, contribute to the upregulation of PAPPA2. Hypoxia, known to occur in

  1. EGF stimulates proliferation in the bovine placental trophoblast cell line F3 via Ras and MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambruch, N; Haeger, J-D; Dilly, M; Pfarrer, C

    2010-01-01

    In the bovine placenta, multinucleate trophoblast giant cells (TGC), evolving from uninucleate trophoblast cells, are crucial for feto-maternal interaction as they show endocrine activity and the ability to migrate and fuse with caruncular epithelial cells. In contrast to caruncular epithelial cells, the isolation and culture of bovine trophoblast cells is complicated because they cease to express their specific products, like placental lactogen (PL), during prolonged culture. In the present study, we aimed to establish a bovine cotyledonary trophoblast cell line targeting our long term goal to develop an in vitro model for the bovine placenta. Therefore, the functional activity of important signalling pathways was tested. Primary trophoblast cells were isolated from a bovine cotyledon of a male fetus and successfully subcultured and cryopreserved. The obtained cell line, termed F3, showed epithelial morphology and characteristic binuclear giant cells in small numbers through all passages. The trophoblastic origin of F3 cells was verified by amplification of a Y-chromosome specific DNA-sequence and the presence of PL mRNA. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that F3 cells were continuously positive for zonula occludens-2 (ZO-2), cytokeratin and vimentin, whereas they expressed the TGC specific marker PL only in the first two passages. F3 cell growth was accelerated in medium supplied with epidermal growth factor (EGF). EGF-stimulated proliferation was mediated through activation of Ras and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 42 and 44. In conclusion, the F3 cell line shows several in vivo characteristics of bovine cotyledonary trophoblast cells. The response to EGF stimulation indicates that EGF plays a role during bovine placentation, and illustrated that F3 cells may provide a valuable tool for further mechanistic studies elucidating the feto-maternal interplay.

  2. Deep trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling in the placental bed of the chimpanzee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pijnenborg, R; Vercruysse, L; Carter, Anthony Michael

    2011-01-01

    Deep trophoblast invasion is usually considered to be a unique feature of human placentation as compared to other primates. Because of the occasional occurrence of preeclampsia in great apes, which in the human is associated with impaired deep invasion, this uniqueness may be questioned...

  3. Let-7i-Induced Atg4B Suppression Is Essential for Autophagy of Placental Trophoblast in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yinyan; Huang, Xinyan; Xie, Juan; Chen, Yanni; Fu, Jing; Wang, Li

    2017-09-01

    Autophagy, identified as type II programmed cell death, has already been known to be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE), which is a gestational disease with high morbidity. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of let-7i, a miRNA, in trophoblastic autophagy. Placental tissue used in this study was collected from patients with severe preeclampsia (SPE) or normal pregnant women. A decreased level of let-7i was found in placenta of SPE. In addition, autophagic vacuoles were observed in SPE and the expression of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II/I was elevated. In vitro, let-7i mimics suppressed the autophagic activities in human HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cell line (HTR-8) and human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3, whereas let-7i inhibitor enhanced the activities. As a potential target of let-7i, autophagy-related 4B cysteine peptidase (Atg4B) had an increased expression level in SPE. As expected, the increased expression of Atg4B was negatively regulated by let-7i using dual luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, these trophoblast-like cells transfected with the let-7i mimic or inhibitors resulted in a significant change of Atg4B in both mRNA and protein level. More importantly, Atg4B overexpression could partly reverse let-7i mimic-reduced LC3II/I levels; whereas Atg4B silencing partly attenuated let-7i inhibitor-induced the level of LC3II/I expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that let-7i is able to regulate autophagic activity via regulating Atg4B expression, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of PE. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2581-2589, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Functional foods in human nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    ZEVLOVÁ, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with functional food and their role in human nutrition. The history of functional food, their characteristics, components, evaluation of individual species and the impact on the health of the consumer is described here. A lot of researches are focused on the topic of functional food, but no legally definition have been established yet. Even in the Czech Republic or the EU. Only the certain designations are used, which have a small deviations in different countries. Funct...

  5. The importance of HLA-G expression in embryos, trophoblast cells, and embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Roberta; Vercammen, Martine; van de Velde, Hilde; Horn, Peter A; Rebmann, Vera

    2011-02-01

    The nonclassical HLA-G molecule is a trophoblast-specific molecule present in almost every pregnancy. It differs from classical HLA class I molecules by the low degree of allelic variants and the high diversity of protein structures. HLA-G is reported to be a tolerogenic molecule that acts on cells of both innate and adaptive immunity. At the maternal-fetal interface HLA-G seems to be responsible largely for the reprogramming of local maternal immune response. This review will focus on the HLA-G gene expression profile in pregnancy, in preimplantation embryos, and in human embryonic stem cells with emphasis on the structural diversity of the HLA-G protein and its potential functional and diagnostic implications.

  6. Expression and localization of estrogen receptor-alpha protein in normal and abnormal term placentae and stimulation of trophoblast differentiation by estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henley Donald C

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estrogens play an important role in the regulation of placental function, and 17-beta-estradiol (E2 production rises eighty fold during human pregnancy. Although term placenta has been found to specifically bind estrogens, cellular localization of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha in trophoblast remains unclear. We used western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry with h-151 and ID5 monoclonal antibodies to determine the expression and cellular localization of ER-alpha protein in human placentae and cultured trophoblast cells. Western blot analysis revealed a ~65 kDa ER-alpha band in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells (positive control. A similar band was detected in five normal term placentae exhibiting strong expression of Thy-1 differentiation protein in the villous core. However, five other term placentae, which exhibited low or no Thy-1 expression (abnormal placentae, exhibited virtually no ER-alpha expression. In normal placentae, nuclear ER-alpha expression was confined to villous cytotrophoblast cells (CT, but syncytiotrophoblast (ST and extravillous trophoblast cells were unstained. In abnormal placentae no CT expressing ER-alpha were detected. Normal and abnormal placentae also showed ER-alpha expression in villous vascular pericytes and amniotic (but not villous fibroblasts; no staining was detected in amniotic epithelial cells or decidual cells. All cultured trophoblast cells derived from the same normal and abnormal placentae showed distinct ER-alpha expression in western blots, and the ER-alpha expression was confined to the differentiating CT, but not to the mature ST. Trophoblast cells from six additional placentae were cultured in normal medium with phenol red (a weak estrogen as above (PhR+, or plated in phenol red-free medium (PhR- without or with mid-pregnancy levels of E2 (20 nM. Culture in PhR- medium without E2 caused retardation of syncytium formation and PhR-medium with E2 caused acceleration of syncytium formation

  7. Placental site trophoblastic tumor with sole metastasis to breast: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Nagamine

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN. It most commonly occurs after a delivery but may arise after any type of pregnancy. PSTT arises after neoplastic transformation of intermediate trophoblastic cells. The most commonly reported symptoms are abnormal bleeding or amenorrhea. Due to the rarity of this disease, evidence on prognostic factors as well as optimal treatment is limited. While treatment for early-stage disease is usually limited to surgery, multimodal treatment with chemotherapy and surgery may be important for metastatic disease. Metastatic disease may be associated with minimal elevations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. Here we present an unusual case of a patient with PSTT and an isolated breast metastasis who was successfully treated with surgical resection and single-agent chemotherapy.

  8. Lack of association of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) with syphilis and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, E; Molykutty, J; Rajalekshmy, T N; Vijayasree, S R; Krishnan, N M; Prabha, B

    1998-07-01

    The association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis infection as an etiological factor in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) was investigated by means of micro-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Micro-ELISA) and Treposcreen-Rapid Plasma Reagin Card Test in 138 sera from patients with Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. We have found only one sample to be positive for HIV infection and one for VDRL. These findings suggest a lack of an etiologic role for the HIV and Syphilis infection in GTD.

  9. Formalised consensus of the European Organisation for Treatment of Trophoblastic Diseases on management of gestational trophoblastic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolze, P.A.; Attia, J.; Massardier, J.; Seckl, M.J.; Massuger, L.F.; Trommel, N. van; Niemann, I.; Hajri, T.; Schott, A.M.; Golfier, F.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a spectrum of cellular proliferations arising from trophoblast. Their invasive and metastatic potential sometimes requires chemotherapy and/or surgery. Current management is generally associated with favourable prognosis. Therefore, treatments must be

  10. Placental cell expression of HLA-G2 isoforms is limited to the invasive trophoblast phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Pedro J; Pace, Judith L; Platt, Jeralyn Sue; Phillips, Teresa A; Morgan, Kim; Fazleabas, Asgi T; Hunt, Joan S

    2003-12-01

    The HLA-G message is alternatively spliced into multiple transcripts, two of which encode soluble isoforms. To initiate studies on the specific functions of the soluble isoforms, we produced soluble rHLA-G1 (rsG1) and rsG2 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and characterized the proteins. Both isoforms were glycosylated and formed disulfide-bonded oligomers. Recombinant sG1 associated with beta(2)-microglobulin, whereas rsG2 did not. Mouse mAb generated to rsG1 (1-2C3), which identified exclusively sG1, and mAb generated to rsG2 (26-2H11), which identified both soluble and membrane G2 (m/sG2), were used for immunohistochemical isoform mapping studies on placental tissue sections. Soluble G1 protein was abundant in many subpopulations of trophoblast cells, whereas m/sG2 protein was present exclusively in extravillous cytotrophoblast cells. Although both isolated placental villous cytotrophoblast cells and chorion membrane extravillous cytotrophoblast cells contained mRNAs encoding sG1 and sG2, protein expression was as predicted from the immunostains with m/sG2 present only in the invasive trophoblast subpopulation. Analysis of function by Northern and Western blotting demonstrated that both rsG1 and rsG2 inhibit CD8alpha expression on PBMC without changing CD3delta expression or causing apoptotic cell death. Collectively, the studies indicate that: 1) both sG1 and m/sG2 are produced in placentas; 2) transcription and translation are linked for sG1, but not G2; 3) expression of G2 is exclusively associated with the invasive phenotype; and 4) the two isoforms of sG may promote semiallogeneic pregnancy by reducing expression of CD8, a molecule required for functional activation of CTL.

  11. Caspase-8 activity is part of the BeWo trophoblast cell defense mechanisms against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Ileana; Droguett, Daniel; Castillo, Christian; Liempi, Ana; Muñoz, Lorena; Maya, Juan Diego; Galanti, Norbel; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2016-09-01

    Congenital Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that must cross the placental barrier during transmission. The trophoblast constitutes the first tissue in contact with the maternal-blood circulating parasite. Importantly, the congenital transmission rates are low, suggesting the presence of local placental defense mechanisms. Cellular proliferation and differentiation as well as apoptotic cell death are induced by the parasite and constitute part of the epithelial turnover of the trophoblast, which has been suggested to be part of those placental defenses. On the other hand, caspase-8 is an essential molecule in the modulation of trophoblast turnover by apoptosis and by epithelial differentiation. As an approach to study whether T. cruzi induced trophoblast turnover and infection is mediated by caspase-8, we infected BeWo cells (a trophoblastic cell line) with the parasite and determined in the infected cells the expression and enzymatic activity of caspase-8, DNA synthesis (as proliferation marker), β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) (as differentiation marker) and activity of Caspase-3 (as apoptotic death marker). Parasite load in BeWo cells was measured by DNA quantification using qPCR and cell counting. Our results show that T. cruzi induces caspase-8 activity and that its inhibition increases trophoblast cells infection while decreases parasite induced cellular differentiation and apoptotic cell death, but not cellular proliferation. Thus, caspase-8 activity is part of the BeWo trophoblast cell defense mechanisms against T. cruzi infection. Together with our previous results, we suggest that the trophoblast turnover is part of local placental anti-parasite mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pregnancy outcomes after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILA TREMENTOSA GARCIA

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction The successful development of chemotherapy enabled a fertilitysparing treatment for patients with trophoblastic neoplasia. After disease remission, the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy becomes a great concern for these women. Objective To analyze existing studies in the literature that describe the reproductive outcomes of patients with trophoblastic neoplasia treated with chemotherapy. Method Systematic review was performed searching for articles on Medline/ Pubmed, Lilacs and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “gestational trophoblastic disease” and “pregnancy outcome”. Results A total of 18 articles were included. No evidence of decreased fertility after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia was observed. The abortion rates in patients who conceived within 6 months after chemotherapy was higher compared to those who waited longer. Some studies showed increased rates of stillbirth and repeat hydatidiform moles. Only one work showed increased congenital abnormalities. Conclusion The pregnancies conceived after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia should be followed with clinical surveillance due to higher rates of some pregnancy complications. However, studies in the literature provide reassuring data about reproductive outcomes of these patients.

  13. Recurrent gestational trophoblastic disease after hCG normalization following hydatidiform mole in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkmeijer, L.G.W.; Wielsma, S.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk for recurrent trophoblastic disease after spontaneous normalization of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in patients with hydatidiform mole and to determine the risk for tumor relapse after apparent remission following chemotherapy in patients with low- and

  14. Gestational trophoblastic disease II: classification and management of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurain, John R

    2011-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) includes invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. The overall cure rate in treating these tumors is currently >90%. Thorough evaluation and staging allow selection of appropriate therapy that maximizes chances for cure while minimizing toxicity. Nonmetastatic (stage I) and low-risk metastatic (stages II and III, score <7) GTN can be treated with single-agent chemotherapy resulting in a survival rate approaching 100%. High-risk GTN (stages II-IV, score ≥7) requires initial multiagent chemotherapy with or without adjuvant radiation and surgery to achieve a survival rate of 80-90%. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasonographic finding of trophoblastic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Kyung Soo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Authors analysed ultrasonographic findings of 50 cases of trophoblastic diseases which were confirmed by D and E or hysterectomy. The following result was observed. 1. Among the 50 cases, 43 cases were hydatidiform moles and remainders were choriocarcionmas 2. Ultrasonographic findings of hydatidi form mole were as follows. a. The size of uterus was larger than that of expected one in 55 percent of cases and smaller than that in 9 percent. b. The vesicular pattern of internal echo could be found in all of the cases, and homogeneous echo pattern were observed in 32 cases(75 percent). c. secondary change, such as myometrial hemorrhage or necrosis, was shown in 33 cases (77 percent). d.In 34 cases (80 percent), sharply separable uterine wall from internal echo was demonstrated. e. In 8 cases(19 percent), ovarian theca-lutein cysts were observed. Among them, 5 cases contained bilateral cysts. All cysts had internal septation. 3. Ultrasonographic findings of choriocarcinomas showed similar findings of those of hydatidiform moles, but different findings from H-moles were more irregular vesicular pattern(4 cases: 57 percent) and inseparable vesicular pattern from uterine wall echo. 4. Correct diagnosis was made in 48 cases out of 50 and the diagnostic accuracy was 95 percent

  16. [Potential role of the angiogenic factor "EG-VEGF" in gestational trophoblastic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Feige, J-J; Benharouga, M; Aboussaouira, T; Nadifi, S; Mahdaoui, S; Samouh, N; Alfaidy, N

    2013-10-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (MGT) includes a wide spectrum of pathologies of the placenta, ranging from benign precancerous lesions, with gestational trophoblastic tumors. Metastases are the leading causes of death as a result of this tumor. They represent a major problem for obstetrics and for the public health system. To date, there is no predictor of the progression of molar pregnancies to gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT). Only an unfavorable plasma hCG monitoring after evacuation of hydatidiform mole is used to diagnose a TTG. The causes of the development of this cancer are still poorly understood. Increasing data in the literature suggests a close association between the development of this tumor and poor placental vascularization during the first trimester of pregnancy. The development of the human placenta depends on a coordination between the trophoblast and endothelial cells. A disruption in the expression of angiogenic factors could contribute to uterine or extra-uterine tissue invasion by extravillous trophoblast, contributing to the development of TTG. This review sheds lights on the phenomenon of angiogenesis during normal and abnormal placentation, especially during the MGT and reports preliminary finding concerning, the variability of expression of "Endocrine Gland-Derived Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor" (EG-VEGF), a specific placental angiogenic factor, in normal and molar placentas, and the potential role of differentiated expressions of the main placental angiogenic factors in the scalability of hydatidiform moles towards a recovery or towards the development of gestational trophoblastic tumor. Deciphering the mechanisms by which the angiogenic factor influences these processes will help understand the pathophysiology of MGT and to create opportunities for early diagnosis and treatment of the latter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Antihypertensive drugs methyldopa, labetalol, hydralazine, and clonidine improve trophoblast interaction with endothelial cellular networks in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bei; Charlton, Francesca; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2014-05-01

    The interaction between trophoblasts and maternal endothelium is important for placental vascular modeling. Failure of uterine spiral artery transformation is linked to the etiopathology of preeclampsia. Antihypertensive medications used to control hypertension in early pregnancy can alter placental and circulating cytokines. This study investigated whether selected antihypertensive drugs can modulate the interaction between trophoblast and endothelial cells. Human uterine myometrial microvascular endothelial cells were preincubated with (or without) low-dose tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; 0.5 ng/ml) or TNF-α and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1; 100 ng/ml). Red fluorescent-labeled endothelial cells were then cultured on Matrigel. After appearance of endothelial cellular networks, green fluorescent-labeled HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells were cocultured in the presence of pharmacological doses of methyldopa, labetalol, hydralazine, and clonidine. Images were captured after 24 h and drug effects on HTR-8/SVneo cell integration were quantified by Image Analysis software. The conditioned medium was collected to measure sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor, interleukin-10, and interleukin-6 by ELISA. Methyldopa, labetalol, hydralazine, and clonidine increased trophoblast integration into TNF-α-preincubated endothelial cellular networks. In conditioned medium, sFlt-1 was reduced by methyldopa, hydralazine, and clonidine alone. VEGF was increased by methyldopa. A decrease in placental growth factor was seen by methyldopa and also in nontreated endothelial cell coculture of the other three drugs. Some antihypertensive drugs used in pregnancy may improve the cellular interaction between trophoblast and endothelial cells exposed to TNF-α. Methyldopa, hydralazine, and clonidine reduced sFlt-1 concentration in culture medium, whereas labetalol increased trophoblast integration independently of sFlt-1. Methyldopa

  18. Protective effect of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 on inflammatory cytokine response to brominated diphenyl ether-47 in the HTR-8/SVneo human first trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae-Ryung, E-mail: heaven@umich.edu; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2014-11-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardants, and BDE-47 is a prevalent PBDE congener detected in human tissues. Exposure to PBDEs has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans. Although the underlying mechanisms of adverse birth outcomes are poorly understood, critical roles for oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated. The present study investigated antioxidant responses in a human extravillous trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, and examined the role of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an antioxidative transcription factor, in BDE-47-induced inflammatory responses in the cells. Treatment of HTR-8/SVneo cells with 5, 10, 15, and 20 μM BDE-47 for 24 h increased intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels compared to solvent control. Treatment of HTR-8/SVneo cells with 20 μM BDE-47 for 24 h induced the antioxidant response element (ARE) activity, indicating Nrf2 transactivation by BDE-47 treatment, and resulted in differential expression of redox-sensitive genes compared to solvent control. Pretreatment with tert-butyl hydroquinone (tBHQ) or sulforaphane, known Nrf2 inducers, reduced BDE-47-stimulated IL-6 release with increased ARE reporter activity, reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) reporter activity, increased GSH production, and stimulated expression of antioxidant genes compared to non-Nrf2 inducer pretreated groups, suggesting that Nrf2 may play a protective role against BDE-47-mediated inflammatory responses in HTR-8/SVneo cells. These results suggest that Nrf2 activation significantly attenuated BDE-47-induced IL-6 release by augmentation of cellular antioxidative system via upregulation of Nrf2 signaling pathways, and that Nrf2 induction may be a potential therapeutic target to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with toxicant-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. - Highlights: • BDE-47 stimulated ARE reporter activity and GSH production. • BDE-47 resulted in differential

  19. Asymmetrical fetal growth is not associated with altered trophoblast apoptotic activity in idiopathic intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roje, Damir; Zekic Tomas, Sandra; Capkun, Vesna; Marusic, Jelena; Resic, Jasminka; Kuzmic Prusac, Ivana

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether there is difference in trophoblast apoptosis between infants with asymmetrical idiopathic intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and those with symmetrical fetal growth appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Data and placentas from 52 singleton term pregnancies with idiopathic IUGR, from which a subgroup of 33 (63.4%) infants with asymmetrical growth and malnutrition was identified using the ponderal index served as a study group. The control group included 60 (86.9%) infants with symmetrical growth, identified by the same criterion among 69 normal singleton pregnancies with AGA. IUGR was defined by birthweight less than the 10th percentile of standard values. Ponderal index value was considered as the measurement of fetal growth proportionality. The proportion of fetal thinness up to ponderal index value was greater in the IUGR group than control (χ(2) = 9.2; P = 0.002). There was no statistically significant difference in the cytotrophoblast proliferation (t = 0.88; P = 0.373), trophoblast expression of the Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic factor (z = 0.66; P = 0.505), total trophoblast apoptotic index (t = 0.45; P = 0.651), as in cytotrophoblast (t = 0.01; P = 0.988) and syncytiotrophoblast apoptotic index (t = 0.34; P = 0.730) between the idiopathic asymmetrical IUGR and control group. Asymmetry of fetal growth is a result of rather long-term placental nutritive insufficiency in which trophoblasts have a central role. Although being crucial for its functioning, the proliferative and apoptotic trophoblast activity remains unaltered in the placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic IUGR and asymmetrical fetal growth. The results obtained in this study indicate that placental nutritive insufficiency may develop without any deviation in the physiological trophoblast regeneration via apoptosis. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Downregulation of ASPP1 in gestational trophoblastic disease: correlation with hypermethylation, apoptotic activity and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Victor C Y; Lee, Lee; Siu, Michelle K Y; Wong, Oscar G W; Lu, Xin; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Wong, Esther S Y; Cheung, Annie N Y

    2011-04-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease encompasses a spectrum of trophoblastic lesions including true neoplasms such as choriocarcinomas and the potentially malignant hydatidiform moles, which may develop persistent disease requiring chemotherapy. ASPP1, a member of apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPPs), is a proapoptotic protein that can stimulate apoptosis through its interaction with p53. We evaluated the promoter methylation and expression profiles of ASPP1 in different trophoblastic tissues and its in vitro functional effect on two choriocarcinoma cell lines, namely JEG-3 and JAR. Significant downregulation of ASPP1 mRNA and protein levels was demonstrated in hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinomas, when compared with normal placentas by quantitative-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The ASPP1 mRNA level was significantly correlated with its hypermethylation status, evaluated with methylation-specific PCR, in placenta and gestational trophoblastic disease samples (P=0.024). Moreover, lower ASPP1 immunoreactivity was shown in hydatidiform moles that progressed to persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasms than in those that regressed (P=0.045). A significant correlation was also found between expression of ASPP1 and proliferative indices (assessed by Ki67 and MCM7), apoptotic activity (M30 CytoDeath antibody), p53 and caspase-8 immunoreactivities. An in vitro study showed that ectopic expression of ASPP1 could trigger apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways as indicated by an increase in cleaved caspase-9 and Fas ligand protein expression. The latter suggests a hitherto unreported novel link between ASPP1 and the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Our findings suggest that downregulation of ASPP1 by hypermethylation may be involved in the pathogenesis and progress of gestational trophoblastic disease, probably through its effect on apoptosis.

  1. Establishment and characterization of a spontaneously immortalized trophoblast cell line (HPT-8) and its hepatitis B virus-expressing clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Weilu; Shao, Chen; Zhang, Jingxia; Men, Ke; Shao, Zhongjun; Yan, Yongping; Xu, Dezhong

    2011-08-01

    Most trophoblast cell lines currently available to study vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are immortalized by viral transformation. Our goal was to establish and characterize a spontaneously immortalized human first-trimester trophoblast cell line and its HBV-expressing clone. Chorionic villi of Asian human first-trimester placentae were digested with trypsin and collagenase I to obtain the primary trophoblast cell culture. A spontaneously immortalized trophoblast cell line (HPT-8) was analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, cell cycle analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. HPT-8 cells were stably transfected with the adr subtype of HBV (HPT-8-HBV) and characterized by PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We obtained a clonal derivative of a spontaneously immortalized primary cell clone (HPT-8). HPT-8 cells were epithelioid and polygonal, and formed multinucleate, giant cells. They exhibited microvilli, distinct desmosomes between adjacent cells, abundant endoplasm, lipid inclusions and glycogen granules, which are all characteristic of cytotrophoblasts. HPT-8 cells expressed cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 18, vimentin, cluster of differentiation antigen 9, epidermal growth factor receptor, stromal cell-derived factor 1 and placental alkaline phosphatase. They secreted prolactin, estradiol, progesterone and hCG, and were positive for HLA-G, a marker of extravillous trophoblasts. HPT-8-HBV cells were positive for HBV relaxed-circular, covalently closed circular DNA and pre-S sequence. HPT-8-HBV cells also produced and secreted HBV surface antigen and HBV e antigen. We established a trophoblast cell line, HPT-8 and its HBV-expressing clone which could be valuable in exploring the mechanism of HBV viral integration in human trophoblasts during intrauterine infection.

  2. Modulation of Cytokine and Chemokine Secretion in Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Co-Culture with Decidual but not Peripheral Blood Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozner, Ann E.; Dambaeva, Svetlana V.; Drenzek, Jessica G.; Durning, Maureen; Golos, Thaddeus G.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Decidual macrophages are thought to promote pregnancy success, in part through interactions with invading trophoblast cells in hemochorial placentation. However, the factors that constitute this regulatory cross-talk are not well understood. Method of Study Rhesus monkey decidual and peripheral blood-derived macrophages were co-cultured with primary rhesus trophoblasts. Macrophage functions including cell surface marker expression, antigen uptake and processing, in vitro migration, and cytokine and chemokine secretion were evaluated. Results While most macrophage functions were unchanged by trophoblast co-culture, changes in the secretion of selected cytokines and the migration of trophoblasts were noted when decidual (but generally, not peripheral blood monocyte-derived) macrophages were cultured with trophoblasts. In addition, basal secretion differed significantly between peripheral blood-derived and decidual macrophages for a broad spectrum of cytokines. When trophoblasts were pre-treated with an anti Mamu-AG antibody, 25D3, there was no change in cytokine or chemokine secretion. Conclusions Macrophage cytokine expression can be modulated by trophoblast co-culture, but it remains unclear how Mamu-AG is involved. PMID:21276119

  3. miR-520 promotes DNA-damage-induced trophoblast cell apoptosis by targeting PARP1 in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiujuan; Yang, Long; Wang, Hui

    2017-04-01

    The establishment and maintenance of successful pregnancy mainly depends on trophoblast cells. Their dysfunction has been implicated in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), a major complication of pregnancy. However, the underlying mechanisms of trophoblasts dysfunction remain unclear. DNA-damage-induced cell apoptosis has been reported to play a vital role in cell death. In this study, we identified a novel microRNA (miR-520) in RSA progression via regulating trophoblast cell apoptosis. Microarray analysis showed that miR-520 was highly expressed in villus of RSA patients. By using flow cytometry analysis, we observed miR-520 expression was correlated with human trophoblast cell apoptosis in vitro, along with decreased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) expression. With the analysis of clinic samples, we observed that miR-520 level was negatively correlated with PARP1 level in RSA villus. In addition, overexpression of PARP1 restored the miR-520-induced trophoblast cell apoptosis in vitro. The status of chromosome in trophoblast implied that miR-520-promoted DNA-damage-induced cell apoptosis to regulate RSA progression. These results indicated that the level of miR-520 might associate with RSA by prompting trophoblast cell apoptosis via PARP1 dependent DNA-damage pathway.

  4. Gestational trophoblastic diseases in Nigeria: a multicentered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gestational trophoblastic diseases are common in Nigeria especially among the reproductive age group. Objective: This study aimed at identifying the age distribution and risk factors, and classifying the histopathological patterns of GTDs in Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study of GTDs carried out in the ...

  5. Lysosomal degradation of receptor-bound urokinase-type plasminogen activator is enhanced by its inhibitors in human trophoblastic choriocarcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Henning; Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Ebbesen, P.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the effect of plasminogen activator inhibitors PAI-1 and PAI-2 on the binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) to its receptor in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR. With 125I-labeled ligands in whole-cell binding assays, both uncomplexed u-PA and u-PA-inhibitor......We have studied the effect of plasminogen activator inhibitors PAI-1 and PAI-2 on the binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) to its receptor in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR. With 125I-labeled ligands in whole-cell binding assays, both uncomplexed u-PA and u...... for the removal of u-PA after its complex formation with a specific inhibitor. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which receptor-mediated endocytosis is initiated by the binding of a secondary ligand. Full text...

  6. Co-dominant expression of the HLA-G gene and various forms of alternatively spliced HLA-G mRNA in human first trimester trophoblast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V; Møller, C; Sørensen, S

    1998-01-01

    -implantation developmental processes. Animal studies of genomic imprinting of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens in the placenta have shown discordant results. To address this issue in the human placenta, we examined the expression of the non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I gene, HLA-G. Genomic......Genes may be silenced at the transcriptional level by 'genomic imprinting' in such a way that only one of the parental alleles is expressed. Imprinting may be tissue-specific and in some cases it seems also to be time-dependent during development. The phenomenon has been studied in pre- and post...... imprinting of the HLA-G locus could have implications for the interaction in the feto-maternal relationship. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), allele-specific amplification and Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis followed by DNA sequencing were performed on Reverse...

  7. A Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK) inhibitor, Y-27632, enhances adhesion, viability and differentiation of human term placenta-derived trophoblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Kenichiro; Okada, Naoko; Morita, Hideaki; Hara, Mariko; Tamari, Masato; Orimo, Keisuke; Matsuda, Go; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Matsuda, Akio; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Fujieda, Mikiya; Sago, Haruhiko; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Although human term placenta-derived primary cytotrophoblasts (pCTBs) represent a good human syncytiotrophoblast (STB) model, in vitro culture of pCTBs is not always easily accomplished. Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK), reportedly prevented apoptosis and improved cell-to-substrate adhesion and culture stability of dissociated cultured human embryonic stem cells and human corneal endothelial cells. The Rho kinase pathway regulates various kinds of cell behavior, some of which are involved in pCTB adhesion and differentiation. In this study, we examined Y-27632's potential for enhancing pCTB adhesion, viability and differentiation. pCTBs were isolated from term, uncomplicated placentas by trypsin-DNase I-Dispase II treatment and purified by HLA class I-positive cell depletion. Purified pCTBs were cultured on uncoated plates in the presence of epidermal growth factor (10 ng/ml) and various concentrations of Y-27632. pCTB adhesion to the plates was evaluated by phase-contrast imaging, viability was measured by WST-8 assay, and differentiation was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining, expression of fusogenic genes and hCG-β production. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1; one of the effector proteins of the Rho family) and protein kinase A (PKA) involvement was evaluated by using their specific inhibitors, NSC-23766 and H-89. We found that Y-27632 treatment significantly enhanced pCTB adhesion to plates, viability, cell-to-cell fusion and hCG-β production, but showed no effects on pCTB proliferation or apoptosis. Furthermore, NSC-23766 and H-89 each blocked the effects of Y-27632, suggesting that Y-27632 significantly enhanced pCTB differentiation via Rac1 and PKA activation. Our findings suggest that Rac1 and PKA may be interactively involved in CTB differentiation, and addition of Y-27632 to cultures may be an effective method for creating a stable culture model for studying CTB and STB biology

  8. Decidual Stromal Cell Response to Paracrine Signals from the Trophoblast: Amplification of Immune and Angiogenic Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, AP; Hamilton, AE; Talbi, S

    2007-01-01

    During the invasive phase of implantation, trophoblasts and maternal decidual stromal cells secrete products that regulate trophoblast differentiation and migration into the maternal endometrium. Paracrine interactions between the extravillous trophoblast and the maternal decidua are important fo...

  9. Circulating Cell Free DNA in the Diagnosis of Trophoblastic Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Mark R.; Harvey, Richard A.; Sebire, Neil J.; Kaur, Baljeet; Sarwar, Naveed; Seckl, Michael J.; Fisher, Rosemary A.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) represents a group of diseases characterized by production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Since non-gestational tumors may occasionally secrete hCG, histopathological diagnosis is important for appropriate clinical management. However, a histopathological diagnosis is not always available. We therefore investigated the feasibility of extracting cell free DNA (cfDNA) from the plasma of women with GTN for use as a “liquid biopsy” in patients without histopathological diagnosis. cfDNA was prepared from the plasma of 20 women with a diagnosis of GTN and five with hCG-secreting tumors of unknown origin. Genotyping of cfDNA from the patient, genomic DNA from her and her partner and DNA from the tumor tissue identified circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) (from 9% to 53% of total cfDNA) in 12 of 20 patients with GTN. In one case without a tissue diagnosis, ctDNA enabled a diagnosis of GTN originating in a non-molar conception and in another a diagnosis of non-gestational tumor, based on the high degree of allelic instability and loss of heterozygosity in the ctDNA. In summary ctDNA can be detected in the plasma of women with GTN and can facilitate the diagnosis of both gestational and non-gestational trophoblastic tumors in cases without histopathological diagnosis. PMID:26981554

  10. Circulating Cell Free DNA in the Diagnosis of Trophoblastic Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Openshaw

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN represents a group of diseases characterized by production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. Since non-gestational tumors may occasionally secrete hCG, histopathological diagnosis is important for appropriate clinical management. However, a histopathological diagnosis is not always available. We therefore investigated the feasibility of extracting cell free DNA (cfDNA from the plasma of women with GTN for use as a “liquid biopsy” in patients without histopathological diagnosis. cfDNA was prepared from the plasma of 20 women with a diagnosis of GTN and five with hCG-secreting tumors of unknown origin. Genotyping of cfDNA from the patient, genomic DNA from her and her partner and DNA from the tumor tissue identified circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA (from 9% to 53% of total cfDNA in 12 of 20 patients with GTN. In one case without a tissue diagnosis, ctDNA enabled a diagnosis of GTN originating in a non-molar conception and in another a diagnosis of non-gestational tumor, based on the high degree of allelic instability and loss of heterozygosity in the ctDNA. In summary ctDNA can be detected in the plasma of women with GTN and can facilitate the diagnosis of both gestational and non-gestational trophoblastic tumors in cases without histopathological diagnosis.

  11. The Role of Surgery and Radiation Therapy in the Management of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Rabbie K.

    2010-01-01

    The primary management of hydatidiform moles remains surgical evacuation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin level monitoring. Although suction dilatation and evacuation is the most frequent technique for molar evacuation, hysterectomy is a viable option in older patients who do not wish to preserve fertility. Despite advances in chemotherapy regimens for treating malignant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, hysterectomy and other extirpative procedures continue to play a role in the management of patients with both low-risk and high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Primary hysterectomy can reduce the amount of chemotherapy required to treat low-risk disease, whereas surgical resections, including hysterectomy, pulmonary resections, and other extirpative procedures, can be invaluable for treating highly selected patients with persistent, drug-resistant disease. Radiation therapy is also often incorporated into the multimodality therapy of patients with high-risk metastatic disease. This review discusses the indications for and the role of surgical interventions during the management of women with hydatidiform moles and malignant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and reviews the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of women with malignant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:20495216

  12. Quantitative abnormalities of fetal trophoblast cells in maternal circulation in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yan; Liao, Ai-Hua

    2008-12-01

    To determine if quantitative abnormalities of circulating fetal trophoblast cells (CFTCs) are associated with preeclampsia. The trophoblast cell-specific antibody, MEM-G/9 (monoclonal antibody to HLA-G), was applied to distinguish the trophoblast cells from the maternal circulation. The trophoblast cells were isolated by density-gradient centrifugation from maternal blood samples of normal pregnant and preeclamptic women, respectively. After preliminary enrichment, the CFTCs were identified by immunocytochemical staining with the MEM-G/9. To prove fetal origin of the HLA-G-positive cells, primer-extension preamplification (PEP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on single HLA-G-positive cells were adopted to detect human sex-determining region of the Y-chromosome (SRY) gene. There were 6.88 +/- 1.54 and 30.56 +/- 5.16 HLA-G-positive cells in 6 mL maternal blood from the normal pregnant (n = 16) and preeclamptic women (n = 18), respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p HLA-G-positive cells was detected in all pregnant women carrying male fetuses. The sensitivity and specificity of PEP and PCR for the SRY gene detection were 100%. It is concluded that enhancement of CFTCs numbers is related to preeclampsia, which provides information useful for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of preeclampsia. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) leaf extract increases extravillous trophoblast cell migration and invasion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Christina; Ferrier, Jonathan; Gaudet, Jeremiah; Yockell-Lelièvre, Julien; Arnason, John Thor; Gruslin, Andrée; Bainbridge, Shannon

    2018-01-29

    Perturbations to extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cell migration and invasion are associated with the development of placenta-mediated diseases. Phytochemicals found in the lowbush blueberry plant (Vaccinium angustifolium) have been shown to influence cell migration and invasion in models of tumorigenesis and noncancerous, healthy cells, however never in EVT cells. We hypothesized that the phenolic compounds present in V. angustifolium leaf extract promote trophoblast migration and invasion. Using the HTR-8/SVneo human EVT cell line and Boyden chamber assays, the influence of V. angustifolium leaf extract (0 to 2 × 104  ng/ml) on trophoblast cell migration (n = 4) and invasion (n = 4) was determined. Cellular proliferation and viability were assessed using immunoreactivity to Ki67 (n = 3) and trypan blue exclusion assays (n = 3), respectively. At 20 ng/ml, V. angustifolium leaf extract increased HTR-8/SVneo cell migration and invasion (p extract and the most active compound. Evidence from Western blot analysis (n = 3) suggests that the effects of the leaf extract and chlorogenic acid on trophoblast migration and invasion are mediated through an adenosine monophosphate-activated protein (AMP) kinase-dependent mechanism. Further investigations examining the potential therapeutic applications of this natural health product extract and its major chemical compounds in the context of placenta-mediated diseases are warranted. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The protective effect of apolipoprotein in models of trophoblast invasion and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Francesca; Bobek, Gabriele; Stait-Gardner, Tim; Price, William S; Mirabito Colafella, Katrina M; Xu, Bei; Makris, Angela; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. It is associated with abnormal placentation via poor placental invasion of the uterine vasculature by trophoblast cells, leading to poor placental perfusion, oxidative stress, and inflammation, all of which are implicated in its pathogenesis. A dyslipidemia characterized by low plasma levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and elevated triglycerides has been described in preeclampsia. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), a constituent of HDL is an anti-inflammatory agent. This study investigated whether apoA-I protects against hypertension and adverse placental changes in a proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α)-induced model of preeclampsia. Further, this study investigated whether apoA-I protects against the inhibitory effect of TNF-α in a human in vitro model of trophoblast invasion. Administration of apoA-I to pregnant mice before infusion with TNF-α resulted in a significant reduction in the cytokine-induced increase in systolic blood pressure. MRI measurement of T2 relaxation, a parameter that is tissue specific and sensitive to physiological changes within tissues, showed a reversal of TNF-α-induced placental changes. Preincubation of endothelial cells with apoA-I protected against the TNF-α-induced inhibition of HTR-8/SVneo (trophoblast) cell integration into endothelial (UtMVEC) networks. These data suggest that a healthy lipid profile may affect pregnancy outcomes by priming endothelial cells in preparation for trophoblast invasion. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Mitochondria Damage Induced by Hypoxia in Mouse Trophoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjuan Wang

    Full Text Available We aimed to observe the change of mitochondrial function and structure as well as the cell function induced by hypoxia in mouse trophoblasts, and moreover, to validate the restoration of these changes after co-culture with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hereinafter referred to as "MSCs". Further, we explored the mechanism of MSCs attenuating the functional damage of trophoblasts caused by hypoxia.Cells were divided into two groups, trophoblasts and MSCs+trophoblasts respectively, and the two groups of cells were incubated with normoxia or hypoxia. Chemiluminescence was used to assay the β-HCG and progesterone in cell culture supernatants quantitatively. Western blotting and PCR were applied to detect the expression of Mfn2, MMP-2, MMP-9 and integrin β1 in the two groups. The mitochondrial membrane potential of each group of cells was detected with JC-1 dye and the ATP content was measured by the phosphomolybdic acid colorimetric method. We utilized transmission electron microscopy for observing the ultrastructure of mitochondria in trophoblasts. Finally, we assessed the cell apoptosis with flow cytometry (FCM and analyzed the expression of the apoptosis related genes-Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase3 and Caspase9 by western blotting.The results showed that the Mfn2 expression was reduced after 4 h in hypoxia compared with that in normoxia, but increased in the co-culture group when compared with that in the separated-culture group (p<0.05. In addition, compared with the separated-culture group, theβ-HCG and progesterone levels in the co-culture group were significantly enhanced (p<0.05, and so were the expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9 and integrin β1 (p<0.05. Moreover, it exhibited significantly higher in ATP levels and intensified about the mitochondrial membrane potential in the co-culture group. TEM revealed disorders of the mitochondrial cristae and presented short rod-like structure and spheroids in hypoxia, however, in the co-culture group, the

  16. Co-expression of cytokeratins and vimentin by highly invasive trophoblast in the white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi, and the black mastiff bat, Molossus ater, with observations on intermediate filament proteins in the decidua and intraplacental trophoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwaik, N K; Rasweiler, J J; Muradali, F

    1998-11-01

    Histological and immunocytochemical studies of gravid reproductive tracts obtained from the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi) and the black mastiff bat (Molossus ater) have established that both species develop unusually invasive trophoblast. This is released by the developing discoidal haemochorial placenta, expresses both cytokeratins and vimentin, and invades the myometrium and adjacent tissues (including the ovaries) via interstitial migration within the walls of maternal blood vessels. Hence, this trophoblast is noteworthy for the extent to which it undergoes an epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. In Molossus, it originates from the cytotrophoblastic shell running along the base of the placenta, is mononuclear, and preferentially invades maternal arterial vessels serving the discoidal placenta. This trophoblast may have a role in dilatation of these vessels when the discoidal placenta becomes functional. In Diaemus, the highly invasive trophoblast appears to originate instead from a layer of syncytiotrophoblast on the periphery of the placenta is multinucleated, and vigorously invades both arterial and venous vessels. During late pregnancy, it becomes extensively branched and sends attenuated processes around many of the myometrial smooth muscle fibres. In view of its distribution, this trophoblast could have important influences upon myometrial contractility and the function of blood vessels serving the gravid tract. Other aspects of intermediate filament expression in the uteri and placentae of these bats are also noteworthy. Many of the decidual giant cells in Molossus co-express cytokeratins and vimentin, while the syncytiotrophoblast lining the placental labyrinth in Diaemus late in pregnancy expresses little cytokeratin.

  17. Suppression of STAT3 Signaling by Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Induces Trophoblast Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xinwen; Bian, Yiding; He, Qizhi; Yao, Julei; Zhu, Jingping; Wu, Jinting; Wang, Kai; Duan, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Marijuana is a widely used illicit drug and its consumption during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic intake of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major component of marijuana, on trophoblast function, placental development, and birth outcomes. The pathological characteristics and distribution of cannabinoid receptors in placenta were observed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Cell migration in response to THC was measured by transwell assays. The levels of cannabinoid receptors and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) were detected by western blot. We found the placenta expressed two main cannabinoid receptors, suggesting that THC induced biological responses in placental cells. Supporting this hypothesis, we observed dramatic alterations of placental morphology in marijuana users. Using THC and inhibitors of cannabinoid receptors, we demonstrated that THC impaired trophoblast cell migration and invasion partly via cannabinoid receptors. Additionally, pregnant mice injected with THC showed adverse reproductive events including reduced number of fetuses, lower maternal and placental weights. Mechanistically, STAT3 signaling pathway was involved in the THC-induced suppression of trophoblast cell motility and pregnancy outcomes. Our study indicates that the STAT3 signaling pathway plays a critical role in THC-induced trophoblast dysfunction. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Suppression of STAT3 Signaling by Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC Induces Trophoblast Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwen Chang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Marijuana is a widely used illicit drug and its consumption during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic intake of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the major component of marijuana, on trophoblast function, placental development, and birth outcomes. Methods: The pathological characteristics and distribution of cannabinoid receptors in placenta were observed by immunohistochemical (IHC staining. Cell migration in response to THC was measured by transwell assays. The levels of cannabinoid receptors and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 were detected by western blot. Results: We found the placenta expressed two main cannabinoid receptors, suggesting that THC induced biological responses in placental cells. Supporting this hypothesis, we observed dramatic alterations of placental morphology in marijuana users. Using THC and inhibitors of cannabinoid receptors, we demonstrated that THC impaired trophoblast cell migration and invasion partly via cannabinoid receptors. Additionally, pregnant mice injected with THC showed adverse reproductive events including reduced number of fetuses, lower maternal and placental weights. Mechanistically, STAT3 signaling pathway was involved in the THC-induced suppression of trophoblast cell motility and pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion: Our study indicates that the STAT3 signaling pathway plays a critical role in THC-induced trophoblast dysfunction.

  19. Clinicopathologic Analysis of Postchemotherapy Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia: An Entity Overlapping With Epithelioid Trophoblastic Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bingjian; Zhang, Xiaofei; Liang, Yun

    2016-11-01

    Surgery is generally not required for the majority of gestational trophoblastic neoplasias (GTNs) because they are potentially curable by chemotherapy alone. The histologic assessment is rarely available although the identification of a specific subtype of GTN is relevant to clinical intervention and prognostic prediction. In this study, we analyzed the clinicopathologic features of 4 postchemotherapy GTNs. They presented as a persistent uterine (Cases 1, 2, and 3) or pelvic mass (Case 4) with a raised serum β-hCG level after multiple courses of chemotherapy. All patients were alive without evidence of disease at follow-up periods of 58 to 109 mo after surgery and salvage chemotherapy except for Case 4 which had a recurrent pelvic mass. These GTNs had a characteristic histopathologic pattern of extensive necrosis and a rim of scant viable mononucleated tumor cells at the periphery of the lesion. Immunostaining showed that these tumor cells had a lower Ki67 index than choriocarcinoma, and epithelioid trophoblastic cell tumor although they exhibited an epithelioid trophoblastic cell tumor-like immunostaining pattern (CD146, hPL, and p63). A small number of β-hCG-positive multinucleated trophoblastic cells were also present in 3 of the 4 cases. We suggest that these postchemotherapy GTNs may represent a "snap shot" of the hypothetical choriocarcinoma-epithelioid trophoblastic cell tumor transition. Our findings should provide insights into the pathogenesis of GTNs.

  20. Detection of fetal-specific DNA after enrichment for trophoblasts using the monoclonal antibody LK26 in model systems but failure to demonstrate fetal DNA in maternal peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V; Sørensen, S; Morling, N

    1999-01-01

    Trophoblast cells can be detected in maternal blood during normal human pregnancy and DNA from these cells may be used for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of inherited diseases. The possibility of enriching trophoblast cells from maternal blood samples using a monoclonal antibody (LK26) against...... a folate-binding protein, which recognizes trophoblast in normal tissues, in conjunction with immunomagnetic cell sorting was investigated. Verification of the presence of fetal DNA in the sorted samples was done by detection of fetal/paternal-specific short tandem repeat (STR) alleles using polymerase...... chain reaction (PCR) and automated fluorescence-based genotyping. After successful initial experiments using retroplacental blood samples with a high number of trophoblast cells or an artificial mixture of trophoblast cells and blood, several versions of the enrichment method were attempted...

  1. Indomethacin inhibits the uptake of 22sodium by ovine trophoblastic tissue in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    Blastocysts from several species synthesize prostaglandins in vitro, but the exact functions of the prostaglandins are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, would inhibit the uptake of 22sodium ((22Na)) by ovine trophoblastic tissue. To determine the concentration of indomethacin that would inhibit the synthesis of PGF2 alpha and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) by blastocysts, blastocysts were collected from ewes 16 days after mating, sliced into pieces approximately 2 mm in length and incubated for 48 h at 37 degrees C in 2 ml of medium containing either 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 or 1.6 mM of indomethacin. Concentrations of indomethacin greater than or equal to 0.2 mM reduced (P less than .01) trophoblastic release (ng/micrograms DNA) of PGF2 alpha from 205 +/- 71.2 to less than or equal to 3.3 +/- 0.2, reduced PGFM from 0.7 +/- 0.1 to less than or equal to 0.17 +/- 0.01, and inhibited formation of trophoblastic vesicles. In a second experiment, blastocysts were recovered from ewes 16 days after mating and pieces of trophoblast were incubated with (22Na) and either 0 or 0.4 mM of indomethacin. Indomethacin reduced the uptake of (22Na), which is an indirect measure of the transport of water across epithelia, from 3680 +/- 1118 to 934 +/- 248 cpm/micrograms DNA (P less than .03) and prevented formation of trophoblastic vesicles. Prostaglandins produced by ovine blastocysts might be involved in controlling uptake of water, which is essential for expansion of blastocysts.

  2. Effect of low oxygen concentrations on trophoblast-like cell line invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, G E; Hornbuckle, J; Brunt, A; Kirkley, M; Searle, R F; Robson, S C; Bulmer, J N

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of trophoblast-like cell lines to the study of trophoblast function has been widely debated. The present study investigated the effect of oxygen on the invasiveness, apoptosis, proliferation and secreted proteases of four different trophoblast cell lines; HTR-8/SVneo, SGHPL-4, JEG3 and JAR. All experiments were performed at 20% and 3% oxygen for 24, 48 and 72h. Immunostaining for integrins alpha1, alpha6 and beta3, cytokeratin 7 and HLA-G was used to determine the phenotype of the different cell lines. Invasion was assessed using the Matrigel invasion assay. Immunostaining for M30 and Ki67 determined levels of apoptosis and proliferation, respectively. Gelatin and casein/plasminogen zymography were performed on conditioned media to determine levels of secreted matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), respectively. None of the cell lines immunostained for all markers normally expressed by extravillous trophoblast cells. Invasiveness of HTR-8/SVneo and JEG3 cells cultured in 3% oxygen was increased after 24h but was inhibited by 72h in culture. Invasion of SGHPL-4 cells was inhibited after culture in 3% oxygen for 24h. Invasion by JAR cells was not affected by changes in oxygen concentration. The different cell lines also displayed different responses to culture period in 3% oxygen with respect to apoptosis, proliferation and secreted proteases. Care should be taken before results obtained using cell lines as a model for EVT are extrapolated to extravillous trophoblast cell behaviour in vivo.

  3. A homodimeric complex of HLA-G on normal trophoblast cells modulates antigen-presenting cells via LILRB1

    OpenAIRE

    Apps, Richard; Gardner, Lucy; Sharkey, Andrew M.; Holmes, Nick; Moffett, Ashley

    2007-01-01

    In healthy individuals, the non-classical MHC molecule HLA-G is only expressed on fetal trophoblast cells that invade the decidua during placentation. We show that a significant proportion of HLA-G at the surface of normal human trophoblast cells is present as a disulphide-linked homodimer of the conventional ?2m-associated HLA-I complex. HLA-G is a ligand for leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR), which bind much more efficiently to dimeric HLA-G than to conventional HLA-I molecules...

  4. Effect of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone at emergency contraception dose on the embryo-endometrial attachment using an in vitro human trophoblastic spheroid and endometrial cell co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang-Wun Raymond; Li, Ying-Xing; Li, Tian-Tian; Fan, Hongjie; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu; Yeung, William Shu-Biu; Ho, Pak-Chung; Lee, Kai-Fai

    2017-12-01

    Do both ulipristal acetate (UPA) and mifepristone inhibit embryo-endometrial attachment at concentrations corresponding to the emergency contraception (EC) dose? Both UPA and mifepristone at concentrations corresponding to the EC dose do not have an inhibitory effect on embryo implantation, although mifepristone at a higher concentration appeared to have such an effect. Levonorgestrel is commonly used for EC, but it only acts through inhibition of ovulation. UPA and mifepristone have higher efficacy as EC compared to levonorgestrel; while there is some suggestion that mifepristone may interfere with implantation, whether UPA has post-ovulatory action in inhibiting implantation is yet to be confirmed. An in vitro experimental study using trophoblastic spheroids made from JAr cell line as the embryo surrogate, and the Ishikawa cell line and primary human endometrial cells cultured to monolayer as the endometrial surrogate. The primary endometrial cells were collected from nine volunteer women in the mid-luteal phase with consent. The study was conducted in a university gynaecology unit. The JAr and Ishikawa cell lines (or primary endometrial cells) were treated with graded concentrations of UPA (0, 0.04, 0.4 and 4 μM) or mifepristone (0, 0.1, 1 and 10 μM) for 24 h. Embryo-endometrial attachment was studied using an in vitro JAr spheroid-endometrial co-culture model. Expressions of progesterone receptor, β-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3β) were studied with real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. In the Ishikawa experiments, there was no significant difference in the JAr spheroid attachment rate after treatment with UPA at 0 (93.0%), 0.04 (93.6%), 0.4 (93.4%) and 4 (91.4%) μM concentrations (P > 0.05); the attachment rate was reduced after treatment with mifepristone only at 10 μM (79.8%, P endometrial cell experiments, again no significant difference was observed in the JAr spheroid attachment rate after treatment with UPA 4

  5. CYTO PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF GESTA TIONAL TROPHOBLASTIC DISEASE

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    Hemalatha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The main aim of this study is to evaluate cytological features of trophoblastic disease and to correlate with histopathological findings. BACKGROUND: Gestational trophoblastic lesions include pregnancy related disorders ranging from benign hydatidiform mole, clinically malignant conditions like invasive mole and metastatic mole, to anaplastic conditions including choriocarcinoma, Placental site trophoblastic tumor and Epithelioid Trophoblastic mole with varying proportion for local invasion and metastasis. Gestational trophoblastic lesions mimic growth pattern encountered in early normal placental development, non - molar abortions and variety of non - trophoblastic lesions. Therefore an appreciation of different types of Gestational trophoblastic disease with its cytopathological manifestations and serum markers (serum β hCG are important for the confirmation of diagn osis. Thus the study is under taken. MATERIAL AND METHODS : The material for the present study was obtained from patients presented with complaints of amenorrhea and bleeding per vagina. After obtaining detailed clinical history the patients under went thor ough physical examination and relevant investigations were carried out. Then the patients were subjected uterine aspiration curettage, prior to aspiration hCG was performed in all cases . RESULTS : Aspiration smear was adequate for cytological interpretation . It well correlated with histopathological findings. Morphological features were well preserved, cytological features of individual cells could be appreciated. Correlation with histology found to be accurate. Specificity and sensitivity found to be 100%. CONCLUSION: Thus this study suggests that aspiration cytology can be utilized in follow up of patients particularly in trophoblastic disease under treatment

  6. Gestational and Non-gestational Trophoblastic Disease. Guideline of the DGGG, OEGGG and SGGG (S2k Level, AWMF Registry No. 032/049, December 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempfer, C; Horn, L-C; Ackermann, S; Beckmann, M W; Dittrich, R; Einenkel, J; Günthert, A; Haase, H; Kratzsch, J; Kreissl, M C; Polterauer, S; Ebert, A D; Schneider, K T M; Strauss, H G; Thiel, F

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: The aim was to establish an official interdisciplinary guideline, published and coordinated by the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). The guideline was developed for use in German-speaking countries. In addition to the Germany Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the guideline has also been approved by the Swiss Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (SGGG) and the Austrian Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (OEGGG). The aim was to standardize diagnostic procedures and the management of gestational and non-gestational trophoblastic disease in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine, drawing on the current literature and the experience of the colleagues involved in compiling the guideline. Methods: This s2k guideline represents the consensus of a representative panel of experts with a range of different professional backgrounds commissioned by the DGGG. Following a review of the international literature and international guidelines on trophoblastic tumors, a structural consensus was achieved in a formalized, multi-step procedure. This was done using uniform definitions, objective assessments, and standardized management protocols. Recommendations: The recommendations of the guideline cover the epidemiology, classification and staging of trophoblastic tumors; the measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in serum, and the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of villous trophoblastic tumors (e.g., partial mole, hydatidiform mole, invasive mole) and non-villous trophoblastic tumors (placental site nodule, exaggerated placental site, placental site tumor, epitheloid trophoblastic tumor, and choriocarcinoma).

  7. Relapse rates after two versus three consolidation courses of methotrexate in the treatment of low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lybol, C.; Sweep, F.C.; Harvey, R.; Mitchell, H.; Short, D.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Savage, P.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Seckl, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methotrexate (MTX) alternating with folinic acid is a commonly used treatment regimen for low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). In The Netherlands, two courses of MTX are administered after normalization of serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels (consolidation

  8. Early identification of resistance to first-line single-agent methotrexate in patients with persistent trophoblastic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trommel, N.E. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Schijf, C.P.T.; Kate-Booij, M.J.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: A generally accepted definition for resistance to first-line single-agent chemotherapy for persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD) is lacking. In the present study, a normogram for serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) from patients with normalization of serum hCG after first-line

  9. The Tnfrh1 (Tnfrsf23 gene is weakly imprinted in several organs and expressed at the trophoblast-decidua interface

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    Cattoretti Giorgio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tnfrh1 gene (gene symbol Tnfrsf23 is located near one end of a megabase-scale imprinted region on mouse distal chromosome 7, about 350 kb distant from the nearest known imprinting control element. Within 20 kb of Tnfrh1 is a related gene called Tnfrh2 (Tnfrsf22 These duplicated genes encode putative decoy receptors in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor family. Although other genes in this chromosomal region show conserved synteny with genes on human Chr11p15.5, there are no obvious human orthologues of Tnfrh1 or Tnfrh2. Results We analyzed Tnfrh1 for evidence of parental imprinting, and characterized its tissue-specific expression. Tnfrh1 mRNA is detectable in multiple adult and fetal tissues, with highest expression in placenta, where in situ hybridization reveals a distinctive population of Tnfrh1-positive cells in maternal decidua, directly beneath the trophoblast giant cells. In offspring of interspecific mouse crosses, Tnfrh1 shows a consistent parent-of-origin-dependent allelic expression bias, with relative repression, but not silencing, of the paternal allele in several organs including fetal liver and adult spleen. Conclusions Genes preferentially expressed in the placenta are predicted to evolve rapidly, and Tnfrh1 appears to be an example of this phenomenon. In view of its strong expression in cells at the fetal-maternal boundary, Tnfrh1 warrants further study as a gene that might modulate immune or trophic interactions between the invasive placental trophoblast and the maternal decidua. The preferential expression of Tnfrh1 from the maternal allele indicates weak functional imprinting of this locus in some tissues.

  10. Worldwide survey of the results of treating gestational trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorn, Ernest I

    2014-01-01

    To determine factors influencing outcome for patients with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) from throughout the world. Physicians known to treat GTD were sent a questionnaire. There were 32 responses from 17 countries, totaling 26,153 patients. Of 14,093 patients with complete mole 20.6% developed trophoblastic neoplasia, and 5.7% died. There were 10,230 patients with partial mole, of whom 6.5% received therapy for neoplasia. There were 548 patients with post-term pregnancy choriocarcinoma, of whom 13.4% died. Of 137 patients with placental site trophoblastic tumor 16.1% died. The remaining 1,165 patients did not fit into a designated diagnostic category. The mortality rate for 2,818 patients with GTD primarily treated at a trophoblast center was 2.1%, as compared with 8% among 1,854 patients referred after failure of primary treatment (p trophoblastic disease have better results and survival.

  11. Restraint of Trophoblast Invasion of the Uterus by Decorin: Role in Pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Pinki; Siddiqui, Mohammad Fyyaz; Lala, Peeyush K

    2016-03-01

    Decorin (DCN) is a leucine-rich, TGF-β binding proteoglycan produced by mesenchymal cells including chondrocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and uterine decidual cells. It exerts multiple physiological functions including collagen fibrillogenesis, myogenesis, angiostasis, and restraining placental invasiveness. We discovered that decidua-derived DCN restrains proliferation, migration, and invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells of the human placenta in a TGF-β-independent manner. These functions were differentially mediated by binding of DCN to multiple tyrosine kinase receptors (TKR) including EGFR, IGFR1, and VEGFR2. DCN blocked VEGFR-2 dependent EVT cell migration and endovascular differentiation by inhibiting P38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways.We identified the avid VEGFR2 binding site in DCN protein as a 12 amino acids (LGTNPLKSSGIE) span in the Leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) 5 region of domain III. A single amino acid mutation (substitution of K to A) of DCN at this site abrogated VEGFR-2- dependent DCN actions. Also, DCN mRNA expression, measured with in situ hybridization, was selectively upregulated in decidual cells in placentas from mothers suffering from pre-eclampsia (PE), whereas the expression levels remained unchanged in chorionic villus mesenchymal cells. This difference between PE and control placentas was present at all gestational ages, indicating the pathogenic role of DCN in PE. We hypothesize that increased blood DCN levels could be a candidate biomarker for PE. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Analysis of a candidate gene associated with growth suppression of choriocarcinoma and differentiation of trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanoma, Kazuo; Kato, Hidenori; Inoue, Takafumi; Matsuda, Takao; Wake, Norio

    2004-08-01

    To isolate a choriocarcinoma suppressor gene and analyze its structure and function. We constructed a polymerase chain reaction-based subtracted fragmentary cDNA library between normal placental villi and choriocarcinoma cell line CC1. A novel homeobox gene, designated NECC1 (not expressed in differ choriocarcinoma clone 1), is included in this library. We analyzed the structure and function of NECC1 with molecular biology. NECC1 comprises an open reading frame of 219 nucleotides encoding 73 amino acids and contains a homeodomain as a consensus motif. NECC1 is located on human chromosome 4q11-q12, and its expression is ubiquitous in the brain, placenta, lung, smooth muscle, uterus, bladder, kidney and spleen. Normal placental villi abundantly expressed NECC1, but all choriocarcinoma cell lines examined and most surgically removed choriocarcinoma tissue samples failed to express it. We transfected this gene into choriocarcinoma cell lines and observed remarkable alterations in cell morphology and suppression of in vivo tumorigenesis. Induction of chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 1 by NECC1 transfection suggested differentiation of choriocarcinoma cells to syncytiotrophoblast-like cells. Our results suggest that loss of NECC1 expression is involved in malignant conversion of placental trophoblasts.

  13. Leptin promotes HLA-G expression on placental trophoblasts via the MEK/Erk and PI3K signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, G; Toro, A; Moschansky, P; Cohen, M; Garcia, M G; Rose, M; Maskin, B; Sánchez-Margalet, V; Blois, S M; Varone, C L

    2015-04-01

    The development of the human haemochorial placenta requires complex regulatory mechanisms to protect invasive trophoblast cells from cytotoxic responses elicited by maternal immune cells. Leptin, the adipocyte derived hormone encoded by the Lep gene, is synthesized by placental trophoblasts and exerts pleiotropic effects on the immune system, including the promotion of inflammation and the activation of T cell responses. To address its possible involvement in the modulation of maternal immune responses during pregnancy, we investigated the effect of leptin on the expression of the class Ib histocompatibility antigen HLA-G as one of the chief immunosuppressive strategies used by trophoblast cells. In vitro incubation of the trophoblast derived Swan 71 and JEG-3 cell lines with 25-50 ng/ml recombinant leptin significantly boosted HLA-G mRNA and protein expression, and this effect was abrogated upon pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K-Akt and MEK-Erk signaling pathways. A similar stimulatory effect of leptin was observed in term placental tissue explants, though 10-fold higher doses were required for stimulation. Further, JEG-3 cells treated with a leptin antisense oligodeoxynucleotide displayed decreased HLA-G expression levels, which were partially recovered by addition of stimulating doses of exogenous hormone. Immunofluorescence and qPCR analysis confirmed leptin biosynthesis in placental tissue, further showing that invasive extravillous trophoblast cells were a main source of this hormone during the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Taken together, our results show that leptin acts as an autocrine/paracrine signal promoting HLA-G expression in placental trophoblasts suggesting an important role in the regulation of immune evasion mechanisms at the fetal maternal interface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selenium Attenuates HPV-18 Associated Apoptosis in Embryo-Derived Trophoblastic Cells but Not Inner Cell Mass In Vitro

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    Jennifer A. Tolen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Human papillomaviruses (HPV are associated with cell cycle arrest. This study focused on antioxidant selenomethionine (SeMet inhibition of HPV-mediated necrosis. The objectives were to determine HPV-18 effects on embryonic cells and to evaluate SeMet in blocking HPV-18 effects. Methods. Fertilized mouse embryos were cultured for 5 days to implanted trophoblasts and exposed to either control medium (group 1, HPV-18 (group 2, combined HPV-18 and 0.5 µM SeMet (group 3, or combined HPV-18 and 5.0 µM SeMet (group 4. After 48 hrs, trophoblast integrity and, apoptosis/necrosis were assessed using morphometric and dual-stain fluorescence assays, respectively. Results. HPV-18 exposed trophoblasts nuclei (253.8 ± 28.5 sq·µ were 29% smaller than controls (355.6 ± 35.9 sq·µ. Supplementation with 0.5 and 5.0 µM SeMet prevented nuclear shrinkage after HPV-18 exposure. HPV-18 infected trophoblasts remained larger with SeMet supplementation. HPV-18 decreased cell viability by 44% but SeMet supplementation sustained cell viability. Apoptosis was lower when SeMet was present. HPV-18 decreased inner cell mass (ICM viability by over 60%. Conclusions. HPV-18 decreased nuclear size and trophoblast viability but these effects were attenuated by the antioxidant SeMet. SeMet blocked HPV-18 associated apoptosis process in trophoblasts but not ICM cells suggesting involvement of different oxidative stress pathways.

  15. HLA-G expression is regulated by miR-365 in trophoblasts under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Asako; Nishi, Hirotaka; Sasaki, Toru; Nagamitsu, Yuzo; Kawaguchi, Rie; Okamoto, Aikou; Kuroda, Masahiko; Isaka, Keiichi

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxia occurs in the first trimester of placental development and is implicated in the regulation of trophoblast differentiation. Prolonged hypoxic conditions in the placenta are related to the development of preeclampsia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding, single-stranded RNAs that modulate gene expression by targeting messenger RNA. We hypothesized that, under hypoxic conditions, trophoblasts may have a unique miRNA profile that may play a critical role in placental development. Total RNA was extracted from human trophoblast, HChEpC1b, exposed to normoxia (20% O2) or hypoxia (2% O2) for 24 h, and the miRNA expression profiles were investigated using a microRNA array. Several differential miRNAs were selected and validated using real-time reverse transcription PCR. We identified potential targets of these miRNAs using in silico analysis. We confirmed a potential target protein by western blot analysis and luciferase assays. The expression of miR-365 was significantly upregulated under hypoxic conditions. In silico analysis showed that miR-365 targeted human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G. Both hypoxic conditions and overexpression of miR-365 inhibited the expression of HLA-G proteins. The overexpression of miR-365 also decreased the activity of the luciferase reporter containing the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of HLA-G with the predicted miR-365-binding site. HLA-G is a non-classical HLA class-Ib molecule that is expressed mainly in extravillous trophoblasts and which plays a key role in maintaining immune tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface. Our results indicate that miR-365 targets the HLA-G 3' UTR to repress its expression. The expression of miR-365 may play an important role in human placental development and in immunoprotection of the semiallogenic embryo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reorganizing and restructuring the human resources function

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrina Mirela, Stan

    2010-01-01

    To determine what kind of skills (internal or external) of human resources are adequate organization can use human resources audit. Audit is an action guide that provides step by step consistency of human resources activities within the organization with legal regulations and informal practices. This paper aims to highlight the importance of human resources audit which is an essential activity and is basis for the reorganization and restructuring of human resources function.

  17. Second Curettage for Low-Risk Nonmetastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Raymond J; Filiaci, Virginia L; Schink, Julian C; Mannel, Robert S; Behbakht, Kian; Hoffman, James S; Spirtos, Nick M; Chan, John K; Tidy, John A; Miller, David S

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of second uterine curettage in lieu of chemotherapy for patients with low-risk, nonmetastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) and to evaluate whether response to second curettage is independent of patient age, World Health Organization (WHO) risk score, registration human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level, lesion size, and depth of myometrial invasion measured on ultrasound examination. This was a cooperative group multicenter prospective phase II study. Prestudy testing included quantitative hCG level, pelvic ultrasonography, and chest radiography. Patients were categorized according to WHO risk scoring criteria (low risk with a score of 0-6). Sixty-four women with newly diagnosed low-risk, nonmetastatic GTN were enrolled. Four patients were excluded. Twenty-four patients (40%) (lower 95% confidence limit 27.6%) were cured after second curettage. An additional two patients (3%) achieved a complete response but did not complete follow-up. Overall, 26 of 60 patients were able to avoid chemotherapy. Surgical failure was observed in 34 women (59%) and was more common in women 19 years old or younger or 40 years old or older. One case of grade 1 uterine perforation was successfully managed by observation. Four grade 1 and one grade 3 uterine hemorrhages were reported. New metastatic disease (lung) was identified in one of these women after second curettage. In three patients (surgical failures), the second curettage pathology was placental site trophoblastic tumor, and it was placental nodule in one additional patient. Second uterine curettage as initial treatment for low-risk, nonmetastatic GTN cures 40% of patients without significant morbidity. ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT00521118.

  18. Epithelioid Trophoblastic Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirwen M. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT is a rare gestational trophoblastic tumor. Cases of ETT present as abnormal vaginal bleeding in women of reproductive age, with low human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG levels. ETT can be a sequela of any gestational event and can present in both intrauterine and extrauterine sites. Metastasis and death have been reported. We present a case of a 44-year-old female incidentally diagnosed with ETT following laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy. Postoperative evaluation for metastatic disease was negative. The patient has been closely followed and remains disease free 8 months postoperatively. ETT presents a diagnostic challenge due to its rarity and histologic resemblance to other pathologies. ETT is relatively chemoresistant and managed surgically. Misdiagnosis delays effective treatment and affects survival.

  19. Invasive extravillous trophoblasts restrict intracellular growth and spread of Listeria monocytogenes.

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    Varvara B Zeldovich

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that can infect the placenta, a chimeric organ made of maternal and fetal cells. Extravillous trophoblasts (EVT are specialized fetal cells that invade the uterine implantation site, where they come into direct contact with maternal cells. We have shown previously that EVT are the preferred site of initial placental infection. In this report, we infected primary human EVT with L. monocytogenes. EVT eliminated ∼80% of intracellular bacteria over 24-hours. Bacteria were unable to escape into the cytoplasm and remained confined to vacuolar compartments that became acidified and co-localized with LAMP1, consistent with bacterial degradation in lysosomes. In human placental organ cultures bacterial vacuolar escape rates differed between specific trophoblast subpopulations. The most invasive EVT-those that would be in direct contact with maternal cells in vivo-had lower escape rates than trophoblasts that were surrounded by fetal cells and tissues. Our results suggest that EVT present a bottleneck in the spread of L. monocytogenes from mother to fetus by inhibiting vacuolar escape, and thus intracellular bacterial growth. However, if L. monocytogenes is able to spread beyond EVT it can find a more hospitable environment. Our results elucidate a novel aspect of the maternal-fetal barrier.

  20. Gestational trophoblastic disease with hyperthyroidism: Anesthetic management

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    Puneet Khanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of hyperthyroidism with gestational trophoblastic disease is a known albeit rare clinical condition. We herein report the successful anesthetic management of such a case in our institute. There are only few case reports in literature of this association. Often, the diagnosis of hyperthyroid state is retrospective one, as it can be missed in the emergency scenario of patient requiring molar evacuation. This case report highlights the perioperative management and optimization of hyperthyroid state prior to surgical evacuation of the invasive hydatidiform mole.

  1. Trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation are mediated by both the protein kinase C and a pathways.

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    Waka Omata

    Full Text Available The syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta is an epithelial barrier that interacts with maternal blood and is a key for the transfer of nutrients and other solutes to the developing fetus. The syncytiotrophoblast is a true syncytium and fusion of progenitor cytotrophoblasts is the cardinal event leading to the formation of this layer. BeWo cells are often used as a surrogate for cytotrophoblasts, since they can be induced to fuse, and then express certain differentiation markers associated with trophoblast syncytialization. Dysferlin, a syncytiotrophoblast membrane repair protein, is up-regulated in BeWo cells induced to fuse by treatment with forskolin; this fusion is thought to occur through cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that dysferlin may also be up-regulated in response to fusion through other pathways. Here, we show that BeWo cells can also be induced to fuse by treatment with an activator of protein kinase C, and that this fusion is accompanied by increased expression of dysferlin. Moreover, a dramatic synergistic increase in dysferlin expression is observed when both the protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways are activated in BeWo cells. This synergy in fusion is also accompanied by dramatic increases in mRNA for the placental fusion proteins syncytin 1, syncytin 2, as well as dysferlin. Dysferlin, however, was shown to be dispensable for stimulus-induced BeWo cell syncytialization, since dysferlin knockdown lines fused to the same extent as control cells. The classical trophoblast differentiation marker human chorionic gonadotropin was also monitored and changes in the expression closely parallel that of dysferlin in all of the experimental conditions employed. Thus different biochemical markers of trophoblast fusion behave in concert supporting the hypothesis that activation of both protein kinase C and A pathways lead to trophoblastic differentiation.

  2. Trophoblastic Disease Review for Diagnosis and Management: A Joint Report From the International Society for the Study of Trophoblastic Disease, European Organisation for the Treatment of Trophoblastic Disease, and the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangili, G.; Lorusso, D.; Brown, J.; Pfisterer, J.; Massuger, L.F.; Vaughan, M.; Ngan, H.Y.; Golfier, F.; Sekharan, P.K.; Charry, R.C.; Poveda, A.; Kim, J.W.; Xiang, Y.; Berkowtiz, R.; Seckl, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to provide a consensus review on gestational trophoblastic disease diagnosis and management from the combined International Society for the Study of Trophoblastic Disease, European Organisation for the Treatment of Trophoblastic Disease, and the Gynecologic

  3. Ontogenesis of testicular function in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    GaĂŤlle Angenard; Delphine Moison; Catherine Pairault; HervĂŠ Coffigny; Charlotte LĂŠcureuil; Romain Lambrot; Vincent Muczynski; Virginie Rouiller-Fabre; Mariana Bakalska; Anne Marie Courtot; RenĂŠ Frydman; RenĂŠ Habert

    2010-01-01

    The two major functions of the testis, steroidogenesis and gametogenesis, take place during fetal life. These two functions have been extensively studied in rodents and adult humans. However, their onset during fetal life is poorly documented in humans. In the first part of this work we presented both our experimental data and some data of literature concerning the development of the human fetal testis. In the second part of this article, using the organ culture system we previously developed...

  4. Rac1/β-Catenin Signalling Pathway Contributes to Trophoblast Cell Invasion by Targeting Snail and MMP9

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    Minghua Fan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Preeclampsia is an idiopathic and serious complication during gestation in which placental trophoblast cells differentiate into several functional subtypes, including highly invasive extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs. Although the cause and pathogenesis of preeclampsia have remained unclear, numerous studies have suggested that the inadequacy of EVT invasion leads to imperfect uterine spiral artery remodelling, which plays a crucial role in the development of preeclampsia. Rac1, or Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, was found to be a key regulator of the migration, invasion uand apoptosis of various tumour cells. Because EVTs share similar invasive and migratory biological behaviours with malignant cells, this study aimed to determine whether the Rac1 signalling pathway affects trophoblast invasion and is thus involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Methods: We measured the activity of Rac1 and its downstream targets, β-catenin, Snail and MMP9 in placental tissues from patients experiencing a normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. Furthermore, we treated HTR-8/SVneo cells with a shRNA Rac1 vector and the β-catenin inhibitor IWP-2 and explored Rac1 signalling pathway activation as well as the effects of Snail and β-catenin on trophoblast invasion. Results: In placental samples from patients experiencing a normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia, active Rac1 levels and MMP9 protein and mRNA levels were significantly decreased in term pregnancy samples compared to early pregnancy samples. Lower levels were found in preeclampsia samples than in normal term pregnancy samples, and these levels significantly declined in severe preeclampsia samples compared with mild preeclampsia samples. Further analyses demonstrated that both Rac1 shRNA and the β-catenin inhibitor significantly suppressed MMP9 and Snail activation in trophoblasts, thus impairing trophoblast invasion. Notably, silencing Rac1 down

  5. Examination of Human Chemosensory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutzer, Gregory; Sayed, Samir; Sayed, Nabil

    2006-01-01

    An increased understanding of olfaction and gustation has underlined the critical importance of these two chemical senses in determining how humans respond to their environment. In this article, recent advances in chemosensory research are summarized. The use of a smell identification test, an odor discrimination test, and a test for anosmia to a…

  6. Mst1 and mst2 are essential regulators of trophoblast differentiation and placenta morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingrong Du

    Full Text Available The placenta is essential for survival and growth of the fetus because it promotes the delivery of nutrients and oxygen from the maternal circulation as well as fetal waste disposal. Mst1 and Mst2 (Mst1/2, key components of the mammalian hpo/Mst signaling pathway, encode two highly conserved Ser/Thr kinases and play important roles in the prevention of tumorigenesis and autoimmunity, control of T cell development and trafficking, and embryonic development. However, their functions in placental development are not fully understood, and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated the functions of Mst1/2 in mouse placental development using both conventional and conditional (endothelial Mst1/2 double knockout mice. We found that the number of trophoblast giant cells dramatically increased while spongiotrophoblast cells almost completely disappeared in Mst1/2 deficient placentas. We showed that Mst1/2 deficiency down regulated the expression of Mash2, which is required for suppressing the differentiation of trophoblast giant cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that endothelial-specific deletion of Mst1/2 led to impaired placental labyrinthine vasculature and embryonic lethality at E11.5, but neither affected vasculature in yolk sac and embryo proper nor endocardium development. Collectively, our findings suggest that Mst1/2 regulate placental development by control of trophoblast cell differentiation and labyrinthine vasculature at midgestation and Mst1/2 control labyrinth morphogenesis in trophoblast- and fetal endothelial-dependent manners. Thus, our studies have defined novel roles of Mst1/2 in mouse placental development.

  7. The trophoblast survival capacity in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutabarat, Martina; Wibowo, Noroyono; Huppertz, Berthold

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia has become the world's major maternal health problem putting a huge burden on mothers, newborns and also on the health systems. The pathogenesis of preeclampsia seems to include events in very early pregnancy affecting differentiation of placental villous trophoblast. The arising changes of the cell death spectrum from apoptosis via increased autophagy and aponecrosis to necrosis in turn induce systemic inflammation of the mother. Placental tissue samples and maternal serum samples from 40 pregnant women were collected from normal pregnancy, IUGR, early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia. Immunohistochemistry for LC3B and Beclin-1 was quantified using systematic random sampling techniques. Serum levels of LDH and other markers were assessed in serum. Expression of the autophagy markers LC3B and Beclin-1 was significantly different between groups as was the LC3B/Beclin-1 ratio. Early-onset preeclampsia and IUGR had the highest autophagy protein expression levels, while normal pregnancy and late-onset preeclampsia had the highest LC3B/Beclin-1 ratio. Early-onset preeclampsia had the highest negative correlation with free LDH as cell defect marker. Autophagy plays a critical role in the cell death spectrum and cellular survival capacity of villous trophoblast. Alterations in autophagic protein expression are involved in pathological pregnancies such as preeclampsia.

  8. Mapping Prefrontal Cortex Functions in Human Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It has long been thought that the prefrontal cortex, as the seat of most higher brain functions, is functionally silent during most of infancy. This review highlights recent work concerned with the precise mapping (localization) of brain activation in human infants, providing evidence that prefrontal cortex exhibits functional activation much…

  9. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG: a new test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2014-11-01

    Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a variant of hCG with large oligosaccharide side chains. Although hCG is produced by syncytiotrophoblast cells, hyperglycosylated hCG marks cytotrophoblast cell. Hyperglycosylated hCG signals placental implantation. Total hCG in serum and urine is measured by the Siemens Immulite hCG pregnancy test; the result is in milli-international unit per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG is determined by the B152 microtiter plate assay; the result is in nanogram per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG results can be converted to milli-international unit per milliliter equivalents by multiplying by 11. The test measures proportion hyperglycosylated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG / total hCG. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG marks cases intent on developing persistent hydatidiform mole (68% detection at 17% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG also marks persistent hydatidiform mole (100% detection at 5.1% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG distinguishes choriocarcinoma and gestational trophoblastic neoplasm cases, absolutely discriminating aggressive cases and minimally aggressive cases. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG identifies quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease cases. It recognizes quiescent cases that become persistent disease (100% detection at 0% false positive). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG is an invaluable test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases.

  10. Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Hongxi; Wang, Li; Guo, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu; Hu, Yunsheng; Li, Yi; Yao, Yuanqing

    2015-02-27

    Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphologic and proteomic characterization of exosomes released by cultured extravillous trophoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atay, Safinur [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Gercel-Taylor, Cicek [Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women' s Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Kesimer, Mehmet [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Taylor, Douglas D., E-mail: ddtaylor@louisville.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women' s Health, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Exosomes represent an important intercellular communication vehicle, mediating events essential for the decidual microenvironment. While we have demonstrated exosome induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, to date, no extensive characterization of trophoblast-derived exosomes has been provided. Our objective was to provide a morphologic and proteomic characterization of these exosomes. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned media of Swan71 human trophoblast cells by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. These were analyzed for density (sucrose density gradient centrifugation), morphology (electron microscopy), size (dynamic light scattering) and protein composition (Ion Trap mass spectrometry and western immunoblotting). Based on density gradient centrifugation, microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit a density between 1.134 and 1.173 g/ml. Electron microscopy demonstrated that microvesicles from Sw71 cells exhibit the characteristic cup-shaped morphology of exosomes. Dynamic light scattering showed a bell-shaped curve, indicating a homogeneous population with a mean size of 165 nm {+-} 0.5 nm. Ion Trap mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of exosome marker proteins (including CD81, Alix, cytoskeleton related proteins, and Rab family). The MS results were confirmed by western immunoblotting. Based on morphology, density, size and protein composition, we defined the release of exosomes from extravillous trophoblast cells and provide their first extensive characterization. This characterization is essential in furthering our understanding of 'normal' early pregnancy.

  12. A 10-Year Clinical Experience of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease at Rajavithi Hospital, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaranop, Marut; Potikul, Chalermrat; Tuipae, Suphet

    2016-02-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) develops from abnormal cellular proliferation of trophoblasts following fertilization and is categorized as either an hydatidiform mole (HM) or a gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). To analyze the clinical characteristics, incidence and treatment outcomes of GTD at Rajavithi Hospital. Medical records of women diagnosed with GTD at Rajavithi Hospital from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Disease diagnosis, treatment and follow-up data were analyzed. A total of 329 cases of GTD were reviewed. HM was diagnosed in 167 patients (incidence 2.32 per 1,000 deliveries); 26 patients were lost to follow-up; and 49 of the remaining 141 patients (34.8%) developed post-molar GTN. In multivariable analysis, uterus >16 week size and pre-treatment human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level >250,000 mIU/mL were the significant risk factors for developing post-molar GTN. Of 162 patients with GTN (incidence 2.25 per 1,000 deliveries), 15 patients were lost to follow-up, and 116 patients, 29 patients and 2 patients were classified as having low-risk GTN, high-risk GTN and placental site trophoblastic disease respectively. The overall survival rate in the low-risk group was 100% whereas in the high-risk group it was 86.2%. A modified WHO prognostic score of more than five was the significant risk factor for developing resistant GTN. GTD treatment at Rajavithi Hospital showed excellent clinical outcomes. Uterus >16 weeks size and pre- treatment hCG > 250,000 mIU/mL were the significant risk factors for developing post-molar GTN in HM patients. Classifying GTN patients into low- and high-risk groups was useful in planning treatment and counseling.

  13. The role of surgery in the management of women with gestational trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lana DE Lourdes Aguiar; Padron, Lílian; Câmara, Raphael; Sun, Sue Yazaki; Rezende, Jorge; Braga, Antônio

    2017-01-01

    The Gestational Trophoblastic Disease includes an interrelated group of diseases originating from placental tissue, with distinct behaviors concerning local invasion and metastasis. The high sensitivity of the serial dosages of human chorionic gonadotrophin, combined with advances in chemotherapy treatment, have made gestational trophoblastic neoplasia curable, most often through chemotherapy. However, surgery remains of major importance in the management of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease, improving their prognosis. Surgery is necessary in the control of the disease's complications, such as hemorrhage, and in cases of resistant/relapsed neoplasia. This review discusses the indications and the role of surgical interventions in the management of women with molar pregnancy and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. RESUMO Doença trofoblástica gestacional inclui um grupo interrelacionado de doenças originadas do tecido placentário, com tendências distintas de invasão local e metástase. A alta sensibilidade das dosagens seriadas de gonadotrofina coriônica humana aliada aos avanços do tratamento quimioterápico tornou a neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional, curável, na maioria das vezes, através da quimioterapia. No entanto, a cirurgia permanece ainda, da maior importância na condução de pacientes com doença trofoblástica gestacional, melhorando seu prognóstico. A cirurgia é necessária no controle de complicações da doença, tais como hemorragia, e em casos de neoplasia resistente/recidivada. Esta revisão discute as indicações e o papel das intervenções cirúrgicas durante o manejo de mulheres com gravidez molar e neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional.

  14. Coexisting epithelioid trophoblastic tumor and placental site trophoblastic tumor of the uterus following a term pregnancy: report of a case and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; zhou, Caiyun; Yu, Minghua; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2015-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms are a group of fetal trophoblastic tumors including choriocarcinomas, epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETTs), and placental site trophoblastic tumors (PSTTs). Mixed gestational trophoblastic neoplasms are extremely rare. The existence of mixed gestational trophoblastic neoplasms that were composed of choriocarcinoma and/or PSTT and/or ETT was also reported. Herein, we present a case of uterine mixed gestational trophoblastic neoplasm which is ETT admixed with PSTT, and reviewed 9 cases of mixed gestational trophoblastic neoplasms reported in English literature available. The most common combination was a choriocarcinoma admixed with an ETT and/or PSTT. Mixed gestational trophoblastic neoplasms present in women of reproductive age and rare in postmenopausal, Abnormal vaginal bleeding is the most common presenting symptom, serum β-HCG levels are elevated, mostly below 2500 mIU/ml, the tumor was limited to uterus in 7 cases, the rest of 3 with pulmonary metastases at the time of diagnosis. Mixed gestational trophoblastic neoplasms have more similar clinical features with intermediate trophoblastic tumors (ITTs). Total hysterectomy with lymph node dissection is recommended treatment for mixed gestational trophoblastic neoplasms, and chemotherapy should be used in patients with metastatic disease and with nonmetastatic disease who have adverse prognostic factors. PMID:26261623

  15. ERBB2 gene amplification increases during the transition of proximal EGFR(+) to distal HLA-G(+) first trimester cell column trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, G; Kaltenberger, S; Fiala, C; Knöfler, M; Pollheimer, J

    2015-08-01

    Although, DNA copy-number alterations (CNAs) have been well documented in a number of adverse phenotypic conditions, accumulating data suggest that CNAs also occur during physiological processes. Interestingly, extravillous trophoblasts induce the expression of the transforming, proto-oncogene ERBB2, which is frequently amplified in human cancer. However, no data are available to address whether trophoblast-related ERBB2 expression might also be linked to genomic amplification. Dual color silver as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses were carried out to evaluate frequency and degree of ERBB2 gene and chromosome 17 copy numbers in first trimester placental cell columns and isolated trophoblasts. Proliferative EGFR(+) and differentiated HLA-G(+) trophoblasts were identified or separated by means of in situ immunofluorescence co-stainings and magnetic beads cell isolation, respectively. ERBB2 gene amplification is detected in approximately 40% of isolated HLA-G(+) trophoblasts. Although already detectable in EGFR(+) cells, the percentage and extent of ERBB2 amplification was markedly increased in HLA-G(+) trophoblasts in situ and after isolation. Accordingly, HLA-G(+) trophoblasts highly express ERBB2 on protein level. Finally, ERBB2 copy number variations occur independently of aneuploidy as the majority of ERBB2 amplifying cells were cytogenetically diploid for chromosome 17. ERBB2 gene amplification is a frequent event during EVT differentiation. This finding challenges the long standing paradigm, which associates gene amplification with pathological conditions and further supports recent evidences suggesting that CNAs are a normal feature of developmental processes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Activation of villous trophoblastic p38 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in preterm preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Szilvia; Mody, Meera; Romero, Roberto; Xu, Yi; Karaszi, Katalin; Mihalik, Noemi; Xu, Zhonghui; Bhatti, Gaurav; Fule, Tibor; Hupuczi, Petronella; Krenacs, Tibor; Rigo, Janos; Tarca, Adi L; Hassan, Sonia S; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kovalszky, Ilona; Papp, Zoltan; Than, Nandor Gabor

    2015-07-01

    Preterm preeclampsia is associated with the failure of trophoblast invasion, placental hypoxic/ischemic injury and the release of toxic substances, which promote the terminal pathway of preeclampsia. In term preeclampsia, factors yet unknown trigger the placenta to induce the terminal pathway. The contribution of the villous trophoblast to these pathologic events has not been fully elucidated. Here we aimed to study how stress and signaling pathways influence trophoblastic functions in various subforms of preeclampsia. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from placentas obtained from pregnant women in the following groups: 1-2) preterm preeclampsia with (n = 8) or without (n = 7) HELLP syndrome; 3) late-onset preeclampsia (n = 8); 4-5) preterm (n = 5) and term (n = 9) controls. TMA slides were stained for phosphorylated Akt-1, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 kinases, and trophoblastic immunostainings were semi-quantitatively evaluated. BeWo cells were kept in various stress conditions, and the expression of FLT1, GCM1, LEP, and PGF was profiled by qRT-PCR, while Akt-1, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 kinase activities were measured with phospho-kinase immunoassays. We found that: 1) Placental LEP and FLT1 expression was up-regulated in preterm preeclampsia with or without HELLP syndrome compared to controls; 2) Mean pp38 immunoscore was higher in preterm preeclampsia, especially in cases with HELLP syndrome, than in controls. 3) Mean pERK1/2 immunoscore was higher in preterm preeclampsia with HELLP syndrome than in controls. 4) In BeWo cells, ischemia up-regulated LEP expression, and it increased JNK and decreased ERK1/2 activity. 5) Hypoxia up-regulated FLT1 and down-regulated PGF expression, and it increased ERK1/2, JNK and p38 activity. 6) IL-1β treatment down-regulated PGF expression, and it increased JNK and p38 activity. 7) The p38 signaling pathway had the most impact on LEP, FLT1 and PGF expression. In conclusion, hypoxic and ischemic stress, along

  17. Definitive class I human leukocyte antigen expression in gestational placentation: HLA-F, HLA-E, HLA-C, and HLA-G in extravillous trophoblast invasion on placentation, pregnancy, and parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmon, Rinat; Pinnaduwage, Lakmini; Zhang, Jianhong; Lye, Stephen J; Geraghty, Daniel E; Dunk, Caroline E

    2017-06-01

    The extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) express HLA-C and HLA-G, but HLA-E and HLA-F are the subject of conflicting reports. In this study, we define the HLA expression profile during active EVT placental implantation, pregnancy development, and parturition. Immunohistochemistry, q-PCR, and Western blot were used to investigate HLA-C, HLA-E, and HLA-F placental expression across gestation from the early first trimester, late first trimester, second trimester (n=10 in each), preterm gestation (n=6) to elective term cesarean section and term vaginal deliveries (n=12, 38-41 weeks). EVT explants and Swan71 cells were used to assess HLA-C and HLA-F during active EVT migration. HLA-G, HLA-C, and HLA-F were expressed by 1st-trimester EVT and became intracellular and weaker as gestation progressed. HLA-E was only expressed in 1st-trimester placenta. HLA-F and HLA-C mRNA and protein expression levels showed a significant increase in the fetal villous mesenchyme across gestation. HLA-C levels increased with labor. We detected a 100-kDa HLA-F band in early pregnancy suggesting dimer formation on the EVT surface. These results were confirmed in EVT outgrowths and Swan71 trophoblast which showed that HLA-F and HLA-G are increased on the cell surface of migrating EVT, while HLA-C was internalized. Expression of HLA-F and HLA-G on the cell surface of actively migrating EVT supports their specific role in early EVT invasion and interactions with uterine natural killer cells. HLA-C's limited expression to the proliferative EVT suggests a protective role in the earliest events of implantation but not in active EVT invasion. We also show for the first time that HLA-C may be involved in parturition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Current Chemotherapeutic Management of Patients with Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymaa May

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN describes a heterogeneous group of interrelated lesions that arise from abnormal proliferation of placental trophoblasts. GTN lesions are histologically distinct, malignant lesions that include invasive hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT. GTN tumors are generally highly responsive to chemotherapy. Early stage GTN disease is often cured with single-agent chemotherapy. In contrast, advanced stage disease requires multiagent combination chemotherapeutic regimens to achieve a cure. Various adjuvant surgical procedures can be helpful to treat women with GTN. Patients require careful followup after completing treatment and recurrent disease should be aggressively managed. Women with a history of GTN are at increased risk of subsequent GTN, hence future pregnancies require careful monitoring to ensure normal gestational development. This article will review the workup, management and followup of women with all stages of GTN as well as with recurrent disease.

  19. [Belgian register and reference centers for gestational trophoblastic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcominette, S; Timmermans, M; Delbecque, K; Delvenne, P; Marbaix, E; Noel, J C; Moerman, P; Golfier, F; Kridelka, F; Nisolle, M; Vergote, I; Goffin, F

    2015-11-01

    Gestational trophoblastic diseases include placental pathologies comprising fertilization abnormalities (hydatidiform moles) and malignant lesions (choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor). Due to their low incidence and heterogeneity, their diagnosis, management and treatment are not always optimal. Following the example of other European countries, a national registration system with two reference centers has been set up to guide physicians and patients and to propose individualized management. The centers offer their expertise through a systematic centralised pathology review by a panel of experts. HCG values are plotted in regression curves. In case of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, an imaging work-up is proposed, from which the FIGO score and stage are derived and will guide the choice of treatment. Belgian centers offer a multidisciplinary approach, in partnership with the referent physician. More information for practitioners and patients is available on a web site: www.mole-chorio-bgog.eu, which also harbours a forum of discussion.

  20. Current Chemotherapeutic Management of Patients with Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Taymaa; Goldstein, Donald P.; Berkowitz, Ross S.

    2011-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) describes a heterogeneous group of interrelated lesions that arise from abnormal proliferation of placental trophoblasts. GTN lesions are histologically distinct, malignant lesions that include invasive hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT). GTN tumors are generally highly responsive to chemotherapy. Early stage GTN disease is often cured with single-agent chemotherapy. In contrast, advanced stage disease requires multiagent combination chemotherapeutic regimens to achieve a cure. Various adjuvant surgical procedures can be helpful to treat women with GTN. Patients require careful followup after completing treatment and recurrent disease should be aggressively managed. Women with a history of GTN are at increased risk of subsequent GTN, hence future pregnancies require careful monitoring to ensure normal gestational development. This article will review the workup, management and followup of women with all stages of GTN as well as with recurrent disease. PMID:22312558

  1. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Bruner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:444–447.

  2. Is Doppler ultrasound useful for evaluating gestational trophoblastic disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin,Lawrence H.; Bernardes, Lisandra S; Hase, Eliane A; Koji Fushida; Francisco, Rossana P. V.

    2015-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive method for evaluating vascularization and is widely used in clinical practice. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes a group of highly vascularized malignancies derived from placental cells. This review summarizes data found in the literature regarding the applications of Doppler ultrasound in managing patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane and LILACS databases were searched for articles publi...

  3. The trophoblast plug during early pregnancy: a deeper insight

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Gregor; Sundl, Monika; Glasner, Andreas; Huppertz, Berthold; Moser, Gerit

    2016-01-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, foetal endovascular trophoblasts invade into maternal spiral arteries, accumulate and form plugs in the lumen of the vessels. These plugs only allow blood plasma to seep through. Hence, during the first trimester of pregnancy, a first flow of fluids through the placental intervillous space is established, resulting in a physiological oxygen gradient between mother and foetus. The trophoblast plugs block spiral arteries until the beginning of the second...

  4. Trophoblast apoptosis in placentas from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, S Z; Prusac, I K; Roje, D; Tadin, I

    2011-01-01

    To assess trophoblast apoptosis separately in the cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, total villous trophoblast, syncytial knots and syncytial knot formation, and to investigate the expression of apoptotic factors Fas ligand (FasL), Bcl-2 and proliferation marker Ki-67 in the trophoblast of placentas from preeclamptic patients. The study included placental samples from 25 preeclamptic and 25 normal pregnancies. For the detection of apoptosis and proliferation, antibody M30 and antibody against Ki-67 antigen were used. Expression of FasL and Bcl-2 was assessed using semi-quantitative HSCORE method. Syncytial knots were expressed as the number of syncytial knots per individual villus and as the total number of syncytial knots in each placental sample. Trophoblast apoptosis, number of syncytial knots per individual villus and the total number of syncytial knots in each placental sample were significantly higher in preeclamptic placentas than in control group placentas. FasL expression was significantly less, and Bcl-2 expression significantly greater in the villus trophoblast among the study subjects compared with controls. There was no difference in the trophoblast proliferation between groups. Our findings might suggest that increased apoptosis and syncytial knot formation combined with reduced FasL expression could be involved in pathophysiological mechanisms of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Network centrality in the human functional connectome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, X.N.; Ehmke, R.; Mennes, M.J.J.; Imperati, D.; Castellanos, F.X.; Sporns, O.; Milham, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    The network architecture of functional connectivity within the human brain connectome is poorly understood at the voxel level. Here, using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 1003 healthy adults, we investigate a broad array of network centrality measures to provide novel

  6. Ontogenesis of testicular function in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GaĂŤlle Angenard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two major functions of the testis, steroidogenesis and gametogenesis, take place during fetal life. These two functions have been extensively studied in rodents and adult humans. However, their onset during fetal life is poorly documented in humans. In the first part of this work we presented both our experimental data and some data of literature concerning the development of the human fetal testis. In the second part of this article, using the organ culture system we previously developed, we have investigated the regulations or perturbations of fetal testis development both in rodent and human models. Our findings provide important insight into the potential role of exposure to environmental pollutants (physical factors, in particular ionizing radiation, cadmium and endocrine disruptors such as phthalates during fetal testicular development and their potential deleterious effects on male fertility in adulthood. Our results highlight the specificity of the human model compared with rodent models.

  7. MiR-101 regulates apoptosis of trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells by targeting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein 44 during preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y; Jiang, Z; Yu, X; Zhang, Y; Sun, M; Wang, W; Ge, Z; De, W; Sun, L

    2014-10-01

    To investigate a possible association between miR-101 and apoptosis of human trophoblast cells mediated by endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERp44) in preeclampsia (PE), we explored the expression of miR-101 in PE placentas (n=30) compared with normotensive pregnant placentas (n=30) and the correlation between miR-101 and ERp44 was also analyzed. Furthermore, both the apoptotic rate of trophoblast cells and the ER stress-induced apoptotic proteins were assayed when the HTR-8/SVneo cells were treated with miR-101 mimics or inhibitors in vitro. We found a lower expression of miR-101 and an inverse correlation between miR-101 and ERp44 protein in PE placentas. Upregulation of miR-101 expression could inhibit trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cell apoptosis and repress ER stress-induced apoptotic proteins by targeting ERp44 in vitro, whereas inhibition of miR-101 could induce HTR-8/SVneo cell apoptosis. Our findings indicated that overexpression of miR-101 could downregulate ERp44 and suppress apoptosis in trophoblast cells during PE. Therefore, loss of miR-101 expression could contribute to ER stress-induced trophoblast cell apoptosis by targeting ERp44.

  8. Fatal gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: An analysis of treatment failures at the Brewer Trophoblastic Disease Center from 1979-2012 compared to 1962-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Nikki L; Strohl, Anna E; Schink, Julian C; Lurain, John R

    2015-08-01

    To determine clinical factors that contributed to death from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) at the Brewer Trophoblastic Disease Center from 1979-2012 compared to 1962-1978. Nineteen women who died of GTN from 1979-2012 were retrospectively identified and compared to 45 women previously reported on who died of GTN from 1962-1978. Clinical factors analyzed included demographics, pretreatment human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level, duration of disease, antecedent pregnancy, number and sites of metastases, FIGO stage and score, treatment, and cause of death. Death from GTN occurred in 19 (4%) of 483 patients treated from 1979-2012 compared to 45 (11%) of 396 patients treated from 1962-1978 (P100,000 mIU/mL, time from pregnancy event to treatment >4 months, nonmolar antecedent pregnancy and use of surgery to control metastatic disease were similar between the two treatment eras. Patients in the recent series were more likely to have presented with FIGO IV disease or brain metastasis, been initially treated with multiagent chemotherapy, and received treatment before referral to our center compared to the earlier series. The most common causes of death from 1979-2012 and 1962-1978 were hemorrhage from one or more metastatic sites (11% vs. 42%), respiratory failure (37% vs. 31%), and multiorgan failure due to widespread chemoresistant disease (42% vs. 8%), respectively. Our overall survival rate in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia improved from 89% in 1962-1978 to 96% in 1979-2012. More patients treated between 1979-2012 died from widespread chemoresistant disease rather than hemorrhagic complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants’ feces (n = 5, each) and mothers’ feces (n = 3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk. Results The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants’ and mothers’ feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P milk metagenome also contained a similar occurrence of immune-modulatory DNA motifs to that of infants’ and mothers’ fecal metagenomes. Conclusions Our results further expand the complexity of the human milk metagenome and enforce the benefits of human milk ingestion on the microbial colonization of the infant gut and immunity. Discovery of immune-modulatory motifs in the metagenome of human milk indicates more exhaustive analyses of the functionality of the human

  10. File list: Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: Pol.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: Oth.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: Unc.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. Changing presentation of complete hydatidiform mole at the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center over the past three decades: does early diagnosis alter risk for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sue Yazaki; Melamed, Alexander; Goldstein, Donald P; Bernstein, Marilyn R; Horowitz, Neil S; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Maestá, Izildinha; Braga, Antonio; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2015-07-01

    To compare the clinical presentation and incidence of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) among recent (1994-2013) and historical (1988-1993) cases of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM). This study included two non-concurrent cohorts (1988-1993 versus 1994-2013) of patients from the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC). Clinical and pathologic reports of patients diagnosed with CHM between 1994 and 2013 were reviewed. Gestational age at evacuation, features of clinical presentation, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels, and the rate of progression to GTN were compared. In the current cohort (1994 to 2013) the median gestational age at diagnosis continued to decline compared to our prior cohort (1988-1993) (9weeks versus 12weeks). Patients from the current cohort were significantly more likely to be diagnosed prior to the 11th week of gestation (56 versus 41%, p=0.04). Patients in the current cohort were also significantly less likely to present with vaginal bleeding (46 versus 84%, pgestation did not decrease the risk of developing GTN. This study indicates that complete mole continues to be diagnosed progressively earlier resulting in a further decrease in some classical presenting symptoms. However, despite earlier detection, the risk of development of postmolar GTN has not been affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. External validation of serum hCG cutoff levels for prediction of resistance to single-agent chemotherapy in patients with persistent trophoblastic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkmeijer, L.G.W.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Harvey, R.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Mitchell, H.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Seckl, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Van Trommel et al have previously shown that serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) cutoff levels can provide early prediction of resistance to first-line methotrexate (MTX) in patients with persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). In this study, we validate this approach of prediction of

  10. Functional properties of human auditory cortical fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available While auditory cortex in non-human primates has been subdivided into multiple functionally-specialized auditory cortical fields (ACFs, the boundaries and functional specialization of human ACFs have not been defined. In the current study, we evaluated whether a widely accepted primate model of auditory cortex could explain regional tuning properties of fMRI activations on the cortical surface to attended and nonattended tones of different frequency, location, and intensity. The limits of auditory cortex were defined by voxels that showed significant activations to nonattended sounds. Three centrally-located fields with mirror-symmetric tonotopic organization were identified and assigned to the three core fields of the primate model while surrounding activations were assigned to belt fields following procedures similar to those used in macaque fMRI studies. The functional properties of core, medial belt, and lateral belt field groups were then analyzed. Field groups were distinguished by tonotopic organization, frequency selectivity, intensity sensitivity, contralaterality, binaural enhancement, attentional modulation, and hemispheric asymmetry. In general, core fields showed greater sensitivity to sound properties than did belt fields, while belt fields showed greater attentional modulation than core fields. Significant distinctions in intensity sensitivity and contralaterality were seen between adjacent core fields A1 and R, while multiple differences in tuning properties were evident at boundaries between adjacent core and belt fields. The reliable differences in functional properties between fields and field groups suggest that the basic primate pattern of auditory cortex organization is preserved in humans. A comparison of the sizes of functionally-defined ACFs in humans and macaques reveals a significant relative expansion in human lateral belt fields implicated in the processing of speech.

  11. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meunier, D; Fornito, A; Ersche, K D; Bullmore, E T; 10.3389/neuro.11.037.2009

    2010-01-01

    The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or "modules-within-modules") decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at ...

  12. Uterine arteriovenous malformation after gestational trophoblastic disease: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yela, Daniela Angerame; Yoneda, Juliana; Brasil, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is considered a rare condition. Diagnosis is critical because patients are at risk of significant vaginal hemorrhage that has been traditionally managed with surgery. We report 2 cases of uterine AVM after gestational trophoblastic disease in young women who were treated with uterine artery embolization, allowing preservation of reproductive capability. Embolization addresses both the preservation of future reproductive function and the prevention of major surgery and anesthesia. Success rates have been quoted as > 90% with minimal complications after uterine artery embolization.

  13. Network centrality in the human functional connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xi-Nian; Ehmke, Ross; Mennes, Maarten; Imperati, Davide; Castellanos, F Xavier; Sporns, Olaf; Milham, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    The network architecture of functional connectivity within the human brain connectome is poorly understood at the voxel level. Here, using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 1003 healthy adults, we investigate a broad array of network centrality measures to provide novel insights into connectivity within the whole-brain functional network (i.e., the functional connectome). We first assemble and visualize the voxel-wise (4 mm) functional connectome as a functional network. We then demonstrate that each centrality measure captures different aspects of connectivity, highlighting the importance of considering both global and local connectivity properties of the functional connectome. Beyond "detecting functional hubs," we treat centrality as measures of functional connectivity within the brain connectome and demonstrate their reliability and phenotypic correlates (i.e., age and sex). Specifically, our analyses reveal age-related decreases in degree centrality, but not eigenvector centrality, within precuneus and posterior cingulate regions. This implies that while local or (direct) connectivity decreases with age, connections with hub-like regions within the brain remain stable with age at a global level. In sum, these findings demonstrate the nonredundancy of various centrality measures and raise questions regarding their underlying physiological mechanisms that may be relevant to the study of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.

  14. Evolution of human brain functions: the functional structure of human consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C Robert

    2009-11-01

    The functional structure of self-aware consciousness in human beings is described based on the evolution of human brain functions. Prior work on heritable temperament and character traits is extended to account for the quantum-like and holographic properties (i.e. parts elicit wholes) of self-aware consciousness. Cladistic analysis is used to identify the succession of ancestors leading to human beings. The functional capacities that emerge along this lineage of ancestors are described. The ecological context in which each cladogenesis occurred is described to illustrate the shifting balance of evolution as a complex adaptive system. Comparative neuroanatomy is reviewed to identify the brain structures and networks that emerged coincident with the emergent brain functions. Individual differences in human temperament traits were well developed in the common ancestor shared by reptiles and humans. Neocortical development in mammals proceeded in five major transitions: from early reptiles to early mammals, early primates, simians, early Homo, and modern Homo sapiens. These transitions provide the foundation for human self-awareness related to sexuality, materiality, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality, respectively. The functional structure of human self-aware consciousness is concerned with the regulation of five planes of being: sexuality, materiality, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality. Each plane elaborates neocortical functions organized around one of the five special senses. The interactions among these five planes gives rise to a 5 x 5 matrix of subplanes, which are functions that coarsely describe the focus of neocortical regulation. Each of these 25 neocortical functions regulates each of five basic motives or drives that can be measured as temperaments or basic emotions related to fear, anger, disgust, surprise, and happiness/sadness. The resulting 5 x 5 x 5 matrix of human characteristics provides a general and testable model of the

  15. Biomimetics of human movement: functional or aesthetic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher M

    2009-09-01

    How should robotic or prosthetic arms be programmed to move? Copying human smooth movements is popular in synthetic systems, but what does this really achieve? We cannot address these biomimetic issues without a deep understanding of why natural movements are so stereotyped. In this article, we distinguish between 'functional' and 'aesthetic' biomimetics. Functional biomimetics requires insight into the problem that nature has solved and recognition that a similar problem exists in the synthetic system. In aesthetic biomimetics, nature is copied for its own sake and no insight is needed. We examine the popular minimum jerk (MJ) model that has often been used to generate smooth human-like point-to-point movements in synthetic arms. The MJ model was originally justified as maximizing 'smoothness'; however, it is also the limiting optimal trajectory for a wide range of cost functions for brief movements, including the minimum variance (MV) model, where smoothness is a by-product of optimizing the speed-accuracy trade-off imposed by proportional noise (PN: signal-dependent noise with the standard deviation proportional to mean). PN is unlikely to be dominant in synthetic systems, and the control objectives of natural movements (speed and accuracy) would not be optimized in synthetic systems by human-like movements. Thus, employing MJ or MV controllers in robotic arms is just aesthetic biomimetics. For prosthetic arms, the goal is aesthetic by definition, but it is still crucial to recognize that MV trajectories and PN are deeply embedded in the human motor system. Thus, PN arises at the neural level, as a recruitment strategy of motor units and probably optimizes motor neuron noise. Human reaching is under continuous adaptive control. For prosthetic devices that do not have this natural architecture, natural plasticity would drive the system towards unnatural movements. We propose that a truly neuromorphic system with parallel force generators (muscle fibres) and noisy

  16. Early patterning of the chorion leads to the trilaminar trophoblast cell structure in the placental labyrinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David G; Natale, David R C; Begay, Valerie; Hughes, Martha; Leutz, Achim; Cross, James C

    2008-06-01

    The labyrinth of the rodent placenta contains villi that are the site of nutrient exchange between mother and fetus. They are covered by three trophoblast cell types that separate the maternal blood sinusoids from fetal capillaries--a single mononuclear cell that is a subtype of trophoblast giant cell (sinusoidal or S-TGC) with endocrine function and two multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast layers, each resulting from cell-cell fusion, that function in nutrient transport. The developmental origins of these cell types have not previously been elucidated. We report here the discovery of cell-layer-restricted genes in the mid-gestation labyrinth (E12.5-14.5) including Ctsq in S-TGCs (also Hand1-positive), Syna in syncytiotrophoblast layer I (SynT-I), and Gcm1, Cebpa and Synb in syncytiotrophoblast layer II (SynT-II). These genes were also expressed in distinct layers in the chorion as early as E8.5, prior to villous formation. Specifically, Hand1 was expressed in apical cells lining maternal blood spaces (Ctsq is not expressed until E12.5), Syna in a layer immediately below, and Gcm1, Cebpa and Synb in basal cells in contact with the allantois. Cebpa and Synb were co-expressed with Gcm1 and were reduced in Gcm1 mutants. By contrast, Hand1 and Syna expression was unaltered in Gcm1 mutants, suggesting that Gcm1-positive cells are not required for the induction of the other chorion layers. These data indicate that the three differentiated trophoblast cell types in the labyrinth arise from distinct and autonomous precursors in the chorion that are patterned before morphogenesis begins.

  17. The trophoblast plug during early pregnancy: a deeper insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Gregor; Sundl, Monika; Glasner, Andreas; Huppertz, Berthold; Moser, Gerit

    2016-12-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, foetal endovascular trophoblasts invade into maternal spiral arteries, accumulate and form plugs in the lumen of the vessels. These plugs only allow blood plasma to seep through. Hence, during the first trimester of pregnancy, a first flow of fluids through the placental intervillous space is established, resulting in a physiological oxygen gradient between mother and foetus. The trophoblast plugs block spiral arteries until the beginning of the second trimester (11-14 weeks). In parallel, uterine glands are invaded and opened by endoglandular trophoblasts towards the intervillous space of the placenta, without showing the formation of plugs (Moser et al. in Hum Reprod 25:1127-1136, 2010, Hum Reprod Oxf Engl 30:2747-2757, 2015). This enables histiotrophic nutrition of the embryo prior to onset of maternal blood flow into the placenta. Failure of these endovascular and endoglandular invasion processes may lead to miscarriage or pregnancy disorders such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). After dissolution of the plugs, the onset of maternal blood flow allows maternal blood cells to enter the intervillous space and oxygen concentrations rise up. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time serial cross sections through a trophoblast plug in a first trimester placental bed specimen. Invaded and plugged arteries as well as invaded uterine glands in week 11 of gestation are visualized with specific immunohistochemical double staining techniques. We show that spiral artery plugs appear throughout the placental invasion zone and illustrate erythrocytes stowed due to trophoblast plugs. In addition, we give evidence of the presence of MMP-1 in plugs of invaded spiral arteries. The results reveal a better understanding and a closer insight into the morphological appearance of trophoblast plugs and the consequences for placental and uterine blood flow.

  18. Mesocortical dopaminergic function and human cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.

    1988-01-01

    In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.

  19. Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Feng, E-mail: jiangfeng1161@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhao, Hongxi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Guo, Xinyu [Assisted Reproductive Center, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Hu, Yunsheng [Department of Orthopedics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Li, Yi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Yao, Yuanqing, E-mail: yuanqingyaoxa@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2015-02-27

    Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. - Highlights: • HLA-G1 could not influence trophocytes under normal conditions. • HLA-G1 inhibited cell invasion induced by HGF under normal oxygen condition. • HLA-G1 could not influence cell invasion under hypoxia conditions.

  20. Waddlia chondrophila infects and multiplies in ovine trophoblast cells stimulating an inflammatory immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wheelhouse

    Full Text Available Waddlia chondrophila (W. chondrophila is an emerging abortifacient organism which has been identified in the placentae of humans and cattle. The organism is a member of the order Chlamydiales, and shares many similarities at the genome level and in growth studies with other well-characterised zoonotic chlamydial abortifacients, such as Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus. This study investigates the growth of the organism and its effects upon pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a ruminant placental cell line which we have previously utilised in a model of C. abortus pathogenicity.Using qPCR, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we characterised the infection and growth of W. chondrophila within the ovine trophoblast AH-1 cell line. Inclusions were visible from 6 h post-infection (p.i. and exponential growth of the organism could be observed over a 60 h time-course, with significant levels of host cell lysis being observed only after 36 h p.i. Expression of CXCL8, TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-1β were determined 24 h p.i. A statistically significant response in the expression of CXCL8, TNF-α and IL-1β could be observed following active infection with W. chondrophila. However a significant increase in IL-1β expression was also observed following the exposure of cells to UV-killed organisms, indicating the stimulation of multiple innate recognition pathways.W. chondrophila infects and grows in the ruminant trophoblast AH-1 cell line exhibiting a complete chlamydial replicative cycle. Infection of the trophoblasts resulted in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner similar to that observed with C. abortus in previous studies, suggesting similarities in the pathogenesis of infection between the two organisms.

  1. Antibodies to trophoblast antigens HLA-G, placenta growth factor, and neuroD2 do not improve detection of circulating trophoblast cells in maternal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoa, M L; Delli-Bovi, L; Johnson, K L; Bianchi, D W

    2007-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using circulating fetal trophoblast cells has been challenging due to lack of a reproducible trophoblast-specific antibody. We investigated the use of three trophoblast cell-specific antibodies, HLA-G, placenta growth factor, and neuroD2, for the isolation of trophoblast cells from the maternal circulation. Trophoblast cells were isolated by density centrifugation from maternal blood samples (gestational age 10-20 weeks, n = 9). All women were carrying a male fetus. Following immunocytochemical staining with the trophoblast-specific antibodies, fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed, to verify whether any stained cells were indeed fetal. The HLA-G antibody had a ubiquitous staining pattern, which was not specific for trophoblast cells. Neither the placenta growth factor nor the neuroD2 antibodies were able to identify any trophoblast cells. Following fluorescent in situ hybridization, no male cells were detected on any of the slides. The antibodies used in this study were unable to improve detection of trophoblast cells in the maternal circulation.

  2. The effect of serum from women with preeclampsia on JAR (trophoblast-like) cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahameed, Safa; Goldman, Shlomit; Gabarin, Diane; Weiss, Amir; Shalev, Eliezer

    2005-09-01

    Pathologic placentation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclamsia. We sought to assess the effect serum obtained from women with preeclampsia would have on JAR human choriocarcinoma cells regarding growth, invasiveness, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion as compared to normotensive pregnant woman. Blood was collected from 11 healthy pregnant women and from10 patients with preeclampsia at 28-33 weeks of gestation. The JAR human choriocarcinoma cell line was cultured in the presence of 10% serum obtained from each group. Cell proliferation, invasiveness, and MMP secretion was measured using a cell proliferation kit, the Matrigel (BD Biosciences, Beit-Ha'Emek, Israel) invasion assay, and gel zymography, respectively. Cell growth increased by 6% when exposed to serum from patients with preeclampsia compared to 30% from controls (P <.01). Trophoblast invasion was significantly (P <.01) reduced in the preeclampsia group (21 +/- 1.9%) compared to controls (27 +/- 2.5%). Valid MMP-2 secretion was reduced by 51% in the preeclampsia group compared to controls (P <.05). Serum obtained from women with preeclampsia contains a factor or factors that exhibit an inhibitory effect on JAR trophoblast cell proliferation, invasiveness, and MMP-2 secretion. These factors may be involved in the pathologic placentation associated with the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  3. Oxidative Stress Alters miRNA and Gene Expression Profiles in Villous First Trimester Trophoblasts

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    Courtney E. Cross

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and miRNA changes in placenta as a potential mechanism involved in preeclampsia (PE is not fully elucidated. We investigated the impact of oxidative stress on miRNAs and mRNA expression profiles of genes associated with PE in villous 3A first trimester trophoblast cells exposed to H2O2 at 12 different concentrations (0-1 mM for 0.5, 4, 24, and 48 h. Cytotoxicity, determined using the SRB assay, was used to calculate the IC50 of H2O2. RNA was extracted after 4 h exposure to H2O2 for miRNA and gene expression profiling. H2O2 exerted a concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity on 3A trophoblast cells. Short-term exposure of 3A cells to low concentration of H2O2 (5% of IC50 significantly altered miRNA profile as evidenced by significant changes in 195 out of 595 evaluable miRNAs. Tool for annotations of microRNAs (TAM analysis indicated that these altered miRNAs fall into 43 clusters and 34 families, with 41 functions identified. Exposure to H2O2 altered mRNA expression of 22 out of 84 key genes involved in dysregulation of placental development. In conclusion, short-term exposure of villous first trimester trophoblasts to low concentrations of H2O2 significantly alters miRNA profile and expression of genes implicated in placental development.

  4. Endoglandular trophoblast, an alternative route of trophoblast invasion? Analysis with novel confrontation co-culture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, G; Gauster, M; Orendi, K; Glasner, A; Theuerkauf, R; Huppertz, B

    2010-05-01

    Routes of trophoblast invasion seem to be clear, whereas specific invasive pathways need further elucidation. Extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) transform spiral arteries to guarantee appropriate blood flow to the placenta in the second trimester. Embryo nutrition during the first trimester is thought to be histiotrophic, whereas proof that EVTs also invade uterine glands is lacking. We developed novel three-dimensional confrontation co-culture models to elucidate invasion of EVTs into uterine glands. First trimester decidua parietalis and placental villous explants were directly confronted and co-cultured for 72 h, or confronted indirectly after 72 h pre-culture for re-epithelialization of decidua pieces. Cryosections were stained by immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescent/immunohistochemical double labelling and compared with first trimester placentation sites in situ. EVTs deeply invaded decidual tissues in direct confrontation assays and were found between the decidual epithelial cells and epithelial basement membrane. EVTs were also detected in the decidual stroma in direct proximity to glands, sometimes even replacing glandular epithelial cells. Similar observations were made in sections from the first trimester decidua/placental bed. In the invaded parts of sections of decidua basalis, 55% +/- 7% (mean +/- SEM; n = 10, range 6-11 weeks) of glandular cross sections were associated with or infiltrated by EVTs. Using novel confrontation co-culture assays, a potential new route of EVT invasion was detected. EVTs appear to break through the basement membrane of uterine glands to open their lumen towards the intervillous space. These data support the hypothesis of histiotrophic nutrition of the embryo prior to onset of maternal blood flow within the placenta.

  5. Promotion of health and human functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-08-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5. Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status. The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the

  6. Promotion of Health and Human Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-03-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5.Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status.The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the diverse

  7. Biomimetics of human movement: functional or aesthetic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Christopher M [SensoriMotor Laboratory, Centre for Theoretical and Computational Neuroscience, Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    How should robotic or prosthetic arms be programmed to move? Copying human smooth movements is popular in synthetic systems, but what does this really achieve? We cannot address these biomimetic issues without a deep understanding of why natural movements are so stereotyped. In this article, we distinguish between 'functional' and 'aesthetic' biomimetics. Functional biomimetics requires insight into the problem that nature has solved and recognition that a similar problem exists in the synthetic system. In aesthetic biomimetics, nature is copied for its own sake and no insight is needed. We examine the popular minimum jerk (MJ) model that has often been used to generate smooth human-like point-to-point movements in synthetic arms. The MJ model was originally justified as maximizing 'smoothness'; however, it is also the limiting optimal trajectory for a wide range of cost functions for brief movements, including the minimum variance (MV) model, where smoothness is a by-product of optimizing the speed-accuracy trade-off imposed by proportional noise (PN: signal-dependent noise with the standard deviation proportional to mean). PN is unlikely to be dominant in synthetic systems, and the control objectives of natural movements (speed and accuracy) would not be optimized in synthetic systems by human-like movements. Thus, employing MJ or MV controllers in robotic arms is just aesthetic biomimetics. For prosthetic arms, the goal is aesthetic by definition, but it is still crucial to recognize that MV trajectories and PN are deeply embedded in the human motor system. Thus, PN arises at the neural level, as a recruitment strategy of motor units and probably optimizes motor neuron noise. Human reaching is under continuous adaptive control. For prosthetic devices that do not have this natural architecture, natural plasticity would drive the system towards unnatural movements. We propose that a truly neuromorphic system with parallel force

  8. Reproductive outcomes after hydatiform mole and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadducci, Angiolo; Lanfredini, Nora; Cosio, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease includes complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) or partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Given the very high-curability rate of trophoblastic disease, the risk of further molar pregnancy after CHM or PHM as well as the risk of second primary tumors and fertility compromise after chemotherapy for GTN represent major concerns. The incidence of subsequent molar pregnancy ranges from 0.7 to 2.6% after one CHM or PHM, and is approximately 10% after two previous CHMs. Among patients who have received chemotherapy, there is an increased risk of myeloid leukemia which is mainly related to the cumulative dose of etoposide. Resumption of normal menses occurs in approximately 95% of women treated with chemotherapy, but menopause occurs 3 years earlier compared with those non-treated with chemotherapy. Term live birth rates higher than 70% without increased risk of congenital abnormalities have been reported in these women, and pregnancy outcomes are comparable to those of general population, except a slightly increased risk of stillbirth. Fertility-sparing treatment for placental site trophoblastic tumor is a therapeutic option reserved to highly selected, young women who do not present markedly enlarged uterus or diffuse multifocal disease within the uterus.

  9. Chemotherapy for resistant or recurrent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alazzam, Mo'iad

    2012-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a highly curable group of pregnancy-related tumours; however, approximately 25% of GTN tumours will be resistant to, or will relapse after, initial chemotherapy. These resistant and relapsed lesions will require salvage chemotherapy with or without surgery. Various salvage regimens are used worldwide. It is unclear which regimens are the most effective and the least toxic.

  10. Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm and Women Living With HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) is a rare pregnancy-related disorder with an incidence ranging from 0.12–0.7/1000 pregnancies in Western nations. The overall cure rate is about 90%. Response to treatment for GTN is generally favourable; but the sequelae of HIV and/or AIDS, the resultant low CD4 counts, ...

  11. Villous trophoblast apoptosis is elevated and restricted to cytotrophoblasts in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, IUGR, or preeclampsia with IUGR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longtine, M S; Chen, B; Odibo, A O; Zhong, Y; Nelson, D M

    2012-05-01

    Human placental villi are surfaced by an outer multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast and underlying mononucleated cytotrophoblasts. Conflicting data have attributed one, or the other, of these villous trophoblast phenotypes to undergo enhanced apoptosis in complicated pregnancies, compared to term, normotensive pregnancies. We use high-resolution confocal microscopy after co-staining for E-cadherin, as a trophoblast plasma membrane marker, and for the cleavage products of cytokeratin 18 and PARP1, as markers for caspase-mediated apoptosis, to distinguish between apoptotic cytotrophoblasts and apoptosis within the syncytiotrophoblast. We test the hypothesis that increased caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs in villi of placentas derived from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), or both. We find significantly elevated apoptosis in villous cytotrophoblasts from women with preeclampsia and/or IUGR, compared to term, normotensive pregnancies. Apoptosis of cytotrophoblasts in villi from complicated pregnancies appears to progress similarly to what we found previously for apoptotic cytotrophoblasts in villi from in term, normotensive pregnancies. Notably, caspase-mediated apoptosis was not detectable in regions with intact syncytiotrophoblast, suggesting strong repression of apoptosis in this trophoblast phenotype in vivo. We suggest that the elevated apoptosis in cytotrophoblasts in preeclampsia contributes to the placental dysfunction characteristic of this disorder. We also propose that repression of apoptosis in the syncytiotrophoblast is important to prevent apoptosis sweeping throughout the syncytium, which would result in widespread death of this essential interface for maternal-fetal exchange. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Retinoid X receptor α and retinoids are key regulators in apoptosis of trophoblasts of patients with recurrent miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, A; Toth, B; Kuhn, C; Hofmann, S; Wiest, I; Wypior, G; Friese, K; Jeschke, U

    2011-10-01

    The retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) is a nuclear hormone receptor that is able to bind other nuclear receptors in a heterodimeric complex, thereby activating gene transcription. Recently, we identified enhanced expression of RXRα in extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) and villous trophoblasts (VT) of miscarried placentas. In addition, an increased number of apoptotic EVT was present in miscarried placentas. In this study, on the basis of immunocytochemical analysis, western blots, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR, we could demonstrate a reduced expression of RXRα in choriocarcinoma cell lines and in human VTs after stimulation with the retinoids 9-cis-retinoic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid and the prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2). Furthermore, a simultaneous expression of RXRα and the apoptotic marker M30 CytoDEATH in EVT of miscarried placentas from the first trimester was shown. In EVT of control placentas from legal termination of pregnancies, no co-expression of RXRα and M30 could be detected. A likely conclusion is that RXRα plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis. Downregulation of RXRα, as observed in the tested choriocarcinoma cells and trophoblasts, might serve as a protection against apoptosis and miscarriage. In conclusion, RXRα represents a potential target in the treatment of recurrent miscarriages.

  13. Comparison of radiological and pathological results in gestational trophoblastic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Izadi-Mood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD is a heterogenous group of neoplastic lesions that is derived from placental trophoblastic epithelium. According to World Health Organization (WHO classification they include: Hydatidiform mole (complete and partial, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor. Hydatidiform mole is the most common and the diagnosis is achieved by pre-evacuation ultrasonographic evaluation, laboratory tests and finally histological assessment as gold standard. Since these disorders show varying potential for local invasion and metastasis, the accurate diagnosis, follow up and recommendations given to patients may differ.Methods: Consecutive cases with diagnosis of GTD from archive of pathology department of women (Mirza Kochak Khan hospital were reviewed in whom results of clinical presentation and pre-evacuation ultrasound examination were documented. There were overall 220 cases for which the following clinical features were determined: gravidity, parity, history of previous abortion and gestational trophoblastic disease, the clinical symptoms such as vaginal bleeding and hypertension. Finally concordance between pre-evacuation ultrasonographic and histological diagnosis by kappa test is calculated.Results: Out of 220 cases with clinically gestational trophoblastic disease diagnosis, 197 cases were confirmed by histological diagnosis. The concluding histological diagnosis includes: 98 cases of complete mole (CM, 84 partial mole (PM, 4 invasive mole and 11 cases of choriocarcinoma. Outside 98 cases with histological diagnosis CM only in 4 cases misdiagnosed by ultrasonoghraphy (4.1% and high degree of concordance between ultrasonography and histological diagnosis is seen.Conclusion: Ultrasonographic examination accompanied with clinical examination, beside histological assessment as gold standard have high efficacy in diagnosing  complete mole. This study did not show this finding for

  14. Evidence from the very beginning: endoglandular trophoblasts penetrate and replace uterine glands in situ and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, G; Weiss, G; Gauster, M; Sundl, M; Huppertz, B

    2015-12-01

    epithelial cells could be repeatedly observed in the lumen of invaded glands. Additionally, in areas of trophoblast invasion the glandular epithelium seemed to be completely disintegrated compared with glandular epithelium in the non-invaded parts of the decidua. Whole tissue specimens were used in vitro and in situ instead of cell lines; these systems mostly maintain the context of the in vivo situation. This is a descriptive study supported by in vitro experiments. However, a histological section will always only be a snapshot and quantification from histological sections has its limitations. This study further strengthens the hypothesis of histiotrophic nutrition of the embryo prior to the establishment of the maternal blood flow toward the placenta. Invasion of uterine glands by endoglandular trophoblasts may have more impact on the outcome of early pregnancy than assumed up to now. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Placental steroids in cattle: hormones, placental growth factors or by-products of trophoblast giant cell differentiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, G; Greven, H; Kowalewski, M P; Döring, B; Ozalp, G R; Hoffmann, B

    2008-07-01

    The bovine placenta produces large amounts of steroids, mainly estrone (E1) and progesterone (P4). Specific features of bovine placental steroidogenesis are 1) the expression of all enzymes needed for the production of estrogens from cholesterol in the trophoblast 2) an only marginal and temporal contribution to peripheral maternal P4 levels restricted to a period between approx. days 150 - 240 of gestation 3) the predominance of sulfoconjugated over free E1 and 4) a complementary setting of steroidogenic enzymes in the two morphologically discriminable trophoblast cell types, the uninucleated trophoblast cells (UTC) and the trophoblast giant cells (TGC). In cattle so far no definite information is available on the specific biological roles of placental estrogens and P4. However, the detection of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors in the placentomes suggests a role primarily as local regulators of caruncular growth, differentiation and functions. Inconsistent with a function as a caruncular growth factor is the strong evidence that in cattle placental estrogens enter the maternal compartment almost completely as estrone sulfate (E1S), which is not active at classical nuclear receptors. On the other hand, E1S may be converted locally to free active estrogens via the action of steroid sulfatase (StS), which has been detected in specific parts of the bovine caruncular epithelium. Alternatively or in addition, StS expression in the caruncular epithelium may serve the utilization of sulfated neutral steroid precursors (e.g. pregnenolone sulfate or cholesterol sulfate) supplied with maternal blood, thus providing free substrates for further metabolization in the adjacent trophoblast. The down-regulation of P450scc and P450c17 and the up-regulation of 3beta-HSD and aromatase during the differentiation of TGC from UTC in parallel with the up-regulation of ER beta and estrogen sulfotransferase in maturing TGC suggests a function of placental estrogens primarily

  16. Immune cell activation by trophoblast-derived microvesicles is mediated by syncytin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Beth S; Tower, Clare L; Forbes, Karen; Mulla, Melissa J; Aplin, John D; Abrahams, Vikki M

    2012-06-01

    Envelope glycoproteins of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV), such as syncytin 1 (HERV-W), are highly expressed in the placenta and some family members have immunomodulatory properties. Placental microvesicles (MV), which are shed into the maternal circulation during pregnancy, have been demonstrated to induce immune cell activation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the immunological properties of the highly expressed placental HERV-W protein, syncytin 1, and its potential involvement in placental MV modulation of immune cell activity. The MV shed from first trimester, normal term and pre-eclamptic term placentas, and from the BeWo trophoblast cell line, all contain syncytin 1. Recombinant syncytin 1 and syncytin 1-positive BeWo trophoblast MV both induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) activation, indicated through production of cytokines and chemokines. Reducing syncytin 1 content in BeWo MV inhibited PBMC activation. Recombinant syncytin 1 and syncytin-1-positive BeWo MV dampened PBMC responses to lipopolysaccharide challenge. Our findings suggest that syncytin 1 is shed from the placenta into the maternal circulation in association with MV, and modulates immune cell activation and the responses of immune cells to subsequent lipopolysaccharide stimulation. These studies implicate placental MV-associated HERV in fetal regulation of the maternal immune system. © 2012 The Authors. Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Resistin modulates glucose uptake and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expression in trophoblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Simone, Nicoletta; Di Nicuolo, Fiorella; Marzioni, Daniela; Castellucci, Mario; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; D’lppolito, Silvia; Caruso, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The adipocytokine resistin impairs glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Here, we examine the effect of resistin on glucose uptake in human trophoblast cells and we demonstrate that transplacental glucose transport is mediated by glucose transporter (GLUT)-1. Furthermore, we evaluate the type of signal transduction induced by resistin in GLUT-1 regulation. BeWo choriocarcinoma cells and primary cytotrophoblast cells were cultured with increasing resistin concentrations for 24 hrs. The main outcome measures include glucose transport assay using [3H]-2-deoxy glucose, GLUT-1 protein expression by Western blot analysis and GLUT-1 mRNA detection by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Quantitative determination of phospho(p)-ERK1/2 in cell lysates was performed by an Enzyme Immunometric Assay and Western blot analysis. Our data demonstrate a direct effect of resistin on normal cytotrophoblastic and on BeWo cells: resistin modulates glucose uptake, GLUT-1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression in placental cells. We suggest that ERK1/2 phosphorylation is involved in the GLUT-1 regulation induced by resistin. In conclusion, resistin causes activation of both the ERK1 and 2 pathway in trophoblast cells. ERK1 and 2 activation stimulated GLUT-1 synthesis and resulted in increase of placental glucose uptake. High resistin levels (50–100 ng/ml) seem able to affect glucose-uptake, presumably by decreasing the cell surface glucose transporter. PMID:18410529

  18. Loss of Atrx affects trophoblast development and the pattern of X-inactivation in extraembryonic tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garrick

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ATRX is an X-encoded member of the SNF2 family of ATPase/helicase proteins thought to regulate gene expression by modifying chromatin at target loci. Mutations in ATRX provided the first example of a human genetic disease associated with defects in such proteins. To better understand the role of ATRX in development and the associated abnormalities in the ATR-X (alpha thalassemia mental retardation, X-linked syndrome, we conditionally inactivated the homolog in mice, Atrx, at the 8- to 16-cell stage of development. The protein, Atrx, was ubiquitously expressed, and male embryos null for Atrx implanted and gastrulated normally but did not survive beyond 9.5 days postcoitus due to a defect in formation of the extraembryonic trophoblast, one of the first terminally differentiated lineages in the developing embryo. Carrier female mice that inherit a maternal null allele should be affected, since the paternal X chromosome is normally inactivated in extraembryonic tissues. Surprisingly, however, some carrier females established a normal placenta and appeared to escape the usual pattern of imprinted X-inactivation in these tissues. Together these findings demonstrate an unexpected, specific, and essential role for Atrx in the development of the murine trophoblast and present an example of escape from imprinted X chromosome inactivation.

  19. Interleukin-18 gene promoter polymorphisms in women with gestational trophoblastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashef, Mohammad Amin; Dehaghani, Alamtaj Samsami; Naeimi, Sirous; Fattahi, Mohammad Javad; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2008-11-01

    Gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTDs) consist of a spectrum of disorders characterized by an abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue. IL-18 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a capacity for both ThI and Th2 polarization. Considering the association of IL-18 promoter polymorphisms at positions -607 (A/C) and -137 (C/G) with pregnancy events and some cancers, we sought to examine these polymorphisms in Iranian patients with GTD, their association with disease subtypes, and IL-18 serum level. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction in 92 patients with GTDs and 103 healthy pregnant controls. IL-18 serum level was determined using ELISA method. No significant association was found between the allele, genotype, genotype combination and haplotype distribution of these SNPs and GTDs or its subgroups. Mean IL-18 serum level was significantly higher in patients with choriocarcinoma and pregnant controls compared with nonpregnant controls (p = 0.04, 0.04 and 0.001, respectively). -137 GG genotype pregnant controls had a significantly higher IL-18 serum level compared with CC genotype. IL-18 promoter polymorphisms do not confer susceptibility to GTDs or its variants; however, their functional significance is demonstrated in this study. Furthermore, IL-18 serum level increases in GTDs and in normal pregnancy.

  20. Structure-function relationships of human meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, Elvis K; Oinas, Joonas M T; Saarakkala, Simo; Mikkonen, Santtu; Töyräs, Juha; Korhonen, Rami K

    2017-03-01

    Biomechanical properties of human meniscus have been shown to be site-specific. However, it is not known which meniscus constituents at different depths and locations contribute to biomechanical properties obtained from indentation testing. Therefore, we investigated the composition and structure of human meniscus in a site- and depth-dependent manner and their relationships with tissue site-specific biomechanical properties. Elastic and poroelastic properties were analyzed from experimental stress-relaxation and sinusoidal indentation measurements with fibril reinforced poroelastic finite element modeling. Proteoglycan (PG) and collagen contents, as well as the collagen orientation angle, were determined as a function of tissue depth using microscopic and spectroscopic methods, and they were compared with biomechanical properties. For all the measurement sites (anterior, middle and posterior) of lateral and medial menisci (n=26), PG content and collagen orientation angle increased as a function of tissue depth while the collagen content had an initial sharp increase followed by a decrease across tissue depth. The highest values (pbiomechanical parameters (strain-dependent fibril network modulus and permeability) were observed in the anterior horn of the medial meniscus. This location had also higher (pmeniscus, higher (pmedial meniscus) significantly higher (pmeniscus modulus and/or nonlinear permeability. This study suggests that nonlinear biomechanical properties of meniscus, caused by the collagen network and fluid, may be strongly influenced by tissue osmotic swelling from the deep meniscus caused by the increased PG content, leading to increased collagen fibril tension. These nonlinear biomechanical properties are suggested to be further amplified by higher collagen content at all tissue depths and superficial collagen fibril orientation. However, these structure-function relationships are suggested to be highly site-specific. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Primary Cervical Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumor: A Rare Entity with an Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthilatha Pai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT is the least common form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia accounting for only 1-2% of trophoblastic tumors. Approximately 200 cases are reported in English literature. PSTT presenting as a cervical growth is even less common. Differentiation of PSTT from other types of GTN, non-neoplastic gestational trophoblastic disease and non-trophoblastic tumors is important clinically due to differences in their therapeutic approaches.Appreciation of the morphologic features and immunophenotype allows their accurate diagnosis.Although most of the cases of PSTT behave in a benign fashion,the clinical behavior of PSTT can sometimes be variable and several prognostic factors can help to predict the biological behavior of this condition. We report a rare case of placental site trophoblastic tumor, presenting as a cervical mass, in a 38 year old female, and review the literature. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(5.000: 286-289

  2. Expression pattern and function of Notch2 in different subtypes of first trimester cytotrophoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessl, K; Haider, S; Fiala, C; Pollheimer, J; Knöfler, M

    2015-04-01

    Notch signalling has been shown to control cytotrophoblast (CTB) proliferation, differentiation and motility suggesting that the conserved signalling pathway could be critical for human placental development. Since individual Notch receptors have not been elucidated, we herein investigated expression pattern and function of Notch2 in different first trimester trophoblast subpopulations. Localisation of Notch2 was analysed in first trimester placental and decidual tissues using immunofluorescence. Notch2 transcript and protein levels were studied by qRT-PCR and Western blotting in proliferative EGF receptor (EGFR)(+) and differentiated HLA-G(+) CTBs, respectively, isolated from early placentae by MACS. CTB migration through fibronectin-coated transwells as well as proliferation (EdU labelling) in floating villous explant cultures and primary CTBs were investigated in the presence of Notch2 siRNAs or specific antibodies blocking Notch2 cleavage. In tissue sections Notch2 expression was higher in HLA-G(+) distal cell column trophoblasts (dCCTs) compared to proximal CCTs. Accordingly, expression of Notch2 mRNA and protein were elevated in isolated HLA-G(+) CTBs compared to EGFR(+) CTBs. Notch2 was also detectable in interstitial CTBs as well as in intramural CTBs associated with maternal decidual vessels. Antibody-mediated inhibition of Notch2 signalling did not affect proliferation, but increased migration of SGHPL-5 cells and primary CTBs. Similarly, Notch2 siRNA treatment promoted trophoblast motility. Notch2 is present in differentiated cells of the extravillous trophoblast lineage, such as dCCTs, interstitial and intramural CTBs, suggesting diverse roles of the particular receptor. Notch2 signalling, activated by cell-cell contact of neighbouring dCCTs, could attenuate trophoblast migration. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Gestational trophoblastic disease: does central nervous system chemoprophylaxis have a role?

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, A.M.; Siddiqui, N; Coleman, R E; Hancock, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    In the UK there are standardized surveillance procedures for gestational trophoblastic disease. However, there are differences in practice between the two treatment centres in terms of definition of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease, prognostic risk assessment and chemotherapeutic regimens. The role of prophylactic chemotherapy for cerebral micrometastatic disease in persistent gestational trophoblastic disease is unclear. We have analysed the outcome of 69 patients with lung metas...

  4. sFLT1 in preeclampsia: trophoblast defense against a decidual VEGFA barrage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, S Lee

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia, a life-threatening complication of human pregnancy, has a spectrum of clinical signs and is likely caused by an array of pathological mechanisms. However, elevated levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1) in the placenta and in the maternal circulation has emerged as a common finding in women with preeclampsia and likely is a causative factor in this disorder. In this issue of the JCI, Fan and colleagues provide experimental evidence from both humans and mice that suggests placental trophoblast cells overexpress sFLT1 in self defense against excessive VEGFA produced by maternal decidual cells. The authors' work thus implicates the decidual cells of the mother as the culprit responsible for increased placental expression of sFLT1, a VEGFA antagonist that enters the maternal circulation and consequently induces the clinical signs of preeclampsia.

  5. The Receptor for the CD200 Tolerance-Signaling Molecule Associated with Successful Pregnancy is Expressed by Early-Stage Breast Cancer Cells in 80% of Patients and by Term Placental Trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David A; Dhesy-Thind, Sukhbinder; Arredondo, Jorge L; Ellis, Peter M; Ramsay, Jennifer A

    2015-11-01

    The CD200 tolerance-signaling molecule that is expressed by a wide variety of tissues, including placental trophoblast and epithelial tumor cells, lacks an intracytoplasmic tail and must act by binding to CD200 receptors that have a limited expression on lymphomyeloid cells. This binding can inhibit inflammation and NK cells, promote macrophage secretion of indoleamine-2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), and promote generation of Treg cells. Recently, CD200R1 was reported on human first trimester placental villous trophoblast cells. CD200R1 has not been described on malignant tumor cells. As malignant tumor cells exhibit a number of characteristics of trophoblast, is CD200R1 expressed? Affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies to CD200 and CD200R1 were used to immunostain tissue blocks available from cases in a previous cross-sectional study of Stage 1-IIIA human breast cancer cases and term placental trophoblast. Affinity-purified anti-CD200R1 stained primary breast cancer cells and term placental villous trophoblasts. Tumor cells were also stained by anti-CD200 as in a previous study (correlation P = 0.0042), but CD200R1 and CD200 were not correlated. Presence or absence of strong CD200 expression in the tumor did not correlate with metastasis, and a similar result was obtained with CD200R1. This is the first report of CD200R1 expression by human epithelial tumor cells, and specifically, early-stage human breast cancer cells. It is also the first report of CD200R1 expression by term placental villous trophoblasts. The potential biological significance of CD200R1 expression in non-hematopoietic cells is discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Galectin-1 influences trophoblast immune evasion and emerges as a predictive factor for the outcome of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-González, Irene; Freitag, Nancy; Barrientos, Gabriela; Shaikly, Valerie; Nagaeva, Olga; Strand, Magnus; Kjellberg, Lennart; Klapp, Burghard F; Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia; Cohen, Marie; Blois, Sandra M

    2013-01-01

    Galectin-1 (gal-1) is expressed at the feto-maternal interface and plays a role in regulating the maternal immune response against placental alloantigens, contributing to pregnancy maintenance. Both decidua and placenta contribute to gal-1 expression and may be important for the maternal immune regulation. The expression of gal-1 within the placenta is considered relevant to cell-adhesion and invasion of trophoblasts, but the role of gal-1 in the immune evasion machinery exhibited by trophoblast cells remains to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed gal-1 expression in preimplantation human embryos and first-trimester decidua-placenta specimens and serum gal-1 levels to investigate the physiological role played by this lectin during pregnancy. The effect on human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) expression in response to stimulation or silencing of gal-1 was also determined in the human invasive, proliferative extravillous cytotrophoblast 65 (HIPEC65) cell line. Compared with normal pregnant women, circulating gal-1 levels were significantly decreased in patients who subsequently suffered a miscarriage. Human embryos undergoing preimplantation development expressed gal-1 on the trophectoderm and inner cell mass. Furthermore, our in vitro experiments showed that exogenous gal-1 positively regulated the membrane-bound HLA-G isoforms (HLA-G1 and G2) in HIPEC65 cells, whereas endogenous gal-1 also induced expression of the soluble isoforms (HLA-G5 and -G6). Our results suggest that gal-1 plays a key role in pregnancy maternal immune regulation by modulating HLA-G expression on trophoblast cells. Circulating gal-1 levels could serve as a predictive factor for pregnancy success in early human gestation.

  7. Rac1 Regulates Endometrial Secretory Function to Control Placental Development.

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    Juanmahel Davila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions

  8. Rac1 Regulates Endometrial Secretory Function to Control Placental Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Juanmahel; Laws, Mary J.; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Li, Quanxi; Taylor, Robert N.; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2015-01-01

    During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions that mediate stromal

  9. Trophoblastic disease review for diagnosis and management: a joint report from the International Society for the Study of Trophoblastic Disease, European Organisation for the Treatment of Trophoblastic Disease, and the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangili, Giorgia; Lorusso, Domenica; Brown, Jubilee; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Massuger, Leon; Vaughan, Michelle; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Golfier, Francois; Sekharan, Paradan K; Charry, Rafael Cortés; Poveda, Andres; Kim, Jae-Weon; Xiang, Yang; Berkowtiz, Ross; Seckl, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a consensus review on gestational trophoblastic disease diagnosis and management from the combined International Society for the Study of Trophoblastic Disease, European Organisation for the Treatment of Trophoblastic Disease, and the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup. A joint committee representing various groups reviewed the literature obtained from PubMed searches. Guidelines were constructed on the basis of literature review. After initial diagnosis in local centers, centralization of pathology review and ongoing care is recommended to achieve the best outcomes.

  10. FBI-1 Is Overexpressed in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease and Promotes Tumor Growth and Cell Aggressiveness of Choriocarcinoma via PI3K/Akt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Victor C Y; Wong, Oscar G W; Siu, Michelle K Y; Wong, Esther S Y; Ng, Wai-Yan; Wong, Richard W C; Chan, Ka-Kui; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Cheung, Annie N Y

    2015-07-01

    Human placental trophoblasts can be considered pseudomalignant, with tightly controlled proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) represents a family of heterogeneous trophoblastic lesions with aberrant apoptotic and proliferative activities and dysregulation of cell signaling pathways. We characterize the oncogenic effects of factor that binds to the inducer of short transcripts of HIV-1 [FBI-1, alias POZ and Krüppel erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (POKEMON)/ZBTB7A] in GTD and its role in promoting cell aggressiveness in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. IHC studies showed increased nuclear expression of FBI-1, including hydatidiform moles, choriocarcinoma (CCA), and placental site trophoblastic tumor, in GTD. In JAR and JEG-3 CCA cells, ectopic FBI-1 expression opposed apoptosis through repression of proapoptotic genes (eg, BAK1, FAS, and CASP8). FBI-1 overexpression also promoted Akt activation, as indicated by Akt-pS473 phosphorylation. FBI-1 overexpression promoted mobility and invasiveness of JEG-3 and JAR, but not in the presence of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. These findings suggest that FBI-1 could promote cell migration and invasion via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling. In vivo, nude mice injected with CCA cells with stable FBI-1 knockdown demonstrated reduced tumor growth compared with that in control groups. These findings suggest that FBI-1 is clinically associated with the progression of, and may be a therapeutic target in, GTD, owing to its diverse oncogenic effects on dysregulated trophoblasts. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Overexpression of Endogenous Anti-Oxidants with Selenium Supplementation Protects Trophoblast Cells from Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Apoptosis in a Bcl-2-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Alisha; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Holland, Olivia; Perkins, Anthony V

    2017-06-01

    The human placenta provides life support for the developing foetus, and a healthy placenta is a prerequisite to a healthy start to life. Placental tissue is subject to oxidative stress which can lead to pathological conditions of pregnancy such as preeclampsia, preterm labour and intrauterine growth restriction. Up-regulation of endogenous anti-oxidants may alleviate placental oxidative stress and provide a therapy for these complications of pregnancy. In this study, selenium supplementation, as inorganic sodium selenite (NaSel) or organic selenomethionine (SeMet), was used to increase the protein production and cellular activity of the important redox active proteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (Thx-Red). Placental trophoblast cell lines, BeWo, JEG-3 and Swan-71, were cultured in various concentrations of NaSel or SeMet for 24 h and cell extracts prepared for western blots and enzyme assays. Rotenone and antimycin were used to stimulate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induce apoptosis. Trophoblast cells supplemented with 100 nM NaSel and 500 nM SeMet exhibited significantly enhanced expression and activity of both GPx and Thx-Red. Antimycin and rotenone were found to generate ROS when measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) assay, and selenium supplementation was shown to reduce ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. Rotenone, 100 μM treatment for 4 h, caused trophoblast cell apoptosis as evidenced by increased Annexin V binding and decreased expression of Bcl-2. In both assays of apoptosis, selenium supplementation was able to prevent apoptosis, preserve Bcl-2 expression and protect trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress. This data suggests that selenoproteins such as GPx and Thx-Red have an important role in protecting trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress and that selenium supplementation may be important in treating some placental pathologies.

  12. Decreased Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Expression by miR-133a Contributes to Impairment of Proinvasion and Proangiogenesis Functions of Decidual NK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Guo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigen (HLA-G plays a crucial role in conferring fetal–maternal tolerance and ensuring a successful pregnancy. CD56bright natural killer (NK cells accumulate at the maternal decidua in large numbers during pregnancy and are found in direct contact with fetal trophoblasts. There are increasing evidences that decidual NK (dNK cells are crucial for pregnancy. However, the regulation of dNK cells is mostly unknown. Here, we provide evidences that the secretion function of dNK cells in recurrent spontaneous abortion was impaired, which led to the impairment of the proinvasion and proangiogenesis functions of dNK cells. Decreased HLA-G expression induced by the transfection of miR-133a mimics in HTR-8/SVneo affected the secretory functions of dNK cells. Thus, our data revealed that the functions of dNK cells could be suppressed by the decreased expression of HLA-G and suggest a possible mechanism of recurrent miscarriage.

  13. Gestational trophoblastic disease: psychological aspects and fertility issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Mangili, Giorgia; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a forced delay in childbearing during thefollow-up period on the perceived fertility of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), and to investigate how women react to the monitoring period, with particular attention to fertility concerns, personal perceptions of the impact of GTD on reproductive outcomes, and psychological symptoms of depression and anxiety. Twenty women treated for GTD at San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, took part in the study. Depression, anxiety, and infertility-related stress were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Fertility Problem Inventory, respectively. A significant difference in depression levels was found between women with hydatiform mole and women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (p = 0.02). On the contrary, anxiety and depression levels did not vary on the basis of time elapsed since diagnosis, presence of children, and age (disease's psychological aspects, too.

  14. Management of Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases-An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Dipanwita; Barsode, Salil D; Basu, Partha

    2015-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease is a spectrum of neoplastic abnormalities arising from fetal trophoblastic tissue. The range of the diseases in this group varies from relatively benign Hydatidifom mole (complete and partial mole) to highly malignant choriocarcinoma. We have reviewed the available literature and discussed the management and follow up based on the current understanding of the natural history, extent and the prognosis of the disease. Key observations: Depending on the underlying pathology the disease can subside, progress or even metastasize and lead to death, if left untreated. The treatment of the disease is relatively simple and the disease is highly curable by single or multi agent chemotherapy. Appropriate and timely treatment not only saves the women from morbidity and death but also can help preserve their fertility. Management of Gestational disease should ideally be done in a specialized multi-disciplinary environment and the outcome of treatment in majority of the cases is very satisfactory.

  15. TROPHOBLASTIC β1 – GLYCOPROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN SEROPOSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Bogdanovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The level of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein (SP–1 was determined in the blood sera of 200 healthy pregnant women and 184 women with threatened abortions in term till 20 weeks of pregnancy. In group of women experiencing recurrent abortions in 38 % cases antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin, in 39,5 % cases antibodies to phospholipids, in 25,5 % – antibodies to tireoglobulin were revealed in significant amounts. In 20,65 % lupus anticoagulant was found. The majority of women in this group had changes in homeostasis. The presence of autoantibodies during pregnancy is the unfavourable factor in the development of placental insufficiency. This is proved by the decreased secretion of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein – a marker of the fetal part of placenta. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 1, pp. 85588

  16. The role of Sep (O-phosphoserine) tRNA: Sec (selenocysteine) synthase (SEPSECS) in proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H-D; Zhang, W-G; Sun, M-N; Duan, Q-F; Li, F-L; Li, H

    2013-11-01

    To investigate whether Sep (O-phosphoserine) tRNA: Sec (selenocysteine) synthase (SEPSECS), which plays an essential role in the synthesis of selenoprotein, affects proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of human trophoblast cells. Human trophoblast JEG-3 cells were divided into four groups: control group, SEPSECS silenced-expression group, empty vector group and SEPSECS over-expression group. Over-expression and silenced-expression were achieved by transfection with plasmid DNA or RNA oligonucleotide, respectively. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl] -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and colony formation assays were performed to investigate cell proliferation, while apoptosis was tested by annexin V-FITC, PI double staining and caspases-3 activation assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the level of progesterone (PG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). SEPSECS silenced-expression clearly inhibited proliferation of JEG-3 cells (p < 0.05), significantly induced cell apoptosis (p < 0.01) and reduced the production of PG and hCG (p < 0.05). On the contrary, SEPSECS over-expression significantly promoted both cell proliferation (p < 0.01) and secretion of PG and hCG (p < 0.05). SEPSECS significantly affects proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion of human trophoblast cells, suggesting that a potential relationship exists among SEPSECS, cell proliferation, apoptosis and hormone production of human placental trophoblast cells. Furthermore, this may provide a clue to uncover the relationship between selenium and human placental in association with an emphasis on the importance of selenium adequacy during pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long non-coding RNA MALAT-1 is downregulated in preeclampsia and regulates proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of JEG-3 trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiying; Meng, Tao; Liu, Xuemin; Sun, Manni; Tong, Chunxiao; Liu, Jing; Wang, He; Du, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), as a newly identified subset of the transcriptome, has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT-1), a lncRNA that was initially detected in the metastatic lung cancer, was reported to be overexpressed in placenta previa increta/percreta (I/P), which is caused by excessive trophoblast invasion. However, the role of MALAT-1 in the regulation of trophoblast behavior is not fully understood. In this study, we first examined the expression of MALAT-1 in the placentas from the patients with preeclampsia, the pathology of which is associated with inadequate trophoblast invasion, and found that the expression of MALAT-1 was downregulated in the preeclamptic placentas as compared to the normal placentas. We further investigated the function of MALAT-1 in JEG-3 trophoblast cell line using short interfering RNA (siRNA) against MALAT-1 transcripts. Silencing of MALAT-1 in JEG-3 cells suppressed proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Reduced expression of MALAT-1 by RNA interference resulted in enhanced apoptosis in JEG-3 cells, accompanied with elevated levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins including cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Moreover, the migration rate and the invasiveness of JEG-3 cells were suppressed when MALAT-1 was downregulated. In summary, our results suggest that MALAT-1 may play an important role in the regulation of proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion of trophoblast cells, and under-expression of MALAT-1 during early placentation may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  18. Down-regulated long non-coding RNA-ATB in preeclampsia and its effect on suppressing migration, proliferation, and tube formation of trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xijing; Chen, Hongqin; Kong, Weiqi; Zhang, Yanping; Cao, Liyuan; Gao, Linbo; Zhou, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome and is one of the main causes of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Inadequate trophoblast invasion and failure of uterine spiral artery remodeling exert a major role in the development of preeclampsia, especially the early-onset one. LncRNA-ATB is verified to be aberrantly expressed in many cancers and promote the invasion-metastasis and proliferation cascades. But little is known of lncRNA-ATB's role in preeclampsia. The aim of current study is to identify the changes of lncRNA-ATB in preeclampsia and its effects on trophoblast. The lncRNA-ATB levels were decreased in placental samples collected from preeclampsia women (n = 51) compared to those of healthy pregnant women (n = 40) by qRT-PCR analysis. Besides, it is demonstrated that lncRNA-ATB was intense stained in the trophoblast of the placenta by performing in-situ hybridization. By designing RNA interference species to suppress lncRNA-ATB and specific plasmids designed to overexpress lncRNA-ATB, we identify the role of lncRNA-ATB on the functions of trophoblast cell-line, HTR-8/SVneo. Inhibition of endogenous lncRNA-ATB decreased migration, proliferation, tube-formation of HTR-8/SVneo cells. In addition, overexpression of lncRNA-ATB promoted migration, proliferation, and tube-formation of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Therefore, lncRNA-ATB might be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia by regulating the process of trophoblast invasion and endovascular formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical and radiological correlations in patients with gestational trophoblastic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Lana de Lourdes Aguiar; Parente, Raphael Camara Medeiros; Amim Junior, Joffre; Rezende Filho, Jorge Fonte de; Montenegro, Carlos Antonio Barbosa; Braga, Antonio, E-mail: lanalima@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Maesta, Izildinha [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-15

    Gestational trophoblastic disease is an abnormality of pregnancy that encompasses a group of diseases that differ from each other in their propensity for regression, invasion, metastasis, and recurrence. In the past, it was common for patients with molar pregnancy to present with marked symptoms: copious bleeding; theca lutein cysts; uterus larger than appropriate for gestational age; early preeclampsia; hyperemesis gravidarum; and hyperthyroidism. Currently, with early diagnosis made by ultrasound, most patients are diagnosed while the disease is still in the asymptomatic phase. In cases of progression to trophoblastic neoplasia, staging-typically with Doppler flow studies of the pelvis and chest X-ray, although occasionally with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging-is critical to the choice of an appropriate antineoplastic therapy regimen. Because it is an unusual and serious disease that affects women of reproductive age, as well as because its appropriate treatment results in high cure rates, it is crucial that radiologists be familiar with gestational trophoblastic disease, in order to facilitate its early diagnosis and to ensure appropriate follow-up imaging. (author)

  20. Clinical and radiological correlations in patients with gestational trophoblastic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana de Lourdes Aguiar Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Gestational trophoblastic disease is an abnormality of pregnancy that encompasses a group of diseases that differ from each other in their propensity for regression, invasion, metastasis, and recurrence. In the past, it was common for patients with molar pregnancy to present with marked symptoms: copious bleeding; theca lutein cysts; uterus larger than appropriate for gestational age; early preeclampsia; hyperemesis gravidarum; and hyperthyroidism. Currently, with early diagnosis made by ultrasound, most patients are diagnosed while the disease is still in the asymptomatic phase. In cases of progression to trophoblastic neoplasia, staging-typically with Doppler flow studies of the pelvis and chest X-ray, although occasionally with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging-is critical to the choice of an appropriate antineoplastic therapy regimen. Because it is an unusual and serious disease that affects women of reproductive age, as well as because its appropriate treatment results in high cure rates, it is crucial that radiologists be familiar with gestational trophoblastic disease, in order to facilitate its early diagnosis and to ensure appropriate follow-up imaging.

  1. Clinical and radiological correlations in patients with gestational trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lana de Lourdes Aguiar; Parente, Raphael Câmara Medeiros; Maestá, Izildinha; Amim Junior, Joffre; de Rezende Filho, Jorge Fonte; Montenegro, Carlos Antonio Barbosa; Braga, Antônio

    2016-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease is an abnormality of pregnancy that encompasses a group of diseases that differ from each other in their propensity for regression, invasion, metastasis, and recurrence. In the past, it was common for patients with molar pregnancy to present with marked symptoms: copious bleeding; theca lutein cysts; uterus larger than appropriate for gestational age; early preeclampsia; hyperemesis gravidarum; and hyperthyroidism. Currently, with early diagnosis made by ultrasound, most patients are diagnosed while the disease is still in the asymptomatic phase. In cases of progression to trophoblastic neoplasia, staging-typically with Doppler flow studies of the pelvis and chest X-ray, although occasionally with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging-is critical to the choice of an appropriate antineoplastic therapy regimen. Because it is an unusual and serious disease that affects women of reproductive age, as well as because its appropriate treatment results in high cure rates, it is crucial that radiologists be familiar with gestational trophoblastic disease, in order to facilitate its early diagnosis and to ensure appropriate follow-up imaging.

  2. Clinical and radiological correlations in patients with gestational trophoblastic disease*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lana de Lourdes Aguiar; Parente, Raphael Câmara Medeiros; Maestá, Izildinha; Amim Junior, Joffre; de Rezende Filho, Jorge Fonte; Montenegro, Carlos Antonio Barbosa; Braga, Antônio

    2016-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease is an abnormality of pregnancy that encompasses a group of diseases that differ from each other in their propensity for regression, invasion, metastasis, and recurrence. In the past, it was common for patients with molar pregnancy to present with marked symptoms: copious bleeding; theca lutein cysts; uterus larger than appropriate for gestational age; early preeclampsia; hyperemesis gravidarum; and hyperthyroidism. Currently, with early diagnosis made by ultrasound, most patients are diagnosed while the disease is still in the asymptomatic phase. In cases of progression to trophoblastic neoplasia, staging-typically with Doppler flow studies of the pelvis and chest X-ray, although occasionally with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging-is critical to the choice of an appropriate antineoplastic therapy regimen. Because it is an unusual and serious disease that affects women of reproductive age, as well as because its appropriate treatment results in high cure rates, it is crucial that radiologists be familiar with gestational trophoblastic disease, in order to facilitate its early diagnosis and to ensure appropriate follow-up imaging. PMID:27777478

  3. The clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor in the pineal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yun-xiang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor (ITT in the pineal region. Methods A retrospective study was performed to analyse the diagnostic and therapeutic process of 1 case with ITT in the pineal region. The specimen obtained from the surgery was dealt with common tissue processing mode and cut into slices. HE staining was performed to observe histophathological features. Immunohistochemical staining (SP two-step method was performed to analyse the expression of tumor markers. Related literatures were reviewed. Results A 6-year old boy with clinical manifestations of penis enlargement and rapid growth for more than one year, presented a mass in his pineal region through MRI. The tumor was surgically excised after it is refractory to 10 times experimental radiotherapy as germinoma. The level of β-human chorionic gonadotropin ( β-hCG in his postoperative blood was decreased to normal, but gradually increased, once again followed to normal after three times chemotherapy. Patient was normal almost postoperative 6 months later by follow -up. Pathological examination showed sheets necrosis with multiple calcification and scattered fresh blood cells, epithelioid tumor cells with solid growth pattern. The tumor cells were atypical mononuclear cells with relative uniform (between heterotypic cells and partially surrounding and invasing the vascular walls. The cytoplasm of tumor cells was eosinophilic or clear, the nucleus was round or irregular in shape and some with intranuclear pseudoinclusions, and its mitotic figures were rarely seen under light microscopy. The tumor cells showed strong positive for AE1/AE3, cell adhesion molecules 5.2 (CAM5.2, human placental lactogen (hPL, octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (Oct3/4, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and E-cadherin. P53 was also expressed. The positive rate of Ki-67 was about 10%, and β-hCG was expressed in the extremely tumor cells. The

  4. Immunohistological demonstration of intermediate trophoblast in the diagnosis of uterine versus ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Marcussen, N; Daugaard, H O

    1991-01-01

    Immunohistological demonstration of human placental lactogen (hPL) in non-villous, mononuclear intermediate trophoblastic cells may be of routine diagnostic value, when chorionic villi are absent in endometrial curettings from patients suspected of miscarriage of an intrauterine pregnancy....... The histological presence and distribution of hPL was investigated in endometrial curettings from 90 patients studied retrospectively (47 had ectopic pregnancies, 14 miscarriages, and 29 legal abortions), and a consecutive, prospective series of 50 patients (40 had miscarriages and 10 had ectopic pregnancies......) without chorionic villi in their endometrial curettings. Non-specific background staining was not a problem. The retrospective survey disclosed that hPL was a highly sensitive marker of intrauterine pregnancy (sensitivity = 0.98). In the prospective series, the predictive value of positive staining for h...

  5. File list: His.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 Histone Placenta Induced trophoblast stem... cells SRX1072158,SRX1072156,SRX1072159,SRX1072157 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 Input control Placenta Induced trophoblast stem... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Pol.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: NoD.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: NoD.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Unc.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.hESC_derived_trophoblast_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Pol.PSC.20.AllAg.hESC_derived_trophoblast_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.PSC.10.AllAg.hESC_derived_trophoblast_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: DNS.PSC.20.AllAg.hESC_derived_trophoblast_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: InP.PSC.05.AllAg.hESC_derived_trophoblast_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Pol.PSC.10.AllAg.hESC_derived_trophoblast_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: DNS.PSC.10.AllAg.hESC_derived_trophoblast_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: InP.PSC.50.AllAg.hESC_derived_trophoblast_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: InP.PSC.20.AllAg.hESC_derived_trophoblast_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: InP.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Unc.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: NoD.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. Efficacy of NETDC (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center prognostic index score to predict gestational trophoblastic tumor from hydatidiform mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrismawan Khrismawan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A prospective longitudinal analytic study assessing the efficacy of NETDC (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center prognostic index score in predicting malignancy after hydatidiform mole had been performed. Of the parameter evaluated; age of patients, type of hydatidiform mole, uterine enlargement, serum hCG level, lutein cyst, and presence of complicating factors were significant risk factors for malignancy after hydatidiform mole were evacuated (p<0.032. The study were done on 50 women diagnosed with hydatidiform mole with 1 year observation (January 2001-December 2002 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. The results showed that the NETDC prognostic index score predicted malignancy in 50% of high risk group and 10% in low risk group (p<0.05. This showed a higher number than that found by the WHO (19%-30%. The risk for incidence of  malignancy after hydatidiform mole in the high risk group is 9.0 times higher compared to that of the low risk group (CI: 1.769-45.786. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 40-6 Keywords: New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC, gestational trophoblastic tumor, hydatidiform mole, high and low risk

  14. The Role of Surgery and Radiation Therapy in the Management of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Rabbie K.; Soper, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the indications for and the role of surgical interventions during the management of women with hydatidiform moles and malignant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and reviews the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of women with malignant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  15. Gestational trophoblastic diseases - clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Isa; Vejerslev, Lars O; Frøding, Ligita

    2015-01-01

    line chemotherapy is BEP or EP, alternatively EMA-CO (B). Choriocarcinoma is primarily treated with chemotherapy. Hysterectomy and/or resection of metastases are possible treatments (A). Placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT) and epithelioid trophoblastic tumour (ETT) are primarily treated...

  16. The risk of persistent trophoblastic disease after hydatidiform mole classified by morphology and ploidy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Isa; Hansen, Estrid S; Sunde, Lone

    2007-01-01

    influence the development of morphologic features in hydatidiform moles. We recommend that gestations suspected of hydatidiform mole are subjected to histopathologic examination. If hydatidiform change and trophoblastic hyperplasia are identified, the ploidy should be used to identify patients with a high...... risk of persistent trophoblastic disease. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb...

  17. Assessment of Liver and Renal Functions of Asymptomatic Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Winniecure), used in our institute for the treatment of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) infection, on liver and renal functions of individuals undergoing therapy. A total of 100 asymptomatic Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) seropositive ...

  18. Multi-function displays : a guide for human factors evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This guide is designed to assist aircraft certification personnel and avionics : manufacturers in evaluating the human factors aspects of Multi-function Displays : (MFDs) for FAA certification. The guide focuses specifically on human factors and : do...

  19. Functional Cardiomyocytes Derived From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Jianhua; Wilson, Gisela F; Soerens, Andrew G; Koonce, Chad H; Yu, Junying; Palecek, Sean P; Thomson, James A; Kamp, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells hold great promise for cardiovascular research and therapeutic applications, but the ability of human iPS cells to differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes has not yet been demonstrated...

  20. Poor Invasion of Trophoblastic Cells but Normal Plaque Formation in Fibroblastic Cells despite actA Deletion in a Group of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Persisting in Some Food Processing Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holch, Anne; Gottlieb, Caroline Trebbien; Larsen, Marianne Halberg

    2010-01-01

    We determined mammalian cell invasion and virulence gene (inlA, inlB, and actA) sequences of Listeria monocytogenes strains belonging to a molecular subtype (RAPD 9) that often persists in Danish fish-processing plants. These strains invaded human placental trophoblasts less efficiently than other...

  1. Human V6: functional characterisation and localisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velia Cardin

    Full Text Available Human visual area V6, in the parieto-occipital sulcus, is thought to have an important role in the extraction of optic flow for the monitoring and guidance of self-motion (egomotion because it responds differentially to egomotion-compatible optic flow when compared to: (a coherent but egomotion-incompatible flow (Cardin & Smith, 2010, and (b incoherent motion (Pitzalis et al., 2010. It is not clear, however, whether V6 responds more strongly to egomotion-incompatible global motion than to incoherent motion. This is relevant not only for determining the functional properties of V6, but also in order to choose optimal stimuli for localising V6 accurately with fMRI. Localisation with retinotopic mapping is difficult and there is a need for a simple, reliable method. We conducted an event-related 3T fMRI experiment in which participants viewed a display of dots which either: a followed a time-varying optic flow trajectory in a single, egomotion-compatible (EC display; b formed an egomotion-incompatible (EI 3 × 3 array of optic flow patches; or c moved randomly (RM. Results from V6 show an ordering of response magnitudes: EC > EI > RM. Neighbouring areas V3A and V7 responded more strongly to EC than to RM, but about equally to EC and EI. Our results suggest that although V6 may have a general role in the extraction of global motion, in clear contrast to neighbouring motion areas it is especially concerned with encoding EC stimuli. They suggest two strategies for localising V6: (1 contrasting EC and EI; or (2 contrasting EC and RM, which is more sensitive but carries a risk of including voxels from neighbouring regions that also show a EC > RM preference.

  2. Human V6: functional characterisation and localisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Velia; Sherrington, Rachael; Hemsworth, Lara; Smith, Andrew T

    2012-01-01

    Human visual area V6, in the parieto-occipital sulcus, is thought to have an important role in the extraction of optic flow for the monitoring and guidance of self-motion (egomotion) because it responds differentially to egomotion-compatible optic flow when compared to: (a) coherent but egomotion-incompatible flow (Cardin & Smith, 2010), and (b) incoherent motion (Pitzalis et al., 2010). It is not clear, however, whether V6 responds more strongly to egomotion-incompatible global motion than to incoherent motion. This is relevant not only for determining the functional properties of V6, but also in order to choose optimal stimuli for localising V6 accurately with fMRI. Localisation with retinotopic mapping is difficult and there is a need for a simple, reliable method. We conducted an event-related 3T fMRI experiment in which participants viewed a display of dots which either: a) followed a time-varying optic flow trajectory in a single, egomotion-compatible (EC) display; b) formed an egomotion-incompatible (EI) 3 × 3 array of optic flow patches; or c) moved randomly (RM). Results from V6 show an ordering of response magnitudes: EC > EI > RM. Neighbouring areas V3A and V7 responded more strongly to EC than to RM, but about equally to EC and EI. Our results suggest that although V6 may have a general role in the extraction of global motion, in clear contrast to neighbouring motion areas it is especially concerned with encoding EC stimuli. They suggest two strategies for localising V6: (1) contrasting EC and EI; or (2) contrasting EC and RM, which is more sensitive but carries a risk of including voxels from neighbouring regions that also show a EC > RM preference.

  3. Co-localization of P2Y1 receptor and NTPDase1/CD39 within caveolae in human placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kittel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1/ CD39 is the dominant ecto-nucleotidase of vascular and placental trophoblastic tissues and appears to modulate the functional expression of type-2 purinergic (P2 Gprotein coupled receptors (GPCRs. Hence, this ectoenzyme could regulate nucleotide-mediated signalling events in placental tissue. This immunohistochemical and immuno-electron microscopic study demonstrates the expression of NTPDase1/CD39, P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors in different cell types of human placenta. Specifically P2Y1 has an exclusive vascular distribution whereas P2Y2 is localized on trophoblastic villi. Co-localization of P2Y1 and NTPDase1/ CD39 are observed in caveolae, membrane microdomains of endothelial cells. The differential localization of these P2 receptors might indicate their unique roles in the regulation of extracellular nucleotide concentrations in human placental tissues and consequent effects on vascular tone and blood fluidity.

  4. Immunolocalization of progesterone receptors in binucleate trophoblast cells of the buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The binucleate trophoblast cells (CTBs of the water buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis were studied with emphasis on the presence of progesterone receptor. Placentomal tissues from 27 buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy were processed and embedded in paraplast (Paraplast Embedding Media – Paraplast Plus to locate the progesterone receptors using the immunohistochemistry technique. The immunohistochemical reaction for progesterone receptor through monoclonal antibody PgR Ab2 showed staining of CTBs, caruncular epithelial and estromal cells and blood vessel estromal pericitos present in the placentome throughout the entire gestational period analyzed. These results indicate the production of progesterone with autocrine and paracrine action in the placentome growth, differentiation and functional regulation.

  5. Structure, Function and Diversity of the Healthy Human Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    REPORT Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Studies of the human microbiome ...Std. Z39.18 - Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome Report Title ABSTRACT Studies of the human microbiome have revealed...that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut , skin and vagina. Much of this diversity remains

  6. Mental Representations of Illness in Patients with Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: How Do Patients Perceive Their Condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Mazzetti, Martina; Bernardi, Martina; Di Pierro, Rossella; Bergamini, Alice; Mangili, Giorgia; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Gestational Trophoblastic Disease comprises a group of benign and malignant disorders that derive from the placenta. Using Leventhal's Common-Sense Model as a theoretical framework, this paper examines illness perception in women who have been diagnosed with this disease. Thirty-one women diagnosed with Gestational Trophoblastic Disease in a hospital in Italy were asked to complete the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised to measure the following: illness Identity, illness opinions and causes of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. High mean scores were observed in the Emotional representations and Treatment control subscales. A significant difference emerged between hydatidiform mole patients and those with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia on the Identity subscale. A significant correlation emerged between "time since diagnosis" and the Treatment control subscale. This study is the first to investigate illness perception in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. From a clinical perspective the results highlight the need for multidisciplinary support programs to promote a more realistic illness perception.

  7. Extravillous trophoblast invasion of venous as well as lymphatic vessels is altered in idiopathic, recurrent, spontaneous abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsperger, Karin; Dekan, Sabine; Pils, Sophie; Golletz, Carsten; Kunihs, Victoria; Fiala, Christian; Kristiansen, Glen; Knöfler, Martin; Pollheimer, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Do extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invade non-arterial decidual vessels in healthy and pathological pregnancies? Our results reveal that trophoblast invasion of venous and lymphatic vessels is a frequent event during the first trimester of pregnancy and is compromised in  recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). In addition, the present data suggest that EVTs populate regional lymph nodes during pregnancy. Human trophoblasts remodel and invade decidual spiral arteries. In addition, a recent report demonstrates that trophoblasts contact and invade decidual veins. Tissue samples of human first trimester deciduae basalis (n = 54, 6th-13th weeks of gestation) obtained from elective pregnancy terminations were used to study trophoblast invasion into veins and lymphatics, in comparison to arteries. Age-matched cases of idiopathic, recurrent spontaneous abortions tissue samples (n = 23) were assessed for cell numbers of EVTs in these decidual vessels. In addition, lymph nodes of four pregnant women were analysed for the presence of EVTs. Localization, frequency and EVT-mediated targeting and invasion of arterial, venous as well as lymphatic vessels were determined in first trimester decidua basalis tissue sections using immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against CD31, CD34, ephrin B2 (EFNB2), ephrin receptor B4 (EPHB4), HLA-G, podoplanin, prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox-1), alpha-smooth muscle actin 2 (ATCTA2), von willebrand factor (vWF) and proteoglycan 2 (PRG2). Arterial, venous and lymphatic-associated EVTs were further characterized according to their position in the vascular structure and classified as intramural (im) or intraluminal (il). EVTs, specifically expressing PRG2, target and invade veins and lymphatics in first trimester decidua basalis since HLA-G+ trophoblast were detected in the vascular wall (intramural EVT, imEVTs) and in the lumen of these vessels (intraluminal EVT, ilEVTs). In total, 276 arteries, 793 veins and 113 lymphatics were

  8. Toward discovery science of human brain function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints...... individual's functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships...... in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/....

  9. The surface expression of HLA-F on decidual trophoblasts increases from mid to term gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobu, Takanori; Sageshima, Noriko; Tokui, Hiroshi; Omura, Motoko; Saito, Keigo; Nagatsuka, Yuka; Nakanishi, Mari; Hayashi, Yukio; Hatake, Katsuhiko; Ishitani, Akiko

    2006-12-01

    HLA-F has recently only begun to be studied in earnest, and has been thought not to be expressed on the cell surface. However, in our previous report, we demonstrated surface expression of HLA-F on extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invading the decidua in term placental tissues. To better understand its function, we attempted to determine when surface expression of HLA-F begins during normal pregnancy, and whether there is a difference in expression between normal and preeclamptic placentas, by comparing the expression of HLA-G and -E by immunohistochemical staining with anti-HLA-E, -F and -G antibodies (3D12, 3D11 and 87G, respectively). In EVTs, HLA-F was expressed only in the cytoplasm weakly during the first trimester, after which expression increased and moved to the cell surface with the progression of pregnancy from the second trimester, which was confirmed by the results of double-labeled immunofluorescence staining with anti-HLA-F and anti-HLA-G antibodies, and by flow cytometry using trophoblasts isolated from the decidua. HLA-E showed similar expression as HLA-F, though it was expressed on the cell surface from the first trimester, while HLA-G was expressed strongly in the cytoplasm and on the cell surface during all stages of pregnancy. The expressions of HLA-E, -F and -G in preeclamptic placentas were not different from those in normal placentas, though there were a greater number of necrotic EVTs in preeclampsia. The increase in expression of HLA-E and HLA-F from the second trimester to full term was coincident with the timing of rapid growth of the fetus. Our results suggest that these may function together to prepare an environment that supports fetal growth.

  10. Human Resource Function Competencies in European Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); J. Paauwe (Jaap)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents an overview of recent empirical research on human resource competencies in Europe. The data were collected in 2002 in the global Human Resource Competence Study, an initiative of the University of Michigan. The results suggest that personal credibility and HR delivery

  11. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Gohel, Suril; Kelly, Clare; Smith, Steve M; Beckmann, Christian F; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Buckner, Randy L; Colcombe, Stan; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Ernst, Monique; Fair, Damien; Hampson, Michelle; Hoptman, Matthew J; Hyde, James S; Kiviniemi, Vesa J; Kötter, Rolf; Li, Shi-Jiang; Lin, Ching-Po; Lowe, Mark J; Mackay, Clare; Madden, David J; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Margulies, Daniel S; Mayberg, Helen S; McMahon, Katie; Monk, Christopher S; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pekar, James J; Peltier, Scott J; Petersen, Steven E; Riedl, Valentin; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Rypma, Bart; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Schmidt, Sein; Seidler, Rachael D; Siegle, Greg J; Sorg, Christian; Teng, Gao-Jun; Veijola, Juha; Villringer, Arno; Walter, Martin; Wang, Lihong; Weng, Xu-Chu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Williamson, Peter; Windischberger, Christian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2010-03-09

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/.

  12. Uterine arteriovenous malformations following gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhami, Omar; Gregoire, Jean; Noel, Patricia; Trinh, Xuan Bich; Plante, Marie

    2014-10-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) following gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare condition. It can be associated with chronic vaginal bleeding or life-threatening heavy bleeding, even after complete resolution of the tumor following chemotherapy. This analysis aimed to perform an extensive systematic review highlighting clinical symptoms, imaging, management and prognosis of this rare complication of GTN. We also describe an additional case of uterine AVM following GTN. We conducted a literature search using Medline, Embase and Cochrane library to analyze the clinical data of 49 published cases of uterine AVM following GTN. Median age of the women diagnosed with AVM was 29 years (range 15-49). Median gravidity was 2 (range 1-8) and 50% of women were nulligravida. Complete molar pregnancy was the most common initial gestational trophoblastic diagnosis (48%). Overall, 44 patients (88%) were symptomatic and presented with chronic or acute abnormal vaginal bleeding. Only 3 patients had an undetectable HCG level at the time of uterine AVM diagnosis. Hypo-echoic space in the myometrium is the most relevant finding on ultrasonography but the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of AVMs is angiographic examination. Uterine artery embolization was the most common treatment option performed in 82% of the patients and was successful in controlling the bleeding in 85% of cases. We identified 20 pregnancies after successful embolization of uterine AVM following a GTN and 90% of them were successful. Because of the risk of life-threatening heavy bleeding, the diagnosis of uterine AVM should always be considered in patients with a history of recurrent unexplained vaginal bleeding after gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Angiographic embolization is successful in the majority of cases and does not appear to compromise future pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Salvage chemotherapy for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: Utility or futility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Kathleen G; Bruegl, Amanda; Gershenson, David M; Ramondetta, Lois M; Naumann, R Wendel; Brown, Jubilee

    2017-07-01

    To determine the efficacy of chemotherapy after failed initial treatment in patients with high risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). We performed a retrospective IRB-approved chart review of all patients with GTN seen at a single institution from 1985 to 2015, including all patients who failed initial treatment. We summarized clinical characteristics with descriptive statistics and estimated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with the Kaplan-Meier method. Of 68 identified patients, 38 required >2 chemotherapy regimens. Patients were treated for GTN (n=53), including choriocarcinoma, persistent GTN, and invasive mole; for placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) (n=5); and for intermediate trophoblastic tumor (ITT) (n=10). Patients with GTN had a median of 2 salvage regimens, median PFS of 4.0months, and median OS was not reached at median follow-up of 71.2months. Active regimens included EMACO, MAC, BEP, platinum- and etoposide-based combination therapies, and ICE; 8 of 53 patients died of disease (DOD). Patients with PSTT had a median of 3 salvage regimens, median PFS of 2.8months, and median OS of 38.8months. Active regimens included ICE and EMA-EP; 4 of 5 patients DOD. Patients with ITT had a median of 3 salvage regimens, median PFS of 4.1months, and median OS of 38.2months. Active regimens included liposomal doxorubicin, platinum-containing regimens, EMA-CO, and EMA-EP; 7 of 10 patients DOD. Several salvage chemotherapy regimens demonstrate activity in high risk GTN. Multiple regimens may be required and cure is not universal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases: A Ten Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Mohammadjafari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD defines a heterogenenous group ofinterrelated lesions that arise from the trophoblastic epithelium of the placenta. There are severalhistologically distinct types of GTD: hydatiform mole (complete or partial, persistant/invasivegestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN, choriocarcinoma and placenta site trophoblastictumors. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and risk factors of GTD amongwomen admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Imam KhomeiniHospital in Ahvaz, Iran. All hospital records related to GTD (132 from 1996 until 2006 werereviewed. Demographic and histo-pathologic characteristics were extracted. Chi-square andFisher-exact tests were used to analyze all variables. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statisticallysignificant. SPSS, version 11 was used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean age of patients was 27.6 years. Most patients who presented with GTDwere of ages 18-35 years (71.3%. There was no relationship between age and hydatiformmole during the reproductive years. There were 28 (18.9% patients over the age 40, of which18 (15.90% of these had a complete hydatiform mole. Within this group, 9 (6.8% changedto a persistent mole. There was a significant relationship between age over 40 and completemole (p<0.02. The percentage of patients with blood groups A and O was the same (37.9%.There was a significant relationship between blood groups (O+ and A+ and complete mole(p<0.05.Conclusion: The most common age range for hydatiform mole was 18-35 years. Women overthe age of 40 had a more complete hydatiform mole, which is similar to the other countries.Age and blood group are two risk factors for hydatiform mole.

  15. OS053. Trophoblast invasion in the mesometrial triangle of atp infused pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, F; Chiang, C W; Melgert, B N; Klok, P A; Borghuis, T; Bakker, W W; Faas, M M

    2012-07-01

    Poor placentation (disturbed and decreased trophoblast invasion) is a hallmark of preeclampsia (PE), which is a major complication of pregnancy. Unfortunately, the cause and mechanism of disturbed trophoblast invasion is still unknown. The pro-inflammatory agent ATP has been shown to induce PE-like signs, after a single infusion in pregnant rats. These PE-like characteristics include proteinuria and decreased fetal weight. Since purinergic ATP receptors are expressed on trophoblast cells, we aimed to study the effect of ATP infusion on trophoblast invasion in pregnant rats in this pilot study. Pregnant rats received a single ATP (n=4) or saline (control,ni=5) infusion via a permanent jugular vein cannula on day 14 of pregnancy. At the time of maximal trophoblast invasion (day 17 of pregnancy) rats were sacrificed and placentas with mesometrial triangle were collected, fixed in zinc-buffer and embedded in paraffin. 4 μm sections were stained with monoclonal α-cytokeratin antibodies. In the mesometrial triangle, the maternal part of the rat placenta, the percentage of surface area of trophoblast invasion was evaluated using computerized image analysis. Also, the depth and width of invasion were analyzed by subdividing the mesometrial triangle in three concentric depth levels of equal width. In addition, trophoblast invaded versus non-invaded spiral arteries in the mesometrial triangle were quantified. In the mesometrial triangle, no changes in percentage of surface area of trophoblast invasion and percentage of invaded spiral arteries were observed after ATP infusion. However, the pattern of trophoblast invasion appeared to be disturbed in ATP infused rats, with a decreased depth of invasion and an increased width of invasion, resulting in a trend towards a decreased depth/width ratio of trophoblast invasion in ATP infused rats. In this (pilot) study we showed an altered trophoblast invasion pattern in the mesometrial triangle of the placenta, although no

  16. The effect of distance traveled on disease outcomes in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Leslie H; Staley, S Allison; Barber, Emma L; Wysham, Weiya Z; Kim, Kenneth H; Soper, John T

    2016-08-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is a rare gynecological malignancy often treated at tertiary referral centers. Patients frequently travel long distances to obtain care for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, which may affect cancer outcomes in these patients. We examined the association between distance traveled to obtain care and disease burden at time of presentation as well as recurrence. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all patients diagnosed with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia from January 1995 to June 2015 at a high-volume tertiary referral center. Patients were included if they met International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2000 criteria for postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia or had choriocarcinoma, placental-site trophoblastic tumor, or epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. Sixty patients were identified. Disease burden at presentation was examined using both the World Health Organization prognostic score and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Patients who traveled more than 50 miles were considered long-distance travelers based on previous literature on the effect of distance traveled on cancer outcomes. Demographic, clinical, and pathological data were obtained by chart review. Bivariable comparisons were performed using the χ(2) test or Fisher exact test for categorical variables. The t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare continuous variables when normally or not normally distributed. Most patients presented at stage I (61%) with low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (70%). Median distance to care was 40 miles (range, 4-384). Eighteen patients (30%) had no insurance and 42 (70%) had either private or public insurance. Patients traveling more than 50 miles for care were more likely to have high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (46% vs 19%, P = .03), but there was no difference in recurrence (13% vs 11%, P = .89). Patients with high-risk gestational

  17. Endothelial and trophoblast (dys)function in preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, Rogier Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    As described in chapter 1, preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy and worldwide one of the major causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In severe, early-onset preeclampsia, i.e., placental preeclampsia, the syndrome originates from a hypoperfused and hypoxic placenta. One

  18. MRI evaluation of gestational trophoblastic disease of the uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, Yukari; Kuroda, Mana; Yokouchi, Junichi; Ishii, Iwao; Abe, Kimihiko; Amino, Saburou (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    Fourteen cases of gestational trophoblastic disease, including five cases before curettage, are reported. Before curettage molar tissue showed a reticular pattern and one case that proceeded to develop into an invasive mole did not show any significant difference from other non-invasive mole. Two cases underwent enhancement of Gd-DTPA, and with this, the implantation site may be diagnosed. After curettage junctional zone was not clear during the period when HCG titer was high. Five cases showed residual molar tissue and MRI was able to depict the tumor and dilatated vesseles. (author).

  19. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biswal, B.B.; Mennes, M.J.J.; Zuo, X.N.; Gohel, S.; Kelly, C.; Smith, S.M.; Beckmann, C.F.; Adelstein, J.S.; Buckner, R.L.; Colcombe, S.; Dogonowski, A.M.; Ernst, M.; Fair, D.; Hampson, M.; Hoptman, M.J.; Hyde, J.S.; Kiviniemi, V.J.; Kotter, R.; Li, S.J.; Lin, C.P.; Lowe, M.J.; Mackay, C.; Madden, D.J.; Madsen, K.H.; Margulies, D.S.; Mayberg, H.S.; McMahon, K.; Monk, C.S.; Mostofsky, S.H.; Nagel, B.J.; Pekar, J.J.; Peltier, S.J.; Petersen, S.E.; Riedl, V.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Rypma, B.; Schlaggar, B.L.; Schmidt, S.; Seidler, R.D.; Siegle, G.J.; Sorg, C.; Teng, G.J.; Veijola, J.; Villringer, A.; Walter, M.; Wang, L.; Weng, X.C.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S.; Williamson, P.; Windischberger, C.; Zang, Y.F.; Zhang, H.Y.; Castellanos, F.X.; Milham, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a

  20. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: origin, evolution and future of placenta miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Prieto, D M; Ospina-Prieto, S; Schmidt, A; Chaiwangyen, W; Markert, U R

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of a large number of genes in plants and animals. Placental miRNAs appeared late in evolution and can be found only in mammals. Nevertheless, these miRNAs are constantly under evolutionary pressure. As a consequence, miRNA sequences and their mRNA targets may differ between species, and some miRNAs can only be found in humans. Their expression can be tissue- or cell-specific and can vary time-dependently. Human placenta tissue exhibits a specific miRNA expression pattern that dynamically changes during pregnancy and is reflected in the maternal plasma. Some placental miRNAs are involved in or associated with major pregnancy disorders, such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction or preterm delivery and, therefore, have a strong potential for usage as sensitive and specific biomarkers. In this review we summarize current knowledge on the origin of placental miRNAs, their expression in humans with special regard to trophoblast cells, interspecies differences, and their future as biomarkers. It can be concluded that animal models for human reproduction have a different panel of miRNAs and targets, and can only partly reflect or predict the situation in humans. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. [Maternal deaths due to gestational trophoblastic diseases, results from the French confidential enquiry into maternal deaths, 2010-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, M

    2017-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) correspond to several entities which all have a common pattern: hypersecretion of human chorionic gondotrophin by trophoblastic hyperplasia. Between 2010 and 2012, there were 4 maternal deaths due to GTD (choriocarcinoma). The ratio of maternal death caused by GTD was 0,16/100,000 living births which was similar to the rate from the 2007-2009 period. These deaths represented 1.6% from the whole maternal mortality and 3.3% of the direct maternal mortality. These four deaths occurred after delivery and the diagnosis of GTD was made between 60 and 180 days in the postpartum period. Two cases seemed to be potentially avoidable. The main causes of suboptimal management were linked to delay either in diagnosis of GTD or in initiating the appropriate treatment. The analysis of these maternal deaths gave the opportunity to stress some major lessons to optimize medical management of GTD. Therefore, a patient presenting with persistent bleedings more than six weeks after delivery needs some specific exams such as plasma human chorionic gondotrophin measurement and histopathologic examination to affirm GTD and start early specific treatments generally leading to complete recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A distant trophoblast-specific enhancer controls HLA-G expression at the maternal–fetal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leonardo M. R.; Meissner, Torsten B.; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Mallard, William; O’Donnell, Charles W.; Tilburgs, Tamara; Gomes, Hannah A. B.; Camahort, Raymond; Sherwood, Richard I.; Gifford, David K.; Rinn, John L.; Cowan, Chad A.; Strominger, Jack L.

    2016-01-01

    HLA-G, a nonclassical HLA molecule uniquely expressed in the placenta, is a central component of fetus-induced immune tolerance during pregnancy. The tissue-specific expression of HLA-G, however, remains poorly understood. Here, systematic interrogation of the HLA-G locus using massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) uncovered a previously unidentified cis-regulatory element 12 kb upstream of HLA-G with enhancer activity, Enhancer L. Strikingly, clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated deletion of this enhancer resulted in ablation of HLA-G expression in JEG3 cells and in primary human trophoblasts isolated from placenta. RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that Enhancer L specifically controls HLA-G expression. Moreover, DNase-seq and chromatin conformation capture (3C) defined Enhancer L as a cell type-specific enhancer that loops into the HLA-G promoter. Interestingly, MPRA-based saturation mutagenesis of Enhancer L identified motifs for transcription factors of the CEBP and GATA families essential for placentation. These factors associate with Enhancer L and regulate HLA-G expression. Our findings identify long-range chromatin looping mediated by core trophoblast transcription factors as the mechanism controlling tissue-specific HLA-G expression at the maternal–fetal interface. More broadly, these results establish the combination of MPRA and CRISPR/Cas9 deletion as a powerful strategy to investigate human immune gene regulation. PMID:27078102

  3. A distant trophoblast-specific enhancer controls HLA-G expression at the maternal-fetal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leonardo M R; Meissner, Torsten B; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Mallard, William; O'Donnell, Charles W; Tilburgs, Tamara; Gomes, Hannah A B; Camahort, Raymond; Sherwood, Richard I; Gifford, David K; Rinn, John L; Cowan, Chad A; Strominger, Jack L

    2016-05-10

    HLA-G, a nonclassical HLA molecule uniquely expressed in the placenta, is a central component of fetus-induced immune tolerance during pregnancy. The tissue-specific expression of HLA-G, however, remains poorly understood. Here, systematic interrogation of the HLA-G locus using massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) uncovered a previously unidentified cis-regulatory element 12 kb upstream of HLA-G with enhancer activity, Enhancer L Strikingly, clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated deletion of this enhancer resulted in ablation of HLA-G expression in JEG3 cells and in primary human trophoblasts isolated from placenta. RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that Enhancer L specifically controls HLA-G expression. Moreover, DNase-seq and chromatin conformation capture (3C) defined Enhancer L as a cell type-specific enhancer that loops into the HLA-G promoter. Interestingly, MPRA-based saturation mutagenesis of Enhancer L identified motifs for transcription factors of the CEBP and GATA families essential for placentation. These factors associate with Enhancer L and regulate HLA-G expression. Our findings identify long-range chromatin looping mediated by core trophoblast transcription factors as the mechanism controlling tissue-specific HLA-G expression at the maternal-fetal interface. More broadly, these results establish the combination of MPRA and CRISPR/Cas9 deletion as a powerful strategy to investigate human immune gene regulation.

  4. Preeclampsia: novel insights from global RNA profiling of trophoblast subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Matthew; Ona, Katherine; Kapidzic, Mirhan; Garrido-Gomez, Tamara; Zdravkovic, Tamara; Fisher, Susan J

    2017-08-01

    syncytiotrophoblast data highlighted the dysregulation of immune functions, morphogenesis, transport, and responses to vascular endothelial growth factor and progesterone. The invasive cytotrophoblast data provided evidence of alterations in cellular movement, which is consistent with the shallow invasion often associated with severe preeclampsia. Other dysregulated pathways included immune, lipid, oxygen, and transforming growth factor-beta responses. The data for endovascular cytotrophoblasts showed disordered metabolism, signaling, and vascular development. Additionally, the transcriptional data revealed the differential expression in severe preeclampsia of 2 classes of non-coding RNAs: long non-coding RNAs and small nucleolar RNAs. The long non-coding RNA, urothelial cancer associated 1, was the most highly up-regulated in this class. In situ hybridization confirmed severe preeclampsia-associated expression in syncytiotrophoblasts. The small nucleolar RNAs, which chemically modify RNA structure, also correlated with severe preeclampsia. Thus, we enumerated Cajal body foci, sites of small nucleolar RNA activity, in primary cytotrophoblasts that were isolated from control and severe preeclampsia placentas. In severe preeclampsia, cytotrophoblasts had approximately double the number of these foci as the control samples. A laser microdissection approach enabled the identification of novel messenger RNAs and non-coding RNAs that were misexpressed by various trophoblast subpopulations in severe preeclampsia. The results suggested new avenues of investigation, in particular, the roles of PRG2, Kell blood group determinants, and urothelial cancer associated 1 in syncytiotrophoblast diseases. Additionally, many of the newly identified dysregulated molecules might have clinical utility as biomarkers of severe preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Formalised consensus of the European Organisation for Treatment of Trophoblastic Diseases on management of gestational trophoblastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolze, Pierre-Adrien; Attia, Jocelyne; Massardier, Jérôme; Seckl, Michael J; Massuger, Leon; van Trommel, Nienke; Niemann, Isa; Hajri, Touria; Schott, Anne-Marie; Golfier, François

    2015-09-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a spectrum of cellular proliferations arising from trophoblast. Their invasive and metastatic potential sometimes requires chemotherapy and/or surgery. Current management is generally associated with favourable prognosis. Therefore, treatments must be chosen according to the desire for further childbearing of each patient. The European Organisation for Treatment of Trophoblastic Diseases (EOTTD) is dedicated to optimise diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and research in GTD by bringing together knowledge of clinicians and researchers from 29 countries working in the field of GTD in Europe. This study assessed the level of agreement among an expert panel of the EOTTD in order to rationalise the management of patients in Europe. The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to combine the best available scientific evidence with the collective judgment of experts to yield a statement regarding the appropriateness of performing a procedure at the level of patient-specific symptoms, medical history and test results. There was an agreement for 54 statements while the experts showed a disagreement for two statements. As there is little evidence from randomised trials on which to base recommendations about management of GTD, many of these recommendations are based on expert opinion derived from changes in management fact that have improved outcomes from nearly 100% fatality to nearly 100% cure rates. However, a large agreement among experts is invaluable to the individual clinician who is struggling to decide whether a fertility-sparing treatment of hydatidiform mole or a low-risk GTN can be chosen and how it must be conducted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional neuroanatomy of human declarative memory

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jeffrey Joseph

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and related structures in the diencephalon play a critical role in declarative memory, which is conscious knowledge about facts and events. A fundamental question is whether there are divisions of labor of declarative memory function within the MTL or diencephalon. In one view, specific declarative memory functions (e.g., recognition memory for items) depend on some regions of the MTL and diencephalon but are entirely independent of ot...

  7. Marijuana Effects on Human Forgetting Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D.; Cherek, Don R.; Lieving, Lori M.; Tcheremissine, Oleg V.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of…

  8. Effect of race/ethnicity on clinical presentation and risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia in patients with complete and partial molar pregnancy at a tertiary care referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockley, Allison A; Joseph, Naima T; Melamed, Alexander; Sun, Sue Yazaki; Goodwin, Benjamin; Bernstein, Marilyn; Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S; Horowitz, Neil S

    2016-09-01

    The reported incidence of molar pregnancy varies widely among different geographic locations. This variation has been attributed, at least in part, to racial/ethnic differences. While the incidence of molar pregnancies is decreasing, certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians continue to have an increased risk of developing gestational trophoblastic disease across the globe. We sought to describe the potential effect of ethnicity/race on the presentation and clinical course of complete mole and partial mole. All patients followed up for complete mole and partial mole at a single institution referral center from 1994 through 2013 were identified. Variables including age, race, gravidity, parity, gestational age, presenting signs/symptoms, serum human chorionic gonadotropin values, and development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia were extracted from medical records and patient surveys. Patients with complete mole and partial mole were categorized into race/ethnicity groups defined as white, black, Asian, or Hispanic. Due to low numbers of non-white patients with partial mole in each non-white category, patients with partial mole were grouped as white or non-white. Continuous variables were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and binary variables were compared using the Fisher exact test. A total of 167 complete mole patients with known race/ethnicity status were included (57.48% white, 14.97% Asian, 14.37% black, 13.17% Hispanic). Hispanics presented at younger age (median 24.5 years) compared to whites (median 32.0 years, P = .04) and Asians (median 31.0 years, P = .03). Blacks had higher gravidity than whites (P gestational age at diagnosis, and preevacuation serum human chorionic gonadotropin level by race/ethnicity. Hispanics were significantly less likely than whites to develop gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (absolute risk difference, 28.6%; 95% confidence interval, 8.1-39.2%; P = .02). A total of 144 patients with

  9. Color doppler US findings of gestational trophoblastic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hee; Lee, Myung Hee; Kim, Jee Young; Jung, Jae Keun; Shin, Kyung Sub [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    The purpose of this study were to evaluate the findings of gestational trophoblastic disease(GTD) at color Doppler imaging (CDI) and to assess the role of CDI in differentiating gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT) from hydatidiform mole (H-mole). CDI findings of 18 patients with H-mole and 52 patients with GTT were reviewed. Masswas detected in 43(82,7%) patients with GTT. Thirty seven out of 43 masses showed varying degree of intratumoral flows. mean resistive index (RI) of intratumoral flow was 0.39+0.15. H-mole manifestated as a characteristic vesicular mass in 6 patients without history of curretage, while there was no definable mass in 12 patients with history of curretage. The masses of H-mole did not show intratumoral flow. Hypervascularity of adnexae was detected in 44 (84.6%) patients with GTT, whereas only six (33.3%) patients with H-mole showed minimalhypervascularity of adnexae. Mean RI of uterine arteries was 0.69+0.13 in GTT and 0.70+0.15 in H-mole. CDI findings of mass in the uterus, hypervascularity of adnexal region and intramural vessels in patients suspected to have GTD clinically, may suggest GTT. In conclusion, CDI was helpful in the diagnosis of GTD and the differentiation between H-mole and GTT

  10. Possible risk for gestational trophoblastic neoplasm in perimenopause and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Branka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasms (GTN are group of diseases which are known as fertilization disorders and may appear as Complete hydatidiform mole, Mole partialis, Invasive mole, Placental site trophoblastic tumor, Choriocarcinoma. Malignant disease precedes in approxi mately 50% of patients. All cases of GTN must be registrated. The Followe up programme period may last 6 months to 2 years until three sequential beta hCG values are negative. The risk of repeated GTN is low but patient has to be informed that risk is 1 : 74. GTN can appear in perimenopausal or menopausal women. That is the reason why each rapid enlargement of uterus especially with uterine bleeding followed with multiple cystic formations (grape like cysts needs a serious examination on GTN. Patient can complain of nausea, vomiting, painful breasts or hiperthyoidism. Legal abortion can precede GTN in perimenopausal women. In the great number of women with GTN the last pregnancy was 5 or more than 5 years before GTN is diagnosed. During 5 year period from june 1999. till june 2004, 58 GTN cases were diagnosed on our Department. 7 women with confirmed GTN were in perimenopause or menopause. All cases were hystologicalu confirmed with clinical low clinical score. In 1999. (March-June unpowerishment Uranium was used during war in Former Yugoslavia. Potential effect on reproductive potential could be analyzed after collecting data from the whole territory of Serbia and Montenegro in next years. All GTN patients are clinically, laboratory and ultrasonographicaly examined and staged according to FIGO 2002. recommendations

  11. Ets-2 and C/EBP-beta are important mediators of ovine trophoblast Kunitz domain protein-1 gene expression in trophoblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarty Anindita

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trophoblast Kunitz domain proteins (TKDPs constitute a highly expressed, placenta-specific, multigene family restricted to ruminant ungulates and characterized by a C-terminal "Kunitz" domain, preceded by one or more unique N-terminal domains. TKDP-1 shares an almost identical expression pattern with interferon-tau, the "maternal recognition of pregnancy protein" in ruminants. Our goal here has been to determine whether the ovine (ov Tkdp-1 and IFNT genes possess a similar transcriptional code. Results The ovTkdp-1 promoter has been cloned and characterized. As with the IFNT promoter, the Tkdp-1 promoter is responsive to Ets-2, and promoter-driven reporter activity can be increased over 700-fold in response to over-expression of Ets-2 and a constitutively active form of protein Kinase A (PKA. Unexpectedly, the promoter element of Tkdp-1 responsible for this up-regulation, unlike that of the IFNT, does not bind Ets-2. However, mutation of a CCAAT/enhancer binding element within this control region not only reduced basal transcriptional activity, but prevented Ets-2 as well as cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP/PKA and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK responsiveness. In vitro binding experiments and in vivo protein-protein interaction assays implicated CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta (C/EBP-β as involved in up-regulating the Tkdp-1 promoter activity. A combination of Ets-2 and C/EBP-β can up-regulate expression of the minimal Tkdp-1 promoter as much as 930-fold in presence of a cAMP analog. An AP-1-like element adjacent to the CCAAT enhancer, which binds Jun family members, is required for basal and cAMP/ C/EBP-β-dependent activation of the gene, but not for Ets-2-dependent activity. Conclusion This paper demonstrates how Ets-2, a key transcription factor for trophoblast differentiation and function, can control expression of two genes (Tkdp-1 and IFNT having similar spatial and temporal expression

  12. Biodiversity and functional genomics in the human microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Xochitl C; Segata, Nicola; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Over the course of our lives, humans are colonized by a tremendous diversity of commensal microbes, which comprise the human microbiome. The collective genetic potential (metagenome) of the human microbiome is orders of magnitude more than the human genome, and it profoundly affects human health and disease in ways we are only beginning to understand. Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing have enabled population-level surveys such as MetaHIT and the recently released Human Microbiome Project, detailed investigations of the microbiome in human disease, and mechanistic studies employing gnotobiotic model organisms. The resulting knowledge of human microbiome composition, function, and range of variation across multiple body sites has begun to assemble a rich picture of commensal host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions as well as their roles in human health and disease and their potential as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Napping and Human Functioning during Prolonged Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-30

    alternative to napping is prolonged wakefulness. Polyphasic sleep , with frequent naps rather than a single sleep period per 24 hours, is natural for both the...very young and for the aged. It is not practiced by most adults, perhaps because of societal demands. Possibly a polyphasic sleep schedule could be...Functioning 1.2 Scope of this Chapter 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Partial Sleep Deprivation Studies 2.2 Nap Studies: Four Nap Factors Affecting Performance

  14. Dysregulated DNA Methyltransferase 3A Upregulates IGFBP5 to Suppress Trophoblast Cell Migration and Invasion in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuanhui; Li, Ting; Huang, Xiaojie; Xu, Xianghong; Zhou, Xinyao; Jia, Linyan; Zhu, Jingping; Xie, Dandan; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Qian; Jin, Liping; Zhang, Jiqin; Duan, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a unique multiple system disorder during human pregnancy, which affects ≈5% to 8% of pregnancies. Its risks and complications have become the major causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although abnormal placentation to which DNA methylation dysregulation is always linked is speculated to be one of the reasons causing preeclampsia, the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive to date. Here we revealed that aberrant DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) plays a critical role in preeclampsia. Our results show that the expression and localization of DNMT3A are dysregulated in preeclamptic placenta. Moreover, knockdown of DNMT3A obviously inhibits trophoblast cell migration and invasion. Mechanistically, IGFBP5 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5), known as a suppressor, is upregulated by decreased DNMT3A because of promoter hypomethylation. Importantly, IGFBP5 downregulation can rescue the defects caused by DNMT3A knockdown, thereby, consolidating the significance of IGFBP5 in the downstream of DNMT3A in trophoblast. Furthermore, we detected low promoter methylation and high protein expression of IGFBP5 in the clinical samples of preeclamptic placenta. Collectively, our study suggests that dysregulation of DNMT3A and IGFBP5 is relevant to preeclampsia. Thus, we propose that DNMT3A and IGFBP5 can serve as potential markers and targets for the clinical diagnosis and therapy of preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. HLA-G in human early pregnancy: Control of uterine immune cell activation and likely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Le Bouteiller

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a number of controversies, the functional importance of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G in early human pregnancy is now sustained by a large amount of sound data. Membrane-bound and soluble HLA-G isoforms, either as β2-microglobulin-free or -associated as monomers or dimers, are expressed by different trophoblast subpopulations, the only fetal-derived cells that are directly in contact with maternal cells (maternal-fetal interfaces. Trophoblast HLA-G is the specific ligand of multiple cellular receptors present in maternal immune and non-immune cells, including CD8, leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LILR B1, LILRB2, killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR 2DL4, and po