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Sample records for human teeth pulp

  1. Characterization of Coronal Pulp Cells and Radicular Pulp Cells in Human Teeth.

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    Honda, Masaki; Sato, Momoko; Toriumi, Taku

    2017-09-01

    Dental pulp has garnered much attention as an easily accessible postnatal tissue source of high-quality mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in permanent third molars, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth and from supernumerary teeth (mesiodentes) have been identified as a population distinct from DPSCs. Dental pulp is divided into 2 parts based on the developing stage: the coronal pulp and the radicular pulp. Root formation begins after the crown part is completed. We performed a sequential study to examine the differences between the characteristics of coronal pulp cells (CPCs) and radicular pulp cells (RPCs) from permanent teeth, mesiodentes, and deciduous teeth. Interestingly, although we have not obtained any data on the difference between CPCs and RPCs in permanent teeth, there are some differences between the characteristics of CPCs and RPCs from mesiodentes and deciduous teeth. The MSC characteristics differed between the RPCs and CPCs, and the reprogramming efficiency for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells was greater in RPCs than in CPCs from deciduous teeth. The proportion of CD105 + cells in CPCs versus that in RPCs varied in mesiodentes but not in permanent teeth. The results indicate that the proportion of CD105 + cells is an effective means of characterizing dental pulp cells in mesiodentes. Taken together, the stem cells in deciduous and supernumerary teeth share many characteristics, such as a high proliferation rate and an immunophenotype similar to that of DPSCs. Thus, mesiodentes accidentally encountered on radiographs by the general dental practitioner might be useful for stem cell therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Deciduous Teeth Pulp

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    Aileen I. Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify predictors of success rate of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC isolation from human deciduous teeth pulp. A total of 161 deciduous teeth were extracted at the dental clinic of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The MSCs were isolated from dental pulps using a standard protocol. In total, 128 colonies of MSCs were obtained and the success rate was 79.5%. Compared to teeth not yielding MSCs successfully, those successfully yielding MSCs were found to have less severe dental caries (no/mild-to-moderate/severe: 63.3/24.2/12.5% versus 12.5/42.4/42.4%, P<0.001 and less frequent pulpitis (no/yes: 95.3/4.7% versus 51.5/48.5%, P<0.001. In a multivariate regression model, it was confirmed that the absence of dental caries (OR = 4.741, 95% CI = 1.564–14.371, P=0.006 and pulpitis (OR = 9.111, 95% CI = 2.921–28.420, P<0.001 was significant determinants of the successful procurement of MSCs. MSCs derived from pulps with pulpitis expressed longer colony doubling time than pulps without pulpitis. Furthermore, there were higher expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin- (IL- 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP- 1, P<0.01, and innate immune response [toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1 and TLR8, P<0.05; TLR2, TLR3, and TLR6, P<0.01] in the inflamed than noninflamed pulps. Therefore, a carious deciduous tooth or tooth with pulpitis was relatively unsuitable for MSC processing and isolation.

  3. Characteristics of dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth based on immunohistochemical and morphometric examinations.

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    Tomaszewska, Joanna Maria; Miskowiak, Bogdan; Matthews-Brzozowska, Teresa; Wierzbicki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons are commonly considered as healthy. Therefore, it is possible to examine structure of the dental pulp can be fully recognized and how it is affected by malocclusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and morphometry dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. The material comprised 36 teeth of 20 patients in the age range 16-26 years. By the use of IHC markers the presence of immunocompetent cells (CD20, CD45RO, and CD68), blood vessels (CD31) and nerves (PGP9.5) were examined in the pulp. Inflammatory infiltrates and tissue atrophy were observed in 24 and 10 teeth, respectively. Strong positive correlation between the width of the odontoblastic layer, the number of rows of odontoblast nuclei and the increase of MVA (microvessel area) in the pulp of atrophic teeth was found. The cellular infiltrations found in H&E-stained sections were identified by IHC as memory T cells (CD45RO+) and B lymphocytes (CD20+) with macrophages (CD68+) present at the periphery. The CD20 antigen was intensively expressed in 13 teeth, CD45RO in 33 teeth, and CD68 in 20 teeth. Thus, despite the lack of any clinical signs of pulp disease many teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons show focal pulp inflammation and atrophy which probably results from the malocclusion stress accompanying teeth crowding.

  4. Distinctive genetic activity pattern of the human dental pulp between deciduous and permanent teeth.

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    Ji-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Human deciduous and permanent teeth exhibit different developmental processes, morphologies, histological characteristics and life cycles. In addition, their pulp tissues react differently to external stimuli, such as the pulp sensitivity test, dental trauma and pulp therapy materials. These suggest differences in gene expression and regulation, and in this study we compared gene-expression profiles of the human dental pulp from deciduous and permanent teeth. Pulp tissues from permanent premolars and deciduous molars aged 11-14 years were extirpated and mRNA was isolated for cDNA microarray analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Other teeth were used for immunohistochemical analysis (IHC. Microarray analysis identified 263 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression level between the two types of pulp tissue, 43 and 220 of which were more abundant in deciduous and permanent pulp tissues, respectively. qPCR analysis was conducted for eight randomly selected genes, and the findings were consistent with the cDNA microarray results. IHC confirmed that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1 was broadly expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue, but minimally expressed in permanent dental pulp tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that calbindin 1 (CALB1, leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5, and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta 1 (GABRB1 were abundantly expressed in permanent predentin/odontoblasts, but only minimally expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue. These results show that deciduous and permanent pulp tissues have different characteristics and gene expression, suggesting that they may have different functions and responses to therapies focused on pulp or dentin regeneration.

  5. Distinctive genetic activity pattern of the human dental pulp between deciduous and permanent teeth.

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    Kim, Ji-Hee; Jeon, Mijeong; Song, Je-Seon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Choi, Byung-Jai; Jung, Han-Sung; Moon, Seok Jun; DenBesten, Pamela K; Kim, Seong-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Human deciduous and permanent teeth exhibit different developmental processes, morphologies, histological characteristics and life cycles. In addition, their pulp tissues react differently to external stimuli, such as the pulp sensitivity test, dental trauma and pulp therapy materials. These suggest differences in gene expression and regulation, and in this study we compared gene-expression profiles of the human dental pulp from deciduous and permanent teeth. Pulp tissues from permanent premolars and deciduous molars aged 11-14 years were extirpated and mRNA was isolated for cDNA microarray analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Other teeth were used for immunohistochemical analysis (IHC). Microarray analysis identified 263 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression level between the two types of pulp tissue, 43 and 220 of which were more abundant in deciduous and permanent pulp tissues, respectively. qPCR analysis was conducted for eight randomly selected genes, and the findings were consistent with the cDNA microarray results. IHC confirmed that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) was broadly expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue, but minimally expressed in permanent dental pulp tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that calbindin 1 (CALB1), leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta 1 (GABRB1) were abundantly expressed in permanent predentin/odontoblasts, but only minimally expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue. These results show that deciduous and permanent pulp tissues have different characteristics and gene expression, suggesting that they may have different functions and responses to therapies focused on pulp or dentin regeneration.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Cryopreserved Pulp Tissues Obtained from Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis.

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    Malekfar, Azin; Valli, Kusum S; Kanafi, Mohammad Mahboob; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are becoming an attractive target for therapeutic purposes because of their neural crest origin and propensity. Although DPSCs can be successfully cryopreserved, there are hardly any reports on cryopreservation of dental pulp tissues obtained from teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis during endodontic treatment and isolation and characterization of DPSCs from such cryopreserved pulp. The aim of this study was to cryopreserve the said pulp tissues to propagate and characterize isolated DPSCs. A medium consisting of 90% fetal bovine serum and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide was used for cryopreservation of pulp tissues. DPSCs were isolated from fresh and cryopreserved pulp tissues using an enzymatic method. Cell viability and proliferation were determined using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. DPSC migration and interaction were analyzed with the wound healing assay. Mesenchymal characteristics of DPSCs were verified by flow cytometric analysis of cell surface CD markers. The osteogenic and adipogenic potential of DPSCs was shown by von Kossa and oil red O staining methods, respectively, and the polymerase chain reaction method. We found no significant difference in CD marker expression and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of DPSCs obtained from fresh and cryopreserved dental pulp tissue. Our study shows that dental pulp can be successfully cryopreserved without losing normal characteristics and differentiation potential of their DPSCs, thus making them suitable for dental banking and future therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Histopathologic Study on Pulp Response to Glass Ionomer Cements in Human Teeth

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    M. Ghavamnasiri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Despite the wide range of new dental materials, there is still a need for biomaterials demonstrating high biocompatibility, antimicrobial effects and ideal mechanical properties.Purpose: The aim of this study was to histologically evaluate the pulpal response to a conventional glass ionomer, a resin modified glass ionomer and a calcium hydroxide in human teeth.Materials and Methods: Fifty five deep class V cavities were prepared in premolars of 31 patients and were divided into 3 groups based on application of the following liners:resin modified glass ionomer (Vivaglass Liner, conventional glass ionomer (ChembondSuperior and calcium hydroxide (Dycal. After applying varnish, teeth were filled with amalgam. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to time intervals of 7, 30 and 60 days. Teeth were then extracted and their crowns were fixed in formalin. Each sample was assessed microscopically for odontoblastic changes,inflammatory cell infiltration, reactionary dentin formation, remaining dentinal thickness and presence of microorganisms. Statistical analysis including Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney was carried out for comparison of mean ranks. (P=0.05.Results: In the Vivaglass Liner group, pulpal response was significantly higher on day 7 as compared to days 30 and 60 (P0.05. There was no correlation between pulpal responses with micro-organisms and remaining dentin thickness (P>0.05.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, light-cured glass ionomer as well as the other tested lining materials were determined to be biologically compatible with vital pulps in deep cavities of sound human teeth.

  8. Pulp nerve fibers distribution of human carious teeth: An immunohistochemical study

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    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human dental pulp is richly innervated by trigeminal afferent axons that subserve nociceptive function. Accordingly, they respond to stimuli that induce injury to the pulp tissue. An injury to the nerve terminals and other tissue components in the pulp stimulate metabolic activation of the neurons in the trigeminal ganglion which result in morphological changes in the peripheral nerve terminals. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe caries-related changes in the distribution of human pulpal nerve. Methods: Under informed consents, 15 third molars with caries at various stages of decay and 5 intact third molars were extracted because of orthodontic or therapeutic reasons. All samples were observed by micro-computed tomography to confirm the lesion condition 3-dimensionally, before decalcifying with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4. The specimens were then processed for immunohistochemistry using anti-protein gene products (PGP 9.5, a specific marker for the nerve fiber. Results: In normal intact teeth, PGP 9.5 immunoreactive nerve fibers were seen concentrated beneath the odontoblast cell layer. Nerve fibers exhibited an increased density along the pulp-dentin border corresponding to the carious lesions. Conclusion: Neural density increases throughout the pulp chamber with the progression of caries. The activity and pathogenicity of the lesion as well as caries depth, might influence the degree of neural sprouting.Latar belakang: Pulpa gigi manusia diinervasi oleh serabut saraf trigeminal yang berespon terhadap stimuli penyebab perlukaan dengan menimbulkan rasa sakit. Perlukaan pada akhiran saraf dan komponen lain dari pulpa akan menstimulasi aktivasi metabolik dari neuron pada ganglion trigeminal sehingga mengakibatkan perubahan morfologi pada akhiran saraf perifer. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengamati perubahan distribusi saraf pada pulpa gigi manusia yang disebabkan oleh proses karies. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan

  9. Penetration of 38% hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber in bovine and human teeth submitted to office bleach technique.

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    Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; Gasparoto Mancini, Maria Nadir; Menezes, Marcia Maciel

    2007-09-01

    This study evaluated the pulp chamber penetration of peroxide bleaching agent in human and bovine teeth after office bleach technique. All the teeth were sectioned 3 mm apical of the cement-enamel junction and were divided into 2 groups, A (70 third human molars) and B (70 bovine lateral incisors), that were subdivided into A1 and B1 restored by using composite resin, A2 and B2 by using glass ionomer cement, and A3 and B3 by using resin-modified glass ionomer cement; A4, A5, B4, and B5 were not restored. Acetate buffer was placed in the pulp chamber, and the bleaching agent was applied for 40 minutes as follows: A1-A4 and B1-B4, 38% hydrogen peroxide exposure and A5 and B5, immersion into distilled water. The buffer solution was transferred to a glass tube in which leuco crystal violet and horseradish peroxidase were added, producing a blue solution. The optical density of the blue solution was determined by spectrophotometer and converted into microgram equivalents of hydrogen peroxide. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Dunnett, Kruskal-Wallis, and Tukey tests (5%). A higher level of hydrogen peroxide penetrated into the pulp chamber in resin-modified glass ionomer cements in bovine (0.79 +/- 0.61 microg) and human (2.27 +/- 0.41 microg) groups. The bleaching agent penetration into the pulp chamber was higher in human teeth for any experimental situation. The penetration of the hydrogen peroxide depends on restorative materials, and under the conditions of this study human teeth are more susceptible to penetration of bleaching agent into the pulp chamber than bovine teeth.

  10. Human dental pulp stem cells derived from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease demonstrate hepatic-like differentiation.

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    Chen, Y K; Huang, Anderson H C; Chan, Anthony W S; Lin, L M

    2016-06-01

    Reviewing the literature, hepatic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease has not been studied. This study is aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that hDPSCs from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease could possess potential hepatic differentiation. Forty vital extracted teeth with disease recruited for hDPSCs isolation, stem cell characterization and hepatic differentiation were randomly and equally divided into group A (liquid nitrogen-stored dental pulp tissues) and group B (freshly derived dental pulp tissues). Samples of hDPSCs isolated from groups A and B but without hepatic growth factors formed negative controls. A well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cell line was employed as a positive control. All the isolated hDPSCs from groups A and B showed hepatic-like differentiation with morphological change from a spindle-shaped to a polygonal shape and normal karyotype. Differentiated hDPSCs and the positive control expressed hepatic metabolic function genes and liver-specific genes. Glycogen storage of differentiated hDPSCs was noted from day 7 of differentiation-medium culture. Positive immunofluorescence staining of low-density lipoprotein and albumin was observed from day 14 of differentiation-medium culture; urea production in the medium was noted from week 6. No hepatic differentiation was observed for any of the samples of the negative controls. We not only demonstrated the feasibility of hepatic-like differentiation of hDPSCs from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease but also indicated that the differentiated cells possessed normal karyotype and were functionally close to normal hepatic-like cells. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Ectopic Hard Tissue Formation by Odonto/Osteogenically In Vitro Differentiated Human Deciduous Teeth Pulp Stem Cells.

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    Kim, Seunghye; Song, Je Seon; Jeon, Mijeong; Shin, Dong Min; Kim, Seong-Oh; Lee, Jae Ho

    2015-07-01

    There have been many attempts to use the pulp tissue from human deciduous teeth for dentin or bone regeneration. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of odonto/osteogenic in vitro differentiation of deciduous teeth pulp stem cells (DTSCs) on their in vivo hard tissue-forming potential. DTSCs were isolated from extracted deciduous teeth using the outgrowth method. These cells were exposed to odonto/osteogenic stimuli for 4 and 8 days (Day 4 and Day 8 groups, respectively), while cells in the control group were cultured in normal medium. The in vitro differentiated DTSCs and the control DTSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice with macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate and sacrificed at 8 weeks post-implantation. The effect of odonto/osteogenic in vitro differentiation was evaluated using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The in vivo effect was evaluated by qualitative RT-PCR, assessment of ALP activity, histologic analysis, and immunohistochemical staining. The amount of hard tissue was greater in Day 4 group than Day 8 group (p = 0.014). However, Day 8 group generated lamellar bone-like structure, which was immunonegative to anti-human dentin sialoprotein with significantly low expression level of DSPP compared with the control group (p = 0.008). This study demonstrates that odonto/osteogenic in vitro differentiation of DTSCs enhances the formation of bone-like tissue, instead of dentin-like tissue, when transplanted subcutaneously using MBCP as a carrier. The odonto/osteogenic in vitro differentiation of DTSCs may be an effective modification that enhances in vivo bone formation by DTSCs.

  12. Comparative characterization of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, dental pulp, and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Kunimatsu, Ryo; Nakajima, Kengo; Awada, Tetsuya; Tsuka, Yuji; Abe, Takaharu; Ando, Kazuyo; Hiraki, Tomoka; Kimura, Aya; Tanimoto, Kotaro

    2018-06-18

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used clinically in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of MSCs vary according to factors such as tissue source and cell population heterogeneity. Dental tissue has received attention as an easily accessible source of high-quality stem cells. In this study, we compared the in vitro characteristics of dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth (SHED), human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). SEHD and hDPSCs were isolated from dental pulp and analyzed in comparison with human bone marrow (hBM)MSCs. Proliferative capacity of cultured cells was analyzed using a bromodeoxyuridine immunoassay and cell counting. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were monitored to assess osteogenic differentiation. Mineralization was evaluated by alizarin red staining. Levels of bone marker mRNA were examined by real-time PCR analysis. SHED were highly proliferative compared with hDPSCs and hBMSCs. SHED, hDPSCs, and hBMSCs exhibited dark alizarin red staining on day 21 after induction of osteogenic differentiation, and staining of hBMSCs was significantly higher than that of SHED and hDPSCs by spectrophotometry. ALP staining was stronger in hBMSCs compared with SHED and hDPSCs, and ALP activity was significantly higher in hBMSCs compared with SHED or hDPSCs. SHED showed significantly higher expression of the Runx2 and ALP genes compared with hBMSCs, based on real-time PCR analysis. In bFGF, SHED showed significantly higher expression of the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) gene compared with hDPSCs and hBMSCs. SHED exhibited higher proliferative activity and levels of bFGF and BMP-2 gene expression compared with BMMSCs and DPSCs. The ease of harvesting cells and ability to avoid invasive surgical procedures suggest that SHED may be a useful cell source for application in bone regeneration treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc

  13. Interappointment emergencies in teeth with necrotic pulps.

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    Alaçam, Tayfun; Tinaz, Ali Cemal

    2002-05-01

    The incidence of interappointment emergencies in symptomatic and asymptomatic teeth with necrotic pulps was evaluated, and severity of flare-ups was determined by a quantitative method using a flare-up index. There were no significant differences in the incidence of flare-ups attributable to gender, age, diameter of lesion, taking analgesics, placebos, or no medication, or preoperative symptomatic or asymptomatic tooth diagnoses (p > 0.05). There were significantly more painful flare-ups in mandibular teeth than in maxillary (p < 0.05).

  14. Pulp tissue from primary teeth: new source of stem cells

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    Paloma Dias Telles

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth represent a population of postnatal stem cells capable of extensive proliferation and multipotential differentiation. Primary teeth may be an ideal source of postnatal stem cells to regenerate tooth structures and bone, and possibly to treat neural tissue injury or degenerative diseases. SHED are highly proliferative cells derived from an accessible tissue source, and therefore hold potential for providing enough cells for clinical applications. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about dental pulp stem cells and discuss tissue engineering approaches that use SHED to replace irreversibly inflamed or necrotic pulps with a healthy and functionally competent tissue that is capable of forming new dentin.

  15. Expression and localization of special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2 in murine molar development and the pulp-dentin complex of human healthy teeth and teeth with pulpitis

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    He, Lina; Liu, Huimei; Shi, Lei; Pan, Shuang; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Lin; Niu, Yumei

    2017-01-01

    Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a member of the special family of AT-rich binding transcription factors and has a critical role in osteoblast differentiation and craniofacial patterning. However, the expression and distribution of SATB2 in tooth development is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression and distribution of SATB2 during murine molar development and, in human healthy teeth and teeth with pulpitis using immunohistochemistry. Molars were obtained from Kunming mice at embryonic day (E) 13.5, E14.5, E16.5 and E18.5, and postnatal day (P) 1, P5 and P7. In addition, 20 human teeth (10 healthy and 10 teeth with pulpitis) were obtained from young adult patients (age, 24.90±1.65 years) who were scheduled for routine extraction. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to detect the expression and distribution of SATB2. The present results revealed that SATB2 exhibits a spatiotemporal expression pattern in murine molar development and was expressed in odontoblasts, predentin, dental pulp cells and the blood vessels in human teeth. These findings suggested that SATB2 may have an important role in odontoblast differentiation and dentin matrix mineralization during tooth development. PMID:29042940

  16. ELECTRIC PULP TEST OF TEETH WITH PERIODONTAL DISEASE.

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    Tsonko Uzunov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research is to investigate the change in pulp vitality of teeth with periodontal disease using electric pulp tester (EPT. Methods: Subjected to observation were 108 patients with chronic periodontitis. Vitality of 805 teeth with periodontal pocket depth greater than 4 mm was studied by EPT. The research was conducted with EPT "Yonovit ". Results: The highest percentage of surveyed teeth (68.4% respond to the norm when they are tested with EPT – values between 3 μA and 10 μA . Teeth that respond to EPT with values ​​below 3 μA and between 35-100 μA are relatively equal - respectively 4.3% and 3.3%. With increased threshold of irritation – 10-35 μA react 23.4% of teeth. Small number of teeth have threshold of irritation over 100 μA - 0.6%. Conclusion: The value of EPT among periodontal damaged teeth depends on many factors - patient's age, extent of periodontal affect, group affiliation of teeth, etc.

  17. Discrimination between intact and decayed pulp regions in carious teeth by ADC mapping.

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    Cankar, Ksenija; Nemeth, Lidija; Bajd, Franci; Vidmar, Jernej; Serša, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping, in the functional assessment of carious teeth. 38 extracted human teeth with scores of 0, 3 and 6 according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria were screened and subsequently analyzed by MRI at 2.35 T. Histology sectioning of teeth was used for the gold standard by analyzing two extreme cases (intact and severely decayed). ADC maps of the same teeth were calculated from corresponding diffusion-weighted images and used to obtain ADC distributions along dental pulp as functions of the relative pulp length measured from the occlusal pulp side. The measured distributions were analyzed for the best fit by a four-parameter three-segment linear regression model for ADC distribution along the pulp. MRI results were in good agreement with findings in histological sections of identical teeth. The best fit model parameters, relative decayed region depth, relative transition region width and ADC values of intact and decayed pulp tissue, showed statistically significant differences between the ADC values of intact and decayed pulp tissue (1.0 × 10(-9) m(2)/s vs. 0.74-0.89 × 10(-9) m(2)/s) and the relative decayed region depth progressing with ICDAS score (3 vs. 46% with ICDAS 3 vs. ICDAS 6). The results of this feasibility study confirmed relevance of ADC mapping for the discrimination and localization of intact and decayed regions in dental pulps of carious teeth. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Histological Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Pulp Treatment of Permanent Teeth.

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    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the histo pathology effects of two medicaments Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the remaining pulp tissue of the permanent teething children. A total of 18 premolars were included in this study. Two sound premolars were extracted and subjected to histological examination to show the normal pulp tissue. Pulpo tomy procedure was performed in the rest of the remaining 16 premolars; half of them using Allium sativum oil and the rest of the tested premolars were medicated using formocresol and all were sealed with suitable restoration. Then, premolars extracted at variable intervals (48 hours, 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months), stained using hemotoxylin and eosin etain (H&E) and prepared for histopathology examination. Histological evaluation seemed far more promising for Allium sativum oil than formocresol. Histological evaluation revealed that teeth treated with Allium sativa oil showed infammatory changes that had been resolved in the end of the study. On the contrary, the severe chronic infammation of pulp tissue accompanied with formocresol eventually produced pulp necrosis with or without fibrosis. In addition, pulp calcification was evidenced in certain cases. Allium sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning.

  19. Dental Pulp Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Teeth with Immature Apices.

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    El Ashiry, Eman A; Farsi, Najat M; Abuzeid, Sawsan T; El Ashiry, Mohamed M; Bahammam, Hammam A

    The treatment of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis presents challenges in endodontic and pediatric dentistry. Revascularization is a recent treatment for such cases as an alternative to conventional apexification. The purpose is to examine the effect of a pulpal revascularization procedure on immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis. Twenty patients were enrolled for pulp revascularization procedure by root canal disinfection using a triple antibiotic mixture for 1-2 weeks, followed by creating a blood clot, sealing the root canal orifice using white mineral trioxide aggregate and a coronal seal of composite resin. Patients were recalled periodically for up to 24 months. During follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic. Three cases of chronic apical periodontitis showed clinical disappearance of the sinus tract 2 weeks after treatment. Radiography revealed progressive periapical radiolucency resolution within the first 12 months. Within 12-24 months, the treated teeth showed progressive increases in dentinal wall thickness, root length and continued root development. Clinical and radiographic evidence showed successful revascularization treatments of immature necrotic permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. More studies are necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms and to perform histopathology of the pulp space contents after revascularization procedures.

  20. Proteomic analysis of human tooth pulp: proteomics of human tooth.

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    Eckhardt, Adam; Jágr, Michal; Pataridis, Statis; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    The unique pulp-dentin complex demonstrates strong regenerative potential, which enables it to respond to disease and traumatic injury. Identifying the proteins of the pulp-dentin complex is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of regeneration, tissue calcification, defense processes, and the reparation of dentin by dental pulp. The lack of knowledge of these proteins limits the development of more efficient therapies. The proteomic profile of human tooth pulp was investigated and compared with the proteome of human dentin and blood. The samples of tooth pulp were obtained from 5 sound permanent human third molars of 5 adults (n = 5). The extracted proteins were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and identified by correlating mass spectra to the proteomic databases. A total of 342 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 2 proteins were detected for the first time in an actual human sample. The identified tooth pulp proteins have a variety of functions: structural, catalytic, transporter, protease activity, immune response, and many others. In a comparison with dentin and blood plasma, 140 (pulp/dentin) shared proteins were identified, 37 of which were not observed in plasma. It can be suggested that they might participate in the unique pulp-dentin complex. This proteomic investigation of human tooth pulp, together with the previously published study of human dentin, is one of the most comprehensive proteome lists of human teeth to date. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Histological evaluation of the pulp in teeth from dogs with naturally occurring periodontal disease.

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    Nemec, Ana; Pavlica, Zlatko; Stiblar-Martincic, Draga; Petelin, Milan; Erzen, Damjan; Crossley, David

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the pulp of dog teeth affected by advanced periodontal disease. Histological examination was done on demineralized teeth extracted during clinical treatment of mature, client owned small and medium-size breed dogs with either good periodontal health or with advanced naturally occurring periodontal disease. Routinely stained sections from 5 clinically normal teeth and 22 teeth with advanced periodontitis from dogs between 5 and 12-years of age were examined using light microscopy. The pulp cavities of most teeth were narrow with low cellularity and some fibrosis of the pulp. Findings specific to periodontally affected teeth included acute and chronic pulpitis, vascular congestion, and pulp necrosis. A glomus body was identified in the pulp of one tooth and areas of poorly mineralized cementum were seen in both normal and diseased teeth. Age related changes in dog teeth appear similar to those reported for man and the rat. In addition to age related changes, the pulp of dog teeth with advanced periodontal disease were frequently inflamed or necrotic. This may reflect the advanced periodontitis affecting these teeth or a mechanical effect related to excessive tooth mobility. Further study is required to determine the etiology and significance of these findings and to investigate pulp status in less severely diseased teeth.

  2. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis Expression in Dental Pulp Cells Derived From Carious Teeth

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    Hanaa Esa Alkharobi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor (IGF axis plays an important role in dental tissue regeneration and most components of this axis are expressed in human dental pulp cells (DPCs. In our previous study, we analyzed IGF axis gene expression in DPCs and demonstrated a novel role of IGF binding protein (IGFBP-2 and -3 in coordinating mineralized matrix formation in differentiating DPCs. A more recent study from our laboratory partially characterized dental pulp stem cells from teeth with superficial caries (cDPCs and showed that their potential to differentiate odontoblasts and/or into osteoblasts is enhanced by exposure to the mild inflammatory conditions characteristic of superficial caries. In the present study, we examine whether changes apparent in IGF axis expression during osteogenic differentiation of healthy DPCs are also apparent in DPCs derived from carious affected teeth.

  3. Bacterial profile in primary teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Faria, Gisele; de Souza-Gugelmin, Maria Cristina Monteiro; Ito, Izabel Yoko

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bacterial profile in root canals of human primary teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical lesions using bacterial culture. A total of 20 primary teeth with necrotic pulp and radiographically visible radiolucent areas in the region of the bone furcation and/or the periapical region were selected. After crown access, 4 sterile absorbent paper points were introduced sequentially into the root canal for collection of material. After 30 s, the paper points were removed and placed in a test tube containing reduced transport fluid (RTF) and were sent for microbiological evaluation. Anaerobic microorganisms were found in 100% of the samples, black-pigmented bacilli in 30%, aerobic microorganisms in 60%, streptococci in 85%, gram-negative aerobic rods in 15% and staphylococci were not quantified. Mutans streptococci were found in 6 root canals (30%), 5 canals with Streptococcus mutans and 1 canal with Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. It was concluded that in root canals of human primary teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical lesions, the infection is polymicrobial with predominance of anaerobic microorganisms.

  4. Assessment of oxygen saturation in dental pulp of permanent teeth with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Larissa Bergesch; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Bruno, Kely Firmino; de Alencar, Ana Helena Gonçalves; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    In individuals with periodontal disease, dental pulp status should be determined before a treatment plan is made. Pulse oximeters are promising diagnostic tools to evaluate pulp vascularization. This study used pulse oximetry to determine the level of oxygen saturation in dental pulp of intact permanent teeth with periodontal attachment loss (PAL) and gingival recession (GR) and to evaluate the correlation between periodontal disease and level of oxygen saturation in the pulp. This study included 67 anterior teeth of 35 patients; all teeth showed intact crowns, PAL, a periodontal pocket (PP), and GR. The teeth underwent periodontal examination, cold and electric pulp testing, and pulse oximetry measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient and a linear regression coefficient were calculated to evaluate the degree of correlation between periodontal disease markers (PAL, PP, and GR) and the level of oxygen saturation in dental pulp. These tests also evaluated possible associations between oxygen saturation and cold and electric pulp testing. PAL, PP, and GR had negative correlations with oxygen saturation in dental pulp. Conversely, no statistically significant association was found between oxygen saturation in dental pulp and the response to electric sensibility testing. Oxygen saturation was lower in the pulp of permanent teeth with PAL, PP, and GR, indicating that periodontal disease correlates with the level of oxygen saturation in the pulp. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a common public health problem, causing early loss of dental pulp and resultant tooth loss. Dental pulp has important functions to sustain teeth providing nutrient and oxygen supply, innervation, reactionary/reparative dentin formation and immune response. Regeneration of pulp is an unmet need in endodontic therapy, and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and neurogenesis are critical for pulp regeneration. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. In this review, we introduce some stem cell subfractions, CD31(-)/CD146(-) SP cells and CD105(+) cells with high angiogenic and neurogenic potential, derived from human adult dental pulp tissue. Potential utility of these cells is addressed as a source of cells for treatment of cerebral and limb ischemia and pulp inflammation complete with angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  6. Outcomes of Different Vital Pulp Therapy Techniques on Symptomatic Permanent Teeth: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta; Sabbagh, Sedigheh; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In modern endodontics, vital pulp therapy (VPT) has been considered an ultra-conservative treatment modality. Based on the level of pulp preservation, VPT includes stepwise excavation, indirect pulp capping (IDPC), direct pulp capping (DPC), miniature pulpotomy (MP), partial/Cvek pulpotomy and coronal/complete pulpotomy (CP). The present article reviews the treatment outcomes of 94 permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis treated with either IDPC (n=28), DPC (n=28), MP (n=29) or CP (n=9) us...

  7. Proliferation and mineralization ability of dental pulp cells derived from primary and permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttatip Kamolmatyakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the proliferation and mineralization ability of CFU-F selected dental pulp cellsderived from primary and permanent teeth. Those cells were isolated by enzyme digestion and analyzed for their colonyformingcapacity. The cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay on day 1, day 7, and day14. Alizarin Red S stainingwas used to detect mineralized nodule formation of the cells on day 7, 14, 21, and 28. Proliferation of CFU-F selected pulpcells from primary teeth was significantly higher than that of CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanent teeth in all periods ofthe experiment. Upon cultured cells in mineralization inducing media, the mineralized nodules appeared as early as day 14 inCFU-F selected pulp cells from primary teeth and MG-63, whereas those of CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanent teethcan be found at day 21. On day 21 and day 28, the mineralized nodules of the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the primaryteeth group were more than those in the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanent teeth group. Mineralized noduleformation in the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanent teeth group appeared later and were less than those ofCFU-F selected pulp cells from primary teeth. However, mineralized nodules in CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanentteeth group increased very fast after their appearance. Those results suggest that CFU-F selected pulp cells from primaryteeth had a higher proliferation rate and mineralization rate when compared to CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanentteeth.

  8. Comparison of Calcium Hydroxide and Bioactive Glass after Direct Pulp Capping in Primary Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Haghgoo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bioactive glass is often used as a filler material for repair of dental bone defects.In different studies osteogenic potential of this material was proved, but its dentinogenesisproperty is in doubt. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histological pulp responses of Calcium hydroxide and Bioactive glass placed directly on exposed pulp tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth to be extracted due to orthodontic reasons were selected. These teeth were divided into two groups and treated with direct pulp capping.Calcium hydroxide was used for 10 teeth and Bioactive glass for 10 teeth. After 60 daysthe teeth were extracted and prepared for histological evaluation. Finally the data was analyzed with exact Fisher test.Results: All teeth treated with Calcium hydroxide showed inflammation. Internal resorption was seen in six teeth, abscess in five teeth and dentinal bridge in two teeth. Inflammationwas seen in three Bioactive glass samples and dentinal bridge in seven teeth, but internal resorption and abscess were not seen.Conclusion: Bioactive glass appears to be superior to Calcium hydroxide as a pulp capping agent in primary teeth.

  9. Early transplantation of human immature dental pulp stem cells from baby teeth to golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD dogs: Local or systemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brolio Marina P

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD dogs represent the best available animal model for therapeutic trials aiming at the future treatment of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. We have obtained a rare litter of six GRMD dogs (3 males and 3 females born from an affected male and a carrier female which were submitted to a therapeutic trial with adult human stem cells to investigate their capacity to engraft into dogs muscles by local as compared to systemic injection without any immunosuppression. Methods Human Immature Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hIDPSC were transplanted into 4 littermate dogs aged 28 to 40 days by either arterial or muscular injections. Two non-injected dogs were kept as controls. Clinical translation effects were analyzed since immune reactions by blood exams and physical scores capacity of each dog. Samples from biopsies were checked by immunohistochemistry (dystrophin markers and FISH for human probes. Results and Discussion We analyzed the cells' ability in respect to migrate, engraftment, and myogenic potential, and the expression of human dystrophin in affected muscles. Additionally, the efficiency of single and consecutive early transplantation was compared. Chimeric muscle fibers were detected by immunofluorescence and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using human antibodies and X and Y DNA probes. No signs of immune rejection were observed and these results suggested that hIDPSC cell transplantation may be done without immunosuppression. We showed that hIDPSC presented significant engraftment in GRMD dog muscles, although human dystrophin expression was modest and limited to several muscle fibers. Better clinical condition was also observed in the dog, which received monthly arterial injections and is still clinically stable at 25 months of age. Conclusion Our data suggested that systemic multiple deliveries seemed more effective than local injections. These findings open important

  10. Successful isolation, in vitro expansion and characterization of stem cells from Human Dental Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Preethy SP; Srinivasan T; Tholcopiyan L; Thamaraikannan P; Srinivasan V; Murugan P; Manjunath S; Kannan TA; Shalini R; Sunil PM; Manikandhan R; Muthu MS; Abraham S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells isolated from post natal human dental pulp, (Dental pulp stem cells-DPSCs) which is from permanent teeth and SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth),the Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) and Stem cells from root Apical papilla(SCAP)have the potential to differentiate into cells of a variety of tissues including heart, muscle, cartilage, bone, nerve, salivary glands, teeth etc(1,2,3,4).This multipotential a...

  11. Study of external root resorption during orthodontic treatment in root filled teeth compared with their contralateral teeth with vital pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Carreras, J M; Amarilla, A; Solano, E; Velasco-Ortega, E; Rodríguez-Varo, L; Segura-Egea, J J

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether root filled teeth and those with vital pulps exhibit a similar degree of external root resorption (ERR) as a consequence of orthodontic treatment. The study sample consisted of 77 patients, with a mean age of 32.7 +/- 10.7 years, who had one root filled tooth before completion of multiband/bracket orthodontic therapy for at least 1 year. For each patient, digital panoramic radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were used to determine the proportion of external root resorption (PRR), defined as the ratio between the root resorption in the root filled tooth and that in its contralateral tooth with a vital pulp. The student's t-test, anova and logistic regression analysis were used to determine statistical significance. The mean PRR was 1.00 +/- 0.13, indicating that, in the total sample, there were no significant differences in root resorption in the root filled teeth and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that PRR was significantly greater in incisors (P = 0.0014; odds ratio = 6.2885, C.I. 95% = 2.0-19.4), compared to other teeth, and in women (P = 0.0255; odds ratio = 4.2, C.I. 95% = 1.2-14.6), compared to men. There was no significant difference in the amount or severity of external root resorption during orthodontic movement between root filled teeth and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps.

  12. BACTERIAL PROFILE OF NECROTIC PULPS IN CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) CANINE TEETH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansa Ruiz, José C; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Steenkamp, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    The role of microbes and their antimicrobial susceptibilities in both acute and chronic infections of the dental pulp in humans has been well studied. Presently, no data are available on endodontic pathogens in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the bacteria found in the canine teeth of cheetahs, where the pulp was necrotic and exposed due to a complicated crown fracture. Thirty-six microbiologic samples were taken from root canals (RCs) of the canine teeth of 19 cheetahs: one pulp sample was taken from 10 cheetahs, four samples from 2 cheetahs, two samples from 3 cheetahs, and three samples from 4 cheetahs. Exposed pulps were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria; an additional screening with a 16S rRNA-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the last six samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was determined by use of the Kirby-Bauer diffusion test. In total, 59 cultivable isolates belonging to 19 microbial species and 13 genera were recovered from the 36 RCs sampled. Only two samples yielded no cultivable bacteria. Thirty-two (54.49%) of the cultivable isolates were Gram positive and 27 (45.71%) were Gram negative. The maximum number of isolates cultivated from an individual RC was six. Facultative anaerobes (62.72%) were the most common bacteria of the RCs that yielded cultivable bacteria. Of the isolates, 28.81% were aerobic and 8.47% were strict anaerobes. The antimicrobials that showed the greatest efficacy in vitro against the different bacteria isolates were amikacin and gentamicin. The more common bacterial species isolated by PCR were anaerobes (60.8%), facultative anaerobes (30.2%), and aerobes (8.6%).

  13. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent teeth in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Kmc; Kırıcı, D Ö; Evcil, M S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be healthy, were the source of the pulp tissue. The situation of the dental pulps was evaluated using clinical and radiographic assessments. The patients were divided two groups from healthy, and inflamed pulp tissues were obtained; each participant provided one pulp tissue specimens. The specimens were collected during endodontic treatment or by longitudinally grooving and splitting the teeth (if extracted). Catalase activity was determined through spectrophotometric methods and an independent sample t-test assessed the significance of differences between the groups. There was statistically a difference between healthy pulp tissue and inflamed pulp tissue (P catalase activity of healthy group was significantly lower than inflamed pulp groups. The present study has shown that a significant increase in catalase activity is determined in inflamed dental pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp.

  14. DIRECT PULP CAPPING IN TREATMENT OF REVERSIBLE PULPITIS IN PRIMARY TEETH- CLINICAL PROTOCOL

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    Nina Milcheva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of primary teeth is identical morphologically and physiologically to that of permanent teeth and it is capable to answer to pathological stimuli by producing tertiary dentin. When the inflammation of the pulp is in its reversible stage vital methods of treatment are indicated in order to stimulate the healing processes in it and protect its vitality. In Bulgaria the most popular method of treatment of inflammation diseases of the pulp in primary dentition is the mortal amputation. The biological way of treatment is not very common even in cases where there are indications for it. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the approbated by us protocol for application of direct pulp capping for treatment of reversible pulpitis in primary teeth. Material and methods: On the base of world experience and our contemporary meta- analysis of the researches published in the last 15 years concerning the problems of diagnostics. We determined clinical and radiographic diagnostic criteria for reversible pulpitis in primary teeth and indications for application of direct pulp capping as a method of treatment. We give clinical steps for application of the method and summarized the clinical and radiographic criteria for success after treatment. Results/conclusion: We gather all the information for applying direct pulp cappingfor treatment of reversible pulpitis in primary dentition. We offer the method of direct pulp capping as a clinical protocol “step by step” and illustrated by scheme which can be useful for students and dentists in their everyday practice.

  15. [Retrospective analysis of pulp revascularization in immature permanent teeth with diffuse pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C F; Zhao, Y M; Yang, Y; Liu, H; Qin, M

    2017-01-09

    Objective: To evaluate the treatment effectiveness of revascularization in immature permanent teeth with diffuse pulpitis and to provide an alternative approach for the treatment of these teeth. Methods: Clinical and radiographic data were collected from 17 immature permanent teeth which were diagnosed as diffuse pulpitis and with their pulp extirpated at Emergency Department of Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. All these teeth were treated using pulp revascularization at Department of Pediatric Dentistry. Clinical success rate was then evaluated based on the clinical and radiographic findings. The increase of root length and dentin wall thickness of the revascularized teeth and the contralateral control teeth were measured and compared according to the preoperative and recall periapical radiographs. Results: The average follow-uptime is (25.8±9.9) months (12-46 months). Totally 13 out of the 17 teeth showed normal clinical and radiographic manifestation and achieved the increasein root length and dentin wall thickness. They met criteria for success treatment. The rest 4 out of the 17 teeth also showed root length and dentin wall thickness increaseand apical foramen closure. However, periapical inflammations were observed during 12 to 36 monthfollow-ups. These cases were recognized as failed. In all the17 teeth, the increase of root length and dentin wall thickness was not significantly different between the revascularized teeth and the contralateral control teeth ( P> 0.05). Conclusions: Pulp revascularization in young permanent teeth with diffuse pulpitis resulted in similar clinical outcomes in root development and root canal wall formation compared with the contralateral control teeth. However, reinfection might occur during long-term follow-up.

  16. Histologic Outcomes of Uninfected Human Immature Teeth Treated with Regenerative Endodontics: 2 Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Ali; Kolahdouzan, Alireza; Hosseini, Farzaneh; Mehrizi, Ehsan A; Verma, Prashant; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    A growing body of evidence exists showing the possibility of growing vital tissues in the root canal spaces of teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. However, there is very limited histologic information regarding characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space of human teeth after regenerative endodontics. The aim of this study was to examine clinically and histologically the outcomes of human immature teeth treated with regenerative endodontics. Two healthy birooted human maxillary first premolar teeth scheduled for extraction were included. Preoperative radiographs confirmed that these teeth had immature apices. Vitality tests showed the presence of vital pulps in these teeth. After receiving consent forms, the teeth were isolated with a rubber dam, and the pulps were completely removed. After the formation of blood clots in the canals, the teeth were covered with mineral trioxide aggregate. Four months later, the teeth were clinically and radiographically evaluated, extracted, and examined histologically. Both patients remained asymptomatic after treatment. Radiographic examination of the teeth showed signs of root development after treatment. Histologic examination of tissues growing into the root canal space of these teeth shows the presence of connective tissue, bone and cementum formation, and thickening of roots. Based on our findings, it appears that when canals of teeth with open apices are treated with regenerative endodontics, tissues of the periodontium grow into the root canals of these teeth. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Outcomes of different vital pulp therapy techniques on symptomatic permanent teeth: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta; Sabbagh, Sedigheh; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In modern endodontics, vital pulp therapy (VPT) has been considered an ultra-conservative treatment modality. Based on the level of pulp preservation, VPT includes stepwise excavation, indirect pulp capping (IDPC), direct pulp capping (DPC), miniature pulpotomy (MP), partial/Cvek pulpotomy and coronal/complete pulpotomy (CP). The present article reviews the treatment outcomes of 94 permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis treated with either IDPC (n=28), DPC (n=28), MP (n=29) or CP (n=9) using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. After a mean follow-up time of 12.3 months, 93 treated teeth were radiographic/clinically successful; only one radiographic failure was observed in the DPC group.

  18. Timing of pulp extirpation for replanted avulsed teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stewart, Chris

    2009-01-01

    A search was performed (April 2004) across four databases, namely Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Web of Science, relevant to the proposed PICO ( Patient or problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is early pulp extirpation within 10-14 days of replantation, (C) compared with delayed pulp extirpation, (O) associated an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation. Only articles published in the English language were considered.

  19. Cryopreserved Dental Pulp Tissues of Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth Is a Feasible Stem Cell Resource for Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Akiyama, Kentaro; Hoshino, Yoshihiro; Song, Guangtai; Kukita, Toshio; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Shi, Songtao; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Human exfoliated deciduous teeth have been considered to be a promising source for regenerative therapy because they contain unique postnatal stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) with self-renewal capacity, multipotency and immunomodulatory function. However preservation technique of deciduous teeth has not been developed. This study aimed to evaluate that cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of human exfoliated deciduous teeth is a retrievable and practical SHED source for cell-based therapy. SHED isolated from the cryopreserved deciduous pulp tissues for over 2 years (25–30 months) (SHED-Cryo) owned similar stem cell properties including clonogenicity, self-renew, stem cell marker expression, multipotency, in vivo tissue regenerative capacity and in vitro immunomodulatory function to SHED isolated from the fresh tissues (SHED-Fresh). To examine the therapeutic efficacy of SHED-Cryo on immune diseases, SHED-Cryo were intravenously transplanted into systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) model MRL/lpr mice. Systemic SHED-Cryo-transplantation improved SLE-like disorders including short lifespan, elevated autoantibody levels and nephritis-like renal dysfunction. SHED-Cryo amended increased interleukin 17-secreting helper T cells in MRL/lpr mice systemically and locally. SHED-Cryo-transplantation was also able to recover osteoporosis bone reduction in long bones of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, SHED-Cryo-mediated tissue engineering induced bone regeneration in critical calvarial bone-defect sites of immunocompromised mice. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-Cryo transplantation on immune and skeletal disorders was similar to that of SHED-Fresh. These data suggest that cryopreservation of dental pulp tissues of deciduous teeth provide a suitable and desirable approach for stem cell-based immune therapy and tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. PMID:23251621

  20. [Results of treatment of milk teeth pulp by modified formocresol method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wochna-Sobańska, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of the results of treatment of molar pulp diseases by the formocresol method from the standpoint of the development of inflammatory complications in periapical tissues, disturbances of physiological resorption of roots, disturbances of mineralization of crowns of homologous permanent teeth. For the treatment milk molars were qualified with the diagnosis of grade II pulpopathy in children aged from 3 to 9 years. The treatment was done using formocresol by a modified method of pulp amputation according to Buckley after previous devitalization with parapaste. The status of 143 teeth was examined again 1 to 4 years after completion of treatment. The proportion of positive results after one year was 94%, after two years it was 90%, after three years 87% and after four years 80%. The cause of premature loss of most teeth was root resorption acceleration by 18-24 months. No harmful action of formocresol on the buds of permanent teeth was noted.

  1. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Vital Pulp Treatment of Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare between the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and those of formocresol in vital pulpotomy in primary teeth. A total of 20 children age ranged from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, the primary molars indicated for pulpotomy. Pulpotomy procedure was performed, and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet, whereas the other molar capped with formocresol, the teeth evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months, using standard clinical and radiographical criteria. Statistically, these results revealed no significant difference between the radiographic findings of vital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments was found. A. sativum oil offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning. Vital pulpotomy with allium sativa oil was given raise 90% success rate while that with formocresol was 85%. A. sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning.

  2. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Soichiro Sonoda; Haruyoshi Yamaza; Lan Ma; Yosuke Tanaka; Erika Tomoda; Reona Aijima; Kazuaki Nonaka; Toshio Kukita; Songtao Shi; Fusanori Nishimura; Takayoshi Yamaza

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we...

  3. Root maturation and dentin–pulp response to enamel matrix derivative in pulpotomized permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of pulpotomy of young permanent teeth depends on the proper selection of dressing materials. This study aimed to evaluate the histological and histomorphometric response of dentin–pulp complex to the enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain® gel compared to that of calcium hydroxide when used as a pulp dressing in immature young permanent dogs’ teeth. Dentin-like tissues bridging the full width of the coronal pulp at the interface between the injured and healthy pulp tissues were seen after 1 month in both groups. With time, the dentin bridge increased in thickness for calcium hydroxide but disintegrated and fully disappeared for Emdogain-treated group. Progressive inflammation and total pulp degeneration were only evident with Emdogain-treated group. The root apices of Emdogain-treated teeth became matured and closed by cementum that attached to new alveolar bone by a well-oriented periodontal ligament. In young permanent dentition, Emdogain could be a good candidate for periodontium but not dentino–pulpal complex regeneration.

  4. Pulp Revascularization on Permanent Teeth with Open Apices in a Middle-aged Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Chengfei

    2015-09-01

    Pulp revascularization is a promising procedure for the treatment of adolescents' immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis. However, the ability to successfully perform pulp revascularization in a middle-aged patient remains unclear. A 39-year-old woman was referred for treatment of teeth #20 and #29 with necrotic pulp, extensive periapical radiolucencies, and incomplete apices. Pulp revascularization procedures were attempted, including root canal debridement, triple antibiotic paste medication, and platelet-rich plasma transplantation to act as a scaffold. Periapical radiographic and cone-beam computed tomographic examinations were used to review the changes in the apical lesions and root apex configuration. The patient remained asymptomatic throughout the 30-month follow-up. Periapical radiographic examination revealed no change in the apical lesions of either tooth at 8 months. The periapical radiolucency disappeared on tooth #20 and significantly decreased on tooth #29 by the 30-month follow-up, findings that were also confirmed by cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. No evidence of root lengthening or thickening was observed. Successful revascularization was achieved in a middle-aged patient's teeth. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Alkaline phosphatase and OCT-3/4 as useful markers for predicting susceptibility of human deciduous teeth-derived dental pulp cells to reprogramming factor-induced iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Kubota, Naoko; Soda, Miki; Matsueda, Kazunari; Murakami, Tomoya; Sawami, Tadashi; Kagoshima, Akiko; Yamasaki, Youichi; Sato, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to prove that primary cells enriched with stem cells are more easily reprogrammed to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells than those with scarce numbers of stem cells. We surveyed the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in five primarily-isolated human deciduous teeth-derived dental pulp cells (HDDPC) with cytochemical staining to examine the possible presence of stem cells. Next, the expression of stemness-specific factors, such as OCT(Octumer-binding transcription factor)3/4, NANOG, SOX2(SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2), CD90, muscle segment homeodomain homeobox (MSX) 1, and MSX2, was assessed with a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Finally, these isolated HDDPC were transfected with plasmids carrying genes coding Yamanaka factors to determine whether these cells could be reprogrammed to generate iPS cells. Of the five primarily-isolated HDDPC, two (HDDPC-1 and -5) exhibited higher degrees of ALP activity. OCT-3/4 expression was also prominent in those two lines. Furthermore, these two lines proliferated faster than the other three lines. The transfection of HDDPC with Yamanaka factors resulted in the generation of iPS cells from HDDPC-1 and -5. The number of cells with the stemness property of HDDPC differs among individuals, which suggests that HDDPC showing an increased expression of both ALP and OCT-3/4 can be more easily reprogrammed to generate iPS cells after the forced expression of reprogramming factors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Enhanced regeneration potential of mobilized dental pulp stem cells from immature teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, H; Iohara, K; Hayashi, Y; Okuwa, Y; Kurita, K; Nakashima, M

    2017-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from mature teeth by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced mobilization method can enhance angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and improve pulp regeneration when compared with colony-derived DPSCs. However, the efficacy of this method in immature teeth with root-formative stage has never been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the stemness, biological characteristics, and regeneration potential in mobilized DPSCs compared with colony-derived DPSCs from immature teeth. Mobilized DPSCs isolated from immature teeth were compared to colony-derived DPSCs using methods including flow cytometry, migration assays, mRNA expression of angiogenic/neurotrophic factor, and induced differentiation assays. They were also compared in trophic effects of the secretome. Regeneration potential was further compared in an ectopic tooth transplantation model. Mobilized DPSCs had higher migration ability and expressed more angiogenic/neurotrophic factors than DPSCs. The mobilized DPSC secretome produced a higher stimulatory effect on migration, immunomodulation, anti-apoptosis, endothelial differentiation, and neurite extension. In addition, vascularization and pulp regeneration potential were higher in mobilized DPSCs than in DPSCs. G-CSF-induced mobilization method enhances regeneration potential of colony-derived DPSCs from immature teeth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustercic, Dusan; Sersa, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 T MRI system for MR microscopy using the 3D spin-echo method that enabled image acquisition with isotropic resolution of 100 μm. The 3D images were then post processed by ImageJ program (NIH) to obtain advanced volume rendered views of dental pulps. MR microscopy at 2.35 T provided accurate data on dental pulp anatomy in vitro. The data were presented as a sequence of thin 2D slices through the pulp in various orientations or as volume rendered 3D images reconstructed form arbitrary view-points. Sequential 2D images enabled only an approximate assessment of the pulp, while volume rendered 3D images were more precise in visualization of pulp anatomy and clearly showed pulp diverticles, number of pulp canals and root canal anastomosis. This in vitro study demonstrated that MR microscopy could provide very accurate 3D visualization of dental pulp anatomy. A possible future application of the method in vivo may be of a great importance for the endodontic treatment

  8. Materials used for indirect pulp treatment in primary teeth: a mixed treatment comparisons meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Silveira dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to systematically review the literature to address the question regarding the influence of different materials in the clinical and radiographic success of indirect pulp treatment in primary teeth. A literature search was carried out for articles published prior to January 2017 in PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Scopus, TRIP and ClinicalTrials databases; relevant articles included randomized clinical trials that compared materials used for indirect pulp treatment in primary teeth. Two reviewers independently selected the studies and extracted the data. The effects of each material on the outcome (clinical and radiographic failures were analyzed using a mixed treatment comparisons meta-analysis. The ranking of treatments according to their probability of being the best choice was also calculated. From 1,088 potentially eligible studies, 11 were selected for full-text analysis, and 4 were included in the meta-analysis. In all papers, calcium hydroxide liner was used as the control group versus an adhesive system, resin-modified glass ionomer cement or placebo. The follow-up period ranged from 24 to 48 months, with dropout rates of 0-25.7%. The material type did not significantly affect the risk of failure of the indirect pulp treatment. However, calcium hydroxide presented a higher probability of failure. In conclusion, there is no scientific evidence showing the superiority of any material used for indirect pulp treatment in primary teeth.

  9. Vascular status in human primary and permanent teeth in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Helen D; Boissonade, Fiona M

    2005-04-01

    The present study sought to compare the vascular status of human primary teeth with that of human permanent teeth, and to determine whether caries or painful pulpitis was associated with changes in vascularity. Coronal pulps were removed from 62 primary and 62 permanent mandibular molars with a known pain history. Teeth were categorized as intact, moderately carious or grossly carious. Pulp sections were labelled with Ulex europaeus I lectin (UEIL), which is a marker of human vascular endothelium. Image analysis was then used to quantify the percentage area of UEIL-labelled tissue (vascularity) and the number of blood vessels present within three regions: the pulp horn, the subodontoblastic region, and the mid-coronal pulp. Only the mid-coronal region of the primary tooth pulp was found to be significantly more vascular than the corresponding area of the permanent tooth pulp. Both dentitions showed a significant increase in vascularity within the pulp horn region with caries progression, but this was not accompanied by an increase in vessel number. There was no correlation between vascularity and pain symptoms. These findings suggest that the primary tooth pulp is more vascular than its successor within the mid-coronal region. However, the functional and clinical significance of this finding remains speculative.

  10. Pulp Calcification in Traumatized Primary Teeth - Classification, Clinical And Radiographic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Santos, Ana Maria Antunes; Bonini, Gabriela Azevedo Vasconcelos Cunha; Zardetto, Cristina Giovannetti Del Conte; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla

    The aim of this study was to standardize the nomenclature of pulp alteration to pulp calcification (PC) and to classify it according to type, quantity and location, as well as relate it to clinical and radiographic features. The dental records of 946 patients from the Research and Clinical Center for Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth were studied. Two hundred and fifty PC-traumatized upper deciduous incisors were detected. According to radiographic analysis of the records, 62.5% showed diffuse calcification, 36.3% tube-like calcification, and 1.2% concentric calcification. According to the extension of pulp calcification, the records showed: 80% partial calcification, 17.2% total coronal calcification and partial radicular calcification, and 2.8 % total coronal and radicular calcification. As for location, only 2.4% were on the coronal pulp, 5.2% on the radicular pulp and 92.4% on both radicular and coronal pulp. Regarding coronal discoloration, 54% were yellow and 2% gray. In relation to periradicular changes, 10% showed widened periodontal ligament space, 3.1% internal resorption, 10% external resorption, 10.4% periapical bone rarefaction. Since PC is a general term, it is important to classify it and correlate it to clinical and radiographic changes, in order to establish the correct diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of each case.

  11. Dental trauma. Combination injuries 1. The risk of pulp necrosis in permanent teeth with concussion injuries and concomitant crown fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Eva Fejerskov; Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2012-01-01

    included 469 permanent incisors with concussion from 358 patients (226 male, 132 female). Among these, 292 had a concomitant crown fracture (70 with and 222 without pulp exposure). All teeth were examined and treated according to standardized protocol. Statistical analysis:  The risk of PN was analyzed...... by the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression. Risk factors included in the analysis: gender, age, stage of root development, type of crown fracture, and response to electric pulp test (EPT) at the initial examination. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results:  The risk of PN was low in teeth......The reported risk of pulp necrosis (PN) is low in teeth with concussion injuries. A concomitant crown fracture may affect the risk of PN. Aim:  To analyze the influence of a crown fracture (with and without pulp exposure) on the risk of PN in teeth with concussion injury. Material:  The study...

  12. Isolation and evaluation of dental pulp stem cells from teeth with advanced periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshani, Ali; Raoof, Maryam; Dabiri, Shahriar; Farsinejad, Ali Reza; Gorjestani, Hedayat; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Ehsani, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    Successful isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from waste tissues might be extremely promising for developing stem cell-based therapies. This study aimed to explore whether cells retrieved from teeth extracted due to advanced periodontal disease present mesenchymal stem cell-like properties. Pulp cells were isolated from 15 intact molars and 15 teeth with advanced periodontal disease. Cell proliferation and markers of mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated. Based on the RT-PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis, nucleostemin, Oct-4 and jmj2c, but not Nanog, were expressed in undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells of both groups. Interestingly, diseased pulp exhibited higher gene expressions although it was not statistically significant. The average percentage of BrdU positive cells in the diseased group (84.4%, n = 5) was significantly higher than that of the control group (65.4%, n = 5) (t-test, P = 0.001). Our results indicate the successful isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from the pulp tissue of hopeless periodontally involved teeth.

  13. Decellularized Human Dental Pulp as a Scaffold for Regenerative Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J S; Takimoto, K; Jeon, M; Vadakekalam, J; Ruparel, N B; Diogenes, A

    2017-06-01

    Teeth undergo postnatal organogenesis relatively late in life and only complete full maturation a few years after the crown first erupts in the oral cavity. At this stage, development can be arrested if the tooth organ is damaged by either trauma or caries. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) are a treatment alternative to conventional root canal treatment for immature teeth. These procedures rely on the transfer of apically positioned stem cells, including stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP), into the root canal system. Although clinical success has been reported for these procedures, the predictability of expected outcomes and the organization of the newly formed tissues are affected by the lack of an available suitable scaffold that mimics the complexity of the dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we evaluated 3 methods of decellularization of human dental pulp to be used as a potential autograft scaffold. Tooth slices of human healthy extracted third molars were decellularized by 3 different methods. One of the methods generated the maximum observed decellularization with minimal impact on the ECM composition and organization. Furthermore, recellularization of the scaffold supported the proliferation of SCAP throughout the scaffold with differentiation into odontoblast-like cells near the dentinal walls. Thus, this study reports that human dental pulp from healthy extracted teeth can be successfully decellularized, and the resulting scaffold supports the proliferation and differentiation of SCAP. The future application of this form of an autograft in REPs can fulfill a yet unmet need for a suitable scaffold, potentially improving clinical outcomes and ultimately promoting the survival and function of teeth with otherwise poor prognosis.

  14. Pulpal status of human primary teeth with physiological root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Joana; Day, Peter; Duggal, Monty; Morgan, Claire; Rodd, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to determine whether any changes occur in the pulpal structure of human primary teeth in association with physiological root resorption. The experimental material comprised 64 sound primary molars, obtained from children requiring routine dental extractions under general anaesthesia. Pulp sections were processed for indirect immunofluorescence using combinations of: (i) protein gene product 9.5 (a general neuronal marker); (ii) leucocyte common antigen CD45 (a general immune cell marker); and (iii) Ulex europaeus I lectin (a marker of vascular endothelium). Image analysis was then used to determine the percentage area of staining for each label within both the pulp horn and mid-coronal region. Following measurement of the greatest degree of root resorption in each sample, teeth were subdivided into three groups: those with physiological resorption involving less than one-third, one-third to two-thirds, and more than two-thirds of their root length. Wide variation was evident between different tooth samples with some resorbed teeth showing marked changes in pulpal histology. Decreased innervation density, increased immune cell accumulation, and increased vascularity were evident in some teeth with advanced root resorption. Analysis of pooled data, however, did not reveal any significant differences in mean percentage area of staining for any of these variables according to the three root resorption subgroups (P > 0.05, analysis of variance on transformed data). This investigation has revealed some changes in pulpal status of human primary teeth with physiological root resorption. These were not, however, as profound as one may have anticipated. It is therefore speculated that teeth could retain the potential for sensation, healing, and repair until advanced stages of root resorption.

  15. Dental trauma. Combination injuries 3. The risk of pulp necrosis in permanent teeth with extrusion or lateral luxation and concomitant crown fractures without pulp exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Eva Fejerskov; Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the influence of a crown fracture without pulp exposure on the risk of pulp necrosis (PN) in teeth with extrusion or lateral luxation. Material and methods: The study included 82 permanent incisors with extrusion from 78 patients (57 male, 21 female) and 179 permanent incisors...... with lateral luxation from 149 patients (87 male, 62 female). A total of 25 teeth with extrusion and 33 teeth with lateral luxation had suffered a concomitant crown fracture (infraction, enamel fracture or enamel-dentin-fracture). All the teeth were examined and treated according to a standardized protocol....... Statistics: The risk of PN was analyzed separately for teeth with immature and mature root development by the Kaplan–Meier method, the log-rank test and Cox regression (lateral luxation only). The level of significance was set at 5%. Risk factors included in the analysis were gender, age, crown fracture...

  16. External root resorption during orthodontic treatment in root-filled teeth and contralateral teeth with vital pulp: A clinical study of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Ju; Lee, Tae Yeon

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of research to support the belief that root canal treatment can be considered for stopping or decreasing external apical root resorption (EARR). There is conflicting evidence as to whether root-filled teeth are more or less likely to experience EARR after orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of EARR of root-filled teeth with that of contralateral teeth with vital pulp after fixed orthodontic treatment. The study sample consisted of 35 patients aged 25.23 ± 4.92 years who had at least 1 root-filled tooth before orthodontic treatment. Digital panoramic radiographs of each patient taken before and after orthodontic treatment were used to measure the EARR. The Student t test for matched pairs and the Pearson correlation analysis were applied. The mean EARR values were 0.22 (0.14, 0.35) for root-filled teeth and 0.87 (0.59, 1.31) for contralateral teeth with vital pulp, indicating significantly less EARR for root-filled teeth compared with the contralateral teeth with vital pulp after orthodontic treatment. EARR was influenced by the patient's age, treatment duration, treatment type, and periapical pathosis, but not by tooth type and sex. Root-filled teeth appear to be associated with significantly less EARR than are contralateral teeth with vital pulp. This study suggests that the possible complication of EARR in root-filled teeth may not be an important consideration in orthodontic treatment planning, and root canal treatment can be considered for stopping or decreasing EARR when severe EARR occurs during orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulpectomy in hyperemic pulp and accelerated root resorption in primary teeth: A review with associated case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Walia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent hemorrhage after complete amputation of coronal pulp is a common clinical finding during pulpotomy procedure in primary teeth. These teeth are best managed with pulpectomy, but they have hyperemic pulp with some remaining vital tissue. Good chemico-biomechanical preparation of primary canals cannot guarantee complete removal of this vital tissue from inaccessible areas. Use of Ca(OH 2 containing root filling pastes in vital pulp tissue can cause accelerated resorption of primary roots. The possible mechanism behind such extensive root resorption is discussed with review of literature. A case report of a child with 30 months follow-up is presented and discussed.

  18. Dental trauma. Combination injuries 2. The risk of pulp necrosis in permanent teeth with subluxation injuries and concomitant crown fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Eva Fejerskov; Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2012-01-01

    on the risk of PN in permanent teeth with subluxation injury. Material and Methods:  The study included 404 permanent incisors with subluxation injury from 289 patients (188 male, 101 female). Of these teeth, 137 had also suffered a concomitant crown fracture. All the teeth were examined and treated according...... to a standardized protocol. Statistical Analysis:  The risk of PN was analysed separately for teeth with immature and mature root development by the Kaplan–Meier method, the log-rank test and Cox regression analysis. The level of significance was set at 5%. Risk factors included in the analysis were gender, patient......The reported risk of pulp necrosis (PN) is generally low in teeth with subluxation injuries. A concomitant crown fracture may increase the risk of PN in such teeth. Aim:  To analyse the influence of a concomitant trauma-related infraction, enamel-, enamel–dentin- or enamel–dentin–pulp fracture...

  19. Tissue Engineering of Necrotic Dental Pulp of Immature Teeth with Apical Periodontitis in Dogs: Radiographic and Histological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashiry, Eman A; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; El Ashiry, Mahmoud K; Bastawy, Hagar A; El Derwi, Douaa A; Atta, Hazem M

    2018-05-15

    To evaluate tissue engineering technology to regenerate pulp-dentin like tissues in pulp canals of immature necrotic permanent teeth with apical periodontitis in dogs. The study was performed on 36 teeth in 12 dogs. The experiment was carried out using split mouth design. In each dog 3 teeth were selected for implementing the study procedure. Apical periodontitis was induced in Group A and B teeth. Group (A): immature upper left 2 nd permanent incisors that were transplanted with a construct of autologous dental pulp stem cells with growth factors seeded in a chitosn hydrogel scaffold. Group (B): immature upper right 2 nd permanent incisor that received only growth factors with scaffold. A third tooth in each dog was selected randomly for isolation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Both groups were closed with a double coronal seal of white MTA (Mineral trioxide aggregate) and glass ionomer cement. Both groups were monitored radiographically for 4 months and histologically after sacrificing the animals. There was no statistically significant difference in radiographic findings between group (A) and group (B) for healing of radiolucencies, while there was statistically significant difference between group (A) and group (B) regarding radicular thickening, root lengthening and apical closure. Histologically, group (A) teeth showed regeneration of pulp-dentin like tissue while group (B) teeth did not show any tissue regeneration. Dental pulp stem cells and growth factors incorporated in chitosan hydrogel are able to regenerate pulp-dentine like tissue and help in complete root maturation of non-vital immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis in dogs.

  20. Putative Stem Cells in Human Dental Pulp with Irreversible Pulpitis-An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Pan, J.; Wright, JT; Bencharit, S.; Zhang, S.; Everett, ET; Teixeira, FB; Preisser, JS

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although human dental pulp stem cells isolated from healthy teeth have been extensively characterized, it is unknown whether stem cells also exist in clinically compromised teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Here we explored whether cells retrieved from clinically compromised dental pulp have stem cell-like properties. Methods Pulp cells were isolated from healthy teeth (control group) and from teeth with clinically diagnosed irreversible pulpitis (diseased group). Cell proliferation, stem cell marker STRO-1 expression and cell odonto-osteo-genic differentiation competence were compared. Results Cells from the diseased group demonstrated decreased colony formation capacity and a slightly decreased cell proliferation rate but had similar STRO-1 expression, and exhibited a similar percentage of positive ex vivo osteogenic induction and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression from STRO-1-enriched pulp cells. Conclusion Our study provides preliminary evidence that clinically compromised dental pulp may contain putative cells with certain stem cell properties. Further characterization of these cells will provide insight regarding whether they could serve as a source of endogenous multipotent cells in tissue regeneration based dental pulp therapy. PMID:20416426

  1. Endodontic complications in teeth with vital pulps restored with composite resins: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, V S; Amjad, S; Fransson, H

    2015-07-01

    Composite resin is used extensively for restoration of teeth with vital pulps. Although cell culture studies have disclosed harmful effects on pulpal cells, any untoward clinical effects, manifest as adverse pulpal responses, have yet to be determined. This study comprises a systematic review, designed to address the question of whether the risk of endodontic complications is greater with composite resin restorations than with other restorative materials, such as amalgam. The study methodology involved (i) formulation of the research question, (ii) construction and conduct of an extensive literature search with (iii) interpretation and assessment of the retrieved literature. A search of the medical database PubMed was complemented with a search of the Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL). The initial search yielded 1043 publications, the abstracts of which were read independently by the authors. After additional searches, 10 studies were included in the review. In all the included studies, the level of evidence was assessed as low. No conclusions could therefore be drawn. The included studies reported few, if any, endodontic complications. Little or no differences emerged between teeth restored with composite resins and those restored with amalgam. To determine whether composite resin restorations of teeth with vital pulps are associated with an increased risk for development of endodontic complications such as apical periodontitis, further evidence is needed, from well-constructed studies with a large number of participants. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pulp tissue response to Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulpotomy of human primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, N; Lourenço Neto, N; Fernandes, A P; Rodini, C; Hungaro Duarte, M; Rios, D; Machado, M A; Oliveira, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulp treatment of human primary teeth by clinical and radiographic exams and microscopic analysis. Thirty mandibular primary molars were randomly divided into the following groups: Group I - Portland cement; Group II - Portland cement with iodoform (Portland cement + CHI3 ); Group III - Portland cement with zirconium oxide (Portland cement + ZrO2 ); and treated by pulpotomy technique (removal of a portion of the pulp aiming to maintain the vitally of the remaining radicular pulp tissue using a therapeutic dressing). Clinical and radiographic evaluations were recorded at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted and processed for histological analysis. Data were tested using statistical analysis with a significance level of 5%. The microscopic findings were descriptively analysed. All treated teeth were clinically and radiographically successful at follow-up appointments. The microscopic analysis revealed positive response to pulp repair with hard tissue barrier formation and pulp calcification in the remaining roots of all available teeth. The findings of this study suggest that primary teeth pulp tissue exhibited satisfactory biological response to Portland cement associated with radio pacifying agents. However, further studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine the safe clinical indication of this alternative material for pulp therapy of primary teeth. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. Autotransplantation of teeth in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almpani, Konstantinia; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Papadopoulos, Moschos A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the currently available evidence concerning the complications and risk factors influencing the outcome of autotransplantation of teeth in humans. Electronic searches were conducted to identify randomized controlled and prospective clinical trials. Risk of bias within studies was assessed with the Downs and Black tool. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to pool the adverse event rates and relative risks with their 95% confidence intervals. Risk of bias across studies was assessed with the GRADE framework followed by sensitivity analyses. Thirty-eight studies were included in the analysis. Reported complications included the need for extraction, failure, hypermobility, pulp necrosis, pulp obliteration, and root resorption. Pooled complication event rates varied considerably, with small studies (factors was associated with both the primary outcome (extraction need) and secondary outcomes (failure, hypermobility, pulp necrosis, pulp obliteration, root resorption). The stage of root development seems to influence both the future survival, as well as the success of the transplanted teeth. Teeth with open apex were less likely to be extracted in comparison to teeth with closed apex (3 studies; 413 teeth; relative risk 0.3; 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.6). Due to the small number of the contributing studies, their methodological limitations, and the heterogeneous results reported, no firm conclusions can be drawn. Root development of the donor teeth has been established as one the most important factor related to the success of tooth autotransplantation.

  4. Histopathological evaluation of pulp after pulpotomy of primary teeth with sodium hypochlorite and formocresol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghgoo R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Formocresol is one of the most common pulpotomy medicaments for primary teeth. Because of its systemic and local side effects, it may be essential to use another material instead of formocresol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopothalogy of pulp after pulpotomy teeth with sodium hypochlorite and formocresol. "nMaterials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 22 canine teeth that must be extracted because of orthodontic treatment were selected. The teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=11 and pulpotomized with formocresol or sodium hypochlorite. These teeth were extracted after 2 months and pulpal response was evaluated according to the degree of inflammation and extent of pulpal involvement. Dentinal bridge formation was also evaluated. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. "nResults: In formocresol group, mild inflammation was seen in 4 and moderate inflammation in 3 and severe inflammation in 4 cases. In sodium hypochlorite group mild inflammation was seen in 6 cases and moderate inflammation in 4 cases and severe inflammation in 1 case. Mann-Whitney test revealed that this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. In formocresol group, necrosis was seen in 5 cases, but abscess and internal resorption were not seen in any cases. In sodium hypochlorite group, internal resorption was seen in 3 cases; but necrosis and abscess were not seen in any cases.  Mann-Whitney test showed that the difference between two groups was significant in terms of necrosis (P=0.02. In sodium hypochlorite group, dentinal bridge was formed in 3 cases; however, no dentinal bridge formation was seen in formocresol group. Mann-Whitney test showed that this difference was not significant statistically (P>0.05. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, sodium hypochlorite can be used as a pulpotomy agent in primary teeth.

  5. Action of nitric oxide on healthy and inflamed human dental pulp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Leopoldo Penteado Nucci; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida

    2008-10-01

    Irreversible pulpitis has been associated with pain and an increase in the number of pulp inflammatory cells. Based on the action of nitric oxide (NO) elsewhere, NO may possibly participate in the sensory and autonomic innervation of the dental pulp, and may influence local inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to analyze normal and inflamed human dental pulp for the presence of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), as an index of NO system activity. Six non-carious second premolar pulp tissue samples were obtained from young patients who required extractions for orthodontic reasons and six inflamed samples were obtained from symptomatic carious second premolars clinically diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Pulp tissue was carefully removed, fixed by immersion in a cold 4% PFA buffered solution for 120 min, rinsed in cold phosphate buffer, and quickly-frozen for cryostat sectioning. Pulp tissue was sectioned perpendicularly to the vertical axis of the tooth at 20 microm and processed for histochemistry. Sections of each specimen were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and other sections were subjected to histochemical NADPH-d detection. Results indicated the presence of NADPH reactivity within the pulps of both normal and carious teeth. In the normal teeth NADPH-d activity was detected in a small number of vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The inflammatory response of the pulp from carious premolars was detected in connective tissue by the presence of an increased number of fibroblasts, angioblasts and collagen fibers. It was possible to determine the extent of odontoblast reactivity since the odontoblast layer was usually absent in these split-peel preparations. There were no obvious signs of stained pulpal nerve fibers. Overall NADPH-d staining was significantly more intense within inflamed pulp tissues compared to normal healthy samples (Mann-Whitney test, pfunctions of NO in human dental pulp in pathophysiological situations.

  6. Fracture modes in human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J J-W; Kwon, J-Y; Chai, H; Lucas, P W; Thompson, V P; Lawn, B R

    2009-03-01

    The structural integrity of teeth under stress is vital to functional longevity. We tested the hypothesis that this integrity is limited by fracture of the enamel. Experiments were conducted on molar teeth, with a metal rod loaded onto individual cusps. Fracture during testing was tracked with a video camera. Two longitudinal modes of cracking were observed: median cracking from the contact zone, and margin cracking along side walls. Median cracks initiated from plastic damage at the contact site, at first growing slowly and then accelerating to the tooth margin. Margin cracks appeared to originate from the cemento-enamel junction, and traversed the tooth wall adjacent to the loaded cusp from the gingival to the occlusal surface. All cracks remained confined within the enamel shell up to about 550 N. At higher loads, additional crack modes--such as enamel chipping and delamination--began to manifest themselves, leading to more comprehensive failure of the tooth structure.

  7. Age and timing of pulp extirpation as major factors associated with inflammatory root resorption in replanted permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Juliana Vilela; Ilma de Souza Côrtes, Maria; Andrade Goulart, Eugenio Marcos; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas

    2014-03-01

    External root resorption (ERR) is a serious complication after replantation, and its progressive inflammatory and replacement forms are significant causes of tooth loss. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the factors related to the occurrence of inflammatory ERR (IERR) and replacement ERR (RERR) shortly after permanent tooth replantation in patients treated at the Dental Trauma Clinic at the School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Case records and radiographs of 165 patients were evaluated for the presence, type, and extension of ERR and its association with age and factors related to the management and acute treatment of the avulsed tooth by using the logistic regression model. The patient's age at the moment of trauma had a marked effect on the ERR prevalence and extension. The patients older than 16 years at the moment of trauma had less chance of developing IERR and RERR (77% and 87%, respectively) before the pulp extirpation, regardless of the extension of the resorption. The patients older than 11 years of age at the moment of trauma showed the lowest indices of IERR (P = .02). Each day that elapsed between the replantation and the pulp extirpation increased the risk of developing IERR and RERR by 1.2% and 1.1%, respectively, and also raised the risk of severe IERR by 0.5% per day. The risk of mature teeth developing severe IERR before the onset of endodontic therapy was directly affected by the timing of the pulpectomy and was inversely proportional to age. Systemic antibiotic therapy use had no effect on the occurrence and severity of IERR in mature teeth. The occurrence of RERR before the onset of endodontic treatment stimulates further investigations of the early human host response to trauma and subsequent infection. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An evaluation of the periapical status of teeth with necrotic pulps using periapical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, F; Patel, S; Durán-Sindreu, F; Mercadé, M; Bueno, R; Roig, M

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the presence or absence of periapical (PA) radiolucencies on individual roots of teeth with necrotic pulps, as assessed with digital PA radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Digital PA radiographs and CBCT scans were taken from 161 endodontically untreated teeth (from 155 patients) diagnosed with non-vital pulps (pulp necrosis with normal PA tissue, symptomatic apical periodontitis, asymptomatic apical periodontitis, acute apical abscess and chronic apical abscess). Images were assessed by two calibrated endodontists to analyse the radiographic PA status of the teeth. A consensus was reached in the event of any disagreement. The data were analysed using a McNemar's test, and significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Three hundred and forty paired images of roots were assessed with both digital PA radiographs and CBCT images. Fifteen additional roots were identified with CBCT. PA radiolucencies were present in 132 (38.8%) roots when assessed with PA radiographs, and in 196 (57.6%) roots when assessed with CBCT. This difference was statistically significant (P apical periodontitis or acute apical abscess, CBCT images revealed a statistically larger number of PA radiolucencies than did PA radiographs (P asymptomatic apical periodontitis (P = 0.31) or chronic apical abscess (P = 1). Unlike PA radiographs, CBCT revealed a higher prevalence of PA radiolucencies when endodontically untreated teeth with non-vital pulps were examined. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Long-term survival of indirect pulp treatment performed in primary and permanent teeth with clinically diagnosed deep carious lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruythuysen, R.; van Strijp, G.; Wu, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This retrospective study examined clinically and radiographically the 3-year survival of teeth treated with indirect pulp treatment (IPT) performed between 2000 and 2004. Methods: Sixty-six uncooperative children (4-18 years old) with at least one tooth with clinically diagnosed deep

  10. Characterization of deciduous teeth stem cells isolated from crown dental pulp

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    Debeljak-Martačić Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The last decade has been profoundly marked by persistent attempts to use ex vivo expanded and manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, as a tool in different types of regenerative therapy. In the present study we described immunophenotype and the proliferative and differentiation potential of cells isolated from pulp remnants of exfoliated deciduous teeth in the final phase of root resorption. Methods. The initial adherent cell population from five donors was obtained by the outgrowth method. Colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F assay was performed in passage one. Cell expansion was performed until passage three and all tests were done until passage eight. Cells were labeled for early mesenchymal stem cells markers and analysis have been done using flow cytometry. The proliferative potential was assessed by cell counting in defined time points and population doubling time was calculated. Commercial media were used to induce osteoblastic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Cytology and histology methods were used for analysis of differentiated cell morphology and extracellular matrix characteristics. Results. According to immunophenotype analyses all undifferentiated cells were positive for the mesenchymal stem cell markers: CD29 and CD73. Some cells expressed CD146 and CD106. The hematopoietic cell marker, CD34, was not detected. In passage one, incidence of CFU-F was 4.7 ± 0.5/100. Population doubling time did not change significantly during cell subcultivation and was in average 25 h. After induction of differentiation, the multicolony derived cell population had a tri-lineage differentiation potential, since mineralized matrix, cartilage-like tissue and adipocytes were successfully formed after three weeks of incubation. Conclusion. Altogether, these data suggest that remnants of deciduous teeth dental pulp contained cell populations with mesenchymal stem cell-like features, with a high proliferation and

  11. Guided Endodontics: a novel treatment approach for teeth with pulp canal calcification and apical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastl, Gabriel; Zehnder, Marc S; Connert, Thomas; Weiger, Roland; Kühl, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    To present a new treatment approach for teeth with pulp canal calcification (PCC) which require root canal treatment. A 15-year-old male patient presented with pain of his upper right central incisor. The tooth showed signs of apical periodontitis. Due to PCC, location of the root canal was judged to be difficult and associated with a high risk of perforation. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and an intra-oral surface scan were performed and matched using software for virtual implant planning. After planning the position of the drill for root canal location, a virtual template was designed, and the data were exported as an STL file and sent to a 3D printer for template fabrication. The template was positioned on the anterior maxillary teeth. A specific drill was used to penetrate through the obliterated part of the root canal and obtain minimally invasive access to the apical part. The root canal was accessible at 9 mm distance from the apex. Further root canal preparation was carried out using an endodontic rotary instrumentation system. After an interappointment dressing for 4 weeks, the root canal was filled with vertically condensed gutta-percha using an epoxy sealer. The access cavity was restored with a composite material. After 15 months, the patient was clinically asymptomatic with no pain on percussion. The radiograph showed no apical pathology. The presented guided endodontic approach seems to be a safe, clinically feasible method to locate root canals and prevent root perforation in teeth with PCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Pulpal blood flow recorded from human premolar teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter using either red or infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Timpawat, Siriporn; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    To compare red (635 nm) and infrared (780 nm) light for recording pulpal blood flow from human premolar teeth. Recordings were made from 11 healthy teeth in 9 subjects (aged 16-30 years) using a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) equipped with both red and infrared lasers. Average blood flow signals were obtained with both light sources alternately from each tooth under five conditions: intact tooth without opaque rubber dam, intact tooth with dam, after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine) (LA) over the apex of the tooth and cavity preparation to almost expose the pulp, after removal and replacement of the pulp, and with the root canal empty. With infrared light, the dam significantly decreased the mean blood flow by 80%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. Removal and replacement of the pulp reduced the mean blood flow by 58%. There was no further change when the pulp was removed. With red light, the dam reduced the signal from intact teeth by 60%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. The signal fell by 67% after pulp removal and replacement and did not change significantly when the pulp was removed. Opaque rubber dam minimises the contribution of non-pulpal tissues to the laser Doppler signal recorded from premolars. Using dam, the pulp contributed about 60% to the blood flow signal with both red and infrared light. The difference between them in this respect was not significant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulp necrosis following luxated injury to teeth in a patient with uncontrolled type II diabetes mellitus: a case report

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    Haneol Shin,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diabetes mellitus show delayed wound healing and increased susceptibility to infection. Therefore, the effects of diabetes on pulpal and periodontal healing should be taken into consideration when treating diabetic dental traumatized patients. This case presents the treatment for dental traumatized 20 yr old female with uncontrolled type II diabetes. The traumatized upper central incisors had showed pulpal healing in early days. However, 7 mon after the trauma, the teeth had been diagnosed with pulp necrosis with apical abscess. Eventually, non surgical root canal treatment on the teeth had been performed.

  14. Nano-hydroxyapatite and calcium-enriched mixture for pulp capping of sound primary teeth: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Roza; Asgary, Saeed; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Montazeri Hedeshi, Roshanak

    2015-01-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (NHA) has been used for regeneration of osseous defects. Calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement is also used for various dental treatments. This trial compared the efficacy of NHA and CEM cement for direct pulp capping (DPC) of sound primary teeth. In this randomized clinical trial with split-mouth design, after attaining informed consent, 20 sound primary canines scheduled for orthodontic extraction, were selected. After mechanical pulp exposure, the exposed site was capped with either NHA or CEM cement and then immediately restored with glass-ionomer and resin composite. The teeth were extracted after two months and examined histologically. Parameters of hard tissue bridge (HTB) formation, its type and quality as well as pulpal inflammation scores were compared between the two experimental groups. The data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U and Fisher's exact test. The level of significance was set at 0.001. All CEM specimens showed inflammation score of 0 (less than 10%). However, in NHA group, inflammation scores of 0 (less than 10%), 1 (10%-30%) and 2 (30%-50%) were observed in 2 (20%), 4 (40%) and 4 (40%) specimens, respectively (P<0.001). HTB was formed in all CEM specimens while it was developed in 2 specimens of NHA (20%; P<0.001). All CEM specimens showed normal pulp; only two cases in NHA group (20%) demonstrated uninflamed normal pulp. CEM cement was superior to NHA as a DPC agent in terms of HTB formation and pulp inflammation scores. It is a suitable material for the DPC of primary teeth.

  15. Immunocytochemical investigation of immune cells within human primary and permanent tooth pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, H D; Boissonade, F M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are any differences in the number and distribution of immune cells within human primary and permanent tooth pulp, both in health and disease. The research took the form of a quantitative immunocytochemical study. One hundred and twenty-four mandibular first permanent molars and second primary molars were obtained from children requiring dental extractions under general anaesthesia. Following exodontia, 10-microm-thick frozen pulp sections were processed for indirect immunofluorescence. Triple-labelling regimes were employed using combinations of the following: (1) protein gene product 9.5, a general neuronal marker; (2) leucocyte common antigen (LCA); and (3) Ulex europaeus I lectin, a marker of vascular endothelium. Image analysis was then used to determine the percentage area of immunostaining for LCA. Leucocytes were significantly more abundant in the pulp horn and mid-coronal region of intact and carious primary teeth, as compared to permanent teeth (P < 0.05, anova). Both dentitions demonstrated the presence of well-localized inflammatory cell infiltrates and marked aborization of pulpal nerves in areas of dense leucocyte accumulation. Primary and permanent tooth pulps appear to have a similar potential to mount inflammatory responses to gross caries The management of the compromised primary tooth pulp needs to be reappraised in the light of these findings.

  16. Characterization of Human Dental Pulp Tissue Under Oscillatory Shear and Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Burak; Bayrak, Ece; Erisken, Cevat

    2016-06-01

    Availability of material as well as biological properties of native tissues is critical for biomaterial design and synthesis for regenerative engineering. Until recently, selection of biomaterials and biomolecule carriers for dental pulp regeneration has been done randomly or based on experience mainly due to the absence of benchmark data for dental pulp tissue. This study, for the first time, characterizes the linear viscoelastic material functions and compressive properties of human dental pulp tissue harvested from wisdom teeth, under oscillatory shear and compression. The results revealed a gel-like behavior of the pulp tissue over the frequency range of 0.1-100 rps. Uniaxial compression tests generated peak normal stress and compressive modulus values of 39.1 ± 20.4 kPa and 5.5 ± 2.8 kPa, respectively. Taken collectively, the linear viscoelastic and uniaxial compressive properties of the human dental pulp tissue reported here should enable the better tailoring of biomaterials or biomolecule carriers to be employed in dental pulp regeneration.

  17. Sorption of antimony on human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nofal, M.; Amin, H.; Alian, G.

    1997-01-01

    The study of the uptake of toxic elements on human teeth represents an interesting research area, as the fate of these elements when present in the human food is of health significance. Since antimony is one of the common toxic elements and since, the chemical behaviour of antimony is similar to that of arsenic, one of the most important toxic elements commonly encountered in cases of food poisoning, it has been decided to investigate its uptake on human teeth and on other restoration materials. The radioactive tracer technique was used to evaluate the concentration of antimony sorbed on teeth. This tracer was obtained by irradiation of antimony metal in the reactor, subsequent dissolution in concentrated sulphuric acid, evaporation to dryness and making the solution 6 M in Hydrochloric acid (1). Antimony prepared in this way is in the trivalent state (Sb III). Sorption was studied in water, tea, coffee, red tea and chicken soup. The highest sorption was achieved from water and chicken soup and least sorption was noticed in case of coffee. The results are presented in the form of the depletion of the radioactivity (A) of antimony with time in presence of a tooth in water and other drinks

  18. Comparison of immunodulatory properties of dental pulp stem cells derived from healthy and inflamed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazid, Farinawati Binti; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Musa, Sabri

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunodulatory properties of dental pulp stem cells derived from healthy (SCD) and inflamed pulp deciduous (SCDIP) tissues. The overall hypothesis is that SCDIP possess equal immune properties with SCD and could be used as an alternative tissue source in regenerative medicine. An intra-oral examination was carried out to assess the status of the pulp tissues and group them according to healthy or inflamed. Primary cells were established from these groups, and basic mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) characterizations were conducted. The expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), namely HLA-G, HLA-DR, and HLA-ABC were examined in both cell lines using flow cytometry. We further compared the immunosuppressive effects of SCD and SCDIP on phytohemagglutinin-induced T cell proliferation. Supernatants were tested for cytokine profiling using multiplex array. While SCD exhibited typical MSC characteristics, SCDIP on the other hand, did not. Compared with SCDIP, SCD effectively suppresses mitogen-induced T cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, as well as express a higher percentage of HLA-ABC and HLA-G. In addition, levels of several cytokines, such as TNF-α, TNF-β, and IL-2, were drastically suppressed in SCD than SCDIP. Furthermore, a high level of IL-10, an important anti-inflammatory cytokine, was present in SCD compared with SCDIP. These findings suggest that SCDIP is highly dysfunctional in terms of their stemness and immunomodulatory properties. SCDIP is not a viable therapeutic cell source especially when used in graft versus host disease (GvHD) and organ rejection.

  19. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and β cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:26131314

  20. Culture of human dental pulp cells at variable times post-tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENÍCIO Daniela Ferreira Araújo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the viability of human dental pulp cells from extracted teeth kept at standard room temperature and atmospheric pressure for different periods of time. Twenty-one healthy permanent teeth were used. They were divided into five groups according to the expected time from extraction to processing. One group was tested immediately after extraction; the other groups were each tested at one of the following time points: 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours post-extraction. Cell morphology was analysed by light microscopy; cell proliferation was analysed using MTT assay and by counting the viable cells in a haemocytometer. Similar results were observed in all groups (p < 0.05. A delay of up to five hours for tooth processing and tissue collection does not preclude the establishment of dental pulp cell cultures, affect the morphology of these cells, or reduce their proliferative potential.

  1. Influence of mechanical environment on the engineering of mineralized tissues using human dental pulp stem cells and silk fibroin scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woloszyk, A.; Holsten Dircksen, S.; Bostanci, N.; Müller, R.; Hofmann, S.; Mitsiadis, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Teeth constitute a promising source of stem cells that can be used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine purposes. Bone loss in the craniofacial complex due to pathological conditions and severe injuries could be treated with new materials combined with human dental pulp stem cells

  2. Expression of DMP-1 in the human pulp tissue using low level laser therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Natalino Lourenço; Teixeira Marques, Nádia Carolina; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Silva, Thiago Cruvinel; Andrade Moreira Machado, Maria Aparecida; Oliveira, Thais Marchini; Rodini, Camila Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on DMP-1 expression in pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. Twenty mandibular primary molars were randomly assigned into the following groups: Group I—Buckley’s Formocresol (FC); Group II—Calcium Hydroxide (CH); Group III—LLLT + CH and Group IV—LLLT + Zinc oxide/Eugenol. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted for histological analysis and immunolocalization of DMP-1. Descriptive analysis was performed on the dentin pulp complex. Histopathological assessment showed internal resorption in group FC. Groups CH and LLLT + CH provided better pulpal repair due to the absence of inflammation and the formation of hard tissue barrier. These two groups presented odontoblastic layer expressing DMP-1. According to this study, low level laser therapy preceding the use of calcium hydroxide exhibited satisfactory bio-inductive activity on pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. However, other histological and cellular studies are needed to confirm the laser tissue action and efficacy. (paper)

  3. Clinical e radiographic sucess of indirect pulp capping with partial excavation of demineralization dentin in primary posterior teeth

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    Roberta Francisca Martins de Castro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the outcome of the indirect pulp capping technique after incomplete excavation of the demineralized dentin in primary molars of patients treated in the period from 2004 to 2006.Methods: Sample consisted of 81 teeth of 36 patients aged from 1-to-8 year-old. Clinical and radiographic inclusion criteria, as well as criteria of the success of the evaluated treatments were established.Results: There were four (4.9% failures and 77 (95.1% successful treatments. Treatment failure occurred in three girls and in one boy, and no statistically significant difference (p=0.341 was found. Twenty three teeth were treated with resin-modified glass-ionomer cement and 58 with composite resin, of which 22 and 55, respectively, showed successful results. There was no statistically significant difference between restorative materials used (p=0.877. As regards the studied age group, patients aged from 1 to 4 years showed a significantly lower success rate when compared with 5-8 year-old children (p = 0.0428. Conclusion: The results suggest that the indirect pulp capping technique after incomplete excavation of demineralized dentin is a reliable technique to be adopted in deep lesions of primary teeth.

  4. The autoradiographic pattern of the in vitro uptake of proline by the coronal areas of intact and carious human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karjalainen, S.; Soederling, E.

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis of collagen in teeth was studied by following the uptake of proline in vitro. Whole crowns of human teeth were incubated for 6 h with ( 14 C)- or ( 3 H)-proline. Autoradiographs were prepared from sections of intact teeth and teeth with carious lesions of varying depths and location. The number of silver grains per cm 2 in the predentine, odontoblast layer and pulp were counted in selected fields magnified x 430 representing the deepest parts of the carious lesions. No differences in the labelling pattern were observed between the intact teeth incubated freshly after extraction and those preserved in liquid nitrogen. The densest labelling of intact teeth was seen in the predentine and odontoblast layer. The alterations under initial dentine caries appeared as increased labelling of the predentine and decreased labelling of the odontoblast layer; no alterations were observed in the underlying pulp. In advanced lesions, the predentine labelling decreased and that in the odontoblast layer and pulp increased. In the initial stages, caries seem to activate collagen synthesis in a relatively restricted area of the underlying structures, but in advanced stages, caries seem to increase the odontoblastic cellular polypeptide chain formation but prevent further maturation of the collagen. (author)

  5. Autoradiographic pattern of the in vitro uptake of proline by the coronal areas of intact and carious human teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karjalainen, S; Soederling, E [Turku Univ. (Finland)

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis of collagen in teeth was studied by following the uptake of proline in vitro. Whole crowns of human teeth were incubated for 6 h with (/sup 14/C)- or (/sup 3/H)-proline. Autoradiographs were prepared from sections of intact teeth and teeth with carious lesions of varying depths and location. The number of silver grains per cm/sup 2/ in the predentine, odontoblast layer and pulp were counted in selected fields magnified x 430 representing the deepest parts of the carious lesions. No differences in the labelling pattern were observed between the intact teeth incubated freshly after extraction and those preserved in liquid nitrogen. The densest labelling of intact teeth was seen in the predentine and odontoblast layer. The alterations under initial dentine caries appeared as increased labelling of the predentine and decreased labelling of the odontoblast layer; no alterations were observed in the underlying pulp. In advanced lesions, the predentine labelling decreased and that in the odontoblast layer and pulp increased. In the initial stages, caries seem to activate collagen synthesis in a relatively restricted area of the underlying structures, but in advanced stages, caries seem to increase the odontoblastic cellular polypeptide chain formation but prevent further maturation of the collagen.

  6. Caries induced cytokine network in the odontoblast layer of human teeth

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    Horst Jeremy A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunologic responses of the tooth to caries begin with odontoblasts recognizing carious bacteria. Inflammatory propagation eventually leads to tooth pulp necrosis and danger to health. The present study aims to determine cytokine gene expression profiles generated within human teeth in response to dental caries in vivo and to build a mechanistic model of these responses and the downstream signaling network. Results We demonstrate profound differential up-regulation of inflammatory genes in the odontoblast layer (ODL in human teeth with caries in vivo, while the pulp remains largely unchanged. Interleukins, chemokines, and all tested receptors thereof were differentially up-regulated in ODL of carious teeth, well over one hundred-fold for 35 of 84 genes. By interrogating reconstructed protein interaction networks corresponding to the differentially up-regulated genes, we develop the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory cytokines highly expressed in ODL of carious teeth, IL-1β, IL-1α, and TNF-α, carry the converged inflammatory signal. We show that IL1β amplifies antimicrobial peptide production in odontoblasts in vitro 100-fold more than lipopolysaccharide, in a manner matching subsequent in vivo measurements. Conclusions Our data suggest that ODL amplifies bacterial signals dramatically by self-feedback cytokine-chemokine signal-receptor cycling, and signal convergence through IL1R1 and possibly others, to increase defensive capacity including antimicrobial peptide production to protect the tooth and contain the battle against carious bacteria within the dentin.

  7. Successful isolation, in vitro expansion and characterization of stem cells from Human Dental Pulp

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    Preethy SP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells isolated from post natal human dental pulp, (Dental pulp stem cells-DPSCs which is from permanent teeth and SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth,the Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC and Stem cells from root Apical papilla(SCAPhave the potential to differentiate into cells of a variety of tissues including heart, muscle, cartilage, bone, nerve, salivary glands, teeth etc(1,2,3,4.This multipotential ability of DPSCs is being researched for clinical application for treating a variety of diseases like myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy, neuro-degenerative disorders, cartilage replacement, tooth regeneration and for repair of bone defects to mention a few. Moreover, the isolation of stem cells from teeth is minimally invasive, readily accessible and the non immunogenic characteristic of dental stem cells has paved the way for efforts to store the exfoliated deciduous teeth or milk teeth which is usually discarded, for use in the future. In this study we have isolated and expanded in vitro, the cells obtained from human dental pulp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining written informed consent, 24 teeth that were extracted for therapeutic or cosmetic reasons from 16 patients were used in this study. The specimens were transported from the clinic to NCRM lab taking 6 to 48 Hrs. For removal of the pulp tissue, the teeth were split obliquely at the Cementoenamel junction and the pulp tissue was isolated using brooches. The extracted pulp tissues were subjected to digestion using Collagenase type-I and type II at 37˚C for 15- 30 minutes. The digested cells were filtered with 70µm filter and centrifuged at 1800 rpm for 10 minutes. The pellet was then suspended in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM/Ham’s F12 supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum , 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 µg/ml streptomycin,2 m M L -glutamine, and 2 m M nonessential amino

  8. Distribution of the amelogenin protein in developing, injured and carious human teeth

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    Thimios eMitsiadis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amelogenin is the major enamel matrix protein with key roles in amelogenesis. Although for many decades amelogenin was considered to be exclusively expressed by ameloblasts, more recent studies have shown that amelogenin is also expressed in other dental and no-dental cells. However, amelogenin expression in human tissues remains unclear. Here, we show that amelogenin protein is not only expressed during human embryonic development but also in pathological conditions such as carious lesions and injuries after dental cavity preparation. In developing embryonic teeth, amelogenin stage-specific expression is found in all dental epithelia cell populations but with different instensities. In the different layers of enamel matrix, waves of positive versus negative immunostaining for amelogenin are detected suggesting that the secretion of amelogenin protein is orchestreted by a biological clock. Amelogenin is also expressed transiently in differentiating odontoblasts during predentin formation, but was absent in mature functional odontoblasts. In intact adult teeth, amelogenin was not present in dental pulp, odontoblasts, and dentin. However, in injured and carious adult human teeth amelogenin is strongly re-expressed in newly differentiated odontoblasts and is distributed in the dentinal tubuli under the lesion site. In an in vitro culture system, amelogenin is expressed preferentially in human dental pulp cells that start differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and form mineralization nodules. These data suggest that amelogenin plays important roles not only during cytodifferentiation, but also during tooth repair processes in humans.

  9. Sorption of zinc on human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, A.; Amin, H.; Alian, G.

    1997-01-01

    Zinc containing dental amalgams are sometimes used as fillings by dentists. The freshly mixed mass of the amalgam alloy and liquid mercury packed or condensed into a prepared tooth cavity. Zinc has been included in amalgams alloys up to 2% as an aid in manufacturing by helping to produce clean sound castings of the ingots. Although such restorations have a relatively long service life, they are subject to corrosion and galvanic action, thus releasing metallic products into the oral environment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the uptake (sorption) of Zinc ionic species on human teeth using the radioactive tracer technique. For this purpose the isotope Zn-65 produced from pile-irradiation of zinc metal was used. The various liquids studied were drinking water (tap water), tea, coffee, red tea and chicken soup. Sorption was studied through immersion of a single human tooth (extracted) in each of these liquids

  10. Penetration of 35% hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber in bovine teeth after LED or Nd:YAG laser activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Cardoso, Paula Elaine; Valera, Marcia Carneiro; de Araújo, Maria Amélia Máximo; Kojima, Alberto Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    This aim of the present study was to evaluate the pulp chamber penetration of 35% hydrogen peroxide activated by LED (light-emitting diode) or Nd:YAG laser in bovine teeth, after an in-office bleaching technique. Forty-eight bovine lateral incisors were divided into four groups, acetate buffer was placed into the pulp chamber and bleaching agent was applied as follows: for group A (n = 12), activation was performed by LED; for group B (n = 12), activation was performed by Nd:YAG laser (60 mJ, 20 Hz); group C (n = 12) received no light or laser activation; and the control group (n = 12) received no bleaching gel application or light or laser activation. The acetate buffer solution was transferred to a glass tube and Leuco Crystal Violet and horseradish peroxidase were added, producing a blue solution. The optical density of this solution was determined spectrophotometrically and converted into microgram equivalents of hydrogen peroxide. The results were analysed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). It was verified that the effect of activation was significant, as groups activated by LED or laser presented greater hydrogen peroxide penetration into the pulp chamber (0.499 +/- 0.622 microg) compared with groups that were not (0.198 +/- 0.218 microg). There was no statistically significant difference in the penetration of hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber between the two types of activation (LED or laser). The results suggest that activation by laser or LED caused an increase in hydrogen peroxide penetration into the pulp chamber.

  11. Microarray expression profiling of human dental pulp from single subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tete, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Scioletti, Anna Paola; Tranasi, Michelangelo; Raicu, Florina; Paolantonio, Michele; Stuppia, Liborio; Vinci, Raffaele; Gherlone, Enrico; Ciampoli, Cristian; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Conti, Pio

    2008-01-01

    Microarray is a recently developed simultaneous analysis of expression patterns of thousand of genes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the expression profile of human healthy dental pulp in order to find the presence of genes activated and encoding for proteins involved in the physiological process of human dental pulp. We report data obtained by analyzing expression profiles of human tooth pulp from single subjects, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA. Experiments were performed on a high-density array able to analyse about 21,000 oligonucleotide sequences of about 70 bases in duplicate, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA from the pulp of a single tooth. Obtained data were analyzed using the S.A.M. system (Significance Analysis of Microarray) and genes were merged according to their molecular functions and biological process by the Onto-Express software. The microarray analysis revealed 362 genes with specific pulp expression. Genes showing significant high expression were classified in genes involved in tooth development, protoncogenes, genes of collagen, DNAse, Metallopeptidases and Growth factors. We report a microarray analysis, carried out by extraction of total RNA from specimens of healthy human dental pulp tissue. This approach represents a powerful tool in the study of human normal and pathological pulp, allowing minimization of the genetic variability due to the pooling of samples from different individuals.

  12. The induction of dentin bridge-like structures by constructs of subcultured dental pulp-derived cells and porous HA/TCP in porcine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yusuke; Honda, Masaki J; Ohshima, Hayato; Tonomura, Akiko; Ohara, Takayuki; Itaya, Toshimitsu; Kagami, Hideaki; Ueda, Minoru

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate dentin-bridge formation in teeth following the transplantation of dental pulp-derived cells seeded on hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) scaffolds. The dental pulp tissues were removed from the extracted first molar teeth of miniature pigs and single cell populations were subcultured. Second-passage cells that had alkaline phosphatase activity were combined with scaffolds. Cell-scaffold constructs were placed in contact with the exposed pulp tissue. The dimensions of the exposed pulp site were approximately 1-2.5 mm in diameter and 2-3 mm in depth from the tooth surface. After placing the constructs, the tooth was restored with composite resin. Six weeks after transplantation, hard tissue formation was observed on the pulp tissue in histology. Dentinal tubule-like structures were observed in most of the hard tissue generated, and columnar cells, which showed positive immunoreactions with dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and heat shock protein (HSP)-25, were aligned beneath the hard tissues. When only scaffolds were placed on the pulp tissues, particles of hard tissue were formed, however dentinal tubule-like structures and odontoblasts were not observed despite the formation of hard tissue. In conclusion, the implantation of dental pulp constructs into pulp exposed stimulates the formation of calcified dentin-like structures.

  13. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  14. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  15. [Clinical study of the effect of preventing dentine hypersensitiveness by using Fluor Protector and Green Or on the prepared vital pulp abutment teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jia-nan; Lu, Yu-miao; Zhou, Xiao-yan

    2005-04-01

    To study and evaluate the effect preventing dentine hypersensitiveness by using Fluor Protector or Green Or on the prepared vital pulp abutment teeth of PFM bridges. 118 cases, 246 prepared vital pulp abutment teeth, were randomly divided into three groups: Experimental Group A--treated with the Fluor Protector and temporary crown; Experimental Group B--treated with the Green Or and temporary crown, and Control Group--only using temporary crown. The results of desensitization in 3 groups were evaluated. F test was used for analysis (DSPV6.01). Significant differences were found between experimental Group A, B and the control group after 1 week (when cementing the PFM bridges); and also after 1 month (P0.05). The effect of preventing dental hypersensitiveness by using Fluor Protector or Green Or on the prepared vital pulp abutment teeth of PFM bridges is ideal. It is easy to use and worth being widely applied.

  16. Allogeneic stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED for the management of periapical lesions in permanent teeth: Two case reports of a novel biologic alternative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madu Ghana Shyam Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are the pluripotent cells that have the capacity to differentiate into other specialized cells. Recently, many experiments have been conducted to study the potentiality of stem cells in the tissue regeneration. We report two cases treated utilizing stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED in the management of periapical lesions in permanent teeth. Two normal human deciduous teeth from children, 7‒8 years of age, were collected to isolate stem cells. Two patients, one with periapical pathology alone and the other with periapical lesion along with an open apex in young permanent teeth, were selected for the study. After initial debridement of the root canals, homing of SHED was carried out and the access cavity was sealed using glass-ionomer cement. Clinical examination after 7 days, 30 days, 90 days, 180 days and 365 days revealed no symptoms. Closure of open apex and periapical tissue healing were observed radiographically at one-month review and maintained until 365-day review. Positive response to electric pulp testing was recorded for the treated teeth from the 3- to 12-month follow-ups. The treated cases demonstrated complete resolution of periapical radiolucency in a span of 30 days, which was faster than the conventional methods. SHED could be considred effective in treating the periapical lesions and open apex in permanent teeth.

  17. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Ma, Lan; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tomoda, Erika; Aijima, Reona; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kukita, Toshio; Shi, Songtao; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment. PMID:26775677

  18. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Ma, Lan; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tomoda, Erika; Aijima, Reona; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kukita, Toshio; Shi, Songtao; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2016-01-18

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment.

  19. Intra-pulp temperature increase of equine cheek teeth during treatment with motorized grinding systems: influence of grinding head position and rotational speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussler, Silvia; Luepke, Matthias; Seifert, Hermann; Staszyk, Carsten

    2014-02-21

    In equine practice, teeth corrections by means of motorized grinding systems are standard procedure. The heat resulting from that treatment may cause irreparable damage to the dental pulp. It has been shown that a 5.5°C temperature rise may cause severe destruction in pulp cells. Hence, the capability to continuously form secondary dentine is lost, and may lead, due to equine-typical occlusal tooth abrasion, to an opening of the pulp cavity.To obtain reliable data on the intra-pulp increase in temperature during corrective treatments, equine cheek teeth (CT) were modified in a way (occlusal surface smoothed, apical parts detached, pulp horns standardized) that had been qualified in own former published studies. All parameters influencing the grinding process were standardized (force applied, initial temperatures, dimensions of pulp horns, positioning of grinding disk, rotational speed). During grinding experiments, imitating real dental treatments, the time span for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was determined. The minimum time recorded for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was 38 s in mandibular CT (buccal grinding, 12,000 rpm) and 70 s in maxillary CT (flat occlusal grinding, 12,000 rpm). The data obtained showed that doubling the rotational speed of the disk results in halving the time span after which the critical intra-pulp temperature increase in maxillary CT is reached. For mandibular CT, the time span even drops by two thirds. The use of standardized hypsodont CT enabled comparative studies of intra-pulp heating during the grinding of occlusal tooth surfaces using different tools and techniques. The anatomical structure of the natural vital hypsodont tooth must be kept in mind, so that the findings of this study do not create a deceptive sense of security with regard to the time-dependent heating of the native pulp.

  20. EPR dosimetry of irradiated human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodas Duran, J.E.; Panzeri, H.; Mascarenhas, S.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of the absorbed radiation dose in man may be made by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of dental enamel. We analysed the EPR signals for dental enamel submitted to gamma radiation in doses between 1 Gy and 25 Gy. We conclude that independent of the type of tooth analysed there exists a linear relation between the EPR signals and the absorbed doses. These studies were extended to enamel irradiated with gamma rays and with X rays in doses between 0.1 Gy and 0.6 Gy. The graph of the intensity of the EPR signals as a function of the dose has a slope of 0.22. This calibration may be used to calculate the absorbed dose for humans from a measurement of the EPR signal from small samples of enamel taken from any permanent tooth. Finally we comment on some EPR studies of effects of radiation of milk teeth. (author)

  1. The number of bleaching sessions influences pulp tissue damage in rat teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Benetti, Francine; da Silva Facundo, Aguinaldo Cândido; Ferreira, Luciana Louzada; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Ervolino, Edilson; Rahal, Vanessa; Briso, André Luiz Fraga

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide tooth bleaching is claimed to cause alterations in dental tissue structures. This study investigated the influence of the number of bleaching sessions on pulp tissue in rats. Male Wistar rats were studied in 5 groups (groups 1S-5S) of 10 each, which differed by the number (1-5) of bleaching sessions. In each session, the animals were anesthetized, and 35% hydrogen peroxide gel was applied to 3 upper right molars. Two days after the experimental period, the animals were killed, and their jaws were processed for light microscope evaluation. Pulp tissue reactions were scored as follows: 1, no or few inflammatory cells and no reaction; 2, session, necrotic tissue in the pulp horns and underlying inflammatory changes were observed. The extent and intensity of these changes increased with the number of bleaching sessions. After 5 sessions, the changes included necrotic areas in the pulp tissue involving the second third of the radicular pulp and intense inflammation in the apical third. The number of bleaching sessions directly influenced the extent of pulp damage. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Human Tooth Pulp: Proteomics of Human Tooth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eckhardt, Adam; Jágr, Michal; Pataridis, Statis; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 12 (2014), s. 1961-1966 ISSN 0099-2399 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0453; GA MZd(CZ) NT14324 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : dentin * human pulp * tandem mass spectrometry * tooth proteome * 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 3.375, year: 2014

  3. A prospective clinical study of regenerative endodontic treatment of traumatized immature teeth with necrotic pulps using bi-antibiotic paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, H; Kenny, K; Altimimi, A; Kang, J; Duggal, M S

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the treatment outcomes of a revitalization endodontic technique (RET) for the management of traumatized immature teeth with necrotic pulps in children. Fifteen healthy children (age range = 7-10 years) with traumatized immature maxillary incisors with necrotic pulps treated with bi-antibiotic revitalization endodontic technique were prospectively assessed over approximately two years (mean = 22 months). One operator undertook all treatments, clinical reviews and standardized radiographic exposures with radiographic analysis being carried out by two calibrated experienced clinicians. Crown colour change was assessed using an objective published methodology. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare root lengths, root dentinal widths and apical foramen widths over time. Interoperator measurement reliability was consistently strong for all measurements. There was no significant difference in root lengths or root dentinal wall widths following RET. A significant difference in apical foramen widths was observed after 2 years (P = 0.013) with resolution of clinical signs of infection in all cases. Despite omitting minocycline and using Portland cement (nonbismuth containing cement), a noticeable crown colour change (yellower, redder and lighter), as measured by an objective colour measurement system with ΔE = 7.39, was recorded. Most patients, however, were satisfied with the aesthetic outcome. Traumatized immature teeth with necrotic pulps treated with revitalization endodontic technique did not demonstrate continuation of root development or dentine formation when assessed by periapical radiographs. However, apical closure and periodontal healing were observed. A measurable change in crown colour (yellower, redder and lighter), with mostly no aesthetic concern to the patients/parents, was also observed. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Intra-pulp temperature increase of equine cheek teeth during treatment with motorized grinding systems : influence of grinding head position and rotational speed

    OpenAIRE

    Haeussler, Silvia; Luepke, Matthias; Seifert, Hermann; Staszyk, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In equine practice, teeth corrections by means of motorized grinding systems are standard procedure. The heat resulting from that treatment may cause irreparable damage to the dental pulp. It has been shown that a 5.5degreesC temperature rise may cause severe destruction in pulp cells. Hence, the capability to continuously form secondary dentine is lost, and may lead, due to equine-typical occlusal tooth abrasion, to an opening of the pulp cavity.To obtain reliable data on the int...

  5. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of indirect pulp treatment with MTA and calcium hydroxide in primary teeth (in-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimi George

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Clinical and radiographic effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (white MTA and calcium hydroxide (Dycal in indirect pulp treatment (IPT of primary teeth over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial with sample size of 40 primary molars between the age group of 5-9 years, of which, 20 teeth were considered, each for MTA and Dycal. Measurements on the digitized radiographs were performed at baseline, third and sixth month, increase in dentin was then measured using Corel Draw software. Result: Independent t-test had indicated that at the end of 3 months and 6 months, a statistically significant increase in dentin thickness with both MTA and Dycal (P-value ≤ 0.001 was found. Within the MTA group, the thickness of dentin formed was 0.089 mm ± 0.031 mm at first 3 months and 0.055 ± 0.022 mm at the second 3 months, (P ≤ 0.001 evaluated using paired t-test. In the Dycal group, increment in dentin deposited was 0.068 mm at the first 3 months and second 3 months, it was 0.030 mm (P-value ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, MTA is superior to Dycal as a good IPT medicament in primary teeth.

  6. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of indirect pulp treatment with MTA and calcium hydroxide in primary teeth (in-vivo study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Vimi; Janardhanan, Suresh Kumar; Varma, Balagopal; Kumaran, Parvathy; Xavier, Arun Mamachan

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and radiographic effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (white MTA) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal) in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) of primary teeth over a period of 6 months. A clinical trial with sample size of 40 primary molars between the age group of 5-9 years, of which, 20 teeth were considered, each for MTA and Dycal. Measurements on the digitized radiographs were performed at baseline, third and sixth month, increase in dentin was then measured using Corel Draw software. Independent t-test had indicated that at the end of 3 months and 6 months, a statistically significant increase in dentin thickness with both MTA and Dycal (P-value ≤ 0.001) was found. Within the MTA group, the thickness of dentin formed was 0.089 mm ± 0.031 mm at first 3 months and 0.055 ± 0.022 mm at the second 3 months, (P ≤ 0.001) evaluated using paired t-test. In the Dycal group, increment in dentin deposited was 0.068 mm at the first 3 months and second 3 months, it was 0.030 mm (P-value ≤ 0.001). Clinically and radiographically, MTA is superior to Dycal as a good IPT medicament in primary teeth.

  7. Stepwise excavation may enhance pulp preservation in permanent teeth affected by dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2011-01-01

    ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Ways of enhancing pulp preservation by stepwise excavation-a systematic review. Hayashi M, Fujitani M, Yamaki C, Momoi Y. J Dent 2011;39(2):95-107. Epub 2010 Dec 3. REVIEWER: Lars Bjørndal, DDS, PhD, Dr Odont PURPOSE/QUESTION: To determine the clinical...

  8. Proteomics of human teeth and saliva

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jágr, Michal; Eckhardt, Adam; Pataridis, Statis; Broukal, Z.; Dušková, J.; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S141-S154 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14324 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : proteomics * tooth * dentin * enamel * pulp Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  9. CD146 positive human dental pulp stem cells promote regeneration of dentin/pulp-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mikiko; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Tsutsui, Takeo W

    2018-04-01

    CD146 and STRO-1 are endothelial biomarkers that are co-expressed on the cellular membranes of blood vessels within human dental pulp tissue. This study characterized the percentage of dentin-like structures produced by CD146-positive (CD146 + ) human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), compared with their CD146-negative (CD146 - ) counterparts. DPSC populations were enriched using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), yielding CD146 + and CD146 - cells, as well as mixtures composed of 25% CD146 + cells and 75% CD146 - cells (CD146 +/- ). Cell growth assays indicated that CD146 + cells exhibit an approximate 3-4 h difference in doubling time, compared with CD146 - cells. Cell cycle distributions were determined by flow cytometry analysis. The low percentage of CD146 + cells' DNA content in G 0 /G 1 phase were compared with CD146 - and non-separated cells. In contrast to CD146 - and non-separated cells, prompt mineralization was observed in CD146 + cells. Subsequently, qRT-PCR revealed high mRNA expression of CD146 and Alkaline phosphatase in mineralization-induced CD146 + cells. CD146 + cells were also observed high adipogenic ability by Oil red O staining. Histological examinations revealed an increased area of dentin/pulp-like structures in transplanted CD146 + cells, compared with CD146 - and CD146 +/- cells. Immunohistochemical studies detected dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), as well as human mitochondria, in transplanted DPSCs. Co-expression of CD146 and GFP indicated that CD146 was expressed in transplanted CD146 + cells. CD146 + cells may promote mineralization and generate dentin/pulp-like structures, suggesting a role in self-renewal of stem cells and dental pulp regenerative therapy.

  10. Secretoneurin and PE-11 immunoreactivity in the human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, René; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Bletsa, Athanasia; Laimer, Johannes; Troger, Josef

    2018-02-01

    To explore whether there are differences in the concentration of the secretogranin II-derived peptide secretoneurin and the chromogranin B-derived peptide PE-11 between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulps. Furthermore, colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed to confirm the sensory origin of the peptidergic nerves in the dental pulp. The concentrations of secretoneurin and PE-11 were determined by highly sensitive radioimmunoassays in extracts of dental pulps, the molecular form of secretoneurin immunoreactivities by RP-HPLC with subsequent radioimmunoassay and colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed by double immunofluorescence. Only secretoneurin but not PE-11 was detectable by radioimmunoassays whereas nerve fibers could be made visible for both secretoneurin and PE-11. Furthermore, there was a full colocalization of secretoneurin and PE-11 with calcitonin gene-related peptide in immunohistochemical experiments. There were no differences in the concentration of secretoneurin between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulp and moreover, the characterization of the secretoneurin immunoreactivities revealed that only authentic secretoneurin was detected with the secretoneurin antibody. There is unequivocal evidence that secretoneurin and PE-11 are constituents of the sensory innervation of the human dental pulp and although not exclusively but are yet present in unmyelinated C-fibers which transmit predominantly nociceptive impulses. Secretoneurin might be involved in local effector functions as well, particularly in neurogenic inflammation, given that this is the case despite of unaltered levels in inflamed tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  12. Factors affecting direction and strength of patient preferences for treatment of molar teeth with nonvital pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernazza, C R; Steele, J G; Whitworth, J M; Wildman, J R; Donaldson, C

    2015-12-01

    To elicit the factors affecting willingness to pay (WTP) values for the preferred options of participants for dealing with a molar tooth with a nonvital pulp, a common but difficult problem. A total of 503 patients were recruited from dental practices in the North East of England and interviewed. Their preferred treatment option for a molar tooth with a nonvital pulp (endodontics, extraction and various prosthetic restorative options) and WTP for this preferred option were elicited. Factors affecting preferred option and WTP were analysed using econometric modelling. Overall, 53% of the sample wished to save the tooth with a mean WTP of £373. The variance in WTP was high. Of those opting for extraction, the majority chose to leave a gap or have an implant. The preferred option was influenced by previous treatment experience. WTP was only influenced by having a low income. The high level of variance in WTP and its relatively unpredictable nature pose difficult questions for policy makers trying to ensure the delivery of an equitable service. For dentists, it is important not to make assumptions about patient preference and strength of preference when making decisions. Ideally, WTP values should be considered alongside effectiveness data, and those on costs, in policy making. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. In Vitro Investigation of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Human Immature Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Talebi; Sahar Moghimi; Mina Shafagh; Hadi Kalani; Fatemeh Mazhari

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Heat generated within tooth during clinical dentistry can cause thermally induced damage to hard and soft components of the tooth (enamel, dentin and pulp). Geometrical characteristics of immature teeth are different from those of mature teeth. The purpose of this experimental and theoretical study was to investigate thermal changes in immature permanent teeth during the use of LED light-curing units (LCU). Materials and methods. This study was performed on the second ...

  14. Histopathologic study on irradiated human developing teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yasunori (Iwate Medical Coll., Morioka (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1982-12-01

    The patient was a 7-year-old boy who had been suffering from Ewing's sarcoma originating in the mandible. Irradiation with 8000 rad of Linac was performed on the mandible prior to mandibulectomy. The results of the histopathologic examination of the teeth including resected material were as follows: 1. Although the tumor tissue was not found in the resected material, complete resoption of the medullar trabecular bone with fibrosis was noted in the area between the first molar region and the mandibular ramus. 2. The first and the second premolar teeth were in the early stage of root formation, and conglomerates of dysplastic dentin were formed in the proliferative zones. This dysplastic dentin was surrounded by loose fibrous connective tissues. 3. The dysplastic dentin showed low mineralization, embedded irregular arranged-fibrous tissue matrix and scattered various-sized lacunae containing a few tiny and pyknotic cells. 4. Irregularly arranged odontoblasts with a pyknotic appearance were found along the tubular dentin, but diffuse fibrosis occurred in the pulpal tissues. 5. The first molar tooth had completed its root formation. Various amounts of osteodentin were formed at the secondary dentin layer. Inner-resorption of dentin and fibrosis of the pulpal tissue were also found. These changes concerning the first molar tooth were also due to the effects of irradiation. 6. The second molar tooth was resorbed by tumor infiltration, and dysplastic dentin was on the resorbed surface of the dentin.

  15. Standardized method to produce tetracycline-stained human molar teeth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel C N; Rozier, Gregory Shayne; Steen, Angela; Browning, William D; Mozaffari, Mahmood S

    2006-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that exposure of human molar teeth to tetracycline (TCN) derivatives in vitro results in tooth discoloration resembling the clinical presentation of TCN staining. The effects of exposure of 20 extracted human molar teeth to distilled water, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, or minocycline were compared. The baseline color of each tooth was analyzed with a dental spectrophotometer. The pulp chambers were each filled with a TCN derivative solution and then sealed. The teeth were placed in a centrifuge tube and then centrifuged at 2800 rpm for 20 minutes. Color change was monitored weekly for 7 weeks. Digital images of the surfaces were recorded. For each specimen at every evaluation period, color change from baseline was calculated using Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) Delta E 2000 (deltae00). There was a significant association between the type of derivative used and deltae00, as well as between the evaluation period and deltae00. There was also a significant association between the interaction term, derivative x evaluation period, and deltae00. Results of the Holm-Sidak post hoc test demonstrated that all 3 TCN derivatives were associated with significantly larger deltae00 than the control group (P < or = .05). All 3 TCN derivative solutions produced significant color changes as time progressed. Different TCN derivatives produced a different L* (lightness), C* (chroma), and H* (hue), with minocycline behaving distinctly differently from chlortetracycline and doxycycline. The model could be used to study the underlying mechanisms of TCN staining as well as many aspects of vital tooth

  16. In vitro investigation of heat transfer phenomenon in human immature teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Maryam; Moghimi, Sahar; Shafagh, Mina; Kalani, Hadi; Mazhari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Heat generated within tooth during clinical dentistry can cause thermally induced damage to hard and soft components of the tooth (enamel, dentin and pulp). Geometrical characteristics of immature teeth are different from those of mature teeth. The purpose of this experimental and theoretical study was to investigate thermal changes in immature permanent teeth during the use of LED light-curing units (LCU). Materials and methods. This study was performed on the second mandibular premolars. This experimental investiga-tion was carried out for recording temperature variations of different sites of tooth and two dimensional finite element models were used for heat transfer phenomenon in immature teeth. Sensitivity analysis and local tests were included in the model validation phase. Results. Overall, thermal stimulation for 30 seconds with a low-intensity LED LCU increased the temperature from 28°C to 38°C in IIT (intact immature tooth) and PIT (cavity-prepared immature tooth). When a high-intensity LED LCU was used, tooth temperature increased from 28°C to 48°C. The results of the experimental tests and mathematical modeling illustrated that using LED LCU on immature teeth did not have any detrimental effect on the pulp temperature. Conclusion. Using LED LCU in immature teeth had no effect on pulp temperature in this study. Sensitivity analysis showed that variations of heat conductivity might affect heat transfer in immature teeth; therefore, further studies are required to determine thermal conductivity of immature teeth.

  17. Human immature dental pulp stem cells (hIDPSCs), their application to cell therapy and bioengineering: an analysis by systematic revision of the last decade of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Priscilla Vianna; Alves, Fabiana Bucholdz Teixeira; Costa Ayub, Cristina Lucia Sant'Ana; de Miranda Soares, Maria Albertina; Gomes, Jose Rosa

    2013-12-01

    During recent years, attention has been given to the potential of therapeutic approaches using stem cells obtained from dental pulp tissue. The aim of this study, therefore, was to give an overview of the papers produced during the last 10 years that have described the use of stem cells obtained from human deciduous teeth in cell therapy or bioengineering. The PubMed database was investigated from January 2002 until July 2011 and the papers published during this period were analyzed according to criteria previously established, using the methodology of systematic review. The measurements were done using "stem cell" as the primary keyword, and "human deciduous teeth dental pulp cell" and "human exfoliated deciduous teeth" as the secondary keywords. Four hundred and seventy-five papers were found. The first screening resulted in 276 papers, from which 84 papers were selected. However, only 11 of them attained the aim proposed in our approach. There were few scientific studies related to direct therapeutic application using stem cells of human deciduous teeth and none of them had been applied to humans. However, the results indicated important and promising applications of the pulp stem-cells in cell therapy and bioengineering as demonstrated by studies in animal models of muscular dystrophy, Parkison's disease, and lupus erythematosus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Purified Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Promote Osteogenic Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, T; Mabuchi, Y; Toriumi, H; Ebine, T; Niibe, K; Houlihan, D D; Morikawa, S; Onizawa, K; Kawana, H; Akazawa, C; Suzuki, N; Nakagawa, T; Okano, H; Matsuzaki, Y

    2016-02-01

    Human dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (hDPSCs) are attractive candidates for regenerative therapy because they can be easily expanded to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) on plastic and the large cell numbers required for transplantation. However, isolation based on adherence to plastic inevitably changes the surface marker expression and biological properties of the cells. Consequently, little is currently known about the original phenotypes of tissue precursor cells that give rise to plastic-adherent CFU-Fs. To better understand the in vivo functions and translational therapeutic potential of hDPSCs and other stem cells, selective cell markers must be identified in the progenitor cells. Here, we identified a dental pulp tissue-specific cell population based on the expression profiles of 2 cell-surface markers LNGFR (CD271) and THY-1 (CD90). Prospectively isolated, dental pulp-derived LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) cells represent a highly enriched population of clonogenic cells--notably, the isolated cells exhibited long-term proliferation and multilineage differentiation potential in vitro. The cells also expressed known mesenchymal cell markers and promoted new bone formation to heal critical-size calvarial defects in vivo. These findings suggest that LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) dental pulp-derived cells provide an excellent source of material for bone regenerative strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  19. On The Evolution of Human Jaws and Teeth: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yalcin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The jaws and teeth of Homo sapiens have evolved, from the last common ancestor of chimpanzee and men to their current form. Many factors such as the foods eaten and the processing of foods by fire and tools have effected this evolution course. The evolution of the masticatory complex is related to other anatomical features such as brain size and bipedal posture, and leads to important proceedings like the formation of speech and language. In this review, the evolution of human jaws and teeth and its impact on the general course of human evolution is discussed.

  20. A comparison between red and infrared light for recording pulpal blood flow from human anterior teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Timpawat, Siriporn; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2011-06-01

    To compare red (635 nm) and infrared (780 nm) light for recording pulpal blood flow from human anterior teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter. Recordings were made from 7 healthy teeth in 5 subjects (aged 22-55 years) using a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) equipped with both red and infrared lasers. Average blood flow signals were obtained with both light sources alternately from each tooth under five conditions: intact tooth without opaque rubber dam, intact tooth with dam, after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine) (LA) over the apex of the tooth and cavity preparation to almost expose the pulp, after removal and replacement of the pulp, and with the root canal empty. With infrared light, because of technical limitations, data were obtained for the first three conditions only. The dam significantly decreased the mean blood flow by 82%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. With red light, dam produced a decrease of 56%, and the resulting signal was reduced by 33% after LA and cavity preparation. The remaining signal fell by 46% after pulp removal and replacement. This contribution of the pulp is similar to that recorded previously with infrared light. There was no significant further change when the pulp was finally removed. The importance of using opaque rubber dam is confirmed. With dam, there is no advantage to using red rather than infrared light, and in each case the pulp contributes less than 50% to the blood flow signal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  2. Comparison of post-obturation pain experience following one-visit and two-visit root canal treatment on teeth with vital pulps: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Xu, P; Ren, L; Dong, G; Ye, L

    2010-08-01

    To compare the incidence and intensity of post-obturation pain after one- or two-visit root canal treatment (RCT) on anterior teeth with vital pulps and a single root and canal in a randomized controlled trial. One hundred patients requiring RCT on permanent anterior teeth with vital pulps preoperatively were included. The patients were assigned randomly into two groups of 50 patients each. After local anaesthesia, isolation, access and pulp extirpation, the canals of all teeth were prepared using engine-driven rotary ProTaper nickel-titanium instruments in a crown-down technique and irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl. The teeth in group 1 (n = 50) were filled with AH Plus sealer and gutta-percha using a lateral compaction technique at the first visit, whilst those in group 2 (n = 50) were medicated with a calcium hydroxide paste, a sterile dry cotton pellet and Caviton and scheduled for a second visit 7 days later. A modified verbal descriptor scale was used to measure preoperative pain and post-obturation pain at 6, 24, 48 h and 1 week after operation. Chi-square tests and independent-sample T-tests were used to compare the incidence and intensity of post-obturation pain of two groups at each interval. Eleven patients were excluded from the study as they failed to follow the scheduled revisit or their selected teeth had more than one root canal. Data were obtained from the remaining 89 patients. Forty-three patients were undergoing one-visit treatment (group 1) and 46 undergoing two-visit treatment (group 2). Most patients in both groups reported no pain or only slight pain within each post-obturation interval, only one in group 1 and one in group 2 had flare-ups and slight swelling. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence and intensity of post-obturation pain experienced by two groups. The incidence and intensity of post-obturation pain experience following one- or two-visit RCT on teeth with vital pulps and a single canal were not

  3. Mapping the structure, composition and mechanical properties of human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, I.M.; Duraman, N.; Mahmood, U.

    2008-01-01

    The structure-property relationship in human adult and baby teeth was characterised by grazing-incidence synchrotron radiation diffraction, optical and atomic-force microscopy, in addition to Vickers indentation. Similarities and differences between both types of teeth have been highlighted and discussed. Depth-profiling results indicated the existence of contrasting but distinct gradual changes in crystal disorder, phase abundance, crystallite size and hardness within the baby and adult enamel, thus confirming the graded nature of human teeth. When compared to the adult tooth, the baby enamel is softer, more prone to fracture, but has larger hydroxyapatite grains. Vickers hardness of the enamel was load-dependent but load-independent in the dentine. The use of a 'bonded-interface' technique revealed the nature and evolution of deformation-microfracture damage around and beneath Vickers contacts

  4. Mapping the structure, composition and mechanical properties of human teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, I.M. [Materials Research Group, Department of Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)], E-mail: j.low@curtin.edu.au; Duraman, N.; Mahmood, U. [Materials Research Group, Department of Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2008-03-10

    The structure-property relationship in human adult and baby teeth was characterised by grazing-incidence synchrotron radiation diffraction, optical and atomic-force microscopy, in addition to Vickers indentation. Similarities and differences between both types of teeth have been highlighted and discussed. Depth-profiling results indicated the existence of contrasting but distinct gradual changes in crystal disorder, phase abundance, crystallite size and hardness within the baby and adult enamel, thus confirming the graded nature of human teeth. When compared to the adult tooth, the baby enamel is softer, more prone to fracture, but has larger hydroxyapatite grains. Vickers hardness of the enamel was load-dependent but load-independent in the dentine. The use of a 'bonded-interface' technique revealed the nature and evolution of deformation-microfracture damage around and beneath Vickers contacts.

  5. Human teeth with periapical pathosis after overinstrumentation and overfilling of the root canals: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, J H; Brizuela, C; Villota, E

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether overinstrumentation followed by immediate overfilling could be a potential risk in the treatment of infected root canals. Thirty-five human teeth with infected root canals were overinstrumented and overfilled approximately 45 min after their extraction. The experimental teeth were enlarged up to size 40 and the overinstrumentation and overfilling were checked with the aid of a magnifying glass. The specimens were fixed in glutaraldehyde plus sodium cacodylate solution and prepared for scanning electron microscope examination. Bacteria were detected on the flute of the files and mostly at the root apices around the main foramen, remaining firmly attached to resorptive lacunae despite the fact that the apices had undergone great changes, including fracture or zipping. A control group consisting of 10 human teeth root canals containing vital pulps were also overinstrumented and overfilled. No bacteria were detected on the flutes of the files, at the apices or on the extruded master cone overfilling these samples. The high percentage of bacteria adhering to the resorptive lacunae or in the flutes of files used in overinstrumented human teeth with infected root canals carry a potential risk for postoperative pain, clinical discomfort and flare-ups. The hazards observed in these circumstances do not support the one-visit treatment of teeth having acute or chronic periapical abscesses.

  6. Evaluation of thermal cooling mechanisms for laser application to teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserendino, L J; Abt, E; Wigdor, H; Miserendino, C A

    1993-01-01

    Experimental cooling methods for the prevention of thermal damage to dental pulp during laser application to teeth were compared to conventional treatment in vitro. Pulp temperature measurements were made via electrical thermistors implanted within the pulp chambers of extracted human third molar teeth. Experimental treatments consisted of lasing without cooling, lasing with cooling, laser pulsing, and high-speed dental rotary drilling. Comparisons of pulp temperature elevation measurements for each group demonstrated that cooling by an air and water spray during lasing significantly reduced heat transfer to dental pulp. Laser exposures followed by an air and water spray resulted in pulp temperature changes comparable to conventional treatment by drilling. Cooling by an air water spray with evacuation appears to be an effective method for the prevention of thermal damage to vital teeth following laser exposure.

  7. Correlation between three color coordinates of human teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2014-11-01

    The objective was to determine whether there were significant correlations in the three color coordinates within each of two color coordinate systems, such as the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* system, and the lightness, chroma, and hue angle system, of human vital teeth. The color of six maxillary and six mandibular anterior teeth was measured by the Shade Vision System. Pearson correlations between each pair of the color coordinates were determined (α=0.01). The influence of two color coordinates on the other color coordinate was determined with a multiple regression analysis (α=0.01). Based on correlation analyses, all the color coordinate pairs showed significant correlations except for the chroma and hue angle pair. The CIE L* was negatively correlated with the CIE a*, b*, and chroma, but positively correlated with the hue angle. The CIE a* was positively correlated with the CIE b* and chroma. Tooth color coordinates were correlated each other. Lighter teeth were less chromatic both in the CIE a* and b* coordinates. Therefore, it was postulated that the three color coordinates of human teeth were harmonized within certain color attribute ranges, and a lack of correlations in these coordinates might indicate external/internal discolorations and/or anomalies of teeth.

  8. Ancient pathogen DNA in human teeth and petrous bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaryan, Ashot; Hansen, Henrik B.; Rasmussen, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Recent ancient DNA (aDNA) studies of human pathogens have provided invaluable insights into their evolutionary history and prevalence in space and time. Most of these studies were based on DNA extracted from teeth or postcranial bones. In contrast, no pathogen DNA has been reported from the petro...

  9. Influence of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis on dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, K; Disfani, R; Zare, R; Moeintaghavi, A; Ali, Saadat A; Boostani, H R

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between periodontal disease and dental pulp changes is controversial and has been debated for many years. This human study was performed to evaluate the possible effects of moderate to advanced periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Twenty hopeless permanent teeth were extracted from systemically healthy adults because of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis, with a bone loss of >6 mm and a mobility of grade 2 or 3. Upon extraction, the apical 2 to 3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned. Four to five sections were mounted on each slide, and every third slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The specimens were histologically processed and examined by an oral pathologist. Non-inflamed pulp, with partial or complete necrosis in some sections and several non-necrotic sections, was found in only 6.3% of teeth. Most teeth (58.3%) displayed edematous pulps. Slightly fibrotic pulps were seen in 52.1% of sections. Odontoblastic integrity was seen in 31.3% of teeth. Most teeth (77.1%) displayed no pulp stones. In 43.8% of teeth, the pulp vessels displayed dilatation. Moderate to advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planing in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is therefore recommended.

  10. Influence of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis on dental pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, K; Disfani, R; Zare, R; Moeintaghavi, A; Ali, Saadat A.; Boostani, H. R

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relationship between periodontal disease and dental pulp changes is controversial and has been debated for many years. This human study was performed to evaluate the possible effects of moderate to advanced periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Materials and Methods: Twenty hopeless permanent teeth were extracted from systemically healthy adults because of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis, with a bone loss of >6 mm and a mobility of grade 2 or 3. Upon extraction, the apical 2 to 3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned. Four to five sections were mounted on each slide, and every third slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The specimens were histologically processed and examined by an oral pathologist. Results: Non-inflamed pulp, with partial or complete necrosis in some sections and several non-necrotic sections, was found in only 6.3% of teeth. Most teeth (58.3%) displayed edematous pulps. Slightly fibrotic pulps were seen in 52.1% of sections. Odontoblastic integrity was seen in 31.3% of teeth. Most teeth (77.1%) displayed no pulp stones. In 43.8% of teeth, the pulp vessels displayed dilatation. Conclusions: Moderate to advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planing in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is therefore recommended. PMID:23493524

  11. The Effects of Triethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate (TEGDMA on the Protein of Human Dental Pulp Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Farida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA is a common component of the bonding agents and resin composites used in dentistry for restorative dentistry. However, TEGDMA could be released from composite resins following incomplete polymerization and degradation processes by salivary enzyme in the mouth. Subsequently, TEGDMA is available in saliva and diffuses toward and affects the dental pulp which contains various cells, and thus may cause severe cytotoxic effects. Objectives: To determine the total protein concentration of human dental ulp cells following exposure to TEGDMA. Materials and Methods: Dental pulp cells were isolated from the pulp of the freshly extracted teeth and cultured in DMEM for 48 h (37ºC, 5% CO2. Then, 2 mM and 4 mM, and 8 mM TEGDMA were added to these cells and incubated for 24 h. The total protein was measured by Bradford Protein Assay. Results: The total protein concentration of dental pulp cells after exposure to 4 mM, 8mM, and 12 mM TEGDMA were statistically lower (22762.27 µg/ml ± 3385.87; 20268.44 µg/ml ± 1701.14; 23706.51 µg/ml ± 3214.52; respectively than the control group (24253.77 µg/ml ± 3072.99. Furthermore, the total protein concentration of culture medium after exposure to 4 mM, 8 mM, and 2 mM TEGDMA, were statistically higher (28635.85 µg/ml ± 2373.4; 35288.41 µg/ml ± 3469.48; 38199.79 µg/ml ± 2752.47; respectively when compared with the controls (27073.83 µg/ml ± 2772.47. Conclusion: 2 mM, 4 mM, and 8 mM TEGDMA caused cytotoxity to human dental pulp cells chowed by decreasing the total protein of cells and increasing the total protein of the culture medium.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i3.102

  12. Hidden contributions of the enamel rods on the fracture resistance of human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyazadehfar, M; Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne D

    2013-01-01

    The enamel of human teeth is generally regarded as a brittle material with low fracture toughness. Consequently, the contributions of this tissue in resisting tooth fracture and the importance of its complex microstructure have been largely overlooked. In this study an experimental evaluation of the crack growth resistance of human enamel was conducted to characterize the role of rod (i.e. prism) orientation and degree of decussation on the fracture behavior of this tissue. Incremental crack growth was achieved in-plane, with the rods in directions longitudinal or transverse to their axes. Results showed that the fracture resistance of enamel is both inhomogeneous and spatially anisotropic. Cracks extending transverse to the rods in the outer enamel undergo a lower rise in toughness with extension, and achieve significantly lower fracture resistance than in the longitudinal direction. Though cracks initiating at the surface of teeth may begin extension towards the dentin-enamel junction, they are deflected by the decussated rods and continue growth about the tooth's periphery, transverse to the rods in the outer enamel. This process facilitates dissipation of fracture energy and averts cracks from extending towards the dentin and vital pulp. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mercury Amalgam Diffusion in Human Teeth Probed Using Femtosecond LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Liciane Toledo; da Ana, Patricia Aparecida; Santos, Dário; Krug, Francisco José; Zezell, Denise Maria; Vieira, Nilson Dias; Samad, Ricardo Elgul

    2017-04-01

    In this work the diffusion of mercury and other elements from amalgam tooth restorations through the surrounding dental tissue (dentin) was evaluated using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (fs-LIBS). To achieve this, seven deciduous and eight permanent extracted human molar teeth with occlusal amalgam restorations were half-sectioned and analyzed using pulses from a femtosecond laser. The measurements were performed from the amalgam restoration along the amalgam/dentin interface to the apical direction. It was possible to observe the presence of metallic elements (silver, mercury, copper and tin) emission lines, as well as dental constituent ones, providing fingerprints of each material and comparable data for checking the consistence of the results. It was also shown that the elements penetration depth values in each tooth are usually similar and consistent, for both deciduous and permanent teeth, indicating that all the metals diffuse into the dentin by the same mechanism. We propose that this diffusion mechanism is mainly through liquid dragging inside the dentin tubules. The mercury diffused further in permanent teeth than in deciduous teeth, probably due to the longer diffusion times due to the age of the restorations. It was possible to conclude that the proposed femtosecond-LIBS system can detect the presence of metals in the dental tissue, among the tooth constituent elements, and map the distribution of endogenous and exogenous chemical elements, with a spatial resolution that can be brought under 100 µm.

  14. Comparison of the Amount of Temperature Rise in the Pulp Chamber of Teeth Treated With QTH, Second and Third Generation LED Light Curing Units: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahant, Rajesh Harivadanbhai; Chokshi, Shraddha; Vaidya, Rupal; Patel, Pruthvi; Vora, Asima; Mahant, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This in vitro study was designed to measure and compare the amount of temperature rise in the pulp chamber of the teeth exposed to different light curing units (LCU), which are being used for curing composite restorations. Methods: The study was performed in two settings; first, an in vitro and second was mimicking an in vivo situation. In the first setup of the study, three groups were formed according to the respective three light curing sources. i.e. quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) unit and two light-emitting diode (LED) units (second and third generations). In the in vitro setting, direct thermal emission from three light sources at 3 mm and 6 mm distances, was measured with a k-type thermocouple, and connected to a digital thermometer. For a simulation of an in vivo situation, 30 premolar teeth were used. Class I Occlusal cavity of all the teeth were prepared and they were restored with incremental curing of composite, after bonding agent application. While curing the bonding agent and composite in layers, the intrapulpal temperature rise was simultaneously measured with a k-type thermocouple. Results: The first setting of the study showed that the heat produced by irradiation with LCU was significantly less at 6 mm distance when compared to 3 mm distance. The second setting of the study showed that the rise of intrapulpal temperature was significantly less with third generation LED light cure units than with second generation LED and QTH light cure units. Conclusion: As the distance from the light source increases, less irradiation heat is produced. Third generation LED lights cause the least temperature change in the pulp chamber of single rooted teeth.

  15. SUCCESS RATE OF ONE SESSION AND TWO SESSION TECHNIQUES FOR TREATMENT OF ASYMPTOMATIC PULPITIS OF PRIMARY TEETH WITH INDIRECT PULP CAPPING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitza Kabaktchieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective: To compare the success rate between the one session and two session indirect pulp capping of asymptomatic pulpitis for 1 year after the treatment was performed in children with different caries risk. Material and Methods: The children and the teeth were selected according to certain criteria for inclusion in the study. According to that, 72 children with low, moderate and high caries risk were included and 131 teeth with asymptomatic pulpitis were treated. The clinical protocols for indirect pulp capping (IPC in one session and two sessions were defined. The review appointments were performed 6 and 12 months after the treatment using certain clinical and radiographic criteria which defined success or post-treatment complications. The results are statistically analysed using One Sided Exact Two-Proportion Test with 95% Significance level (5% risk of type I error. Results: The statistical test showed that between the compared success rates of the one session and two sessions IPC, on the 6th and 12th month, there wasn’t a significant difference (p>0.05. This was valid for every one of the examined groups of patients (p>0. 05. This proves that there is no difference in the success rates of treatment of pulpitis in primary teeth using one or two sessions. Conclusions: The results about the success of treatment of asymptomatic pulpitis in primary teeth during one or two sessions have confirmed the results showed in other current studies. Our study has confirmed (clinically and radiographically the success of both techniques and we have concluded that in children with high caries risk, more appropriate technique is the one performed in two sessions. Treatment in one session is recommended in children with low or moderate caries risk.

  16. In Vitro Investigation of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Human Immature Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Talebi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Heat generated within tooth during clinical dentistry can cause thermally induced damage to hard and soft components of the tooth (enamel, dentin and pulp. Geometrical characteristics of immature teeth are different from those of mature teeth. The purpose of this experimental and theoretical study was to investigate thermal changes in immature permanent teeth during the use of LED light-curing units (LCU. Materials and methods. This study was performed on the second mandibular premolars. This experimental investiga-tion was carried out for recording temperature variations of different sites of tooth and two dimensional finite element mod-els were used for heat transfer phenomenon in immature teeth. Sensitivity analysis and local tests were included in the mod-el validation phase. Results. Overall, thermal stimulation for 30 seconds with a low-intensity LED LCU increased the temperature from 28°C to 38°C in IIT (intact immature tooth and PIT (cavity-prepared immature tooth. When a high-intensity LED LCU was used, tooth temperature increased from 28°C to 48°C. The results of the experimental tests and mathematical modeling il-lustrated that using LED LCU on immature teeth did not have any detrimental effect on the pulp temperature. Conclusion. Using LED LCU in immature teeth had no effect on pulp temperature in this study. Sensitivity analysis showed that variations of heat conductivity might affect heat transfer in immature teeth; therefore, further studies are re-quired to determine thermal conductivity of immature teeth.

  17. Opalescence of human teeth and dental esthetic restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2016-12-01

    Human tooth enamel is opalescent, which renders teeth bluish in reflected and orange in transmitted color. The aim was to review opalescent property of teeth and application and mimetic reproduction in esthetic restorations. A PubMed search for articles published in English till 2015 on the opalescence of teeth and esthetic materials revealed 29 relevant papers. Opalescence was measured with OP-RT index, which was calculated as the difference in the yellow-blue and red-green color coordinates between the reflected and transmitted colors. Mean OP-RT value of human enamel was 22.9. OP-RT values of direct resin composites changed after polymerization, and the range in these materials was 5.7-23.7. OP-RT value ranges were 1.6-6.1 and 2.0-7.1 for the core and veneer ceramics, respectively. Since the OP-RT values of esthetic materials were lower than that of enamel, it is recommended that materials that can reproduce the opalescence of enamel be further designed.

  18. Interleukin 1-beta analysis in chronically inflamed and healthy human dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šubarić Ljiljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proinflammatory cytokines can act like endogenous pyrogen interleukin 1 (IL-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF α which regulate the synthesis of secondary mediators and other proinflammatory cytokines through macrophages and mesenchymal cells. They stimulate acute-phase proteins and attract inflammatory cells. The aim of this study was to determine interleukin 1-β (IL-1 β concentrations in chronically inflamed and healthy dental pulps. Methods. A total of 41 pulps (19 from patients with pulpitis chronic causa and 22 from patients with pulpatis chronic aperta, divided into two groups, were obtained from teeth with chronic pulp inflammation. The control group consisted of 12 teeth with healthy pulp. After extirpation, pulp samples were immediately placed in sterile Eppendorf tubes and frozen. After that, homogenisation was performed by a Teflon® pestle in ice-cold phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 whose volume was adjusted according to the weight of tissue. The supernatant was then frozen at -70°C until the performance of appropriate biochemical analyses. Cytokine IL-1 β value was determined by a commercial enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test. We applied the high sensitivity system technique, which may register low levels of cytokines, ranging from 0.125 to 8.0 pg/mL for IL-1 β. Results. By comparing the mean value of IL-1β, in the pulps we can see a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01 among them. The highest value of IL-1 β was in the subjects with pulpitis chronica clausa and it was 6.21 ± 2.70 pg/mL. Conclusion. Proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 β is present in detectable quantities in the pulp tissue of all vital pulps. Its highest concentrations were found in the sample group with pulpitis chronica clausa.

  19. Comparison of the antibacterial effect of sodium hypochlorite and aloe vera solutions as root canal irrigants in human extracted teeth contaminated with enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, S; Khosravifar, N; Sedighshamsi, M; Motamedifar, M

    2014-03-01

    The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties, but also some negative features. The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera solution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this in vitro study. The teeth recruited in this study had no cracks, internal resorption, external resorption and calcification. Enterococcus faecalis was injected in the root canals of all teeth. The teeth were then divided into three groups randomly. Each group consisted of 20 teeth that were all rinsed with one of the following solutions: sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, Aloe vera and normal saline. Subsequent to rinsing, root canals of all teeth were sampled. The samples were cultured and growth of the bacteria was assessed after 48 hours. The number of colonies of the bacteria was then counted. The difference between the inhibitory effect of Aloe vera and normal saline on E.faecalis was not significant according to independent t-test (p= 0.966). The inhibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis was much greater than that of Aloe vera and normal saline (pvera solution is not recommended as a root canal irrigator, but future studies are suggested to investigate the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera with longer duration of exposure and as an intra canal medicament.

  20. Gambaran densitas kamar pulpa gigi sulung menggunakan cone beam CT-3D (Description of pulp chamber density in deciduous teeth using cone beam CT-3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdiyati Y

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is the most common chronic diseases. Detection of caries is needed, especially on the deciduous teeth. An examination such as radiological examination is essential. The radiographic figures distinguish radiolucent of the crown. Digital radiography cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is able to show a more detailed picture. Purpose: This study was aimed to get value of the density of pulp chamber of caries and non caries deciduous teeth using CBCT radiographs. Methods: The study was conducted by using simple descriptive. The samples were all the data CBCT of pediatric patients aged 7-10 years who visited the Dental Hospital of the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Padjadjaran. The samples were teeth with single and double root. Results: The results showed that the value of the normal pulp density is 422.56 Hu, while the condition of caries decreased becomes -77.89 Hu. Conclusion: The tooth with caries showed a lower density than the non caries/tooth.Latar belakang: Karies gigi merupakan penyakit kronis yang sering terjadi. Deteksi terhadap karies sangat diperlukan terutama pada gigi decidius. Pemeriksaan penunjang berupa pemeriksaan radiologis sangat diperlukan. Secara umum gambaran radiografi dapat membedakan karies berupa gambaran radiolusent pada mahkota. Radiografi digital cone beam computed tomografi (CBCT, merupakan jenis radiografi yang mampu memperlihatkan gambaran yang lebih detail. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan nilai densitas kamar pulpa gigi sulung yang karies dan non karies menggunakan radiografi CBCT. Metode: Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode simple deskriptif. Sampel penelitian adalah semua data CBCT dari pasien anak berusia 7 - 10 tahun yang berkunjung ke RSGM Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Padjadjaran. Gigi yang dianalisa meliputi gigi berakar tunggal dan berakar ganda. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai densitas pulpa normal adalah 422,56 Hu, sedangkan pada kondisi

  1. A clinical assessment of the effects of 10% carbamide peroxide gel on human pulp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D G; Chiego, D J; Glickman, G N; McCauley, L K

    1999-04-01

    Bleaching vital teeth with 10% carbamide peroxide gel is a routine procedure in which there has been no evidence of associated permanent pulpal damage. Synthesis of the enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is increased after exposure of eukaryotic cells to conditions of oxidative stress (including H2O2) as a defense against the damaging effects of free radicals. Dental pulps were evaluated for HO-1 (aka Heat Shock Protein 32) presence in teeth treated with 10% carbamide peroxide. Seventeen intact first premolars scheduled for orthodontic extraction were bleached for 4 h immediately preceding extraction. Fourteen additional premolars from the same individuals were not bleached. All 31 teeth were extracted, fixed, demineralized, frozen, sectioned, and immunostained with anti-HO-1 antibody using a standard ABC protocol. There was no significant difference in the presence of HO-1 between total bleached versus total unbleached teeth using the Fisher's Exact Test (p pulp proper may have the potential to respond to oxidative stress by increasing the synthesis of HO-1 (HSP32). This could represent a component of an initial defensive response by specific cells in strategic locations in the pulp that precedes classical inflammatory pathways.

  2. [Heat-induced symptomatology in human teeth. An in-vitro study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissara, P; Bortolini, S; Papale, G; Scotti, R

    1998-09-01

    Various dental procedures can generate thermal increase in the dental pulp, in particular if they are incorrectly conducted. In literature the pulp cells are considered very heat sensitive. In this study the symptomatological response of patients during and after thermal administration to the dental crown has been recorded. The analysis of the symptomatology was used as an indication for the definition of the threshold of thermal damage. Twelve healthy teeth of four patients programmed for extraction were subdivided into six couples of homologous teeth. One tooth out of each couple was used for the immediate in vivo recording of the symptoms; the other, once extracted, was used to determine the thermal increase applied through the insertion of a thermocouple sensor. In each couple of teeth the thermal stimulus was equal. The average thermal increase was 11.2 degrees C. Pain starts at temperatures ranging from 39.5 to 50.4 degrees C with an average of 44.6 degrees C. This agrees with classical physiological data which reports the threshold of pain at 45 degrees C. The threshold of pain registered suggests that at temperatures below 44.6 degrees C damage to the dental pulp is improbable, at least in healthy teeth. The limit of 45 degrees C appears, therefore, to be a probable safe threshold, contrary to what is reported in literature.

  3. Dental Pulp Cells Isolated from Teeth with Superficial Caries Retain an Inflammatory Phenotype and Display an Enhanced Matrix Mineralization Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem El-Gendy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated dental pulp cells (DPCs from three healthy (hDPCs and three carious (cDPCs donors and shown that compared to hDPCs cells isolated from superficial carious lesions show higher clonogenic potential; show an equivalent proportion of cells with putative stem cell surface markers; show enhanced matrix mineralization capability; have enhanced angiogenic marker expression and retain the inflammatory phenotype in vitro characteristic of superficial caries lesions in vivo. Our findings suggest that cDPCs may be used for further investigation of the cross talk between inflammatory, angiogenic and mineralization pathways in repair of carious pulp. In addition cells derived from carious pulps (almost always discarded may have potential for future applications in mineralized tissue repair and regeneration.

  4. In situ analysis of human teeth by external PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautray, Tapash R., E-mail: tapash77@hotmail.co [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, 2-188-1 Samduk-dong, Jung-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); ARASMIN, G. Udayagiri, Kandhamal, Orissa 762100 (India); Das, Saubhagyalaxmi [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Rautray, Alekh C. [ARASMIN, G. Udayagiri, Kandhamal, Orissa 762100 (India)

    2010-07-15

    The elemental profiles of the enamel, cementum and caries of human teeth were analysed by the external proton induced X-ray emission studies. Ten elements namely P, Ca, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr and Pb were estimated in the present study. P and Ca were found to be the major elements whereas all other elements were found in trace level. It was observed that the respective concentrations of elements namely P, Ca, Fe, Zn and Pb in enamel are more than those in cementum. Concentration of P ranged between 6.37% and 25% whereas Ca ranged between 12.94% and 43.36%.

  5. Microarray evaluation of gene expression profiles in inflamed and healthy human dental pulp: the role of IL1beta and CD40 in pulp inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, V; Zizzari, V L; Dd ' Amico, V; Salini, L; D' Aurora, M; Franchi, S; Antonucci, I; Sberna, M T; Gherlone, E; Stuppia, L; Tetè, S

    2012-01-01

    Dental pulp undergoes a number of changes passing from healthy status to inflammation due to deep decay. These changes are regulated by several genes resulting differently expressed in inflamed and healthy dental pulp, and the knowledge of the processes underlying this differential expression is of great relevance in the identification of the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, the gene expression profile of inflamed and healthy dental pulps were compared by microarray analysis, and data obtained were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. This analysis allows to focus on a variety of genes, typically expressed in inflamed tissues. The comparison analysis showed an increased expression of several genes in inflamed pulp, among which IL1β and CD40 resulted of particular interest. These results indicate that gene expression profile of human dental pulp in different physiological and pathological conditions may become an useful tool for improving our knowledge about processes regulating pulp inflammation.

  6. Microarray evaluation of age-related changes in human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranasi, Michelangelo; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Zizzari, Vincenzo; D'Apolito, Giuseppe; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Salini, Luisa; Stuppia, Liborio; Tetè, Stefano

    2009-09-01

    The dental pulp undergoes age-related changes that could be ascribed to physiological, defensive, or pathological irritant-induced changes. These changes are regulated by pulp cell activity and by a variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules, playing important roles in growth regulation, tissue differentiation and organization, formation of calcified tissue, and defense mechanisms and reactions to inflammatory stimuli. The aim of this research was to better understand the genetic changes that underlie the histological modification of the dental pulp in aging. The gene expression profile of the human dental pulp in young and older subjects was compared by RNA microarray analysis that allowed to simultaneously analyze the expression levels of thousands of genes. Data were statistically analyzed by Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Semiquantitative and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to confirm the results. Microarray analysis revealed several differentially expressed genes that were categorized in growth factors, transcription regulators, apoptosis regulators, and genes of the ECM. The comparison analysis showed a high expression level of the biological functions of cell and tissue differentiation, development, and proliferation and of the immune, lymphatic, and hematologic system in young dental pulp, whereas the pathway of apoptosis was highly expressed in older dental pulp. Expression profile analyses of human dental pulp represent a sensible and useful tool for the study of mechanisms involved in differentiation, growth and aging of human dental pulp in physiological and pathological conditions.

  7. Temperature variation in pulp chamber during dental bleaching in presence or absence of light activation

    OpenAIRE

    Mollica, Fernanda Brandão; Rocha, Daniel Maranha da; Travassos, Alessandro Caldas; Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Araujo, Maria Amélia Maximo de

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: In addition to the chemical damage due to bleaching gels penetration into the pulp during pulp vitality dental bleaching, another possible aggressive factor could be the heat generated by the exothermal oxidation reaction of the bleaching gel, which may also be aggravated by the use of light activation. This study assessed the temperature variation in the pulp chamber in human teeth, using three different bleaching gels with or without LED light activation. METHODS: Thirty human pre-...

  8. Stem Cells from Cryopreserved Human Dental Pulp Tissues Sequentially Differentiate into Definitive Endoderm and Hepatocyte-Like Cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Jin; Kang, Young-Hoon; Shivakumar, Sarath Belame; Bharti, Dinesh; Son, Young-Bum; Choi, Yong-Ho; Park, Won-Uk; Byun, June-Ho; Rho, Gyu-Jin; Park, Bong-Wook

    2017-01-01

    We previously described a novel tissue cryopreservation protocol to enable the safe preservation of various autologous stem cell sources. The present study characterized the stem cells derived from long-term cryopreserved dental pulp tissues (hDPSCs-cryo) and analyzed their differentiation into definitive endoderm (DE) and hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) in vitro . Human dental pulp tissues from extracted wisdom teeth were cryopreserved as per a slow freezing tissue cryopreservation protocol for at least a year. Characteristics of hDPSCs-cryo were compared to those of stem cells from fresh dental pulps (hDPSCs-fresh). hDPSCs-cryo were differentiated into DE cells in vitro with Activin A as per the Wnt3a protocol for 6 days. These cells were further differentiated into HLCs in the presence of growth factors until day 30. hDPSCs-fresh and hDPSCs-cryo displayed similar cell growth morphology, cell proliferation rates, and mesenchymal stem cell character. During differentiation into DE and HLCs in vitro , the cells flattened and became polygonal in shape, and finally adopted a hepatocyte-like shape. The differentiated DE cells at day 6 and HLCs at day 30 displayed significantly increased DE- and hepatocyte-specific markers at the mRNA and protein level, respectively. In addition, the differentiated HLCs showed detoxification and glycogen storage capacities, indicating they could share multiple functions with real hepatocytes. These data conclusively show that hPDSCs-cryo derived from long-term cryopreserved dental pulp tissues can be successfully differentiated into DE and functional hepatocytes in vitro . Thus, preservation of dental tissues could provide a valuable source of autologous stem cells for tissue engineering.

  9. Distribution of class ii major histocompatibility complex antigenexpressing cells in human dental pulp with carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection which causes destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. Exposure of the dentin to the oral environment as a result of caries inevitably results in a cellular response in the pulp. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a group of genes that code for cell-surface histocompatibility antigens. Cells expressing class II MHC molecules participate in the initial recognition and the processing of antigenic substances to serve as antigen-presenting cells. Purpose: The aim of the study was to elucidate the alteration in the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in human dental pulp as carious lesions progressed toward the pulp. Methods: Fifteen third molars with caries at the occlusal site at various stages of decay and 5 intact third molars were extracted and used in this study. Before decalcifying with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, all the samples were observed by micro-computed tomography to confirm the lesion condition three-dimensionally. The specimens were then processed for cryosection and immunohistochemistry using an anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibody. Results: Class II MHC antigen-expressing cells were found both in normal and carious specimens. In normal tooth, the class II MHC-immunopositive cells were observed mainly at the periphery of the pulp tissue. In teeth with caries, class II MHC-immunopositive cells were located predominantly subjacent to the carious lesions. As the caries progressed, the number of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells was increased. Conclusion: The depth of carious lesions affects the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in the dental pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit infeksi bakteri yang mengakibatkan destruksi jaringan keras gigi. Dentin yang terbuka akibat karies akan menginduksi respon imun seluler pada pulpa. Kompleks histokompatibilitas utama (MHC merupakan sekumpulan gen yang mengkode histokompatibilitas

  10. Immunolocalization of RANK and RANKL along the root surface and in the periodontal membrane of human primary and permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Marie-Louise Bastholm; Thomsen, Bjarke; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Root resorption, impaired tooth eruption and early tooth loss have been described in relation to diseases that involve defects in the RANK-RANKL-OPG-expression. The aim of the present immunhistochemical study was to localize and compare the reactions for RANK and membrane...... in odontoblasts and in cells along denticles in one primary tooth. RANK was located in mononuclear cells in the pulp and in multinucleated odontoclasts along resorbed root surfaces and along resorbed dentin surfaces in the pulp in primary teeth and one permanent tooth. Conclusions. This study demonstrated RANK...... positivity in resorption areas in primary and permanent teeth. RANKL was positive in the pulp of one primary tooth. RANK expression in odontoclasts and RANKL expression in the pulp may indicate that RANK/RANKL play a role during resorption....

  11. [Observation of osteoclasts on the root surface during human deciduous teeth resorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiang-jun; Liang, Xing; Chen, Ming; Wang, Hang; Xie, Zhi-gang; Yang, Xiao-yu

    2004-08-01

    To observe osteoclasts on the resorbing surface of human deciduous teeth. After fixing the collected deciduous teeth, we prepared the tooth slices without decalcification, treated them with HE and TRAP dyestuff, and observed the osteoclasts under light and scanning electron microscope. There were large quantity of various forms of overlapping and huge osteoclasts with many nuclei and silk-like protuberances on the resorbing surface of deciduous teeth. The multinucleated osteoclasts align on the surface of coarse dentin. On the resorbing surface of human deciduous teeth there are large amount of osteoclasts which can be used as a source of studying human osteoclast.

  12. Plasticity of human dental pulp stromal cells with bioengineering platforms: a versatile tool for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barachini, Serena; Danti, Serena; Pacini, Simone; D'Alessandro, Delfo; Carnicelli, Vittoria; Trombi, Luisa; Moscato, Stefania; Mannari, Claudio; Cei, Silvia; Petrini, Mario

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, human dental pulp stromal cells (DPSCs) have received growing attention due to their characteristics in common with other mesenchymal stem cells, in addition to the ease with which they can be harvested. In this study, we demonstrated that the isolation of DPSCs from third molar teeth of healthy individuals allowed the recovery of dental mesenchymal stem cells that showed self-renewal and multipotent differentiation capability. DPSCs resulted positive for CD73, CD90, CD105, STRO-1, negative for CD34, CD45, CD14 and were able to differentiate into osteogenic and chondrogenic cells. We also assayed the angiogenic potential of DPSCs, their capillary tube-like formation was assessed using an in vitro angiogenesis assay and the uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein was measured as a marker of endothelial function. Based on these results, DPSCs were capable of differentiating into cells with phenotypic and functional features of endothelial cells. Furthermore, this study investigated the growth and differentiation of human DPSCs under a variety of bioengineering platforms, such as low frequency ultrasounds, tissue engineering and nanomaterials. DPSCs showed an enhanced chondrogenic differentiation under ultrasound application. Moreover, DPSCs were tested on different scaffolds, poly(vinyl alcohol)/gelatin (PVA/G) sponges and human plasma clots. We showed that both PVA/G and human plasma clot are suitable scaffolds for adhesion, growth and differentiation of DPSCs toward osteoblastic lineages. Finally, we evaluated the interactions of DPSCs with a novel class of nanomaterials, namely boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). From our investigation, DPSCs have appeared as a highly versatile cellular tool to be employed in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulp regeneration by transplantation of dental pulp stem cells in pulpitis: a pilot clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Murakami, Masashi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Sato, Yayoi; Ariji, Yoshiko; Matsushita, Kenji

    2017-03-09

    Experiments have previously demonstrated the therapeutic potential of mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs) for complete pulp regeneration. The aim of the present pilot clinical study is to assess the safety, potential efficacy, and feasibility of autologous transplantation of MDPSCs in pulpectomized teeth. Five patients with irreversible pulpitis were enrolled and monitored for up to 24 weeks following MDPSC transplantation. The MDPSCs were isolated from discarded teeth and expanded based on good manufacturing practice (GMP). The quality of the MDPSCs at passages 9 or 10 was ascertained by karyotype analyses. The MDPSCs were transplanted with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in atelocollagen into pulpectomized teeth. The clinical and laboratory evaluations demonstrated no adverse events or toxicity. The electric pulp test (EPT) of the pulp at 4 weeks demonstrated a robust positive response. The signal intensity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the regenerated tissue in the root canal after 24 weeks was similar to that of normal dental pulp in the untreated control. Finally, cone beam computed tomography demonstrated functional dentin formation in three of the five patients. Human MDPSCs are safe and efficacious for complete pulp regeneration in humans in this pilot clinical study.

  14. Transplantation of Human Dental Pulp-Derived Stem Cells or Differentiated Neuronal Cells from Human Dental Pulp-Derived Stem Cells Identically Enhances Regeneration of the Injured Peripheral Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Imran; Park, Ju-Mi; Kang, Young-Hoon; Byun, June-Ho; Kim, Dae-Geon; Kim, Joo-Heon; Kang, Dong-Ho; Rho, Gyu-Jin; Park, Bong-Wook

    2017-09-01

    Human dental mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the dental follicle, pulp, and root apical papilla of extracted wisdom teeth have been known to exhibit successful and potent neurogenic differentiation capacity. In particular, human dental pulp-derived stem cells (hDPSCs) stand out as the most prominent source for in vitro neuronal differentiation. In this study, to evaluate the in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration potential of hDPSCs and differentiated neuronal cells from DPSCs (DF-DPSCs), a total of 1 × 10 6 hDPSCs or DF-hDPSCs labeled with PKH26 tracking dye and supplemented with fibrin glue scaffold and collagen tubulization were transplanted into the sciatic nerve resection (5-mm gap) of rat models. At 12 weeks after cell transplantation, both hDPSC and DF-hDPSC groups showed notably increased behavioral activities and higher muscle contraction forces compared with those in the non-cell transplanted control group. In immunohistochemical analysis of regenerated nerve specimens, specific markers for angiogenesis, axonal fiber, and myelin sheath increased in both the cell transplantation groups. Pretransplanted labeled PKH26 were also distinctly detected in the regenerated nerve tissues, indicating that transplanted cells were well-preserved and differentiated into nerve cells. Furthermore, no difference was observed in the nerve regeneration potential between the hDPSC and DF-hDPSC transplanted groups. These results demonstrate that dental pulp tissue is an excellent stem cell source for nerve regeneration, and in vivo transplantation of the undifferentiated hDPSCs could exhibit sufficient and excellent peripheral nerve regeneration potential.

  15. Detection of 400-year-old Yersinia pestis DNA in human dental pulp: an approach to the diagnosis of ancient septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drancourt, M; Aboudharam, G; Signoli, M; Dutour, O; Raoult, D

    1998-10-13

    Ancient septicemic plague epidemics were reported to have killed millions of people for 2 millenniums. However, confident diagnosis of ancient septicemia solely on the basis of historical clinical observations is not possible. The lack of suitable infected material has prevented direct demonstration of ancient septicemia; thus, the history of most infections such as plague remains hypothetical. The durability of dental pulp, together with its natural sterility, makes it a suitable material on which to base such research. We hypothesized that it would be a lasting refuge for Yersinia pestis, the plague agent. DNA extracts were made from the dental pulp of 12 unerupted teeth extracted from skeletons excavated from 16th and 18th century French graves of persons thought to have died of plague ("plague teeth") and from 7 ancient negative control teeth. PCRs incorporating ancient DNA extracts and primers specific for the human beta-globin gene demonstrated the absence of inhibitors in these preparations. The incorporation of primers specific for Y. pestis rpoB (the RNA polymerase beta-subunit-encoding gene) and the recognized virulence-associated pla (the plasminogen activator-encoding gene) repeatedly yielded products that had a nucleotide sequence indistinguishable from that of modern day isolates of the bacterium. The specific pla sequence was obtained from 6 of 12 plague skeleton teeth but 0 of 7 negative controls (P plague was achieved for historically identified victims, and we have confirmed the presence of the disease at the end of 16th century in France. Dental pulp is an attractive target in the quest to determine the etiology of septicemic illnesses detected in ancient corpses. Molecular techniques could be applied to this material to resolve historical outbreaks.

  16. Ancient pathogen DNA in human teeth and petrous bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaryan, Ashot; Hansen, Henrik B.; Rasmussen, Simon

    2018-01-01

    pestis. Based on shotgun sequencing data, four of these five plague victims showed clearly detectable levels of Y.pestis DNA in the teeth, whereas all the petrous bones failed to produce Y.pestis DNA above baseline levels. A broader comparative metagenomic analysis of teeth and petrous bones from 10...

  17. Trace elements in human, cattle and swine teeth, measured by external beam PIXE-PIGE setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabacniks, M.H.; Rizzutto, M.A.; Added, N.; Liguori Neto, R.; Acquadro, J.C.; Vilela, M.; Oliveira, T.R.C.F.; Markarian, R.A.; Mori, M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of animal teeth to replace human teeth in dentistry school classes and to test chemicals and fillings, motivated for a better characterization of the elementary composition of their enamel, since some of the chemical properties, adhesion and chemical compatibility may depend on these parameters. Cattle, swine and human teeth were collected by dentists of the University of Sao Paulo. These teeth came primarily from Sao Paulo region and were analyzed for trace elements at the Open Nuclear Physics Laboratory, using a high energy external proton beam, PIXE-PIGE setup

  18. Inhibition of odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells by dental resin monomers

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Ji Hyun; Park, Hee Chul; Zhu, Tingting; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental resin monomers that are leached from the resin matrix due to incomplete polymerization can affect the viability and various functions of oral tissues and cells. In this study, the effects of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were examined. To mimic clinical situations, dental pulp cells were treated with resin monomers for 24?h prior to the analysis of alkaline p...

  19. [Three dimensional bioprinting technology of human dental pulp cells mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shi-hua; Lv, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Ting

    2013-02-18

    To explore the three dimensional(3D)bioprinting technology, using human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) mixture as bioink and to lay initial foundations for the application of the 3D bioprinting technology in tooth regeneration. Imageware 11.0 computer software was used to aid the design of the 3D biological printing blueprint. Sodium alginate-gelatin hydrosol was prepared and mixed with in vitro isolated hDPCs. The mixture contained 20 g/L sodium alginate and 80 g/L gelatin with cell density of 1×10(6)/mL. The bioprinting of hDPCs mixture was carried out according to certain parameters; the 3D constructs obtained by printing were examined; the viability of hDPCs after printing by staining the constructs with calcein-AM and propidium iodide dye and scanning of laser scanning confocal microscope was evaluated. The in vitro constructs obtained by the bioprinting were cultured, and the proliferation of hDPCs in the constructs detected. By using Imageware 11.0 software, the 3D constructs with the grid structure composed of the accumulation of staggered cylindrical microfilament layers were obtained. According to certain parameters, the hDPCs-sodium alginate-gelatin blends were printed by the 3D bioprinting technology. The self-defined shape and dimension of 3D constructs with the cell survival rate of 87%± 2% were constructed. The hDPCs could proliferate in 3D constructs after printing. In this study, the 3D bioprinting of hDPCs mixtures was realized, thus laying initial foundations for the application of the 3D bioprinting technology in tooth regeneration.

  20. Tracking down human contamination in ancient human teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampietro, María Lourdes; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lao, Oscar

    2006-01-01

    DNA sequences can be used to support data authenticity is misleading in scenarios where the presence of old contaminant sequences is possible. We argue therefore that the typing of those involved in the manipulation of the ancient human specimens is critical in order to ensure that generated results......DNA contamination arising from the manipulation of ancient calcified tissue samples is a poorly understood, yet fundamental, problem that affects the reliability of ancient DNA (aDNA) studies. We have typed the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region I of the only 6 people involved in the excavation...

  1. The Biomineralization of a Bioactive Glass-Incorporated Light-Curable Pulp Capping Material Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Kyung Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of a newly introduced bioactive glass-incorporated light-curable pulp capping material using human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs. The product (Bioactive® [BA] was compared with a conventional calcium hydroxide-incorporated (Dycal [DC] and a light-curable (Theracal® [TC] counterpart. Eluates from set specimens were used for investigating the cytotoxicity and biomineralization ability, determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and alizarin red staining (ARS. Cations and hydroxide ions in the extracts were measured. An hDPSC viability of less than 70% was observed with 50% diluted extract in all groups and with 25% diluted extract in the DC. Culturing with 12.5% diluted BA extract statistically lowered ALP activity and biomineralization compared to DC (p0.05. Ca (~110 ppm and hydroxide ions (pH 11 were only detected in DC and TC. Ionic supplement-added BA, which contained similar ion concentrations as TC, showed similar ARS mineralization compared to TC. In conclusion, the BA was similar to, yet more cytotoxic to hDPSCs than, its DC and TC. The BA was considered to stimulate biomineralization similar to DC and TC only when it released a similar amount of Ca and hydroxide ions.

  2. Effect of aquatine endodontic cleanser on smear layer removal in the root canals of ex vivo human teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino Garcia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the root canal cleanliness and smear layer removal effectiveness of Aquatine Endodontic Cleanser (Aquatine EC when used as an endodontic irrigating solution in comparison with 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five human teeth were randomly allocated to five treatment groups; the pulp chamber was accessed, cleaned, and shaped by using ProTaper and ProFile rotary instrumentation to an ISO size #40. The teeth were then processed for scanning electron microscopy, and the root canal cleanliness and removal of smear layer were examined. RESULTS: The most effective removal of smear layer occurred with Aquatine EC and NaOCl, both with a rinse of EDTA. CONCLUSIONS: Aquatine EC appears to be the first hypochlorous acid approved by the FDA to be a possible alternative to the use of NaOCl as an intracanal irrigant. Further research is needed to identify safer and more effective alternatives to the use of NaOCl irrigation in endodontics.

  3. Investigation of functional activity human dental pulp stem cells at acute and chronic pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustiashvili, M; Kordzaia, D; Mamaladze, M; Jangavadze, M; Sanodze, L

    2014-09-01

    It is already recognized that together with the other connective tissues organ-specific progenic stem cells are also found in postnatal dental pulp. This group of undifferentiated cells is only 1% of total cell population of the pulp. The aim of the study was the identification of stem cells in human dental pulp, detection of their localization and assessment of functional activity during inflammation process and/or at norm. The obtained results showed that at acute pulpitis the pulp stroma is hypocellular in comparison with the norm but cells proliferative activity is low. CD 133 and NCAM (CD 56) positive stem cells were found in perivascularl space of the pulp stroma and in Hohle layer. At process prolongation and transition to the chronic phase pulp stroma is hypercellular, the cells with large, rounded or oval-shaped nuclei with clear chromatin appear together with fibroblasts. They are distributed as about entire thickness of the stroma as especially Hohle layer. In such cells higher proliferative activity (Ki67 expression) was observed. The cells in the mentioned proliferation phase are intensively marked by CD133, the rate of which is high in Hohle layer and along it. A large number of NCAM (CD 56) positive cells appear in pulp stroma. During pulpitis an involvement of stem cells into the process of reparative dentinogenesis should be conducted stepwise. In acute cases of the disease, stem cell perivascularl mobilization and proliferation and its migration to Hohle layer occur in response to irritation /stimulation. Chronification of the process leads not only to the migration of stem cells to the periphery of the pulp but also s their В«maturationВ» (increase of NCAM expression in the stem cells), which causes an increase the number of dentin producing active odontoblasts and initiation of reparative dentinogenesis.

  4. [Correlation between PMI and DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ren; Wang, Wei-ping; Xiong, Ping

    2005-08-01

    To probe the correlation between the postmortem interval (PMI) and the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death, and to seek a new method for estimating PMI. The image cytometry was used to measure the DNA degradation under different ambient temperatures (30-35 degrees C, 15-20 degrees C) in 0-15 days after death. The average DNA content of two kinds of tissue was degradated with the prolongation of PMI. But there was a plateau period of 0-4 days for dental pulp cells of human being in 15-20 degrees C. There was a high negative correlativity PPMI. PMI could be estimated accurately according to the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death.

  5. Failure of root development of human permanent teeth following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yasunori; Kuroda, Masafumi; Amari, Eiichi; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1987-01-01

    Complete absence of root formation of the upper incisors, canine and first premolar was reported in a 27-year-old female who had received radiation therapy for a retinal glioma of the right eye at age of 3 years 1 month. Ground and decalcified sections showed no remarkable changes in enamel and dentin of the crowns, but the pulp floor was closed by irregular dentin deposit despite the absence of root formation. The outer surface of the irregular dentin was covered by acellular cementum, and the periodontal membrane was undeveloped. A slight degree of fibrosis was seen in the pulp, but the coronal part of the dentin was lined by odontoblasts. The theory that tooth eruption is caused by the growth of the root is not substantiated by the observation in this case. (author)

  6. The prevalence and distribution of radiopaque, calcified pulp stones: A cone-beam computed tomography study in a northern Taiwanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Hsieh

    2018-06-01

    Conclusion: Pulp stones are more frequent in maxillary teeth compared to mandibular teeth. Pulp stones in molar teeth were significantly more common than premolars and incisors. CBCT could be a sensitive tool to detect pulp stones, especially simplifying identification of pulp stones in radicular pulp. Knowledge of pulp stones distribution can aid dentists in clinical endodontic treatment.

  7. Different expressions of connexin 43 and 32 in the fibroblasts of human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, N; Yamaoka, Y; Sawa, Y; Kawasaki, T; Yoshida, S

    2002-06-01

    The expression and localization of gap junctional proteins connexin (Cx) 26, 32, and 43 was examined in human dental pulp. Dental pulp tissues were obtained from human third molars immediately after extraction. Some pulp tissues were used for cell culture, and the rest for histological observations. Immunostaining for cultured dental pulp fibroblasts (DPFs) showed that Cx32 and 43 were expressed in human DPFs, and proteins corresponding to 27 (Cx32) and 43kDa (Cx43) were identified by Western blot analysis. Immunostaining for tissue sections showed that the expression of Cx32 and 43 was observed in the entire region of the pulp and further strong expression of Cx32 was established beneath the cell-rich zone. Considering the close relationship between Cx types and cell functions, the results indicate that DPFs beneath the cell-rich zone may have specific, Cx32-related functions. The cell rich zone is thought to contain progenitor odontoblasts that can be induced to differentiate into mature odontoblasts in response to wounding. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that DPFs just beneath the cell-rich zone produce proteins and induce odontoblast differentiation from the cells in the cell-rich zone.

  8. Fluorescence properties of human teeth and dental calculus for clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent emission of human teeth and dental calculus is important for the esthetic rehabilitation of teeth, diagnosis of dental caries, and detection of dental calculus. The purposes of this review were to summarize the fluorescence and phosphorescence of human teeth by ambient ultraviolet (UV) light, to investigate the clinically relevant fluorescence measurement methods in dentistry, and to review the fluorescence of teeth and dental calculus by specific wavelength light. Dentine was three times more phosphorescent than enamel. When exposed to light sources containing UV components, the fluorescence of human teeth gives them the quality of vitality, and fluorescent emission with a peak of 440 nm is observed. Esthetic restorative materials should have fluorescence properties similar to those of natural teeth. Based on the fluorescence of teeth and restorative materials as determined with a spectrophotometer, a fluorescence parameter was defined. As to the fluorescence spectra by a specific wavelength, varied wavelengths were investigated for clinical applications, and several methods for the diagnosis of dental caries and the detection of dental calculus were developed. Since fluorescent properties of dental hard tissues have been used and would be expanded in diverse fields of clinical practice, these properties should be investigated further, embracing newly developed optical techniques.

  9. Minor and trace elements in human bones and teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, G V; Tandon, L

    1999-07-01

    Chemical elements play a great role in the metabolism of bones and teeth. Some elements are beneficial (F at non toxic concentrations in bones and teeth, supplementation of Cu, Mn and Zn along with Ca to delay or prevent the onset of osteoporosis) and some others (chronic exposure to Pb even at moderate concentrations, and excessive exposures to F as in fluorosis situations) are detrimental for the normal functioning of the skeleton. Knowledge on the roles played by both groups of elements can be enhanced if reliable compositional picture is available for scrutiny. The present survey was undertaken to assess the literature status on chemical composition of bones and teeth, and revealed that much needs to be done in order to have tangible collection of meaningful data. In this context, there is a desperate need for harmonization (types of samples chosen, procedures adopted to process the specimens, and finally the determination of analytes) to generate comparable data. To begin with, it is necessary to develop a bioanalytical protocol that exemplifies the merits and demerits of analyzing bones and teeth. Identification of any particular type of bone as a representative sample for the whole skeleton appears to be a far cry. Even if such a representative segment of a particular bone is identified, the logistics related to medico-legal (autopsy) and anatomical (biopsy) parameters will prevail as decisive factors. For the sake of gaining a comprehensive insight into the distribution of various trace elements in different types of bones, it is necessary to carry out controlled investigations on different types of bones (and cortical and trabecular segments from the same sources) from the same cadaver under well defined sampling conditions. On the analytical side, development of hard tissue RMs for whole bone, as well as for cortical, trabecular and marrow segments separately, would be very helpful for future investigations. (author)

  10. Minor and trace elements in human bones and teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Tandon, L.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical elements play a great role in the metabolism of bones and teeth. Some elements are beneficial (F at non toxic concentrations in bones and teeth, supplementation of Cu, Mn and Zn along with Ca to delay or prevent the onset of osteoporosis) and some others (chronic exposure to Pb even at moderate concentrations, and excessive exposures to F as in fluorosis situations) are detrimental for the normal functioning of the skeleton. Knowledge on the roles played by both groups of elements can be enhanced if reliable compositional picture is available for scrutiny. The present survey was undertaken to assess the literature status on chemical composition of bones and teeth, and revealed that much needs to be done in order to have tangible collection of meaningful data. In this context, there is a desperate need for harmonization (types of samples chosen, procedures adopted to process the specimens, and finally the determination of analytes) to generate comparable data. To begin with, it is necessary to develop a bioanalytical protocol that exemplifies the merits and demerits of analyzing bones and teeth. Identification of any particular type of bone as a representative sample for the whole skeleton appears to be a far cry. Even if such a representative segment of a particular bone is identified, the logistics related to medico-legal (autopsy) and anatomical (biopsy) parameters will prevail as decisive factors. For the sake of gaining a comprehensive insight into the distribution of various trace elements in different types of bones, it is necessary to carry out controlled investigations on different types of bones (and cortical and trabecular segments from the same sources) from the same cadaver under well defined sampling conditions. On the analytical side, development of hard tissue RMs for whole bone, as well as for cortical, trabecular and marrow segments separately, would be very helpful for future investigations. (author)

  11. The performance of human dental pulp stem cells on different three-dimensional scaffold materials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Daamen, W.F.; Bian, Z.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo behavior of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from impacted third molars, when seeded onto different 3-dimensional (3-D) scaffold materials: i.e. a spongeous collagen, a porous ceramic, and a fibrous titanium mesh.

  12. Apoptosis in the human periodontal membrane evaluated in primary and permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Marie-Louise Bastholm; Thomsen, Bjarke; Kjær, Inger

    2011-01-01

    that resorption is connected to apoptosis of the epithelial cells of Malassez. The purpose of this study is to localize cells undergoing apoptosis in the periodontal membrane of human primary and permanent teeth. Materials and methods. Human primary and permanent teeth were examined immunohistochemically...... for apoptosis and epithelial cells of Malassez in the periodontal membrane. All teeth examined were extracted in connection with treatment. Results. Apoptosis was seen in close proximity to the root surface and within the epithelial cells of Malassez. This pattern of apoptotis is similar in the periodontal...... membrane in primary and permanent teeth. Conclusions. The inter-relationship between apoptotis and root resorption cannot be concluded from the present study. Apoptosis seen in close proximity to the root surface presumably corresponds to the highly innervated layer of the periodontal membrane...

  13. [Vital pulp therapy of damaged dental pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuedong, Zhou; Dingming, Huang; Jianguo, Liu; Zhengwei, Huang; Xin, Wei; Deqin, Yang; Jin, Zhao; Liming, Chen; Lin, Zhu; Yanhong, Li; Jiyao, Li

    2017-08-01

    The development of an expert consensus on vital pulp therapy can provide practical guidance for the improvement of pulp damage care in China. Dental pulp disease is a major type of illness that adversely affects human oral health. Pulp capping and pulpotomy are currently the main methods for vital pulp therapy. Along with the development of minimal invasion cosmetic dentistry, using different treatment technologies and materials reasonably, preserving healthy tooth tissue, and extending tooth save time have become urgent problems that call for immediate solution in dental clinics. This paper summarizes the experiences and knowledge of endodontic experts. We develop a clinical path of vital pulp therapy for clinical work by utilizing the nature, approach, and degree of pulp damage as references, defense and self-repairing ability of pulp as guidance, and modern technologies of diagnosis and treatment as means.

  14. Expression and Function of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Pulp Tissue of Teeth under Orthodontic Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulan Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic force may lead to cell damage, circulatory disturbances, and vascular changes of the dental pulp, which make a hypoxic environment in pulp. In order to maintain the homeostasis of dental pulp, hypoxia will inevitably induce the defensive reaction. However, this is a complex process and is regulated by numerous factors. In this study, we established an experimental animal model of orthodontic tooth movement to investigate the effects of mechanical force on the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α in dental pulp. Histological analysis of dental pulp and expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF proteins in dental pulp were examined. The results showed that inflammation and vascular changes happened in dental pulp tissue in different periods. Additionally, there were significant changes in the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF proteins under orthodontic force. After application of mechanical load, expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was markedly positive in 1, 3, 7 d, and 2 w groups, and then it weakened in 4 w group. These findings suggested that the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was enhanced by mechanical force. HIF-1α and VEGF may play an important role in retaining the homeostasis of dental pulp during orthodontic tooth movement.

  15. Functionalized scaffolds to control dental pulp stem cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Evandro; Silva, Adriana F.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging understanding about interactions between stem cells, scaffolds and morphogenic factors has accelerated translational research in the field of dental pulp tissue engineering. Dental pulp stem cells constitute a sub-population of cells endowed with self-renewal and multipotency. Dental pulp stem cells seeded in biodegradable scaffolds and exposed to dentin-derived morphogenic signals give rise to a pulp-like tissue capable of generating new dentin. Notably, dentin-derived proteins are sufficient to induce dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblasts. Ongoing work is focused on developing ways of mobilizing dentin-derived proteins and disinfecting the root canal of necrotic teeth without compromising the morphogenic potential of these signaling molecules. On the other hand, dentin by itself does not appear to be capable of inducing endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells, despite the well known presence of angiogenic factors in dentin. This is particularly relevant in the context of dental pulp tissue engineering in full root canals, where access to blood supply is limited to the apical foramina. To address this challenge, scientists are looking at ways to use the scaffold as a controlled release device for angiogenic factors. The aim of this manuscript is to present and discuss current strategies to functionalize injectable scaffolds and customize them for dental pulp tissue engineering. The long-term goal of this work is to develop stem cell-based therapies that enable the engineering of functional dental pulps capable of generating new tubular dentin in humans. PMID:24698691

  16. Pulp regeneration in a full-length human tooth root using a hierarchical nanofibrous microsphere system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangwei; Ma, Chi; Xie, Xiaohua; Sun, Hongchen; Liu, Xiaohua

    2016-04-15

    While pulp regeneration using tissue engineering strategy has been explored for over a decade, successful regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length human root with a one-end seal that truly simulates clinical endodontic treatment has not been achieved. To address this challenge, we designed and synthesized a unique hierarchical growth factor-loaded nanofibrous microsphere scaffolding system. In this system, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binds with heparin and is encapsulated in heparin-conjugated gelatin nanospheres, which are further immobilized in the nanofibers of an injectable poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere. This hierarchical microsphere system not only protects the VEGF from denaturation and degradation, but also provides excellent control of its sustained release. In addition, the nanofibrous PLLA microsphere integrates the extracellular matrix-mimicking architecture with a highly porous injectable form, efficiently accommodating dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and supporting their proliferation and pulp tissue formation. Our in vivo study showed the successful regeneration of pulp-like tissues that fulfilled the entire apical and middle thirds and reached the coronal third of the full-length root canal. In addition, a large number of blood vessels were regenerated throughout the canal. For the first time, our work demonstrates the success of pulp tissue regeneration in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. The regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length tooth root canal has been one of the greatest challenges in the field of regenerative endodontics, and one of the biggest barriers for its clinical application. In this study, we developed a unique approach to tackle this challenge, and for the first time, we successfully regenerated living pulp tissues in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. This study will make positive scientific

  17. Use of Verbal Descriptors, Thermal Scores and Electrical Pulp Testing Scores as Predictors of Tooth Pain Before and After Application of Benzocaine Gels into Cavities of Teeth with Pulpitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangarosa, Louis P.; Ciarlone, Alfred E.; Neaverth, Elmer J.; Johnston, Carey A.; Snowden, J. Douglas; Thompson, William O.

    1989-01-01

    A double-blind pilot study was conducted on 27 consenting human volunteers who had irreversible pulpitis associated with persistent toothache pain from open carious lesions. Formulations tested contained either 0, 10%, or 20% benzocaine and were identified only by a numbered code. Before the experiment started, a small amount of a known 5% benzocaine gel was placed for 1 minute on the tongue of each patient to assure a sensation of numbness within the oral cavity. Then the test tooth was washed with a gentle stream of warm water and dried with gauze. A randomly selected test medication was placed into the open cavity and around the gingival margins for 5 minutes. Pre- and posttreatment tests were conducted at the following timed intervals: 0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. The tests included degree of pain (rated: 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe); electrical pulp testing (EPT) by a modified, voltage-ramping instrument; and ice water testing (0.5 mL directed quickly onto sound enamel of the tooth and rated: 0 to 4, with 4 being intolerable). After testing, or when pain returned to baseline, endodontic procedures were performed. There was a significant increase (p pulpitis and control teeth, 3) there were no correlations between direction of EPT scores and pain relief, 4) cold water testing was a good predictor of whether or not a tooth had pulpitis, and 5) changes in cold water testing scores after treatment could not be correlated to relief of pain according to verbal descriptors. The effectiveness of benzocaine in relieving toothache pain verifies previous studies; however, a difference between 10% and 20% benzocaine could not be demonstrated probably because of two factors: 1) the present experiment had a small sample size, and 2) there was no direct measurement of duration of local anesthesia. PMID:2490060

  18. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of the Pulpal Peroxide Levels in Intact and Restored Teeth - An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patri, Gaurav; Acharya, Gourismita; Agrawal, Pratik; Panda, Vijeta

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (30%) is a commonly used "in office" bleaching agent. Deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide on the pulp have been observed. The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the penetration of 30% hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber through intact teeth and through the surface of teeth, restored with either hybrid composite or Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC). Sixty extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into six groups. Two groups were restored with hybrid composite resin and two with RMGIC, while two groups were left intact. The teeth with acetate buffer solution in their pulp cavity were then immersed in either 30% hydrogen peroxide or distilled water depending upon the group, for 60 minutes at 37°C. Then horseradish peroxidase and leucocrystal violet were added to the acetate buffer solution present in the pulp chamber after it was transferred to a test tube and the optical density of the resultant blue solution obtained was measured spectrophotometrically. The data obtained were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Student's t-test. The data obtained established that hydrogen peroxide penetrated into the pulp from the bleaching agent used. Hydrogen peroxide (30%) showed the highest pulpal peroxide level in teeth restored with RMGIC followed by teeth restored with hybrid composite resin and the least amount of penetration was observed in intact teeth. The amount of peroxide penetration into the tooth is more through restored tooth than intact tooth and is also dependant on the type of restorative materials used.

  19. Atmospheric nuclear weapon test history as characterized by the deposition of 14C in human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, K.; Togari, A.; Matsumoto, S.; Nagatsu, T.

    1990-01-01

    The 14 C concentration in the collagen of human teeth was retrospectively investigated to determine whether its incorporation was related to atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Teeth were extracted for dental therapy from July 1987 to February 1988 from patients who were residents in Japan. Tooth collagen was extracted with HCl and converted to amorphous C by heating in a vacuum line. Specimens for 14 C analysis were prepared by mixing the amorphous C with silver powder. The 14 C concentration was measured by mass spectrometer. The 14 C concentration in tooth collagen rapidly increased in 1961 after the bomb tests, peaked around 1967-1968, and then gradually decreased. The collagen of human teeth maintains the 14 C concentration at the age of root completion for life. The results of this study indicate that the history of environmental contamination from atmospheric nuclear weapon's tests has been characterized by deposition of 14 C in the tooth collagen 14 C of human beings

  20. Phototherapy up-regulates dentin matrix proteins expression and synthesis by stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrioni, Ana Paula S; Basso, Fernanda G; Montoro, Liege A; Almeida, Leopoldina de Fátima D de; Costa, Carlos A de Souza; Hebling, Josimeri

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of infrared LED (850nm) irradiation on dentin matrix proteins expression and synthesis by cultured stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Near-exfoliation primary teeth were extracted (n=3), and SHED cultures were characterized by immunofluorescence using STRO-1, CD44, CD146, Nanog and OCT3/4 antibodies, before experimental protocol. The SHEDs were seeded (3×10(4) cells/cm(2)) with DMEM containing 10% FBS. After 24-h incubation, the culture medium was replaced by osteogenic differentiation medium, and the cells were irradiated with LED light at energy densities (EDs) of 0 (control), 2, or 4J/cm(2) (n=8). The irradiated SHEDs were then evaluated for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total protein (TP) production, and collagen synthesis (SIRCOL™ Assay), as well as ALP, collagen type I (Col I), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein (DMP-1) gene expression (qPCR). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Increased ALP activity and collagen synthesis, as well as gene expression of DSPP and ALP, were observed for both EDs compared with non-irradiated cells. The ED of 4J/cm(2) also increased gene expression of COL I and DMP-1. In conclusion, infrared LED irradiation was capable of biostimulating SHEDs by increasing the expression and synthesis of proteins related with mineralized tissue formation, with overall better results for the energy dose of 4J/cm(2). Phototherapy is an additional approach for the clinical application of LED in Restorative Dentistry. Infrared LED irradiation of the cavity's floor could biostimulate subjacent pulp cells, improving local tissue healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Vinegar as a Disinfectant for Extracted Human Teeth - An in-Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogineni, Sindhuja; Ganipineni, Kiranmai; Babburi, Suresh; Venigalla, Aparna; Pinnisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Benarji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2016-07-01

    In dentistry, extracted human teeth are routinely used to learn technical and preclinical skills. Since human teeth harbour many pathogens these should be disinfected before use to minimize the risk of infections. Some commonly used disinfectants in laboratories are 10% formalin, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl), 70% alcohol and normal saline which have their own disadvantages like carcinogenicity, toxicity, cost effectiveness etc. Many studies have been conducted using these solutions but there is no evidence to suggest a suitable alternative for disinfecting extracted teeth. Vinegar is a sour liquid comprised mainly of acetic acid. It is cheap and commercially available shown to be effective in the prevention and control of microbial contamination. The present study was conducted for evaluation of vinegar as a disinfectant for extracted teeth. In this study a total of 40 (n=40) extracted non carious teeth were taken which were disinfected with various physical methods such as sterilization, autoclaving and chemical methods by using Vinegar, 70% Alcohol, 10% Formalin, 3% Hydrogen peroxide and 5.25% NaOCL. Later, teeth from each group were placed individually in separate test tubes containing 10ml of brain heart infusion broth at 37°C for 48 hrs to observe the evidence of growth of microorganisms. Results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Vinegar, 10% Formalin and 3% Hydrogen peroxide were effective. The results were statistically significant with Kruskal-Wallis test value 28.053 and p-value was <0.001. Vinegar can be used as an effective disinfectant for extracted human teeth.

  2. The length of teeth : A statistical analysis of the differences in length of human teeth for radiologic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, J.W.; Aken, J. van; Weerdt, G.P. van der

    Intraoral radiograms can be made according to the long tube paralleling technique utilizing aiming devices. An important factor in the design of these instruments is the length of the teeth to be radiographed. Reliable data regarding the length of the teeth in the different regions of the mouth are

  3. Karakterisasi stem cell pulpa gigi sulung dengan modifikasi enzim tripsin (The characterization of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth using trypsin enzym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wijayanti Puspitasari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Now a days, treatment in dentistry, using tissue regeneration that based on the stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED, grows rapidly. For several reason, the isolated and cultured SHED is difficult to be applied in Indonesia, therefore the modification is needed. This difficulties were caused by the pulp anatomy, the heterogeneous populations in the pulp chamber and the limitations of tools and materials at the laboratory. Purpose: This research was aimed to examine that the modifications of isolation and culture technique of SHEDs for characterization by using the marker of CD105. Methods: The research was experimental laboratory with the cross sectional design. The samples were the human exfoliated deciduous teeth from the children patients of Pediatric Dentistry Department of Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital which matched the criteria. Dental pulps were isolated and cultured by using the modifications of Trypsin enzymes. Results: The healthy SHEDs could be produced from the modifications of isolation and culture and positively shown the expression of marker CD105 which were indicated by the fluorencent microscope. Conclusion: SHED which isolated and cultured by using the modified techniques, positively characterized by using marker CD105.Latar Belakang: Pengobatan kedokteran gigi berkembang dengan pesat terutama di bidang regenerasi jaringan berbasis Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHED. Di Indonesia, isolasi dan kultur SHED sulit sehingga perlu dilakukan modifikasi. Kendala ini muncul karena jaringan pulpa yang kecil, heterogen dan keterbatasan alat dan bahan di laboratorium. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti modifikasi pada cara isolasi dan kultur SHED untuk karakterisasi menggunakan maker CD105. Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratoris dengan rancangan cross sectional. Sampel penelitian adalah gigi sulung dari pasien anak di Klinik Kedokteran Gigi Anak

  4. Endotoxin content in endodontically involved teeth. 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Benjamin; Schilder, Herbert

    2006-04-01

    Fluid was aspirated from the root canals of 40 endodontically involved teeth. This fluid was assayed for endotoxin with the limulus lysate test. Pulpless teeth contained greater concentrations of endotoxin than those with vital pulps. Symptomatic teeth also contained more endotoxin than asymptomatic teeth.

  5. TAILS N-terminomic and proteomic datasets of healthy human dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Eckhard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Data described here provide the in depth proteomic assessment of the human dental pulp proteome and N-terminome (Eckhard et al., 2015 [1]. A total of 9 human dental pulps were processed and analyzed by the positional proteomics technique TAILS (Terminal Amine Isotopic Labeling of Substrates N-terminomics. 38 liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS datasets were collected and analyzed using four database search engines in combination with statistical downstream evaluation, to yield the by far largest proteomic and N-terminomic dataset of any dental tissue to date. The raw mass spectrometry data and the corresponding metadata have been deposited in ProteomeXchange with the PXD identifier ; Supplementary Tables described in this article are available via Mendeley Data (10.17632/555j3kk4sw.1.

  6. Immunohistochemical Expression of TGF-β1 and Osteonectin in engineered and Ca(OH2-repaired human pulp tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alexandre CHISINI

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and osteonectin (ON in pulp-like tissues developed by tissue engineering and to compare it with the expression of these proteins in pulps treated with Ca(OH2 therapy. Tooth slices were obtained from non-carious human third molars under sterile procedures. The residual periodontal and pulp soft tissues were removed. Empty pulp spaces of the tooth slice were filled with sodium chloride particles (250–425 µm. PLLA solubilized in 5% chloroform was applied over the salt particles. The tooth slice/scaffold (TS/S set was stored overnight and then rinsed thoroughly to wash out the salt. Scaffolds were previously sterilized with ethanol (100–70° and washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. TS/S was treated with 10% EDTA and seeded with dental pulp stem cells (DPSC. Then, TS/S was implanted into the dorsum of immunodeficient mice for 28 days. Human third molars previously treated with Ca(OH2 for 90 days were also evaluated. Samples were prepared and submitted to histological and immunohistochemical (with anti-TGF-β1, 1:100 and anti-ON, 1:350 analyses. After 28 days, TS/S showed morphological characteristics similar to those observed in dental pulp treated with Ca(OH2. Ca(OH2-treated pulps showed the usual repaired pulp characteristics. In TS/S, newly formed tissues and pre-dentin was colored, which elucidated the expression of TGF-β1 and ON. Immunohistochemistry staining of Ca(OH2-treated pulps showed the same expression patterns. The extracellular matrix displayed a fibrillar pattern under both conditions. Regenerative events in the pulp seem to follow a similar pattern of TGF-β1 and ON expression as the repair processes.

  7. Measurement of Ca, Zn and Sr in enamel of human teeth by XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielopolski, L.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has been employed to measure Ca, Zn, and Sr in enamel of human teeth. The calibration of the EDXRF system was performed by comparing Sr/Ca ratios with values obtained by atomic absorption analysis of acid etched biopsies of the enamel surface. Two calibration lines were obtained, one line for untreated teeth and the second line for teeth immersed (treated) in solutions containing Sr. A simple analytical model demonstrated that the two calibration lines were the result of the difference in the depth of the enamel sampled by EDXRF and by the acid-etched biopsy. The multi-elemental, non-destructive and quantitative aspects of EDXRF permit the sequential monitoring of the effects of Sr and Zn ions on the mineralization and demineralization processes in human enamel. The portability of the system and adaptability to non-invasive measurements makes it suitable for field studies. 26 references, 4 figures.

  8. Atmospheric nuclear weapons test history narrated by carbon-14 in human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kunihide; Nagatsu, Toshiharu; Togari, Akifumi; Matsumoto, Shosei

    1991-01-01

    The atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons since 1945 caused a significant increase in the concentration of atmospheric 14 C. The 14 C concentration in plants that assimilate 14 C directly by photosynthesis reflects the atmospheric 14 C concentration. Carbon-14 is then transferred into the human body through the food chain. Based on animal experiments, the collagen in human teeth is metabolically inert after its formation. This implies that the collagen of each tooth retains the 14 C concentration which reflects the 14 C concentration in the blood at the time collagen metabolism ceased. The distribution of the 14 C concentration in the collagen of teeth from subjects of various ages would follow a pattern similar to that shown by soft tissues. In this paper the authors elucidate the relationship between the number of nuclear weapon tests and the distribution of 14 C concentration in teeth

  9. Measurement of Ca, Zn and Sr in enamel of human teeth by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has been employed to measure Ca, Zn, and Sr in enamel of human teeth. The calibration of the EDXRF system was performed by comparing Sr/Ca ratios with values obtained by atomic absorption analysis of acid etched biopsies of the enamel surface. Two calibration lines were obtained, one line for untreated teeth and the second line for teeth immersed (treated) in solutions containing Sr. A simple analytical model demonstrated that the two calibration lines were the result of the difference in the depth of the enamel sampled by EDXRF and by the acid-etched biopsy. The multi-elemental, non-destructive and quantitative aspects of EDXRF permit the sequential monitoring of the effects of Sr and Zn ions on the mineralization and demineralization processes in human enamel. The portability of the system and adaptability to non-invasive measurements makes it suitable for field studies. 26 references, 4 figures

  10. Measurement of Ca, Zn, and Sr in enamel of human teeth by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Featherstone, J.D.b.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has been employed to measure Ca, Zn, and Sr in enamel of human teeth. The calibration of the EDXRF system was performed by comparing Sr/Ca ratios with values obtained by atomic absorption analysis of acid etched biopsies of the enamel surface. Two calibration lines were obtained, one line for untreated teeth and the second line for teeth immersed (treated) in solutions containing Sr. A simple analytical model demonstrated that the two calibration lines were the result of the difference in the depth of the enamel sampled by EDXRF and by the acid-etched biopsy. The multi-elemental, non-destructive and quantitative aspects of EDXRF permit the sequential monitoring of the effects of Sr and Zn ions on the mineralization and demineralization processes in human enamel. The portability of the system and adaptability to non-invasive measurements makes it suitable for field studies. 26 references, 4 figures

  11. Measurement of uranium in human teeth and kidney stones with the fission track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vartanian, R.

    1986-01-01

    The measurement of uranium in human teeth and in kidney stones was carried out using the fission track activation technique. In this determination 2759 and 2205 absolute counts of tracks for teeth samples and 1689 tracks for kidney stone samples were performed, respectively. The results are as follows: xsub(tooth) (1)=(0.227+-0.006) ppm, xsub(tooth) (2)=(0.143+-0.007) ppm and xsub(kidney)=(0.568+-0.020) ppm. The experimental method is described and the results are discussed. (author)

  12. Alcohol Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells by Activating mTOR Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term heavy alcohol consumption could result in a range of health, social, and behavioral problems. People who abuse alcohol are at high risks of seriously having osteopenia, periodontal disease, and compromised oral health. However, the role of ethanol (EtOH in the biological functions of human dental pulp cells (DPCs is unknown. Whether EtOH affects the odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs through the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR remains unexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of EtOH on DPC differentiation and mineralization. DPCs were isolated and purified from human dental pulps. The proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs treated with EtOH were subsequently investigated. Different doses of EtOH were shown to be cytocompatible with DPCs. EtOH significantly activated the mTOR pathway in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EtOH downregulated the alkaline phosphatase activity, attenuated the mineralized nodule formation, and suppressed the expression of odontoblastic markers including ALP, DSPP, DMP-1, Runx2, and OCN. Moreover, the pretreatment with rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, markedly reversed the EtOH-induced odontoblastic differentiation and cell mineralization. Our findings show for the first time that EtOH can suppress DPC differentiation and mineralization in a mTOR-dependent manner, indicating that EtOH may be involved in negatively regulating the dental pulp repair.

  13. Analysis of gene expression during odontogenic differentiation of cultured human dental pulp cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seock Seo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives We analyzed gene-expression profiles after 14 day odontogenic induction of human dental pulp cells (DPCs using a DNA microarray and sought candidate genes possibly associated with mineralization. Materials and Methods Induced human dental pulp cells were obtained by culturing DPCs in odontogenic induction medium (OM for 14 day. Cells exposed to normal culture medium were used as controls. Total RNA was extracted from cells and analyzed by microarray analysis and the key results were confirmed selectively by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. We also performed a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA of the microarray data. Results Six hundred and five genes among the 47,320 probes on the BeadChip differed by a factor of more than two-fold in the induced cells. Of these, 217 genes were upregulated, and 388 were down-regulated. GSEA revealed that in the induced cells, genes implicated in Apoptosis and Signaling by wingless MMTV integration (Wnt were significantly upregulated. Conclusions Genes implicated in Apoptosis and Signaling by Wnt are highly connected to the differentiation of dental pulp cells into odontoblast.

  14. Alcohol Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells by Activating mTOR Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Huang, Qi-Ting; Weir, Michael D; Song, Zhi; Fouad, Ashraf F; Lin, Zheng-Mei; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Hockin H K

    2017-01-01

    Long-term heavy alcohol consumption could result in a range of health, social, and behavioral problems. People who abuse alcohol are at high risks of seriously having osteopenia, periodontal disease, and compromised oral health. However, the role of ethanol (EtOH) in the biological functions of human dental pulp cells (DPCs) is unknown. Whether EtOH affects the odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs through the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) remains unexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of EtOH on DPC differentiation and mineralization. DPCs were isolated and purified from human dental pulps. The proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs treated with EtOH were subsequently investigated. Different doses of EtOH were shown to be cytocompatible with DPCs. EtOH significantly activated the mTOR pathway in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EtOH downregulated the alkaline phosphatase activity, attenuated the mineralized nodule formation, and suppressed the expression of odontoblastic markers including ALP, DSPP, DMP-1, Runx2, and OCN. Moreover, the pretreatment with rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, markedly reversed the EtOH-induced odontoblastic differentiation and cell mineralization. Our findings show for the first time that EtOH can suppress DPC differentiation and mineralization in a mTOR-dependent manner, indicating that EtOH may be involved in negatively regulating the dental pulp repair.

  15. Culture medium modulates the behaviour of human dental pulp-derived cells: Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lopez-Cazaux

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro approaches have extensively been developed to study reparative dentinogenesis. While dental pulp is a source of unidentified progenitors able to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells, we investigated the effect of two media; MEM (1.8mM Ca and 1mM Pi and RPMI 1640 (0.8mM Ca and 5mM Pi on the behaviour of human dental pulp cells. Our data indicate that MEM significantly increased cell proliferation and markedly enhanced the proportion of -smooth muscle actin positive cells, which represent a putative source of progenitors able to give rise to odontoblast-like cells. In addition, MEM strongly stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity and was found to induce expression of transcripts encoding dentin sialophosphoprotein, an odontoblastic marker, without affecting that of parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related protein-receptor and osteonectin. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate that not only proliferation but also differentiation into odontoblast-like cells was induced by rich calcium and poor phosphate medium (MEM as compared to RPMI 1640. This study provides important data for the determination of the optimal culture conditions allowing odontoblast-like differentiation in human pulp cell culture.

  16. Structure and microstructure of coronary dentin in non-erupted human deciduous incisor teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Luciane R.R S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The dentin structure of non-erupted human deciduous mandibular and maxillary central and lateral incisor teeth was studied employing light and scanning electron microscopy. For light microscopy, nitric-acid-demineralized and ground sections were used. The sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius and azo-carmim methods, and ground specimens were prepared using a carborundum disk mounted in a handpiece. For SEM study, teeth were frozen in liquid nitrogen and fractured at longitudinal and transversal directions. Structurally, demineralization and ground methods revealed tubules with primary and secondary curvatures, canaliculi, giant tubules, interglobular dentin, predentin, and intertubular dentin. Scanning electron microscopy showed three-dimensional aspects of dentinal tubules, canaliculi, peritubular dentin, intertubular dentin, and predentin. This study contributes to knowledge about dentin morphology showing characteristics of teeth not yet submitted to mastication stress.

  17. Human serum promotes osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pisciotta

    Full Text Available Human dental pulp is a promising alternative source of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering in regenerative medicine, for the easily recruitment with low invasivity for the patient and for the self-renewal and differentiation potential of cells. So far, in vitro culture of mesenchymal stem cells is usually based on supplementing culture and differentiation media with foetal calf serum (FCS. FCS is known to contain a great quantity of growth factors, and thus to promote cell attachment on plastic surface as well as expansion and differentiation. Nevertheless, FCS as an animal origin supplement may represent a potential means for disease transmission besides leading to a xenogenic immune response. Therefore, a significant interest is focused on investigating alternative supplements, in order to obtain a sufficient cell number for clinical application, avoiding the inconvenients of FCS use. In our study we have demonstrated that human serum (HS is a suitable alternative to FCS, indeed its addition to culture medium induces a high hDPSCs proliferation rate and improves the in vitro osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, hDPSCs-collagen constructs, pre-differentiated with HS-medium in vitro for 10 days, when implanted in immunocompromised rats, are able to restore critical size parietal bone defects. Therefore these data indicate that HS is a valid substitute for FCS to culture and differentiate in vitro hDPSCs in order to obtain a successful bone regeneration in vivo.

  18. Determination of Radionuclide Concentration in Human Teeth in Najaf Governorate, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Almayahi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 238U decays with alpha particles emission into 234Th and the series ends with 206Pb. The unstable nucleus loses the energy with emitting ionizing alpha particles for reaching a stable state. It is undergoing alpha decay with decay energy (4.679 MeV. Alpha particles enter the human and animal bodies through inhalation of air or ingestion of contaminated food and water. This study aimed to perform a radiological analysis on the natural alpha particle emission rates of the human teeth as the biomarkers of radiation exposure and environmental pollution. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 68 teeth samples of 27 males and 41 females collected from the hospitals distributed across Najaf governorate, including many districts in Iraq. Alpha particle emission rates were measured using CR-39 nuclear track detector. Results: The mean emission rate of alpha particles in the female teeth was 0.0396±0.0070 mBq cm-2, which was relatively higher than that in the male teeth (0.0390±0.0048 mBq cm-2. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between the female and male teeth regarding the emission rate of alpha particles. Furthermore, the emission rate of alpha particles in the teeth of the samples taken from Kufa (0.0417±0.0057 mBq cm-2 was higher than those obtained from Najaf (0.0384±0.0053 mBq cm-2. Conclusion: As the findings of this study revealed, Najaf governorate had a lower emission rate of alpha particles as compared to other sites of the worldwide. Therefore, it could be concluded that there is no negative consequence threatening the people’s health in this regard.

  19. Exosomes from dental pulp stem cells rescue human dopaminergic neurons from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmalavičiūtė, Akvilė; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Pivoraitė, Ugnė; Venalis, Algirdas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2015-07-01

    Stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) have unique neurogenic properties that could be potentially exploited for therapeutic use. The importance of paracrine SHED signaling for neuro-regeneration has been recognized, but the exact mechanisms behind these effects are presently unknown. In the present study, we investigated the neuro-protective potential of exosomes and micro-vesicles derived from SHEDs on human dopaminergic neurons during oxidative stress-induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA). ReNcell VM human neural stem cells were differentiated into dopaminergic neurons and treated with 100 μmol/L of 6-OHDA alone or in combination with exosomes or micro-vesicles purified by ultracentrifugation from SHEDs cultivated in serum-free medium under two conditions: in standard two-dimensional culture flasks or on laminin-coated micro-carriers in a bioreactor. Real-time monitoring of apoptosis was performed with the use of time-lapse confocal microscopy and the CellEvent Caspase-3/7 green detection reagent. Exosomes but not micro-vesicles derived from SHEDs grown on the laminin-coated three-dimensional alginate micro-carriers suppressed 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons by approximately 80% throughout the culture period. Strikingly, no such effects were observed for the exosomes derived from SHEDs grown under standard culture conditions. Our results suggest that exosomes derived from SHEDs are considered as new potential therapeutic tool in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcriptome comparison of human neurons generated using induced pluripotent stem cells derived from dental pulp and skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Lin, Mingyan; Foxe, John J; Pedrosa, Erika; Hrabovsky, Anastasia; Carroll, Reed; Zheng, Deyou; Lachman, Herbert M

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology is providing an opportunity to study neuropsychiatric disorders through the capacity to grow patient-specific neurons in vitro. Skin fibroblasts obtained by biopsy have been the most reliable source of cells for reprogramming. However, using other somatic cells obtained by less invasive means would be ideal, especially in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental conditions. In addition to fibroblasts, iPSCs have been developed from cord blood, lymphocytes, hair keratinocytes, and dental pulp from deciduous teeth. Of these, dental pulp would be a good source for neurodevelopmental disorders in children because obtaining material is non-invasive. We investigated its suitability for disease modeling by carrying out gene expression profiling, using RNA-seq, on differentiated neurons derived from iPSCs made from dental pulp extracted from deciduous teeth (T-iPSCs) and fibroblasts (F-iPSCs). This is the first RNA-seq analysis comparing gene expression profiles in neurons derived from iPSCs made from different somatic cells. For the most part, gene expression profiles were quite similar with only 329 genes showing differential expression at a nominally significant p-value (pdisease-modeling neuropsychiatric disorder and may have some advantages over those derived from F-iPSCs.

  1. Hidden contributions of the enamel rods on the fracture resistance of human teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Yahyazadehfar, M.; Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne D.

    2012-01-01

    The enamel of human teeth is generally regarded as a brittle material with low fracture toughness. Consequently, the contributions of this tissue in resisting tooth fracture and the importance of its complex microstructure have been largely overlooked. In this study an experimental evaluation of the crack growth resistance of human enamel was conducted to characterize the role of rod (i.e. prism) orientation and degree of decussation on the fracture behavior of this tissue. Incremental crack ...

  2. Investigation of modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs have great potential to treat various dental-related diseases in regenerative medicine. They are usually maintained with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS in vitro. Modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP would be a safe alternative to 10% FBS during SHEDs culture. Therefore, our study aimed to compare the proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs cultured in mPRP and FBS medium to explore an optimal concentration of mPRP for SHEDs maintenance. Platelets were harvested by automatic blood cell analyzer and activated by repeated liquid nitrogen freezing and thawing. The platelet-related cytokines were examined and analyzed by ELISA. SHEDs were extracted and cultured with different concentrations of mPRP or 10% FBS medium. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was measured. Mineralization factors, RUNX2 and OCN, were measured by real-time PCR. SHEDs were characterized with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs markers including vimentin, CD44, and CD105. mPRP at different concentrations (2, 5, 10, and 20% enhanced the growth of SHEDs. Moreover, mPRP significantly stimulated ALP activity and promoted expression of RUNX2 and OCN compared with 10% FBS. mPRP could efficiently facilitate proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs, and 2% mPRP would be an optimal substitute for 10% FBS during SHEDs expansion and differentiation in clinical scale manufacturing.

  3. Human dental pulp cell culture and cell transplantation with an alginate scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumabe, Shunji; Nakatsuka, Michiko; Kim, Gi-Seup; Jue, Seong-Suk; Aikawa, Fumiko; Shin, Je-Won; Iwai, Yasutomo

    2006-02-01

    Many studies on tissue stem cells have been conducted in the field of regenerative medicine, and some studies have indicated that cultured dental pulp mesenchymal cells secrete dentin matrix. In the present study we used alginate as a scaffold to transplant subcultured human dental pulp cells subcutaneously into the backs of nude mice. We found that when beta-glycerophosphate was added to the culture medium, dentin sialophosphoprotein mRNA coding dentin sialoprotein (DSP) was expressed. An increase in alkaline phosphatase, which is an early marker for odontoblast differentiation, was also demonstrated. At 6 weeks after implantation the subcutaneous formation of radio-opaque calcified bodies was observed in situ. Immunohistochemical and fine structure studies identified expression of type I collagen, type III collagen, and DSP in the mineralizing transplants. Isolated odontoblast-like cells initiated dentin-like hard tissue formation and scattered autolyzing apoptotic cells were also observed in the transplants. The study showed that subcultured dental pulp cells actively differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and induce calcification in an alginate scaffold.

  4. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases expression in human dental pulp cells by all-trans retinoic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Man Kim; Sang Wook Kang; Su-Mi Shin; Duck Su Kim; Kyong-Kyu Choi; Eun-Cheol Kim; Sun-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fibroblasts, skin fibroblasts, bronchoalveolar lavage cells and cancer cells, but activates MMP-9 in neuroblast and leukemia cells. Very little is known regarding whether ATRA can activate or inhibit MMPs in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ATRA on the production and secretion of MMP-2 and-9 in HDPCs. The productions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of MMP-2 and-9 were accessed by gelatin zymography and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. ATRA was found to decrease MMP-2 level in a dose-dependent manner. Significant reduction in MMP-2 mRNA expression was also observed in HDPCs treated with 25 mmol?L21 ATRA. However, HDPCs treated with ATRA had no effect on the pattern of MMP-9 produced or secreted in either cell extracts or conditioned medium fractions. Taken together, ATRA had an inhibitory effect on MMP-2 expression in HDPCs, which suggests that ATRA could be a candidate as a medicament which could control the inflammation of pulp tissue in vital pulp therapy and regenerative endodontics.

  5. Sensory Neuropeptides and Endogenous Opioids Expression in Human Dental Pulp with Asymptomatic Inflammation: In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chavarria-Bolaños

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, β-endorphins (β-End, and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg, which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg, which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain.

  6. Inhibition of odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells by dental resin monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Hyun; Park, Hee Chul; Zhu, Tingting; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Dental resin monomers that are leached from the resin matrix due to incomplete polymerization can affect the viability and various functions of oral tissues and cells. In this study, the effects of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were examined. To mimic clinical situations, dental pulp cells were treated with resin monomers for 24 h prior to the analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mRNA expression of genes related to pulp cell differentiation. To elucidate the underlying signaling pathways, regulation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases by resin monomers was also investigated. The ALP activity of HDPCs was reduced by TEGDMA and HEMA at noncytotoxic concentrations. The mRNA expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), osteocalcin (OCN), and osteopontin (OPN) was also downregulated by resin monomers. However, DSPP expression was not affected by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Among the MAP kinases examined, ERK activation (ERK phosphorylation) was not affected by either resin monomers or H2O2, whereas JNK was phosphorylated by TEGDMA and HEMA. Phospho-p38 was upregulated by HEMA, while TEGDMA and H2O2 suppressed p38 phosphorylation. Exposure to TEGDMA and HEMA for a limited period suppresses differentiation of HDPCs via different signaling pathways.

  7. Three-dimensional analysis of the pulp cavity on surface models of molar teeth, using X-ray micro-computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Bjørndal, Lars; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2012-01-01

    . In summary, three-dimensional surface models were made with a high precision; an increased accumulation of mineral deposits was noted in molars with small pulp chambers and combined with the consistent pattern of intra-radicular connections, the potential endodontic treatment complexity is underlined...

  8. Reactions of human dental pulp cells to capping agents in the presence or absence of bacterial exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Wenjian; Tribble, Gena; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    An ideal pulp-capping agent needs to have good biocompatibility and promote reparative dentinogenesis. Although the effects of capping agents on healthy pulp are known, limited data regarding their effects on bacterial contaminated pulp are available. This study aimed to evaluate the reaction of contaminated pulps to various capping agents to assist clinicians in making informed decisions. Human dental pulp (HDP) cell cultures were developed from extracted human molars. The cells were exposed to a bacterial cocktail comprising Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Streptococcus gordonii before being cocultured with capping agents such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Portland cement (PC), and Dycal. HDP cell proliferation was assayed by MTS colorimetric cell proliferation assay, and its differentiation was evaluated by real-time PCR for detecting alkaline phosphatase, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and osteocalcin expressions. MTA and PC had no apparent effect, whereas Dycal inhibited HDP cell proliferation. PC stimulated HDP cell differentiation, particularly when they were exposed to bacteria. MTA and Dycal inhibited differentiation, regardless of bacterial infection. In conclusion, PC was the most favorable agent, followed by MTA, and Dycal was the least favorable agent for supporting the functions of bacterial compromised pulp cells.

  9. Elemental composition of human teeth with emphasis on trace constituents: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, W H

    1978-04-01

    Literature covered by the current review is based on a search of Chemical Abstracts, 1917 through 1975. Early studies, pre-dating 1940, are referenced primarily for historical interest. Emphasis is on the micro-constituents of human teeth, those present at concentrations less than a few tenths of a percent by weight. Within this category of data, we have been primarily concerned with the radiochemically stable nuclides. The important relationship between caries and trace elements is covered only insofar as carious teeth exhibit properties with respect to trace element composition that differ from normal teeth. Having made these disclaimers, we note that an attempt has been made to cover the literature exhaustively; although some important results have undoubtedly been overlooked. It is our hope, however, that sufficient material has been included in this review to facilitate further recovery of data by interested individuals. In Chapter 1, analytical techniques that have been employed in this field are briefly presented; discussion centers on problems associated with preparation of specimens for analysis. Chapter 2 is devoted to topical coverage of data on the inorganic composition of teeth. An element-by-element tabulation of concentration data is provided, our statistical analysis of selected data explained, and evidence concerning several major factors thought to influence dental composition evaluated. These include provenance, age, sex, distribution, and tooth type/intermouth variation.

  10. Fluorine determination in human healthy and carious teeth using the PIGE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Karydas, A.G.; Casaca, C.; Zarkadas, Ch.; Paradellis, Th.; Kokkoris, M.; Nsouli, B.; Cunha, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine and compare the fluorine concentration in human teeth from two different populations, living in the Portuguese quite isolated islands of Acores: S. Miguel and Terceira. Both populations have similar dietary habits, similar occupational activities, mostly rural, and the age of both populations is more or less the same, around 40 years. No chronic diseases were registered in any of the donors. The two groups are exposed to different levels of fluorine in drinking water. Terceira island has moderate fluorine concentration levels (1-2 μg g -1 ) while S. Miguel island is known for the high fluorine concentration levels in its water (>3 μg g -1 ), especially in one area known as Furnas. Thirty-three teeth, 17 healthy and 16 carious without restoration (14 incisors and canines, 7 premolars and 12 molars), were collected and analyzed for the determination of fluorine concentration in the dentine region, using the nuclear reaction 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O. The teeth were cross-sectioned along the vertical plane and polished, in order to obtain a smooth and plane surface of about 1 mm thickness. In this work an association between caries prevalence and fluorine content of drinking water is discussed and the variation of fluorine concentration among different types of teeth (canines and incisors, premolars, molars) and physical state (carious and non-carious) is examined

  11. Allogenic banking of dental pulp stem cells for innovative therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Chaubron, Franck; De Vos, John; Cuisinier, Frédéric J

    2015-08-26

    Medical research in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy has brought encouraging perspectives for the use of stem cells in clinical trials. Multiple types of stem cells, from progenitors to pluripotent stem cells, have been investigated. Among these, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are mesenchymal multipotent cells coming from the dental pulp, which is the soft tissue within teeth. They represent an interesting adult stem cell source because they are recovered in large amount in dental pulps with non-invasive techniques compared to other adult stem cell sources. DPSCs can be obtained from discarded teeth, especially wisdom teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. To shift from promising preclinical results to therapeutic applications to human, DPSCs must be prepared in clinical grade lots and transformed into advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP). As the production of patient-specific stem cells is costly and time-consuming, allogenic biobanking of clinical grade human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed DPSC lines provides efficient innovative therapeutic products. DPSC biobanks represent industrial and therapeutic innovations by using discarded biological tissues (dental pulps) as a source of mesenchymal stem cells to produce and store, in good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, DPSC therapeutic batches. In this review, we discuss about the challenges to transfer biological samples from a donor to HLA-typed DPSC therapeutic lots, following regulations, GMP guidelines and ethical principles. We also present some clinical applications, for which there is no efficient therapeutics so far, but that DPSCs-based ATMP could potentially treat.

  12. Direct Pulp Capping with Calcium Hydroxide, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, and Biodentine in Permanent Young Teeth with Caries: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, Claudia; Ormeño, Andrea; Cabrera, Carolina; Cabezas, Roxana; Silva, Carolina Inostroza; Ramírez, Valeria; Mercade, Montse

    2017-11-01

    Direct pulp capping treatment is intended to preserve pulp vitality, to avoid or retard root canal treatment, and, in cases with an open apex, to allow continued root development. Historically, calcium hydroxide (CH) was the gold standard material, but nowadays calcium silicate materials (CSMs) are displacing CH because of their high bioactivity, biocompatibility, sealing ability, and mechanical properties. However, more randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm the appropriateness of CSMs as replacement materials for CH in direct pulp capping procedures. A randomized clinical trial was conducted that included 169 patients (mean age, 11.3 years) from the Maipo district (Chile). The inclusion criterion was patients with 1 carious permanent tooth with pulpal exposure, a candidate for a direct pulp capping procedure. The patients were randomly allocated to one of the experimental groups (CH, Biodentine, or mineral trioxide aggregate [MTA]). Clinical follow-up examinations were performed at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. The Fisher exact test was performed. At the follow-up examination at 1 week, the patients showed 100% clinical success. At 3 months, there was 1 failure in the CH group. At 6 months, there were 4 new failures (1 in the CH group and 3 in the MTA group). At 1 year, there was another failure in the CH group. There were no statistically significant differences among the experimental groups. CSMs appear to be suitable materials to replace CH. Although no significant differences were found among the materials studied, Biodentine and MTA offered some advantages over CH. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of transportation time after extraction on the magnetic cryopreservation of pulp cells of rat dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Suan Huang

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: The freezing technique used in this animal study provided positive effects on pulp cell storage. In addition, the storage time before the freezing procedure is an important issue for cryopreserving pulp cells in intact teeth.

  14. In vitro optical detection of simulated blood pulse in a human tooth pulp model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, A; Hiller, K-A; Jaeger, A; Brandt, M; Putzger, J; Ermer, C; Schulz, I; Monkman, G; Giglberger, S; Hirmer, M; Danilov, S; Ganichev, S; Schmalz, G

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive optical methods such as photoplethysmography, established for blood pulse detection in organs, have been proposed for vitality testing of human dental pulp. However, no information is available on the mechanism of action in a closed pulp chamber and on the impairing influence of other than pulpal blood flow sources. Therefore, the aim of the present in vitro study was to develop a device for the optical detection of pulpal blood pulse and to investigate the influence of different parameters (including gingival blood flow [GBF] simulation) on the derived signals. Air, Millipore water, human erythrocyte suspensions (HES), non-particulate hemoglobin suspension (NPHS), and lysed hemoglobin suspension (LHES) were pulsed through a flexible (silicone) or a rigid (glass) tube placed within an extracted human molar in a tooth-gingiva model. HES was additionally pulsed through a rigid tube around the tooth, simulating GBF alone or combined with the flow through the tooth by two separate peristaltic pumps. Light from high-power light-emitting diodes (625 nm (red) and 940 nm (infrared [IR]); Golden Dragon, Osram, Germany) was introduced to the coronal/buccal part of the tooth, and the signal amplitude [∆U, in volts] of transmitted light was detected by a sensor at the opposite side of the tooth. Signal processing was carried out by means of a newly developed blood pulse detector. Finally, experiments were repeated with the application of rubber dam (blue, purple, pink, and black), aluminum foil, and black antistatic plastic foil. Nonparametric statistical analysis was applied (n = 5; α = 0.05). Signals were obtained for HES and LHES, but not with air, Millipore water, or NPHS. Using a flexible tube, signals for HES were higher for IR compared to red light, whereas for the rigid tube, the signals were significantly higher for red light than for IR. In general, significantly less signal amplitude was recorded for HES with the rigid glass tube than with the

  15. Development of a Novel Large Animal Model to Evaluate Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Articular Cartilage Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Shimomura, Kazunori; Asperti, Andre; Pinheiro, Carla Cristina Gomes; Caetano, Heloísa Vasconcellos Amaral; Oliveira, Claudia Regina G C M; Nakamura, Norimasa; Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Bueno, Daniela Franco

    2018-05-04

    Chondral lesion is a pathology with high prevalence, reaching as much as 63% of general population and 36% among athletes. The ability of human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) to differentiate into chondroblasts in vitro suggests that this stem cell type may be useful for tissue bioengineering. However, we have yet to identify a study of large animal models in which DPSCs were used to repair articular cartilage. Therefore, this study aimed to describe a novel treatment for cartilage lesion with DPSCs on a large animal model. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were obtained from deciduous teeth and characterized by flow cytometry. DPSCs were cultured and added to a collagen type I/III biomaterial composite scaffold. Brazilian miniature pig (BR-1) was used. A 6-mm diameter, full-thickness chondral defect was created in each posterior medial condyle. The defects were covered with scaffold alone or scaffold + DPSCs on the contralateral side. Animals were euthanized 6 weeks post-surgery. Cartilage defects were analyzed macroscopically and histology according to modified O'Driscoll scoring system. Flow cytometry confirmed characterization of DPSCs as MSCs. Macroscopic and histological findings suggested that this time period was reasonable for evaluating cartilage repair. To our knowledge, this study provides the first description of an animal model using DPSCs to study the differentiation of hyaline articular cartilage in vivo. The animals tolerated the procedure well and did not show clinical or histological rejection of the DPSCs, reinforcing the feasibility of this descriptive miniature pig model for pre-clinical studies.

  16. Cytotoxic effects of glass ionomer cements on human dental pulp stem cells correlate with fluoride release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjevac, Tatjana; Milovanovic, Marija; Volarevic, Vladislav; Lukic, Miodrag L; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Markovic, Dejan; Zdravkovic, Nebojsa; Tesic, Zivoslav; Lukic, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are commonly used as restorative materials. Responses to GICs differ among cell types and it is therefore of importance to thoroughly investigate the influence of these restorative materials on pulp stem cells that are potential source for dental tissue regeneration. Eight biomaterials were tested: Fuji I, Fuji II, Fuji VIII, Fuji IX, Fuji Plus, Fuji Triage, Vitrebond and Composit. We compared their cytotoxic activity on human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and correlated this activity with the content of Fluoride, Aluminium and Strontium ions in their eluates. Elution samples of biomaterials were prepared in sterile tissue culture medium and the medium was tested for toxicity by an assay of cell survival/proliferation (MTT test) and apoptosis (Annexin V FITC Detection Kit). Concentrations of Fluoride, Aluminium and Strontium ions were tested by appropriate methods in the same eluates. Cell survival ranged between 79.62% (Fuji Triage) to 1.5% (Fuji Plus) and most dead DPSCs were in the stage of late apoptosis. Fluoride release correlated with cytotoxicity of GICs, while Aluminium and Strontium ions, present in significant amount in eluates of tested GICs did not. Fuji Plus, Vitrebond and Fuji VIII, which released fluoride in higher quantities than other GICs, were highly toxic to human DPSCs. Opposite, low levels of released fluoride correlated to low cytotoxic effect of Composit, Fuji I and Fuji Triage.

  17. Application of PIGE to determine fluorine concentration in human teeth. Contribution to fluorosis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, H.; Arab, N.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorosis, osteoselerosis, and systemic illness may result when tolerance levels of fluorine intake are exceeded. To avoid these abnormalities, we shall be aware of the mechanisms of their development. For this, quantitative results gathered from different parts of the world are necessary. In this paper, PIGE method is used to determine fluorine concentration in human teeth, collected from different regions of the Algerian Sahara. Both enamel and dentine regions were inspected. The external and internal mappings of the analyzed teeth have shown more variation in the localized fluorine concentration in dentine than in enamel, and the lowest level of fluorine concentration was observed in the frontier crown-root zone. The obtained results reveal relatively high fluorine concentration lying within the limit of fluorosis, according to the standardised grading dental fluorosis. (author)

  18. Strontium-90 concentrations in human teeth in South Ukraine, 5 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulev, Y.D.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Prigodey, E.V.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 1000 human teeth, collected in South Ukraine, in 1990-1991, were measured for 90 Sr concentration. The teeth were grouped into 18 samples according to the age and sex of the donors. Measured levels of 90 Sr concentrations were lower by a factor of 10 than measurements taken in the mid-1960s and mid-1970s. An interesting feature of the data is a 3-fold enhancement of contamination levels in the 25-45 year-old age group of the male population. A possible explanation for this anomaly is that this age group contains a significant number of men who were mobilized immediately after the Chernobyl accident for clean-up operations within the 30-km zone around the damaged nuclear power plant

  19. A new method to extract dental pulp DNA: application to universal detection of bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tran-Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dental pulp is used for PCR-based detection of DNA derived from host and bacteremic microorganims. Current protocols require odontology expertise for proper recovery of the dental pulp. Dental pulp specimen exposed to laboratory environment yields contaminants detected using universal 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new protocol by encasing decontaminated tooth into sterile resin, extracting DNA into the dental pulp chamber itself and decontaminating PCR reagents by filtration and double restriction enzyme digestion. Application to 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria in 144 teeth collected in 86 healthy people yielded a unique sequence in only 14 teeth (9.7% from 12 individuals (14%. Each individual yielded a unique 16S rDNA sequence in 1-2 teeth per individual. Negative controls remained negative. Bacterial identifications were all confirmed by amplification and sequencing of specific rpoB sequence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new protocol prevented laboratory contamination of the dental pulp. It allowed the detection of bacteria responsible for dental pulp colonization from blood and periodontal tissue. Only 10% such samples contained 16S rDNA. It provides a new tool for the retrospective diagnostic of bacteremia by allowing the universal detection of bacterial DNA in animal and human, contemporary or ancient tooth. It could be further applied to identification of host DNA in forensic medicine and anthropology.

  20. miRNA-720 controls stem cell phenotype, proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Satoshi Hara

    Full Text Available Dental pulp cells (DPCs are known to be enriched in stem/progenitor cells but not well characterized yet. Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs have been identified to control protein translation, mRNA stability and transcription, and have been reported to play important roles in stem cell biology, related to cell reprogramming, maintenance of stemness and regulation of cell differentiation. In order to characterize dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and its mechanism of differentiation, we herein sorted stem-cell-enriched side population (SP cells from human DPCs and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs, and performed a locked nucleic acid (LNA-based miRNA array. As a result, miR-720 was highly expressed in the differentiated main population (MP cells compared to that in SP cells. In silico analysis and a reporter assay showed that miR-720 targets the stem cell marker NANOG, indicating that miR-720 could promote differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells by repressing NANOG. Indeed, gain-and loss-of-function analyses showed that miR-720 controls NANOG transcript and protein levels. Moreover, transfection of miR-720 significantly decreased the number of cells positive for the early stem cell marker SSEA-4. Concomitantly, mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, which are known to play crucial factors during stem cell differentiation, were also increased by miR-720 through unknown mechanism. Finally, miR-720 decreased DPC proliferation as determined by immunocytochemical analysis against ki-67, and promoted odontogenic differentiation as demonstrated by alizarin red staining, as well as alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin mRNA levels. Our findings identify miR-720 as a novel miRNA regulating the differentiation of DPCs.

  1. Comparison of different techniques for disinfection of teeth internal space in preclinical teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabrizizadeh M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Extracted teeth used in preclinic should be disinfected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of some disinfectants on microorganisms cultured from pulp chamber of extracted teeth."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study 54 intact human teeth were collected. After access cavity preparation, 10 8 B. streothermophillus endospors were inoculated into pulp chamber. Then cavities were sealed with a temporary restorative material. Teeth were divided into 5 groups of 10 each. The teeth were then stored in these disinfectants: 5.25% hypochlorite sodium, 5% Microten, 5% Deconex, 2% Glutaraldehyd, and 10% Formalin for 48 hours. Two teeth were autoclaved as negative controls and two were stored in normal saline as positive controls. The teeth were then sectioned in cervical area and cultured in Trypticase Soy Broth. After three days turbidity in tubes was evaluated. Statistical analysis was done by Fisher's exact test."nResults: None of these solutions were able to prevent microorganism growth in all samples; however, Formalin was better in six cases than that of other disinfectants. Differences between these five groups were not statistically significant (P=0.384."nConclusion: Sterilization of the teeth with autoclave is the only absolute method for disinfecting the root canals of extracted teeth and disinfectants are not reliable for this purpose.

  2. In vitro study of heat production during power reduction of equine mandibular teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martin L; Baker, Gordon J; Freeman, David E; Holmes, Kenneth R; Marretta, Sandra Manfra; Scoggins, R Dean; Constable, Peter

    2004-04-01

    To measure the amount of heat generated during 3 methods of equine dental reduction with power instruments. In vitro study. 30 premolar and molar teeth removed from mandibles of 8 equine heads collected at an abbatoir. 38-gauge copper-constantan thermocouples were inserted into the lingual side of each tooth 15 mm (proximal) and 25 mm (distal) from the occlusal surface, at a depth of 5 mm, which placed the tip close to the pulp chamber. Group-NC1 (n = 10) teeth were ground for 1 minute without coolant, group-NC2 (10) teeth were ground for 2 minutes without coolant, and group-C2 (10) teeth were ground for 2 minutes with water for coolant. Mean temperature increase was 1.2 degrees C at the distal thermocouple and 6.6 degrees C at the proximal thermocouple for group-NC1 teeth, 4.1 degrees C at the distal thermocouple and 24.3 degrees C at the proximal thermocouple for group-NC2 teeth, and 0.8 degrees C at the distal thermocouple and -0.1 degrees C at the proximal thermocouple for group-C2 teeth. In general, an increase of 5 degrees C in human teeth is considered the maximum increase before there is permanent damage to tooth pulp. In group-NC2 teeth, temperature increased above this limit by several degrees, whereas in group-C2 teeth, there was little or no temperature increase. Our results suggest that major reduction of equine teeth by use of power instruments causes thermal changes that may cause irreversible pulp damage unless water cooling is used.

  3. The different expression profiles of microRNAs in elderly and young human dental pulp and the role of miR-433 in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kejing; Li, Li; Wu, Junjun; Qiu, Qin; Zhou, Fengjuan; Wu, Hongkun

    2015-03-01

    As a kind of endogenous noncoding small RNA, MicroRNA (miRNA) plays important roles of regulation to various physiological functions, while its affections on senescence of human dental pulp cell (HDPCs) are still unknown. Thus, we identified the senescence-associated miRNAs in HDPCs by microarray analysis, predicted their targets and regulatory signaling pathway by gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway database analysis. After validated, the senescence-associated miRNAs' expression level was up- and down-regulated using lentivirus package and cell transfection to find its role in HDPCs' morphology, proliferation, apoptosis, and mineralization. The results showed 27 miRNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold, of which 16 were up-regulated and 11 down-regulated, the function of their targets was mainly focused on signal transduction, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and transcription regulation. According to the change fold, we speculated that miR-433 could be one of the vital senescence-associated miRNAs of HDPCs and found its target (GRB2), validated that miR-433 could negatively regulate GRB2 and the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway, leading to the decline of proliferation and mineralization ability of HDPCs and the acceleration of cell apoptosis, suggesting the regulation of miR-433 might be the potential target to promote repair and regeneration of HDPCs in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Teeth Caries Decay in MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasiewicz, M.M.; Kupka, T.W.; Weglarz, W.P.; Jasinski, A.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray based visualization techniques were for many years the only way to asses structure and state of the human teeth. MRI has been used in the research of the healthy and decayed teeth during last decade. Several papers were presented showing usefulness of spin echo and gradient echo imaging, Single Point Imaging, SPRITE and STRAFI techniques for visualization of the dental surface geometry as well as for distinction between soft tissue (pulp) and mineralized tissue (enamel, dentine and root cement) in the extracted teeth. Recently, MRI was used for estimation of the facial bone structure, in preparation to implantation, localization of the tumor in the facial bone tissue, and in detection of the osteoporosis. The aim of this work was to investigate potential of MRI for detection and estimation of the caries, on the level of laboratory pre-clinical tests. This work was done within the project to develop original, MRI based diagnostic technique for dentistry needs. MRI experiments were performed on the 5 decayed extracted human teeth (impossible conservative therapy), obtained at Dept. of Dental Surgery MUS. After extraction teeth were stored in saline. MRI measurements were done in MR Tomography Lab INP. Prior to the experiment, tooth was degassed to minimize magnetic susceptibility artifacts. A 3D spin echo pulse sequence on the 4.7 T research MRI system, equipped with Maran DRX console, and dedicated home-built probe head, was used to obtain three dimensional (256x128x128) images of the teeth. Corresponding resolution was 60x120x160 mm 3 . High intensity signal from water penetrated into the porous decayed regions of tooth, contrasted with lack of signal from mineralized tooth tissue, allow for visualization of the presence and extent of caries. Among the 5 measured teeth, MRI allows for detection of the caries in two most decayed tooth. High intensity signal from water penetrated into the porous decayed regions of tooth, contrasted with lack of signal from

  5. [Cloning and characterization of genes differentially expressed in human dental pulp cells and gingival fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-dong; Wu, Ji-nan; Zhou, Lin; Ling, Jun-qi; Guo, Xi-min; Xiao, Ming-zhen; Zhu, Feng; Pu, Qin; Chai, Yu-bo; Zhao, Zhong-liang

    2007-02-01

    To study the biological properties of human dental pulp cells (HDPC) by cloning and analysis of genes differentially expressed in HDPC in comparison with human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). HDPC and HGF were cultured and identified by immunocytochemistry. HPDC and HGF subtractive cDNA library was established by PCR-based modified subtractive hybridization, genes differentially expressed by HPDC were cloned, sequenced and compared to find homogeneous sequence in GenBank by BLAST. Cloning and sequencing analysis indicate 12 genes differentially expressed were obtained, in which two were unknown genes. Among the 10 known genes, 4 were related to signal transduction, 2 were related to trans-membrane transportation (both cell membrane and nuclear membrane), and 2 were related to RNA splicing mechanisms. The biological properties of HPDC are determined by the differential expression of some genes and the growth and differentiation of HPDC are associated to the dynamic protein synthesis and secretion activities of the cell.

  6. The effects of low level laser irradiation on proliferation of human dental pulp: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffoli, S; Romeo, U; Amorim, R N S; Migliau, G; Palaia, G; Resende, L; Polimeni, A

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capability for self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation in various types of specialized cells, so they are very important in cellular therapies. MSC from dental pulp are simply obtainable and have high proliferative capability. Among the therapies that can stimulate the proliferation of certain cell types, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) stands out. The target of this study is to perform a literature review to investigate these effects of low-level laser irradiation on proliferation of human dental pulp.The electronic search of scientific papers was conducted in the Lilacs, Scielo, Medline and PubMed databases through scientific articles published in national and international journals in the past 20 years.The results of this review suggest that LLLT may be a useful and important tool for future advances in cell therapy and tissue engineering associated to stem cells. Studies on cell therapy for regenerating dental tissues has already been done, and shows promising results.

  7. Glycometabolic reprogramming associated with the initiation of human dental pulp stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linyan; Cheng, Li; Wang, Huning; Pan, Hongying; Yang, Hui; Shao, Meiying; Hu, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Glycometabolism, particularly mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis, plays a central role in cell life activities. Glycometabolism can be reprogrammed to maintain the stemness or to induce the differentiation of stem cells, thereby regulating tissue repair and regeneration. However, research on the glycometabolism of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) remains scarce. Here, we investigated the relationship between glycometabolic reprogramming and initiation of hDPSC differentiation. We found the differentiation of hDPSCs commenced on day 3 when cells were cultured in mineralized medium. When cell differentiation commenced, mitochondria became elongated with well-developed cristae, and the oxygen consumption rate of mitochondria was enhanced, manifested as an increase in basal respiration, mitochondrial ATP production, and maximal respiration. Interestingly, glycolytic enzyme activities, glycolysis capacity, and glycolysis reserve were also upregulated at this time to match the powerful bioenergetic demands. More importantly, hDPSCs derived from different donors or cultured in various oxygen environments showed similar glycometabolic changes when they began to differentiate. Thus, glycometabolic reprogramming accompanies initiation of hDPSC differentiation and could potentially play a role in the regulation of dental pulp repair. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  8. Effect of radiopaque Portland cement on mineralization in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-San; Lee, Sang-Im; Lee, Yoon; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiopaque Portland cement (RPC) facilitates the mineralization process in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) compared with pure Portland cement (PC). Under a scanning electron microscope (SEM), cellular morphology was evaluated. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was analyzed, and nodule formation was assessed by performing Alizarin Red S staining. In addition, the mRNA expressions of mineralization-related proteins were evaluated by performing a real-time polymerase chain reaction. On SEM evaluation, healthy HDPCs were found adhering to the surfaces of PC and RPC. The ALP activity increased in the PC and RPC groups compared with the control group at 1 day. Alizarin Red stain increased in the PC and RPC groups compared with the control group at 2 and 3 weeks. The mRNA expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein increased at 14 days in the PC and RPC groups. These results show that PC and RPC have similar effects in terms of mineralization and suggest that RPC also has the potential to be used as a clinically suitable pulp-capping material.

  9. Biological Effects of Provisional Resin Materials on Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, S-K; Mahapatra, C; Lee, H-H; Kim, H-W; Lee, J-H

    This study investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity as well as the proinflammatory cytokine expression of provisional resin materials on primary cultured human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Five commercially available provisional resin materials were chosen (SNAP [SN], Luxatemp [LT], Jet [JE], Revotek LC [RL], and Vipi block [VB]). Eluates that were either polymerizing or already set were added to hDPSCs under serially diluted conditions divided into three different setting times (25% set, 50% set, and 100% set) and incubated for 24 hours with 2× concentrated culture media. Cell cytotoxicity tests were performed by LDH assay and live and dead confocal microscope images. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines in SN and VB was measured using cytokine antibody arrays. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) or ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test at a significance level of pprovisional resin materials during polymerization (SN, LT, and JE) were cytotoxic to hDPSCs and may adversely affect pulp tissue.

  10. Novel approach for transient protein expression in primary cultures of human dental pulp-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suguro, Hisashi; Mikami, Yoshikazu; Koshi, Rieko; Ogiso, Bunnai; Watanabe, Eri; Watanabe, Nobukazu; Honda, Masaki J; Asano, Masatake; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2011-08-01

    Transfection is a powerful method for investigating variable biological functions of desired genes. However, the efficiency of transfection into primary cultures of dental pulp-derived cells (DPDC) is low. Therefore, using a recombinant vaccinia virus (vTF7-3), which contains T7 RNA polymerase, we have established a transient protein expression system in DPDCs. In this study, we used the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) cDNA as a model gene. pIgR expression by the vTF7-3 expression system was confirmed by flow cytometry analysis and Western blotting. Furthermore, exogenous pIgR protein localized at the cell surface in DPDCs and formed a secretory component (SC). This suggests that exogenous pIgR protein expressed by the vTF7-3 expression system acts like endogenous pIgR protein. These results indicate the applicability of the method for cells outgrown from dental pulp tissue. In addition, as protein expression could be detected shortly after transfection (approximately 5h), this experimental system has been used intensely for experiments examining very early steps in protein exocytosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alteration of microRNA expression of human dental pulp cells during odontogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qimei; Wang, Runfu; Jiang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhengmei; Ling, Junqi

    2012-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play momentous roles in various biological processes including cell differentiation. However, little is known about the role of miRNAs in human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) during odontogenic differentiation. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of miRNAs in the primary culture of hDPCs when incubated in odontogenic medium. The potential characteristics of hDPCs were investigated by miRNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatics (ie, target prediction, Gene Ontology analysis, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes mapping tools) were applied for predicting the complementary target genes of miRNAs and their biological functions. A total of 22 miRNAs were differentially expressed in which 12 miRNAs up-regulated and 10 miRNAs down-regulated in differentiated hDPCs compared with the control. The target genes of differential miRNAs were predicted to associate with several biological functions and signaling pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the Wnt signaling pathway. The differential expression miRNAs may be involved in governing hDPC odontogenic differentiation, thus contributing to the future investigations of regulatory mechanisms in reparative dentin formation and dental pulp regeneration. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. TET1 knockdown inhibits the odontogenic differentiation potential of human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li-Jia; Yi, Bai-Cheng; Li, Qi-Meng; Xu, Qiong

    2016-06-30

    Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) possess the capacity to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and generate reparative dentin in response to exogenous stimuli or injury. Ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) is a novel DNA methyldioxygenase that plays an important role in the promotion of DNA demethylation and transcriptional regulation in several cell lines. However, the role of TET1 in the biological functions of hDPCs is unknown. To investigate the effect of TET1 on the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation potential of hDPCs, a recombinant shRNA lentiviral vector was used to knock down TET1 expression in hDPCs. Following TET1 knockdown, TET1 was significantly downregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. Proliferation of the hDPCs was suppressed in the TET1 knockdown groups. Alkaline phosphatase activity, the formation of mineralized nodules, and the expression levels of DSPP and DMP1 were all reduced in the TET1-knockdown hDPCs undergoing odontogenic differentiation. Based on these results, we concluded that TET1 knockdown can prevent the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs, which suggests that TET1 may play an important role in dental pulp repair and regeneration.

  13. Prevalence and Analysis of Factors Related to Occurrence of Pulp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    between pulp stone and pristine posterior teeth, chronic periodontitis and posterior teeth ... Conclusion: It is recommended that researchers should pay special care in case selections, and ... (1982) reported a PS prevalence rate of 20.7 % in.

  14. Comparison of Vibringe, EndoActivator, and needle irrigation on sealer penetration in extracted human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolles, Jordan A; He, Jianing; Svoboda, Kathy K H; Schneiderman, Emet; Glickman, Gerald N

    2013-05-01

    Vibringe is a new device that allows continuous sonic irrigation of the canal system during endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different irrigation systems on sealer penetration into dentinal tubules of extracted single-rooted teeth. Fifty single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and randomly divided into 4 groups: group 1 (control), saline; group 2 (conventional irrigation), 17% EDTA followed by 6% NaOCl; group 3 (EndoActivator), same irrigants as group 2; group 4 (Vibringe), same irrigants as group 2. Obturation of all teeth was done with gutta-percha and SimpliSeal labeled with fluorescent dye. Transverse sections at 1 mm and 5 mm from the root apex were examined by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were measured by using NIS-Elements Br 3.0 imaging software. Groups 3 and 4 had a significantly greater percentage of the canal wall penetrated by sealer at the 5-mm level than group 1 (P irrigation. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Depth profilometric case studies in caries diagnostics of human teeth using modulated laser radiometry and luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Raymond J.; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements from human teeth of photothermal radiometric (PTR) and luminescence (LM) signals induced by an intensity modulated laser have been performed to assess the feasibility of detecting deep lesions and near-surface cracks, to examine the effects of varying enamel thicknesses, the presence of fillings, and stains on the surface of teeth. A commercial dc luminescence monitoring instrument (DIAGNOdent by KaVo) was also used to examine a set of teeth for comparison purposes with PTR and LM. PTR amplitude signals from carious regions and from thin enamel were higher than those from healthy regions and thicker enamel. A crack produces a peak in the PTR amplitude scan, as well as a sudden change in the luminescence amplitude at the corresponding point. At low frequencies (5 Hz), the PTR amplitude showed high sensitivity to a deep (about 2 mm) lesion, while at high frequencies (700 Hz) it was more sensitive to surface cracks. It was concluded that by selecting proper modulation frequencies of the laser, measurements of PTR and LM signals could be used as a dental diagnostic technique with a small, inexpensive, low-power (<30 mW) semiconductor laser as a light source emitting in the optical window range of hard tissue (650-1000 nm).

  16. Designing protocols for the human teeth biobank of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Constanza Gonzáles-Pita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocols in a Tooth Bank are essential in order to assure smooth operation, reproducibility and standardization that minimize cross contamination, maintain original characteristics and physicochemical properties of teeth, fulll ethical and legal regulations and a proper disposal of residues. Objective: to propose the disinfection, storing and transportation protocols for the UNTB. Methods: A literature search was conducted using the words “teeth, human, tooth bank, disinfection, sterilization, storage, organization, biosecurity, biobank, protocol, prevention” in the Pubmed, Science Direct and Scielo databases. 37 papers ranging from 1988 up to 2014 were selected. International and Colombian ethical and legal regulations for organ donation, handling and investigation were taken into account as well as laboratory observations and chemical basic principles gained through several undergraduate and graduate thesis. All this input was carefully studied, analysed and critically modied for setting the recommended processes for the conversion of donated teeth into organs suitable for research. Results: Collection, transportation, cleaning/disinfection and storing protocols were planned and elaborated. Conclusions: Based on scientic literature, national and international regulations and experimental experience, several protocols for the UNTB were presented.

  17. Human dental pulp cells exhibit bone cell-like responsiveness to fluid shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Bindslev, Dorth Arenholt; Melsen, Birte; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2011-02-01

    For engineering bone tissue to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects, mechanosensitive cells are needed that are able to conduct bone cell-specific functions, such as bone remodelling. Mechanical loading affects local bone mass and architecture in vivo by initiating a cellular response via loading-induced flow of interstitial fluid. After surgical removal of ectopically impacted third molars, human dental pulp tissue is an easily accessible and interesting source of cells for mineralized tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPC) are responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) upon stimulation of mineralization in vitro. Human DPC were incubated with or without mineralization medium containing differentiation factors for 3 weeks. Cells were subjected to 1-h PFF (0.7 ± 0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) and the response was quantified by measuring nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production, and gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. We found that DPC are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. PFF stimulated NO and PGE₂ production, and up-regulated COX-2 but not COX-1 gene expression. In DPC cultured under mineralizing conditions, the PFF-induced NO, but not PGE₂, production was significantly enhanced. These data suggest that human DPC, like osteogenic cells, acquire responsiveness to pulsating fluid shear stress in mineralizing conditions. Thus DPC might be able to perform bone-like functions during mineralized tissue remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for mineralized tissue engineering to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects.

  18. Heavy metals in human teeth dentine: A bio-indicator of metals exposure and environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Binti Baharudin, Nurul Atiqah; Amin, Yusoff Bin Mohd; Farook, Mohideen Salihu; Bradley, D A; Mahmoud, Okba

    2017-06-01

    With rapid urbanization and large-scale industrial activities, modern human populations are being increasingly subjected to chronic environmental heavy metal exposures. Elemental uptake in tooth dentine is a bioindicator, the uptake occurring during the formation and mineralization processes, stored to large extent over periods of many years. The uptake includes essential elements, most typically geogenic dietary sources, as well as non-essential elements arising through environmental insults. In this study, with the help of the Dental Faculty of the University of Malaya, a total of 50 separate human teeth were collected from dental patients of various ethnicity, age, gender, occupation, dietary habit, residency, etc. Analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), most samples indicating the presence of the following trace elements, placed in order of concentration, from least to greatest: As, Mn, Ba, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Hg, Sb, Al, Sr, Sn. The concentrations have been observed to increase with age. Among the ethnic groups, the teeth of ethnic Chinese showed marginally greater metal concentrations than those of the Indians and Malays, the teeth dentine of females generally showing greater concentrations than that of males. Greater concentrations of Hg, Cu and Sn were found in molars while Pb, Sr, Sb and Zn were present in greater concentrations in incisors. With the elevated concentration levels of heavy metals in tooth dentine reflecting pollution from industrial emissions and urbanization, it is evident that human tooth dentine can provide chronological information on exposure, representing a reliable bio-indicator of environmental pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proteomic analysis of human tooth pulp proteomes – Comparison of caries-resistant and caries-susceptible

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jágr, Michal; Eckhardt, Adam; Pataridis, Statis; Foltán, R.; Myšák, J.; Mikšík, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 145, Aug 11 (2016), s. 127-136 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14324 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : human tooth pulp * DIGE * proteome * caries * resistance Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  20. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Norton, Andrew L; Gesteira, Tarsis F; Cavalheiro, Renan P; Meneghetti, Maria Cecília Z; Martins, João R; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite) and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs). Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin) and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  1. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette M Coulson-Thomas

    Full Text Available Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs. Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS and hyaluronic acid (HA. In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  2. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp and follicle tissue of human third molar tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadegary Z

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: In the last decade, several studies have reported the isolation of stem cell population from different dental sources, while their mesenchymal nature is still controversial. The aim of this study was to isolate stem cells from mature human dental pulp and follicle and to determine their mesenchymal nature before differentiation based on the ISCT (International Society for Cellular Therapy criteria."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, intact human third molars extracted due to prophylactic or orthodontic reasons were collected from patients aged 18-25. After tooth extraction, dental pulp and follicle were stored at 4°C in RPMI 1640 medium containing antibiotics. Dental pulp and follicle were prepared in a sterile condition and digested using an enzyme solution containing 4mg/ml collagenase I and dispase (ratio: 1:1. The cells were then cultivated in α-MEM medium. Passage-3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for the expression of CD34, CD45, CD 73, CD90 and CD105 surface markers."nResults: Dental pulp and follicle were observed to grow in colony forming units, mainly composed of a fibroblast-like cell population. Flow cytometry results showed that dental pulp and follicle are highly positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105 (mesenchymal stem cell markers and are negative for hematopoietic markers such as CD34 and CD 45."nConclusion: In this study we were able to successfully confirm that dental pulp and follicle stem cells isolated from permanent third molars have a mesenchymal nature before differentiation. Therefore, these two sources can be considered as an easy accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells for stem cell research and tissue engineering.

  3. Predictable management of cracked teeth with reversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, P; Leow, N

    2009-12-01

    The aims of this study were to assess symptoms and signs caused by cracks in teeth and to assess a conservative management protocol. The symptoms and signs of 100 consecutive teeth that had reversible pulpitis associated with cracks were compared to findings from other reports. Teeth were managed with a conservative protocol which involved removal of cracks, caries and restorations, followed by placement of a sedative lining and interim restoration unless there were pulp exposures or insufficient tooth structure remaining. Teeth were monitored for pulp healing after three months and for up to five years. Eighty teeth did not require endodontic treatment. One tooth had an uncertain pulp status at review appointments. Fifteen teeth required endodontic treatment at the initial appointment because of carious pulp exposures (4 teeth), cracks extending into the pulp (2), and posts required (9). Four other teeth required endodontic treatment later following conservative pulp treatment due to continued pulpitis under the temporary restoration (1), pulpitis after core restoration (2), and pulp necrosis diagnosed at the review (1). Provided there is an accurate diagnosis of the pulp status and its cause, teeth with reversible pulpitis due to cracks can be treated conservatively without endodontic treatment in about 80 per cent of cases.

  4. C-myb Regulates Autophagy for Pulp Vitality in Glucose Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Kim, H S; Kim, J S; Yu, M K; Cho, S D; Jeon, J G; Yi, H K

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is closely related to oral-complicated diseases by oxidative stress. This study investigates whether cellular myeloblastosis (c-myb) could protect human dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress and regulate autophagy activity for pulp vitality. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in Sprague-Dawley rats, and their pulp tissue in teeth was analyzed in terms of pulp cavity and molecules by hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining. Human dental pulp cells were serially subcultured and treated with glucose oxidase in the presence of elevated glucose to generate glucose oxidative stress. The replication-deficient adenovirus c-myb and small interfering RNA c-myb were introduced for c-myb expression. The pulp tissue from the diabetic rats was structurally different from normal tissue in terms of narrow pulp capacity, reduced c-myb, and dentinogenesis molecules. Glucose oxidase treatment decreased c-myb and dentinogenesis molecules (bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 7, dentin matrix protein 1, and dentin sialophosphoprotein) in human dental pulp cells. However, overexpression of c-myb by adenovirus c-myb increased dentinogenesis, autophagy molecules (autophagy protein 5, microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3, and Beclin-1), and cell survival via p-AMPK/AKT signaling even with glucose oxidative stress. In contrast, the lack of c-myb decreased the above molecules and cell survival by downregulating p-AMPK/AKT signaling. The results indicate that diabetes leads to irreversible damage to dental pulp, which is related to downexpression of autophagy via the p-AMPK/AKT pathway by decline of c-myb. The findings of this study provide a new insight that c-myb could ameliorate autophagy activity and that it is applicable for monitoring complicated diseases of dental pulp. The involvement of c-myb in pulp pathology could serve a therapeutic target in oral-complicated diseases. © International & American Associations

  5. Effects of SOX2 on Proliferation, Migration and Adhesion of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    Full Text Available As a key factor for cell pluripotent and self-renewing phenotypes, SOX2 has attracted scientists' attention gradually in recent years. However, its exact effects in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are still unclear. In this study, we mainly investigated whether SOX2 could affect some biological functions of DPSCs. DPSCs were isolated from the dental pulp of human impacted third molar. SOX2 overexpressing DPSCs (DPSCs-SOX2 were established through retroviral infection. The effect of SOX2 on cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability was evaluated with CCK-8, trans-well system and fibronectin-induced cell attachment experiment respectively. Whole genome expression of DPSCs-SOX2 was analyzed with RNA microarray. Furthermore, a rescue experiment was performed with SOX2-siRNA in DPSC-SOX2 to confirm the effect of SOX2 overexpression in DPSCs. We found that SOX2 overexpression could result in the enhancement of cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion in DPSCs obviously. RNA microarray analysis indicated that some key genes in the signal pathways associated with cell cycle, migration and adhesion were upregulated in different degree, and the results were further confirmed with qPCR and western-blot. Finally, DPSC-SOX2 transfected with SOX2-siRNA showed a decrease of cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability, which further confirmed the biological effect of SOX2 in human DPSCs. This study indicated that SOX2 could improve the cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability of DPSCs through regulating gene expression about cell cycle, migration and adhesion, and provided a novel strategy to develop seed cells with strong proliferation, migration and adhesion ability for tissue engineering.

  6. Effects of SOX2 on Proliferation, Migration and Adhesion of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Cai, Jinglei; Dong, Delu; Chen, Yaoyu; Liu, Xiaobo; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Yulai

    2015-01-01

    As a key factor for cell pluripotent and self-renewing phenotypes, SOX2 has attracted scientists' attention gradually in recent years. However, its exact effects in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are still unclear. In this study, we mainly investigated whether SOX2 could affect some biological functions of DPSCs. DPSCs were isolated from the dental pulp of human impacted third molar. SOX2 overexpressing DPSCs (DPSCs-SOX2) were established through retroviral infection. The effect of SOX2 on cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability was evaluated with CCK-8, trans-well system and fibronectin-induced cell attachment experiment respectively. Whole genome expression of DPSCs-SOX2 was analyzed with RNA microarray. Furthermore, a rescue experiment was performed with SOX2-siRNA in DPSC-SOX2 to confirm the effect of SOX2 overexpression in DPSCs. We found that SOX2 overexpression could result in the enhancement of cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion in DPSCs obviously. RNA microarray analysis indicated that some key genes in the signal pathways associated with cell cycle, migration and adhesion were upregulated in different degree, and the results were further confirmed with qPCR and western-blot. Finally, DPSC-SOX2 transfected with SOX2-siRNA showed a decrease of cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability, which further confirmed the biological effect of SOX2 in human DPSCs. This study indicated that SOX2 could improve the cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability of DPSCs through regulating gene expression about cell cycle, migration and adhesion, and provided a novel strategy to develop seed cells with strong proliferation, migration and adhesion ability for tissue engineering.

  7. Insights into the processes behind the contamination of degraded human teeth and bone samples with exogenous sources of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M. T. P.; Hansen, Anders J.; Willerslev, E.

    2006-01-01

    A principal problem facing human DNA studies that use old and degraded remains is contamination from other sources of human DNA. In this study we have attempted to contaminate deliberately bones and teeth sampled from a medieval collection excavated in Trondheim, Norway, in order to investigate......, prior to assaying for the residual presence of the handler's DNA. Surprisingly, although our results suggest that a large proportion of the teeth were contaminated with multiple sources of human DNA prior to our investigation, we were unable to contaminate the samples with further human DNA. One...

  8. A prospective study of the incidence of asymptomatic pulp necrosis following crown preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontakiotis, E G; Filippatos, C G; Stefopoulos, S; Tzanetakis, G N

    2015-06-01

    To determine the incidence of asymptomatic pulp necrosis following crown preparation as well as the positive predictive value of the electric pulp testing. A total of 120 teeth with healthy pulps scheduled to receive fixed crowns (experimental teeth) were included. Teeth were divided into two groups according to the preoperative crown condition (intact teeth and teeth with preoperative caries, restorations or crowns) and into four groups according to tooth type (maxillary anterior teeth, maxillary posterior teeth, mandibular anterior teeth and mandibular posterior teeth). Experimental and control teeth were submitted to electric pulp testing on three different occasions before treatment commencement (stage 0), at the impression making session (stage 1) and just before the final cementation of the crown (stage 2). Teeth that were considered to contain necrotic pulps were submitted to root canal treatment. Upon access, absence of bleeding was considered as a confirmation of pulp necrosis. Data were analysed using bivariate (chi-square) and multivariate analysis (logistic regression). All reported probability values (P-values) were based on two-sided tests and compared to a significance level of 5%. The overall incidence of pulp necrosis was 9%. Intact teeth had a significantly lower incidence of pulp necrosis (5%) compared with preoperatively structurally compromised teeth (13%) [(OR: 9.113, P = 0.035)]. No significant differences were found amongst the four groups with regard to tooth type (P = 0.923). The positive predictive value of the electric pulp testing was 1.00. The incidence of asymptomatic pulp necrosis of teeth following crown preparation is noteworthy. The presence of preoperative caries, restorations or crowns of experimental teeth correlated with a significantly higher incidence of pulp necrosis. Electric pulp testing remains a useful diagnostic instrument for determining the pulp condition. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by

  9. Trace Elements in Teeth by ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, N.F.; Helal, A.I.; Amr, M.A.; Amr, M.A.; Al-saad, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Teeth are reported to be suitable indicators of trace element exposure from environment and nutritional status. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to compare the trace element content of children's primary teeth and adult teeth. Primary teeth are collected from 28 children and 42 adult from non-industrial City. The data are assessed statistically using t-tests. The adult teeth contained significantly greater concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, Ba, Pb and U and significantly less Mn, Co, As, Se, Mo and Bi than the children teeth. Additional measurements on adult teeth pulps are performed. Comparison between trace element concentrations in health and caries teeth pulps show that the mean concentrations of Na, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Bi and U are lower in caries than healthy teeth pulps. On the other hand, the mean concentrations of Mg, Cd and Pb are higher in caries samples than healthy teeth pulps

  10. Endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesion in one session with photodynamic therapy as an adjuvant: study "in vivo"

    OpenAIRE

    Supercilio Barros Filho

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis of the study: It is assumed that the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an adjuvant in root canal therapy can promote the repair of teeth with periapical lesions treated in one session. Objectives: This in vivo study was to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy as an adjuvant in root canal therapy in one session for the repair of periapical lesions. Method: Fourteen human teeth with mortification pulp and periapical lesions were randomly divided into two groups (n=7): G1- ...

  11. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high frequency current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b) Classification...

  12. Shear bond strength and fracture analysis of human vs. bovine teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rüttermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate if bovine enamel and dentin are appropriate substitutes for the respective human hard tooth tissues to test shear bond strength (SBS and fracture analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 sound and caries-free human erupted third molars and 80 freshly extracted bovine permanent central incisors (10 specimens for each group were used to investigate enamel and dentine adhesion of one 2-step self-etch (SE and one 3-step etch and rinse (E&R product. To test SBS the buccal or labial areas were ground plane to obtain appropriate enamel or dentine areas. SE and E&R were applied and SBS was measured prior to and after 500 thermocycles between +5 and +55°C. Fracture analysis was performed for all debonded areas. RESULTS: ANOVA revealed significant differences of enamel and dentin SBS prior to and after thermocycling for both of the adhesives. SBS- of E&R-bonded human enamel increased after thermocycling but SE-bonded did not. Bovine enamel SE-bonded showed higher SBS after TC but E&R-bonded had lower SBS. No differences were found for human dentin SE- or E&R-bonded prior to or after thermocycling but bovine dentin SE-bonded increased whereas bovine dentine E&R-bonded decreased. Considering the totalized and adhesive failures, fracture analysis did not show significances between the adhesives or the respective tooth tissues prior to or after thermocycling. CONCLUSION: Although SBS was different on human and bovine teeth, no differences were found for fracture analysis. This indicates that solely conducted SBS on bovine substrate are not sufficient to judge the perfomance of adhesives, thus bovine teeth are questionnable as a substrate for shear bond testing.

  13. Overexpression of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Human Dental Pulp Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salunya Tancharoen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, a nonhistone DNA-binding protein, is released into the extracellular space and promotes inflammation. HMGB1 binds to related cell signaling transduction receptors, including receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, which actively participate in vascular and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether RAGE and HMGB1 are involved in the pathogenesis of pulpitis and investigate the effect of Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia lipopolysaccharide (LPS on RAGE and HMGB1 expression in odontoblast-like cells (OLC-1. RAGE and HMGB1 expression levels in clinically inflamed dental pulp were higher than those in healthy dental pulp. Upregulated expression of RAGE was observed in odontoblasts, stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells, and endothelial-like cell lining human pulpitis tissue. Strong cytoplasmic HMGB1 immunoreactivity was noted in odontoblasts, whereas nuclear HMGB1 immunoreactivity was seen in stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells in human pulpitis tissue. LPS stimulated OLC-1 cells produced HMGB1 in a dose-dependent manner through RAGE. HMGB1 translocation towards the cytoplasm and secretion from OLC-1 in response to LPS was inhibited by TPCA-1, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation. These findings suggest that RAGE and HMGB1 play an important role in the pulpal immune response to oral bacterial infection.

  14. Viability of human dental pulp in determination of sex of an individual by identifying srygene through DNA analysis: A single blind pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Ravikant Naik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of importance of human teeth in personal identification has been recognized from time immemorial. In any natural calamity or man-made catastrophe identification of an individual is of paramount importance. Here tooth plays an important role as it is the last one to get affected in a disaster due to its durable nature and good survival rate. This information comes under the aegis of forensic odontology and is of paramount importance from legal and social viewpoints. This analysis uses highly informative genetic markers and can be carried out easily in a typical forensic lab oratory. The SRY gene marker (sex determining region Y is a sex-determining gene on the Y chromosome in the therians (placental mammals and marsupials and this gene marker is considered as a signature gene to differentiate the male from female sex chromosome. The detection of SRY gene in the DNA from a forensic sample can be confirmatory to type the gender as male. This study was taken up to identify the viability of human tooth pulp by identification of SRY gene in gender determination.

  15. Paleoproteomics of the Dental Pulp: The plague paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Rémi; Mekni, Rania; Levasseur, Anthony; Chabrière, Eric; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Chemical decomposition and fragmentation may limit the detection of ancient host and microbial DNA while some proteins can be detected for extended periods of time. We applied paleoproteomics on 300-year-old dental pulp specimens recovered from 16 individuals in two archeological funeral sites in France, comprising one documented plague site and one documented plague-negative site. The dental pulp paleoproteome of the 16 teeth comprised 439 peptides representative of 30 proteins of human origin and 211 peptides representative of 27 proteins of non-human origin. Human proteins consisted of conjunctive tissue and blood proteins including IgA immunoglobulins. Four peptides were indicative of three presumable Yersinia pestis proteins detected in 3/8 dental pulp specimens from the plague-positive site but not in the eight dental pulp specimens collected in the plague-negative site. Paleoproteomics applied to the dental pulp is a new and innovative approach to screen ancient individuals for the detection of blood-borne pathogens and host inflammatory response.

  16. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  17. Effects of the concentration and composition of in-office bleaching gels on hydrogen peroxide penetration into the pulp chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Serrano, A P; Parreiras, S O; do Nascimento, E M S; Borges, C P F; Berger, S B; Loguercio, A D; Reis, A

    2015-01-01

    In tooth whitening, the hydrogen peroxide (HP) diffuses in the enamel and dentin, reaching the pulp. This in vitro study aimed to quantify the penetration of HP in the pulp chamber in teeth submitted to bleaching agents of different concentrations of HP without calcium (HP 20% [20CF], HP 35% [35CF]) and with calcium (HP 20% [20CC], HP 35% [35CC]). Fifty human premolars were sectioned 3 mm from the cemento-enamel junction and the pulp tissue was removed. The teeth were divided into five groups according to treatment and with a control group (n=10). An acetate buffer solution was placed in the pulp chamber of all teeth. The control group was exposed only to distilled water, while the other groups were treated with a bleaching procedure, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. After treatment, the acetate buffer solution was transferred to a glass tube in which leuco-crystal violet and peroxidase solutions were added, resulting in a blue solution. The optical density of this blue solution was determined spectrophotometrically and converted into micrograms equivalent to the HP. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α=0.05). The HP concentration did not affect the HP inside the pulp chamber, but the presence of calcium significantly reduced it (p<0.0001). The amount of HP that reaches the pulp chamber depends on the bleaching protocol and the product employed, and it seems to be less affected by HP concentration.

  18. Investigation of human teeth with respect to the photon interaction, energy absorption and buildup factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurudirek, Murat, E-mail: mkurudirek@gmail.co [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Topcuoglu, Sinan [Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Endodontic, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of human teeth have been calculated for total photon interaction (Z{sub PI{sub e{sub f{sub f}}}},Ne{sub PI{sub e{sub f{sub f}}}}) and photon energy absorption (Z{sub PEA{sub e{sub f{sub f}}}},Z{sub RW{sub e{sub f{sub f}}}}Ne{sub PEA{sub e{sub f{sub f}}}}) in the energy region 1 keV-20 MeV. Besides, the energy absorption (EABF) and exposure (EBF) buildup factors have been calculated for these samples by using the geometric progression fitting approximation in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to 40 mfp (mean free path). Wherever possible the results were compared with experiment. Effective atomic numbers (Z{sub PI{sub e{sub f{sub f}}}}) of human teeth were calculated using different methods. Discrepancies were noted in Z{sub PI{sub e{sub f{sub f}}}} between the direct and interpolation methods in the low and high energy regions where absorption processes dominate while good agreement was observed in intermediate energy region where Compton scattering dominates. Significant variations up to 22% were observed between Z{sub PI{sub e{sub f{sub f}}}} and Z{sub PEA{sub e{sub f{sub f}}}} in the energy region 30-150 keV which is the used energy range in dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) X-ray machines. The Z{sub eff} values of human teeth were found to relatively vary within 1% if different laser treatments are applied. In this variation, the Er:YAG laser treated samples were found to be less effected than Nd:YAG laser treated ones when compared with control group. Relative differences between EABF and EBF were found to be significantly high in the energy region 60 keV-1 MeV even though they have similar variations with respect to the different parameters viz. photon energy, penetration depth.

  19. Facilitatory effect of AC-iontophoresis of lidocaine hydrochloride on the permeability of human enamel and dentine in extracted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hideharu; Suda, Hideaki

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to quantitatively evaluate chemical permeability through human enamel/dentine using conductometry and to clarify if alternating current (AC) iontophoresis facilitates such permeability. Electrical impedance of different concentrations of lidocaine hydrochloride was measured using a bipolar platinum impedance probe. A quadratic curve closely fitted to the response functions between conductance and lidocaine hydrochloride. For analysis of the passage of lidocaine hydrochloride through human enamel/dentine, eight premolars that were extracted for orthodontic treatment were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction. The tooth crowns were held between two chambers with a double O-ring. The enamel-side chamber was filled with lidocaine hydrochloride, and the pulp-side chamber was filled with extrapure water. Two platinum plate electrodes were set at the end of each chamber to pass alternating current. A simulated interstitial pulp pressure was applied to the pulp-side chamber. The change in the concentration of lidocaine hydrochloride in the pulp-side chamber was measured every 2min using a platinum recording probe positioned at the centre of the pulp-side chamber. Passive entry without iontophoresis was used as a control. The level of lidocaine hydrochloride that passed through enamel/dentine against the dentinal fluid flow increased with time. Electrical conductance (G, mho) correlated closely to the concentration (x, mmol/L) of lidocaine hydrochloride (G=2.16x(2)+0.0289x+0.000376, r(2)=0.999). Lidocaine hydrochloride can pass through enamel/dentine. Conductometry showed that the level of lidocaine hydrochloride that passed through enamel/dentine was increased by AC iontophoresis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Disinfection/sterilization of extracted teeth for dental student use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, J T; Eleazer, P D; Clark, S J; Staat, R H; Scheetz, J P

    2001-11-01

    Extracted human teeth are used in many preclinical courses. While there has been no report of disease transmission with extracted teeth, sterilization of teeth used in the teaching laboratory should be a concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different sterilization/disinfection methods of extracted human teeth using Bacillus stearothermophilus, a bacteria resistant to heat and frequently used to test sterilizers. In this study, 110 extracted molars with no carious lesions were collected and stored in buffered saline. An endodontic occlusal access preparation was cut into the pulp chamber of each tooth. Pulp tissue in the chamber was removed with a broach. Approximately 1 x 10(5) B. stearothermophilus endospores in culture medium were injected into the pulp chamber, sealed with Cavit G, and then placed in sterile saline for twelve hours. Ten teeth were placed into each of eleven groups. Seven groups were immersed for one week in one of the following solutions: a) sterile saline (control group), b) 5.25% NaOCl, c) 2.6% NaOCl, d) 1% NaOCl, e) 10% buffered formalin, f) 2% gluteraldehyde, g) 0.28% quaternary ammonium. Four additional groups were treated by h) 10% formalin for two days, i) 10% formalin for four days, j) autoclaving at 240 degrees F and 20 psi for twenty minutes, and k) autoclaving at 240 degrees F and twenty psi for forty minutes. Each tooth was then aseptically split and placed in an individual test tube with growth medium. Samples were examined for evidence of growth (turbidity) at forty-eight hours. Only autoclaving for forty minutes at 240 degrees F and 20 psi or soaking in 10 percent formalin for one week were 100 percent effective in preventing growth. A chi-square analysis of the data indicates these two methods were significantly better than all other methods (p<0.001).

  1. Pulp-dentin Regeneration: Current State and Future Prospects.

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    Cao, Y; Song, M; Kim, E; Shon, W; Chugal, N; Bogen, G; Lin, L; Kim, R H; Park, N-H; Kang, M K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of regenerative endodontics is to reinstate normal pulp function in necrotic and infected teeth that would result in reestablishment of protective functions, including innate pulp immunity, pulp repair through mineralization, and pulp sensibility. In the unique microenvironment of the dental pulp, the triad of tissue engineering would require infection control, biomaterials, and stem cells. Although revascularization is successful in resolving apical periodontitis, multiple studies suggest that it alone does not support pulp-dentin regeneration. More recently, cell-based approaches in endodontic regeneration based on pulpal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated promising results in terms of pulp-dentin regeneration in vivo through autologous transplantation. Although pulpal regeneration requires the cell-based approach, several challenges in clinical translation must be overcome-including aging-associated phenotypic changes in pulpal MSCs, availability of tissue sources, and safety and regulation involved with expansion of MSCs in laboratories. Allotransplantation of MSCs may alleviate some of these obstacles, although the long-term stability of MSCs and efficacy in pulp-dentin regeneration demand further investigation. For an alternative source of MSCs, our laboratory developed induced MSCs (iMSCs) from primary human keratinocytes through epithelial-mesenchymal transition by modulating the epithelial plasticity genes. Initially, we showed that overexpression of ΔNp63α, a major isoform of the p63 gene, led to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and acquisition of stem characteristics. More recently, iMSCs were generated by transient knockdown of all p63 isoforms through siRNA, further simplifying the protocol and resolving the potential safety issues of viral vectors. These cells may be useful for patients who lack tissue sources for endogenous MSCs. Further research will elucidate the level of potency of these iMSCs and assess their

  2. Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells via the NF-κB Pathway

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    Shensheng Gu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs is regulated by multiple factors and signaling molecules. However, their regulatory mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing 20 (ZBTB20 in odontoblastic differentiation of HDPSCs. Methods: HDPSCs were obtained from human third molars and ZBTB20 expression was examined by qRT-PCR and western blot. Their osteo/odontogenic differentiation and the involvement of NF-κB pathway were subsequently investigated. Results: The expression of ZBTB20 is upregulated in a time-dependent manner during odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Inhibition of ZBTB20 reduced osteogenic medium (OM-induced odontogenic differentiation, reflected in decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, mineralized nodule formation and mRNA expression of odonto/osteogenic marker genes. In contrast, overexpression of ZBTB20 enhanced ALP activity, mineralization and the expression of differentiation marker genes. Furthermore, the expression of IκBa was increased by ZBTB20 silencing in HDPSCs, whereas ZBTB20 overexpression decreased IκBa and enhanced nuclear NF-κB p65. Inhibition of the NF-κB pathway significantly suppressed the odontogenic differentiation of HDPSCs induced by ZBTB20. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that ZBTB20 plays an important role during odontoblastic differentiation of HDPSCs and may have clinical implications for regenerative endodontics.

  3. The Role of Nephronectin on Proliferation and Differentiation in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

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    Jia Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of nephronectin (Npnt in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs. Methodology. Npnt was coated to nontissue culture-treated polystyrene (non-PS plates. The presence of immobilized protein on the surface was detected by polyclonal rabbit primary anti-Npnt antibody. Then the cell number was counted and compared with PBS-, bovine serum albumin- (BSA-, fish scale type I collagen- (FCOL1-, and human fibronectin- (Fn- coated wells. Cell proliferation was assessed using CCK-8 assay. Cell morphology was observed under light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Lastly, the mRNA expression profiles of integrins, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP, bone sialoprotein (BSP, and mineralization capacity of hDPSCs were investigated by real time RT-PCR and alizarin red staining, respectively. Results. Npnt mediates hDPSC adhesion and spreading partially via the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD motif. Npnt enhanced the mRNA expression of ITGA1, ITGA4, ITGA7, and ITGB1 on day five. Npnt downregulated DSPP but significantly upregulated BSP mRNA expression at day 28. Further, Npnt and FCOL1 accelerated the matrix mineralization in hDPSCs. Conclusions. The current findings implicate that Npnt would be favorable to recruit hDPSCs and conducive to mineralization in hDPSCs. The combination of Npnt with hDPSCs may offer a promising approach for hard tissue regeneration.

  4. Human dental pulp stem cells cultured in serum-free supplemented medium

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    Virginie eBonnamain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence show that human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs could provide a source of adult stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative pathologies. In this study, DPSCs were expanded and cultured with a protocol generally used for the culture of neural stem/progenitor cells.Methodology: DPSC cultures were established from third molars. The pulp tissue was enzymatically digested and cultured in serum-supplemented basal medium for 12 hours. Adherent (ADH and non-adherent (non-ADH cell populations were separated according to their differential adhesion to plastic and then cultured in serum-free defined N2 medium with epidermal growth factor (EGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. Both ADH and non-ADH populations were analyzed by FACS and/or PCR.Results: FACS analysis of ADH-DPSCs revealed the expression of the mesenchymal cell marker CD90, the neuronal marker CD56, the transferrin receptor CD71, and the chemokine receptor CXCR3, whereas hematopoietic stem cells markers CD45, CD133 and CD34 were not expressed. ADH-DPSCs expressed transcripts coding for the Nestin gene, whereas expression levels of genes coding for the neuronal markers β-III tubulin and NF-M, and the oligodendrocyte marker PLP-1 were donor dependent. ADH-DPSCs did not express the transcripts for GFAP, an astrocyte marker. Cells of the non-ADH population that grew as spheroids expressed Nestin, β-III tubulin, NF-M and PLP-1 transcripts. DPSCs migrated out of the spheroids exhibited an odontoblast-like morphology and expressed a higher level of DSPP and osteocalcin transcripts than ADH-DPSCs. Conclusion: Collectively, these data indicate that human DPSCs can be expended and cultured in serum-free supplemented medium with EGF and bFGF. ADH-DPSCs and non-ADH populations contained neuronal and/or oligodendrocyte precursors at different stages of commitment and interestingly, cells from spheroid structures seem to be more engaged into the odontoblastic lineage than the

  5. Clinical and histological evaluation of thermal injury thresholds in human teeth: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissara, P; Catapano, S; Scotti, R

    1997-11-01

    The effect on healthy dental pulp of thermal increases ranging from 8.9 to 14.7 degrees C was evaluated. These temperature increases correspond approximately to those caused by certain restorative procedures, such as tooth preparation with high-speed instruments and the fabrication of direct provisional crowns. Two criteria of evaluation have been used in conjunction, a clinical (symptomatic) and a histological one, to assert with greater precision potential damage to the pulp. The results suggest a low susceptibility of cells to heat, which does not appear to be a major factor of injury, at least in the short term. The main cause of postoperative inflammation or necrosis of the pulp is probably the injury of the dentine, a tissue in direct functional and physiological connection with the pulp.

  6. Phenotypic and growth characterization of human mesenchymal stem cells cultured from permanent and deciduous teeth

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    Revathi Shekar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Permanent and deciduous teeth are both viable sources of stem cells. The permanent teeth were easier to culture because of a lower chance of contamination with oral microflora. The growth characteristics of the cells obtained from both these sources were similar. However, there was a difference in the ratio of fibroblastoid cells to epithelioid cells between the cultures obtained from the permanent and deciduous teeth.

  7. An in vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of curcumin against human dental pulp fibroblasts

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    Praveenkumar S Mandrol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of curcumin to primary dental pulp fibroblasts in vitro. Materials and Methods: Dental pulp fibroblasts from primary maxillary central incisors were cultured and used for cytotoxicity tests after the fourth passage. Ninety-five percent curcumin was diluted with dimethylsulfoxide to prepare 100%, 50%, and 25% concentrations. Each concentration of curcumin was added in triplicate into 96-well microtiter plate containing the fibroblast culture at 104/well. Cells without treatment served as a control group. The number of viable cells after 48 hrs incubation at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 % CO2 and 95 % air was determined by the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The relative viability of pulp cells was expressed as color intensity of the number in the experimental wells relative to that of the control group. Absorbances were read at 492 nm on a microplate reader with a background subtraction at 620 nm. Results: Cell viability of primary dental pulp fibroblasts to 25%, 50%, and 100% curcumin concentration was 174%, 310%, and 317%, respectively. Conclusions: Curcumin promotes cell viability and induces proliferation of primary dental pulp fibroblasts and has the potential to be developed into an economical and reliable medicament for vital pulp therapy.

  8. Transplantation of human dental pulp-derived stem cells protects against heatstroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ling-Shu; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Lin, Ying-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth pulp (SHED) is a promising approach for the treatment of stroke and spinal cord injury. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of SHED for the treatment of multiple organ (including brain, particularly hypothalamus) injury in heatstroke mice. ICR male mice were exposed to whole body heating (WBH; 41.2°C, relative humidity 50-55%, for 1 h) and then returned to normal room temperature (26°C). We observed that intravenous administration of SHED immediately post-WBH exhibited the following therapeutic benefits for recovery after heatstroke: (a) inhibition of WBH-induced neurologic and thermoregulatory deficits; (b) reduction of WBH-induced ischemia, hypoxia, and oxidative damage to the brain (particularly the hypothalamus); (c) attenuation of WBH-induced increased plasma levels of systemic inflammatory response molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1; (d) improvement of WBH-induced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity (as reflected by enhanced plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone); and (e) attenuation of WBH-induced multiple organ apoptosis as well as lethality. In conclusion, post-WBH treatment with SHED reduced induction of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative radicals, enhanced plasma induction of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone, and improved lethality in mouse heatstroke. The protective effect of SHED may be related to a decreased inflammatory response, decreased oxidative stress, and an increased HPA axis activity following the WBH injury.

  9. Small Molecules Affect Human Dental Pulp Stem Cell Properties Via Multiple Signaling Pathways

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    Al-Habib, Mey; Yu, Zongdong

    2013-01-01

    One fundamental issue regarding stem cells for regenerative medicine is the maintenance of stem cell stemness. The purpose of the study was to test whether small molecules can enhance stem cell properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human dental pulp (hDPSCs), which have potential for multiple clinical applications. We identified the effects of small molecules (Pluripotin (SC1), 6-bromoindirubin-3-oxime and rapamycin) on the maintenance of hDPSC properties in vitro and the mechanisms involved in exerting the effects. Primary cultures of hDPSCs were exposed to optimal concentrations of these small molecules. Treated hDPSCs were analyzed for their proliferation, the expression levels of pluripotent and MSC markers, differentiation capacities, and intracellular signaling activations. We found that small molecule treatments decreased cell proliferation and increased the expression of STRO-1, NANOG, OCT4, and SOX2, while diminishing cell differentiation into odonto/osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic lineages in vitro. These effects involved Ras-GAP-, ERK1/2-, and mTOR-signaling pathways, which may preserve the cell self-renewal capacity, while suppressing differentiation. We conclude that small molecules appear to enhance the immature state of hDPSCs in culture, which may be used as a strategy for adult stem cell maintenance and extend their capacity for regenerative applications. PMID:23573877

  10. Cellular Responses in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Treated with Three Endodontic Materials

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    Alejandro Victoria-Escandell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs are of special relevance in future regenerative dental therapies. Characterizing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity produced by endodontic materials is required to evaluate the potential for regeneration of injured tissues in future strategies combining regenerative and root canal therapies. This study explores the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress of three endodontic materials that are widely used on HDPSCs: a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-Angelus white, an epoxy resin sealant (AH-Plus cement, and an MTA-based cement sealer (MTA-Fillapex. Cell viability and cell death rate were assessed by flow cytometry. Oxidative stress was measured by OxyBlot. Levels of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated by Western blot. Genotoxicity was studied by quantifying the expression levels of DNA damage sensors such as ATM and RAD53 genes and DNA damage repair sensors such as RAD51 and PARP-1. Results indicate that AH-Plus increased apoptosis, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity markers in HDPSCs. MTA-Fillapex was the most cytotoxic oxidative stress inductor and genotoxic material for HDPSCs at longer times in preincubated cell culture medium, and MTA-Angelus was less cytotoxic and genotoxic than AH-Plus and MTA-Fillapex at all times assayed.

  11. THE EFFECT OF FETAL CALF SERUM ON HUMAN DENTAL PULP STEM CELLS

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    Jakub Suchánek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Authors studied potential side effects of fetal calf serum (FCS in cultivation media on human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC during long term cultivation. Methods: Two lines of DPSC obtained healthy donors (male 22 years, female 23 years were used. Both lines were cultivated under standard cultivation conditions in four different media containing 10% or 2% FCS and substituted with growth factors. During long term cultivation proliferation ability, karyotype and phenotype of DPSC were measured. Results: Both lines of DPSC cultivated in a media containing 2% FCS and ITS supplement showed the highest number of population doublings. On the other hand the proliferation rate of DPSC cultivated in a media with 2% FCS without ITS supplement was slowest. Proliferation rate of DPSC cultivated in 10% FCS media with or without FGF-2 was comparable. DPSC cultivated in a media with 10% FCS showed a significantly higher amount of chromosomal aberrations. These chromosomal aberrations do not seem to be clonal but surprisingly we found large amounts of tetraploid cells in the 9th passage in both media containing 10% FCS. Conclusions: Our study proved that cultivation of DPSC in media containing higher concentration of FCS has critical side effects on cell chromosomal stability.

  12. Genetic Comparison of Stemness of Human Umbilical Cord and Dental Pulp

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    Chung-Min Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on gene expression patterns and functions in human umbilical cord (UC and dental pulp (DP containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. DP tissues were collected from 25 permanent premolars. UC tissue samples were obtained from three newborns. Comparative gene profiles were obtained using cDNA microarray analysis and the expression of tooth development-associated and MSC-related genes was assessed by the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Genes related to cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and immune responses were expressed at higher levels in UC, whereas genes related to growth factor and receptor activity and signal transduction were more highly expressed in DP. Although UC and DP tissues exhibited similar expression of surface markers for MSCs, UC showed higher expression of CD29, CD34, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD146, and CD166. qRT-PCR analysis showed that CD146, CD166, and MYC were expressed 18.3, 8.24, and 1.63 times more highly in UC, whereas the expression of CD34 was 2.15 times higher in DP. Immunohistochemical staining revealed significant differences in the expression of genes (DSPP, DMP1, and CALB1 related to odontogenesis and angiogenesis in DP. DP and UC tissue showed similar gene expression, with the usual MSC markers, while they clearly diverged in their differentiation capacity.

  13. The direct cytotoxic effects of medicaments used in endodontic regeneration on human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labban, Nawaf; Yassen, Ghaeth H; Windsor, L Jack; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of intracanal medicaments commonly used in endodontic regeneration on the survival of human dental pulp cells (DPCs). DPCs were cultured and exposed to either no medicament treatment or low concentrations (0.3-5 mg ml(-1) ) of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ], triple antibiotic paste (TAP), or double antibiotic paste (DAP) for 3 days. After that, toxicity to the DPCs was determined by lactate dehydrogenase activity assays (LDH) and cell proliferation was measured by colorimetric assays (WST-1). Two-way anova followed by Fisher's protected least significant differences was used for statistical analyses (α = 0.05). The group-by-concentration interactions were significant for the LDH and WST-1 assays (P medicaments tested in this study were not cytotoxic in cultured cells. However, these concentrations are much lower than the concentrations that have been advocated in endodontic regeneration. Furthermore, the negative effects of TAP on DPCs were detected at lower concentrations by using the WST-1 assays than by measuring the LDH release. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Pulse frequency dependency of photobiomodulation on the bioenergetic functions of human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Bae; Baik, Ku Youn; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

    2017-11-21

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy contributes to pain relief, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. The pulsed wave (PW) mode has been reported to be more effective than the continuous wave (CW) mode when applying PBM to many biological systems. However, the reason for the higher effectiveness of PW-PBM is poorly understood. Herein, we suggest using delayed luminescence (DL) as a reporter of mitochondrial activity after PBM treatment. DL originates mainly from mitochondrial electron transport chain systems, which produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The decay time of DL depends on the pulse frequencies of applied light, which correlate with the biological responses of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Using a low-power light whose wavelength is 810 nm and energy density is 38 mJ/cm 2 , we find that a 300-Hz pulse frequency prolonged the DL pattern and enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity. In addition, we analyze mitochondrial morphological changes and their volume density and find evidence supporting mitochondrial physiological changes from PBM treatment. Our data suggest a new methodology for determining the effectiveness of PBM and the specific pulse frequency dependency of PBM in the differentiation of hDPSCs.

  15. Gold nanoparticles in injectable calcium phosphate cement enhance osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Chen, Huimin; Zhang, Feimin; Bao, Chongyun; Weir, Michael D; Reynolds, Mark A; Ma, Junqing; Gu, Ning; Xu, Hockin H K

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel calcium phosphate cement containing gold nanoparticles (GNP-CPC) was developed. Its osteogenic induction ability on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) was investigated for the first time. The incorporation of GNPs improved hDPSCs behavior on CPC, including better cell adhesion (about 2-fold increase in cell spreading) and proliferation, and enhanced osteogenic differentiation (about 2-3-fold increase at 14 days). GNPs endow CPC with micro-nano-structure, thus improving surface properties for cell adhesion and subsequent behaviors. In addition, GNPs released from GNP-CPC were internalized by hDPSCs, as verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thus enhancing cell functions. The culture media containing GNPs enhanced the cellular activities of hDPSCs. This result was consistent with and supported the osteogenic induction results of GNP-CPC. In conclusion, GNP-CPC significantly enhanced the osteogenic functions of hDPSCs. GNPs are promising to modify CPC with nanotopography and work as bioactive additives thus enhance bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic Comparison of Stemness of Human Umbilical Cord and Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chung-Min; Kim, Hyunok; Song, Je Seon; Choi, Byung-Jai; Kim, Seong-Oh; Jung, Han-Sung; Moon, Seok-Jun; Choi, Hyung-Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on gene expression patterns and functions in human umbilical cord (UC) and dental pulp (DP) containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). DP tissues were collected from 25 permanent premolars. UC tissue samples were obtained from three newborns. Comparative gene profiles were obtained using cDNA microarray analysis and the expression of tooth development-associated and MSC-related genes was assessed by the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Genes related to cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and immune responses were expressed at higher levels in UC, whereas genes related to growth factor and receptor activity and signal transduction were more highly expressed in DP. Although UC and DP tissues exhibited similar expression of surface markers for MSCs, UC showed higher expression of CD29, CD34, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD146, and CD166. qRT-PCR analysis showed that CD146, CD166, and MYC were expressed 18.3, 8.24, and 1.63 times more highly in UC, whereas the expression of CD34 was 2.15 times higher in DP. Immunohistochemical staining revealed significant differences in the expression of genes (DSPP, DMP1, and CALB1) related to odontogenesis and angiogenesis in DP. DP and UC tissue showed similar gene expression, with the usual MSC markers, while they clearly diverged in their differentiation capacity.

  17. [Effects of ADAM28 on biological functions of human dental pulp stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Liu, Hong-chen; E, Ling-ling; Wang, Yi; Wang, Dong-sheng

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28 (ADAM28) on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs) and the possible mechanism. Firstly, HDPSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro and identified. ADAM28 eukaryotic expression plasmid was constructed via gene rebuilt technique and transfected into HDPSCs. Then MTT chromatometry, enzyme dynamics and flow cytometry (FCM) techniques were performed to detect the effects of ADAM28 on biological characteristics of HDPSCs. Immunocytochemical and image analysis techniques were used to determine the influence of ADAM28 on HDPSCs expressing dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN). Statistical significance was assessed by the Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test with SPSS 13.0 software package. ADAM28 eukaryotic plasmid was constructed and transfected into HDPSCs for 48 hours successfully. In ADAM28 eukaryotic plasmid group, proliferation activity and index of HDPSCs were lower than those of pcDNA3.1(+) group and untransfected group significantly.Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) secretion level and percentage of apoptotic cells went up remarkly. Significant difference was detected between eukaryotic plasmid group and other groups (P<0.05). The expression level of DSPP in HDPSCs elevated significantly (P<0.05). ADAM28 could inhibit HDPSCs proliferation, promote ALP secretion activity and DSPP expression in HDPSCs and induce HDPSCs apoptosis significantly.

  18. Nav1.7 expression is increased in painful human dental pulp

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    Levinson S Rock

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal studies and a few human studies have shown a change in sodium channel (NaCh expression after inflammatory lesions, and this change is implicated in the generation of pain states. We are using the extracted human tooth as a model system to study peripheral pain mechanisms and here examine the expression of the Nav1.7 NaCh isoform in normal and painful samples. Pulpal sections were labeled with antibodies against: 1 Nav1.7, N52 and PGP9.5, and 2 Nav1.7, caspr (a paranodal protein used to identify nodes of Ranvier, and myelin basic protein (MBP, and a z-series of optically-sectioned images were obtained with the confocal microscope. Nav1.7-immunofluorescence was quantified in N52/PGP9.5-identified nerve fibers with NIH ImageJ software, while Nav1.7 expression in myelinated fibers at caspr-identified nodal sites was evaluated and further characterized as either typical or atypical as based on caspr-relationships. Results Results show a significant increase in nerve area with Nav1.7 expression within coronal and radicular fiber bundles and increased expression at typical and atypical caspr-identified nodal sites in painful samples. Painful samples also showed an augmentation of Nav1.7 within localized areas that lacked MBP, including those associated with atypical caspr-identified sites, thus identifying NaCh remodeling within demyelinating axons as the basis for a possible pulpal pain mechanism. Conclusion This study identifies the increased axonal expression and augmentation of Nav1.7 at intact and remodeling/demyelinating nodes within the painful human dental pulp where these changes may contribute to constant, increased evoked and spontaneous pain responses that characterize the pain associated with toothache.

  19. Radiobiological long-term accumulation of environmental alpha radioactivity in extracted human teeth and animal bones in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almayahi, B A; Tajuddin, A A; Jaafar, M S

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the radiobiological analysis of natural alpha emitters in extracted human teeth and animal bones from Malaysia was estimated. The microdistributions of alpha particles in tooth and bone samples were measured using CR-39 alpha-particle track detectors. The lowest and highest alpha emission rates in teeth in the Kedah and Perak states were 0.0080 ± 0.0005 mBq cm(-2) and 0.061 ± 0.008 mBq cm(-2), whereas those of bones in the Perlis and Kedah states were 0.0140 ± 0.0001 mBq cm(-2) and 0.7700 ± 0.0282 mBq cm(-2), respectively. The average alpha emission rate in male teeth was 0.0209 ± 0.0008 mBq cm(-2), whereas that of female teeth was 0.0199 ± 0.0010 mBq cm(-2). The alpha emission rate in teeth is higher in smokers (0.0228 ± 0.0008 mBq cm(-2)) than in non-smokers (0.0179 ± 0.0008 mBq cm(-2)). Such difference was found statistically significant (p < 0.01). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microtomography evaluation of dental tissue wear surface induced by in vitro simulated chewing cycles on human and composite teeth

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    Rossella Bedini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a 3D microtomography display of tooth surfaces after in vitro dental wear tests has been obtained. Natural teeth have been compared with prosthetic teeth, manufactured by three different polyceramic composite materials. The prosthetic dental element samples, similar to molars, have been placed in opposition to human teeth extracted by paradontology diseases. After microtomography analysis, samples have been subjected to in vitro fatigue test cycles by servo-hydraulic mechanical testing machine. After the fatigue test, each sample has been subjected again to microtomography analysis to obtain volumetric value changes and dental wear surface images. Wear surface images were obtained by 3D reconstruction software and volumetric value changes were measured by CT analyser software. The aim of this work has been to show the potential of microtomography technique to display very clear and reliable wear surface images. Microtomography analysis methods to evaluate volumetric value changes have been used to quantify dental tissue and composite material wear.

  1. Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells into Dopaminergic Neuron-like Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, So Young; Soker, Shay; Jang, Yu-Jin; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Yoo, Eun Sang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the potential of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons in vitro as an autologous stem cell source for Parkinson's disease treatment. The hDPSCs were expanded in knockout-embryonic stem cell (KO-ES) medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on gelatin-coated plates for 3-4 days. Then, the medium was replaced with KO-ES medium without LIF to allow the formation of the neurosphere for 4 days. The neurosphere was transferred into ITS medium, containing ITS (human insulin-transferrin-sodium) and fibronectin, to select for Nestin-positive cells for 6-8 days. The cells were then cultured in N-2 medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), FGF-8b, sonic hedgehog-N, and ascorbic acid on poly-l-ornithine/fibronectin-coated plates to expand the Nestin-positive cells for up to 2 weeks. Finally, the cells were transferred into N-2/ascorbic acid medium to allow for their differentiation into dopaminergic neurons for 10-15 days. The differentiation stages were confirmed by morphological, immunocytochemical, flow cytometric, real-time PCR, and ELISA analyses. The expressions of mesenchymal stem cell markers were observed at the early stages. The expressions of early neuronal markers were maintained throughout the differentiation stages. The mature neural markers showed increased expression from stage 3 onwards. The percentage of cells positive for tyrosine hydroxylase was 14.49%, and the amount was 0.526 ± 0.033 ng/mL at the last stage. hDPSCs can differentiate into dopaminergic neural cells under experimental cell differentiation conditions, showing potential as an autologous cell source for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Proteome of human stem cells from periodontal ligament and dental pulp.

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    Enrica Eleuterio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many adult tissues contain a population of stem cells with the ability to regenerate structures similar to the microenvironments from which they are derived in vivo and represent a promising therapy for the regeneration of complex tissues in the clinical disorder. Human adult stem cells (SCs including bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs have been characterized for their high proliferative potential, expression of characteristic SC-associated markers and for the plasticity to differentiate in different lineage in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of this study is to define the molecular features of stem cells from oral tissue by comparing the proteomic profiles obtained with 2-DE followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF of ex-vivo cultured human PDLSCs, DPSCs and BMSCs. Our results showed qualitative similarities in the proteome profiles among the SCs examined including some significant quantitative differences. To enrich the knowledge of oral SCs proteome we performed an analysis in narrow range pH 4-7 and 6-9, and we found that DPSCs vs PDLSCs express differentially regulated proteins that are potentially related to growth, regulation and genesis of neuronal cells, suggesting that SCs derived from oral tissue source populations may possess the potential ability of neuronal differentiation which is very consistent with their neural crest origin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies some differentially expressed proteins by using comparative analysis between DPSCs and PDLSCs and BMSCs and suggests that stem cells from oral tissue could have a different cell lineage potency compared to BMSCs.

  3. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp. Key words: .... human dental pulp cells by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide. J Endod ... Biology of disease: Free radicals and tissue injury.

  4. In Vitro Osteogenic and Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Seeded on Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Hydroxyapatite Hybrid Hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella eTeti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells from human dental pulp have been considered as an alternative source of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages.Recently, polysaccharide based hydrogels have become especially attractive as matrices for the repair and regeneration of a wide variety of tissues and organs. The incorporation of inorganic minerals as hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can modulate the performance of the scaffolds with potential applications in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to verify the osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs cultured on a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Human DPSCs were seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel and on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel for 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days. Cell viability assay and ultramorphological analysis were carried out to evaluate biocompatibility and cell adhesion. Real Time PCR was carried out to demonstrate the expression of osteogenic and odontogenic markers. Results showed a good adhesion and viability in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel, while a low adhesion and viability was observed in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel. Real Time PCR data demonstrated a temporal up-regulation of osteogenic and odontogenic markers in dental pulp stem cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. In conclusion, our in vitro data confirms the ability of DPSCs to differentiate toward osteogenic and odontogenic lineages in presence of a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Taken together, our results provide evidence that DPSCs and carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel could be considered promising candidates for dental pulp complex and periodontal tissue engineering.

  5. Comparative study of the fluorescence intensity of dental composites and human teeth submitted to artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Tatiana; Takahashi, Marcos Kenzo; Brum, Rafeal Torres; Rached, Rodrigo Nunes; Souza, Evelise M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the fluorescence of resin composites and human teeth, and to determine the stability of fluorescence after aging. Ten specimens were built using a 1 mm thick increment of dentin composite overlapped by a 0.5 mm thick increment of enamel composite. Ten sound human molars were sectioned and silicon carbide-polished to obtain enamel and dentin slabs 1.5 mm in thickness. Fluorescence measurements were carried out by a fluorescence spectrophotometer before and after thermocycling (2000 cycles, 5°C and 55°C). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures and Tukey's test were performed at a significance level of 5%. Most of the tested composites showed significant differences in fluorescence both before and after aging (P 0.05), and was the only composite that showed comparable results of fluorescence to the tooth structure before and after thermocycling. With the exception of Filtek Supreme, there were significant reductions in fluorescence intensity for all the tested composites (P < 0.05).

  6. Characterization of ancient teeth and bones from animal and pre-historic human by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimjun, Surapong; Chongkum, Somporn; Asvavinijkulchai, Chanchai; Khaweerat, Sasiphan; Pramankij, Somsak; Subhavan, Vadhana

    2004-01-01

    The search for the evidence of the oldest homonid in Thailand was carried out in the upper northern part of the country consisting of Lampang, Chiang Mai, Phayao, Phrae, Nan, Chiang Rai and Mae Hong Son and Lampang was set up as a center. Three nuclear analytical techniques, i.e. X-ray fluorescence using X-ray tube and isotopic sources, neutron activation analysis and low-background gamma spectroscopy were employed to investigate the samples. The results of elemental composition in fossilised teeth can be used to classify the type of human and animal as it is related to the dietary behaviour. The relationship between elements in fossils and soil or rock can be used to identify the location where the fossils came from. The level of natural radioactivity in soil samples from different locations will be helpful in defining the surveyed region. All of the knowledge will support the development of nuclear analytical technique in archeological study. Besides, the research team found four pieces of fossils which assembled the right frontal region of a calvaria. It appears to be the first indication of a Homo Erectus partial cranial vault ever discovered in Thailand. This discovery is very important in human evolution study

  7. The effect of stem cell from human exfoliated deciduous teeth on T lymphocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Razieh; Adib, Minoo; Hashemi-Beni, Batool; Sadeghi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), a specific type of adult tissue stem cell; have the immunosuppressive effects that make them valuable targets for regenerative medicine and treatment of many human illnesses. Hence, MSC have been the subject of numerous studies. The classical source of MSC is adult bone marrow (BM). Due to many shortcomings of harvesting MSC from BM, finding the alternative sources for MSC is an urgent. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are relative new MSC populations that fulfill these criteria but their potential immunosuppressive effect has not been studied enough yet. Thus, in this work the effect of SHED on the proliferation of in vitro activated T lymphocytes were explored. In this study, both mitogen and alloantigen activated T cells were cultured in the presence of different numbers of SHED. In some co-cultures, activated T cells were in direct contact to MSCs and in other co-cultures; they were separated from SHED by a permeable membrane. In all co-cultures, the proliferation of T cells was measured by ELISA Bromodeoxyuridine proliferation assay. In general, our results showed that SHED significantly suppress the proliferation of activated T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the suppression was slightly stronger when MSCs were in physical contact to activated T cells. This study showed that SHED likewise other MSC populations can suppress the activation of T lymphocytes, which can be used instead of BM derived MSCs in many investigational and clinical applications.

  8. CORROSION IN ACIDIC BEVERAGES AND RECOVERY OF MICROHARDNESS OF HUMAN TEETH ENAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Gaalova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the influence of corrosion in acidic beverages (white wine, pH~3.5 on micromechanical properties of human teeth. Simultaneously, the effect of fluorine-containing mouthwash (pH~4.4 and of artificial saliva (pH~5.3 in terms of their protective action against corrosion, and the recovery of mechanical properties through fluoridation and re-calcification was studied. The influence of the solutions on Vickers hardness of dental enamel was monitored on the basis of results from the corrosion tests carried out under quasi-dynamic conditions. The tests were performed at the temperature corresponding to the temperature of human body (37°C. The measurements confirmed a significant deterioration of microhardness with prolonged exposure to white wine. The Vickers hardness decreased from 347 HV0.2 in un-corroded specimens to 186 HV0.2 in samples corroded for 60 minutes in white wine. A recovery of Vickers hardness was observed after 60 minutes exposition time in the fluoridation solution, with the increase from 186 to 372 HV0.2. Similar effect was observed in the artificial saliva solution, with observed hardness increase from 186 to 320 HV0.2. Healing of corrosion-induced defects by the action of both solutions was observed by SEM, and associated with observed increase of hardness

  9. Photon dose conversion coefficients for the human teeth in standard irradiation geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulanovsky, A; Wieser, A; Zankl, M; Jacob, P

    2005-07-01

    Photon dose conversion coefficients for the human tooth materials are computed in energy range from 0.01 to 10 MeV by the Monte Carlo method. The voxel phantom Golem of the human body with newly defined tooth region and a modified version of the EGS4 code have been used to compute the coefficients for 30 tooth cells with different locations and materials. The dose responses are calculated for cells representing buccal and lingual enamel layers. The computed coefficients demonstrate a strong dependence on energy and geometry of the radiation source and a weaker dependence on location of the enamel voxels. For isotropic and rotational radiation fields the enamel dose does not show a significant dependence on tooth sample locations. The computed coefficients are used to convert from absorbed dose in teeth to organ dose or to integral air kerma. Examples of integral conversion factors from enamel dose to air kerma are given for several photon fluences specific for the Mayak reprocessing plant in Russia. The integral conversion factors are strongly affected by the energy and angular distributions of photon fluence, which are important characteristics of an exposure scenario for reconstruction of individual occupational doses. (orig.)

  10. Evidence of the protein content of bovine and human dental pulps by the action of endodontic irrigation solutions through electrophoretic patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis let to show the protein content of different tissues. Dental pulp contains connective tissue which is removed during the endodontic treatment. Many studies consider bovine rather than human pulp tissue because of its size. Aim: To evidence the protein content of bovine and human dental pulps and the action of endodontic irrigation solutions through electrophoretic patterns. Materials and Methods: Extracts of human and bovine dental pulps were prepared. Sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid were used as irrigating solutions. Results: Bovine and human pulps have a small difference in two bands of proteins present between 74 kDa and 80 kDa. The denaturizing capacity of sodium hypochlorite and the washing action of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine were evidenced. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid solution was shown to contain proteins continuously during the endodontic root canal washing. Conclusions: Differences in pulp tissues and the action of irrigating solutions on their protein content would help on the understanding of the biological process of the endodontic treatment.

  11. EZH2 Impairs Human Dental Pulp Cell Mineralization via the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Yu, F; Wu, F; Hui, T; A, P; Liao, X; Yin, B; Wang, C; Ye, L

    2018-05-01

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a catalytic subunit of PRC2 (polycomb repressor complex 2). It mediates gene silencing via methyltransferase activity and is involved in the determination of cell lineage. However, the function of EZH2 and the underlying mechanisms by which it affects the differentiation of human dental pulp cell (hDPC) have remained underexplored. In this research, we found that EZH2 expression decreased during the mineralization of hDPCs, with attenuated H3K27me3 (trimethylation on lysine 27 in histone H3). Overexpression of EZH2 impaired the odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs, while EZH2 without methyltransferase activity mutation (mutation of suppressed variegation of 3 to 9, enhancer of zeste and trithorax domain, EZH2ΔSET) did not display this phenotype. In addition, siRNA knockdown studies showed that EZH2 negatively modulated hDPC differentiation in vitro and inhibited mineralized nodule formation in transplanted β-tricalcium phosphate / hDPC composites. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, we explored the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in view of the fact that previous research had documented the essential role that it plays during hDPC mineralization, as well as its links to EZH2 in other cells. We demonstrated for the first time that EZH2 depletion activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and enhanced the accumulation of β-catenin in hDPCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis suggested that these effects are attributable to the level of the EZH2-regulated H3K27me3 on the β-catenin promoter. We conclude that EZH2 plays a negative role during the odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. Suppression of EZH2 could promote hDPC mineralization by epigenetically regulating the expression of β-catenin and activating the Wnt canonical signaling pathway.

  12. Effect of different calcium phosphate scaffold ratios on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdulQader, Sarah Talib [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Department of Pedodontic and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad (Iraq); Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj, E-mail: kannan@usm.my [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Rahman, Ismail Ab [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Ismail, Hanafi [School of Materials and Minerals Resource Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Penang (Malaysia); Mahmood, Zuliani [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds have been widely and successfully used with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of these scaffolds on odontoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. In this study, three different hydroxyapatite (HA) to beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratios of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds, BCP20, BCP50, and BCP80, with a mean pore size of 300 μm and 65% porosity were prepared from phosphoric acid (H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) and calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sintered at 1000 °C for 2 h. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability and differentiation of odontoblasts. The high alkalinity, more calcium, and phosphate ions released that were exhibited by BCP20 decreased the viability of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. However, the cells cultured with BCP20 extract expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity and high expression level of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dental matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes as compared to that cultured with BCP50 and BCP80 extracts. The results highlighted the effect of different scaffold ratios on the cell microenvironment and demonstrated that BCP20 scaffold can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • BCPs of different HA/β-TCP ratios influence cell microenvironment. • BCP20 decreases cell viability of HDPCs as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 express highest ALP activity. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 up-regulate BSP, DMP-1 and DSPP gene expressions. • BCP20 can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration.

  13. Effect of different calcium phosphate scaffold ratios on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdulQader, Sarah Talib; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Rahman, Ismail Ab; Ismail, Hanafi; Mahmood, Zuliani

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds have been widely and successfully used with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of these scaffolds on odontoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. In this study, three different hydroxyapatite (HA) to beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratios of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds, BCP20, BCP50, and BCP80, with a mean pore size of 300 μm and 65% porosity were prepared from phosphoric acid (H 2 PO 4 ) and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) sintered at 1000 °C for 2 h. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability and differentiation of odontoblasts. The high alkalinity, more calcium, and phosphate ions released that were exhibited by BCP20 decreased the viability of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. However, the cells cultured with BCP20 extract expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity and high expression level of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dental matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes as compared to that cultured with BCP50 and BCP80 extracts. The results highlighted the effect of different scaffold ratios on the cell microenvironment and demonstrated that BCP20 scaffold can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • BCPs of different HA/β-TCP ratios influence cell microenvironment. • BCP20 decreases cell viability of HDPCs as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 express highest ALP activity. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 up-regulate BSP, DMP-1 and DSPP gene expressions. • BCP20 can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration

  14. An Optimized Injectable Hydrogel Scaffold Supports Human Dental Pulp Stem Cell Viability and Spreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HyStem-C™ is a commercially available injectable hydrogel composed of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA, hyaluronan (HA, and gelatin (Gn. These components can be mechanically tuned to enhance cell viability and spreading. Methods. The concentration of PEGDA with an added disulfide bond (PEGSSDA was varied from 0.5 to 8.0% (w/v to determine the optimal concentration for injectable clinical application. We evaluated the cell viability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs embedded in 2% (w/v PEGSSDA-HA-Gn hydrogels. Volume ratios of HA : Gn from 100 : 0 to 25 : 75 were varied to encourage hDPSC spreading. Fibronectin (Fn was added to our model to determine the effect of extracellular matrix protein concentration on hDPSC behavior. Results. Our preliminary data suggests that the hydrogel gelation time decreased as the PEGSSDA cross-linker concentration increased. The PEGSSDA-HA-Gn was biocompatible with hDPSCs, and increased ratios of HA : Gn enhanced cell viability for 14 days. Additionally, cell proliferation with added fibronectin increased significantly over time at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 μg/mL in PEGDA-HA-Gn hydrogels, while cell spreading significantly increased at Fn concentrations of 0.1 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that PEG-based injectable hydrogels maintain hDPSC viability and facilitate cell spreading, mainly in the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins.

  15. Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase production by human dental pulp stromal cells is enhanced by high density cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Matthew J; Dennis, Caitriona; Yang, Xuebin B; Kirkham, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    The cell surface hydrolase tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) (also known as MSCA-1) is used to identify a sub-population of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) with high mineralising potential and is found on subsets of cells within the dental pulp. We aim to determine whether TNAP is co-expressed by human dental pulp stromal cells (hDPSCs) alongside a range of BMSC markers, whether this is an active form of the enzyme and the effects of culture duration and cell density on its expression. Cells from primary dental pulp and culture expanded hDPSCs expressed TNAP. Subsequent analyses revealed persistent TNAP expression and co-expression with BMSC markers such as CD73 and CD90. Flow cytometry and biochemical assays showed that increased culture durations and cell densities enhanced TNAP expression by hDPSCs. Arresting the hDPSC cell cycle also increased TNAP expression. These data confirm that TNAP is co-expressed by hDPSCs together with other BMSC markers and show that cell density affects TNAP expression levels. We conclude that TNAP is a potentially useful marker for hDPSC selection especially for uses in mineralised tissue regenerative therapies.

  16. Concurrent Expression of Oct4 and Nanog Maintains Mesenchymal Stem-Like Property of Human Dental Pulp Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-En Huang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, unique mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs type, exhibit the characteristics of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity. Oct4 and Nanog are pluripotent genes. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological functions of Oct4 and Nanog expression in DPSCs. Herein, we determined the critical role of an Oct4/Nanog axis modulating MSCs properties of DPSCs by lentiviral-mediated co-overexpression or co-knockdown of Oct4/Nanog in DPSCs. MSCs properties including osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation was assayed for expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic markers by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Initially, we observed that the expression profile of Oct4 and Nanog in dental pulp cells, which exerted properties of MSCs, was significantly up-regulated compared to that of STRO-1−CD146− dental pulp cells. Down-regulation of Oct4 and Nanog co-expression significantly reduced the cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation capability, STRO-1, CD146, and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity of DPSCs. In contrast, co-overexpression of Oct4 and Nanog enhanced the expression level of STRO-1 and CD146, proliferation rate and osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation capability, and expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation markers. Our results suggest that Oct4-Nanog signaling is a regulatory switch to maintain properties in DPSCs.

  17. Concurrent expression of Oct4 and Nanog maintains mesenchymal stem-like property of human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuan-En; Hu, Fang-Wei; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Tsai, Lo-Lin; Lee, Tzu-Hsin; Chou, Ming-Yung; Yu, Cheng-Chia

    2014-10-15

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), unique mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) type, exhibit the characteristics of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity. Oct4 and Nanog are pluripotent genes. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological functions of Oct4 and Nanog expression in DPSCs. Herein, we determined the critical role of an Oct4/Nanog axis modulating MSCs properties of DPSCs by lentiviral-mediated co-overexpression or co-knockdown of Oct4/Nanog in DPSCs. MSCs properties including osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation was assayed for expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic markers by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Initially, we observed that the expression profile of Oct4 and Nanog in dental pulp cells, which exerted properties of MSCs, was significantly up-regulated compared to that of STRO-1-CD146- dental pulp cells. Down-regulation of Oct4 and Nanog co-expression significantly reduced the cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation capability, STRO-1, CD146, and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of DPSCs. In contrast, co-overexpression of Oct4 and Nanog enhanced the expression level of STRO-1 and CD146, proliferation rate and osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation capability, and expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation markers. Our results suggest that Oct4-Nanog signaling is a regulatory switch to maintain properties in DPSCs.

  18. CD44 is involved in mineralization of dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Liang; Huang, Yu-Yuan; Lung, Jrhau; Yeh, Ying-Yi; Yuan, Kuo

    2013-03-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with various biological functions. Histologic studies have shown that CD44 is strongly expressed in odontoblasts at the appositional stage of tooth development. We investigated whether CD44 is involved in the mineralization of dental pulp cells. Ten human third molars with incomplete root formation were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry of CD44. Dental pulp cells isolated from another 5 human third molars were assayed for their viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and alizarin red staining in vitro after silencing stably their expression of CD44 by using the short hairpin RNA technique. The CD44 knockdown cells were cultured on a collagen sponge and transplanted subcutaneously into the dorsal surfaces of immunocompromised mice. After 6 weeks, the subcutaneous tissues were processed for alizarin red staining and immunohistochemistry of human specific antigen. The dental pulp cells transduced with control short hairpin RNA were used as the control in all assays. CD44 is expressed in odontogenic cells with active mineral deposition during tooth development. Odontoblasts in the root ends of immature teeth express a stronger CD44 signal compared with those in the crown portion. When CD44 expression was stably suppressed in dental pulp cells, their mineralization activities were substantially decreased in both in vitro and in vivo assays. CD44 may play a crucial role in the initial mineralization of tooth-associated structures. However, further studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An exploratory study of human teeth enamel by using Ft-Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afishah Alias; Siti Rahayu Mohd Hashim; Mihaly, Judith; Julyannie Wajir; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2009-01-01

    Unaffected , affected and heavily affected teeth enamel were studied by using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The 14 permanent teeths enamel surface were measured randomly, resulting in total n = 43 FT-Raman spectra. The results obtained from FT-Raman spectra of heavily affected, affected and unaffected tooths enamel surfaces did not show any significant difference. In this study, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare the intensity between the categories of enamel as well as the surfaces of teeth samples. (author)

  20. Radiobiological long-term accumulation of environmental alpha radioactivity in extracted human teeth and animal bones in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almayahi, B.A.; Tajuddin, A.A.; Jaafar, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the radiobiological analysis of natural alpha emitters in extracted human teeth and animal bones from Malaysia was estimated. The microdistributions of alpha particles in tooth and bone samples were measured using CR-39 alpha-particle track detectors. The lowest and highest alpha emission rates in teeth in the Kedah and Perak states were 0.0080 ± 0.0005 mBq cm −2 and 0.061 ± 0.008 mBq cm −2 , whereas those of bones in the Perlis and Kedah states were 0.0140 ± 0.0001 mBq cm −2 and 0.7700 ± 0.0282 mBq cm −2 , respectively. The average alpha emission rate in male teeth was 0.0209 ± 0.0008 mBq cm −2 , whereas that of female teeth was 0.0199 ± 0.0010 mBq cm −2 . The alpha emission rate in teeth is higher in smokers (0.0228 ± 0.0008 mBq cm −2 ) than in non-smokers (0.0179 ± 0.0008 mBq cm −2 ). Such difference was found statistically significant (p < 0.01). - Highlights: • Alpha emission rates in teeth from smokers slightly higher than non-smokers. • Difference between alpha rates in male and female tooth not statistically significant. • Alpha particles have the same effect at any age. • Difference between alpha rates in bones was statistically significant

  1. Quantifying the impact of µCT-scanning of human fossil teeth on ESR age results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Mathieu; Martín-Francés, Laura

    2017-05-01

    Fossil human teeth are nowadays systematically CT-scanned by palaeoanthropologists prior to any further analysis. It has been recently demonstrated that this noninvasive technique has, in most cases, virtually no influence on ancient DNA preservation. However, it may have nevertheless an impact on other techniques, like Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating, by artificially ageing the apparent age of the sample. To evaluate this impact, we µCT-scanned several modern enamel fragments following the standard analytical procedures employed by the Dental Anthropology Group at CENIEH, Spain, and then performed ESR dose reconstruction for each of them. The results of our experiment demonstrate that the systematic high-resolution µCT-scanning of fossil hominin remains introduces a nonnegligible X-ray dose into the tooth enamel, equivalent to 15-30 Gy depending on the parameters used. This dose may be multiplied by a factor of ∼8 if no metallic filter is used. However, this dose estimate cannot be universally extrapolated to any µCT-scan experiment but has instead to be specifically assessed for each device and set of parameters employed. The impact on the ESR age results is directly dependent on the magnitude of the geological dose measured in fossil enamel but could potentially lead to an age overestimation up to 40% in case of Late Pleistocene samples, if not taken into consideration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells on modified chitosan scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen-Ta, E-mail: f10549@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Pai-Shuen [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ko, Chih-Sheng [PhytoHealth Corporation, Maywufa Biopharma Group, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Te-Yang [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Strontium has an important function in bone remodeling because it can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. In this study, the effects of strontium phosphate on the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs were investigated. Strontium phosphate was found to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs with up-regulated osteoblast-related gene expression. The proliferation of SHEDs was slightly inhibited by chitosan scaffolds; however, type-I collagen expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition on chitosan scaffolds containing strontium were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, cells seeded in a 3D scaffold under dynamic culture at an optimal fluid rate might enhance cellular differentiation than static culture in osteoblastic gene expression. This experiment might provide a useful cell resource and dynamic 3D culture for tissue engineering and bone repair. - Highlights: • SHEDs have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering • Strontium phosphate can enhance the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs • 3D scaffold under dynamic culture with optimal fluid rate enhance cellular differentiation.

  3. Osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells on modified chitosan scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Wen-Ta; Wu, Pai-Shuen; Ko, Chih-Sheng; Huang, Te-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Strontium has an important function in bone remodeling because it can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. In this study, the effects of strontium phosphate on the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs were investigated. Strontium phosphate was found to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs with up-regulated osteoblast-related gene expression. The proliferation of SHEDs was slightly inhibited by chitosan scaffolds; however, type-I collagen expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition on chitosan scaffolds containing strontium were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, cells seeded in a 3D scaffold under dynamic culture at an optimal fluid rate might enhance cellular differentiation than static culture in osteoblastic gene expression. This experiment might provide a useful cell resource and dynamic 3D culture for tissue engineering and bone repair. - Highlights: • SHEDs have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering • Strontium phosphate can enhance the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs • 3D scaffold under dynamic culture with optimal fluid rate enhance cellular differentiation

  4. The chronology and sequence of eruption of human permanent teeth in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, R; Richardson, A

    1998-12-01

    To ascertain the average and range of ages and sequence of eruption of human permanent teeth, taking into account the effect of premature loss of primary antecedents. Longitudinal study. Caucasian subjects in Northern Ireland. Study casts at 6-monthly intervals from age 5 to 15 years of 276 children (146 males and 130 females) enrolled in the Belfast Growth Study. The mean and range of ages of eruption of each individual tooth were computed. Comparisons were made between the mean ages of eruption with and without premature loss of primary antecedents, between upper and lower arches, between right and left sides and between males and females. The sequence of eruption was also investigated. The means and ranges of eruption ages are reported. Premature loss of primary antecedents delayed eruption of permanent successors except for the upper premolars which were accelerated. The differences relating to the upper first premolar and lower canine were not statistically significant. Each lower tooth erupted before its upper counterpart except for the premolars. There was no significant difference in age of eruption between right and left sides. Females tended to erupt teeth before males with the exception of the second molars in both arches; however, the only differences to reach statistical significance related to upper and lower canines and upper lateral incisors. The most frequent orders of eruption were unique to the subject. These occurred in 22% of upper and 33% of lower arches. The classic sequences: first molar-central incisor-lateral incisor-first premolar-canine-second premolar-second molar (M1-I1-I2-PM1-C-PM2-M2) in the upper arch and I1-M1-I2-C-PM1-PM2-M2 in the lower arch occurred in only 16% of upper arches and 13% of lower arches. Males adhered to the textbook sequence (20% upper, 17% lower) more than females (12% upper, 8% lower). In the upper arch of females, the order M1-I1-I2-PM1-PM2-C-M2 in 10% of subjects was almost as frequent as the classic sequence

  5. Fracture resistance of weakened teeth restored with condensable resin with and without cusp coverage

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    Rafael Francisco Lia Mondelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study evaluated the fracture resistance of weakened human premolars (MOD cavity preparation and pulp chamber roof removal restored with condensable resin composite with and without cusp coverage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty human maxillary premolars were divided into three groups: Group A (control, sound teeth; Group B, wide MOD cavities prepared and the pulp chamber roof removed and restored with resin composite without cusp coverage; Group C, same as Group B with 2.0 mm of buccal and palatal cusps reduced and restored with the same resin. The teeth were included in metal rings with self-curing acrylic resin, stored in water for 24 h and thereafter subjected to a compressive axial load in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The mean fracture resistance values ± standart deviation (kgf were: group A: 151.40 ± 55.32, group B: 60.54 ± 12.61, group C: 141.90 ± 30.82. Statistically significant differences were found only between Group B and the other groups (p<0.05. The condensable resin restoration of weakened human premolars with cusp coverage significantly increased the fracture resistance of the teeth as compared to teeth restored without cusp coverage. CONCLUSION: The results showed that cusp coverage with condensable resin might be a safe option for restoring weakened endodontically treated teeth.

  6. The effect of timing temporary cements to treat induced pulp necrosis in the teeth of dogs Uso do "curativo de demora" em diferentes tempos no tratamento endodôntico de cães com necrose pulpar induzida

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    Léslie M. Domingues-Falqueiro

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available During endodontic therapy (pulpectomy, root canal debridement and root canal filling microbiological management is a major concern. Bacteria present in dentine tubules, apical foramina and apical delta are causally related to failure of the procedure. Studies have shown that during single session endodontic treatment bacteria remain within dental structures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate endodontic treatment performed as two sessions, using temporary endodontic dressing materials for different periods in four groups of experimental dogs. A total of 80 roots of second and third upper premolar teeth and second, third and fourth lower premolar teeth were divided into four groups. The pulp chamber was opened with burrs and the pulp exposed for 60 days to induce pulpal inflammation and necrosis. Groups II, III and IV were treated with calcium hydroxide plus camphorated paramono-chlorophenol (PMCC for 7, 15 and 30 days, respectively. In all groups, the root canals were filled with zinc oxide-eugenol and gutta-percha cones. Clinical and radiographical measurements were performed every 2 weeks. After 60 days a small block section containing the teeth, surrounding periapical tissues and the periodontium was removed for histological and microbiological study. Histological analysis revealed intense inflammatory response in all groups. Microbiological analysis showed microbial reduction inversely proportional to the period of time that the intracanal temporary medicament was left in place.Em um tratamento endodôntico, a microbiota é o ponto primordial a ser levado em consideração, pois as bactérias presentes nos túbulos dentinários, nas foraminas e no delta apical em cães estão relacionadas aos insucessos do procedimento. Estudos revelam que tratamentos realizados em uma única sessão ainda permitem a permanência de bactérias nas estruturas dentárias, portanto propõe-se a execução em duas sessões, com diferentes tempos de

  7. In vivo evaluation of human dental pulp stem cells differentiated towards multiple lineages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Daamen, W.F.; Damme, P.A. van; Bian, Z.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of investigations supports that adult stem cells have the potential to differentiate into matured cell types beyond their origin, a property defined as plasticity. Previously, the plasticity of stem cells derived from dental pulp (DPSC) has been confirmed by culturing cells in

  8. A Miniature Swine Model for Stem Cell-Based De Novo Regeneration of Dental Pulp and Dentin-Like Tissue.

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    Zhu, Xiaofei; Liu, Jie; Yu, Zongdong; Chen, Chao-An; Aksel, Hacer; Azim, Adham A; Huang, George T-J

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this study was to establish mini-swine as a large animal model for stem cell-based pulp regeneration studies. Swine dental pulp stem cells (sDPSCs) were isolated from mini-swine and characterized in vitro. For in vivo studies, we first employed both ectopic and semi-orthotopic study models using severe combined immunodeficiency mice. One is hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) model for pulp-dentin complex formation, and the other is tooth fragment model for complete pulp regeneration with new dentin depositing along the canal walls. We found that sDPSCs are similar to their human counterparts exhibiting mesenchymal stem cell characteristics with ability to form colony forming unit-fibroblastic and odontogenic differentiation potential. sDPSCs formed pulp-dentin complex in the HA/TCP model and showed pulp regeneration capacity in the tooth fragment model. We then tested orthotopic pulp regeneration on mini-swine including the use of multi-rooted teeth. Using autologous sDPSCs carried by hydrogel and transplanted into the mini-swine root canal space, we observed regeneration of vascularized pulp-like tissue with a layer of newly deposited dentin-like (rD) tissue or osteodentin along the canal walls. In some cases, dentin bridge-like structure was observed. Immunohistochemical analysis detected the expression of nestin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, and bone sialoprotein in odontoblast-like cells lining against the produced rD. We also tested the use of allogeneic sDPSCs for the same procedures. Similar findings were observed in allogeneic transplantation. This study is the first to show an establishment of mini-swine as a suitable large animal model utilizing multi-rooted teeth for further cell-based pulp regeneration studies.

  9. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

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    Yiangou Yiangos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS, considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5 and controls (n = 12, and the other patients with BMS (n = 7 and controls (n = 10. BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS. Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS.

  10. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS), considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5) and controls (n = 12), and the other patients with BMS (n = 7) and controls (n = 10). BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS). Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS. PMID:20529324

  11. The dental cavities of equine cheek teeth: three-dimensional reconstructions based on high resolution micro-computed tomography

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    Kopke Susan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies reported on the very complex morphology of the pulp system in equine cheek teeth. The continuous production of secondary dentine leads to distinct age-related changes of the endodontic cavity. Detailed anatomical knowledge of the dental cavities in all ages is required to explain the aetiopathology of typical equine endodontic diseases. Furthermore, data on mandibular and maxillary pulp systems is in high demand to provide a basis for the development of endodontic therapies. However, until now examination of the pulp cavity has been based on either sectioned teeth or clinical computed tomography. More precise results were expected by using micro-computed tomography with a resolution of about 0.1 mm and three-dimensional reconstructions based on previous greyscale analyses and histological verification. The aim of the present study was to describe the physiological configurations of the pulp system within a wide spectrum of tooth ages. Results Maxillary teeth: All morphological constituents of the endodontic cavity were present in teeth between 4 and 16 years: Triadan 06s displayed six pulp horns and five root canals, Triadan 07-10s five pulp horns and four root canals and Triadan 11s seven pulp horns and four to six root canals. A common pulp chamber was most frequent in teeth ≤5 years, but was found even in a tooth of 9 years. A large variety of pulp configurations was observed within 2.5 and 16 years post eruption, but most commonly a separation into mesial and distal pulp compartments was seen. Maxillary cheek teeth showed up to four separate pulp compartments but the frequency of two, three and four pulp compartments was not related to tooth age (P > 0.05. In Triadan 06s, pulp horn 6 was always connected to pulp horns 1 and 3 and root canal I. In Triadan 11s, pulp horns 7 and 8 were present in variable constitutions. Mandibular teeth: A common pulp chamber was present in teeth up to 15 years, but most

  12. Miniature Pulpotomy of Symptomatic Mature Permanent Teeth: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Nourzadeh, Mahdieh; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp inflammation can progress to periapical lesion formation and conventional root canal treatment (RCT) has been the traditional method for disease management. This observational study presents two cases of vital pulp therapy in mature molars diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis and associated with apical periodontitis. In these two clinical cases, the involved teeth had deep carious lesions with a history of spontaneous/lingering pain and radiographic examinations revealed the presence of apical radiolucencies. A conservative miniature pulpotomy (MP) using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) was performed and the teeth were permanently restored with amalgam. Clinical evaluations indicated resolution of pain 24 hours after treatment; the teeth showed normal vitality, remained asymptomatic and maintained normal function after recall examinations. Furthermore, the 18-month radiographic evaluation showed healing of the apical lesions. Vital pulp therapy using the MP technique with CEM appeared successful in avoiding RCT intervention. These two reports of case outcome suggest that simple MP using a CEM bioregenerative technique may provide a favorable outcome for permanent teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis and associated with apical periodontitis.

  13. The effect of chronic periodontitis on dental pulp: A clinical and histopathological study

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    Surekha Ramrao Rathod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This human study was carried out to evaluate the possible effects of severe chronic periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 permanent teeth with a hopeless prognosis due to severe chronic periodontitis were extracted from systemically healthy adults, with a pocket probing depth of ≥8 mm and a mobility of grade 3. After extraction, the apical 2-3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned with a fissure bur. Results: Inflammation was usual finding in the samples, however, only 15% of the teeth showed no inflammation. Pulpal necrosis (partial or complete was seen in different sections, and it was observed that 50% sections had no necrosis. Partial necrosis was a common finding seen when compared to complete necrosis (6.7%. About 60% of samples showed edematous pulp. Only 6.7% of samples showed absence of fibrosis. Pulp with moderate fibrosis was seen commonly seen in many sections. A majority of teeth (70% also displayed a loss of odontoblastic integrity. In only 25% of samples, pulp stones were detected. Conclusion: Our results revealed that severe chronic periodontitis can affect dental pulp. The cumulative effect of the periodontal disease, as indicated by the factors of calcifications, apposition of calcified tissue, resorption or inflammation from the root caries or from the involved lateral canals, is damaged pulp tissue, but total disintegration is a certainty only when all main apical foramina are involved by bacterial plaque. Proper evaluation and treatment of periodontal-endodontic involvement is recommended.

  14. A New Method to Develop Human Dental Pulp Cells and Platelet-rich Fibrin Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuan; Chen, Wen-Xia; Ban, Guifei; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Wen-Jin; Li, Xian-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been used as a scaffold material in various tissue regeneration studies. In the previous methods to combine seed cells with PRF, the structure of PRF was damaged, and the manipulation time in vitro was also increased. The objective of this in vitro study was to explore an appropriate method to develop a PRF-human dental pulp cell (hDPC) complex to maintain PRF structure integrity and to find out the most efficient part of PRF. The PRF-hDPC complex was developed at 3 different time points during PRF preparation: (1) the before centrifugation (BC) group, the hDPC suspension was added to the venous blood before blood centrifugation; (2) the immediately after centrifugation (IAC) group, the hDPC suspension was added immediately after blood centrifugation; (3) the after centrifugation (AC) group, the hDPC suspension was added 10 minutes after blood centrifugation; and (4) the control group, PRF without hDPC suspension. The prepared PRF-hDPC complexes were cultured for 7 days. The samples were fixed for histologic, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopic evaluation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate messenger RNA expression of alkaline phosphatase and dentin sialophosphoprotein. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay quantification for growth factors was performed within the different parts of the PRF. Histologic, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopic results revealed that hDPCs were only found in the BC group and exhibited favorable proliferation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that alkaline phosphatase and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression increased in the cultured PRF-hDPC complex. The lower part of the PRF released the maximum quantity of growth factors. Our new method to develop a PRF-hDPCs complex maintained PRF structure integrity. The hDPCs were distributed in the buffy coat, which might be the most efficient part of PRF. Copyright © 2016 American

  15. Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on regenerative cell responses in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Z; Wang, Z; He, X; Liu, N; Liu, B; Sun, L; Wang, J; Ma, F; Duncan, H; He, W; Cooper, P

    2017-04-04

    To investigate the growth, migratory and adhesive effects of trichostatin A (TSA) and valproic acid (VPA), two histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). To verify that TSA or VPA functions as an HDAC inhibitor, the expressions of histones H3 and H4 were examined using Western blotting analysis. hDPSC growth and metabolic activity was evaluated by MTT viability analysis at different time-points and by cell count experiments. The expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-associated proteins was examined by Western blot analysis. Migration effects were investigated using wound healing and transwell migration assays. An adhesion assay was also performed in the presence and absence of HDACis. The levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules relevant to repair in hDPSCs were also assessed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The data were analysed, where appropriate, using Student's t-test or one-way anova followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test using SPSS software. Trichostatin A and VPA enhanced acetylation of histones H3 and H4 (P  0.05). At the same time, the expression of Cdx2 and cyclin A was upregulated by 2 nmol L -1 TSA and 1 mmol L -1 VPA (P < 0.05). Higher TSA or VPA concentrations induced apoptosis in hDPSCs in the cell count and apoptosis experiments (P < 0.05). Moreover, TSA and VPA significantly depressed the expression of Cdx2 and cyclin A (P < 0.05), whilst it significantly improved the level of p21 (P < 0.05). TSA and VPA promoted migration and adhesion of hDPSCs (P < 0.05). The levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules were significantly upregulated after exposure of hDPSCs to 20 nmol L -1 TSA or 1 mmol L -1 VPA (P < 0.05). Histone deacetylase inhibitors at specific concentrations promoted proliferation, migration and adhesion of hDPSCs, which may contribute to novel regenerative therapies for pulpal disease treatment. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published

  16. Human dental pulp stem cells and gingival fibroblasts seeded into silk fibroin scaffolds have the same ability in attracting vessels

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    Anna eWoloszyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neovascularization is one of the most important processes during tissue repair and regeneration. Current healing approaches based on the use of biomaterials combined with stem cells in critical-size bone defects fail due to the insufficient implant vascularization and integration into the host tissues. Therefore, here we studied the attraction, ingrowth, and distribution of blood vessels from the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane into implanted silk fibroin scaffolds seeded with either human dental pulp stem cells or human gingival fibroblasts. Perfusion capacity was evaluated by non-invasive in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging while the number and density of blood vessels were measured by histomorphometry. Our results demonstrate that human dental pulp stem cells and gingival fibroblasts possess equal abilities in attracting vessels within silk fibroin scaffolds. Additionally, the prolonged in vitro pre-incubation period of these two cell populations favors the homogeneous distribution of vessels within silk fibroin scaffolds, which further improves implant survival and guarantees successful healing and regeneration.

  17. Pulp regeneration: Current approaches and future challenges

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    Jingwen eYANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, stem cell factor (SCF, and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration.

  18. Prevalence of two root canals in human mandibular anterior teeth in an Iranian population

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    Saeed Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complete debridement and obturation of the root canal system is a key factor in successful endodontic treatment and the operator should therefore have thorough knowledge of the root canal morphology of the teeth. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the canal configuration of different tooth types in various populations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the internal anatomy of mandibular incisors and canines in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 463 mandibular anterior teeth, including 186 centrals, 128 laterals, and 149 canines, were examined. A standard clearing technique was used to make the teeth transparent. India ink was injected into the canals of the teeth and the samples were examined with a magnifying glass. The root canal configurations were categorized according to the Vertucci classification. Results: All the incisors in this study had one root, and 12.08% of the canines had two roots. We found a slightly higher prevalence of the second canal in incisors than in canines (36.62% vs. 20.48%. However, the probability of canines having two separate apical foramina was higher than that for incisors (12.08% vs. 0.64%. Conclusions: In view of the high prevalence of two-canaled mandibular anterior teeth found in this study, it would be prudent to assume that any mandibular anterior tooth being treated is two-canaled until a thorough search proves otherwise.

  19. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Secretomes of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura-Wakayama, Yukiko; Katagiri, Wataru; Osugi, Masashi; Kawai, Takamasa; Ogata, Kenichi; Sakaguchi, Kohei; Hibi, Hideharu

    2015-11-15

    Peripheral nerve regeneration across nerve gaps is often suboptimal, with poor functional recovery. Stem cell transplantation-based regenerative therapy is a promising approach for axon regeneration and functional recovery of peripheral nerve injury; however, the mechanisms remain controversial and unclear. Recent studies suggest that transplanted stem cells promote tissue regeneration through a paracrine mechanism. We investigated the effects of conditioned media derived from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-CM) on peripheral nerve regeneration. In vitro, SHED-CM-treated Schwann cells exhibited significantly increased proliferation, migration, and the expression of neuron-, extracellular matrix (ECM)-, and angiogenesis-related genes. SHED-CM stimulated neuritogenesis of dorsal root ganglia and increased cell viability. Similarly, SHED-CM enhanced tube formation in an angiogenesis assay. In vivo, a 10-mm rat sciatic nerve gap model was bridged by silicon conduits containing SHED-CM or serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. Light and electron microscopy confirmed that the number of myelinated axons and axon-to-fiber ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the SHED-CM group at 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. The sciatic functional index (SFI) and gastrocnemius (target muscle) wet weight ratio demonstrated functional recovery. Increased compound muscle action potentials and increased SFI in the SHED-CM group suggested sciatic nerve reinnervation of the target muscle and improved functional recovery. We also observed reduced muscle atrophy in the SHED-CM group. Thus, SHEDs may secrete various trophic factors that enhance peripheral nerve regeneration through multiple mechanisms. SHED-CM may therefore provide a novel therapy that creates a more desirable extracellular microenvironment for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  20. Comparative gene expression analysis of the human periodontal ligament in deciduous and permanent teeth.

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    Je Seon Song

    Full Text Available There are histological and functional differences between human deciduous and permanent periodontal ligament (PDL tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the differences between these two types of tissue at the molecular level by comparing their gene expression patterns. PDL samples were obtained from permanent premolars (n = 38 and anterior deciduous teeth (n = 31 extracted from 40 healthy persons. Comparative cDNA microarray analysis revealed several differences in gene expression between the deciduous and permanent PDL tissues. These findings were verified by qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, and the areas where genes are expressed were revealed by immunohistochemical staining. The expressions of 21 genes were up-regulated in deciduous relative to PDL tissues, and those of 30 genes were up-regulated in permanent relative to deciduous PDL tissues. The genes that were up-regulated in deciduous PDL tissues were those involved in the formation of the extracellular matrix (LAMC2, LAMB3, and COMP, tissue development (IGF2BP, MAB21L2, and PAX3, and inflammatory or immune reactions leading to tissue degradation (IL1A, CCL21, and CCL18. The up-regulated genes in permanent PDL tissues were related to tissue degradation (IL6 and ADAMTS18, myocontraction (PDE3B, CASQ2, and MYH10, and neurological responses (FOS, NCAM2, SYT1, SLC22A3, DOCK3, LRRTM1, LRRTM3, PRSS12, and ARPP21. The analysis of differential gene expressions between deciduous and permanent PDL tissues aids our understanding of histological and functional differences between them at the molecular level.

  1. Comparative gene expression analysis of the human periodontal ligament in deciduous and permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Je Seon; Hwang, Dong Hwan; Kim, Seong-Oh; Jeon, Mijeong; Choi, Byung-Jai; Jung, Han-Sung; Moon, Seok Jun; Park, Wonse; Choi, Hyung-Jun

    2013-01-01

    There are histological and functional differences between human deciduous and permanent periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the differences between these two types of tissue at the molecular level by comparing their gene expression patterns. PDL samples were obtained from permanent premolars (n = 38) and anterior deciduous teeth (n = 31) extracted from 40 healthy persons. Comparative cDNA microarray analysis revealed several differences in gene expression between the deciduous and permanent PDL tissues. These findings were verified by qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction) analysis, and the areas where genes are expressed were revealed by immunohistochemical staining. The expressions of 21 genes were up-regulated in deciduous relative to PDL tissues, and those of 30 genes were up-regulated in permanent relative to deciduous PDL tissues. The genes that were up-regulated in deciduous PDL tissues were those involved in the formation of the extracellular matrix (LAMC2, LAMB3, and COMP), tissue development (IGF2BP, MAB21L2, and PAX3), and inflammatory or immune reactions leading to tissue degradation (IL1A, CCL21, and CCL18). The up-regulated genes in permanent PDL tissues were related to tissue degradation (IL6 and ADAMTS18), myocontraction (PDE3B, CASQ2, and MYH10), and neurological responses (FOS, NCAM2, SYT1, SLC22A3, DOCK3, LRRTM1, LRRTM3, PRSS12, and ARPP21). The analysis of differential gene expressions between deciduous and permanent PDL tissues aids our understanding of histological and functional differences between them at the molecular level.

  2. Fatigue crack propagation path across the dentinoenamel junction complex in human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X D; Ruse, N D

    2003-07-01

    The human tooth structures should be understood clearly to improve clinically used restorative materials. The dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) plays a key role in resisting crack propagation in teeth. The aim of this study was to determine the fracture toughness of the enamel-DEJ-dentin complex and to investigate the influence of the DEJ on the fatigue crack propagation path across it by characterizing fatigue-fractured enamel-DEJ-dentin complexes using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results of this study showed that the fracture toughness of the enamel-DEJ-dentin complex was 1.50 +/- 0.28 Mpa x m(1/2). Based on the results of this investigation, it was concluded that the DEJ complex played a critical role in resisting crack propagation from enamel into dentin. The DEJ complex is, approximately, a 100 to 150 microm broad region at the interface between enamel and dentin. The toughening mechanism of the DEJ complex may be explained by the fact that crack paths were deflected as cracks propagated across it. Understanding the mechanism of crack deflection could help in improving dentin-composite as well as ceramic-cement interfacial qualities with the aim to decrease the risk of clinical failure of restorations. Both can be viewed as being composed from a layer of material of high strength and hardness bonded to a softer but tougher substratum (dentin). The bonding agent or the luting cement layer may play the critical role of the DEJ in improving the strength of these restorations in clinical situations. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Immunomodulatory Role of Stem Cell from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth on Periodontal Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xianling; Shen, Zongshan; Guan, Meiliang; Huang, Qiting; Chen, Lingling; Qin, Wei; Ge, Xiaohu; Chen, Haijia; Xiao, Yin; Lin, Zhengmei

    2018-03-20

    Periodontitis is initiated by the infection of periodontal bacteria and subsequent tissue inflammation due to immunoreaction, eventually leading to periodontal apparatus loss. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) have exhibited beneficial characteristics in dental tissue regeneration. However, the immunomodulatory functions of SHEDs have not been elucidated in the context of periodontitis treatment. In this study, we investigated the potential immunomodulatory effects of SHEDs on experimental periodontitis and demonstrated that multi-dose delivery of SHEDs led to periodontal tissue regeneration. SHEDs and monocytes/macrophages were cocultured in transwell systems and SHEDs were found to be capable of promoting monocyte/macrophages conversion to CD206+ M2-like phenotype. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was employed to assess the survival and distribution of SHEDs after delivery in periodontal tissues in an induced periodontitis model, and BLI revealed that SHEDs survived for approximately 7 days in periodontal tissues with little tissue diffusion. Then, multi-dose SHEDs delivery was applied to treat periodontitis at 7-day intervals. Results showed that muti-dose SHEDs altered the cytokine expression profile in gingival crevicular fluid, reduced gum bleeding, increased new attachment of periodontal ligament and decreased osteoclast differentiation. Micro-computed tomography analysis showed SHEDs administration significantly increased periodontal regeneration and alveolar bone volume, and decreased distance of cementoenamel junction to alveolar bone crest (CEJ-ABC). Furthermore, an increase in the number of CD206+ M2 macrophages was observed in periodontal tissues following the delivery of SHEDs, which aligned well with the promoted conversion to CD206+ M2-like cells from monocytes/macrophages in vitro after stimulation by SHEDs. This study demonstrated in a rat periodontitis model that local delivery of SHEDs attributed to the induction of M2

  4. Human dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells promote wound healing and muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sarrà, Ester; Montori, Sheyla; Gil-Recio, Carlos; Núñez-Toldrà, Raquel; Costamagna, Domiziana; Rotini, Alessio; Atari, Maher; Luttun, Aernout; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2017-07-27

    Dental pulp represents an easily accessible autologous source of adult stem cells. A subset of these cells, named dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells (DPPSC), shows high plasticity and can undergo multiple population doublings, making DPPSC an appealing tool for tissue repair or maintenance. DPPSC were harvested from the dental pulp of third molars extracted from young patients. Growth factors released by DPPSC were analysed using antibody arrays. Cells were cultured in specific differentiation media and their endothelial, smooth and skeletal muscle differentiation potential was evaluated. The therapeutic potential of DPPSC was tested in a wound healing mouse model and in two genetic mouse models of muscular dystrophy (Scid/mdx and Sgcb-null Rag2-null γc-null). DPPSC secreted several growth factors involved in angiogenesis and extracellular matrix deposition and improved vascularisation in all three murine models. Moreover, DPPSC stimulated re-epithelialisation and ameliorated collagen deposition and organisation in healing wounds. In dystrophic mice, DPPSC engrafted in the skeletal muscle of both dystrophic murine models and showed integration in muscular fibres and vessels. In addition, DPPSC treatment resulted in reduced fibrosis and collagen content, larger cross-sectional area of type II fast-glycolytic fibres and infiltration of higher numbers of proangiogenic CD206 + macrophages. Overall, DPPSC represent a potential source of stem cells to enhance the wound healing process and slow down dystrophic muscle degeneration.

  5. Elemental mapping of teeth using {mu}SRXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, M.J. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Barroso, R.C.; Perez, C.A.; Braz, D.; Moreira, S.; Dias, K.R.H.C.; Lopes, R.T

    2004-01-01

    Human teeth were analysed by X-ray microfluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation ({mu}SRXRF). The aim of this work was to study the elemental distribution for Ca, Zn and Sr along the dental regions, enamel, dentine and pulp from patterns of relative fluorescence intensities. The measurements were performed in standard geometry of 45 deg. incidence, exciting with a white beam and using a conventional system collimation (orthogonal slits) in the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results show that Ca distribution is quite constant and it is independent of the tooth type and individuals characteristics. An increase of the Zn concentration was found for the pulp region and for untreated carious areas. Ca and Sr distributions show a similar behavior.

  6. Human Dental Pulp Cells Differentiate toward Neuronal Cells and Promote Neuroregeneration in Adult Organotypic Hippocampal Slices In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Ide, Ryoji; Saiki, Chikako; Kumazawa, Yasuo; Okamura, Hisashi

    2017-08-11

    The adult mammalian central nerve system has fundamental difficulties regarding effective neuroregeneration. The aim of this study is to investigate whether human dental pulp cells (DPCs) can promote neuroregeneration by (i) being differentiated toward neuronal cells and/or (ii) stimulating local neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Using immunostaining, we demonstrated that adult human dental pulp contains multipotent DPCs, including STRO-1, CD146 and P75-positive stem cells. DPC-formed spheroids were able to differentiate into neuronal, vascular, osteogenic and cartilaginous lineages under osteogenic induction. However, under neuronal inductive conditions, cells in the DPC-formed spheroids differentiated toward neuronal rather than other lineages. Electrophysiological study showed that these cells consistently exhibit the capacity to produce action potentials, suggesting that they have a functional feature in neuronal cells. We further co-cultivated DPCs with adult mouse hippocampal slices on matrigel in vitro. Immunostaining and presto blue assay showed that DPCs were able to stimulate the growth of neuronal cells (especially neurons) in both the CA1 zone and the edges of the hippocampal slices. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), was expressed in co-cultivated DPCs. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that DPCs are well-suited to differentiate into the neuronal lineage. They are able to stimulate neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus through neurotrophic support in vitro.

  7. Neuronal regeneration in injured rat spinal cord after human dental pulp derived neural crest stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatas, S; Demir, C S; Civelek, E; Yilmaz, I; Kircelli, A; Yilmaz, C; Akyuva, Y; Karaoz, E

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of human Dental Pulp-Neural Crest Stem Cells (hDP-NCSCs) delivery on lesion site after spinal cord injury (SCI), and to observe the functional recovery after transplantation. Neural Crest Stem Cells (NCSCs) were isolated from human Dental Pulp (hDP). The experimental rat population was divided into four groups (n = 6/24). Their behavioral motility was scored regularly. After 4-weeks, rats were sacrificed, and their spinal cords were examined for Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled hDP-NCSCs by immunofluorescence (IF) staining. In early post-injury (p.i) period, the ultrastructure of spinal cord tissue was preserved in Group 4. The majority of cells forming the ependymal region around the central canal were found to be hDP-NCSCs. While the grey-and-white-matter around the ependymal region was composed of e.g. GFP cells, with astrocytic-like appearance. The scores showed significant motor recovery in hind limb functions in Group 4. However, no obvious change was observed in other groups. Cells e.g., mesenchymal (Vimentin+) which express GFP+ cells in the gray-and-white-matter around the ependymal region could indicate the potential to self-renewal and plasticity. Thus, transplantation of hDP-NCSCs might be an effective strategy to improve functional recovery following spinal cord trauma (Fig. 10, Ref. 32).

  8. Microchemical and structural regular variability of apatites in 'overbuilt' enamel and dentin of human molar teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczumow, A.; Nowak, J.; ChaLas, R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of a recent paper was to recognize the chemical and structural changes in apatites, which form both the enamel and the dentin of the human tooth. The aim was achieved by scrutinizing the linear elemental profiles along the cross-sections of human molar teeth. Essentially, the task was accomplished with the application of the Electron Probe Microanalysis method and with some additional studies by Micro-Raman spectrometry. All the trends in linear profiles were strictly determined. In the enamel zone they were either increasing or decreasing curves of exponential character. The direction of the investigations was to start with the tooth surface and move towards the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). The results of the elemental studies were more visible when the detected material was divided, in an arbitrary way, into the prevailing 'core' enamel (∼93.5% of the total mass) and the remaining 'overbuilt' enamel. The material in the 'core' enamel was fully stable, with clearly determined chemical and mechanical features. However, the case was totally different in the 'overbuilt enamel', with dynamic changes in the composition. In the 'overbuilt' layer Ca, P, Cl and F profiles present the decaying distribution curves, whereas Mg, Na, K and CO 3 2- present the growing ones. Close to the surface of the tooth the mixture of hydroxy-, chlor- and fluor-apatite is formed, which is much more resistant than the rest of the enamel. On passing towards the DEJ, the apatite is enriched with Na, Mg and CO 3 2- . In this location, three of six phosphate groups were substituted with carbonate groups. Simultaneously, Mg is associated with the hydroxyl groups around the hexad axis. In this way, the mechanisms of exchange reactions were established. The crystallographic structures were proposed for new phases located close to DEJ. In the dentin zone, the variability of elemental profiles looks different, with the most characteristic changes occurring in Mg and Na concentrations. Mg

  9. In vitro pharmacological characterization of a novel TRPA1 antagonist and proof of mechanism in a human dental pulp model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eva Nyman,1,* Bo Franzén,1,* Andreas Nolting,1 Göran Klement,1 Gang Liu,1 Maria Nilsson,1 Annika Rosén,2 Charlotta Björk,3 Dirk Weigelt,4 Patrik Wollberg,1 Paul Karila,1 Patrick Raboisson11Neuroscience, Innovative Medicines CNS/Pain, AstraZeneca R&D, Södertälje, Sweden; 2Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Karolinska Institute/Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; 3Clinical TA NS Early Development, 4Medicinal Chemistry, Innovative Medicines CNS/Pain, AstraZeneca R&D, Södertälje, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: AZ465 is a novel selective transient receptor potential cation channel, member A1 (TRPA1 antagonist identified during a focused drug discovery effort. In vitro, AZ465 fully inhibits activation by zinc, O-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS, or cinnamaldehyde of the human TRPA1 channel heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Our data using patch-clamp recordings and mouse/human TRPA1 chimeras suggest that AZ465 binds reversibly in the pore region of the human TRPA1 channel. Finally, in an ex vivo model measuring TRPA1 agonist-stimulated release of neuropeptides from human dental pulp biopsies, AZD465 was able to block 50%–60% of CS-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide release, confirming that AZ465 inhibits the native human TRPA1 channel in neuronal tissue.Keywords: pain, pharmacology, antagonist, chimeric proteins, dental pulp, inflammation, neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP

  10. Zinc, lead and copper in human teeth measured by induced coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, L.T.; Bradley, D.A. E-mail: D.A.Bradley@exeter.ac.uk; Mohd, Y.; Jamil, M

    2000-11-15

    Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) has been used to determine Pb, Zn and Cu levels in 47 exfoliated human teeth (all of which required extraction for orthodontic reasons). Lead concentrations for the group were 1.7 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1} to 40.5 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1}, with a median of 9.8 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1}. A median lead level in excess of the group value was found for the teeth of six lorry drivers who were included in the study. A more significant enhancement was found for the seven subjects whose age was in excess of 60 years. The median values for Zn and Cu were 123.0 and 0.6 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1} respectively. Present values for tooth-Zn are lower than published data for other ethnic groups.

  11. Effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 on the expression and regulation of chemokines in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Min, Kyung-San; Jeong, Dong-Ho; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2010-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) participates in both hematopoiesis and osteogenesis; however, the effects of FGF-2 on chemokines during odontoblastic differentiation have not been reported. This study investigated whether human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) treated with FGF-2 could express chemokines during differentiation into odontoblastic cells and sought to identify its underlying mechanism of action. To analyze differentiation, we measured alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcified nodule formation by alizarin red staining, and marker RNA (mRNA) expression by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expression of chemokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and MIP-3α, were evaluated by RT-PCR. ALP activity, the mineralization, and mRNA expression for odontoblastic markers were enhanced by FGF-2 in HDPCs. FGF-2 also up-regulated the expression of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-3α mRNAs, which were attenuated by inhibitors of p38, ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinases, protein kinase C, phosphoinositide-3 kinase, and NF-κB. Taken together, these data suggest that FGF-2 plays a role not only as a differentiation inducing factor in the injury repair processes of pulpal tissue but also as a positive regulator of chemokine expression, which may help in tissue engineering and pulp regeneration using HDPCs. However, the fate of odontoblastic or osteoblastic differentiation, effective local delivery for FGF-2, interaction of chemotatic and odontogenic factors, and other limitations will need to be overcome before a major modality for the treatment of pulp disease. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro analysis of scaffold-free prevascularized microtissue spheroids containing human dental pulp cells and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayaka, Waruna Lakmal; Zhu, Lifang; Hargreaves, Kenneth M; Jin, Lijian; Zhang, Chengfei

    2015-05-01

    Scaffolds often fail to mimic essential functions of the physiologic extracellular matrix (ECM) that regulates cell-cell communication in tissue microenvironments. The development of scaffold-free microtissues containing stem cell-derived ECM may serve as a successful alternative to the use of artificial scaffolds. The current study aimed to fabricate 3-dimensional microtissue spheroids of dental pulp cells (DPCs) prevascularized by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to characterize these scaffold-free spheroids for the in vitro formation of pulplike tissue constructs. Three-dimensional microtissue spheroids of DPC alone and DPC-HUVEC co-cultures were fabricated using agarose micro-molds. Cellular organization within the spheroids and cell viability (live/dead assay) were assessed at days 1, 7, and 14. Microtissue spheroids were allowed to self-assemble into macrotissues, induced for odontogenic differentiation (21 days), and examined for expression levels of osteo/odontogenic markers: alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein and RUNX2 (Real-time PCR), mineralization (von-Kossa), and prevascularisation (immunohistochemistry for CD31). The DPC microtissue microenvironment supported HUVEC survival and capillary network formation in the absence of a scaffolding material and external angiogenic stimulation. Immunohistochemical staining for CD31 showed the capillary network formed by HUVECs did sustain-for a prolonged period-even after the microtissues transformed into a macrotissue. Induced, prevascularized macrotissues showed enhanced differentiation capacity compared with DPC alone macrotissues, as shown by higher osteo/odontogenic gene expression levels and mineralization. These findings provide insight into the complex intercellular cross talk occurring between DPCs and HUVECs in the context of angiogenesis and pulp regeneration and highlight the significance of developing a favorable 3-dimensional microenvironment that can, in turn, contribute

  13. Classification of ancient mammal individuals using dental pulp MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Nguyen-Ny Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The classification of ancient animal corpses at the species level remains a challenging task for forensic scientists and anthropologists. Severe damage and mixed, tiny pieces originating from several skeletons may render morphological classification virtually impossible. Standard approaches are based on sequencing mitochondrial and nuclear targets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a method that can accurately classify mammalian species using dental pulp and mass spectrometry peptide profiling. Our work was organized into three successive steps. First, after extracting proteins from the dental pulp collected from 37 modern individuals representing 13 mammalian species, trypsin-digested peptides were used for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The resulting peptide profiles accurately classified every individual at the species level in agreement with parallel cytochrome b gene sequencing gold standard. Second, using a 279-modern spectrum database, we blindly classified 33 of 37 teeth collected in 37 modern individuals (89.1%. Third, we classified 10 of 18 teeth (56% collected in 15 ancient individuals representing five mammal species including human, from five burial sites dating back 8,500 years. Further comparison with an upgraded database comprising ancient specimen profiles yielded 100% classification in ancient teeth. Peptide sequencing yield 4 and 16 different non-keratin proteins including collagen (alpha-1 type I and alpha-2 type I in human ancient and modern dental pulp, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mass spectrometry peptide profiling of the dental pulp is a new approach that can be added to the arsenal of species classification tools for forensics and anthropology as a complementary method to DNA sequencing. The dental pulp is a new source for collagen and other proteins for the species classification of modern and ancient mammal individuals.

  14. Classification of Ancient Mammal Individuals Using Dental Pulp MALDI-TOF MS Peptide Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Aboudharam, Gérard; Gardeisen, Armelle; Davoust, Bernard; Bocquet-Appel, Jean-Pierre; Flaudrops, Christophe; Belghazi, Maya; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background The classification of ancient animal corpses at the species level remains a challenging task for forensic scientists and anthropologists. Severe damage and mixed, tiny pieces originating from several skeletons may render morphological classification virtually impossible. Standard approaches are based on sequencing mitochondrial and nuclear targets. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a method that can accurately classify mammalian species using dental pulp and mass spectrometry peptide profiling. Our work was organized into three successive steps. First, after extracting proteins from the dental pulp collected from 37 modern individuals representing 13 mammalian species, trypsin-digested peptides were used for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The resulting peptide profiles accurately classified every individual at the species level in agreement with parallel cytochrome b gene sequencing gold standard. Second, using a 279–modern spectrum database, we blindly classified 33 of 37 teeth collected in 37 modern individuals (89.1%). Third, we classified 10 of 18 teeth (56%) collected in 15 ancient individuals representing five mammal species including human, from five burial sites dating back 8,500 years. Further comparison with an upgraded database comprising ancient specimen profiles yielded 100% classification in ancient teeth. Peptide sequencing yield 4 and 16 different non-keratin proteins including collagen (alpha-1 type I and alpha-2 type I) in human ancient and modern dental pulp, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Mass spectrometry peptide profiling of the dental pulp is a new approach that can be added to the arsenal of species classification tools for forensics and anthropology as a complementary method to DNA sequencing. The dental pulp is a new source for collagen and other proteins for the species classification of modern and ancient mammal individuals. PMID:21364886

  15. OCT4B1 Regulates the Cellular Stress Response of Human Dental Pulp Cells with Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infection and apoptosis are combined triggers for inflammation in dental tissues. Octamer-binding transcription factor 4-B1 (OCT4B1, a novel spliced variant of OCT4 family, could respond to the cellular stress and possess antiapoptotic property. However, its specific role in dental pulpitis remains unknown. Methods. To investigate the effect of OCT4B1 on inflammation of dental pulp cells (DPCs, its expression in inflamed dental pulp tissues and DPCs was examined by in situ hybridization, real-time PCR, and FISH assay. OCT4B1 overexpressed DPCs model was established, confirmed by western blot and immunofluorescence staining, and then stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Apoptotic rate was determined by Hoechst/PI staining and FACS. Cell survival rate was calculated by CCK8 assay. Results. In situ hybridization, real-time PCR, and FISH assay revealed that OCT4B1 was extensively expressed in inflamed dental pulp tissues and DPCs with LPS stimulation. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining showed the expression of OCT4B1 and OCT4B increased after OCT4B1 transfection. Hoechst/PI staining and FACS demonstrated that less red/blue fluorescence was detected and apoptotic percentage decreased (3.45% after transfection. CCK8 demonstrated that the survival rate of pCDH-OCT4B1-flag cells increased. Conclusions. OCT4B1 plays an essential role in inflammation and apoptosis of DPCs. OCT4B might operate synergistically with OCT4B1 to reduce apoptosis.

  16. Indirect immobilized Jagged1 suppresses cell cycle progression and induces odonto/osteogenic differentiation in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokawinchoke, Jeeranan; Nattasit, Praphawi; Thongngam, Tanutchaporn; Pavasant, Prasit; Tompkins, Kevin A; Egusa, Hiroshi; Osathanon, Thanaphum

    2017-08-31

    Notch signaling regulates diverse biological processes in dental pulp tissue. The present study investigated the response of human dental pulp cells (hDPs) to the indirect immobilized Notch ligand Jagged1 in vitro. The indirect immobilized Jagged1 effectively activated Notch signaling in hDPs as confirmed by the upregulation of HES1 and HEY1 expression. Differential gene expression profiling using an RNA sequencing technique revealed that the indirect immobilized Jagged1 upregulated genes were mainly involved in extracellular matrix organization, disease, and signal transduction. Downregulated genes predominantly participated in the cell cycle, DNA replication, and DNA repair. Indirect immobilized Jagged1 significantly reduced cell proliferation, colony forming unit ability, and the number of cells in S phase. Jagged1 treated hDPs exhibited significantly higher ALP enzymatic activity, osteogenic marker gene expression, and mineralization compared with control. Pretreatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor attenuated the Jagged1-induced ALP activity and mineral deposition. NOTCH2 shRNA reduced the Jagged1-induced osteogenic marker gene expression, ALP enzymatic activity, and mineral deposition. In conclusion, indirect immobilized Jagged1 suppresses cell cycle progression and induces the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of hDPs via the canonical Notch signaling pathway.

  17. Wisdom teeth: mankind's future third vice-teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, DuoHong; Zhao, Jun; Ding, WangHui; Xia, LunGuo; Jang, XinQuan; Huang, YuanLiang

    2010-01-01

    The third molar teeth (wisdom teeth) represent the last eruption of the teeth in the human dentition. Throughout evolution, the mandible has had a tendency to decrease in size; the third molar teeth are often impacted, resulting in incomplete tooth eruption that often causes clinical pericoronitis, dental caries, and pericemental abscess. Therefore, the wisdom teeth are often extracted. Moreover, wisdom teeth are often removed for clinical orthodontic treatment. On the other hand, tooth loss due to periodontal disease, dental caries, trauma, or a variety of genetic disorders continues to affect people's lives. Autologous tissues for dental tissue regeneration that could replace lost teeth could provide a vital alternative to currently available clinical treatments. To pursue this goal, we hypothesize that human third molar tooth buds can be obtained during development. Human wisdom tooth germination tissue could then be placed into an embryonic stem cell bank for storage. When the donor's other teeth are missing, embryonic stem cell and tissue engineering technologies, will permit the restoration of the missing teeth. Therefore wisdom teeth will be mankind's future third vice-teeth.

  18. Trace element analysis of blackish staining on the crowns of human archaeological teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stermer, E.M. [Univ. of Oslo, Dept. of Oral Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Risnes, S. [Univ. of Oslo, Dept. of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Oslo (Norway); Fischer, P.M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Physics, SIMS Lab., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    A blackish staining found on the crowns of teeth of 51 skulls from the excavation of the medieval St. Olav`s church in Trondheim was analyzed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In four teeth, mass spectra and step scan concentration profiles of SIMS were performed and compared with the grey scale pattern in photographs of the analyzed paths. The manganese curve showed the highest degree of conformity with the grey scale pattern. The AAS analysis confirmed the increased content of manganese in blackish stained enamel. It was concluded that manganese, probably in the form of an oxide deposited from the soil, was the cause of the blackish staining. (au).

  19. Trace element analysis of blackish staining on the crowns of human archaeological teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stermer, E.M.; Risnes, S.; Fischer, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    A blackish staining found on the crowns of teeth of 51 skulls from the excavation of the medieval St. Olav's church in Trondheim was analyzed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In four teeth, mass spectra and step scan concentration profiles of SIMS were performed and compared with the grey scale pattern in photographs of the analyzed paths. The manganese curve showed the highest degree of conformity with the grey scale pattern. The AAS analysis confirmed the increased content of manganese in blackish stained enamel. It was concluded that manganese, probably in the form of an oxide deposited from the soil, was the cause of the blackish staining. (au)

  20. A study of geographical variations in the concentrations of plutonium and radiostrontium in human teeth throughout the British Isles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, Rauiri

    1993-05-01

    Concern has been expressed about the impact on humans of plutonium and radiostrontium releases from nuclear installations in the United Kingdom, with public interest focusing on reported leukaemia clusters in the vicinity of some of these installations. In particular, it is not clear whether such discharges result in and increase in the body burden of plutonium and radiostrontium (present as a consequence of global fallout) in the local population. In this collaborative study the comparative exposures to 239,240Pu and 90Sr of different geographically located child populations in the British Isles have been examined using teeth removed from children for orthodontic purposes. Minute traces on 239,240Pu were found to be present in children's teeth. The overall mean concentration was 5+4 mBq/kg (ash), which is three orders of magnitude lower than reported total activities. Approximately 75% of the samples analysed showed concentrations below the mean value. Although there is considerable scatter in the data, there is some evidence of a marginal enhancement in the 239,240Pu concentration measured in the general vicinity of Cumbria, where the BNF plc. nuclear fuel reprocessing complex is located. Concentrations of 90Sr in teeth exceeded those of plutonium by three orders of magnitude, the overall mean being 8+5Bq/kg (ash). However, there was no evidence of any enhancement in the levels throughout Cumbria. No correlation was observed between 239,240Pu or 90Sr concentrations and mean annual rainfall, not was there any correlation between the levels of these radionuclides in the same samples. The plutonium and radiostrontium concentrations measured in teeth are similar to those reported for human bone in the British Isles and suggests that teeth can be used as an indicator of skeletal burden. On the basis of the above mentioned data, estimates have been made of the approximate risks of leukaemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma assuming chronic intakes of these radionuclides. The

  1. External and Intrinsic Signatures in Human Teeth to Assist Forensic Identification Work

    OpenAIRE

    Alkass, Kanar

    2011-01-01

    In forensic medicine, dead victim identification constitutes an important task for forensic professionals including forensic pathologists, anthropologists, and odontologists. If no clues are at hand regarding the identity of the deceased, whether it is a victim of a mass disaster or a suspect homicide case, it is vital to know when a person died, and to know the sex and age of the decedent in order to limit the search for possible matching persons. In paper I, teeth from ...

  2. Ionizing radiation induces senescence and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelek, R; Soukup, T; Ćmielová, J; Seifrtová, M; Suchánek, J; Vávrová, J; Mokrý, J; Muthná, D; Řezáčová, M

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is one of the most common cancers in Europe. Many current anti-cancer treatments, including ionizing radiation, induce apoptosis via DNA damage. Unfortunately, such treatments are non-selective to cancer cells and produce similar toxicity in normal cells, including adult stem cells. One of the fundamental properties of an adult stem cell is that it does not have any tissue-specific structures that allow it to perform specialized functions. However, under certain stimuli, unspecialized adult stem cells can give rise to specialized cells to generate replacements for cells that are lost during one's life or due to injury or disease. Nevertheless, specialization of stem cells must be controlled by specific milieu and also initiated at the proper time, making the entire process beneficial for tissue recovery and maintaining it for a long time. In this paper we assess whether irradiated dental pulp stem cells have maintained open their options to mature into specialized cells, or whether they have lost their unspecialized (immature) state following irradiation. Our findings showed radiation-induced premature differentiation of dental pulp stem cells towards odonto-/osteoblast lineages in vitro. Matrix calcification was visualized from Day 6 or Day 9 following irradiation of cells expressing low or high levels of CD146, respectively.

  3. Examination of the signal transduction pathways leading to upregulation of tissue type plasminogen activator by Porphyromonas endodontalis in human pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F-M; Chen, Y-J; Chou, M-Y; Chang, Y-C

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity in human pulp cells stimulated with Porphyromonas endodontalis (P. endodontalis) in the absence or presence of p38 inhibitor SB203580, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 and phosphatidylinositaol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. The supernatants of P. endodontalis were used to evaluate t-PA activity in human pulp cells using casein zymography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, to search for possible signal transduction pathways, SB203580, U0126 and LY294002 were added to test how they modulated the t-PA activity. The main casein secreted by human pulp cells migrated at 70 kDa and represented t-PA. Secretion of t-PA was found to be stimulated with P. endodontalis during 2-day cultured period (P endodontalis stimulated t-PA production respectively (P endodontalis stimulated t-PA production (P > 0.05). Porphyromonas endodontalis enhances t-PA production in human pulp cells, and the signal transduction pathways p38 and MEK are involved in the inhibition of t-PA.

  4. Vital pulp therapy in symptomatic immature permanent molars: Report of 3 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SheikhRezaie MS.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nEndodontic treatment of immature permanent teeth accompanies with several issues. The primary goal when treating such teeth is to maintain pulp vitality so that root development can occur normally. Indications and requirements for vital pulp therapy include asymptomatic and reversible pulpitis. Also there are controversial opinions regarding the ultimate clinical treatment of the vital pulp therapy techniques. In this manuscript we report 3 cases of immature symptomatic permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis caused by caries exposure of the pulp that have been undergone vital pulp therapy successfully.

  5. Determination of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 228/Ra in human teeth by age groups and in other substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuzil, E F; Dysart, M E [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham (USA)

    1984-12-01

    The total /sup 90/Sr content of human teeth peaks at a value of 0.65 pCi/g calcium in the age group of 20-30 years. It is not present in those 50 years or older. Various other substances show extensive amounts of /sup 90/Sr especially in cow bones, bone meal and dry milk. The radionuclide /sup 228/Ra (daughter of /sup 232/Th) is present at a mean level of about 0.5 pCi/g Ca in all substances tested and in all age groups, but especially high in bone meal (5.60 pCi/g Ca) and calcium lactate tablets.

  6. The determination of 90Sr and 228Ra in human teeth by age groups and in other substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuzil, E.F.; Dysart, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The total 90 Sr content of human teeth peaks at a value of 0.65 pCi/g calcium in the age group of 20-30 years. It is not present in those 50 years or older. Various other substances show extensive amounts of 90 Sr especially in cow bones, bone meal and dry milk. The radionuclide 228 Ra (daughter of 232 Th) is present at a mean level of about 0.5 pCi/g Ca in all substances tested and in all age groups, but especially high in bone meal (5.60 pCi/g Ca) and calcium lactate tablets. (author)

  7. Histological transformations of the dental pulp as possible indicator of post mortem interval: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Patricio A; Brizuela, Claudia I; Rodriguez, Ismael A; Muñoz, Samuel; Godoy, Marianela E; Inostroza, Carolina

    2017-10-01

    The correct estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI) can be crucial on the success of a forensic investigation. Diverse methods have been used to estimate PMI, considering physical changes that occur after death, such as mortis algor, livor mortis, among others. Degradation after death of dental pulp is a complex process that has not yet been studied thoroughly. It has been described that pulp RNA degradation could be an indicator of PMI, however this study is limited to 6 days. The tooth is the hardest organ of the human body, and within is confined dental pulp. The pulp morphology is defined as a lax conjunctive tissue with great sensory innervation, abundant microcirculation and great presence of groups of cell types. The aim of this study is to describe the potential use of pulp post mortem alterations to estimate PMI, using a new methodology that will allow obtainment of pulp tissue to be used for histomorphological analysis. The current study will identify potential histological indicators in dental pulp tissue to estimate PMI in time intervals of 24h, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. This study used 26 teeth from individuals with known PMI of 24h, 1 month, 3 months or 6 months. All samples were manipulated with the new methodology (Carrasco, P. and Inostroza C. inventors; Universidad de los Andes, assignee. Forensic identification, post mortem interval estimation and cause of death determination by recovery of dental tissue. United State patent US 61/826,558 23.05.2013) to extract pulp tissue without the destruction of the tooth. The dental pulp tissues obtained were fixed in formalin for the subsequent generation of histological sections, stained with Hematoxylin Eosin and Masson's Trichrome. All sections were observed under an optical microscope using magnifications of 10× and 40×. The microscopic analysis of the samples showed a progressive transformation of the cellular components and fibers of dental pulp along PMI. These results allowed creating a

  8. Incremental lines in root cementum of human teeth: An approach to their role in age estimation using polarizing microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Pooja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Age estimation is an important factor in the identification of an individual in forensic science. The hard tissues of the human dentition are able to resist decay and degradation long after other tissues are lost. This resistance has made teeth useful indicators for age calculation. Recent research indicates that tooth cementum annulations (TCA may be used more reliably than any other morphological or histological traits of the adult skeleton for age estimation. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between age and the number of incremental lines in human dental cementum and to ascertain the best method of studying cementum with respect to different forms of microscopy. Thirty nonrestorable teeth were extracted from 20 people, and longitudinal ground section of each tooth was prepared. Photomicrographs of the area at the junction of apical and middle third of the root under light and polarized microscope were taken. The cementum was composed of multiple light and dark bands that were counted on the photomicrograph with the help of image analysis software and added to the average eruption time of individual tooth. The predicted age of the individual was thus obtained. Results showed a significant correlation between the predicted age and actual chronological age of the individual. These data indicate that quantitation of cementum annuli is a moderately reliable means for age estimation in humans and polarizing microscopy is a better means of visualizing incremental lines of cementum compared to light microscopy.

  9. Immunophenotyping reveals the diversity of human dental pulp mesenchymal stromal cells in vivo and their evolution upon in vitro amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime DUCRET

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs from human dental pulp (DP can be expanded in vitro for cell-based and regenerative dentistry therapeutic purposes. However, their heterogeneity may be a hurdle to the achievement of reproducible and predictable therapeutic outcomes. To get a better knowledge about this heterogeneity, we designed a flow cytometric strategy to analyze the phenotype of DP cells in vivo and upon in vitro expansion with stem cell markers. We focused on the CD31- cell population to exclude endothelial and leukocytic cells. Results showed that the in vivo CD31- DP cell population contained 1.4% of CD56+, 1.5% of CD146+, 2.4% of CD271+ and 6.3% of MSCA-1+ cells but very few Stro-1+ cells (≤1%. CD56+, CD146+, CD271+ and MSCA-1+ cell subpopulations expressed various levels of these markers. CD146+MSCA-1+, CD271+MSCA-1+ and CD146+CD271+ cells were the most abundant DP-MSC populations. Analysis of DP-MSCs expanded in vitro with a medicinal manufacturing approach showed that CD146 was expressed by about 50% of CD56+, CD271+, MSCA-1+ and Stro-1+ cells, and MSCA-1 by 15-30% of CD56+, CD146+, CD271+ and Stro-1+ cells. These ratios remained stable with passages. CD271 and Stro-1 were expressed by less than 1% of the expanded cell populations. Interestingly, the percentage of CD56+ cells strongly increased from P1 (25% to P4 (80% both in all sub-populations studied. CD146+CD56+, MSCA-1+CD56+ and CD146+MSCA-1+ cells were the most abundant DP-MSCs at the end of P4. These results established that DP-MSCs constitute a heterogeneous mixture of cells in pulp tissue in vivo and in culture, and that their phenotype is modified upon in vitro expansion. Further studies are needed to determine whether co-expression of specific MSC markers confers DP cells specific properties that could be used for the regeneration of human tissues, including the dental pulp, with standardized cell-based medicinal products.

  10. Pulp tissue in sex determination: A fluorescent microscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Amit; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Leekha, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To determine and compare the reliability of pulp tissue in determination of sex and to analyze whether caries have any effect on fluorescent body test. Materials and Methods: This study was carried on 50 maxillary and mandibular teeth (25 male teeth and 25 female teeth), which were indicated for extraction. The teeth are categorized into 5 groups, 10 each (5 from males and 5 from females) on the basis of caries progression. The pulp cells are stained with quinacrine hydrochloride and observed with fluorescent microscope for fluorescent body. Gender is determined by identification of Y chromosome fluorescence in dental pulp. Results: Fluorescent bodies were found to be more in sound teeth in males as the caries increase the mean percentage of fluorescent bodies observed decreases in males. We also observed the fluorescent spots in females, and the value of the spot increases in female as the caries progresses, thereby giving false positive results in females. Conclusion: Sex determination by fluorescent staining of the Y chromosome is a reliable technique in teeth with healthy pulps or caries with enamel or up to half way of dentin. Teeth with caries involving pulp cannot be used for sex determination. PMID:25125912

  11. Lead and cadmium in human teeth from Jordan by atomic absorption spectrometry: Some factors influencing their concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alomary, A. [Department of Chemistry, Yarmouk University, Irbid (Jordan)]. E-mail: ahmedalomary1000@hotmail.com; Al-Momani, I.F. [Department of Chemistry, Yarmouk University, Irbid (Jordan); Massadeh, A.M. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in human teeth and to investigate the affecting factors. Teeth samples (n = 268) were collected from people living in different cities in Jordan including Amman, Zarqa, Al-Mafraq and Irbid and analyzed for Pb and Cd using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). A questionnaire was used to gather information on each person, such as age, sex, place where the patient lives, smoking, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and whether the patient uses toothpaste or not. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd were 28.91 {mu}g/g and 0.44 {mu}g/g, respectively. The results indicate that there is a clear relation between Pb and Cd concentrations and the presence of amalgam fillings, smoking, and place of living. Pb was sex-dependent, whereas Cd was not. Our results show that Pb and Cd concentrations in samples obtained from Al-Mafraq and Irbid are higher than those obtained from Amman and Zarqa. Pb was highest in Mafraq, whereas Cd was highest in Irbid. The Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth from smokers (means: Pb = 31.89 {mu}g/g, Cd = 0.49 {mu}g/g) were significantly higher than those from nonsmokers (means: Pb = 24.07 {mu}g/g, Cd = 0.37 {mu}g/g). Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth of patients with amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 31.02 {mu}g/g and Cd = 0.52 {mu}g/g) were significantly higher than those from patients without amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 26.87 {mu}g/g and Cd = 0.41 {mu}g/g). Our results show that brushing the teeth daily with toothpaste does not significantly decrease the concentration of both Pb and Cd. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd do not vary significantly between the ages 20-30, 31-40, and 41-50, but both increased rapidly at age 51-60.

  12. Lead and cadmium in human teeth from Jordan by atomic absorption spectrometry: Some factors influencing their concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alomary, A.; Al-Momani, I.F.; Massadeh, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in human teeth and to investigate the affecting factors. Teeth samples (n = 268) were collected from people living in different cities in Jordan including Amman, Zarqa, Al-Mafraq and Irbid and analyzed for Pb and Cd using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). A questionnaire was used to gather information on each person, such as age, sex, place where the patient lives, smoking, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and whether the patient uses toothpaste or not. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd were 28.91 μg/g and 0.44 μg/g, respectively. The results indicate that there is a clear relation between Pb and Cd concentrations and the presence of amalgam fillings, smoking, and place of living. Pb was sex-dependent, whereas Cd was not. Our results show that Pb and Cd concentrations in samples obtained from Al-Mafraq and Irbid are higher than those obtained from Amman and Zarqa. Pb was highest in Mafraq, whereas Cd was highest in Irbid. The Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth from smokers (means: Pb = 31.89 μg/g, Cd = 0.49 μg/g) were significantly higher than those from nonsmokers (means: Pb = 24.07 μg/g, Cd = 0.37 μg/g). Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth of patients with amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 31.02 μg/g and Cd = 0.52 μg/g) were significantly higher than those from patients without amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 26.87 μg/g and Cd = 0.41 μg/g). Our results show that brushing the teeth daily with toothpaste does not significantly decrease the concentration of both Pb and Cd. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd do not vary significantly between the ages 20-30, 31-40, and 41-50, but both increased rapidly at age 51-60

  13. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA direct pulp capping: 10 years clinical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Daniele

    2017-06-01

    After 10-years follow-up period, 6 out of 80 teeth required an endodontic treatment, we did not find an increase of pulp calcifications, root resorptions, endodontic lesions. All teeth still alive have responded positively to the cold-temperature test. The three lesions had disappeared at the last X-ray control. All four symptomatic teeth preserved their pulp vitality. The successful treatment rate was 92.5%. Direct pulp capping with MTA can be considered an effective treatment of exposure due to tooth decay and can be considered a valid treatment option for teeth with a diagnosis of not-severe reversible pulpitis.

  14. Automatic teeth axes calculation for well-aligned teeth using cost profile analysis along teeth center arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyehyun; Lee, Jeongjin; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Wooshik; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2012-04-01

    In dental implantology and virtual dental surgery planning using computed tomography (CT) images, the examination of the axes of neighboring and/or biting teeth is important to improve the performance of the masticatory system as well as the aesthetic beauty. However, due to its high connectivity to neighboring teeth and jawbones, a tooth and/or its axis is very elusive to automatically identify in dental CT images. This paper presents a novel method of automatically calculating individual teeth axes. The planes separating the individual teeth are automatically calculated using cost profile analysis along the teeth center arch. In this calculation, a novel plane cost function, which considers the intensity and the gradient, is proposed to favor the teeth separation planes crossing the teeth interstice and suppress the possible inappropriately detected separation planes crossing the soft pulp. The soft pulp and dentine of each individually separated tooth are then segmented by a fast marching method with two newly proposed speed functions considering their own specific anatomical characteristics. The axis of each tooth is finally calculated using principal component analysis on the segmented soft pulp and dentine. In experimental results using 20 clinical datasets, the average angle and minimum distance differences between the teeth axes manually specified by two dentists and automatically calculated by the proposed method were 1.94° ± 0.61° and 1.13 ± 0.56 mm, respectively. The proposed method identified the individual teeth axes accurately, demonstrating that it can give dentists substantial assistance during dental surgery such as dental implant placement and orthognathic surgery.

  15. Prevalence regarding the type of periapical pathology in 102 human teeth extracted with associated periapical lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Vier, Fabiana Vieira; Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli de

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to verify the prevalence of the cystic and non-cystic lesions, with varied degrees of abscess severity, in teeth bearing periapical lesions associated to the dental apex at the time of their extraction. Material and methods: In order to do so, semi-serial cuts were conducted in 102 periapical lesions which were then dyed by the HE technique. The lesions were classified by two observers in periapical granuloma, 1,2 and 3 degrees periapical abscess, 1...

  16. The morphology of amputated human teeth and its relation to mechanical properties after restoration treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugger, Jonas; Krastl, Gabriel; Huser, Marius; Deyhle, Hans; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    The increased susceptibility to fracture of root canal- and post-treated teeth is less affected by alterations of the dentin structure, but seems to crucially depend on the loss of coronal tooth substance. The surface, available for adhesion of the composite material in the root canal and in the coronal part of the tooth, is assumed to be of key importance for the fracture resistance. Thus, an appropriate three-dimensional method should be identified to determine the adhesive surface with necessary precision. For this purpose, severely decayed teeth were simulated decapitating clinical crowns. After root canal filling and post space preparation, impressions of the root canal and the amputation surface were obtained using silicone. Micro computed tomography scans of these impressions were acquired. For one selected specimen, an additional high-resolution scan was recorded at a synchrotron radiation source. Software of ImageLab served for the extraction of the amputation interface, the post surface and the post volume from the tomography data, which have been finally correlated with the Young's modulus and the maximal load derived from mechanical tests. The morphological parameters show a realistic relationship to the mechanical tests performed after the restoration treatments and are consequently important for improving the dental skills.

  17. DNA methylcytosine dioxygenase ten-eleven translocation 2 enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine expression in human dental pulp cells by regulating MyD88 hydroxymethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxuan; Feng, Zhihui; Li, Qimeng; Yi, Baicheng; Xu, Qiong

    2018-04-13

    Dental pulp inflammation is a bacterially driven inflammation process characterized by the local accumulation of cytokines/chemokines that participate in destructive processes in the pulp. Multiple mechanisms are involved in dental pulp inflammation, including epigenetic events, such as DNA methylation/demethylation. Ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) is a recently discovered DNA methylcytosine dioxygenase that plays important roles in inflammatory disease. However, its role in the inflammatory response of dental pulp is unknown. We observed elevated mRNA and protein levels of TET2 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). To identify the effects of TET2 on cytokine expression, TET2 was knocked down and cytokines were detected using a cytokine antibody array after LPS stimulation. The protein expression of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-8 and RANTES decreased in the LPS-induced hDPCs following TET2 knockdown. The downregulated expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were further confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, the phosphorylation levels of IKK-α/β, p65 and IκBα of the NF-κB signaling pathway were decreased in the TET2-silenced group. Furthermore, the global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) level was significantly decreased and the genomic 5-methylcytosine (5mC) level was increased in the TET2-deficient hDPCs; TET2 depletion resulted in a decrease in the 5hmC level of the MyD88 promoter following LPS stimulation. These findings indicate that TET2 knockdown inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response in hDPCs by downregulating MyD88 hydroxymethylation. Thus, TET2-dependent DNA demethylation might play an important role in dental pulp inflammation as an epigenetic regulator.

  18. Pulp-Capping with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva Kalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two considerations for direct pulp capping - accidental mechanical pulp exposure and exposure caused by caries. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was used as pulp-capping material to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues. Follow-up examinations revealed that treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. Material and methods: Cases 18 - 8 teeth with grey MTA, 10 teeth with white MTA; diagnose: Pulpitis chronica ulcerosa, Electro pulpal test (EOD - 30-35 μA, pre-clinical X-ray - without changes in the structures, follow ups for 4 years. Successful treatments: without clinical symptoms and changes in the X-rays: 5 teeth with grey MTA, 8 teeth with white MTA for period of 4 years. Unsuccessful treatments: Clinical symptoms and sometimes changes in the X-ray: 3 with grey MTA, 2 with white MTA. MTA is an appropriate material for pulp-capping and follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality.

  19. The effect of delta-like 1 homologue on the proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shengcai; Yan, Yanhong; Wen, Yue; Li, Jialiang; Wang, Jing; Chen, Fubo; Tang, Xiaoshan; Shang, Guangwei; Xu, Yuanzhi; Wang, Raorao

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functions of delta-like homologue 1 (DLK1) in the proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Immunohistochemical analysis was used to determine the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), DLK1, NOTCH1 and p-ERK1/2 in the mouse first maxillary molar. Recombinant lentivirus was constructed to overexpress DLK1 stably in hDPSCs. The cell viability and proliferation of hDPSCs were examined by CCK8 and EdU incorporation assay respectively. The odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs was determined by detection of ALPase activity assay, ALP and alizarin red staining and the expression of mineralization-related genes including ALP, DSPP and dental matrix protein. The mRNA and protein levels of DLK1 and p-ERK1/2 protein expression were detected. ERK inhibitor was used to test the differentiation effect of DLK1 on hDPSCs. Delta-like homologue 1 was highly expressed on the odontoblasts and dental pulp cells on the first maxillary molar; the expression of p-ERK1/2 is similar with the DLK1 in the same process. The expression level of DLK1 increased significantly after the odontoblastic induction of hDPSCs. DLK1 overexpression increased the proliferation ability of hDPSCs and inhibited odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs. The protein level of p-ERK1/2 significantly increased in hDPSCs/dlk1-oe group. ERK signalling pathway inhibitor reversed the odontoblastic differentiation effects of DLK1 on hDPSCs. The proliferation of hDPSCs was promoted after DLK1 overexpression. DLK1 inhibited the odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs, which maybe through ERK signalling pathway. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Development and validation of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for opiates and cocaine in human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Manuela; Casá, Adriana; Marchei, Emilia; Pacifici, Roberta; Mayné, Ruth; Barbero, Vanessa; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Pichini, Simona

    2006-02-24

    A procedure based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described for determination of opiates (6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine and codeine) and cocaine and metabolites (cocaine, benzoylecgonine and cocaethylene) in human teeth. After addition of nalorphine as internal standard, pulverized samples were incubated in HCl at 37 degrees C for 18 h. Then, after pH adjustment to 6, and the analytes were extracted with two volumes of 3 ml of chloroform/isopropanol (9:1). Chromatography was performed on a fused silica capillary column and analytes were determined in the selected-ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. The assay was validated in the range 7.5 (6.0 in case of codeine) to 500 ng/g with mean absolute recoveries ranged between 74.1 and 92.1% for the different analytes and precision and accuracy always better than 15%. The method was applied to the analysis of teeth from drug-addicts to assess past chronic consumption and verify self-reported declarations. In case of opiates, concentration range was 36.5-570.0 ng/g for 6-monoacetylmorphine, 8.7-154.8 ng/g for morphine and 7.9-127.9 ng/g for codeine. Cocaine concentration ranged between 5.6 and 57.2 ng/g with its principal metabolite benzoylecgonine varying from 12.6 to 81.7 ng/g and cocaethylene present in only one sample at 10 ng/g value. Teeth can be a promising non-invasive biological matrix in biomedical analysis for both clinical and forensic purposes.

  1. Influence of the mechanical environment on the engineering of mineralised tissues using human dental pulp stem cells and silk fibroin scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Woloszyk

    Full Text Available Teeth constitute a promising source of stem cells that can be used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine purposes. Bone loss in the craniofacial complex due to pathological conditions and severe injuries could be treated with new materials combined with human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs that have the same embryonic origin as craniofacial bones. Optimising combinations of scaffolds, cells, growth factors and culture conditions still remains a great challenge. In the present study, we evaluate the mineralisation potential of hDPSCs seeded on porous silk fibroin scaffolds in a mechanically dynamic environment provided by spinner flask bioreactors. Cell-seeded scaffolds were cultured in either standard or osteogenic media in both static and dynamic conditions for 47 days. Histological analysis and micro-computed tomography of the samples showed low levels of mineralisation when samples were cultured in static conditions (0.16±0.1 BV/TV%, while their culture in a dynamic environment with osteogenic medium and weekly µCT scans (4.9±1.6 BV/TV% significantly increased the formation of homogeneously mineralised structures, which was also confirmed by the elevated calcium levels (4.5±1.0 vs. 8.8±1.7 mg/mL. Molecular analysis of the samples showed that the expression of tooth correlated genes such as Dentin Sialophosphoprotein and Nestin were downregulated by a factor of 6.7 and 7.4, respectively, in hDPSCs when cultured in presence of osteogenic medium. This finding indicates that hDPSCs are able to adopt a non-dental identity by changing the culture conditions only. Also an increased expression of Osteocalcin (1.4x and Collagen type I (1.7x was found after culture under mechanically dynamic conditions in control medium. In conclusion, the combination of hDPSCs and silk scaffolds cultured under mechanical loading in spinner flask bioreactors could offer a novel and promising approach for bone tissue engineering where appropriate and

  2. Influence of the mechanical environment on the engineering of mineralised tissues using human dental pulp stem cells and silk fibroin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyk, Anna; Holsten Dircksen, Sabrina; Bostanci, Nagihan; Müller, Ralph; Hofmann, Sandra; Mitsiadis, Thimios A

    2014-01-01

    Teeth constitute a promising source of stem cells that can be used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine purposes. Bone loss in the craniofacial complex due to pathological conditions and severe injuries could be treated with new materials combined with human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) that have the same embryonic origin as craniofacial bones. Optimising combinations of scaffolds, cells, growth factors and culture conditions still remains a great challenge. In the present study, we evaluate the mineralisation potential of hDPSCs seeded on porous silk fibroin scaffolds in a mechanically dynamic environment provided by spinner flask bioreactors. Cell-seeded scaffolds were cultured in either standard or osteogenic media in both static and dynamic conditions for 47 days. Histological analysis and micro-computed tomography of the samples showed low levels of mineralisation when samples were cultured in static conditions (0.16±0.1 BV/TV%), while their culture in a dynamic environment with osteogenic medium and weekly µCT scans (4.9±1.6 BV/TV%) significantly increased the formation of homogeneously mineralised structures, which was also confirmed by the elevated calcium levels (4.5±1.0 vs. 8.8±1.7 mg/mL). Molecular analysis of the samples showed that the expression of tooth correlated genes such as Dentin Sialophosphoprotein and Nestin were downregulated by a factor of 6.7 and 7.4, respectively, in hDPSCs when cultured in presence of osteogenic medium. This finding indicates that hDPSCs are able to adopt a non-dental identity by changing the culture conditions only. Also an increased expression of Osteocalcin (1.4x) and Collagen type I (1.7x) was found after culture under mechanically dynamic conditions in control medium. In conclusion, the combination of hDPSCs and silk scaffolds cultured under mechanical loading in spinner flask bioreactors could offer a novel and promising approach for bone tissue engineering where appropriate and rapid bone

  3. Mesenchymal and embryonic characteristics of stem cells obtained from mouse dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Cruz, Gabriela Silva; de Jesus, Alan Araújo; Lacerda de Carvalho, Acácia Fernandes; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Pereira, Lygia da Veiga; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that human dental pulp is a source of mesenchymal stem cells. To better understand the biological properties of these cells we isolated and characterized stem cells from the dental pulp of EGFP transgenic mice. The pulp tissue was gently separated from the roots of teeth extracted from C57BL/6 mice, and cultured under appropriate conditions. Flow cytometry, RT-PCR, light microscopy (staining for alkaline phosphatase) and immunofluorescence were used to investigate the expression of stem cell markers. The presence of chromosomal abnormalities was evaluated by G banding. The mouse dental pulp stem cells (mDPSC) were highly proliferative, plastic-adherent, and exhibited a polymorphic morphology predominantly with stellate or fusiform shapes. The presence of cell clusters was observed in cultures of mDPSC. Some cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase. The karyotype was normal until the 5th passage. The Pou5f1/Oct-4 and ZFP42/Rex-1, but not Nanog transcripts were detected in mDPSC. Flow cytometry and fluorescence analyses revealed the presence of a heterogeneous population positive for embryonic and mesenchymal cell markers. Adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation was achieved after two weeks of cell culture under chemically defined in vitro conditions. In addition, some elongated cells spontaneously acquired a contraction capacity. Our results reinforce that the dental pulp is an important source of adult stem cells and encourage studies on therapeutic potential of mDPSC in experimental disease models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mucopolysaccharidosis enzyme production by bone marrow and dental pulp derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matilda; Derrick Roberts, Ainslie; Martin, Ellenore; Rout-Pitt, Nathan; Gronthos, Stan; Byers, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are inherited metabolic disorders that arise from a complete loss or a reduction in one of eleven specific lysosomal enzymes. MPS children display pathology in multiple cell types leading to tissue and organ failure and early death. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) give rise to many of the cell types affected in MPS, including those that are refractory to current treatment protocols such as hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) based therapy. In this study we compared multiple MPS enzyme production by bone marrow derived (hBM) and dental pulp derived (hDP) MSCs to enzyme production by HSCs. hBM MSCs produce significantly higher levels of MPS I, II, IIIA, IVA, VI and VII enzyme than HSCs, while hDP MSCs produce significantly higher levels of MPS I, IIIA, IVA, VI and VII enzymes. Higher transfection efficiency was observed in MSCs (89%) compared to HSCs (23%) using a lentiviral vector. Over-expression of four different lysosomal enzymes resulted in up to 9303-fold and up to 5559-fold greater levels in MSC cell layer and media respectively. Stable, persistent transduction of MSCs and sustained over-expression of MPS VII enzyme was observed in vitro. Transduction of MSCs did not affect the ability of the cells to differentiate down osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogenic lineages, but did partially delay differentiation down the non-mesodermal neurogenic lineage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells into neuronal by resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Ming-Yue; Hu, Wei-Ping

    2017-12-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been proposed as a promising source of stem cells in nerve regeneration due to their close embryonic origin and ease of harvest. Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenolic and possesses many biological functions such as anti-inflammatory activity and protection against atherosclerosis and neuroprotective activities. There is increasing evidence showing that RSV plays a pivotal role in neuron protection and neuronal differentiation. In this study, we isolated DPSCs from impacted third molars and investigated whether RSV induces neuronal differentiation of DPSCs. To avoid loss of DPSCs multipotency, all the experiments were conducted on cells at early passages. RT-PCR results showed that RSV-treated DPSCs (RSV-DPSCs) significantly increased the expression of the neuroprogenitor marker Nestin. When RSV-DPSCs were differentiated with neuronal induction media (RSV-dDPSCs), they showed a cell morphology similar to neurons. The expression of neuronal-specific marker genes Nestin, Musashi, and NF-M in RSV-dDPSCs was significantly increased. Immunocytochemical staining and Western blot analysis showed that the expression of neuronal marker proteins, Nestin, and NF-M, was significantly increased in RSV-dDPSCs. Therefore, we have shown that RSV treatment, along with the use of neuronal induction media, effectively promotes neuronal cell differentiation of DPSCs. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  6. Comparison of lead levels in human permanent teeth from Strasbourg, Mexico City, and rural zones of Alsace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, R.M.; Sargentini-Maier, M.L.; Turlot, J.C.; Leroy, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study of the mean lead concentrations in enamel and dentin of human premolars and permanent molars was conducted by means of a systematic sampling procedure with energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis. In a first series of analyses, no significant statistical differences in mean lead concentrations at various levels of enamel and dentin were noted between young patients of Strasbourg and those of small villages of Alsace, nor between elderly patients living in these two locations, despite the fact that motor traffic was significantly lower in the rural zones. However, in both locations, a significantly higher concentration of lead was observed in enamel and dentin in relation to age. In a second series of analyses, the mean lead concentrations of both dental hard tissues of premolars and permanent molars of young individuals from Strasbourg, rural Alsace, and Mexico City were compared. Significantly higher mean lead concentrations were found in enamel and dentin samples from Mexico City. This was most evident for inner coronal dentin (5.7 and 6.1 times greater than in teeth of Strasbourg and rural zones of Alsace, respectively) and for pulpal root dentin (6.9 and 8.9 times greater than in teeth of Strasbourg and rural zones of Alsace). It is proposed that the higher lead concentrations are related to the higher lead content of motor gasoline and to more intense traffic conditions. The dental hard tissues appear to be of value for the study of environmental lead pollution

  7. Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Produce Bone-Like Tissue and Exhibit Bone Cell-Like Responsiveness to Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt

    2010-01-01

    and characterize cell lines from human 3rd molar dental pulp tissue to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) are osteogenic and responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. Methods: Human DPCs used for this study were characterized by measuring proliferation....... We also assessed bone formation by DPCs on hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate granules after subcutaneous implantation in mice. Results: We found that DPCs are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. Implantation of DPCs resulted...... remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for regenerative dentistry, for example mineralized tissue engineering to restore bone defects in relation to periodontitis, periimplantatis and orofacial surgery. Experiments in progress have proven that DPCSs are also useful for assessing...

  8. TESTING OF PULP VITALITY BY PULSOXIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CIOBANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods applied for diagnosing the health condition of the pulp tissue are numerous, however, nowadays, an increasingly higher number of conventional tests are replaced by some objective, non-invasive, painless and reliable tests. Among them, pulse oximetry is a method for the investigation of pulp vitality based on oxygen saturation (SaO2 of the hemoglobin from the blood present in the pulp vascular bed, as a means of differentiating among the vital and the non-vital teeth. In the present study, registrations were made on a group of 120 frontal maxillary teeth, in patients with ages between 20 and 40 years, on using a digital sensor modified by the pulse oximeter with which the pulse and the values of oxygen saturation were measured at the level of both teeth and right hand finger. The mean SaO2 value in the pulp blood of the vital teeth was of 83.30% for the central incisor, of 78.51% for the lateral one and of 84.56%, respectively, for the canine; the value recorded at finger level was of 97%. In the non-vital teeth, the SaO2 value measured on the pulse oximeter was of 0%. Pulse registration showed mean values of 70.56 beatings/min at tooth level and of 70.88 beatings/min, respectively, at finger level. The results of the present study may confirm that pulse oximetry represents a simple, non-traumatic, efficient and objective method for testing the vitality condition of the dental pulp.

  9. TNF-α and LPS activate angiogenesis via VEGF and SIRT1 signalling in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, M R; Kang, S K; Kim, Y S; Lee, S Y; Hong, S C; Kim, E-C

    2015-07-01

    To assess whether SIRT1 and VEGF are responsible for tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced angiogenesis and to examine the molecular mechanism(s) of action in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Immortalized HDPCs obtained from Prof. Takashi Takata (Hiroshima University, Japan) were treated with LPS (1 μg mL(-1) ) and TNF-α (10 ng mL(-1) ) for 24 h. mRNA and protein levels were examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Migration and tube formation were examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The data were analysed by one-way anova. Statistical analysis was performed at α = 0.05. LPS and TNF-α upregulated VEGF and SIRT1 mRNA and protein levels. Inhibition of SIRT1 activity by sirtinol and SIRT1 siRNA or inhibition of the VEGF receptor by CBO-P11 significantly attenuated LPS + TNF-α-stimulated MMPs production in HDPCs, as well as migration and tube formation in HUVECs (P disease. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. XPC Promotes Pluripotency of Human Dental Pulp Cells through Regulation of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC, essential component of multisubunit stem cell coactivator complex (SCC, functions as the critical factor modulating pluripotency and genome integrity through interaction with Oct-4/Sox2. However, its specific role in regulating pluripotency and multilineage differentiation of human dental pulp cells (DPCs remains unknown. Methods. To elucidate the functional role XPC played in pluripotency and multilineage differentiation of DPCs, expressions of XPC in DPCs with long-term culture were examined by real-time PCR and western blot. DPCs were transfected with lentiviral-mediated human XPC gene; then transfection rate was investigated by real-time PCR and western blot. Cell cycle, apoptosis, proliferation, senescence, multilineage differentiation, and expression of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc in transfected DPCs were examined. Results. XPC, Oct-4, Sox2, and c-Myc were downregulated at P7 compared with P3 in DPCs with long-term culture. XPC genes were upregulated in DPCs at P2 after transfection and maintained high expression level at P3 and P7. Cell proliferation, PI value, and telomerase activity were enhanced, whereas apoptosis was suppressed in transfected DPCs. Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc were significantly upregulated, and multilineage differentiation in DPCs with XPC overexpression was enhanced after transfection. Conclusions. XPC plays an essential role in the modulation of pluripotency and multilineage differentiation of DPCs through regulation of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc.

  11. XPC Promotes Pluripotency of Human Dental Pulp Cells through Regulation of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Peng, Zhengjun; Xu, Zhezhen; Wei, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC), essential component of multisubunit stem cell coactivator complex (SCC), functions as the critical factor modulating pluripotency and genome integrity through interaction with Oct-4/Sox2. However, its specific role in regulating pluripotency and multilineage differentiation of human dental pulp cells (DPCs) remains unknown. Methods. To elucidate the functional role XPC played in pluripotency and multilineage differentiation of DPCs, expressions of XPC in DPCs with long-term culture were examined by real-time PCR and western blot. DPCs were transfected with lentiviral-mediated human XPC gene; then transfection rate was investigated by real-time PCR and western blot. Cell cycle, apoptosis, proliferation, senescence, multilineage differentiation, and expression of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc in transfected DPCs were examined. Results. XPC, Oct-4, Sox2, and c-Myc were downregulated at P7 compared with P3 in DPCs with long-term culture. XPC genes were upregulated in DPCs at P2 after transfection and maintained high expression level at P3 and P7. Cell proliferation, PI value, and telomerase activity were enhanced, whereas apoptosis was suppressed in transfected DPCs. Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc were significantly upregulated, and multilineage differentiation in DPCs with XPC overexpression was enhanced after transfection. Conclusions. XPC plays an essential role in the modulation of pluripotency and multilineage differentiation of DPCs through regulation of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc.

  12. Aging of in vitro pulp illustrates change of inflammation and dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Go-Eun; Cho, Hye-Jin; Yu, Mi-Kyoung; Bhattarai, Govinda; Lee, Nan-Hee; Yi, Ho-Keun

    2013-03-01

    Dental pulp functions include pulp cell activity involvement in dentin formation. In this study we investigated the age-related changes in dental pulp cells that may influence pulp cell activity for restoring pulp function. Human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were serially subcultured until spontaneously arrested. Altered expression of chronic inflammatory molecules and age-related molecules were determined by Western blotting. Odontogenic functions impaired by senescence were assayed by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, alkaline phosphatase activity, and alizarin red S staining. To understand the mechanism of aging process by stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), the cells were treated with H(2)O(2). Replicative senescence and SIPS were also compared. Replicative senescence of HDPCs was characterized by senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and reactive oxygen species formation. These cells exhibited altered expression of chronic inflammatory molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma, and heme oxygenase-1 and age-related molecules such as p53, p21, phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and c-myb. SIPS cell results were similar to replicative senescence. Furthermore, HDPCs decreased odontogenic markers such as dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin matrix-1 and osteogenic markers such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -7, runt-related transcription factor-2, osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralized nodule formation by replicative senescence and SIPS. This study suggests that development of aging-related molecules in pulp cells offers understanding of cellular mechanisms and biological events responsible for tooth preservation and maintenance strategies for healthy teeth across the life span. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. About Kids' Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wear a mouthguard when playing sports like basketball, soccer, football and hockey. 17 – 21 Years Old The last teeth to appear are wisdom teeth at around ages 17 – 21. By age 21, all 32 of the adult teeth have usually appeared. Learn about Nutrition Baby Teething Baby Teeth and Teething Baby teeth ...

  14. Extra-high doses detected in the enamel of human teeth in the Techa riverside region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, E.A., E-mail: ElenaA.Shishkina@gmail.com [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Degteva, M.O.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Volchkova, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D.V. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 18 S. Kovalevsky Str, 620041 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Wieser, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Della Monaca, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Rome (Italy); Istituto Regina Elena, 00144 Rome (Italy); Fattibene, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Rome (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    During the long-term study of tooth enamel by EPR dosimetry for population exposed to radiation due to contamination of the Techa River, it was found out that for some of the tooth donors the dose accumulated in tooth enamel could be as high as several tens of Gy. Such doses were absorbed only in tooth enamel and they should not be associated with exposures to other organs or the whole body. The nature of such doses was discussed in a number of previous papers where it was shown that the source of such doses is {sup 90}Sr incorporated in the calcified dental tissues. However, among specialists in radiation dosimetry who were not involved in the biokinetic studies, the nature and dosimetric significance of extra-high doses in tooth enamel are still raising questions. The aim of the current paper is to summarize the accumulated information on extra-high doses in the teeth of the Techa riverside residents, describe the dose levels observed, explain the nature of extra-high doses in the enamel and discuss their informative value. The paper includes an overview of already published findings and an analysis of information collected in the data bank of the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), Chelyabinsk, Russia, which has not been published before.

  15. The dentin-enamel junction and the fracture of human teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbeni, V.; Kruzic, J. J.; Marshall, G. W.; Marshall, S. J.; Ritchie, R. O.

    2005-03-01

    The dentin-enamel junction (DEJ), which is the interfacial region between the dentin and outer enamel coating in teeth, is known for its unique biomechanical properties that provide a crack-arrest barrier for flaws formed in the brittle enamel1. In this work, we re-examine how cracks propagate in the proximity of the DEJ, and specifically quantify, using interfacial fracture mechanics, the fracture toughness of the DEJ region. Careful observation of crack penetration through the interface and the new estimate of the DEJ toughness (~5 to 10 times higher than enamel but ~75% lower than dentin) shed new light on the mechanism of crack arrest. We conclude that the critical role of this region, in preventing cracks formed in enamel from traversing the interface and causing catastrophic tooth fractures, is not associated with the crack-arrest capabilities of the interface itself; rather, cracks tend to penetrate the (optical) DEJ and arrest when they enter the tougher mantle dentin adjacent to the interface due to the development of crack-tip shielding from uncracked-ligament bridging.

  16. Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Baudry, Anne; Harichane, Yassine; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Many dental pulp stem cells are neural crest derivatives essential for lifelong maintenance of tooth functions and homeostasis as well as tooth repair. These cells may be directly implicated in the healing process or indirectly involved in cell-to-cell diffusion of paracrine messages to resident (pulpoblasts) or nonresident cells (migrating mesenchymal cells). The identity of the pulp progenitors and the mechanisms sustaining their regenerative capacity remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of the A4 cell line, a multipotent stem cell derived from the molar pulp of mouse embryo, we investigated the capacity of these pulp-derived precursors to induce in vivo the formation of a reparative dentin-like structure upon implantation within the pulp of a rodent incisor or a first maxillary molar after surgical exposure. One month after the pulp injury alone, a nonmineralized fibrous matrix filled the mesial part of the coronal pulp chamber. Upon A4 cell implantation, a mineralized osteodentin was formed in the implantation site without affecting the structure and vitality of the residual pulp in the central and distal parts of the pulp chamber. These results show that dental pulp stem cells can induce the formation of reparative dentin and therefore constitute a useful tool for pulp therapies. Finally, reparative dentin was also built up when A4 progenitors were performed by alginate beads, suggesting that alginate is a suitable carrier for cell implantation in teeth. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. DPSCs from Inflamed Pulp Modulate Macrophage Function via the TNF-α/IDO Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Zhang, Q.Z.; Karabucak, B.; Le, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be isolated from inflamed pulp derived from carious teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (I-DPSCs), which possess stemness and multidifferentiation potentials similar to DPSCs from healthy pulp. Since macrophages—essential cell players of the pulpal innate immunity—can regulate pulpal inflammation and repair, the authors investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DPSCs/I-DPSCs on macrophage functions and their underlying mechanisms. Similar to DPSCs, I-DPSCs were capable of colony-forming efficiency and adipogenic and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation under in vitro induction conditions. I-DPSCs also expressed a similar phenotypic profile of mesenchymal stem cell markers, except a relatively higher level of CD146 as compared with DPSCs. Coculture of DPSCs or I-DPSCs with differentiated THP-1 cells, the human monocyte cell line, markedly suppressed tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secretion in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and/or nigericin. However, unlike TNF-α, the secreted level of interleukin 1β was not affected by coculture with DPSCs or I-DPSCs. Furthermore, DPSC/I-DPSC-mediated inhibition of TNF-α secretion by macrophages was abolished by pretreatment with 1-methyl-D-tryptophan, a specific inhibitor of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), but not by NSC-398, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, suggesting IDO as a mediator. Interestingly, IDO expression was significantly augmented in macrophages and mesenchymal stromal cells in inflamed human pulp tissues. Collectively, these findings show that I-DPSCs, similar to DPSCs, possess stem cell properties and suppress macrophage functions via the TNF-α/IDO axis, thereby providing a physiologically relevant context for their innate immunomodulatory activity in the dental pulp and their capability for pulp repair. PMID:27384335

  18. DPSCs from Inflamed Pulp Modulate Macrophage Function via the TNF-α/IDO Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Zhang, Q Z; Karabucak, B; Le, A D

    2016-10-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be isolated from inflamed pulp derived from carious teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (I-DPSCs), which possess stemness and multidifferentiation potentials similar to DPSCs from healthy pulp. Since macrophages-essential cell players of the pulpal innate immunity-can regulate pulpal inflammation and repair, the authors investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DPSCs/I-DPSCs on macrophage functions and their underlying mechanisms. Similar to DPSCs, I-DPSCs were capable of colony-forming efficiency and adipogenic and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation under in vitro induction conditions. I-DPSCs also expressed a similar phenotypic profile of mesenchymal stem cell markers, except a relatively higher level of CD146 as compared with DPSCs. Coculture of DPSCs or I-DPSCs with differentiated THP-1 cells, the human monocyte cell line, markedly suppressed tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secretion in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and/or nigericin. However, unlike TNF-α, the secreted level of interleukin 1β was not affected by coculture with DPSCs or I-DPSCs. Furthermore, DPSC/I-DPSC-mediated inhibition of TNF-α secretion by macrophages was abolished by pretreatment with 1-methyl-D-tryptophan, a specific inhibitor of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), but not by NSC-398, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, suggesting IDO as a mediator. Interestingly, IDO expression was significantly augmented in macrophages and mesenchymal stromal cells in inflamed human pulp tissues. Collectively, these findings show that I-DPSCs, similar to DPSCs, possess stem cell properties and suppress macrophage functions via the TNF-α/IDO axis, thereby providing a physiologically relevant context for their innate immunomodulatory activity in the dental pulp and their capability for pulp repair. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  19. [Expression profiles and bioinformatic analysis of miRNA in human dental pulp cells during endothelial differentiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qimei; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Jinming; Ling, Junqi

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the differential expression profile and bioinformatic analysis of microRNA (miRNA) in human dental pulp cells (DPC) during endothelial differentiation. DPC were cultured in endothelial induction medium (50 µg/L vascular endothelial growth factor, 10 µg/L basic fibroblast growth factor and 2% fetal calf serum) for 7 days. Meanwhile non-induced DPC were used as control.Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied to detect vascular endothelial marker genes [CD31, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin)] and in vitro tube formation on matrigel was used to analyze the angiogenic ability of differentiated cells. And then miRNA expression profiles of DPC were examined using miRNA microarray and then the differentially expressed miRNA were validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, bioinformatic analysis was employed to predict the target genes of miRNA and to analyze the possible biological functions and signaling pathways that were involved in DPC after induction. The relative mRNA level of CD31, vWF and VE-cadherin in the control group were (3.48 ± 0.22) ×10(-4), (3.13 ± 0.31) ×10(-4) and (39.60 ± 2.36) ×10(-4), and (19.57 ± 2.20) ×10(-4), (48.13 ± 0.54) ×10(-4) and (228.00 ± 8.89) ×10(-4) in the induced group. The expressions of CD31, vWF and VE-cadherin were increased significantly in endothelial induced DPC compared to the control group (P functions, such as the regulation of transcription, cell motion, blood vessel morphogenesis, angiogenesis and cytoskeletal protein, and signaling pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the Wnt signaling pathway. The differential miRNA expression identified in this study may be involved in governing DPC endothelial differentiation, thus contributing to the future research on regulatory mechanisms in dental pulp angiogenesis.

  20. In Vivo Articular Cartilage Regeneration Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured in an Alginate Scaffold: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease in which all joint-related elements, articular cartilage in particular, are affected. The poor regeneration capacity of this tissue together with the lack of pharmacological treatment has led to the development of regenerative medicine methodologies including microfracture and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI. The effectiveness of ACI has been shown in vitro and in vivo, but the use of other cell types, including bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, is necessary because of the poor proliferation rate of isolated articular chondrocytes. In this investigation, we assessed the chondrogenic ability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs to regenerate cartilage in vitro and in vivo. hDPSCs and primary isolated rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in chondrogenic culture medium and found to express collagen II and aggrecan. Both cell types were cultured in 3% alginate hydrogels and implanted in a rabbit model of cartilage damage. Three months after surgery, significant cartilage regeneration was observed, particularly in the animals implanted with hDPSCs. Although the results presented here are preliminary, they suggest that hDPSCs may be useful for regeneration of articular cartilage.

  1. In Vivo Articular Cartilage Regeneration Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured in an Alginate Scaffold: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Manuel; Milian, Lara; Oliver, Maria; Zurriaga, Javier; Sancho-Tello, Maria; de Llano, Jose Javier Martin; Carda, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease in which all joint-related elements, articular cartilage in particular, are affected. The poor regeneration capacity of this tissue together with the lack of pharmacological treatment has led to the development of regenerative medicine methodologies including microfracture and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). The effectiveness of ACI has been shown in vitro and in vivo , but the use of other cell types, including bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, is necessary because of the poor proliferation rate of isolated articular chondrocytes. In this investigation, we assessed the chondrogenic ability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to regenerate cartilage in vitro and in vivo . hDPSCs and primary isolated rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in chondrogenic culture medium and found to express collagen II and aggrecan. Both cell types were cultured in 3% alginate hydrogels and implanted in a rabbit model of cartilage damage. Three months after surgery, significant cartilage regeneration was observed, particularly in the animals implanted with hDPSCs. Although the results presented here are preliminary, they suggest that hDPSCs may be useful for regeneration of articular cartilage.

  2. Microarray analysis of the gene expression profile in triethylene glycol dimethacrylate-treated human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, D; Torun, Z Ö; Demirkaya, K; Sarper, M; Elçi, M P; Avcu, F

    2017-11-01

    Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) is an important resin monomer commonly used in the structure of dental restorative materials. Recent studies have shown that unpolymerized resin monomers may be released into the oral environment and cause harmful biological effects. We investigated changes in the gene expression profiles of TEGDMA-treated human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) following short- (1-day) and long-term (7-days) exposure. HDPCs were exposed to a noncytotoxic concentration of TEGDMA, and gene expression profiles were evaluated by microarray analysis. The results were confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT PCR). In total, 1282 and 1319 genes (up- or down-regulated) were differentially expressed compared with control group after the 1- and 7-day incubation periods, respectively. Biological ontology-based analyses revealed that metabolic, cellular, and developmental processes constituted the largest groups of biological functional processes. qRT-PCR analysis on bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), BMP-4, secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich, collagen type I alpha 1, oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1, MMP3, interleukin-6, and heme oxygenase-1 genes confirmed the changes in expression observed in the microarray analysis. Our results suggest that TEGDMA can change the many functions of hDPCs through large changes in gene expression levels and complex interactions with different signaling pathways.

  3. [miRNA profile of the human dental pulp cells during odontoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Li-Rong; Zhao, Wen-Qing; Lin, Tian; Lu, Yan-Ling; Wu, Yu

    2017-10-01

    To screen and verify the differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) during the differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) to odontoblasts induced by BMP-2. The isolated hDPCs were cultured in vitro and induced by BMP-2. The levels of ALP, DMP-1 and DSPP were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The potential characteristics of hDPCs were investigated by miRNA microarray and highly expressed miRNAs were selected with bio-information software for predicting target genes and their biological functions. Then the results were validated using qRT-PCR analysis for the selected miRNAs. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0 software package. The expression of ALP, DSPP, and DMP-1 showed significantly higher levels in BMP-2 induced groups compared to the control group(Pfunction(33%), while the function of other 0.2% genes remained unknown. This study identified differential expression of miRNAs in BMP-2-induced odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs, thus contributing to further investigations of regulatory mechanisms and biological effect of target genes in BMP-2-induced odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs.

  4. Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Is Dispensable for The Immunomodulatory Function of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Razieh; Masoumi Karimi, Masoumeh; Hashemi-Beni, Batool; Adib, Minoo; Sereshki, Nasrin; Sadeghi, Farzaneh

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we sought to better understand the immunoregulatory function of stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). We studied the role of the interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-axis in immunoregulation of SHED compared to bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) under the same conditions. In this cross-sectional study, recently isolated human T cells were stimulated either by mitogen or inactivated allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). These T cells were subsequently co-cultured with, either SHED or BMMSCs in the presence or absence of 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT) or neutralizing anti- human-IFN-γ antibodies. In all co-cultures we evaluated lymphocyte activation as well as IDO activity. SHED, similar to conventional BMMSCs, had anti-proliferative effects on stimulated T cells and reduced their cytokine production. This property of SHED and BMMSCs was changed by IFN-γ neutralization. We detected IDO in the immunosuppressive supernatant of all co-cultures. Removal of IDO decreased the immunosuppression of BMMSCs. SHED, like BMMSCs, produced the IDO enzyme. Although IFN-γ is one of inducer of IDO production in SHED, these cells were not affected by IFN-γ in the same manner as BMMSCs. Unlike BMMSCs, the IDO enzyme did not contribute to their immunosuppression and might have other cell-type specific roles.

  5. Effects of microenvironment on growth and differentiation of human dental pulp cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datko, Laura Christine

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have recently been described as a potential stem cell source for various regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. They appear to be multipotent, however more characterization is necessary to determine the true potential of these cells. An important aspect of using DPSCs, or any stem cell type, tissue engineering application is the microenvironment within the construct. The microenvironment could include construct mechanical properties, construct composition, and 3D dynamic conditions in vivo. This work aims to study those specific microenvironment effects on DPSCs. To determine the effects of mechanical properties of the substrate on DPSCs, they were seeded on polyacrylamide (PA) gels of different elastic moduli. These gels ranged from 3 kPa to 75 kPa and a glass coverslip was used as a control. They were also exposed to either standard stem cell media or an osteogenic differentiation media, to determine the potential of the DPSCs for osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation. The cultures were analyzed for morphological changes, osteopontin production, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production, and mineralization. The results showed that the DPSCs adhered well to the PA gels for the first few days in culture, but by day 7, they were starting to detach from the PA gels and only remain viable in gel defects or along the edges. This selective growth was also reflected in the mineralization, which only occurred in areas of confluence for the cells on the PA gels. Interestingly, all cultures produced osteopontin and ALP, however by the end of the experiment, the cells cultured on glass had the highest ALP production. It appeared that without the addition of growth factors to induce other cell lineages, DPSCs defaulted to an osteogenic/odontogenic lineage. To determine the effect of mineral composition, preliminary studies were done on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and 7F2 osteoblasts. These two cell types were exposed to

  6. In vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides and partially methyl-esterified/acetylated

  7. In Vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides and partially methyl esterified/acetylated

  8. Non-destructive, preclinical evaluation of root canal anatomy of human teeth with flat-panel detector volume CT (FD-VCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidrich, G.; Hassepass, F.; Dullin, C.; Grabbe, E.; Attin, T.; Hannig, C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Successful endodontic diagnostics and therapy call for adequate depiction of the root canal anatomy with multimodal diagnostic imaging. The aim of the present study is to evaluate visualization of the endodont with flat-panel detector volume CT (FD-VCT). Materials and methods: 13 human teeth were examined with the prototype of a FD-VCT. After data acquisition and generation of volume data sets in volume rendering technology (VRT), the findings obtained were compared to conventional X-rays and cross-section preparations of the teeth. Results: The anatomical structures of the endodont such as root canals, side canals and communications between different root canals as well as dentricles could be detected precisely with FD-VCT. The length of curved root canals was also determined accurately. The spatial resolution of the system is around 140 μm. Only around 73% of the main root canals detected with FD-VCT and 87% of the roots could be visualized with conventional dental X-rays. None of the side canals, shown with FD-VCT, was detectable on conventional X-rays. In all cases the enamel and dentin of the teeth could be well delineated. No differences in image quality could be discerned between stored and freshly extracted teeth, or between primary and adult teeth. (orig.)

  9. Lipopolysaccharide induces the migration of human dental pulp cells by up-regulating miR-146a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Ching; Hung, Pei-Shih; Tu, Hsi-Feng; Shih, Wen-Yu; Li, Wan-Chun; Chang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-12-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that play crucial roles in regulating normal and pathologic functions. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the key regulators of pulpal pathogenesis. This study investigated how LPS regulates microRNA expression and affects the phenotype of human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Primary DPCs were established and immortalized to achieve immortalized DPCs (I-DPCs). DPCs and I-DPCs were treated with LPS and examined to identify changes in microRNA expression, cell proliferation, and cell migration. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to detect changes in gene expression. Exogenous miR-146a expression was performed transfection with pre-mir-146a mimic. Knockdown of interleukin receptor-associated kinase (IRAK1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) expression was performed by small interference oligonucleotide transfection. Western blot analysis was used to detect changes in the expression of the IRAK1 and TRAF6 proteins. The differentiation of DPCs was induced by osteogenic medium. I-DPCs had a higher level of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene than the parental DPCs. Up-regulation of miR-146a expression and an increase in migration was induced by LPS treatment of DPCs and I-DPCs. Exogenous miR-146a expression increased the migration of DPCs and I-DPCs and down-regulated the expression of IRAK1 and TRAF6. Knockdown of IRAK1 and/or TRAF6 increased the migration of DPCs. The results suggested that LPS is able to increase the migration of DPCs by modulating the miR-146a-TRAF6/IRAK1 regulatory cascade. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  10. Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, A. [Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade do Sagrado Coracao, Rua Irma Arminda 10-50, 17011-160 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 5422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felice, G.D. [Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano-FUNDHAM, Rua Abdias Neves, no. 551, Centro, 64770-000 Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui (Brazil); Lage, M.C.S.M. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Departamento de Quimica, Campus da Ininga, Ininga, 64049-550 Teresina, Piaui (Brazil); Guidon, N. [Fundacao Museu do Homem Americano-FUNDHAM, Rua Abdias Neves, no. 551, Centro, 64770-000 Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui (Brazil); Baffa, O. [Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: baffa@usp.br

    2008-02-15

    Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho's limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 {+-} 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245-14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guerin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planetes/ Earth and Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, ]. This region is challenging the classical theories about the peopling of America. In agreement with such theories the first human groups would have arrived in America, through Behring, only about 20,000 years ago. The site Toca do Boqueirao da Pedra Furada is a rock-shelter situated at the cliff that is the frontier between the Pre-Cambrian Sao Francisco plain and the Devonian-Permian highlands of the Maranhao-Piaui basin. It was excavated from 1978 till 1988 and presented a very consistent stratigraphy, with thousand of lithic implements and hearths [F. Parenti, Le gisement quaternaire de la Pedra Furada (Piaui, Bresil), Stratigraphie, chronologie, evolution culturelle, Editions Recherches sur les civilisations, Paris, 2002, ; F. Parenti, Le Gisement Quaternaire de la Toca do Boqueirao da Pedra Furada (Piaui, Bresil) dans le Contexte de la Prehistoire Americaine Fouilles, Stratigraphie, Chronologie, Evolution Culturelle, Ph.D. diss, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, 1993, 411p, ; F. Parenti, M. Fontugne, N. Guidon, C. Guerin, M. Faure, Chronostratigraphie des gisements archeologiques et paleontologiques de Sao Raimundo Nonato (Piaui, Bresil): contribution a la connaissance du peuplement pleistocene de l'Amerique, Supplement de la Revue d

  11. Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, A.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Felice, G.D.; Lage, M.C.S.M.; Guidon, N.; Baffa, O.

    2008-01-01

    Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho's limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 ± 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245-14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guerin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planetes/ Earth and Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, ]. This region is challenging the classical theories about the peopling of America. In agreement with such theories the first human groups would have arrived in America, through Behring, only about 20,000 years ago. The site Toca do Boqueirao da Pedra Furada is a rock-shelter situated at the cliff that is the frontier between the Pre-Cambrian Sao Francisco plain and the Devonian-Permian highlands of the Maranhao-Piaui basin. It was excavated from 1978 till 1988 and presented a very consistent stratigraphy, with thousand of lithic implements and hearths [F. Parenti, Le gisement quaternaire de la Pedra Furada (Piaui, Bresil), Stratigraphie, chronologie, evolution culturelle, Editions Recherches sur les civilisations, Paris, 2002, ; F. Parenti, Le Gisement Quaternaire de la Toca do Boqueirao da Pedra Furada (Piaui, Bresil) dans le Contexte de la Prehistoire Americaine Fouilles, Stratigraphie, Chronologie, Evolution Culturelle, Ph.D. diss, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, 1993, 411p, ; F. Parenti, M. Fontugne, N. Guidon, C. Guerin, M. Faure, Chronostratigraphie des gisements archeologiques et paleontologiques de Sao Raimundo Nonato (Piaui, Bresil): contribution a la connaissance du peuplement pleistocene de l'Amerique, Supplement de la Revue d

  12. On the development of life prediction methodologies for the failure of human teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, R.K.; Imbeni, V.; Kinney, J.H.; Marshall, S.J.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2002-09-18

    Human dentin is known to be susceptible to failure under cyclic loading. Surprisingly, there are few reports that quantify the effect of such loading, considering the fact that a typical tooth experiences a million or so loading cycles annually. In the present study, a systematic investigation is described of the effects of prolonged cyclic loading on human dentin in a simulated physiological environment. In vitro stress-life (S/N) data are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of fatigue damage and failure.

  13. On the Increasing Fragility of Human Teeth with Age: ADeep-Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager III, J.W.; Nalla, R.K.; Balooch, G.; Kim, G.; Pugach, M.; Habelitz, S.; Marshall, G.W.; Kinney, J.H.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2006-07-14

    Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRRS) using 244nm excitation was used to investigate the impact of aging on humandentin. The intensity of a spectroscopic feature from the peptide bondsin the collagen increases with tissue age, similar to a finding reportedpreviously for human cortical bone.

  14. Banana (Musa spp) from peel to pulp: ethnopharmacology, source of bioactive compounds and its relevance for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Aline; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-02-03

    Banana is a fruit with nutritional properties and also with acclaimed therapeutic uses, cultivated widely throughout the tropics as source of food and income for people. Banana peel is known by its local and traditional use to promote wound healing mainly from burns and to help overcome or prevent a substantial number of illnesses, as depression. This review critically assessed the phytochemical properties and biological activities of Musa spp fruit pulp and peel. A survey on the literature on banana (Musa spp, Musaceae) covering its botanical classification and nomenclature, as well as the local and traditional use of its pulp and peel was performed. Besides, the current state of art on banana fruit pulp and peel as interesting complex matrices sources of high-value compounds from secondary metabolism was also approached. Dessert bananas and plantains are systematic classified into four sections, Eumusa, Rhodochlamys, Australimusa, and Callimusa, according to the number of chromosomes. The fruits differ only in their ploidy arrangement and a single scientific name can be given to all the edible bananas, i.e., Musa spp. The chemical composition of banana's peel and pulp comprise mostly carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and biogenic amines. The biological potential of those biomasses is directly related to their chemical composition, particularly as pro-vitamin A supplementation, as potential antioxidants attributed to their phenolic constituents, as well as in the treatment of Parkinson's disease considering their contents in l-dopa and dopamine. Banana's pulp and peel can be used as natural sources of antioxidants and pro-vitamin A due to their contents in carotenoids, phenolics, and amine compounds, for instance. For the development of a phytomedicine or even an allopathic medicine, e.g., banana fruit pulp and peel could be of interest as raw materials riches in beneficial bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human mandible bone defect repair by the grafting of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and collagen sponge biocomplexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R d’Aquino

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we used a biocomplex constructed from dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPCs and a collagen sponge scaffold for oro-maxillo-facial (OMF bone tissue repair in patients requiring extraction of their third molars. The experiments were carried out according to our Internal Ethical Committee Guidelines and written informed consent was obtained from the patients. The patients presented with bilateral bone reabsorption of the alveolar ridge distal to the second molar secondary to impaction of the third molar on the cortical alveolar lamina, producing a defect without walls, of at least 1.5 cm in height. This clinical condition does not permit spontaneous bone repair after extraction of the third molar, and eventually leads to loss also of the adjacent second molar. Maxillary third molars were extracted first for DPC isolation and expansion. The cells were then seeded onto a collagen sponge scaffold and the obtained biocomplex was used to fill in the injury site left by extraction of the mandibular third molars. Three months after autologous DPC grafting, alveolar bone of patients had optimal vertical repair and complete restoration of periodontal tissue back to the second molars, as assessed by clinical probing and X-rays. Histological observations clearly demonstrated the complete regeneration of bone at the injury site. Optimal bone regeneration was evident one year after grafting. This clinical study demonstrates that a DPC/collagen sponge biocomplex can completely restore human mandible bone defects and indicates that this cell population could be used for the repair and/or regeneration of tissues and organs.

  16. Control of proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human dental-pulp-derived stem cells by distinct surface structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolind, K; Kraft, D; Bøggild, T; Duch, M; Lovmand, J; Pedersen, F S; Bindslev, D A; Bünger, C E; Foss, M; Besenbacher, F

    2014-02-01

    The ability to control the behavior of stem cells provides crucial benefits, for example, in tissue engineering and toxicity/drug screening, which utilize the stem cell's capacity to engineer new tissues for regenerative purposes and the testing of new drugs in vitro. Recently, surface topography has been shown to influence stem cell differentiation; however, general trends are often difficult to establish due to differences in length scales, surface chemistries and detailed surface topographies. Here we apply a highly versatile screening approach to analyze the interplay of surface topographical parameters on cell attachment, morphology, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal dental-pulp-derived stem cells (DPSCs) cultured with and without osteogenic differentiation factors in the medium (ODM). Increasing the inter-pillar gap size from 1 to 6 μm for surfaces with small pillar sizes of 1 and 2 μm resulted in decreased proliferation and in more elongated cells with long pseudopodial protrusions. The same alterations of pillar topography, up to an inter-pillar gap size of 4 μm, also resulted in enhanced mineralization of DPSCs cultured without ODM, while no significant trend was observed for DPSCs cultured with ODM. Generally, cells cultured without ODM had a larger deposition of osteogenic markers on structured surfaces relative to the unstructured surfaces than what was found when culturing with ODM. We conclude that the topographical design of biomaterials can be optimized for the regulation of DPSC differentiation and speculate that the inclusion of ODM alters the ability of the cells to sense surface topographical cues. These results are essential in order to transfer the use of this highly proliferative, easily accessible stem cell into the clinic for use in cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells by calcium silicate materials stimulating via FGFR/ERK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao-Hsin; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-01-01

    Bone healing needs a complex interaction of growth factors that establishes an environment for efficient bone formation. We examine how calcium silicate (CS) and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) cements influence the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) through fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and active MAPK pathways, in particular ERK. The hDPCs are cultured with β-TCP and CS, after which the cells' viability and odontogenic differentiation markers are determined by using PrestoBlue® assay and western blot, respectively. The effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection targeting FGFR was also evaluated. The results showed that CS promoted cell proliferation and enhances FGFR expression. It was also found that CS increases ERK and p38 activity in hDPCs, and furthermore, raises the expression and secretion of DSP, and DMP-1. Additionally, statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) have been found in the calcium deposition in si-FGFR transfection and ERK inhibitor between CS and β-TCP; these variations indicated that ERK/MAPK signaling is involved in the silicon-induced odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. The current study shows that CS substrates play a key role in odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs through FGFR and modulate ERK/MAPK activation. - Highlights: • CS influences the behavior of hDPCs through fibroblast growth factor receptor. • CS increases ERK and p38 activity in hDPCs. • ERK/MAPK signaling is involved in the Si-induced odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. • Ca staining shows that FGFR regulates hDPC differentiation on CS, but not on β-TCP

  18. Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Comparative Analysis Between Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Giuliani, Patricia; Pierdomenico, Laura; Marchisio, Marco; Zuccarini, Mariachiara; Di Iorio, Patrizia; Quaresima, Raimondo; Caciagli, Francesco; Ciccarelli, Renata

    2017-06-01

    White adipose tissue is a source of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) that are actively studied for their possible therapeutic use in bone tissue repair/remodeling. To better appreciate the osteogenic potential of these cells, we compared some properties of MSCs from human subcutaneous adipose tissue [subcutaneous-adipose stromal cells (S-ASCs)] and dental pulp stem cell (DPSCs) of third-impacted molars, the latter representing a well-established MSC source. Both undifferentiated cell types showed similar fibroblast-like morphology and mesenchymal marker expression. However, undifferentiated S-ASCs displayed a faster doubling time coupled to greater proliferation and colony-forming ability than DPSCs. Also, the osteogenic differentiation of S-ASCs was greater than that of DPSCs, as evaluated by the higher levels of expression of early osteogenic markers Runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2) and alkaline phosphatase at days 3-14 and of extracellular matrix mineralization at days 14-21. Moreover, S-ASCs showed a better colonization of the titanium scaffold. In addition, we investigated whether S-ASC osteogenic commitment was enhanced by adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) stimulation, as previously shown for DPSCs. Although A1R expression was constant during DPSC differentiation, it increased in S-ASC at day 21 from osteogenesis induction. Accordingly, A1R stimulation by the agonist 2-chloro-N 6 -cyclopentyl-adenosine, added to the cultures at each medium change, stimulated proliferation only in differentiating DPSC and enhanced the osteogenic differentiation earlier in DPSCs than in S-ASCs. These effects were counteracted by cell pretreatment with a selective A1R antagonist. Thus, our findings suggest that S-ASCs could be advantageously used in regenerative orthopedics/dentistry, and locally released or exogenously added purines may play a role in bone repair/remodeling, even though this aspect should be more thoroughly evaluated.

  19. The role of integrin-α5 in the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li; Xu, Shuaimei; Ma, Dandan; Gao, Jie; Liu, Ying; Yue, Jing; Wu, Buling

    2014-02-01

    It has been reported that integrin-α5 (ITGA5) activity is related to cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and organ development. However, the involvement of ITGA5 in the biological functions of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) has not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ITGA5 in the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. We knocked down ITGA5 in hDPSCs using lentivirus-mediated ITGA5 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Changes in the proliferation in hDPSCs infected with lentiviruses expressing ITGA5-specific shRNA or negative control shRNA were examined using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine labeling. Both ITGA5 knockdown cells and shMock cells were cultured in mineralization medium for 3 weeks, and the differentiation of cells was detected with alizarin red S staining. The expression of odontogenic differentiation-related molecular markers was assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays. The knockdown of ITGA5 decreased the proliferation capacity of hDPSCs. ITGA5 shRNA promoted odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs with the enhanced formation of mineralized nodules. It also up-regulated the messenger RNA expression of multiple markers of odontogenesis and the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein protein. These findings suggest that ITGA5 plays an important role in maintaining hDPSCs in a proliferative state. The inhibition of ITGA5 signaling promotes the odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chitosan scaffolds induce human dental pulp stem cells to neural differentiation: potential roles for spinal cord injury therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlong; Lu, Xiaohui; Feng, Guijuan; Gu, Zhifeng; Sun, Yuyu; Bao, Guofeng; Xu, Guanhua; Lu, Yuanzhou; Chen, Jiajia; Xu, Lingfeng; Feng, Xingmei; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-10-01

    Cell-based transplantation strategies hold great potential for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. Chitosan scaffolds have therapeutic benefits for spinal cord regeneration. Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are abundant available stem cells with low immunological incompatibility and can be considered for cell replacement therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of chitosan scaffolds in the neural differentiation of DPSCs in vitro and to assess the supportive effects of chitosan scaffolds in an animal model of SCI. DPSCs were incubated with chitosan scaffolds. Cell viability and the secretion of neurotrophic factors were analyzed. DPSCs incubated with chitosan scaffolds were treated with neural differentiation medium for 14 days and then neural genes and protein markers were analyzed by Western blot and reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction. Our study revealed a higher cell viability and neural differentiation in the DPSC/chitosan-scaffold group. Compared with the control group, the levels of BDNF, GDNF, b-NGF, and NT-3 were significantly increased in the DPSC/chitosan-scaffold group. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway played a key role in the neural differentiation of DPSCs combined with chitosan scaffolds. Transplantation of DPSCs together with chitosan scaffolds into an SCI rat model resulted in the marked recovery of hind limb locomotor functions. Thus, chitosan scaffolds were non-cytotoxic and provided a conducive and favorable microenvironment for the survival and neural differentiation of DPSCs. Transplantation of DPSCs might therefore be a suitable candidate for treating SCI and other neuronal degenerative diseases.

  1. Teeth in the Line of Fracture: To Retain or Remove?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jimson; John, Reena; Jayakumar, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze mandibular fracture site, relationship of the fracture line to the periodontium, vitality of teeth, displacement of the fracture segments and their implications, and determine whether to retain or remove the teeth in the fracture line. Fifty patients with 62 fractures were involved in this study. An electric pulp tester was used to measure the pulpal response. The degree of fracture displacement and the relationship of the fracture line to the periodontium were evaluated using panoramic radiographs. Fractures of the parasymphysis region constituted a majority of 60.87% in the gross displacement category. Four of 50 patients showed no response presurgically and minimal response postoperatively on pulp vitality testing. Patients with teeth in the fracture line showing no response on pulp vitality testing should be advised extraction to avoid further complications. PMID:22132255

  2. Human Plasma and Human Platelet-rich Plasma as a Substitute for Fetal Calf Serum during Long-term Cultivation of Mesenchymal Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Suchánková Kleplová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Our aims were to isolate and cultivate mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC in various media enriched with human blood components, and subsequently to investigate their basic biological properties. Methods: DPSC were cultivated in five different media based on α MEM containing different concentrations of human plasma (HP, platelet-rich plasma (PRP, or fetal calf serum (FCS. The DPSC biological properties were examined periodically. Results: We cultivated DPSC in the various cultivation media over 15 population doublings except for the medium supplemented with 10% HP. Our results showed that DPSC cultivated in medium supplemented with 10% PRP showed the shortest average population doubling time (DT (28.6 ± 4.6 hours, in contrast to DPSC cultivated in 10% HP which indicated the longest DT (156.2 ± 17.8 hours; hence this part of the experiment had been cancelled in the 6th passage. DPSC cultivated in media with 2% FCS+ITS (DT 47.3 ± 10.4 hours, 2% PRP (DT 40.1 ± 5.7 hours and 2% HP (DT 49.0 ± 15.2 hours showed almost the same proliferative activity. DPSC’s viability in the 9th passage was over 90% except for the DPSC cultivated in the 10% HP media. Conclusions: We proved that human blood components are suitable substitution for FCS in cultivation media for long-term DPSC cultivation.

  3. Isolation and Culture of Postnatal Stem Cells from Deciduous Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Olávez, Daniela; Facultad de Odontología Universidad de Los Andes; Salmen, Siham; Instituto de Inmunología Clínica, Universidad de Los Andes.; Padrón, Karla; Facultad de Odontología. Univerisdad de Los Andes.; Lobo, Carmine; Facultad de Odontología. Univerisdad de Los Andes.; Díaz, Nancy; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Los Andes.; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Doctora en Inmunología por Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC). Instituto de Inmunología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela.; Solorzanio, Eduvigis; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Los Andes.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Currently, degenerative diseases represent a public health problem; therefore, the development and implementation of strategies to fully or partially recover of damaged tissues has a special interest in the biomedical field. Therapeutic strategies based on mesenchymal stem cells transplantation from dental pulp have been proposed as an alternative. Purpose: To develop a mesenchymal stem cells culture isolated from dental pulp of deciduous teeth. Methods: The mesenchymal stem cells...

  4. Conditioned medium from the stem cells of human dental pulp improves cognitive function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Tsuneyuki; Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Hattori, Hisashi; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2015-10-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities and the appearance of β-amyloid plaques in the brain. Although the pathogenic mechanisms associated with AD are not fully understood, activated microglia releasing various neurotoxic factors, including pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress mediators, appear to play major roles. Here, we investigated the therapeutic benefits of a serum-free conditioned medium (CM) derived from the stem cells of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) in a mouse model of AD. The intranasal administration of SHEDs in these mice resulted in substantially improved cognitive function. SHED-CM contained factors involved in multiple neuroregenerative mechanisms, such as neuroprotection, axonal elongation, neurotransmission, the suppression of inflammation, and microglial regulation. Notably, SHED-CM attenuated the pro-inflammatory responses induced by β-amyloid plaques, and generated an anti-inflammatory/tissue-regenerating environment, which was accompanied by the induction of anti-inflammatory M2-like microglia. Our data suggest that SHED-CM may provide significant therapeutic benefits for AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Osteoblastic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth induced by thermosensitive hydrogels with strontium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen-Ta, E-mail: f10549@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Wei-Ling [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Chih-Ming [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are a novel source of multi-potential stem cells for tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Strontium exhibits an important function in bone remodeling because it can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. Hydrogels can mimic the natural cellular environment. The association of hydrogels with cell viability is determined using biological tests, including rheological experiments. In this study, osteogenic differentiation was investigated through SHED encapsulation in hydrogels containing strontium phosphate. Results of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence staining indicated that the cells grew well and SHEDs proliferated in the hydrogels. Strontium-loaded chitosan-based hydrogels induced the biomineralization and high expression of alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, the expression levels of bone-related genes, including type-I collagen, Runx2, osteopontin (OP), and osteonectin (ON), were up-regulated during the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. This study demonstrated that strontium can be an effective inducer of osteogenesis for SHEDs. Elucidating the function of bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • SHEDs have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering. • Strontium phosphate can enhance the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. • Hydrogels can mimic the natural cellular environment. • Bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering.

  6. Osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth on poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibers containing strontium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen-Ta, E-mail: f10549@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Pai-Shuen [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Te-Yang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking the architecture of the extracellular matrix is an effective strategy for tissue engineering. Composite nanofibers similar to natural bone structure can be prepared via an electrospinning technique and used in biomedical applications. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) can differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as cells that are alternative sources of stem cells for tissue engineering. Strontium has important functions in bone remodeling; for example, this element can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. Incorporating strontium phosphate into nanofibers provides a potential material for bone tissue engineering. This study investigated the potential of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers coated or blended with strontium phosphate for the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. Cellular morphology and MTT assay revealed that nanofibers effectively support cellular attachment, spreading, and proliferation. Strontium-loaded PCL nanofibers exhibited higher expressions of collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, biomineralization, and bone-related genes than pure PCL nanofibers during the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. This study demonstrated that strontium can be an effective inducer of osteogenesis for SHEDs. Understanding the function of bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • SHEDs have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering. • Strontium phosphate into nanofibers provides a potential material for bone tissue engineering. • Nanofibers coated or blended with strontium phosphate for the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs.

  7. Osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth on poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibers containing strontium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Wen-Ta; Wu, Pai-Shuen; Huang, Te-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking the architecture of the extracellular matrix is an effective strategy for tissue engineering. Composite nanofibers similar to natural bone structure can be prepared via an electrospinning technique and used in biomedical applications. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) can differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as cells that are alternative sources of stem cells for tissue engineering. Strontium has important functions in bone remodeling; for example, this element can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. Incorporating strontium phosphate into nanofibers provides a potential material for bone tissue engineering. This study investigated the potential of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers coated or blended with strontium phosphate for the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. Cellular morphology and MTT assay revealed that nanofibers effectively support cellular attachment, spreading, and proliferation. Strontium-loaded PCL nanofibers exhibited higher expressions of collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, biomineralization, and bone-related genes than pure PCL nanofibers during the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. This study demonstrated that strontium can be an effective inducer of osteogenesis for SHEDs. Understanding the function of bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • SHEDs have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering. • Strontium phosphate into nanofibers provides a potential material for bone tissue engineering. • Nanofibers coated or blended with strontium phosphate for the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs

  8. A simple and efficient method for generating Nurr1-positive neuronal stem cells from human wisdom teeth (tNSC) and the potential of tNSC for stroke therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Mei-Fang; Liao, Chia-Hsin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lin, Py-Yu

    2009-01-01

    We have isolated human neuronal stem cells from exfoliated third molars (wisdom teeth) using a simple and efficient method. The cultured neuronal stem cells (designated tNSC) expressed embryonic and adult stem cell markers, markers for chemotatic factor and its corresponding ligand, as well as neuron proteins. The tNSC expressed genes of Nurr1, NF-M and nestin. They were used to treat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery-inflicted Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to assess their therapeutic potential for stroke therapy. For each tNSC cell line, a normal human impacted wisdom tooth was collected from a donor with consent. The tooth was cleaned thoroughly with normal saline. The molar was vigorously shaken or vortexed for 30 min in a 50-mL conical tube with 15-20mL normal saline. The mixture of dental pulp was collected by centrifugation and cultured in a 25-cm(2) tissue culture flask with 4-5mL Medium 199 supplemented with 5-10% fetal calf serum. The tNSC harvested from tissue culture, at a concentration of 1-2x10(5), were suspended in 3 microL saline solution and injected into the right dorsolateral striatum of experimental animals inflicted with MCAO. Behavioral measurements of the tNSC-treated SD rats showed a significant recovery from neurologic dysfunction after MCAO treatment. In contrast, a sham group of SD rats failed to recover from the surgery. Immunohistochemistry analysis of brain sections of the tNSC-treated SD rats showed survival of the transplanted cells. These results suggest that adult neuronal stem cells may be procured from third molars, and tNSC thus cultivated have potential for treatment of stroke-inflicted rats.

  9. Aesthetic treatment of discoloration of nonvital teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, P

    1995-09-01

    Attempts to treat discoloration in nonvital teeth were first reported a century ago. This article discusses two potential causes of nonvital tooth discoloration-trauma and endodontic treatment-along with a step-by-step clinical procedure for treatment of the discoloration. In trauma, hemoglobin is released into the tissues; iron oxides, formed by oxygen and iron in hemoglobin, cause discoloration and swelling that infringes on pulp space, forcing the pulp to recede with a potential loss of tooth vitality. After endodontic treatment, either hemorrhaging, materials used, or incomplete removal and breakdown of necrotic tissue may cause staining. The learning objective of this article is to review the causes and the prevention/treatment of discoloration in nonvital teeth.

  10. Effect of property gradients on enamel fracture in human molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Amir; Bush, Mark B; Lawn, Brian R

    2012-11-01

    A model for the fracture of tooth enamel with graded elastic modulus and toughness is constructed using an extended finite element modeling (XFEM) package. The property gradients are taken from literature data on human molars, with maximum in modulus at the outer enamel surface and in toughness at the inner surface. The tooth is modeled as a brittle shell (enamel) and a compliant interior (dentin), with occlusal loading from a hard, flat contact at the cusp. Longitudinal radial (R) and margin (M) cracks are allowed to extend piecewise along the enamel walls under the action of an incrementally increasing applied load. A simple stratagem is deployed in which fictitious temperature profiles generate the requisite property gradients. The resulting XFEM simulations demonstrate that the crack fronts become more segmented as the property gradients become more pronounced, with enhanced propagation at the outer surface and inhibited propagation at the inner. Whereas the growth history of the cracks is profoundly influenced by the gradients, the ultimate critical loads required to attain full fractures are relatively unaffected. Some implications concerning dentistry are considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EVALUATION OF CONDITION OF THE PULP BY PULSE OXIMETRY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Kosturkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To conduct pulse oximetry (PO and electric pulp test (EPT on intact frontal teeth in clinically healthy patients aged between 18 and 25 years who do not have periodontal disease. Material/Methods: To achieve the aim 1058 teeth of 31 patients were studied. The following inclusion criteria for the study were set: 1. Age – 18-25 years. 2. Clinically healthy patient, who does not have any systemic diseases, do not take any medicine systematically. 3. Intact frontal teeth – without carious lesions, restorations or root canal treatment. 4. Lack of periodontal disease. Research was conducted with a pulse oximeter Contec™ - CMS60D and a custom made probe holder. Results: Average values obtained by pulse oximetry in upper jaw vary between 83% and 85%. In lower jaw – between 82% and 85%. 99% is the maximum and 48% is the minimum registered value. The average value of the measurement of all the teeth is 84%. The average saturation measured on the small finger of the right hand of the patient is 98%. The average value of EPT for all teeth is 4 μA. The maximum measured value is 20 μA, and the minimum - 1 μA. Conclusions: 1. Adequate study of the pulp includes two complementary methods – electric pulp test (evaluation of innervation and pulse oximetry (assessment of pulp microcirculation. 2. Teeth that are larger in size have larger values of PO and EPT, which is in direct relation to the size of their pulp chamber. 3. The total saturation, measured in the little finger of the right hand is greater than the one of the teeth.

  12. Transforming growth factor-β-induced gene product-h3 inhibits odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serita, Suguru; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Daigaku; Hamano, Sayuri; Sugii, Hideki; Yoshida, Shinichiro; Mizumachi, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Hiromi; Monnouchi, Satoshi; Wada, Naohisa; Maeda, Hidefumi

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate transforming growth factor-β-induced gene product-h3 (βig-h3) expression in dental pulp tissue and its effects on odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp cells (DPCs). A rat direct pulp capping model was prepared using perforated rat upper first molars capped with mineral trioxide aggregate cement. Human DPCs (HDPCs) were isolated from extracted teeth. βig-h3 expression in rat dental pulp tissue and HDPCs was assessed by immunostaining. Mineralization of HDPCs was assessed by Alizarin red-S staining. Odontoblast-related gene expression in HDPCs was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of βig-h3 was detected in rat dental pulp tissue, and attenuated by direct pulp capping, while expression of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was increased in exposed pulp tissue. βig-h3 expression was also detected in HDPCs, with reduced expression during odontoblastic differentiation. The above cytokines reduced βig-h3 expression in HDPCs, and promoted their mineralization. Recombinant βig-h3 inhibited the expression of odontoblast-related genes and mineralization of HDPCs, while knockdown of βig-h3 gene expression promoted the expression of odontoblast-related genes in HDPCs. The present findings suggest that βig-h3 in DPCs may be involved in reparative dentin formation and that its expression is likely to negatively regulate this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance of a gaseous detector based energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging system: Analysis of human teeth treated with dental amalgam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.L.M.; Figueroa, R.; Jaramillo, A.; Carvalho, M.L.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) imaging systems are of great interest in many applications of different areas, once they allow us to get images of the spatial elemental distribution in the samples. The detector system used in this study is based on a micro patterned gas detector, named Micro-Hole and Strip Plate. The full field of view system, with an active area of 28 × 28 mm 2 presents some important features for EDXRF imaging applications, such as a position resolution below 125 μm, an intrinsic energy resolution of about 14% full width at half maximum for 5.9 keV X-rays, and a counting rate capability of 0.5 MHz. In this work, analysis of human teeth treated by dental amalgam was performed by using the EDXRF imaging system mentioned above. The goal of the analysis is to evaluate the system capabilities in the biomedical field by measuring the drift of the major constituents of a dental amalgam, Zn and Hg, throughout the tooth structures. The elemental distribution pattern of these elements obtained during the analysis suggests diffusion of these elements from the amalgam to teeth tissues. - Highlights: • Demonstration of an EDXRF imaging system based on a 2D-MHSP detector for biological analysis • Evaluation of the drift of the dental amalgam constituents, throughout the teeth • Observation of Hg diffusion, due to hydroxyapatite crystal defects that compose the teeth tissues

  14. Performance of a gaseous detector based energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging system: Analysis of human teeth treated with dental amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.L.M. [I3N, Physics Dept, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Figueroa, R.; Jaramillo, A. [Physics Department, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile); Carvalho, M.L. [Atomic Physics Centre, University of Lisbon, 1649-03 Lisboa (Portugal); Veloso, J.F.C.A., E-mail: joao.veloso@ua.pt [I3N, Physics Dept, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-08-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) imaging systems are of great interest in many applications of different areas, once they allow us to get images of the spatial elemental distribution in the samples. The detector system used in this study is based on a micro patterned gas detector, named Micro-Hole and Strip Plate. The full field of view system, with an active area of 28 × 28 mm{sup 2} presents some important features for EDXRF imaging applications, such as a position resolution below 125 μm, an intrinsic energy resolution of about 14% full width at half maximum for 5.9 keV X-rays, and a counting rate capability of 0.5 MHz. In this work, analysis of human teeth treated by dental amalgam was performed by using the EDXRF imaging system mentioned above. The goal of the analysis is to evaluate the system capabilities in the biomedical field by measuring the drift of the major constituents of a dental amalgam, Zn and Hg, throughout the tooth structures. The elemental distribution pattern of these elements obtained during the analysis suggests diffusion of these elements from the amalgam to teeth tissues. - Highlights: • Demonstration of an EDXRF imaging system based on a 2D-MHSP detector for biological analysis • Evaluation of the drift of the dental amalgam constituents, throughout the teeth • Observation of Hg diffusion, due to hydroxyapatite crystal defects that compose the teeth tissues.

  15. Electron spin resonance dating of human teeth from Toca da Santa shelter of São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, A.; Figueiredo, A. M. G.; Felice, G. D.; Lage, M. C. S. M.; Guidon, N.; Baffa, O.

    2008-02-01

    Results of the dating of fossil human teeth excavated from a shelter in the surroundings areas of the Serra da Capivara National Park, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil are presented. This shelter was partially excavated to search for more data that could improve the archaeological context of the Garrincho’s limestone hill sites, where the Toca do Gordo do Garrincho shelter provided two human teeth dated by conventional C-14 in (12,170 ± 40) yBP (years before present) and calibrated age (2 Sigma, 95% probability) 15,245 14,690 yBP (Beta 136204) [E. Peyre, C. Guérin, N. Guidon, I. Coppens, CR Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planètes/ Earth & Planetary Sciences 327 (1998) 335, [1

  16. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheeshkumar, P S; Mohan, Minu P; Saji, Sweta; Sadanandan, Sudheesh; George, Giju

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp calcifications are unique and represent the dental pulp regenerative process. Dental pulp calcifications are sometimes routine findings in oral radiographs and may later serve as an important diagnostic criterion for a hidden aspect of systemic illness. The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns and prevalence of idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India. A total of 227 patients were included in the study fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Age range of the study population was from 15 to 70 years. Teeth were examined under digital panoramic radiograph. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. The presence of pulp stone were categorized according to the types classified as Type I, Type IA, Type II, Type IIA, Type II B, and Type III. The frequency of occurrence of pulp stones with sex, tooth type, dental arches, and types were compared with the types of calcification. Total no. of patients with pulpal calcification were 227 [females 133 (58.59%) and males 94 (41.40%)]. The most common type between both sexes was Type I (48%). Total no. of teeth with calcification was 697; maxilla (48%), mandible (52%). The prevalence of pulp stone was found to be higher in the molars in both the arches. Most no. of pulp stones are reported at the third and fourth decade of life. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications are incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue and also may be an indicator of underlying disease.

  17. Functional and molecular characterization of transmembrane intracellular pH regulators in human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gunng-Shinng; Lee, Shiao-Pieng; Huang, Shu-Fu; Chao, Shih-Chi; Chang, Chung-Yi; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Li, Chung-Hsing; Loh, Shih-Hurng

    2018-06-01

    Homeostasis of intracellular pH (pH i ) plays vital roles in many cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and metastasis. Thus far, Na + -H + exchanger (NHE), Na + -HCO 3 - co-transporter (NBC), Cl - /HCO 3 - exchanger (AE) and Cl - /OH - exchanger (CHE) have been identified to co-regulate pH i homeostasis. However, functional and biological pH i -regulators in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) have yet to be identified. Microspectrofluorimetry technique with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, BCECF, was used to detect pH i changes. NH 4 Cl and Na + -acetate pre-pulse were used to induce intracellular acidosis and alkalosis, respectively. Isoforms of pH i -regulators were detected by Western blot technique. The resting pH i was no significant difference between that in HEPES-buffered (nominal HCO 3 - -free) solution or CO 2 /HCO 3 -buffered system (7.42 and 7.46, respectively). The pH i recovery following the induced-intracellular acidosis was blocked completely by removing [Na + ] o , while only slowed (-63%) by adding HOE694 (a NHE1 specific inhibitor) in HEPES-buffered solution. The pH i recovery was inhibited entirely by removing [Na + ] o , while adding HOE 694 pulse DIDS (an anion-transporter inhibitor) only slowed (-55%) the acid extrusion. Both in HEPES-buffered and CO 2 /HCO 3 -buffered system solution, the pH i recovery after induced-intracellular alkalosis was entirely blocked by removing [Cl - ] o . Western blot analysis showed the isoforms of pH i regulators, including NHE1/2, NBCe1/n1, AE1/2/3/4 and CHE in the hDPSCs. We demonstrate for the first time that resting pH i is significantly higher than 7.2 and meditates functionally by two Na + -dependent acid extruders (NHE and NBC), two Cl - -dependent acid loaders (CHE and AE) and one Na + -independent acid extruder(s) in hDPSCs. These findings provide novel insight for basic and clinical treatment of dentistry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  19. Phenotypic and Proteomic Characteristics of Human Dental Pulp Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells from a Natal, an Exfoliated Deciduous, and an Impacted Third Molar Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurler Akpinar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of heterogeneity among the isolated stem cells makes them less valuable for clinical use. The purpose of this study was to understand the level of heterogeneity among human dental pulp derived mesenchymal stem cells by using basic cell biology and proteomic approaches. The cells were isolated from a natal (NDPSCs, an exfoliated deciduous (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous (SHED, and an impacted third molar (DPSCs tooth of three different donors. All three stem cells displayed similar features related to morphology, proliferation rates, expression of various cell surface markers, and differentiation potentials into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Furthermore, using 2DE approach coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF, we have generated a common 2DE profile for all three stem cells. We found that 62.3±7% of the protein spots were conserved among the three mesenchymal stem cell lines. Sixty-one of these conserved spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Classification of the identified proteins based on biological function revealed that structurally important proteins and proteins that are involved in protein folding machinery are predominantly expressed by all three stem cell lines. Some of these proteins may hold importance in understanding specific properties of human dental pulp derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  20. Calcium Hydroxide-induced Proliferation, Migration, Osteogenic Differentiation, and Mineralization via the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luoping; Zheng, Lisha; Jiang, Jingyi; Gui, Jinpeng; Zhang, Lingyu; Huang, Yan; Chen, Xiaofang; Ji, Jing; Fan, Yubo

    2016-09-01

    Calcium hydroxide has been extensively used as the gold standard for direct pulp capping in clinical dentistry. It induces proliferation, migration, and mineralization in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation, migration, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization in human DPSCs. Human DPSCs between passages 3 and 6 were used. DPSCs were preincubated with inhibitors of MAP kinases and cultured with calcium hydroxide. The phosphorylated MAP kinases were detected by Western blot analysis. Cell viability was analyzed via the methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. Cell migration was estimated using the wound healing assay. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression was analyzed using the ALP staining assay. Mineralization was studied by alizarin red staining analysis. Calcium hydroxide significantly promoted the phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. The inhibition of JNK and p38 signaling abolished calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation of DPSCs. The inhibition of JNK, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling suppressed the migration, ALP expression, and mineralization of DPSCs. Our study showed that the MAP kinase pathway was involved in calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation, migration, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization in human DPSCs. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human dental pulp-derived stem cells promote locomotor recovery after complete transection of the rat spinal cord by multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akihito; Matsubara, Kohki; Nakamura, Shoko; Naruse, Mami; Yamagata, Mari; Sakamoto, Kazuma; Tauchi, Ryoji; Wakao, Norimitsu; Imagama, Shiro; Hibi, Hideharu; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to persistent functional deficits due to loss of neurons and glia and to limited axonal regeneration after injury. Here we report that transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells into the completely transected adult rat spinal cord resulted in marked recovery of hind limb locomotor functions. Transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells or skin-derived fibroblasts led to substantially less recovery of locomotor function. The human dental pulp stem cells exhibited three major neuroregenerative activities. First, they inhibited the SCI-induced apoptosis of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, which improved the preservation of neuronal filaments and myelin sheaths. Second, they promoted the regeneration of transected axons by directly inhibiting multiple axon growth inhibitors, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and myelin-associated glycoprotein, via paracrine mechanisms. Last, they replaced lost cells by differentiating into mature oligodendrocytes under the extreme conditions of SCI. Our data demonstrate that tooth-derived stem cells may provide therapeutic benefits for treating SCI through both cell-autonomous and paracrine neuroregenerative activities.

  2. Human dental pulp stem cells transplantation combined with treadmill training in rats after traumatic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a disabling condition resulting in deficits of sensory and motor functions, and has no effective treatment. Considering that protocols with stem cell transplantation and treadmill training have shown promising results, the present study evaluated the effectiveness of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs transplantation combined with treadmill training in rats with experimental spinal cord injury. Fifty-four Wistar rats were spinalized using NYU impactor. The rats were randomly distributed into 5 groups: Sham (laminectomy with no SCI, n=10; SCI (laminectomy followed by SCI, n=12; SHEDs (SCI treated with SHEDs, n=11; TT (SCI treated with treadmill training, n=11; SHEDs+TT (SCI treated with SHEDs and treadmill training; n=10. Treatment with SHEDs alone or in combination with treadmill training promoted functional recovery, reaching scores of 15 and 14, respectively, in the BBB scale, being different from the SCI group, which reached 11. SHEDs treatment was able to reduce the cystic cavity area and glial scar, increase neurofilament. Treadmill training alone had no functional effectiveness or tissue effects. In a second experiment, the SHEDs transplantation reduced the TNF-α levels in the cord tissue measured 6 h after the injury. Contrary to our hypothesis, treadmill training either alone or in combination, caused no functional improvement. However, SHEDs showed to be neuroprotective, by the reduction of TNF-α levels, the cystic cavity and the glial scar associated with the improvement of motor function after SCI. These results provide evidence that grafted SHEDs might be an effective therapy to spinal cord lesions, with possible anti-inflammatory action.

  3. Human dental pulp stem cells transplantation combined with treadmill training in rats after traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, F C; Rodrigues, L P; Crestani, T; Quintiliano, K; Sanches, E F; Willborn, S; Aristimunha, D; Boisserand, L; Pranke, P; Netto, C A

    2016-08-08

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a disabling condition resulting in deficits of sensory and motor functions, and has no effective treatment. Considering that protocols with stem cell transplantation and treadmill training have shown promising results, the present study evaluated the effectiveness of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) transplantation combined with treadmill training in rats with experimental spinal cord injury. Fifty-four Wistar rats were spinalized using NYU impactor. The rats were randomly distributed into 5 groups: Sham (laminectomy with no SCI, n=10); SCI (laminectomy followed by SCI, n=12); SHEDs (SCI treated with SHEDs, n=11); TT (SCI treated with treadmill training, n=11); SHEDs+TT (SCI treated with SHEDs and treadmill training; n=10). Treatment with SHEDs alone or in combination with treadmill training promoted functional recovery, reaching scores of 15 and 14, respectively, in the BBB scale, being different from the SCI group, which reached 11. SHEDs treatment was able to reduce the cystic cavity area and glial scar, increase neurofilament. Treadmill training alone had no functional effectiveness or tissue effects. In a second experiment, the SHEDs transplantation reduced the TNF-α levels in the cord tissue measured 6 h after the injury. Contrary to our hypothesis, treadmill training either alone or in combination, caused no functional improvement. However, SHEDs showed to be neuroprotective, by the reduction of TNF-α levels, the cystic cavity and the glial scar associated with the improvement of motor function after SCI. These results provide evidence that grafted SHEDs might be an effective therapy to spinal cord lesions, with possible anti-inflammatory action.

  4. Wisdom Teeth Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom Teeth Management Wisdom teeth, or third molars, are the last teeth to develop and appear in your mouth. They come ... of third molars, disease status, and to suggest management options ranging from removal to a monitored retention ...

  5. SEM and microCT validation for en face OCT imagistic evaluation of endodontically treated human teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Nica, Luminita; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Ionita, Ciprian; Bradu, Adrian; Petrescu, Emanuela L.; Pop, Daniela M.; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2011-03-01

    Successful root canal treatment is based on diagnosis, treatment planning, knowledge of tooth anatomy, endodontic access cavity design, controlling the infection by thorough cleaning and shaping, methods and materials used in root canal obturation. An endodontic obturation must be a complete, three-dimensional filling of the root canal system, as close as possible to cemento-dentinal junction, without massive overfilling or underfilling. There are several known methods which are used to assess the quality of the endodontic sealing, but most are invasive. These lead to the destruction of the samples and often no conclusion could be drawn in respect to the existence of any microleakage in the investigated areas of interest. Using an time domain en-face OCT system, we have recently demonstrated real time thorough evaluation of quality of root canal fillings. The purpose of this in vitro study was to validate the en face OCT imagistic evaluation of endodontically treated human teeth by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputer tomography (μCT). SEM investigations evidenced the nonlinear aspect of the interface between the endodontic filling material and the root canal walls and materials defects in some samples. The results obtained by μCT revealed also some defects inside the root-canal filling and at the interfaces between the material and the root canal walls. The advantages of the OCT method consist in non-invasiveness and high resolution. In addition, en face OCT investigations permit visualization of the more complex stratified structure at the interface between the filling material and the dental hard tissue.

  6. High levels of hydrogen peroxide in overnight tooth-whitening formulas: effects on enamel and pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, George; Zaidel, Lynette; Lin, Nora; Stranick, Michael; Bagley, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Limited data are available to assess the safety of high levels of hydrogen peroxide in overnight tooth-whitening formulas. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hydrogen peroxide on enamel microhardness, pulp penetration, and enamel morphology. Colgate Platinum Professional Overnight Whitening System (Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Canton, MA, USA) (10% carbamide peroxide, equivalent to 3.5% hydrogen peroxide) was compared with two prototype formulations containing either 7.0% or 12.0% hydrogen peroxide. In the pulp chamber studies, human extracted teeth were exposed to 3.5%, 7.0%, or 12.0% hydrogen peroxide for 30 minutes, 4 hours, or 7 hours. Microhardness, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and atomic force microscopy evaluations were made from enamel blocks cut from human extracted molars. The enamel blocks were evaluated following 14 7-hour treatments (98 h total). At 7 hours' post-treatment, hydrogen peroxide penetrated the pulp chamber at 23.12 +/- 10.09, 24.58 +/- 6.90, and 26.39 +/- 5.43 microg for 3.5%, 7.0%, and 12.0% hydrogen peroxide, respectively. With regard to enamel morphology, pulp penetration, microhardness, and elemental composition, no statistically significant differences were observed between treatment groups following 98 hours of treatment. Hydrogen peroxide does not adversely affect enamel morphology or microhardness. The levels recovered in pulp indicate that hydrogen peroxide is not expected to inhibit pulpal enzymes. Overnight tray products containing levels of hydrogen peroxide of 3.5%, 7.0%, and 12.0% are not expected to adversely affect the enamel or pulpal enzymes. Additional safety studies are needed to assess the potential for tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation.

  7. IFN-γ regulates human dental pulp stem cells behavior via NF-κB and MAPK signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Jiang, Wenkai; Luo, Zhirong; Qu, Tiejun; Wang, Zhihua; Liu, Ningning; Zhang, Yaqing; Cooper, Paul R.; He, Wenxi

    2017-01-01

    During caries, dental pulp expresses a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to the infectious challenge. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine, which is critical for immune responses. Previous study has demonstrated that IFN-γ at relative high concentration (100 ng/mL) treatment improved the impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive regulatory functions of disease-derived dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). However, little is known about the regulatory effects of IFN-γ at relative low concentration on healthy DPSC behavior (including proliferation, migration, and multiple-potential differentiation). Here we demonstrate that IFN-γ at relatively low concentrations (0.5 ng/mL) promoted the proliferation and migration of DPSCs, but abrogated odonto/osteogenic differentiation. Additionally, we identified that NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways are both involved in the process of IFN-γ-regulated odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. DPSCs treated with IFN-γ and supplemented with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor) or SB203580 (a MAPK inhibitor) showed significantly improved potential for odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs both in vivo and in vitro. These data provide important insight into the regulatory effects of IFN-γ on the biological behavior of DPSCs and indicate a promising therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment. PMID:28098169

  8. IFN-γ regulates human dental pulp stem cells behavior via NF-κB and MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Jiang, Wenkai; Luo, Zhirong; Qu, Tiejun; Wang, Zhihua; Liu, Ningning; Zhang, Yaqing; Cooper, Paul R; He, Wenxi

    2017-01-18

    During caries, dental pulp expresses a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to the infectious challenge. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine, which is critical for immune responses. Previous study has demonstrated that IFN-γ at relative high concentration (100 ng/mL) treatment improved the impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive regulatory functions of disease-derived dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). However, little is known about the regulatory effects of IFN-γ at relative low concentration on healthy DPSC behavior (including proliferation, migration, and multiple-potential differentiation). Here we demonstrate that IFN-γ at relatively low concentrations (0.5 ng/mL) promoted the proliferation and migration of DPSCs, but abrogated odonto/osteogenic differentiation. Additionally, we identified that NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways are both involved in the process of IFN-γ-regulated odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. DPSCs treated with IFN-γ and supplemented with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor) or SB203580 (a MAPK inhibitor) showed significantly improved potential for odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs both in vivo and in vitro. These data provide important insight into the regulatory effects of IFN-γ on the biological behavior of DPSCs and indicate a promising therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment.

  9. Remarkable resilience of teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Lawn, Brian R

    2009-05-05

    Tooth enamel is inherently weak, with fracture toughness comparable with glass, yet it is remarkably resilient, surviving millions of functional contacts over a lifetime. We propose a microstructural mechanism of damage resistance, based on observations from ex situ loading of human and sea otter molars (teeth with strikingly similar structural features). Section views of the enamel implicate tufts, hypomineralized crack-like defects at the enamel-dentin junction, as primary fracture sources. We report a stabilization in the evolution of these defects, by "stress shielding" from neighbors, by inhibition of ensuing crack extension from prism interweaving (decussation), and by self-healing. These factors, coupled with the capacity of the tooth configuration to limit the generation of tensile stresses in largely compressive biting, explain how teeth may absorb considerable damage over time without catastrophic failure, an outcome with strong implications concerning the adaptation of animal species to diet.

  10. Microchemical and structural regular variability of apatites in 'overbuilt' enamel and dentin of human molar teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuczumow, A., E-mail: kuczon@kul.lublin.pl [Department of Chemistry, Lublin Catholic University, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Nowak, J. [Department of Chemistry, Lublin Catholic University, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); ChaLas, R. [Department of Conservative Medicine, Lublin Medical University, 20-081 Lublin (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    The aim of a recent paper was to recognize the chemical and structural changes in apatites, which form both the enamel and the dentin of the human tooth. The aim was achieved by scrutinizing the linear elemental profiles along the cross-sections of human molar teeth. Essentially, the task was accomplished with the application of the Electron Probe Microanalysis method and with some additional studies by Micro-Raman spectrometry. All the trends in linear profiles were strictly determined. In the enamel zone they were either increasing or decreasing curves of exponential character. The direction of the investigations was to start with the tooth surface and move towards the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). The results of the elemental studies were more visible when the detected material was divided, in an arbitrary way, into the prevailing 'core' enamel ({approx}93.5% of the total mass) and the remaining 'overbuilt' enamel. The material in the 'core' enamel was fully stable, with clearly determined chemical and mechanical features. However, the case was totally different in the 'overbuilt enamel', with dynamic changes in the composition. In the 'overbuilt' layer Ca, P, Cl and F profiles present the decaying distribution curves, whereas Mg, Na, K and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} present the growing ones. Close to the surface of the tooth the mixture of hydroxy-, chlor- and fluor-apatite is formed, which is much more resistant than the rest of the enamel. On passing towards the DEJ, the apatite is enriched with Na, Mg and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. In this location, three of six phosphate groups were substituted with carbonate groups. Simultaneously, Mg is associated with the hydroxyl groups around the hexad axis. In this way, the mechanisms of exchange reactions were established. The crystallographic structures were proposed for new phases located close to DEJ. In the dentin zone, the variability of elemental profiles looks different, with

  11. The expressions of NF-kb and TGFb-1 on odontoblast-like cells of human dental pulp injected with propolis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Widjiastuti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propolis is known to have beneficial effects, namely anti- bacterial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory. Propolis extracts with anti-inflammatory properties are expected to be useful in treating inflamed pulp tissue with a diagnosis of reversible pulpitis. The inflammation of pulp tissue is caused by bacteria, namely Lactobacillus acidophilus. This research used odontoblast like cells derived from pulp tissue of human third molars. Odontoblast like cells exposed to Lactobacillus achidophilus were used as a model of proinflammatory cytokine signaling. This research examined the effects of propolis extracts on odontoblast like cells exposed to Lactobacillus acidophilus. Purpose: This research was aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis extracts on the activities of odontoblast-like cells exposed to Lactobacillus acidophillus by measuring the expressions of NFkb and TGF- b1. Methods: First, pulp odontoblast cultures were derived from human dental pulp tissues of impacted third molars removed by using digestion method. Next, odontoblast-like cells exposed to inactive Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria were given propolis extract. Finally, the activities of odontoblast-like cells were monitored by measuring the expressions of NF-kb and TGFb-1 with immunocytochemistry technique. Results: A decline NF-kb expression and on increase of TGFb-1 expression on odontoblast like cells exposed to inactive Lactobacillus acidophilus. Conclusion: Propolis extracts inhibit the expression of NF-kb, and increase the expression of TGF-b1 in pulp odontoblast-like cells exposed to inactive Lactobacillus acidophillus.Latar belakang: Propolis dilaporkan mempunyai efek menguntungkan yaitu bersifat anti bakteri, anti virus, anti inflamasi, anti oksidan, dan imunomodulator. Ekstrak propolis dengan sifat anti inflamasi diharapkan bermanfaat untuk mengobati jaringan pulpa yang mengalami inflamasi dengan diagnosis pulpitis

  12. Tooth Tissue Engineering: The Importance of Blood Products as a Supplement in Tissue Culture Medium for Human Pulp Dental Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciolaro, Ricardo Luiz; Duailibi, Monica Talarico; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Juliano, Yara; Pallos, Debora; Yelick, Pamela Crotty; Vacanti, Joseph Phillip; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Duailibi, Silvio Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    One of the goals in using cells for tissue engineering (TE) and cell therapy consists of optimizing the medium for cell culture. The present study compares three different blood product supplements for improved cell proliferation and protection against DNA damage in cultured human dental pulp stem cells for tooth TE applications. Human cells from dental pulp were first characterized as adult stem cells (ectomesenchymal mixed origin) by flow cytometry. Next, four different cell culture conditions were tested: I, supplement-free; II, supplemented with fetal bovine serum; III, allogeneic human serum; and IV, autologous human serum. Cultured cells were then characterized for cell proliferation, mineralized nodule formation, and colony-forming units (CFU) capability. After 28 days in culture, the comet assay was performed to assess possible damage in cellular DNA. Our results revealed that Protocol IV achieved higher cell proliferation than Protocol I (p = 0.0112). Protocols II and III resulted in higher cell proliferation than Protocol I, but no statistical differences were found relative to Protocol IV. The comet assay revealed less cell damage in cells cultured using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. The damage percentage observed on Protocol II was significantly higher than all other protocols. CFUs capability was highest using Protocol IV (p = 0.0018) and III, respectively, and the highest degree of mineralization was observed using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. Protocol IV resulted in significantly improved cell proliferation, and no cell damage was observed. These results demonstrate that human blood product supplements can be used as feasible supplements for culturing adult human dental stem cells.

  13. High-precision Pb isotopic measurements of teeth and environmental samples from Sofia (Bulgaria): insights for regional lead sources and possible pathways to the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, George D.

    2008-08-01

    High-precision Pb isotopic measurements on teeth and possible sources in a given area can provide important insights for the lead (Pb) sources and pathways in the human body. Pb isotopic analyses on soils from the area of Sofia, Bulgaria show that Pb is contributed by three end-members represented by two natural sources and leaded gasoline. Sequential leaching experiments reveal that the alumosilicate fraction of the soils is mainly controlled by natural Pb derived from two mountain massifs bordering the city. Around 1/3 to a half of the Pb in the soil leachates, however, can be explained by contamination from leaded gasoline. Contemporary teeth from Sofia residents show very similar Pb isotopic compositions to the soil leachates, also indicating that around 1/3 to a half of the Pb can be explained by derivation from leaded gasoline. The remarkable isotopic similarities between the teeth and the most labile fractions of the local soils suggest that the lead can be derived from the latter. Pb incorporation in the human body via soil-plant-human or soil-plant-animal-human chains is unlikely due to the fact that no significant farming occurs in the city area. The isotopic compositions of the local soil labile fractions can be used as approximation of the bioaccessible lead for humans. Considering all possible scenarios it appears that soil and/or soil-born dust inhalation and/or ingestion is the most probable pathway for incorporation of local soil lead in the local population. The high-precision Pb isotope data presented in this work indicate that apparently the local soil is what plays major role in the human Pb exposure.

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Dental Pulp: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Ledesma-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesenchymal stem cells of dental pulp (DPSCs were isolated and characterized for the first time more than a decade ago as highly clonogenic cells that were able to generate densely calcified colonies. Now, DPSCs are considered to have potential as stem cell source for orthopedic and oral maxillofacial reconstruction, and it has been suggested that they may have applications beyond the scope of the stomatognathic system. To date, most studies have shown that, regardless of their origin in third molars, incisors, or exfoliated deciduous teeth, DPSCs can generate mineralized tissue, an extracellular matrix and structures type dentin, periodontal ligament, and dental pulp, as well as other structures. Different groups worldwide have designed and evaluated new efficient protocols for the isolation, expansion, and maintenance of clinically safe human DPSCs in sufficient numbers for various therapeutics protocols and have discussed the most appropriate route of administration, the possible contraindications to their clinical use, and the parameters to be considered for monitoring their clinical efficacy and proper biological source. At present, DPSC-based therapy is promising but because most of the available evidence was obtained using nonhuman xenotransplants, it is not a mature technology.

  15. Effects of alternating and direct electrical current application on the odontoblastic layer in human teeth : an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alwas-Danowska, HM; Huysmans, MCDNJM; Verdonschot, EH

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a low intensity alternating current on the odontoblasts and odontoblast layer and compare this with the effects of a direct current. Methodology Teeth extracted for orthodontic were immersed in physiological saline stabilized with thymol

  16. Cytotoxicity assessment of polyhydroxybutyrate/chitosan/nano- bioglass nanofiber scaffolds by stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells from dental pulp of exfoliated deciduous tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Hashemi-Beni

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that the scaffold with nBG nanoparticles is more biocompatible than the other scaffolds and can be considered as a suitable scaffold for growth and proliferation of stem cells.

  17. [Mineral trioxide aggragate pulpotomy for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis: a preliminary clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chufang; Zhao, Yuming; Yang, Yuan; Qin, Man

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the preliminary clinical effect of mineral trioxide aggragate (MTA) pulpotomy on immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Twenty-six immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis were recuited from Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. These teeth were treated with partial or full pulpotomy according to the condition of pulp bleeding. MTA was used as pulp capping material. Patients were recalled periodically after the treatment. Clinical and radiographic effects were evaluated. At one year follow-up, 20 teeth were evaluated as healed or healing, 2 teeth were evaluated as failure and 4 teeth were dropped out. The success rate was considered 91% (20/22). A dentinal bridge was radiographcally observed underneath the pulpotomy site in 13 teeth(65%, 13/20). MTA pulpotomy is an effective method for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis. But further research with longer follow up period is required.

  18. Adhesion to pulp chamber dentin: Effect of ethanol-wet bonding technique and proanthocyanidins application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the microleakage of a simplified etch-and-rinse adhesive bonded to pulp chamber dentin with water-wet bonding (WWB or ethanol-wet bonding (EWB with and without proanthocyanidins (PA application. Materials and Methods: Total 88 non-carious extracted human molar teeth were sectioned horizontally to expose the pulp chambers 1.5 mm coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. After the pulp tissue extirpation, canal orifices were enlarged and the root ends were sealed. The samples were randomly divided equally into following four groups according to the four bonding techniques performed using Adper Single Bond 2 [SB] adhesive (1 WWB; (2 EWB; (3 WWB and PA application [WWB + PA]; (4 EWB and PA application [EWB + PA]. Composite resin restorations were performed in all the pulp chambers. Total 20 samples from each group were subjected to microleakage evaluation, and two samples per group were assessed under scanning electron microscope for interfacial micromorphology. Results: The least microleakage score was observed in group 2 (EWB with similar results seen in group 4 (EWB + PA (P = 0.918. Group 2 (EWB showed significantly less microleakage than group 1 (WWB; P = 0.002 and group 3 (WWB + PA; P = 0.009. Group 4 (EWB + PA also depicted significantly reduced microleakage as compared with group 1 (WWB; P = 0.001 and group 3 (WWB + PA; P = 0.003. Conclusion: The use of EWB technique in a clinically relevant simplified dehydration protocol significantly reduced microleakage in simplified etch-and-rinse adhesive, Adper Single Bond 2, bonded to pulp chamber dentin. Application of PA had no significant effect on the microleakage of the adhesive bonded with either WWB or EWB.

  19. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. Materials and Methods: Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be ...

  20. Effects of simvastain and enamel matrix derivative on Portland cement with bismuth oxide-induced growth and odontoblastic differentiation in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Youn; Min, Kyung-San; Choi, Gi-Woon; Park, Jae-Hong; Park, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Im; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2012-03-01

    We previously reported that bismuth oxide containing Portland cement (BPC) showed similar biocompatibility to Portland cement (PC) in periodontal ligament cells. However, the bioactivity of simvastatin and Emdogain (Biora AB, Malmö, Sweden) on BPC was not reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of simvastatin and Emdogain on BPC compared with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Cell growth was determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay. Differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining, and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The cell growth of HDPCs exposed to Emdogain and simvastatin plus BPC was superior to those administered BPC alone and similar to those that received MTA for 14 days. The simvastatin and Emdogain groups increased the odontogenic potential of the BPC group with respect to ALP activity, mineralization nodules, messenger RNA expression of ALP, osteopontin, osteocalcin, Runx2, and osterix. These results suggest that simvastatin and Emdogain improved cell growth and the differentiation of the BPC group in HDPCs and may be useful ingredients in BPC as pulp-capping material. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Systematic Review of Human Bat Rabies Virus Variant Cases: Evaluating Unprotected Physical Contact with Claws and Teeth in Support of Accurate Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Virginia M; Campagnolo, Enzo R; Long, Jonah; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    In the United States and Canada, the most recent documented cases of rabies have been attributed to bat rabies viruses (RABV). We undertook this systematic review in an effort to summarize and enhance understanding of the risk of infection for individuals who have been potentially exposed to a suspect or confirmed rabid bat. United States rabies surveillance summaries documented a total of 41 human bat-rabies virus variant verified non-transplant cases between 1990 and 2015. All cases were fatal. Seven (17.1%) of 41 cases reported a bite from a bat. Ten (24.3%) cases had unprotected physical contact (UPC); these included seven cases that had a bat land or crawl on them (contact with claws) and one case that touched a bat's teeth. Seven (17.1%) cases had probable UPC. Insectivorous bat teeth are extremely sharp and highly efficient for predation upon arthropod prey. Bats also have sharp claws on the end of their thumbs and feet. One of the most common bat RABV variants has an ability to replicate in non-neural cells. Questioning individuals about unprotected contact with bat teeth and claws (including a bat landing or crawling on a person) may help identify additional exposures.

  2. Comparison of effects of diode laser and CO2 laser on human teeth and their usefulness in topical fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Alberto; de Dios López-González, Juan; del Castillo, Juan de Dios Luna; Villalba-Moreno, Juan

    2011-05-01

    Various authors have reported more effective fluoridation from the use of lasers combined with topical fluoride than from conventional topical fluoridation. Besides the beneficial effect of lasers in reducing the acid solubility of an enamel surface, they can also increase the uptake of fluoride. The study objectives were to compare the action of CO(2) and GaAlAs diode lasers on dental enamel and their effects on pulp temperature and enamel fluoride uptake. Different groups of selected enamel surfaces were treated with amine fluoride and irradiated with CO(2) laser at an energy power of 1 or 2 W or with diode laser at 5 or 7 W for 15 s each and compared to enamel surfaces without treatment or topical fluoridated. Samples were examined by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Surfaces of all enamel samples were then acid-etched, measuring the amount of fluoride deposited on the enamel by using a selective ion electrode. Other enamel surfaces selected under the same conditions were irradiated as described above, measuring the increase in pulp temperature with a thermocouple wire. Fluorination with CO(2) laser at 1 W and diode laser at 7 W produced a significantly greater fluoride uptake on enamel (89 ± 18 mg/l) and (77 ± 17 mg/l) versus topical fluoridation alone (58 ± 7 mg/l) and no treatment (20 ± 1 mg/l). Diode laser at 5 W produced a lesser alteration of the enamel surface compared to CO(2) laser at 1 W, but greater pulp safety was provided by CO(2) laser (ΔT° 1.60° ± 0.5) than by diode laser (ΔT° 3.16° ± 0.6). Diode laser at 7 W and CO(2) laser at 2 W both caused alterations on enamel surfaces, but great pulp safety was again obtained with CO(2) (ΔT° 4.44° ± 0.60) than with diode (ΔT° 5.25° ± 0.55). Our study demonstrates that CO(2) and diode laser irradiation of the enamel surface can both increase fluoride uptake; however, laser energy parameters must be carefully

  3. Determination of iron, cobalt and zinc in caries teeth by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Kazunari; Shimpuku, Yasuhiro; Furuyama, Shunsuke

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of Fe, Zn and Co in caries teeth was determined by neutron activation analysis to compare with those of complete impacted wisdom teeth. In order to investigate the distribution of three elements, molar teeth were separated not by conventional method like precipitation or UV absorption method but by ashing method. Furthermore, the same elements for dental pulp and softened dentin were determined. The following results were obtained: The concentration of three elements (Fe, Zn and Co) in enamel, dentin and cementum of caries teeth was higher than that in control teeth. Enamel contained more Fe and Co than those in dentin or cementum, whereas Zn was found to be evenly distributed in three parts of the teeth. The concentration of the elements was Zn>Fe>Co in softened dentin, Fe>Zn>Co in dental pulp. (author)

  4. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  5. Modeling of thermal and optical effects in dental pulp during the irradiation with neodymium and diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Patricia Bahls de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    During the development of applications of high intensity lasers in the enamel and dentine, adverse thermal effects into the entire dental structure, including the pulp, must be verified. The measurement of the temperature in the intact pulp, however, is not a solved problem. For this purpose, models have been used frequently, using extracted teeth, with pulpal cavities filled with materials that simulate only thermal properties of the pulp. Current models, however, do not simulate optical properties of the pulp, not taking the remaining radiation in the pulp chamber into account. The aim of this study was to verify if the remaining radiation from neodymium and diode lasers that reach the pulp chamber, at the models using extracted bovine teeth, can cause local thermal effects. For this purpose, two models were developed, using extracted bovine teeth with their pulp chambers filled with water (simulating pulp thermal characteristics) without (model 1) and with (model 2) an optical absorbent. Models were radiated with 1 W. The obtained results show that, for both lasers, the temperature rise in model 2 pulp chamber is: up to 11 % higher than in the model 1 when the enamel is radiated; and up to 37% higher than in the model 1 when dentine is radiated (1 mm from the pulp), indicating that the level of the remaining radiation is relevant for the construction of models excited by the neodymium and diode lasers. (author)

  6. Cellular response of pulp fibroblast to single or multiple photobiomodulation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Amanda; Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Teixeira Marques, Nadia Carolina; Lourenço Ribeiro Vitor, Luciana; Tavares Oliveira Prado, Mariel; Cardoso Oliveira, Rodrigo; Moreira Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade; Marchini Oliveira, Thais

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the effects of single or multiple photobiomodulation (PBM) applications on the viability and proliferation of pulp fibroblasts. Pulp fibroblasts from human deciduous teeth were obtained from a biorepository, plated into 96-well plates, and irradiated according to the experimental groups. At 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after irradiation, cell viability and proliferation were assessed through MTT and Crystal Violet assays, respectively. The intragroup comparison revealed statistically significant differences for 2.5 J cm‑2 (3×) with increasing viability at 72 h over 48 h (p  =  0.027). The intergroup analysis showed a greater viability of the multiple PBM applications 2.5 J cm‑2 (3×) over the single application 7.5 J cm‑2 (1×) at 72 h. The application of 5 J cm‑2 (1×) exhibited greater proliferation than the application of 7.5 J cm‑2 (1×), 2.5 J cm‑2 (2×) and 2.5 J cm‑2 (3×). Single or multiple PBM applications demonstration different stimulatory effects on pulp fibroblast. The results show that the group submitted to multiple irradiation presented significantly higher cell viability than the groups with single irradiation at 72 h. However, the photobiomodulation therapy with single irradiations was more effective on cell proliferation at 24 h.

  7. The effect of dentin on the pulp tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Hanut, Aiham; Matalon, Shlomo; Baev, Valery; Slutzky, Hagay

    2013-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) have tissue dissolution capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of dentin on their tissue dissolution capacity in a novel dentin model. Dentin models were prepared from 25 freshly extracted human molar teeth; the crowns were separated from the roots, and a rectangular inner shape was prepared. Pulp tissue samples adjusted to similar weights of 6.5 ± 0.2 mg were randomly divided into 6 groups: NaOCl groups in test tubes or dentin models for 1 hour, Ca(OH)2 groups in test tubes or dentin models for 1 week, and control groups saline in test tubes or dentin models for 1 week. The final weights after the experimental period were checked and compared with the initial weights. The differences were statistically analyzed. The tissue dissolution capacity of Ca(OH)2 was affected by the presence of dentin. Similarly, NaOCl lost its effect on the pulp tissue after incubation in dentin. Comparison between all test groups showed highly significant differences (P interactions between local endodontic medicaments, dentin, and pulp tissue. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of whitening gel on pulp chamber temperature rise by in-office bleaching technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Cordeiro Loretto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental bleaching is a conservative method for the aesthetic restoration of stained teeth. However, whitening treatments are likely to cause adverse effects when not well planned and executed. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the influence of whitening gel on temperature rise in the pulp chamber, using the in-office photoactivated dental bleaching technique. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The root portion of an upper central human incisor was sectioned 3mm below the cemento-enamel junction. The root canal was enlarged to permit the insertion of the K-type thermocouple sensor (MT-401 into the pulp chamber, which was filled with thermal paste to facilitate the transfer of heat during bleaching. Three photosensitive whitening agents (35% hydrogen peroxide were used: Whiteness HP (FGM, Whiteness HP Maxx (FGM and Lase Peroxide Sensy (DMC. An LED photocuring light (Flash Lite - Discus Dental was used to activate the whitening gels. Six bleaching cycles were performed on each group tested. The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA and LSD t-test (α<0.05. RESULT: The lowest mean temperature variation (ºC was detected for Lase Peroxide Sensy (0.20, while the highest was recorded for Whiteness HP (1.50. CONCLUSION: The Whiteness HP and Whiteness HP Maxx whitening gels signi